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Comunicativ in Business Cap (3)

Comunicativ in Business Cap (3)

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UNIT 3 – Module I

SOME ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter you should be able to:
o o o o o o o o understand the various meanings of the term management have a brief outline of the evolution of the idea of management become acquainted with the basic principle of Taylor, Fayol and Weber be aware of various management styles become aware of the importance of team work build up their management vocabulary revise and practise the use of adjectives and adverbs distinguish and use word easily confused


♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ What does the term management mean to you? Do you consider that the role of the manager changes according to time and place or is it a universal one? How old is the preoccupation of mankind with management? Is management an art or a skill? & Read the following text and see if you can find answers to some of the above questions.

(1) The term management is one of the most widely used nowadays and as such we might expect that all those who use it have a quick definition at hand. That things are different can be experienced by all of us simply by asking your colleagues, friends, relatives what they understand by management. A large variety of answers will be given including one of the most popular ones: everybody knows what management is, why should we define it? (2) Still, since you are going to be professional people you will have to know how to define the terms you operate with. If you look at the results of your survey on the definition of management you will see that for most people management can mean: ♦ a process by which scarce resources are combined to achieve given ends. This refers to an activity can


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be better described by the word managing; ♦ the people carrying out the activity. This should really be the managers; ♦ the body of knowledge about the activity of managing regarded as a special field of study, i.e. the profession. (3) If you open any of your management courses you will find out that a widely used definition is the one that considers management a process through which a suitable environment is created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals. (4) For the specialist management is therefore a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operation of an enterprise to fulfil a given purpose or task, such a responsibility involving: a. judgement and decision in determining plans and strategies, procedures to support the control of performance and the progress made against plans; and b. the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the staff of the enterprise or the organisation and carrying out its operations or programmes. It can be seen the above that the process as a whole is called management – administration being only part of it. (5) Without management, people would pursue their own objectives independently and this would lead to waste and inefficiency. Management is therefore needed to reach objectives, maintain a balance between conflicting goals, and achieve efficiency and effectiveness. But is management a modern invention? By the way some of us use the term, especially in our newly emerging market economy, you might be tempted to think so. However, a short look at some historical considerations will reveal that the basic concepts of management, even if not the term itself, have been around for centuries. (6) Early influences. Ancient records in China and Greece already indicate the importance of organisation and administration. Outstanding scholars have referred to management activities in the running of cities, states and empires. (7) The Roman also effectively used many basic management ideas, e.g. the scalar principle and the delegation of authority. (8) In the period 1400 to 1450, merchants in Venice, Italy, operated various types of business organisations, such as partnerships, trusts and holding companies. (9) Concepts of the ideal state were considered by many 16th century writers and philosophers. In Thomas More’s Utopia, for example, his comments upon the reform of the management of Britain were radical. (10) In his best known work The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli of Florence puts forth ideas which are still relevant today. The management of change states today that if you want your plans to be carried out you need to rely on the consent of the majority of the people – exactly what Machiavelli was teaching his student a few centuries before. The object of writing The Prince was to assist a young prince in acquiring techniques of leadership. Machiavelli suggested that the leader should inspire people to greater achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. He considered that survival was the main objectives of any organisation and no matter what measures were taken to achieves this end, they should be taken. The end justifies the means – is the slogan that Machiavelli launched on the political market and even if we have well justified doubts on its universal application we cannot deny the impact it had on the political, economic and social thinking of the centuries to come. (11) Beginning in the mid-eighteenth-century England’ industrial machines brought revolutionary changes to the economies of Western societies. The Industrial Revolution changed not only the nature of production,

UNIT 3 – Module I


but also society as a whole. Greater productivity gradually raised the standard of material comforts by introducing countless new products and services into an expanding market. These benefits were far from equally shared, of course. In the years after 1900 conventional management practices were found to be inadequate to meet demands from the changing economic, social and technological environment. A few pioneers examined causes of inefficiency and experimented to try to find more efficient methods for control. From these basic experiments a system of management thought developed which came to be known as scientific management. (12) Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1917), an American engineer, was one of the main people to be associated with this movement. In 1911 he published his book Principles of Scientific Management in which he argued that work should be studied and analysed in a systematic and throughout way. He showed that the operations needed to carry out a particular job could be identified, separated, described and then arranged in a logical sequence. The way of doing a job will no longer be according to tradition or quesswork, but according to scientific methods worked out by management for producing the best results with a minimum effort. He warned people against confusing techniques with aims, a comment that is still most relevant today. (13) The following principles were suggested by him to guide management: ♦ each worker should have a large, clearly defined, daily task; ♦ standard conditions are needed to ensure the task is more easily accomplished; ♦ high payment should be made for successful completion of tasks. Workers should suffer loss when they fail to meet the standards laid down. (14) Taylor also listed ‘new duties’ for management. These were: ♦ the development of a true science; ♦ the scientific selection, education and development of workmen; ♦ friendly, close cooperating, between management and workers. (15) Taylor’s work may be overestimated, but he stressed the ‘engineering approach’ and codified and clearly stated practices that had been developing in many well-run factories. (16) Henry Fayol (1841-1925), one of the first practising managers to draw up a list of management principles, was a French engineer whose management career culminated in the position of président-directeurgénéral of a mining company. After his retirement he formulated his experiences in a pathbreaking text on: Administration industrielle et générale that laid the foundations for administrative management. Fayol thought principles would be useful to all types of managers, but he did not consider that a manager needs anything more than a knowledge of management principles in order to manage successfully. At higher levels he said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and more on a knowledge of administration. (17) Fayol worked independently in France during the period that scientific management was developing in the U.S.A. He was trained as an engineer, but realised that the management of an enterprise required skills other than those he had studied. He emphasised the role of administrative management and concluded that all activities that occur in business organisations could be divided into six main groups: 1. Technical (production, manufacturing). 2. Commercial (buying, selling, exchange). 3. Financial (obtaining and using capital). 4. Security (protection of property and persons). 5. Accounting (balance sheet, stocktaking, statistics, costing). 6. Managerial (planning, organising, commanding, coordinating, controlling). (18) He concluded that the six groups of activities are interdependent and that it is the role of management to ensure that all six activities work smoothly to achieve the goals of an enterprise. (19) Fayol’s main contribution was the idea that management was not an inborn talent but a skill that


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could be taught. He created a system of ideas that could be applied to all areas of management and laid down basic rules for managing large organisations. (20) Max Weber (1864-1920) was a German academic with a university training in law and some years of experience as a civil servant. He became a professor of economics and one of the founders of German sociology. In his own design for an organisation Weber describes the bureaucracy. The word was originally a joke and nowadays it has a distinctly negative connotation, but to Weber it represented the ideal type for any large organisation. In his conception the real authority is in the rules and the power of the officials is strictly delimited by these rules. We are looking at a model of the organization as a well-oiled machine which runs according to the rules. Bureaucracy is defined as an organizational model rationally designed to perform complex tasks efficiently.

relative, n. = rud\ entail, v. = a determina, necesita, impune scarce, adj. = redus, diminuat support, v. = a sprijini, a sus]ine waste, n. = pierdere, irosire emerging, adj. = `n curs de formare/apari]ie outstanding, adj. = distins, remarcabil scalar, adj. = ierarhic, scalar acquire, v. = a dob>ndi, a c\p\ta thorough, adj. = minu]ios, meticulos, am\nun]it pathbreaking, adj. = deschiz\tor de drumuri balance sheet, n. = bilan] contabil

a. b. c. d. e. 1.1. Answer the following questions on the text: What is the definition of management as a process according to the text? What justification does the text give for the existence of management? How far back in history can you trace the earliest elements of management? Present a short overview of how basic management ideas appeared in various moments of history. Why was the school of management founded by F. W. Taylor called scientific management? What was Henri Fayol’s main contribution to the development or managerial thinking? 1.2. Complete the following sentences with your own words: The Industrial Revolution changed society as a whole because ………………………………… Taylor’s interpretation of management was revolutionary because ……………………………… Scientific management would also be beneficial for workers because …………………………… Fayol’s principles for administrative management meant in a nutshell that ……………………… According to Max Weber, bureaucracy is a ………………………………………………………

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

UNIT 3 – Module I
J MANAGEMENT WITH A SMILE Fighting against Workplace Monotony


Scientific management with its obvious corollary job specialization is obviously attractive from the manager’s point of view. But what about the employee? More and more evidence shows that the higher the job specialization, the less motivation and job satisfaction – which evidently is reflected in a diminished high turnover. Specialized jobs are typically low in task significance, skill variety, and performance feedback. Employees will go to great lenghts to enrich their work lives. At one of the management courses I recently attended the lecturer told us the story of the famed Inspector 28 who had become quite a celebrity in the US. In the late sixties people began finding messages written on inspection tickets in the pockets of garments purchased in various parts of the US. For instance, one ticket read: “Inspected by No. 28 who is alive & well in Argentina”. Other examples included: * “Inspected by No. 28 – You can trust me. I’m under 30.”

* * * * * * *

“Inspected by No. 28 – If you don’t find this slip, please inform us immediately.” “Inspected by No. 28 – who was inspected by No. 27.” “Inspected by No. 28 – Numbers 1 through 27 are in vacation.” “Inspected by No. 28 – whoever finds this, I love you.” “Inspected by No. 28 – Pssst! The salesman is really a CIA agent.”


“Inspected by No. 28 – If you feel he did a good job drop us a card and we’ll give him a raise – to No. 29.” “Inspected by No. 28 – who has just resigned.” It is obvious that Inspector 28 had a remarkable sense of humour and was doing his best to enrich his work. However, unable to find satisfaction in his work he simply resigned. The moral: resignation is an ever too frequent response to the monotony of a specialized job.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.1. Match the terms below with the correct definition: management objectives goals technical skills supervisory (first line) management strategic planning middle management top management Broad, long-term accomplishments an organization wishes to attain. Ability to perform tasks of a specific department (such as selling or bookkeeping). First level of management above employees; includes people directly responsible for assigning specific jobs to employees and evaluating their daily performance. Process of determining the major goals of the organization and the policies and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. The process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, directing, and controlling organizational resources.

6. 7. 8.

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Level of management which includes plant managers and department heads who are responsible for tactical plans. Specific, short-term statements detailing how to achieve the organizational goals. Highest level of management, consisting of the president and other key company executives who develop strategic plans. 2.2. Give synonyms to the following words as they were used in the text: to carry out (par. 2) entail (par. 4) incentive (par. 10) knowledge (par. 16) 2.3. Write sentences to bring out the difference between the following pairs of words: efficiency – effectiveness (par. 5) experience (par. 1) – experiment economic (par. 10) – economical (par. 4) reach (par. 5) – rich historical (par. 5) – historic empire (par. 6) – umpire ensure (par. 13) – insure practise (par. 16.) – practice

a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Adjective One-syllable adjectives old safe big hot Adjectives ending in -y noisy dirty Adjectives with two or boring more syllables beautiful Irregular adjectives*** good bad far Comparative older safer bigger hotter noisier dirtier more boring more beautiful better worse farther Superlative the oldest the safest the biggest* the hottest* the noisiest the dirtiest the most boring** the most beautiful the best the worst the farthest

* Adjectives which end in one vowel and one consonant double the consonant. ** We add -r/-st to adjectives that end with -e. *** Note that we usually use fewer with plural nouns and less with uncountable nouns (e.g. money): n There are fewer shops in the centre of the town than there used to be. n John earns less money that Mary.

UNIT 3 – Module I
3.1. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better the best worse the worst late the latter the last further the furthest wet elder the eldest the luckiest narrow polluted the most polluted the least


3.2. Put in the comparative of the adjectives and adverbs in brackets and than where necessary: 1. My new personal assistant types …………… (slowly) the one I’m used to. 2. Faxing is …………… (cheap) phoning long distance. 3. Good stationery is …………… (expensive) although sometimes it is made of far …………… (bad) material. 4. I don’t think that the medium is …………… (important) message. 5. The road is slippery, so try not to drive …………… (fast) you have to. 6. Although I did my best I arrived …………… everyone else (late). 7. The executive manager uses the conference room a lot …………… he used to (often). 8. Andreea is quite a lot …………… she was when she was a kid (friendly). 3.3. Complete the sentences below using as …… as, the more …… the -er, or the more …… the more/less 1. Ionu] and Ela are equally good guitarists. Ionu] plays the guitar …………………………………………………… 2. If your salary goes up, the expenses you have also go up. The more your salary goes up, …………………………………………… 3. You cannot say that one of them is more intelligent than the other. They get the same exam results. They are …………………………………………………… each other. 4. If you do a lot of drafting on your report now, you will feel happier when you give it in. The more you work on your report now …………………………………… 5. If a lot of people help now, we will have less to do later. The more people help now, ………………………………………………… 3.4. Put in the most appropriate comparative or superlative adjective ar adverb. 1. The new sales clerk has only been doing the job for a month. Of all the staff he has ……………… …………… experience. 2. That was a terrible meeting., I think it was one of ………………………… meetings I’ve ever attended.

3. 4. 5.

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We have been walking for half an hour already. It’s ………………………… I thought to the next bus stop. I have to leave home ………………………… you do. You don’t get to the office until nine, but sometimes I start before 7.30 in the morning. We have to continue our talk ………………………… we discuss the matter, the more I realize the potential of this new plan.

Look at the following example: … judgement and decision in determining … the progress made against plans (par.4). It is often very difficult to choose between make and do as they have similar meanings. Dictionaries and grammar books tell us that: is used for an activity, not exactly saying what it is and E do E make is often used to expres the idea of creation or construction. Examples: I’m doing my best to finish that report. Let’s make a better business plan. Do something! The firm makes plastic-coated folders. In many cases there are no clear rules and an analysis of the meaning is not very clear. If in doubt always look in a good dictionary. It is very useful to learn some expressions. The following activities will help you. 4.1. Make or do? Arrange the following words into two columns. MAKE business an effort something for a living wonders a speech a job arrangements a phone call preparations a mess of it an application justice a mistake someone a favour DO a choice a concesion an offer a cancellation an experiment a complaint a request the filing

4.2. Write down three more things or activities you make and three more you do.

4.3. Use the expressions below to replace the phrases in italics in the following sentences. do away with do without do-it-yourself (DIY) do’s and don’ts do for make do with make out (x 2) make up to make up make it up make it up to smb. 1. 2. 3. If you have a good word processor you can manage without a computer. I think my zip has stuck: can you try to pull it up, please? If there isn’t any champagne left, we’ll have to manage with sparkling wine.

UNIT 3 – Module II
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.


It’s so dark in here: I cannot discern the address on this envelope. Etiquette gives you the rules of behaving in certain social situations. It’s high time the government abolished the old taxation system. The lecturer spoke in a low voice: I could only just understand what she was saying. I appreciate what you did for me. I’ll return the favour when you need it. My office manager told me that I could have invented a better story for having been so late. The partners had a big row over the deal, but later they became reconciled. People became interested in assembling by themselves kits to put together their own electronic devices. She supplements her income doing the housework for her old neighbour. He simply hates trying to gain favour with very rich or politically important people.

4.4. Translate the following text into English: Dup\ o sever\ interven]ie chirurgical\, Marshall Mac Luhan a sim]it nevoia s\ spun\: „~n sala de reanimare nu exist\ atei.“ }\rile din estul european au trecut, dup\ al doilea r\zboi mondial, printr-o traum\ – dictatura comunist\ – care echivaleaz\ cu o interven]ie chirurgical\ mutilant\. ~ncerc\m s\ ne revenim. Iar perioada de tranzi]ie este o imens\ sal\ de reanimare, `n care n-ar trebui s\ existe atei. Cu toate acestea, obliga]i s\ recuper\m `ntr-un termen scurt atributele esen]iale ale „normalit\]ii“, ne comport\m neglijent tocmai cu ceea ce ar trebui s\ fie temelia efortului nostru: dimensiunea religioas\. Evident, am reg\sit dreptul de a ne afirma credin]a `n mod deschis [i de a o practica f\r\ opreli[ti. Slujbele publice s-au `nmul]it, orice gazet\ care se respect\ are acum o pagin\ religioas\, iar politicienii au descoperit virtu]ile electorale ale piet\]ii. Credin]a nu e totu[i o tem\ de reflec]ie prioritar\. Avem alte griji: reforma economic\, integrarea euro-atlantic\, accesul `n Uniunea European\. Exist\, `n Rom>nia, o linie de g>ndire (de la Eminescu la Eugen Lovinescu) care face r\spunz\toare tradi]ia ortodox\ pentru o anumit\ `nt>rziere istoric\ a ]\rii, pentru o anumit\ opacitate la Occident. S-ar zice c\, pe l>ng\ celelalte obstacole de natur\ s\ `ngreuneze drumul nostru spre o modernitate omogen\, trebuie s\ lu\m `n discu]ie [i obstacolul confesional. Credin]a ortodox\ ar `ncuraja pasivit\]ile, iner]ia, conservatorismul, `n vreme ce catolicismul, ca s\ nu mai vorbim – `n umbra lui Max Weber – despre protestantism, ar poten]a virtu]ile ofensive: ini]iativa, construc]ia, spiritul `ntreprinz\tor. Se fac, nu o dat\, specula]ii despre o „grani]\“ religioas\ impus\ tacit Europei, `nc>t ]\rile Estului catolic sunt absorbite, `n vreme ce ]\rile Estului ortodox sunt respinse. Aceast\ linie de g>ndire este, cred, fals\ [i p\gubitoare pentru ambele tabere. Ea dramatizeaz\ o discriminare mai cur>nd `nchipuit\ dec>t real\. Ortodoxia nu a dus la excluderea Greciei din Comunitatea European\ (cum putea s-o fac\ de vreme ce Europa este, `ntr-un anumit sens, o „inven]ie“ greceasc\?…) Pe de alt\ parte, ]\ri ne-ortodoxe ca Slovenia [i Slovacia sau }\rile Baltice sunt, ca [i Rom>nia, pe lista de a[teptare. Pot face o lung\ list\ de personalit\]i ortodoxe angajate, dinamice, liberale [i o alta cu personalit\]i catolice retractile, contemplative, conservatoare. Nu frontiera dintre catolicism [i ortodoxie este adev\rata fisur\ a Europei de m>ine, ci mai cur>nd frontiera dintre spiritul polemic [i spiritul p\cii. De o parte intoleran]a inflexibil\, de cealalt\ comprehensiunea [i concilierea. Nu ortodoxia e o piedic\ pentru Rom>nia, ci doar ortodoxia care nu se poate raporta la alte confesiuni [i religii dec>t apologetic []i `ncruntat. Nu catolicismul e cel care ne exclude, ci doart catolicismul care nu pricepe cre[tinismul r\s\ritean sau pur [i simpl `l ingor\. Am `nt>lnit, din p\cate, destui ortodoc[i care nu citesc teologia apusean\ dec>t pentru a o combate, dup\ cum am `nt>lnit drept-credincio[i catolici sau protestan]i care nu combat teologia ortodox\ dec>t pentru a nu o citi! Dar a fost o vreme `n care Europa nu era `mp\r]it\ confesional `n dou\, dup\ cum a fost o vreme `n care Rom>nia nu era `n situa]ia de a se integra `n Europa pentru simpul motiv c\ era o parte a ei. Nu m\ `ndoiesc c\ asemenea vremuri vor reveni. (…) (Andrei Ple[u, CURENTUL, vineri, 4 septembrie 1998)


Business Issues

1.1. Suggested answers: 1. greater productivity led to a consumer society. 2. it means a systematic, thorough and analytical activity, not just quesswork. 3. they would working in better, standard conditions and would earn better. 4. good managers were not born, but they were educated to acquire the needed skills. 5. rational model of an organization that functions according to rules and performs complex tasks efficiently. 2.1. a-5; b-7; c-1; d-2; e-3; f-4; g-6; h-8. 2.2. a. perform, accomplish, fulfil, achieve, execute; b. involve, require, neccesitate c. stimulant, reward, encouragement, motivation d. information, facts, data 2.3. Suggested answers: a. Our new secretary is very efficient: she work in a well-organized way without wasting time to gossip. I think the new black and silver furniture is very effective in the general manager’s new office. b. The experience we have in this field is a guarantee of our success. Experiments on animals should not be encouraged. c. The media is looking forward to the announcement of the economic policy of the new government. We’ll save a lot of money with this highly economical equipment. d. We’ll reach the top in 15 minutes. I can’t afford a Bentley: I’m not that rich. e. The 1 December is a historic date for Romania. I love historical novels. f. Is the English language the legacy of the British Empire? The players of both baseball teams blamed the umpire. g. The teacher has to ensure all the conditions for the students to solve the task. To insure your life you have to go through a certain procedure. h. Practice makes perfect. The more we practise, the better we work.

UNIT 3 – Module I
3.1. good bad late far wet old lucky narrow polluted little


better worse later the latter farther further wetter older elder luckier narrower more polluted less

the best the worst the latest the last the farthest the furthest the wettest the oldest the eldest the luckiest the narrowest the most polluted the least

3.2. 1. more slowly than; 2. cheaper than; 3. more expensive, worse; 4. more important than; 5. faster than; 6. later than; 7. more often than; 8. more friendly than. 3.3. 1. as well as Ela; 2. the more you’ll have to spend; 3. as intelligent as; 4. the happier you will feel when you give it in; 5. the less we’ll have to do later. 3.4. 1. the least; 2. the worst; 3. farther than; 4. earlier than; 5. The further. 4.1. MAKE an application a choice an experiment an effort arrangements a phone call a concession a complaint a mistake an offer a request preparations a cancellation a speech a mess of it DO business a job justice to something for a living wonders someone a favour the filing

4.2. to make an attempt; to make a good impression; to make it (=to succeed); to do one’s hair, to do to a tour (=visit), to do a room 4.3. 1. do without; 2. do it up. 3. make do with; 4. make out; 5. do’s and don’ts; 6. did away with; 7. make out; 8. make it up to you; 9. made up; 10. made it u p; 11. DIY; 12; doing for; 13. make up to.


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1.1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more likely to characterize today’s top manager: ♦ charismatic/efficient ♦ thrilling/disciplined/business like ♦ visionary/pragmatic ♦ glamorous looks/business looks 1.2. Discuss which of the following statements are closer to your idea of the manager’s role in today’s business world: ♦ A good manager should be an exceptionally intelligent, flamboyant and charismatic person who is able to communicate his/her vision to his/her team. ♦ Good managers need not be geniuses highly admired by their employees, but rather effective, accountable organisers able to examine carefully and make the best judjments in order to improve the profitability of their company. ♦ Successful managers are exceptional human beings, with the necessary drive that enables them to build (multi)national conglomerates.

& Read the following text and find out if it confirms your own conclusions: Britain’s boring new bosses Consolidators have replaced buccaneers in Britain’s boardrooms. The new breed of top bosses is less flashy, but often more effective The image of Roger Carr is hardly one to excite investors. A neat, bespectacled, greying accountant in a pin-striped suit, he is chief executive of Williams Holdings, an industrial conglomerate with a market capitalization of £1.9 billion ($2.9 billion). Ask him for his strategic vision, and he talks about core competence, organic growth and relentless improvements in profitability. Acquisitions and deal-making come along, but only to fill in gaps. Mr. Carr can spout statistics about any of the group’s 70 trading companies; he chivvies their managers into improving margins while they try to meet his target of increasing the group’s sales by 15% a year.

UNIT 3 – Module II


Mr. Carr typifies a new generation of British bosses whose employees are now dancing to a more subdued tune. At first sight, their ascendancy seems to vindicate the fear – long voiced by engineers and marketing men – that British business is run by unimaginative accountants. In fact, they are bringing in some long-needed administrative professionalism. In the 1980s British business shed its reputation for genteel amateurism. Yet many of the buccaneering bosses of those revolutionary years have faced away – because they were better at deal-making than at administration. Sometimes, the falls have been spectacular. Robert Maxwell drowned four year ago as his media empire sank. Asil Nadir fled to his native north Cyprus rather than face a fraud trial after his Polly Peck conglomerate collapsed. The death on August 23rd of Lord White, whose deal-making genius was behind the growth of Hanson, a transatlantic conglomerate built through aggressive takeovers, has removed the greatest of all the buccaneers. Hanson’s prime mover is now Derek Bonham, the chief executive – a former finance director and a cool, professional manager. Words like “strategy” and “synergiy” are no longer banned on the premises. Lord White used to boast about not visiting his factories. The new breed of bosses, by contrast, are workaholic administrators. Such new retailing icons as Tesco’s Sir Ian Maclaurin and Sir Richard Greenbury of Marks and Spencer started off sweeping store floors as trainees. Detail men The typical new British boss owes his elevation (often after a period of excess from an entrepreneurial predecessor) to his pragmatism rather than to his vision. Thus, the new boss of Maxwell’s Mirror group is a dour Ulterman, David Montgomery, who seems unlikely to collect yachts. Such men tend to pursue longterm goals, methodically. Through fanatical devotion to service quality, Sir Colin Marshall has made BA the world’s most profitable airline. By squeezing costs, Sir Iain Vallance has turned BT into a credible challenger to AT&T in world markets. So should Britain rejoice at the eclipse of the buccaneers? Not entirely. Investors clearly miss them: Williams’s shares, for instance, trail of its erstwhile rival, the Tomkins group, which is still run in the old piratical way. All economics need entrepreneurs to create new business or indetify underperforming ones. But the buccaneers – opportunists by definition – tend to pop up as occasion demands. And Britain also needs bosses who, through relentless attention to detail, can turn more of its biggish companies, such as William Holdings, into efficient global competitors. This is a less glamorous task than Lord White’s predatory swoops, but no less important for that. And it is one for which the quiet skills of Mr. Carr and his sort appear ideally suited. (adapted and abridged from THE ECONOMIST, Sept. 1995)

Ü Ü Ü Ü 2.1. Find the words in the text which correspond to the following definitions: urge smb. to do smth. or to hurry especially in an annoying way (par.1) the difference between the cost (or buying price) and the selling price (i.e. the gross profit) - (par. 1) harsh, pitiless; persistent; continuously severe (par. 1) a particular plan for gaining success in a particulary activity or for personal advantage (par. 5)


Business Issues

could and unsmiling; cheerless; gloomy (par. 7) the exciting and charming quality of something unusual or special, with a magical power of attraction (par. 8)

2.2. Business language is full of idiomatic expressions and/or metaphors which make it more vivid and colourful for the native speakers and more difficult and sometimes confusing for the students. Britain’s boring new bosses has several references to the liquid medium. Scan the text and underlined such references. 2.3. Complete the following sentences from the article without referring back to the text: 1. Roger Carr is chief ………… of William Holdings, an industrial ………… with a market capitalization of £1.9 billion. 2. He talks about core …………, organic ………… and ………… improvements in profitability. 3. They try to meet his ………… of increasing the sales by 15% a year. 4. The new breed of bosses, by contrast, are ………… administrators. 5. By ………… costs, Sir Iain Vallance has turned BT into a credible challenger to AT&T in …………markets. 6. The Tomkins group is still ………… in the old piratical way.

2.4. Study the following examples from the text: … their ascendancy seems to vindicate the fear that British business is run by unimaginative accountants. Lord White used to boast about not visiting his factories. Such men tend to pursue long term goals … … he chivvies their managers into improving margins … Fill in the following sentence using the appropriate form of the second verb: 1. Have you considered ………… (retire) early? 2. I strongly recommend ………… (concentrate) on human resource management. 3. Sales figures tend ………… (drop) this season. 4. I hope ………… (see) you in London next week. 5. The proposed plan would mean ………… (change) the whole logistics. 6. The company risks ………… (lose) an important market. 7. The HR manager promised ………… (contact) me as soon as he could. 8. We undertake ………… (replace) any damaged articles immediately. 9. The advertising agency denies ………… (represent) any of our competitors. 10. The press can’t delay ………… (break) the bad news any longer. Have a look at the following examples: a. The new breed of top bosses is………… often more effective. b. British business is run by unimaginative accountants. c. Going public is a most ineffective course of action for the moment. d. She is highly imaginative person which is an asset for this job.

UNIT 3 – Module II


2.5. The following adjectives are generally used to describe some of the qualities of managers. Change each adjective into its opposite by adding un-, in-, im-, ir- or dis-: 1. approachable 2. articulate 3. assertive 4. committed 5. communicative 6. competitive 7. consistent 8. cooperative 9. creative 10. decisive 11. discreet 12. honest 13. intelligent 14. loyal 15. patient 16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive

Here are some hints to help you solve the above activity, but it is always safer to check your compounds in a good dictionary: un- is the most common negative prefix followed closely by in-. im- usually precedes a word beginning with a “p” (impartial, impenetrable, impossible, impolite) ir- usually precedes a word beginning with an “r” (irregular, irresistible, irrevocable, but unreliable) 2.6. Use some of the adjectives above in sentences of your own describing various managerial types. Translate into English: Proprietarilor de firme mici li se spune [i `ntreprinz\tori. Una din defini]iile `ntreprinz\torului este aceea de persoan\ care organizeaz\, conduce [i `[i asum\ riscurile unei afaceri sau `ntreprinderi. Al]i exper]i spun c\ `ntreprinz\torul este o persoan\ care poate s\ creeze din nimic o activitate economic\. Exist\ unele mituri [i idei eronate privitoare la calit\]ile pe care trebuie s\ le aib\ un `ntreprinz\tor. Una dintre aceste idei eronate este c\ cei care `nfiin]eaz\ o `ntreprindere proprie sunt indivizi c\rora le place s\-[i asume riscuri. Este drept c\ afacerile implic\ riscuri, dar adev\ra]ii `ntreprinz\tori nu sunt juc\tori care mizeaz\ numai pe noroc. De fapt, lucrurile stau invers: `ntreprinz\torii care reu[esc `n afaceri fac tot ce le st\ `n putin]\ pentru a reduce riscurile pe care le implic\ `nfiin]area unei firme noi, studiind, planific>nd [i organiz>nd informa]iile, oamenii [i materialele de care au nevoie pentru a reu[i. Ei controleaz\ riscul stabilindu-[i ]eluri rezonabile [i realizabile, pe care se str\duiesc s\ le ating\. Pe scurt, proprietarul unei firme mici, care merge bine, munce[te asiduu [i ra]ional. Exist\ c>teva tr\s\turi care `i caracterizeaz\ pe `ntreprinz\torii de mare succes: ♦ Foarte mult\ energie; ♦ Capacitatea de a stabili priorit\]i [i a lua decizii; ♦ Capacitatea de lucra eficient cu o mare diversitate de persoane, precum clien]i, angaja]i, furnizori, investitori poten]iali [i creditori;

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Business Issues

Capacitatea de comunica `n mod clar [i eficient; Cunoa[terea clien]ilor [i produselor sau serviciilor care se cer v>ndute; Capacitatea de a lucra cu cifre; Capacitatea de a stabili un echilibru `ngtre ]elurile personale [i cele care ]in strict de afaceri; Cunoa[terea propriilor puncte tari [i puncte slabe. Pentru a deveni `ntreprinz\tor, nu este important ce ai fost, ci ce vei face de acum `nainte. Este vorba de un mod de a privi lumea, `ntrev\z>nd posibilit\]i acolo unde al]ii v\d probleme. Trebuie, de asemenea, s\ [tii cum s\ te folose[ti de anumite instrumente de baz\ pentru a-]i atinge ]elul. Cu alte cuvinte, este vorba de ceva ce poate fi `nv\]at. Iar dac\ au f\cut-o al]ii, o pute]i face [i dvs.

UNIT 3 – Module II


2.1. to chivvy; margin; relentless; strategy; dour; glamorous. 2.2. buccaneer; drowned; sank (par. 4); transatlantic (par. 5) piratical way (par. 8) 2.3. 1. executive; conglomerate; 2. target; 3. competence; growth; relentless; 4. workaholic; 5. squeezing; world; 6. run. 2.4. 1. retiring; 2. concentrating; 3. to drop; 4. to see; 5. changing; 6. losing; 7. to contract; 8. to replace; 9. representing; 10. breaking. 2.5. 1. unapproachable; 2. inarticulate; 3. unassertive; 4. uncommitted; 5. uncommunicative; 6. uncompetitive; 7. inconsistent; 8. uncooperative; 9. uncreative; 10. indecisive; 11. indiscreet; 12. dishonest; 13. unintelligent; 14. disloyal; 15. impatient; 16. impractical; 17. irrational; 18. unreliable; 19. irresponsible; 20. insensitive; 21. insincere; 22. unskilled; 23. unsupported. 2.6., 2.8. open ended. 2.7. Small business owners are also called entrepreneurs. One definition of an entrepreneur is someone who organizes, manages and assumes the risk of a business or enterprise. Other experts say an entrepreneur is a person can “create out of nothing” a viable business. There are a number of myths and misconceptions about what it takes to be an entrepreneur. One misconception is that people who go into business for themselves are naturally high risk-takers. Of course, there are risks in business, but real entrepreneurs aren’t gamblers who depend solely on chance to succeed. In fact, just the opposite is true: successful entrepreneurs do everything possible to minimize the real risk associated with starting a company by studying, planning and organizing the information, people and meterials they will need to succeed. They manage risk by setting reasonable and obtainable goals – then work to exceed them. In short, the successful small-business owner works hard and intelligenty. There ar also a number of common traits successful entrepreneurs share: A great deal of energy; Ability to establish priorities and make decisions; Ability to deal effectively with a wide variety of people, such as customers, employees, suppliers, possible investors and lenders; Ability to communicate clearly and effectively; Ability to work with numbers; Familiarity with customers and with the products os services to be sold; Ability to balance conflicts between business and personal goals; Awareness of personal strenghts and weaknesses. Becoming an entrepreneur is not so much about who you have been – but how you do things from now on. It is a way of looking at the world, seeing opportunity where others see problems. It is also knowing how to use certain basic tools to achieve your goals. In short, it can be learned. If others have done it, so can you.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Business Issues

Do you belong to a particular group of people? If yes, what are the features that distinguish your group from another? Why do people feel the need of belonging to a certain group? What makes us call a number of people a group? Do you think that the terms group and team cover an identical meaning? & Read the following text and see if you can find answers to some of the above questions.

Teamwork has become one of the buzz words of the last twenty years or so. Students are often assigned to teams to do classwork, in which case the purpose is to perform the assignment and receive an acceptable grade. Job advertisements require applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific objective. The team concept implies a greater sense of mission and contest, although the words can be used interchangeably. A team is more than just a group with a common aim. It is a group in which the contributions of individuals are seen as complementary. Collaboration, working together, contributing to a sequence of activities rather than to a common task require people to be at the same time, in the same place, are elements that characterize a good effective team. The factors that influence team effectiveness begin with the organizational context. The organizational context includes such factors as: structure, strategy, environment, culture. Leaders must understand and manage stages of development, norms and conflict in order to establish an effective team. For a team to be successful over the long run it must be structured so as to both maintain its members’ social well being and accomplish the team’s task. In successful teams, the requirements for task performance and social satisfaction are met by the emergence of two types of roles: task specialist and socioemotional role. People who play the task specialist role spend time and energy helping the team reach its goal. They often display the following behaviours: ♦ initiation – propose new solutions to team problems; ♦ give/offer opinions on task solutions; give feedback on others’ suggestions; ♦ seek information – ask for task-relevant facts; ♦ summarise – relate various ideas to the problem at hand; pull ideas together into a summary perspective; ♦ energise/stimulate the team into action when interest drops. People who adopt a socioemotional role support team members’ emotional needs and help strengthen the social entity. They display the following behaviours: ♦ encourage – are warm and receptive to others’ ideas, praise and encourage others to draw forth their contributions; ♦ harmonise/reconcile group conflicts; help disagreeing parties reach agreement;

UNIT 3 – Module II
♦ ♦ ♦


reduce tension – may tell jokes or in other ways draw off emotions when group atmosphere is tense; follow/go along with the team; agree to other team members’ ideas; compromise – will shift own opinions to maintain team harmony. Members do not criticise or disagree with one another and do not forcefully offer opinions or try to accomplish team task, because their primary interest is to keep the team happy. Teams with mostly socioemotional roles can be very satisfying, but they also can be unproductive. At the other extreme, a team made up primarily of task specialists will tend to have a singular concern for task accomplishment. This team will effective for a short period of time but will not be satisfying for members in the long run. Task specialists convey little emotional concern for one another, are unsupportive, and ignore team members’ social and emotional needs. The task-oriented team can be humourless and unsatisfying.

In deciding whether to use teams to perform specific tasks, managers must consider both advantages and disadvantages, in other words both benefits and costs. Teams may have positive impact on both the output productivity and satisfaction of members. On the other hand, teams may also create situations in which motivation and performance are actually decreased. Research has found that working in a team increases an individual’s motivation and performances. Simply being in the presence of other peoples has an energising effect, enhancing individual productivity through the increased effort of its members, their personal satisfaction, integration of diverse abilities and skills and increased organisational flexibility. Employees have need for belonging and affiliation; working in teams can help meet these needs. Teams reduce boredom and often increase the employees’ feeling of dignity and self-worth because the whole person is employed. People who have a satisfying team environment cope better with stress and enjoy their jobs. The third major benefit of using teams is that employees apply greater knowledge and ability to the task. Teams also have the intellectual resources of several members who can suggest short-cuts and offer alternative points of view for team decisions. Traditional organisations are structured so that each worker does only one specific job. But when employee involvement teams are used, a number of between 5 to 15 people work next to one another and are able to exchange jobs so that work can be reorganised and workers reallocated as needed to produce products and services with great flexibility. Therefore the organisation is able to be responsive to rapidly changing customers needs. Potential disadvantages of using teams are power realignment, free riding and coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a markedly different status or set of values. Hidden agendas that individuals bring along to a team can highly affect the collaborative spirit within a group. These hidden agendas are personal aims that individuals wish to pursue such as: the desire to impress one’s boss, to get personal satisfaction or publicity or to make a particular alliance. Therefore not only commitment to the team goals is important to achieve a stage of successful cooperation, but also the degree of trust that is generated within the team.

buzz word, n. = cuv>nt la mod\, de mare circula]ie to accomplish, v. = a realiza, a `ndeplini in the long run, adv.= `n timp emergence, n. = apari]ia to pull (ideas) together, v. = a concentra

Business Issues

to draw forth, v. = a pune `n eviden]\, a stimula to shift, v. = a schimba, a modifica to enhance, v. = a m\ri, a intensifica to cope with, v. = a face fa]\ la short-cut, n. = scurt\tur\, variant\ mai eficient\

Answer these questions on the text: a. What is the difference between a group and a team? b. What are the factors that contribute to team effectiveness? c. What roles can emerge within a team and what are their characteristics? d. Name some advantages for teamwork. e. Reflect on the potential costs of using teams in a production unit. f. What do you understand by power realignment and free riding?

2.1. Match the terms below with the correct definition: a. contingency planning g. controlling b. organizing h. rational decision making c. participative management i. human relations skills d. directing j. delegating e. planning k. leadership f. conceptual skills l. management by walking around 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Creating a vision for others to follow, establishing corporate values and ethics, and transforming the way the organization does business so it is more effective and efficient. Assigning authority and accountability to others, and letting them do it, while retaining responsibility for results. Consists of six steps: a. define the problem; b. determine and collect information; c. develop alternatives; d. decide which alternative is best; e. do what is indicated, and f. determine whether the decision was a good one and follow up. Management function which involves anticipating future trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational objectives. Management function which involves checking to determine whether or not an organization is progressing toward its goals and objectives, and taking corrective action if it is not. Ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship of various parts. Management function which involve designing the organizational structure, attracting people to the organization (staffing), and creating conditions and systems that ensure that everyone and everything

UNIT 3 – Module II


8. 9. 10. 11.

work together to achieve the objectives of the organization. Guiding and motivating others to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Managers get out of their offices and personally interact with employees and customers. Management style which involves employees in setting objectives and making decisions; democratic and laissez-faire leadership are forms of this type of management. Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach, build morale, train, support and delegate.

2.2. Fill in the following blanks without looking at the text: Teamwork has become one of the ………… of the last twenty years or ………… Students are often ………… to teams to ………… classwork, in which case the purpose is to ………… the assignment and receive an acceptable grade. The team ………… implies a greater ………… of mission and contest, ………… the words can be used interchangeably. A team is more than ………… a group with a common aim. It is a group in which the contributions of individuals are seen as …………. Collaboration, working together, ………… to a sequence of activities ………… than to a common task require people to be ………… the same time, ………… the same place, are elements that characterize a good effective team. The factors that influence team ………… begin with the organizational context. The organizational context includes such factors as: …………, strategy, …………, culture. Leaders must understand and manage stages of development, norms and conflict ………… establish an effective team. For a team to be successful ………… it must be structured so as to both maintain its members’ social well being and ………… the team’s task.

Look at the following examples and notice the position of the underlined words: Hidden agendas can highly affect the collaborative spirit within a group. The organisation is able to be responsive to rapidly changing customer needs. The position of adverbs in a sentences is a matter of complicated rules and many exceptions. However, here are some tips on this subject that you will find useful:



? ?

the verb and its object are not separated in English: The general manager often makes long-distance calls. I write reports very fast. Do you clean your desk every Friday afternoon? At the end of the corridor you’ll see the Sales Manager’s office on your left. adverbs of place are usually placed before those of time: She’s flying to Rome on Thursday. We arrived at the airport early. I walk to the office every morning. adverbs of time can be placed at the beginning of the sentence as well: On Thursday she’s flying to Rome. Every morning I walk to the office. adverbs of frequency (ever, never, often, always) usually come before the main verb, but after to be: I sometimes go to the office by tram. The new junior clerk is always late. The office manager has often shown you how to do it.


Business Issues

3.1. Are the words printed in italics in the correct place? If not, move them to a correct place. a. The secretary has not yet answered my fax. b. Always I forget to give you my homework. c. Ruxandra has since noon been on the phone. d. The new executive secretary is extremely good at dealing with problems quickly. e. Antonia quite types well actually. f. You must listen to the senior members of the staff when they’re talking to you really. g. He has lately been very busy. h. My personal assistant will on Monday give you any necessary information. i. We can’t anyway leave yet, it’s too early. j. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 3.2. Write these sentences with the phrase or phrases in brackets in the right order, and in a correct place in the sentence. 1. There’s a brown file (the/in/desk/ drawer). 2. I’ll see you (on/in the office/Monday). 3. The new assistant lecturer always criticizes your assignment (a(n)/ way/in/extremely/polite). 4. The marketing manager ordered a new computer (ago/a/days/few). 5. Please, put that box down (over/carefully/before/you/there/go). 3.3. Rewrite the following sentences to include the word in parentheses. 1. Have you been criticised in public? …………………………………………………………… 2. I don’t have to work on Saturdays. …………………………………………………………… 3. Does the secretary hum a tune when she’s making coffee? …………………………………………………………… 4. She’ll be home late tonight. …………………………………………………………… 5. We are going away tomorrow. …………………………………………………………… 6. (Don’t take me seriously.) I was joking. …………………………………………………………… 7. Did you enjoy the business trip to Oradea? …………………………………………………………… 8. (I’ve got a lot of filing to do.) I must wordprocess the report. ……………………………………………………………

(ever) (usually) (always) (probably) (all) (only) (both) (also)

UNIT 3 – Module II


4.1. Read the following text and check the meaning of the underlined words in a dictionary if you are not sure of them. Then use them in sentences of your own in order to help you become confident with their usage.

Who Pays For Lobbyists?
What is the lobbyist? The word comes from the hallway or anteroom outside a legislator’s office where lobbying takes place. One of the most important lobbies in the world is the hallway outside the Way and Means Committee hearing room for the United States House of Representatives. It is often crowded with lobbyists. They have come to win friends and influence legislators about pending laws. After meeting with lobbyists and discussing the pros and cons, legislators often decide how they will vote. But lobbying has become an increasingly international term and practice so we can easily speak of lobbying – and we frequently do – in the Romanian political situation and, therefore, media. However the following considerations have mainly the American scene in view. Some lobbyists work for organized groups or societies. Others represent big and small business. Sometimes a lobbyist will represent a foreign government or even an organization for another country. Lobbyists may work for the banking industry, unions, teacher organizations, the country of Liberia or nonsmokers – to take just a few, widely scattered examples. A single individual may hire a lobbyist, as may a special interest group representing thousands of people. Suppose you own a large business making and selling clothing. You hear of legislation being considered to put higher import duties on textiles imported from certain foreign countries. To make your views known about legislation, you might write to a member of Congress. You might also join an organization of other clothing manufacturers. Or you might hire a lobbyist to communicate your views to the legislators who will vote on the bill. How much are lobbyists paid? The going rate for highly paid lobbyists may be $400 per hour. Flat fees can range up to $500,000 p.a. A few lobbyists, who may have been legislators government employees themselves at one time, earn as much as a million dollars a year! Who really pays for lobbyists? Obviously someone working for South Korea or Japan is paid by those countries. Other lobbyists are paid by trade organizations, businesses, associations, and so forth. Each organization passes along the cost to its members and each business to the consumer. Ultimately it is the taxpayer who pays for the lobbyists. 4.2. Prepare a summary of maximum 50 words of the above text (372 words). 4.3. Translate into English: Planul de afaceri – itinerariul succesului Este mult mai u[or s\ ajungi `ntr-un loc necunoscut dac\ ai informa]ii precise [i o hart\ bun\. La fel stau lucrurile [i `n cazul `nfiin]\rii unei firme. {ti]i deja c\ dori]i s\ fi]i propriul dvs. [ef. Poate c\ [ti]i [i ce fel de firm\ dori]i s\ deschide]i. Dar pute]i atinge acest ]el?


Business Issues

Itinerariul pe care `l urmeaz\ `ntreprinz\torii se nume[te „plan de afaceri“. Planul de afaceri este alc\tuit din r\spunsuri sistematice la o serie de `ntreb\ri bine cump\nite, vitale pentru ini]ierea unei afaceri viabile. C>nd vorbesc despre un plan de afaceri, oamenii se refer\ de obicei la un document scris. Dar planul de afaceri nu este numai un document. El este procesul de definire [i evaluare a viitoarei companii. Alc\tuirea acestui plan este prima ocazie de a v\ organiza firma. ~n ciuda importan]ei sale, perspectiva cercet\rilor necesare elabor\rii unui plan de afaceri `i agaseaz\ pe mul]i viitori proprietari de mici firme. Ace[tia vor s\ deschid\ firma acum, nu s\ stea s\ r\spund\ la `ntreb\ri referitoare la o idee despre care sunt siguri c\ le va aduce bani. Ei nu v\d rostul analiz\rii unei firme care nici m\car nu exist\ `nc\. Rostul este urm\torul: un plan de afaceri este esen]ial pentru c\ va scoate `n eviden]\ eventualele probleme, `nc\ `nainte ca acestea s\ se iveasc\, [i va sugera solu]ii, f\c>ndu-v\ s\ economisi]i timp, bani [i dureri de cap. (Documente ale prosperit\]ii, Center for International Private Enterprise, USIS)

UNIT 3 – Module III


Suggested answer: power realignment – group dynamics is a very sensitive area in which there are constant pressures over and shifts of the power held by the individual members. Power does not necessarily rely on formal authority, but it is more a matter of what a person does or is potentially capable of doing to influence others. The role of the manager is to harmonize the various power positions of his subordinates in order to achieve a cohesive group/team. free riding – some individuals use the cover of shared responsibilities in a team for not doing any serious work or activity. 2.1. a-4, b-7, c-10, d-8, e-4, f-6, g-5, h-3, i-11, j-2, k-1, l-9. 2.2. buzz words, so, assigned, do, perform, concept, sense, although, just, complementary, contributing, rather, at, in, effectiveness, structure, environment, in order to, over the long run, accomplish. 3.1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. 3.2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3.3. 1. 2. 3. Correct. (Also possible: The secretary has not answered my fax yet). I always forget to give you my homework. Ruxandra has been on the phone since noon. Correct. Antonia types quite well actually. Possible, but You must really listen to … is more natural. He has been very busy lately. On Monday my personal assistant will …/… information on Monday. Anyway, we can’t …/We can’t leave yet anyway … Of course, she isn’t ready…/ She isn’t, of course, ready to work in the new project team.

There’s a brown file in the desk drawer./In the desk drawer there’s a brown file. I’ll see you in the office on Monday. The new assistant lecturer always criticizes your assignment in an extremely polite way. The marketing manager ordered a new computer a few days ago./A few days ago the marketing … Please, put that box down carefully over there before you go.

Have you ever been criticised in public? I don’t usually have to work on Saturdays. Does the secretary always hum a tune when she’s making coffee?

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. She’ll probably be home late tonight. We are all going away tomorrow. I was only joking. Did you both enjoy the business trip to Oradea? I must also wordprocess the report.

Business Issues

4.1. pending = 1. not yet decided or settled; 2. soon to happen, impeding pros and cons = the reasons for and against something scattered - widely and irregularly separated going rate = usual, average rate flat fees = after taxes fees and so forth = and other things of that kind; and so on p.a. = per annum = per year = for or in each year; P.A. = personal assistant Suggested example: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The pending file/tray is the place where papers are kept which cannot be dealt with yet either because they are about something which has not yet happened, or because more information is needed. He was quite happy except for the (im)pending exams – he was not very sure he could pass them all. The board has to consider all the pros and cons of the price raise before reaching a decision. When you travel in northern Moldavia you can see all those wonderful villages scattered among the green hills. What’s the going rate for computer programmers? When discussing fees it is always advisable to ask if the figures quoted are flat or they include taxes as well. Have you seen the new P.A. of Mr. Smith, the general Manager? She’s not only a beauty, but they say she’s worth £35,000 p.a.

4.2. Suggested answer: A lobbyist attempts to influence people with political power in order to persuade them to support one’s activities, needs or beliefs. Lobbyists may work for individuals, organized groups, other countries. The fees are very diverse and the money may come from various sources, but it is the taxpayer who is ultimately paying for the lobbyists. (55 words)

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