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Jackson Solutions

# Jackson Solutions

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03/21/2013

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## Sections

• Problem 2.11
• Problem 2.12
• Problem 2.13
• Problem 2.15
• Problem 2.16
• Problem 2.17
• Problem 2.18
• Problem 3.1
• Problem 3.2
• Problem 3.3
• Problem 3.4
• Problem 3.6
• Problem 3.7
• Problem 3.9
• Problem 3.10
• Problem 3.11
• Problem 3.12
• Problem 3.13
• Problem 3.14
• Problem 3.15
• Problem 3.17
• Problem 3.18
• Problem 3.19
• Problem 3.22
• Problem 4.8
• Problem 4.9
• Problem 4.10
• Problem 4.13
• Problem 5.10
• Problem 5.11
• Problem 5.12
• Problem 5.13
• Problem 5.14
• Problem 5.16
• Problem 5.18
• Problem 5.19
• Problem 5.23

A very long, right circular, cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and
outer radii a and b, respectively, is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0
with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. The medium inside and outside the cylinder
has a dielectric constant of unity.

(a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions, neglecting end
eﬀects.

(b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b≈2a.

(c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric
cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld, and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric.

We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to
be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ

i. Since the cylinder is very long and we’re
told to neglect end eﬀects, we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat
this as a two-dimensional problem.

(a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar co-
ordinates is

Φ(r,ϕ) =

[Anrn

+Bnr−n

][Cn sin(nϕ) +Dncos(nϕ)]

For the region inside the shell (r < a), the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep
the potential from blowing up at the origin. Also, in the region outside the shell

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

2

(r > b), the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise
to the external electric ﬁeld, i.e. −E0rcosϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. With these
observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions:

Φ(r,ϕ) =

rn

[An sinnϕ+Bn cosnϕ], r < a

rn

[Cn sinnϕ+Dn cosnϕ] +r−n

[En sinnϕ+ Fn cosnϕ], a < r < b

−E0rcosϕ+

r−n

[Gn sinnϕ+Hn cosϕ], r > b

The normal boundary condition at r = a is

0

∂Φ

∂r

x=a−

= ∂Φ
∂r

x=a+

or

0

nan−1

[An sinnϕ+Bn cosnϕ] =
nan−1

[Cn sinnϕ+Dn cosnϕ]−na−(n+1)

[En sinnϕ+Fn cosnϕ]

From this we obtain two equations:

0

An = Cn−Ena−2n

(1)

0

Bn = Dn−Fna−2n

(2)

Next, the tangential boundary condition at r = a is

∂Φ

∂ϕ

x=a+

= ∂Φ
∂ϕ

x=a−

or

nan

[An cosnϕ−Bn sinnϕ] =

nan

[Cn cosnϕ−Dn sinnϕ] +na−n

[En cosnϕ−Fn sinnϕ]

from which we obtain two more equations:

An = Cn +Ena−2n

(3)

Bn = Dn +Fna−2n

(4)

Similarly, from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain

− 0

E0 cosϕ− 0

nb−(n+1)

[Gn sinnϕ+Hn cosϕ] =

nbn−1

[Cn sinnϕ+Dn cosnϕ]−nb−(n+1)

[En sinnϕ+Fn cosϕ]

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

3

− 0

Gn = Cnb2n

−En

(5)

− 0

b2

E0δn1− 0

Hn = Dnb2n

−Fn

(6)

Finally, we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b:

bE0 sinϕ+

nb−n

[Gn cosnϕ−Hn sinnϕ] =

nbn

[Cn cosnϕ−Dn sinnϕ] +nb−n

[En cosnϕ−Fn sinnϕ]

giving

Gn = Cnb2n

+En

(7)

−b2

E0δn1 +Hn = Dnb2n

+Fn.

(8)

The four equations (1), (3), (5), and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear
equations, which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for
all n. Next, for n = 1, the system of equations (2), (4), (6), and (8) specify the
same degenerate system of equations, so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0.
However, for n = 1, we have

0

B1 = D1−F1a−2

D1 = 1
2

1 + 0

B1

B1 = D1 +F1a−2

F1 = 1

2a2

1− 0

B1.

and

−H1 = b2

E0 +
0

D1b2

0

F1

H1 = b2

E0 +D1b2

+F1

0 = 2b2

E0 +b2

1 +
0

D1 +

1−
0

F1

Substituting from above,

−4b2

E0 = 1
0

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2 B1

or

B1 =

−4 0b2

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2E0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

4

Then

D1 = −2 0( + 0)b2
b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2E0

F1 = −2 0( − 0)a2

b2

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2E0

H1 = −b2

(b2

−a2

)( 2

0− 2

)

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2E0.

The potential is

Φ(r,ϕ) =

−4 0b2

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2 ·E0rcos ϕ,

r < a

−2 0b2

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2

( + 0)r + ( − 0)a2
r

E0cos ϕ, a < r < b

−(b2

−a2

)( 2

0− 2

)

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2 · b2

r E0cos ϕ−E0rcos ϕ,

b < r.

As → 0, Φ→−E0rcosϕ in all three regions, which is reassuring.
The electric ﬁeld is

E(r,ϕ) =

4 0b2

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2E0 [cosϕˆr−sinϕˆϕ], r < a

2 0b2

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2

( + 0)−( − 0)a2
r2

E0 cosϕˆr

( + 0) + ( − 0)a2
r2

E0 sinϕˆϕ

, a < r < b

− (b2

−a2

)( 2

0− 2

)

b2

( + 0)2

−a2

( − 0)2 ·

b
r

2

E0 [cosϕˆr + sinϕˆϕ]

+E0 [cosϕˆr−sinϕˆϕ], b < r.

(b) In Figure 4.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a, = 5 0. Also, as an
appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this
plot.

(c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld, we would have a → 0. In
that case the ﬁeld would look like

E(r,ϕ) =

2 0

+ 0

E0ˆi,

r < b

E0ˆi− ( 2

0− 2

)
( + 0)2

b
r

2

E0[cos ϕˆr + sin ϕˆϕ], r > b

On the other hand, a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

5

Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.8 for b = 2a, = 5 0.

b→∞, in which case the ﬁeld becomes

E(r,ϕ) =

4 0
( + 0)2E0ˆ

i,

r < a

2 0
( + 0)E0ˆi− 2 0( − 0)
( + 0)2

a
r

2

E0[cos ϕˆr + sin ϕˆϕ], r > a.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4

6

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