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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. The second image charge. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. so that term wins. isolated. conducting sphere of radius R.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. As d → ∞. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . The charged. One image charge. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. and the overall force is attractive. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere.

The second image charge. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). The root of this one is d/R=1. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The root is d/R=1.6178. . makes no contribution in this limit. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . So we have F →− q2 . F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge.88.43.

The potential energy between the point charge and . Eq. and the energy discussion of Section 1. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results.6).11. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. (2. Eq. Eq. (2.9).11.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2.3). of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . and the energy discussion of Section 1. (2. Eq. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . (2. 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential.8). (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward.

The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. and its charge increases. liberating a quantity of energy (8). storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. at which point we would be back where we started. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. I think the problem is with equation (8). and we should take (7) to be the correct result. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. which we could store in a battery or something. This would seem to violate energy conservation. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8).

Usually we do know ρ within the volume. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. boundary. we might write it as ψx0 (x). If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. However. ∂φ ∂n dA . (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. It’s useful to review this technique.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . x − ψx0 (x ) . and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . More speciﬁcally.

x (13) Again. x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . .

i. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. Classical Electrodynamics. on the x axis.e. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . (d) the force on the charge. and a distance R away from.4 in units of τ /2πb. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ .11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere.3 for the potential of a line charge. (c) the induced surface-charge density. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8.

φ). This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. the φ term must drop out. which requires R = γR. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. we have Φ= For large ρ. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . (b) At a point (ρ. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem.

4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . substitute them into the series. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. Problem 2. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ.12 Starting with the series solution (2.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . y = 0. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.

φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. sin n φ. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b.71). Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . . For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. we know the bn are all zero.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. 0 Plugging back into (1). (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. (5) Φ(b. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b.

(3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b.13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. With these coeﬃcients. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. This problem is just like the previous one. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. (6) n odd . n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2.

n odd (Evidently. (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.) With this.

y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. (8) With the suggested expansion. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. x . in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. y ) vanishes for points (x . x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. 1) = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. g(y. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . y. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. (b) Taking for gn (y. Second. has an expansion ∞ G(x. see the Green’s functions review above. 0) = gn (y. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. x . First. y. y ) on the boundary. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. x .15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. So G(x. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y.

satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9).e. y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. First let’s consider the boundary conditions. Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. y < y. y > y. Actually. (12) . and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ .

but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . which we have already done. y > y.4 yprime 0. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.2 0.6 0. In other words. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy).41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant.41. y = . (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. y=. y ) from Problem 2. we have gn (y.15 with n=5. (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). y ) = δ(y − y ).8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. and vanish otherwise. y < y. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y.

Referring to my Green’s functions review above. Using the Green function of Problem 2. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. We’re also given that . y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y.16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13).15. and G vanishes there by construction. x . y. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 .

n odd 0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . (17) The integrals can be done separately. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17).

Show that apart from an inessential constant. φ. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. +Z −Z Integrating. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. where Z is taken to be very large.15. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. ρ . x . ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. u = (z − z ).) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. (As in Problem 2. x . y.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. y.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). ρ . φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. ρ . leaving 2 G(ρ. φ. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. φ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. ρ . . Since Z is much bigger than a. φ. φ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . ρ . φ). ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral.

ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2.15. ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . ρ > ρ. ρ <ρ . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . 2m = 1 ρ . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. For m ≥ 1. . ρ <ρ . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm .

which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. ρ <ρ . ρ > ρ.40)]. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b.12. Problem 2. See (1. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. no mistake is made in its use. ρ = b) = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞).18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2.17.] (a) As before. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 .17. This requires that B1m = 0 .

Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. Next. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . φ. Finally. . ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . (22) . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. ρ ) = = or gm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . ρ . . gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. ρ< ρ> m − . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m .

. ρ . he did include it in his answer to problem 2. φ. the volume integral vanishes. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. although I cheated and looked it up on www. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ].12. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. φ) = Φ(b. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.integrals. If there is no charge inside the cylinder.17 (c).com).

But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. This is the same gm we came up with before. The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . In the surface integral. . the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) .12. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21).

2l + 1 1 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. Include terms at least up to l = 4. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . Classical Electrodynamics.1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. The other hemispheres are at zero potential.

and is just the above result inverted for l odd. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. . θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞.36) in the text. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. In that limit. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . the above expression becomes Φ(r. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem.7 of the text. as treated in section 3. with the sign of V ﬂipped. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. When a → 0. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r.27) with half the potential spacing.3 of the text.

(2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. so the Bl in (1) are zero.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. for l = 0. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. 3. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). Diﬀerentiating that expansion. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. φ). and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . alternately. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. (8) For the solution within the sphere. (10) im .36) of Section 3. θ. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. Problem 3. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a.3. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ .4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . θ. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. φ) Ylm (θ.

Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. m= n 3n . otherwise. In that case. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. with n = 2. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). and l = 3. m = ±1. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. m = 3n/2. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. 3/2. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . · · · . et cetera. 3n/2. 5/2. · · · = 0. otherwise. so all n terms add constructively. 2 2 (b) As shown above. . which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. m = n/2. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. 5n/2. Then. m = ±1 or ±3. · · · = im 0. and (10) equates to 2n . This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each .

which I have skipped here. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. respectively. 4π 0 r2 . (b) Φ(r. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. Φ(r. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. θ. (a) First of all. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a.

θ. 1− Φ(r. but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. To calculate Φs . that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). as indicated in the ﬁgure. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . Show that in the limit a → 0. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. −2q. Q r5 Φ(r. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0.7 Three point charges (q. and that p . 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . by the orthogonality of the Pl . in which case we have the general expansion (1). Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges.

we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. The potential on the end faces is zero. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . Problem 3. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. z). the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).

we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. In this case. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . n = 1.e. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. which means we have to take k imaginary. so that V (φ. πn . The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . (b) Assuming L >> b. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. (14) Problem 3. 3. i. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. V (φ.13. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. φ. 2.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. which requires F = 0. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ).

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

(b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. (5) . dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. dρ Plugging this into (3). and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ.

A thin. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. . thin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. Problem 3. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates.12 An inﬁnite. ﬂat. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. ﬁlling the hole. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. Using this in (5). a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane.

whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. Also. In this problem there is no φ dependence. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. (8) . (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). Plugging this back into (6). Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. ∞ a Φ(ρ. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. To do it. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. so Q = 1. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). I integrated by parts.

so only the surface integral contributes. For Dirichlet boundary value problems. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0.1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. φ) Rl (r. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . φ ) Ylm (θ. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. x ) ∂n dA .

A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. (l − 2)!! 1 . r ). and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. and we have G(x. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. r ). θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence.

so the Green’s function is → G(x. and that the total charge is Q.1. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. First of all. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. Problem 3. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. r ) l=0 (13) . Also.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. where z is the distance from the midpoint. A grounded. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . and at r = b with respect to r> .

In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. 0 Rl (r. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. θ )ρ(r .. Also. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l..2. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. r . θ.4. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. where r = z. and (−1)l for z < 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. θ )dV. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 .. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r.

we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). Rl (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14).

In the steady state. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. but the current density must be constant there. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. P = I 2 Re = IVe . ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. Using the lumped circuit relations. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F .

Jr (r = a− . θ) = Jr (r = a+ . Inside the sphere. θ) = Φ(r. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. In particular. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). So the current density is continuous everywhere. θ) = Φin (r. we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ).e. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. which means charge would pile up in that region. θ) = Φout (r. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. θ) = Φout (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. we have σ Using (16). l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . Applying (17) to these expressions. (16) Now. θ). because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. for r > a. (17) Outside of the sphere. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. θ) = Φin (r. Φ(r. i.

θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. F a3 r−2 cos θ. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. Since the conductivity ratio is positive.

3πaσ . so I = σEx dydz. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. dy. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . Also. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . θ. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. and dz. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23).

the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. At x = x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. and must thus take one of the above forms. . sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. at all points x = x. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. φ. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). G must be continuous.

This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. Then we have G(x.e. z. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. even though I never explicitly required this. at the radius of the source point. within each region. where γmk is any function of z and φ. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. we see that. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. In other words. i. φ)Im (kρ).e. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. x ) = mk γmk (z. Then we can write G as G(x. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. one on either side of the source point x. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. ρ. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). The question is. Then G(x. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. In this case. Then. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). This requirement excludes terms of the form . and yet it does. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. in which dimension (i.e.. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ .. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. Clearly.

ρ. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. φ. but not inﬁnite. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. (28) . To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. What about corrections for L a. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. φ. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . ρ. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. With these restrictions. over these terms: G(x .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). while Im is singular at inﬁnity. because Km is singular at the origin. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). not a sum.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. Bm (k. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k.12 are recovered. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. ρ. ρ. so D = 0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. in Problem 3. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier.

Calling the ﬁxed distance z . . It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. for all k. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ.12. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. The result is that. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. one grounded and the other at potential V. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). The second integral. so the two terms in (33) add directly. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. unfortunately. in which region kz z/L 1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3.

(a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 .19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.12 with Problem 3. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 .18 as the comparison problem. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. (1) 1 . 0 < z0 < L. Classical Electrodynamics. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system.

z) = 0 σ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. Then ρ(r. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . Plugging into (1). =?. z) = 0. z) dA = −q z=L. z) =? Φ(r.18. = V. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. z) =? Φ (r. z) = 0. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. = 0.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . z) dA = 0 z=L. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r.r<a so σ (r.19. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r.

φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. which requires that n = mπ/β. m = 1. which excludes the cos terms (i. However. ρ . Problem 3. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. · · · .25 may be of use. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. 2. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. (4) becomes σ (0. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. as indicated in the sketch. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. Let’s break the region into two subregions. φ = β.e. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region.22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. φ). φ. and ρ = a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. In both regions. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). Bn = Dn = 0). The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . As before. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. L) = − (c) At a = 0. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0.

Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. ρ . This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. Bm . i. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . ρ . The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. Using these expressions for Am . φ. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. ρ . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. . mπφ β . mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. i.e. φ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. at ρ = ρ.e. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . φ. ρ .

. At ρ = ρ. φ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ . ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. ρ . φ. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. but I can’t ﬁnd where. ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). κm fm (ρ. the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ).

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8 A very long. Also. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. right circular. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. Classical Electrodynamics. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. in the region outside the shell 1 . respectively. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. told to neglect end eﬀects. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. neglecting end eﬀects. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i.

from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1.e. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). i.

which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. The four equations (1). However. for n = 1. Next. (3). so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . (5). (4). for n = 1. the system of equations (2). (6). −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above.

In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . = 5 0 . which is reassuring. (b) In Figure 4. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. Also. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. → 0 . r ˆ b < r. we would have a → 0. E(r. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a.

ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ].8 for b = 2a. 0 E(r. = 5 0. b → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. . r ˆ r > a.

so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. in the region r > a. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. 4π 0 On the other hand. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. 0 → ∞. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. ·D = 0 there. r > d. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . r > d. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). θ) = l Now. a<r<d Φ(r. in the limit / conducting sphere. 4π 0 rl+1 . θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. Φ(r. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . (c) Verify that. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ).

as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. . θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular.

all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. 0 < θ < π/2. we have Φ(r. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ).10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. respectively. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. carry charges ±Q. and we . (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. as shown in the ﬁgure. That region is described by θ = π/2. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. a < r < b. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ).

(14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. There are actually two components of this charge. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. Bl = Dl . cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. To begin. coaxial. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. g is the acceleration due to gravity. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. l odd l even. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. Similarly. In (13).13 Two long.

This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. However. With this greater charge on the electrodes. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. So the . If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r.

so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. So suppose that. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. However. i. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. As we showed earlier. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. ln(b/a) On the other hand.e. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. Turning now to the situation in this problem. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. With no potential between the cylinder plates. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh.

we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. . But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. namely. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. Actually we should note one detail here. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises.

A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.((B*B . else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) . double phi) { double Coeff.8.h> #include <math.phi).0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 /* no.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.8. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot. } .0 . else Coeff=1.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.c" #define EZ 1. */ double Er(double r. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).

} void main() { double i."set noxtics\n"). /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM))."set terminal postscript portrait color\n")."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b.eps’\n"). fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.-2. */ fprintf(g. fprintf(g. double phi) { double Coeff.phi).dx."set output ’fig4. fprintf(g.0*B). */ fprintf(g. g=GnuPlot("Field lines"). fprintf(g.0 + ((B*B .0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM."set size square\n").j.A*cos(phi).y. phi<=2*M_PI.1.x.2. fprintf(g. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi). else Coeff=1.0*B. double RComp. for(phi=0.phi.dy. ."plot ’-’ t ’’. fprintf(g. */ double Ephi(double r.-2."%g %g\n"."e\n").0*B). ’-’ t ’’ with lines. fprintf(g."set multiplot \n")."set noytics\n")."set xrange [%g:%g]\n".PhiComp.2. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). fprintf(g.r.0*B. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. FILE *g.A*sin(phi)).

dx=cos(phi)*RComp .0) ? M_PI/2. i+=1.0*i)/NUMLINES). /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r.2.x. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount.0*B * ((NUMLINES .0. */ for (i=1."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). fprintf(g.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.B*cos(phi).0*B. dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp. if (x==0."%g %g\n". else phi=atan(y/x). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. /* * Draw field lines. */ x=-2. j<NUMPOINTS. */ for (j=0. j+=1.sin(phi)*PhiComp.B*sin(phi)).0. .phi).phi). and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX. y=2. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).0) phi=(y>0.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).y). PhiComp=Ephi(r.0 : -M_PI/2."e\n").0."e\n"). /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. for(phi=0. fprintf(g. phi<=2*M_PI.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. fprintf(g. i<=NUMLINES."%g %g\n".

}.\n"). printf("Thank you for your support."e\n"). fprintf(g. } .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }.

the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. and negative otherwise. 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x .6 for the electric dipole layer. The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. Classical Electrodynamics. that is. This is the same convention as in Section 1. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 .

(b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. using the expressions of parts a and b. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). so its coordinates are (ρ.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. and since the 1 . z). (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. we take the observation point x on the x axis. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations.33) into cylindrical coordinates. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. Classical Electrodynamics. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. φ = 0. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. Since there is no current in the z direction.

z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1).16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3.148). (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r .148). the φ integral yields 2π. so ρ< = ρ. but with the expression from Problem 3. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. otherwise it vanishes. ρ> = a. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions.

69). R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. I1 (ρ) → 0. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. Comment. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. φ0 . I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. Plugging it in to the above. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. (2) . We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 .150). In the “lab” frame.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. φ0 . the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane.

Evidently. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. I think the former approach is easier.11. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . The components of J are easy to express in R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. but more complicated in R. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . which takes us to R . the opposite is true for B. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R .

e. since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . y = a sin φ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. If the loop radius is a. i. In the surviving terms. j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . .

Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. I . so y = y . it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. have an angle α between their planes. Problem 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. current I) lies in the xy plane. b and currents I. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). respectively (b < a). The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. As in the last problem. But r · Jb vanishes. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. φ = 0) in .

θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). Jackson’s equation (5.48): Br (r . Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. and for all such points r = b. θ = π/2. we ﬁrst note that. (11) To transform this to frame R. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R.) . How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . if a point has angular coordinates θ. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . but we don’t need to. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. Of course. with θ0 = α. φ0 = 0. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. φ in R. θ = π/2. the polar angle in frame R . since the origins of R and R coincide. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. then r< = b. so Br = Br . (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. Next. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b.

we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . This looks ugly.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). Of course. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. evaluated at points on the smaller loop. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.

and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. in the external region.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). In the external region.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. × H = Jfree = 0. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. 0. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. So. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . Neglect end eﬀects. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. .1.5. hollow. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. so things are not so simple. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. there is free current. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. i. Problem 5. Can anybody help? Problem 5.14 A long. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. These imply that. within the cylinder and in its inner region. and of relative permeability µr . with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. but I can’t ﬁnd where.

∂φ n=1 . µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. φ) = Actually. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. With the above expressions for the components of H. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other.

at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . µ0 On the other hand. (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . For n = 1. . Equating (20) with (22). the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. Similarly. For n = 1. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . n=1 (18) n = 1.

2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr . a < r < b r r > b.5 -3 -3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .5 (a/b) = 0.5 -4 -4.1 -1 -1. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 . (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .5 (a/b) = 0.5 log10 r -2 -2. ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .

r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . r > a. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ).16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. (a) In the approximation of b a. unity. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. r > a. since J2 vanishes for r < b. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop.

The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). . Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. Problem 5. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. so that the boundary surface is z = 0. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . a. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. As r → 0. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 .18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0.

dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. there is no free current. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. z>d z < d. On the other hand. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). z < d.87). H = − Φm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. A = Aφ φ.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). so × H = 0 everywhere. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 1 0 ˆ ×A.

The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d. The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation.

There is no free current in this problem. 0 1 . (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. both inside and outside.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Classical Electrodynamics. Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. so H(ρ. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. both inside and outside. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. z) satisfying the Laplace equation.

k . 0. Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. ρ<a ρ > a. integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞.

2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ).

4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. but now there is just free space. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. a . Since there are no free currents in the problem. Instead.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. Second. First. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. (a) Show that. we can use the following little trick. two things happen. + L2 2a .

we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . and using the identity (2). Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). integrating from 0 to ∞. integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). 0. ρ<a ρ > a. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. µ0 .

ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. (0 < z < L). 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. we must have D → 0. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). and may thus be taken out of the integral. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. . Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. 0 < z < L. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. z>L 0 Hz (ρ. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. we see that. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L.

k 0 Then () becomes . and exchanging the order of integration. we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into ().

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