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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. The charged. The second image charge. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. and the overall force is attractive. conducting sphere of radius R. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . isolated. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. so that term wins. As d → ∞. One image charge.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 .

then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. makes no contribution in this limit.43.88. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. The root of this one is d/R=1.6178. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. . The second image charge. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . The root is d/R=1. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . So we have F →− q2 .

Eq. (2. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . The potential energy between the point charge and . (2. Eq.8). and the energy discussion of Section 1. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Eq. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. (2. (2.3).11. and the energy discussion of Section 1.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force.9).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2.11.6). Eq. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force.

which we could store in a battery or something. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. This would seem to violate energy conservation. and another of charge Q − q at the origin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). I think the problem is with equation (8). The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. liberating a quantity of energy (8). So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. and its charge increases. storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. at which point we would be back where we started. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere.

∂φ ∂n dA . If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. However. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. It’s useful to review this technique. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . x − ψx0 (x ) . we might write it as ψx0 (x). (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . boundary. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. More speciﬁcally. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful.

in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. x (13) Again. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions).

(d) the force on the charge. Classical Electrodynamics.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity.3 for the potential of a line charge. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. on the x axis.4 in units of τ /2πb. (c) the induced surface-charge density. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. and a distance R away from. i. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s).Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis).e.

Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). we have Φ= For large ρ. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. which requires R = γR. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. (b) At a point (ρ. the φ term must drop out. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. φ). this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ.

φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . substitute them into the series. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . y = 0. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. Problem 2. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R.12 Starting with the series solution (2. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. . Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b.71). (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. 0 Plugging back into (1). φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . (5) Φ(b. sin n φ. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). we know the bn are all zero. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} .

Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). (6) n odd . φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 .13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. With these coeﬃcients. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. This problem is just like the previous one. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 .

n odd (Evidently. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function.) With this. (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).

0 ≤ x ≤ 1.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). y. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. First. y ) on the boundary. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. 1) = 0. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. x . Second. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. (8) With the suggested expansion. x . in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. x . x . y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. (b) Taking for gn (y. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. y. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. see the Green’s functions review above. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . g(y. y. So G(x. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. 0) = gn (y. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. has an expansion ∞ G(x. y ) vanishes for points (x .

y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . y > y. Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. Actually. we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). First let’s consider the boundary conditions. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. (12) . where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now.e. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. y < y. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)].Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ).

(14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y.2 0. y ) from Problem 2. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. and vanish otherwise. y = . βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ).4 yprime 0.41.6 0. which we have already done.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . y=.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.15 with n=5. y ) = δ(y − y ). In other words. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . y < y. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. we have gn (y. y > y.

x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. y. Referring to my Green’s functions review above.15. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . Using the Green function of Problem 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 .16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. and G vanishes there by construction. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). x . y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. We’re also given that .

Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). n odd 0 . The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. (17) The integrals can be done separately. .

φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . +Z −Z Integrating.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. u = (z − z ).15. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . ρ . y. y. Show that apart from an inessential constant. where Z is taken to be very large. x . (As in Problem 2. φ. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. x .) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z.

. φ. ρ . ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. φ). φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. φ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. ρ . ρ . φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. φ. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . ρ . ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . Since Z is much bigger than a. φ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. leaving 2 G(ρ. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) .

Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .15. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ <ρ . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ > ρ. ρ <ρ . . . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . 2m = 1 ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. For m ≥ 1.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .] (a) As before. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. ρ > ρ. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b.17. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. This requires that B1m = 0 . which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation.12. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . Problem 2. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. no mistake is made in its use.17. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. See (1. ρ <ρ .40)].18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. ρ = b) = 0. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2.

Next. ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). ρ . 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. . ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ< ρ> m − . φ. (22) . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. Finally. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ.

.integrals. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. φ) = Φ(b. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ.12. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. If there is no charge inside the cylinder.17 (c). ρ . the volume integral vanishes. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. although I cheated and looked it up on www.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. φ. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.com). Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder.

and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. This is the same gm we came up with before. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . In the surface integral.12.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. . The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ .

(1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. 2l + 1 1 . The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. Classical Electrodynamics. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. Include terms at least up to l = 4. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0.

and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . as treated in section 3.7 of the text.3 of the text. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . and is just the above result inverted for l odd. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. When a → 0. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. the above expression becomes Φ(r. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. .27) with half the potential spacing. In that limit. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. with the sign of V ﬂipped.36) in the text. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .

and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . so the Bl in (1) are zero. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. 3. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). for l = 0. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . θ. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. Problem 3. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . θ. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . (10) im . (8) For the solution within the sphere. φ) Ylm (θ. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. alternately. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0.3.36) of Section 3. φ).4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple.

We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . . the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . so all n terms add constructively. 5/2. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. otherwise. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. and l = 3. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. Then. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. 3n/2. · · · = 0. 5n/2. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. with n = 2. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). 3/2. In that case. et cetera. and (10) equates to 2n . m = ±1 or ±3. m= n 3n . otherwise. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. · · · = im 0. · · · . Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. m = ±1. m = n/2. 2 2 (b) As shown above. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). m = 3n/2. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes.

(a) First of all.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. Φ(r. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. (b) Φ(r. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. which I have skipped here.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. 4π 0 r2 . For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. respectively. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. θ. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r.

The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). 1− Φ(r. Q r5 Φ(r. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. in which case we have the general expansion (1). but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere.7 Three point charges (q. as indicated in the ﬁgure. by the orthogonality of the Pl . the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. To calculate Φs . Show that in the limit a → 0. θ. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. −2q. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. and that p . θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ).

Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. z). Problem 3. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. The potential on the end faces is zero. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r.

The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). 2. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. which requires F = 0. i. so that V (φ.e. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). V (φ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz .9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L.13. 3. φ. In this case. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. (b) Assuming L >> b. which means we have to take k imaginary.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. πn . The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. (14) Problem 3. n = 1. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. dρ Plugging this into (3). (5) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes.

plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates.12 An inﬁnite. whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. thin. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. Using this in (5). ﬁlling the hole. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . A thin. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. ﬂat. Problem 3. . (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm .

∞ a Φ(ρ. To do it. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. I integrated by parts.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. In this problem there is no φ dependence. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. so Q = 1. Also. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). Plugging this back into (6). (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). (8) . we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before.

x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . φ) Rl (r. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ .13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x.1. x ) ∂n dA . For Dirichlet boundary value problems. so only the surface integral contributes. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. φ ) Ylm (θ. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0.

so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. r ). l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. (l − 2)!! 1 . θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . and we have G(x. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. r ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a.

Also. and at r = b with respect to r> . (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r.1. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . First of all. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). so the Green’s function is → G(x. where z is the distance from the midpoint. r ) l=0 (13) . r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. and that the total charge is Q. Problem 3. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. A grounded.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ).

θ. Also.2. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r.4. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface..Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r ... r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. r . and (−1)l for z < 0. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. where r = z. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. 0 Rl (r. θ )dV. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. θ )ρ(r .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). Rl (r. which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here.

(d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . In the steady state. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. but the current density must be constant there. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . P = I 2 Re = IVe . Using the lumped circuit relations.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation.

(17) Outside of the sphere. Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . θ) = Jr (r = a+ . for r > a. which means charge would pile up in that region. Jr (r = a− . l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. i.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. θ). this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). Φ(r. we have σ Using (16). in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φin (r. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. θ) = Φout (r. So the current density is continuous everywhere.e. Applying (17) to these expressions. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. θ) = Φin (r. (16) Now. Inside the sphere. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). θ) = Φ(r. we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . θ) = Φout (r. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. In particular.

(22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. F a3 r−2 cos θ.

so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . 3πaσ . dy. so I = σEx dydz. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . Also. and dz. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. θ. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere.

at all points x = x. At x = x. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. φ. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. G must be continuous. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. . L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. and must thus take one of the above forms.

. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ).e. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. in which dimension (i. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. Then we have G(x. one on either side of the source point x. and yet it does.e. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. i. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). the entire range of z must be handled by one function. Clearly. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L.. In other words. x ) = mk γmk (z. In this case. This requirement excludes terms of the form . so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). at the radius of the source point. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. Then G(x. Then we can write G as G(x. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. even though I never explicitly required this. we see that. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. where γmk is any function of z and φ. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space.e. z. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. The question is.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. ρ. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. Then. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . within each region. φ)Im (kρ). within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions.

12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. Bm (k. ρ. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . ρ. but not inﬁnite. so D = 0. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. ρ. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. φ. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. With these restrictions. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. ρ. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. not a sum. φ. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . Hence we must use terms of the form (26). L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . What about corrections for L a.12 are recovered. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ).18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. (28) . ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . over these terms: G(x . (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. while Im is singular at inﬁnity.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. because Km is singular at the origin. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z).

L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. in Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 .

in which region kz z/L 1.12. for all k. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. The second integral. The result is that. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. unfortunately. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. . coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. one grounded and the other at potential V. so the two terms in (33) add directly. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0.

19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. 0 < z0 < L. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . (1) 1 .18 as the comparison problem. Classical Electrodynamics. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system.12 with Problem 3. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.

= V. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. z) = 0. = 0. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a.19.r<a so σ (r. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. z) dA = 0 z=L. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. z) = 0 σ(r. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . Then ρ(r. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. z) =? Φ(r. z) =? Φ (r.18. =?. Plugging into (1). z) = 0. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. z) dA = −q z=L. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.

Suppose the observation point is (ρ. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. m = 1. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . the solution must vanish at φ = 0.25 may be of use. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. φ = β. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. ρ . 2. and ρ = a. In both regions. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. (4) becomes σ (0. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. Let’s break the region into two subregions. Problem 3. φ).22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. as indicated in the sketch. Bn = Dn = 0). However.e. which requires that n = mπ/β. φ. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. L) = − (c) At a = 0. · · · . As before. which excludes the cos terms (i.

Using these expressions for Am . ρ . This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.e. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. φ. i. and Cm we can write G(ρ. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. φ. ρ . Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. ρ . The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. i. mπφ β . 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. ρ . φ.e. Bm . φ. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. at ρ = ρ.

At ρ = ρ. . ρ At all points ρ = ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). φ. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. κm fm (ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ . β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. ρ . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). φ. but I can’t ﬁnd where.

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cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. told to neglect end eﬀects. Also.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). in the region outside the shell 1 . and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. Classical Electrodynamics. neglecting end eﬀects. right circular.8 A very long. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. respectively. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a.

e. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. i. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ].

the system of equations (2). . and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. (5). which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. The four equations (1). we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . Next. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. (3). However. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . for n = 1. (6). (4). for n = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally.

= 5 0 . ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. (b) In Figure 4. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . → 0 . Also. which is reassuring. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. we would have a → 0. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. E(r. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. r ˆ b < r. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.

ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i.8 for b = 2a. = 5 0. . b → ∞. 0 E(r. r ˆ r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.

r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. ·D = 0 there. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). in the region r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. (c) Verify that. 4π 0 rl+1 .9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. θ) = l Now. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). 0 → ∞. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. a<r<d Φ(r. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . in the limit / conducting sphere. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. Φ(r. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). r > d. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. r > d. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). 4π 0 On the other hand.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. . This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12).

(a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ).10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. and we . θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. as shown in the ﬁgure. That region is described by θ = π/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. carry charges ±Q. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. we have Φ(r. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. a < r < b. 0 < θ < π/2. respectively. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space.

coaxial. Similarly.13 Two long. There are actually two components of this charge. In (13). and the susceptibility of air is neglected. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. Bl = Dl . l odd l even. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. g is the acceleration due to gravity. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. To begin. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid.

For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. However. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. With this greater charge on the electrodes. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. So the . If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders.

we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. Turning now to the situation in this problem. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. i. With no potential between the cylinder plates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . ln(b/a) On the other hand. . The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. As we showed earlier. However. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders.e. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. So suppose that. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes.

χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. namely. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. . 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . Actually we should note one detail here. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders.

0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 . } . */ double Er(double r. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).phi). * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio. /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.8.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.8.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.h> #include <math.0 /* no.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .c" #define EZ 1.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25. double phi) { double Coeff.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. else Coeff=1.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).((B*B .0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.

1.phi). */ fprintf(g. fprintf(g."set multiplot \n"). FILE *g.r.j."set noytics\n").-2. fprintf(g.0*B).-2. double RComp. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).0*B."set terminal postscript portrait color\n")."set noxtics\n"). */ fprintf(g. else Coeff=1."plot ’-’ t ’’. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). fprintf(g. fprintf(g. .0*B).0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. for(phi=0.0*B."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).x. g=GnuPlot("Field lines"). if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. */ double Ephi(double r.PhiComp.0 + ((B*B .dy. double phi) { double Coeff.A*sin(phi))."set size square\n").A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r.2.A*cos(phi). fprintf(g. fprintf(g."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. fprintf(g."set output ’fig4.dx. fprintf(g."e\n"). } void main() { double i. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. phi<=2*M_PI.2.eps’\n").phi. ’-’ t ’’ with lines.y."%g %g\n". phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.

*/ x=-2. i<=NUMLINES."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.phi). /* * Draw field lines. y=2. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount. j+=1."%g %g\n". .0*B * ((NUMLINES . for(phi=0. dx=cos(phi)*RComp .0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).B*cos(phi).0 : -M_PI/2. PhiComp=Ephi(r. fprintf(g. */ for (j=0. fprintf(g.x. fprintf(g. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.0) phi=(y>0.0."%g %g\n".y).B*sin(phi)).0) ? M_PI/2."e\n").2. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. phi<=2*M_PI. else phi=atan(y/x). y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.0. j<NUMPOINTS.sin(phi)*PhiComp."e\n").phi). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.0*i)/NUMLINES). i+=1. */ for (i=1.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.0*B. if (x==0. /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r.

} .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. }. printf("Thank you for your support.\n")."e\n"). fprintf(g.

This is the same convention as in Section 1. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . that is. Classical Electrodynamics.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . and negative otherwise. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop.6 for the electric dipole layer. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 .

using the expressions of parts a and b.33) into cylindrical coordinates. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. we take the observation point x on the x axis. Since there is no current in the z direction. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). so its coordinates are (ρ. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. Classical Electrodynamics.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. and since the 1 . z). φ = 0. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5.

there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3.148). we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1. so ρ< = ρ. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric.148). 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. ρ> = a. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . but with the expression from Problem 3. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. the φ integral yields 2π. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). otherwise it vanishes. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r .

Plugging it in to the above. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . I1 (ρ) → 0. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. Comment. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. φ0 . R. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . In the “lab” frame. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. φ0 . (2) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx).150). We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop.69).

The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. The components of J are easy to express in R . as depicted in ﬁgure (??). 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . I think the former approach is easier. which takes us to R . Evidently. but more complicated in R. the opposite is true for B. Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis.11. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R.

and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . In the surviving terms. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . . If the loop radius is a. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation.e. i. since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). y = a sin φ .

because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. b and currents I. current I) lies in the xy plane. Problem 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. But r · Jb vanishes. have an angle α between their planes. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. respectively (b < a). I . and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. so y = y .12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. As in the last problem. φ = 0) in .

then r< = b. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. Jackson’s equation (5. if a point has angular coordinates θ. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). Of course. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. θ = π/2. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. (11) To transform this to frame R. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. φ0 = 0. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. we ﬁrst note that. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. so Br = Br .) . but we don’t need to. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. φ in R. Next. the polar angle in frame R . θ = π/2. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R.48): Br (r . because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . with θ0 = α. since the origins of R and R coincide. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. and for all such points r = b.11 to write down z in terms of x and z.

The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. Of course. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). evaluated at points on the smaller loop. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. This looks ugly. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 .

13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. hollow. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. i. in the external region. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. So. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. In the external region. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. so things are not so simple. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. and of relative permeability µr .1.14 A long. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. within the cylinder and in its inner region. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. Neglect end eﬀects. × H = Jfree = 0.5. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. but I can’t ﬁnd where. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . there is free current. 0. Problem 5. Can anybody help? Problem 5. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. . and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. These imply that. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current.

the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. φ) = Actually. ∂φ n=1 . With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. With the above expressions for the components of H. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b.

the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. . multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . µ0 On the other hand. − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . Equating (20) with (22). n=1 (18) n = 1. we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . For n = 1. Similarly. multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . For n = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a .

1 -1 -1. ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . a < r < b r r > b. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure . The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .5 (a/b) = 0.5 -3 -3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0.5 (a/b) = 0. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .5 -4 -4. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 log10 r -2 -2. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .

(b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ).5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). unity. (a) In the approximation of b a. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. r > a. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r > a. since J2 vanishes for r < b. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity.

The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). so that the boundary surface is z = 0. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . As r → 0. . while B1r → µ0 I/2a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). Problem 5. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. a.

for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. z>d z < d. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . H = − Φm . A = Aφ φ. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. On the other hand. so × H = 0 everywhere. z < d.87).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. there is no free current. (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ).

The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. z < d. we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) .

0 1 . z) satisfying the Laplace equation.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). so H(ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . both inside and outside. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. Third Edition Homer Reid April 20.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. both inside and outside. Classical Electrodynamics. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. There is no free current in this problem. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ).

integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. 0. The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. ρ<a ρ > a. Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). k .

(3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2 . 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ).

where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. we can use the following little trick.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. two things happen. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. + L2 2a . Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. a . and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. Since there are no free currents in the problem. Instead. (a) Show that. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. but now there is just free space. Second. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. First. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates.

and using the identity (2). integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. ρ<a ρ > a. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). integrating from 0 to ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. 0. µ0 . 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k).

The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. 0 < z < L. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. we see that. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. (0 < z < L). The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. . ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. we must have D → 0. and may thus be taken out of the integral. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. z>L 0 Hz (ρ. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). and exchanging the order of integration. we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). k 0 Then () becomes .

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