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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . so that term wins. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. The second image charge. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. One image charge. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. conducting sphere of radius R. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. isolated. and the overall force is attractive. The charged. As d → ∞. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive.

The root is d/R=1. makes no contribution in this limit. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0.43. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. .6178. So we have F →− q2 . F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0.88. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). The second image charge. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . The root of this one is d/R=1.

9).5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. Eq. and the energy discussion of Section 1. Eq. 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. The potential energy between the point charge and .6).8). of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 .3).11. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r.11. (2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. (2. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. (2. and the energy discussion of Section 1. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. Eq. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. (2. Eq.

This would seem to violate energy conservation. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. which we could store in a battery or something. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. at which point we would be back where we started.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. I think the problem is with equation (8). − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. liberating a quantity of energy (8). storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. and its charge increases. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. More speciﬁcally. x − ψx0 (x ) . boundary.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. ∂φ ∂n dA . (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . we might write it as ψx0 (x). If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. However. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . It’s useful to review this technique. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. Usually we do know ρ within the volume.

. we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. x (13) Again.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary.

and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity.3 for the potential of a line charge. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). i. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). (d) the force on the charge. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . Classical Electrodynamics.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to.e. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8.4 in units of τ /2πb. on the x axis. and a distance R away from. (c) the induced surface-charge density.

Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). we have Φ= For large ρ. |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . (b) At a point (ρ. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. which requires R = γR. φ). the φ term must drop out. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge.

substitute them into the series. y = 0. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − .12 Starting with the series solution (2. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . Problem 2.

71). We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. we know the bn are all zero. (5) Φ(b. For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). sin n φ. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. 0 Plugging back into (1). because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b.

With these coeﬃcients. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) .13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . (6) n odd . Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. This problem is just like the previous one.

n odd (Evidently. . b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ.) With this. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).

y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. (b) Taking for gn (y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. has an expansion ∞ G(x. 0) = gn (y. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. y. y. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. y. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. x .) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. g(y. x . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y. So G(x. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. 1) = 0. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). x . y ) on the boundary. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. (8) With the suggested expansion. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. First. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. y ) vanishes for points (x . Second. x . show that the explicit form of G is G(x. see the Green’s functions review above.

the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. (12) . we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). y < y. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ .e. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. y > y. First let’s consider the boundary conditions. we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . Actually. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero).

βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy).41.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. In other words. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ).15 with n=5. y < y.6 0.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. y ) = δ(y − y ). (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. y ) from Problem 2.2 0. y=. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 .4 yprime 0. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. y = . which we have already done. and vanish otherwise. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. y > y. we have gn (y. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn .

16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. We’re also given that .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. and G vanishes there by construction. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . y. Using the Green function of Problem 2. show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y.15. x . y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . Referring to my Green’s functions review above. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). y ) ∂y y =y + = 1.

but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. (17) The integrals can be done separately. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . . n odd 0 . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ .

15. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. x .17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. Show that apart from an inessential constant. +Z −Z Integrating. where Z is taken to be very large. y. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . y. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. x . φ. u = (z − z ). (As in Problem 2. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. ρ .) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function.

ρ . . ρ . leaving 2 G(ρ. φ). ρ . the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. φ. φ. Since Z is much bigger than a. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. ρ . φ. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . . the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . ρ > ρ. we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. 2m = 1 ρ . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0.15. ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ <ρ . . For m ≥ 1. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. ρ <ρ .

no mistake is made in its use. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. See (1. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. ρ = b) = 0.18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. This requires that B1m = 0 . b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞).12. Problem 2. ρ > ρ. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞.17. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )].17. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . ρ <ρ . ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary.] (a) As before.40)].

Finally. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. ρ . ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. (22) . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. φ. Next. . ρ< ρ> m − .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2.com). φ) = Φ(b. ρ .12. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. the volume integral vanishes. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . . φ.17 (c). φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.integrals. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. although I cheated and looked it up on www. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ.

Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. . The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . In the surface integral. the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m .12. This is the same gm we came up with before.

θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . Include terms at least up to l = 4. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15.1 Two concentric spheres have radii a.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Classical Electrodynamics. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . 2l + 1 1 .

When a → 0. the above expression becomes Φ(r.36) in the text.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b.27) with half the potential spacing. as treated in section 3. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere.7 of the text. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . and is just the above result inverted for l odd. In that limit. . This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . with the sign of V ﬂipped. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 .3 of the text. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2.

(c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . for l = 0. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. so the Bl in (1) are zero. 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. deﬁned by the cone θ = α.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. (10) im .4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. φ).3. Problem 3. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. θ. (8) For the solution within the sphere. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n .36) of Section 3. alternately. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . θ. φ) Ylm (θ. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3.

3n/2. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). otherwise. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. so all n terms add constructively. 2 2 (b) As shown above. m = ±1. 5/2. m = 3n/2. Then. 5n/2. · · · = im 0. m = n/2. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . with n = 2. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). otherwise. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. m = ±1 or ±3. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. In that case. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. m= n 3n . 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. · · · . We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. and l = 3. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. · · · = 0. . the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. and (10) equates to 2n . et cetera. 3/2.

(b) Φ(r. (a) First of all. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. Φ(r. θ. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. 4π 0 r2 . (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. which I have skipped here. respectively. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential.

2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere.7 Three point charges (q. and that p . in which case we have the general expansion (1). Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. 1− Φ(r. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. by the orthogonality of the Pl . q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. Show that in the limit a → 0. −2q. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. as indicated in the ﬁgure. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). Q r5 Φ(r. To calculate Φs . θ.

The potential on the end faces is zero. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. z). the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. Problem 3.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L.

z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). (b) Assuming L >> b. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . so that V (φ. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz .13. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly.e.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. πn . z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. which requires F = 0. 2. In this case.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. i. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . 3. which means we have to take k imaginary.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. V (φ. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. φ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. n = 1. (14) Problem 3.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. (5) . (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. dρ Plugging this into (3). (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0.

In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). Using this in (5). (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . . ﬁlling the hole. a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. thin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. Problem 3. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. ﬂat. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. A thin.12 An inﬁnite.

we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. (8) . we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. so Q = 1. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. Also. To do it. I integrated by parts. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. ∞ a Φ(ρ. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. Plugging this back into (6). whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. In this problem there is no φ dependence.

13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. so only the surface integral contributes. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text.1. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. x ) ∂n dA . x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. φ ) Ylm (θ. φ) Rl (r. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . For Dirichlet boundary value problems. x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a.

(11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . and we have G(x. r ). ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. (l − 2)!! 1 . r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . r ). A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r.

Problem 3. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. Also. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. First of all. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. so the Green’s function is → G(x. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. and at r = b with respect to r> . A grounded.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. r ) l=0 (13) . x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r.1. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). and that the total charge is Q. where z is the distance from the midpoint.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ).

and (−1)l for z < 0. Also. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r.. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r.. 0 Rl (r.4. where r = z.. θ. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . r . Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. θ )dV.2. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. θ )ρ(r .

which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). Rl (r.

P = I 2 Re = IVe . Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ .15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. In the steady state. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). Using the lumped circuit relations. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. but the current density must be constant there. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere.

l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it.e. So the current density is continuous everywhere. θ) = Φin (r. for r > a. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). (17) Outside of the sphere. i. Jr (r = a− . we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . we have σ Using (16). in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. θ) = Φin (r. θ) = Φout (r. Applying (17) to these expressions. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φ(r. Φ(r. θ) = Jr (r = a+ . which would mean we aren’t in steady state. (16) Now. Inside the sphere. θ) = Φout (r. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. In particular. θ). Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . which means charge would pile up in that region. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ).

r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. F a3 r−2 cos θ. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r.

suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). Also. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. so I = σEx dydz. we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . and dz. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). θ. 3πaσ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. dy. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV .

L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . G must be continuous. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). . the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. at all points x = x. At x = x. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. and must thus take one of the above forms. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). φ. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.

x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. we see that. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. Then we can write G as G(x. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. one on either side of the source point x. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. and yet it does. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). Then. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . Then G(x. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). in which dimension (i. The question is.e.. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement.e. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). where γmk is any function of z and φ. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. within each region. x ) = mk γmk (z. ρ. This requirement excludes terms of the form . to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. In other words. In this case. z. φ)Im (kρ). within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. Clearly. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). even though I never explicitly required this.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space.e. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. Then we have G(x. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L.. at the radius of the source point. i. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ.

so D = 0. φ. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. Bm (k. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. over these terms: G(x . because Km is singular at the origin. ρ. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. With these restrictions. What about corrections for L a. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). ρ. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z).18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. ρ. (28) . not a sum. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . φ.12 are recovered. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . ρ. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . but not inﬁnite. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k.

∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . in Problem 3. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du.

unfortunately. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. in which region kz z/L 1.12. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). for all k. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. The second integral. one grounded and the other at potential V.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. so the two terms in (33) add directly. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. The result is that. . Calling the ﬁxed distance z . We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L.

12 with Problem 3. (1) 1 . Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 0 < z0 < L. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 .18 as the comparison problem. Classical Electrodynamics. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3.

(b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. =?.r<a so σ (r. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. z) = 0 σ(r. z) dA = −q z=L. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. z) = 0.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. z) dA = 0 z=L. = V. = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. z) =? Φ (r. Then ρ(r. z) =? Φ(r. z) = 0.19.18. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. Plugging into (1). ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r.

The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . L) = − (c) At a = 0. φ = β. Bn = Dn = 0). · · · .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. ρ . and ρ = a. As before. which excludes the cos terms (i. which requires that n = mπ/β. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. Let’s break the region into two subregions. Problem 3. φ. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). In both regions. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . (4) becomes σ (0. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) .e.25 may be of use. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. However. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. as indicated in the sketch. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. m = 1. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. φ). 2.

φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. φ. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. φ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. ρ .e. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. . Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. i. ρ . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. ρ . ρ . φ. Using these expressions for Am . This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. Bm . at ρ = ρ. φ.e. mπφ β . i. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . and Cm we can write G(ρ. ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β .

φ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . κm fm (ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. . β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . ρ . ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). ρ At all points ρ = ρ. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. φ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. but I can’t ﬁnd where. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. ρ . the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. At ρ = ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ.

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respectively. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. neglecting end eﬀects. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. right circular. told to neglect end eﬀects. Classical Electrodynamics. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r.8 A very long. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). in the region outside the shell 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. Also.

−E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ].e. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. i. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ].

. Next. (4). we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . (5). so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. However. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . (6). the system of equations (2). for n = 1. which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. (3). for n = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . The four equations (1).

a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. E(r. → 0 . r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. = 5 0 . we would have a → 0. (b) In Figure 4. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. Also. r ˆ b < r. which is reassuring. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to .

= 5 0. ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ].8 for b = 2a. r ˆ r > a. 0 E(r. . in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. b → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.

θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). (c) Verify that. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. 4π 0 rl+1 . 4π 0 On the other hand. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. in the limit / conducting sphere. Φ(r. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). ·D = 0 there. r > d. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). 0 → ∞. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). r > d. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. θ) = l Now. a<r<d Φ(r. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. in the region r > a.

. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). and Bl → − qa2l+1 . This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. carry charges ±Q. we have Φ(r. respectively. a < r < b. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. as shown in the ﬁgure. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. 0 < θ < π/2. and we . so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. That region is described by θ = π/2.

g is the acceleration due to gravity. l odd l even. coaxial. Bl = Dl . cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid.13 Two long. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. Similarly. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. There are actually two components of this charge. To begin. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. In (13). one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. However. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). So the . This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. With this greater charge on the electrodes. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V .

so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh.e. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. i. As we showed earlier. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. However. So suppose that. With no potential between the cylinder plates. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. Turning now to the situation in this problem. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. ln(b/a) On the other hand. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. . When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. Actually we should note one detail here. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. namely. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21).

else Coeff=1. } .((B*B .h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.phi).A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).8.0 /* no. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.h> #include <math.0 . else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.8. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).c" #define EZ 1. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1. double phi) { double Coeff.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4. */ double Er(double r.

0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.0*B. fprintf(g."set yrange [%g:%g]\n"."%g %g\n"."set noxtics\n"). fprintf(g. phi<=2*M_PI.phi. fprintf(g."plot ’-’ t ’’.eps’\n")."set noytics\n")."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". fprintf(g. */ double Ephi(double r. FILE *g. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi). ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). g=GnuPlot("Field lines").dx.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).dy."set multiplot \n"). else Coeff=1.0*B.0*B).A*cos(phi).r. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. fprintf(g."e\n").-2. /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. ’-’ t ’’ with lines. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).x.1.2. fprintf(g.-2. double phi) { double Coeff.A*sin(phi)).phi).2."set size square\n").j.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. } void main() { double i. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0*B).PhiComp. fprintf(g. . */ fprintf(g."set terminal postscript portrait color\n"). for(phi=0."set output ’fig4. fprintf(g.0 + ((B*B . double RComp. */ fprintf(g. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.y.

if (x==0. j<NUMPOINTS. PhiComp=Ephi(r.0. fprintf(g. /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. /* * Draw field lines. */ for (j=0. i<=NUMLINES. .0*B. fprintf(g. */ for (i=1. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount.sin(phi)*PhiComp."e\n").y). */ x=-2. y=2.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y)."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n")."e\n").phi). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.0*i)/NUMLINES).x.B*cos(phi). i+=1. else phi=atan(y/x). for(phi=0. j+=1. phi<=2*M_PI. dx=cos(phi)*RComp . phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.phi).B*sin(phi)). /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).0."%g %g\n"."%g %g\n".0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.0) phi=(y>0. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.0*B * ((NUMLINES .0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.2.0) ? M_PI/2. fprintf(g.0 : -M_PI/2.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. } .\n"). printf("Thank you for your support. fprintf(g."e\n"). }.

1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . that is. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. and negative otherwise. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 .6 for the electric dipole layer. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. Classical Electrodynamics. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . This is the same convention as in Section 1. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . Third Edition Homer Reid November 8.

we take the observation point x on the x axis. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. z).Solutions to Problems in Jackson. and since the 1 . 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). using the expressions of parts a and b. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. Classical Electrodynamics.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. so its coordinates are (ρ. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. Since there is no current in the z direction. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations.33) into cylindrical coordinates. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. φ = 0.

the φ integral yields 2π. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.148). Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. so ρ< = ρ. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. otherwise it vanishes. ρ> = a.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric.148). 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. but with the expression from Problem 3.

Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. Comment. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. φ0 . (2) . In the “lab” frame. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . Compare your result with the approximate result (5. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. φ0 . and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 .69). so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. R. We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. Plugging it in to the above.150). Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). I1 (ρ) → 0.

Evidently. The components of J are easy to express in R . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis.11. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. the opposite is true for B. in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. which takes us to R . or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. but more complicated in R. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). I think the former approach is easier. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two .

and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ .e. i. y = a sin φ . . In the surviving terms. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . If the loop radius is a. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation.

note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. have an angle α between their planes. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. Problem 5. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. As in the last problem. But r · Jb vanishes. φ = 0) in . and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. so y = y .12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. respectively (b < a). b and currents I. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. current I) lies in the xy plane. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. I . Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b.

and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . the polar angle in frame R . φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). θ = π/2. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. θ = π/2. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. Next. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. Jackson’s equation (5. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b.) . then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . since the origins of R and R coincide. but we don’t need to. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. φ in R. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. φ0 = 0. (11) To transform this to frame R. we ﬁrst note that.11 to write down z in terms of x and z.48): Br (r . (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. with θ0 = α. and for all such points r = b. so Br = Br . if a point has angular coordinates θ. then r< = b. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). Of course. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop.

in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). This looks ugly. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. Of course. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. evaluated at points on the smaller loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12).

14 A long. So. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. but I can’t ﬁnd where. 0. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. there is free current. i.1. . so things are not so simple. in the external region. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . Can anybody help? Problem 5.5. Problem 5. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. hollow. within the cylinder and in its inner region. × H = Jfree = 0. In the external region. and of relative permeability µr . and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. These imply that. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. Neglect end eﬀects. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b).

Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. φ) = Actually. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. With the above expressions for the components of H. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. ∂φ n=1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions.

Similarly. the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . µ0 On the other hand. Equating (20) with (22). For n = 1. (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . . n=1 (18) n = 1. For n = 1. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .5 (a/b) = 0.5 -3 -3. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 log10 r -2 -2. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .1 -1 -1. a < r < b r r > b.5 (a/b) = 0.5 -4 -4. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .

show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . (a) In the approximation of b a. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). r < a B1θ = On the other hand.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). since J2 vanishes for r < b. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. unity.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ).16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. r > a. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r > a. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.

a. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. Problem 5. As r → 0. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). so that the boundary surface is z = 0. . Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 .

there is no free current. On the other hand. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). z < d. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . H = − Φm .10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). so × H = 0 everywhere. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. A = Aφ φ. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. z>d z < d.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab.87).

∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). z < d. we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary.

Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 .19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. both inside and outside. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). z) satisfying the Laplace equation. so H(ρ. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. both inside and outside. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. Classical Electrodynamics. There is no free current in this problem. 0 1 .

and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. 0. k .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. ρ<a ρ > a. The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ).

0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2 . M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ).

First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. a . + L2 2a . between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. Second. two things happen. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. First. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. (a) Show that. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. but now there is just free space. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. we can use the following little trick. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. Instead. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. Since there are no free currents in the problem. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium.

and using the identity (2). Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0. µ0 . (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. integrating from 0 to ∞. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). ρ<a ρ > a. 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ.

Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). we see that. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. and may thus be taken out of the integral.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). (0 < z < L). we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. we must have D → 0. z>L 0 Hz (ρ. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. 0 < z < L. . ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz.

k 0 Then () becomes . we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). and exchanging the order of integration.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into ().

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