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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. isolated. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. and the overall force is attractive. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). conducting sphere of radius R. As d → ∞. The second image charge. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. The charged. so that term wins. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. One image charge. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): .

makes no contribution in this limit. The root of this one is d/R=1. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere.88. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2.6178. . So we have F →− q2 . Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0.43. The root is d/R=1. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. The second image charge. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image.

(b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. Eq.8).9).11.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. (2. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. Eq. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. (2. Eq. 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential.6). (2. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Eq.3).11.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. and the energy discussion of Section 1. and the energy discussion of Section 1. The potential energy between the point charge and . (2.

and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. I think the problem is with equation (8). but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. which we could store in a battery or something. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. liberating a quantity of energy (8). − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. at which point we would be back where we started. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. and its charge increases. This would seem to violate energy conservation. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere.

since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. we might write it as ψx0 (x). suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . It’s useful to review this technique. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. More speciﬁcally. x − ψx0 (x ) . Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. ∂φ ∂n dA . −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. However. boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA .

Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). x (13) Again.

1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. Classical Electrodynamics. (d) the force on the charge. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. and a distance R away from.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). (c) the induced surface-charge density. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . on the x axis.3 for the potential of a line charge. i.e. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s).4 in units of τ /2πb.

φ). For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . the φ term must drop out.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . which requires R = γR. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . (b) At a point (ρ. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. we have Φ= For large ρ. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ .

and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. y = 0.12 Starting with the series solution (2. substitute them into the series. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. Problem 2. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b.

φ) cos(nφ)dφ. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. 0 Plugging back into (1). sin n φ. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ).71). . because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. (5) Φ(b. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. we know the bn are all zero. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. This problem is just like the previous one. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ.13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . (6) n odd . the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. With these coeﬃcients.

b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . . (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . n odd (Evidently.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function.) With this. Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 .

y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. y. So G(x. x . y. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. see the Green’s functions review above.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. Second. y ) on the boundary.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . has an expansion ∞ G(x. x . sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. 1) = 0. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). show that the explicit form of G is G(x. y. 0) = gn (y. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. (8) With the suggested expansion. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. y ) vanishes for points (x . y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. g(y. x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. (b) Taking for gn (y. x . 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. First.

Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs.e. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). (12) . y > y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). y < y. we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). Actually. First let’s consider the boundary conditions. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)].

βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). y ) = δ(y − y ).15 with n=5. and vanish otherwise. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ).6 0. y > y. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous.4 yprime 0.41. y = . In other words.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. y < y. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . y ) from Problem 2.2 0. (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. which we have already done. y=. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . we have gn (y. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5.

0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. x . show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). Using the Green function of Problem 2. y. We’re also given that .16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Referring to my Green’s functions review above.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. and G vanishes there by construction. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA .15. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes.

(19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). n odd 0 . . (17) The integrals can be done separately. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof.

ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. (As in Problem 2. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. Show that apart from an inessential constant. +Z −Z Integrating. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. u = (z − z ). y.15. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z .68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. φ. where Z is taken to be very large.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. ρ . ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. y. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . x . ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . x . (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ .

φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). . φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. ρ . leaving 2 G(ρ. Since Z is much bigger than a. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). φ. φ. φ. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ). ρ . The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. ρ . ρ . φ. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem.

ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ <ρ . the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . 2m = 1 ρ . ρ <ρ . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0.15. For m ≥ 1. ρ > ρ. . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm .

ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . See (1.17. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . This requires that B1m = 0 . ρ = b) = 0.12.18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. ρ > ρ. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞.40)]. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. no mistake is made in its use. ρ <ρ . we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2.17. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. Problem 2.] (a) As before. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2.

ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. ρ . Next. ρ< ρ> m − . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. Finally. m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. . φ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . . (22) . ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ.

Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. φ. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer.integrals.17 (c).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . ρ . and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. although I cheated and looked it up on www.com). φ) = Φ(b. the volume integral vanishes. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition.12. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . . φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.

the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA .12. . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . In the surface integral. From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. This is the same gm we came up with before. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ .

(1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. 2l + 1 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . Include terms at least up to l = 4. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Classical Electrodynamics. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V .1 Two concentric spheres have radii a.

2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. When a → 0. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. the above expression becomes Φ(r. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. In that limit. with the sign of V ﬂipped. . as treated in section 3.7 of the text. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .3 of the text.36) in the text. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .27) with half the potential spacing.

At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ).28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. except for a spherical cap at the north pole.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. so the Bl in (1) are zero. for l = 0. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. 3. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

φ) Ylm (θ. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. alternately. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. θ. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) .) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . (10) im . ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n .36) of Section 3. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ.3. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. (8) For the solution within the sphere. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. φ). θ.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. Problem 3. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ .

5/2. 5n/2. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. 3n/2. Then. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. m = n/2. · · · = 0. et cetera. In that case. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. m= n 3n . while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. m = 3n/2. 2 2 (b) As shown above. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. and (10) equates to 2n . and l = 3. with n = 2. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . otherwise. 3/2. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . · · · . so all n terms add constructively. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. · · · = im 0. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. otherwise. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . m = ±1. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. m = ±1 or ±3. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??).

(b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. Φ(r. (a) First of all. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. θ. respectively. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. (b) Φ(r. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. 4π 0 r2 . By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. which I have skipped here.

(a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. as indicated in the ﬁgure. Q r5 Φ(r. and that p . by the orthogonality of the Pl . we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. θ. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. 1− Φ(r. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. Show that in the limit a → 0. To calculate Φs . θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . in which case we have the general expansion (1). A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ).7 Three point charges (q. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). −2q.

the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . The potential on the end faces is zero. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. z). θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. Problem 3.

3. so that V (φ. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). φ. In this case.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. 2. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. (b) Assuming L >> b.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. πn .13.e. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. (14) Problem 3. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. V (φ. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. which means we have to take k imaginary. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. which requires F = 0. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. i. n = 1. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . (5) . (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . dρ Plugging this into (3).

ﬁlling the hole.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane.12 An inﬁnite. Using this in (5). thin. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. . whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. ﬂat. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. Problem 3. A thin. a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 .

(7) The ρ integral can be done right away. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). To do it. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. In this problem there is no φ dependence. Plugging this back into (6). z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. ∞ a Φ(ρ. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). I integrated by parts.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. (8) . Also. so Q = 1. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ.

(7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. φ) Rl (r. φ ) Ylm (θ. so only the surface integral contributes. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . For Dirichlet boundary value problems. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation.1. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. x ) ∂n dA . z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text.

so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. r ). = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. (l − 2)!! 1 . r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. r ). and we have G(x. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical.

conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . and that the total charge is Q. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). where z is the distance from the midpoint. r ) l=0 (13) . (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. Problem 3. Also. so the Green’s function is → G(x.1. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. A grounded. First of all. and at r = b with respect to r> . while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r.

θ )ρ(r . 0 Rl (r. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis.2. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. θ. where r = z.4. θ )dV. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface.. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. r .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. and (−1)l for z < 0. Also. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> .. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r.. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. Rl (r. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here.

(a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. P = I 2 Re = IVe . but the current density must be constant there. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. Using the lumped circuit relations. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . In the steady state.

we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . i. So the current density is continuous everywhere. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). Jr (r = a− . because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. θ). (17) Outside of the sphere. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π.e. θ) = Φ(r. θ) = Φin (r. for r > a. which means charge would pile up in that region. θ) = Φout (r. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. θ) = Φin (r. θ) = Jr (r = a+ . In particular. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. Φ(r. θ) = Φout (r. (16) Now. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). Inside the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. we have σ Using (16). which would mean we aren’t in steady state. Applying (17) to these expressions. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ).

σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. F a3 r−2 cos θ. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r.

Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. and dz. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . so I = σEx dydz. Also. we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. dy. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). 3πaσ . For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. θ.

x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. and must thus take one of the above forms. but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. at all points x = x. G must be continuous. φ. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). At x = x. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. .

within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. where γmk is any function of z and φ. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. z. In other words. in which dimension (i. φ)Im (kρ).e. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27).e. i. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement.e. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . even though I never explicitly required this.. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. at the radius of the source point. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ).. one on either side of the source point x. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. Then we have G(x. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. within each region. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. ρ. we see that. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. The question is. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. Then G(x. x ) = mk γmk (z. Clearly. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. Then we can write G as G(x. Then. In this case. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). This requirement excludes terms of the form . the entire range of z must be handled by one function. and yet it does.

18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ).12 are recovered. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). φ) as ∞ Φ(z. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. φ. ρ. not a sum. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. Bm (k. while Im is singular at inﬁnity.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. ρ. (28) . Hence we must use terms of the form (26).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. but not inﬁnite. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. φ. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. ρ. over these terms: G(x . ρ. With these restrictions. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. because Km is singular at the origin. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. What about corrections for L a. so D = 0.

and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. in Problem 3. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du.

unfortunately. in which region kz z/L 1. for all k. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ).12. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. The second integral. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . The result is that. one grounded and the other at potential V. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. so the two terms in (33) add directly. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. .

with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 .19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3.18 as the comparison problem.12 with Problem 3. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . Classical Electrodynamics. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. (1) 1 . 0 < z0 < L.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r.19. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. = 0. z) dA = −q z=L. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. z) dA = 0 z=L. z) = 0 σ(r.18. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. Then ρ(r. z) =? Φ(r. =?. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. z) = 0. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . = V. z) = 0.r<a so σ (r. Plugging into (1).r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . z) =? Φ (r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . Problem 3. as indicated in the sketch. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.e. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. L) = − (c) At a = 0. However. which excludes the cos terms (i. which requires that n = mπ/β. In both regions. and ρ = a. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. φ). The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. (4) becomes σ (0. φ. ρ . The solution must also vanish at φ = β. As before. · · · . φ = β. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) .22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. Bn = Dn = 0). 2. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). Let’s break the region into two subregions. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. m = 1. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: .25 may be of use. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ.

ρ .e. φ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. ρ . 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . φ. Bm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. at ρ = ρ. i. . ρ . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.e. ρ . mπφ β . φ. Using these expressions for Am . i. φ. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.

ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . φ. ρ . . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. but I can’t ﬁnd where. At ρ = ρ. ρ . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). κm fm (ρ. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). φ.

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(a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. Also. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. told to neglect end eﬀects. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4.8 A very long. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. in the region outside the shell 1 . is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. neglecting end eﬀects. right circular. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. respectively. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. Classical Electrodynamics. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a).

rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. i. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld.e.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ].

Next. (6). for n = 1. and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. the system of equations (2). −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . The four equations (1). for n = 1. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . (5). (3). which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. . (4). However.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ. (b) In Figure 4.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . → 0 . E(r. = 5 0 . ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . we would have a → 0. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. r ˆ b < r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. which is reassuring. Also. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ .

8 for b = 2a. 0 E(r. ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. b → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. = 5 0. . r ˆ r > a.

9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . r > d. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). a<r<d Φ(r. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). θ) = l Now. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. ·D = 0 there. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. in the limit / conducting sphere. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. 4π 0 On the other hand. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. 4π 0 rl+1 . This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. (c) Verify that. r > d.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. Φ(r. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). in the region r > a. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. 0 → ∞.

since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. . This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular.

The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). That region is described by θ = π/2. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. we have Φ(r.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. as shown in the ﬁgure. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). 0 < θ < π/2. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. a < r < b. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. respectively. carry charges ±Q. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. and we . Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation.

Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. Bl = Dl . First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . l odd l even. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. g is the acceleration due to gravity. There are actually two components of this charge. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. Similarly. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. To begin. and the susceptibility of air is neglected.13 Two long. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. In (13). since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. coaxial. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. So the . the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. With this greater charge on the electrodes. However.

However. . with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes.e. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. Turning now to the situation in this problem. With no potential between the cylinder plates. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. So suppose that. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. i. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. As we showed earlier. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). ln(b/a) On the other hand. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. Actually we should note one detail here. . When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. namely. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible.

0 .h> #include <math.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).c" #define EZ 1. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .phi). */ double Er(double r. double phi) { double Coeff.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.8. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.8.0 /* no.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1. } . /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.((B*B .A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi). of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4. else Coeff=1. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.

-2.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).dy.A*sin(phi)). /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). fprintf(g. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.0*B.r. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. fprintf(g. fprintf(g. FILE *g.A*cos(phi).dx. fprintf(g. */ fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. ’-’ t ’’ with lines."set output ’fig4. phi<=2*M_PI."set multiplot \n").phi).2."plot ’-’ t ’’.y. g=GnuPlot("Field lines"). fprintf(g.0*B)."set size square\n").2.PhiComp. */ fprintf(g. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").1.0*B. for(phi=0.eps’\n")."set noytics\n").0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM."e\n"). } void main() { double i. double phi) { double Coeff.0 + ((B*B .j. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).0*B). else Coeff=1. fprintf(g."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". fprintf(g. ."%g %g\n". */ double Ephi(double r.phi."set noxtics\n"). fprintf(g.x.-2."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. double RComp."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").

if (x==0. j+=1. i<=NUMLINES.0 : -M_PI/2.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.sin(phi)*PhiComp.B*cos(phi). for(phi=0. i+=1."%g %g\n". /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r.0) phi=(y>0."e\n"). y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).B*sin(phi)).0*B * ((NUMLINES . phi<=2*M_PI."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.0*B. fprintf(g. */ for (j=0. else phi=atan(y/x).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.phi). */ x=-2. j<NUMPOINTS. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. fprintf(g.0*i)/NUMLINES).0) ? M_PI/2. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line.0. PhiComp=Ephi(r. */ for (i=1. /* * Draw field lines. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.phi)."e\n"). fprintf(g.x. dx=cos(phi)*RComp .2.0.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).y). .0. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount."%g %g\n". y=2.

}.\n"). } ."e\n").Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. printf("Thank you for your support. fprintf(g.

The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . that is. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. Classical Electrodynamics. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . and negative otherwise. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. This is the same convention as in Section 1.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5.6 for the electric dipole layer.

we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. using the expressions of parts a and b. z).33) into cylindrical coordinates. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. φ = 0.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. Classical Electrodynamics. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. Since there is no current in the z direction. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). we take the observation point x on the x axis. so its coordinates are (ρ. and since the 1 . Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5.

otherwise it vanishes. ρ> = a.148). In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. so ρ< = ρ.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. but with the expression from Problem 3. the φ integral yields 2π. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0.148).

so the ﬁrst term vanishes.69). the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. (2) . (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. I1 (ρ) → 0. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. In the “lab” frame. φ0 . but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. Comment. 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. φ0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. Plugging it in to the above. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx).11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 .150). We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. R.

which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . as depicted in ﬁgure (??). Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. The components of J are easy to express in R . The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. I think the former approach is easier. the opposite is true for B. Evidently. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5.11. but more complicated in R. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . which takes us to R . cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire.

If the loop radius is a. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. i. In the surviving terms.e. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). . then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . y = a sin φ . the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation.

have an angle α between their planes. φ = 0) in . respectively (b < a). Problem 5. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). current I) lies in the xy plane. As in the last problem. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. so y = y . I . But r · Jb vanishes. b and currents I. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation.

we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . Next. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . Jackson’s equation (5. θ = π/2. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R .) . we ﬁrst note that. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). since the origins of R and R coincide. φ in R. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. so Br = Br . φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. if a point has angular coordinates θ. θ = π/2. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. and for all such points r = b. φ0 = 0. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). with θ0 = α.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. Of course.48): Br (r .11 to write down z in terms of x and z. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. then r< = b. the polar angle in frame R . the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. (11) To transform this to frame R. but we don’t need to.

We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. This looks ugly. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). Of course.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). evaluated at points on the smaller loop. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term.

14 A long. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. 0. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. Can anybody help? Problem 5. i. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. Neglect end eﬀects. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. but I can’t ﬁnd where. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. . so things are not so simple. in the external region. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. So. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). within the cylinder and in its inner region.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. These imply that. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. and of relative permeability µr . Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. hollow. × H = Jfree = 0. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). there is free current. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. Problem 5. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space.1. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system.5. In the external region. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld.

∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂φ n=1 . we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . φ) = Actually. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. With the above expressions for the components of H. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise.

− 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . Equating (20) with (22). µ0 On the other hand. Similarly. multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . n=1 (18) n = 1. at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . For n = 1. . multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . For n = 1. the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0.

The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a . ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .5 -3 -3.5 log10 r -2 -2.5 (a/b) = 0. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0.1 -1 -1. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i. a < r < b r r > b.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 (a/b) = 0. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .5 -4 -4.

which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. since J2 vanishes for r < b. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. (a) In the approximation of b a. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . r > a. show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. r > a. unity. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ).

As r → 0. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. a. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . Problem 5. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). . so that the boundary surface is z = 0. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability.

H = − Φm . dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).87). so × H = 0 everywhere. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. On the other hand. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). there is no free current. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. z>d z < d. A = Aφ φ. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. z < d.

Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ).

Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z) satisfying the Laplace equation. both inside and outside. Classical Electrodynamics. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 1 . The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. so H(ρ. both inside and outside.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. There is no free current in this problem. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. Third Edition Homer Reid April 20.

ρ<a ρ > a. Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). 0. integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. k . The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ).

2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. 2 . (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. we can use the following little trick. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. Instead. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . two things happen. but now there is just free space. Second. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. a . while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. First. + L2 2a . Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. (a) Show that. Since there are no free currents in the problem. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows.

we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). 0. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. ρ<a ρ > a. (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). integrating from 0 to ∞. and using the identity (2). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. µ0 . the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ).

so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. we must have D → 0. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. and may thus be taken out of the integral. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. (0 < z < L). and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. . to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. 0 < z < L. we see that. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. z>L 0 Hz (ρ.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). and exchanging the order of integration. we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). k 0 Then () becomes .

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