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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

The second image charge. so that term wins. isolated. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. One image charge. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. conducting sphere of radius R. As d → ∞. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. and the overall force is attractive. The charged. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q.

43. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. So we have F →− q2 . . makes no contribution in this limit. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image.6178. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. The root of this one is d/R=1.88. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. The second image charge. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . The root is d/R=1.

(2. and the energy discussion of Section 1. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. (2. The potential energy between the point charge and . 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential.8). Eq. Eq. Eq. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. and the energy discussion of Section 1. of an isolated charged conducting sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2.6).11. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 .9).3).11. (2. (2. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. Eq. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force.

− 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. which we could store in a battery or something. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. I think the problem is with equation (8). liberating a quantity of energy (8). storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. at which point we would be back where we started. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. This would seem to violate energy conservation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). and its charge increases.

but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . x − ψx0 (x ) . (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. More speciﬁcally. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. ∂φ ∂n dA .) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. However. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . Usually we do know ρ within the volume. It’s useful to review this technique. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. we might write it as ψx0 (x). boundary. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral.

in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . . we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. x (13) Again. we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions).

Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. i. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . Classical Electrodynamics. on the x axis. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to.e. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2.3 for the potential of a line charge. (c) the induced surface-charge density. and a distance R away from.4 in units of τ /2πb. (d) the force on the charge. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere.

ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . which requires R = γR.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. φ). (b) At a point (ρ. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. the φ term must drop out. we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. we have Φ= For large ρ. |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder.

and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. Problem 2. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . y = 0. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? .12 Starting with the series solution (2. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. substitute them into the series. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant.

φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). . Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 .71).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. (5) Φ(b. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. sin n φ. 0 Plugging back into (1). φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . we know the bn are all zero. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form.

(b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. (6) n odd . the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. This problem is just like the previous one. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. With these coeﬃcients. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 .13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 .) With this. n odd (Evidently. . 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).

15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. 0) = gn (y. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . has an expansion ∞ G(x. y. x . x . y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. see the Green’s functions review above. y. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. Second. g(y. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. x . y ) vanishes for points (x . y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. So G(x. 1) = 0. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. First. (b) Taking for gn (y. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. y ) on the boundary. (8) With the suggested expansion. x . sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. y. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y.

This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y).e. y > y. y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. Actually. and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. y < y. Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. First let’s consider the boundary conditions. (12) .

Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). we have gn (y.6 0.15 with n=5. y < y. and vanish otherwise. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 .8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. y ) from Problem 2. y ) = δ(y − y ). The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). which we have already done.2 0. y=. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. In other words. y = . y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y.41.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.4 yprime 0. y > y.

Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z).16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). y. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. Referring to my Green’s functions review above. and G vanishes there by construction. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. We’re also given that . y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. Using the Green function of Problem 2. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) .15. show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . x . we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA .

but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . . n odd 0 . we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . (17) The integrals can be done separately.

I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. y. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. where Z is taken to be very large.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. (As in Problem 2. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . φ. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ.15. +Z −Z Integrating. y. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. Show that apart from an inessential constant. x . (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . ρ . a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . x . u = (z − z ).

φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). φ. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. φ). ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . ρ . . ρ . (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. φ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. φ. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. leaving 2 G(ρ. φ. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. Since Z is much bigger than a. ρ . ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. ρ . These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. For m ≥ 1. ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. ρ > ρ. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ <ρ . 2m = 1 ρ . . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . .15. ρ <ρ . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ.

ρ = b) = 0. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation.17. This requires that B1m = 0 . we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2.17. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )].12. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . Problem 2.18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). ρ > ρ. no mistake is made in its use. See (1. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. ρ <ρ . ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞.] (a) As before.40)]. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this.

dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. Finally. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). (22) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . Next. ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. ρ . . ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. φ. m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . . ρ< ρ> m − . gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m .

com). I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure.12. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. φ. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. . We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. ρ . φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . φ) = Φ(b. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2.integrals. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.17 (c).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. although I cheated and looked it up on www. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . the volume integral vanishes.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . This is the same gm we came up with before. Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. In the surface integral. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm .12. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ .

2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. 2l + 1 1 . The other hemispheres are at zero potential. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . Classical Electrodynamics. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) .1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. Include terms at least up to l = 4. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) .

When a → 0. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. with the sign of V ﬂipped. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . the above expression becomes Φ(r. as treated in section 3. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r.36) in the text.27) with half the potential spacing. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. In that limit.3 of the text. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3.7 of the text. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .

3. for l = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. so the Bl in (1) are zero.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. (8) For the solution within the sphere.3. (10) im . θ. φ) Ylm (θ. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. φ). alternately. θ. Problem 3.36) of Section 3. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ .

4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). with n = 2. Then. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. et cetera. so all n terms add constructively. m = ±1 or ±3. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. otherwise. m = n/2. · · · .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. m = ±1. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. otherwise. m= n 3n . Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. and (10) equates to 2n . the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. 5/2. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. In that case. 2 2 (b) As shown above. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . 3n/2. . Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. m = 3n/2. 5n/2. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . 3/2. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. · · · = im 0. · · · = 0. and l = 3.

This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. (a) First of all. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. (b) Φ(r. θ. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. 4π 0 r2 . By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. which I have skipped here. Φ(r. respectively. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant.

Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. θ. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. Q r5 Φ(r. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). and that p . but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin.7 Three point charges (q. Show that in the limit a → 0. −2q. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. by the orthogonality of the Pl . as indicated in the ﬁgure. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. 1− Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). in which case we have the general expansion (1). that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. To calculate Φs . The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b.

z). θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . Problem 3. The potential on the end faces is zero.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder.

consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. In this case.13. one at potential V and the other at potential −V .10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. (b) Assuming L >> b. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. 2. so that V (φ. which requires F = 0. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. φ. which means we have to take k imaginary. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). n = 1. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . V (φ. (14) Problem 3. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz.e. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14).9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. i. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . πn . 3.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. dρ Plugging this into (3). dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). (5) . (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0.

(b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. thin. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V .12 An inﬁnite. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. . disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. ﬂat. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. ﬁlling the hole. Using this in (5). A thin. Problem 3. a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm .

(6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. To do it. I integrated by parts. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. Plugging this back into (6). ∞ a Φ(ρ. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). so Q = 1. (8) . In this problem there is no φ dependence. Also. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk.

so only the surface integral contributes. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. For Dirichlet boundary value problems.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. φ ) Ylm (θ. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. φ) Rl (r.1. x ) ∂n dA .

r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. r ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. and we have G(x. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. r ). θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. (l − 2)!! 1 . which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x.

r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r.1. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. where z is the distance from the midpoint. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. r ) l=0 (13) . to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . Problem 3. Also. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. First of all. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). and at r = b with respect to r> . and that the total charge is Q. A grounded. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . so the Green’s function is → G(x.

Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. 0 Rl (r. r . θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. θ )ρ(r . z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . θ )dV.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r.4.. where r = z. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> .. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. and (−1)l for z < 0. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. θ.2. Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface.. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. Also. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r.

which do not satisfy the Laplace equation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). Rl (r.

its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . Using the lumped circuit relations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. In the steady state. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. P = I 2 Re = IVe . but the current density must be constant there. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ .

Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . Jr (r = a− . θ) = Φout (r. (16) Now. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φin (r. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. θ) = Φout (r. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). Applying (17) to these expressions. Inside the sphere. for r > a. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. (17) Outside of the sphere. i. θ) = Φin (r. we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). θ) = Φ(r. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. In particular.e. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. So the current density is continuous everywhere. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). we have σ Using (16). Φ(r. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. θ). θ) = Jr (r = a+ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. which means charge would pile up in that region.

Since the conductivity ratio is positive. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. F a3 r−2 cos θ. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1.

The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). and dz. dy. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. θ. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. Also. 3πaσ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . so I = σEx dydz.

17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. φ. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. At x = x. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. and must thus take one of the above forms. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. . x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. G must be continuous. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. at all points x = x.

. Then. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . i. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. ρ. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. in which dimension (i. we see that. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. even though I never explicitly required this. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. z. at the radius of the source point. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). Then we have G(x.e. Then we can write G as G(x.e. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ ..e. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. where γmk is any function of z and φ. φ)Im (kρ). or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. within each region. In this case. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). This requirement excludes terms of the form . φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). x ) = mk γmk (z. Then G(x. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. and yet it does. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). In other words. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. one on either side of the source point x. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. Clearly. The question is. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term.

Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z).12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. With these restrictions. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . Bm (k. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. so D = 0. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. (28) . 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. over these terms: G(x . What about corrections for L a. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . while Im is singular at inﬁnity. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . Hence we must use terms of the form (26). ρ. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. ρ. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. ρ. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. φ. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. ρ. not a sum.12 are recovered. but not inﬁnite. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. φ. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). because Km is singular at the origin.

z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. in Problem 3. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1.

z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. . for all k. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. one grounded and the other at potential V. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1.12. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. The second integral. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . in which region kz z/L 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. unfortunately. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. The result is that. so the two terms in (33) add directly.

(a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . Third Edition Homer Reid August 6. Classical Electrodynamics. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system.12 with Problem 3.18 as the comparison problem. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. (1) 1 . 0 < z0 < L.

r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. z) =? Φ(r. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. z) = 0 σ(r. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. = 0. z) =? Φ (r. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r.r<a so σ (r. Then ρ(r. z) = 0.19.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. z) = 0.18. z) dA = 0 z=L. =?. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. = V. z) dA = −q z=L. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. Plugging into (1). The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a.

22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . φ = β. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. and ρ = a. · · · . deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. which requires that n = mπ/β. Let’s break the region into two subregions. In both regions. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. Bn = Dn = 0). the solution must vanish at φ = 0. L) = − (c) At a = 0. which excludes the cos terms (i. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . φ. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. (4) becomes σ (0. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. However. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). The solution must also vanish at φ = β. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. As before.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. m = 1. φ).25 may be of use. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. Problem 3.e. 2. as indicated in the sketch. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. ρ .

φ. ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . ρ . ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. at ρ = ρ. ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. Using these expressions for Am . and Cm we can write G(ρ. ρ . mπφ β . The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. φ. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. ρ . Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. φ. Bm .e. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . . mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. φ.e. i. i. φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.

ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. ρ . ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. but I can’t ﬁnd where. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. ρ . ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. φ. κm fm (ρ. At ρ = ρ. φ.

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Also. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. right circular. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. in the region outside the shell 1 . (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. respectively. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. Classical Electrodynamics. neglecting end eﬀects.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i.8 A very long. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. told to neglect end eﬀects. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a).

With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. i. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next.e. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ].Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b).

for n = 1. the system of equations (2). and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. (4).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . . which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. Next. (6). we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. (5). (3). for n = 1. The four equations (1). However. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 .

which is reassuring. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. r ˆ b < r.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. (b) In Figure 4. Also.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . = 5 0 . → 0 . In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. we would have a → 0. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . E(r. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions.

ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. . b → ∞. r ˆ r > a.8 for b = 2a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. = 5 0. 0 E(r.

the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. a<r<d Φ(r. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. in the region r > a. r > d.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. (c) Verify that. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. ·D = 0 there. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). Φ(r. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. θ) = l Now. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). r > d. 4π 0 On the other hand. in the limit / conducting sphere. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). 0 → ∞. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). 4π 0 rl+1 . (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere.

This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. . θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d.

and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. as shown in the ﬁgure. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. a < r < b. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. respectively. and we . 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. 0 < θ < π/2.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. we have Φ(r. carry charges ±Q. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. That region is described by θ = π/2.

l odd l even. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . In (13).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. Bl = Dl . There are actually two components of this charge. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric.13 Two long. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. Similarly. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. coaxial. g is the acceleration due to gravity. To begin. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere.

This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. With this greater charge on the electrodes. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. However. So the .

to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. However. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. So suppose that. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. Turning now to the situation in this problem. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. With no potential between the cylinder plates. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). i. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . . The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh.e. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. As we showed earlier. ln(b/a) On the other hand. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid.

the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . . since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. Actually we should note one detail here. namely.

/* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4. } .c" #define EZ 1.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.h> #include <math.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.8. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 . of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). */ double Er(double r.0 /* no.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) . else Coeff=1.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.((B*B . double phi) { double Coeff.phi).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.8. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .

A*sin(phi)). ."e\n"). fprintf(g.y. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. g=GnuPlot("Field lines").r."plot ’-’ t ’’.-2. else Coeff=1.A*cos(phi).x.0*B). else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).2. phi<=2*M_PI. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi). double phi) { double Coeff."set output ’fig4."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". fprintf(g. */ fprintf(g.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.dy."set noytics\n")."set multiplot \n")."set yrange [%g:%g]\n".PhiComp. fprintf(g. fprintf(g.2.phi.0*B. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.0*B). for(phi=0.eps’\n"). /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b.j.dx.1. fprintf(g."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").0 + ((B*B ."set size square\n"). */ double Ephi(double r."%g %g\n".Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). fprintf(g. fprintf(g. FILE *g. fprintf(g.0*B. */ fprintf(g. ’-’ t ’’ with lines.-2.phi). double RComp. } void main() { double i."set noxtics\n"). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).

for(phi=0. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.0*B.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).0*B * ((NUMLINES . /* * Draw field lines. j+=1."e\n"). fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. j<NUMPOINTS. i<=NUMLINES.2.0*i)/NUMLINES).phi). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. if (x==0. fprintf(g. PhiComp=Ephi(r. else phi=atan(y/x).0) ? M_PI/2.0) phi=(y>0. phi<=2*M_PI. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount.sin(phi)*PhiComp.phi). i+=1. . */ x=-2.B*cos(phi). y=2. dx=cos(phi)*RComp .x.0.B*sin(phi)). /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.0."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").0 : -M_PI/2. */ for (j=0."%g %g\n".y).0. */ for (i=1."%g %g\n". fprintf(g."e\n"). /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.

\n")."e\n"). }. } .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. fprintf(g. printf("Thank you for your support.

2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . This is the same convention as in Section 1.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x .6 for the electric dipole layer. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. that is. Classical Electrodynamics. The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . and negative otherwise. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.

Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. we take the observation point x on the x axis. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. z). and since the 1 . Classical Electrodynamics. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. using the expressions of parts a and b. Since there is no current in the z direction. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. φ = 0. so its coordinates are (ρ.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations.33) into cylindrical coordinates. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5.

Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . but with the expression from Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric.148). we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. otherwise it vanishes.148). there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. so ρ< = ρ.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. ρ> = a. the φ integral yields 2π. 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through.

R. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations.150). (2) . φ0 . 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). and I1 (ρ) → 1/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. φ0 . but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. Compare your result with the approximate result (5.69). In the “lab” frame. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 .11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . I1 (ρ) → 0. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. Comment. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. Plugging it in to the above. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane.

which takes us to R . the opposite is true for B. I think the former approach is easier. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R .11. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . The components of J are easy to express in R . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. but more complicated in R. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. Evidently. cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y .

Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . y = a sin φ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )).e. In the surviving terms. and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . If the loop radius is a. i. . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R .

I . so y = y . because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). φ = 0) in . where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. have an angle α between their planes.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. current I) lies in the xy plane. respectively (b < a). We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. As in the last problem. But r · Jb vanishes. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. b and currents I. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. Problem 5.

) . r> = a and we have Br (r = b. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . θ = π/2. we ﬁrst note that.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.48): Br (r . since the origins of R and R coincide. then r< = b. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. but we don’t need to. φ in R. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. Next. φ0 = 0. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. and for all such points r = b. with θ0 = α. Jackson’s equation (5. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. θ = π/2. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. so Br = Br . Of course. if a point has angular coordinates θ. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. (11) To transform this to frame R. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). the polar angle in frame R .

the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. evaluated at points on the smaller loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). Of course. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. This looks ugly. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.

hollow. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . So. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. i. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. Problem 5. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. so things are not so simple. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. Can anybody help? Problem 5. and of relative permeability µr . but I can’t ﬁnd where. within the cylinder and in its inner region. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. These imply that. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. × H = Jfree = 0. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem.5. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system.14 A long.1. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. Neglect end eﬀects. In the external region.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). . in the external region. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. 0. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . there is free current.

where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. ∂φ n=1 . With the above expressions for the components of H. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. φ) = Actually.

For n = 1. multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . Similarly. For n = 1. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . Equating (20) with (22). µ0 On the other hand.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . n=1 (18) n = 1. .

− (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure . The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 . a < r < b r r > b.5 log10 r -2 -2. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ . The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0.5 -4 -4. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.1 -1 -1. ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ .5 -3 -3.5 (a/b) = 0.5 (a/b) = 0.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .

(a) In the approximation of b a. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). since J2 vanishes for r < b. unity. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. r > a. show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ).

(c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. As r → 0. Problem 5. . Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . so that the boundary surface is z = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). a. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ).18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ.

(30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) .87). and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. On the other hand.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). z>d z < d. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. z < d. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. A = Aφ φ. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). so × H = 0 everywhere. there is no free current. H = − Φm .

it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d. we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary.

Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. both inside and outside. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ).19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . 0 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. both inside and outside. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. z) satisfying the Laplace equation. There is no free current in this problem. Classical Electrodynamics. so H(ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder.

integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. ρ<a ρ > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. k . 0. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka).

2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. Second. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. we can use the following little trick. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. (a) Show that. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. two things happen. + L2 2a . 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. a . The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. Since there are no free currents in the problem.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. but now there is just free space. Instead. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. First. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium.

Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. and using the identity (2). 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. µ0 . we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). 0. (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. ρ<a ρ > a. integrating from 0 to ∞.

z>L 0 Hz (ρ. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). we must have D → 0. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). . z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. and may thus be taken out of the integral. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. we see that. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). (0 < z < L). 0 < z < L. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka).

we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). and exchanging the order of integration. k 0 Then () becomes .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into ().

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