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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

One image charge. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). so that term wins. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. conducting sphere of radius R. isolated. The second image charge. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. and the overall force is attractive. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. As d → ∞. The charged. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes.

F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. The root is d/R=1. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image.43. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. . makes no contribution in this limit. The second image charge. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). The root of this one is d/R=1. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. So we have F →− q2 .88.6178. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1.

(b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential.11. Eq. Eq. and the energy discussion of Section 1. The potential energy between the point charge and . (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward.3). (2. Eq.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force.6).11.9). note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. (2. and the energy discussion of Section 1. (2. 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . of an isolated charged conducting sphere. (2.8). Eq.

and its charge increases. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. This would seem to violate energy conservation. I think the problem is with equation (8).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. at which point we would be back where we started. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . which we could store in a battery or something. liberating a quantity of energy (8). (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere.

−ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . It’s useful to review this technique. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. we might write it as ψx0 (x). we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. More speciﬁcally. ∂φ ∂n dA . The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . However. boundary. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. x − ψx0 (x ) . Usually we do know ρ within the volume. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary.

Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). x (13) Again. we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA .

and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. and a distance R away from.4 in units of τ /2πb. Classical Electrodynamics. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2.3 for the potential of a line charge.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . (d) the force on the charge. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis).e. (c) the induced surface-charge density. i. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. on the x axis. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s).

the φ term must drop out.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . we have Φ= For large ρ. which requires R = γR. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. φ). Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . (b) At a point (ρ. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ.

y = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. substitute them into the series. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.12 Starting with the series solution (2. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . Problem 2. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 .71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b.

φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b.71). φ) cos(nφ)dφ. 0 Plugging back into (1). we know the bn are all zero. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. sin n φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). (5) Φ(b. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. . φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . we ﬁnd Φ(ρ.

the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b.13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . This problem is just like the previous one. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. With these coeﬃcients. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . (6) n odd . (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ.

(7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . n odd (Evidently.) With this. b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). .

Second. g(y. has an expansion ∞ G(x. So G(x. see the Green’s functions review above. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. x . 0) = gn (y. y. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . x . (b) Taking for gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). x . sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. First. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. y. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. (8) With the suggested expansion. x . y. y ) vanishes for points (x . y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. 1) = 0. y. y ) on the boundary.

y < y. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. y > y. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). First let’s consider the boundary conditions. (12) . where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients.e. Actually. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y.

y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. y > y. we have gn (y.4 yprime 0.15 with n=5. In other words.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. and vanish otherwise.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 .41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . which we have already done. y=. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy).6 0. y ) = δ(y − y ). y ) from Problem 2.41. y = . (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y.2 0. y < y. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ).

y. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). We’re also given that . Using the Green function of Problem 2. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. x .16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). Referring to my Green’s functions review above.15. and G vanishes there by construction. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . (17) The integrals can be done separately. . The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. n odd 0 .

x . y. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . u = (z − z ).) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . x . ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x.15. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )].68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. φ. (As in Problem 2. ρ . +Z −Z Integrating. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . where Z is taken to be very large. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. y. Show that apart from an inessential constant.

φ. ρ . ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . . the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. Since Z is much bigger than a. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. φ. leaving 2 G(ρ. φ. φ. φ). ρ . φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. ρ . ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 .

. Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . For m ≥ 1. ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ <ρ . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ > ρ. . and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . 2m = 1 ρ . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm .15. ρ <ρ . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0.

1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. See (1. ρ = b) = 0. Problem 2.17. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. ρ <ρ .17.12. no mistake is made in its use. This requires that B1m = 0 . For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )].18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2.40)]. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. ρ > ρ.] (a) As before.

. ρ< ρ> m − . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. Finally. (22) . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. Next.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . φ. ρ . . 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ.

12. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ].17 (c). ρ . he did include it in his answer to problem 2. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . φ) = Φ(b. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. the volume integral vanishes.com). φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. .integrals. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. although I cheated and looked it up on www. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ.

the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m .12. . In the surface integral. This is the same gm we came up with before. From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ .

Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . 2l + 1 1 . Include terms at least up to l = 4. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Classical Electrodynamics. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions.1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15.

2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . as treated in section 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .27) with half the potential spacing. and is just the above result inverted for l odd.3 of the text. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. When a → 0. . θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. In that limit. the above expression becomes Φ(r. with the sign of V ﬂipped. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2.36) in the text. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r.7 of the text.

(a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. deﬁned by the cone θ = α.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. for l = 0. so the Bl in (1) are zero.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . 3. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . (10) im . (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ.3. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n .) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . (8) For the solution within the sphere.36) of Section 3.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. Problem 3. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. θ. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. alternately. θ. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. φ) Ylm (θ. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. φ). and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero.

et cetera. · · · = im 0. m = ±1 or ±3. otherwise. and l = 3. In that case. so all n terms add constructively. with n = 2. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. · · · = 0. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . otherwise. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. m = ±1. 3/2. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. 5n/2. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . and (10) equates to 2n . Then. · · · . 3n/2. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. 2 2 (b) As shown above. m = n/2. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. m = 3n/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). . Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. m= n 3n . 5/2. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1.

θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. Φ(r. 4π 0 r2 .6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. (a) First of all. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. respectively. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. which I have skipped here. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. (b) Φ(r. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. θ. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell.

A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). Q r5 Φ(r. Show that in the limit a → 0. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. To calculate Φs . with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. in which case we have the general expansion (1). we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. by the orthogonality of the Pl . θ. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. −2q. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis.7 Three point charges (q.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. 1− Φ(r. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). and that p . as indicated in the ﬁgure. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· .

we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. z). and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). Problem 3. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. The potential on the end faces is zero. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0).

Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. which means we have to take k imaginary. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14).e. 3. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). n = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. πn . In this case. (b) Assuming L >> b. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. so that V (φ. which requires F = 0. φ. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. i. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. V (φ. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . (14) Problem 3. 2. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder.13.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. dρ Plugging this into (3). dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. (5) . (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) .

ﬂat. a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm .12 An inﬁnite. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. . plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. Using this in (5). thin. ﬁlling the hole. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. Problem 3. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. A thin.

z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. Also. In this problem there is no φ dependence. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. ∞ a Φ(ρ. so Q = 1. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. Plugging this back into (6). we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. To do it. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. (8) . we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. I integrated by parts.

x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . φ) Rl (r. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. φ ) Ylm (θ.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. For Dirichlet boundary value problems. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. x ) ∂n dA . so only the surface integral contributes. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation.1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3.

= (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. and we have G(x. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. r ). x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. (l − 2)!! 1 . r ). x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r.

Also. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. and that the total charge is Q. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r.1. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). A grounded. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. and at r = b with respect to r> . conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . Problem 3. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. r ) l=0 (13) . at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. First of all. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . where z is the distance from the midpoint. so the Green’s function is → G(x.

.. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . r . so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. 0 Rl (r.2. and (−1)l for z < 0. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . θ. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. where r = z. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. θ )ρ(r . In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. Also.4.. Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. θ )dV. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r.

Rl (r. which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14).

ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . P = I 2 Re = IVe .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. Using the lumped circuit relations. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . In the steady state. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . but the current density must be constant there. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere.

θ) = Jr (r = a+ . θ) = Φin (r. θ) = Φout (r. (17) Outside of the sphere. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. Inside the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. In particular. (16) Now. which means charge would pile up in that region. we have σ Using (16). which would mean we aren’t in steady state.e. Φ(r. Jr (r = a− . for r > a. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. So the current density is continuous everywhere. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . θ). θ) = Φout (r. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. θ) = Φ(r. Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. i. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φin (r. Applying (17) to these expressions. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density.

r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. F a3 r−2 cos θ.

we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. θ. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. 3πaσ . so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. dy. Also. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . and dz. so I = σEx dydz. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx.

sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. φ. and must thus take one of the above forms. but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. at all points x = x. . (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). At x = x.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)].Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. G must be continuous.

where γmk is any function of z and φ. within each region. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz).e. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. Then.e. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). Then we can write G as G(x. we see that. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. at the radius of the source point. In this case. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. Then G(x. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. even though I never explicitly required this. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x.. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. Clearly. Then we have G(x. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere.. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). and yet it does. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). In other words. z. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . x ) = mk γmk (z. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). ρ. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z.e. This requirement excludes terms of the form . i. φ)Im (kρ). and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. in which dimension (i. one on either side of the source point x. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. The question is. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ).

z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. so D = 0. but not inﬁnite. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). ρ. Bm (k. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. not a sum. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). (28) . To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . ρ. ρ. ρ. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . over these terms: G(x . a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. because Km is singular at the origin.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. With these restrictions. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B.12 are recovered. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. What about corrections for L a. φ. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . φ) as ∞ Φ(z. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . φ.

0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). in Problem 3. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1.

has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . in which region kz z/L 1. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert.12. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. so the two terms in (33) add directly. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. for all k. The result is that. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . . The second integral. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. one grounded and the other at potential V. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. unfortunately. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0.

18 as the comparison problem.12 with Problem 3. 0 < z0 < L.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. Classical Electrodynamics. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . (1) 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 .

z) dA = 0 z=L. z) =? Φ(r. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . Plugging into (1).r<a so σ (r.19. z) = 0. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. Then ρ(r. = 0. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. =?. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. = V. z) = 0 σ(r. z) =? Φ (r. z) dA = −q z=L.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. z) = 0.18. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r.

Suppose the observation point is (ρ. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. φ. ρ . Bn = Dn = 0). the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). which requires that n = mπ/β.25 may be of use. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. φ). · · · .22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. As before. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . and ρ = a. In both regions. as indicated in the sketch. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. Problem 3. m = 1. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. 2. L) = − (c) At a = 0. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. Let’s break the region into two subregions. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . (4) becomes σ (0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ].e. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. which excludes the cos terms (i. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. However. φ = β.

This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . ρ . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. . i. φ. φ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . φ. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β .e. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. mπφ β . Using these expressions for Am .e. i. Bm . ρ . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. φ. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. ρ . at ρ = ρ. ρ .

the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ . At ρ = ρ. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . φ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. κm fm (ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). . but I can’t ﬁnd where. φ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ . the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ.

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(b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. Classical Electrodynamics. right circular. in the region outside the shell 1 . (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. respectively. Also. neglecting end eﬀects. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric.8 A very long. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. told to neglect end eﬀects. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a).

−E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ].e. i. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. . which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. Next. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . (3). the system of equations (2). we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. for n = 1. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. (6). However. for n = 1. The four equations (1). (5). (4). and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations.

as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ. r ˆ b < r. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . Also. E(r.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. which is reassuring. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. we would have a → 0. (b) In Figure 4. → 0 . = 5 0 . The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ.

= 5 0. ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ].8 for b = 2a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. b → ∞. 0 E(r. . r ˆ r > a.

the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. Φ(r. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. θ) = l Now. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). r > d. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. 0 → ∞. a<r<d Φ(r. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. ·D = 0 there. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. 4π 0 rl+1 . Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. r > d. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. (c) Verify that. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. in the limit / conducting sphere. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. in the region r > a. 4π 0 On the other hand.

as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). and Bl → − qa2l+1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. . the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r.

0<θ< 2 Φ(r. and we . (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. That region is described by θ = π/2. 0 < θ < π/2. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. carry charges ±Q. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. a < r < b. we have Φ(r. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. respectively.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). as shown in the ﬁgure.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4.13 Two long. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. Bl = Dl . First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . Similarly. To begin. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. In (13). (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. g is the acceleration due to gravity. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. coaxial. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. l odd l even. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. There are actually two components of this charge. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric.

the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. So the . to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. However. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. With this greater charge on the electrodes. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V .

The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. With no potential between the cylinder plates. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. i. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. So suppose that. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ).e. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). . However. Turning now to the situation in this problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . ln(b/a) On the other hand. As we showed earlier. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh.

we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . namely. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. Actually we should note one detail here. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. . When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 .

/* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.((B*B .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.0 .0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.h> #include <math.8. */ double Er(double r. double phi) { double Coeff. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).c" #define EZ 1.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). else Coeff=1.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot. } .0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.8.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0 /* no.phi).0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .

’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. fprintf(g. g=GnuPlot("Field lines"). double RComp.phi. fprintf(g. fprintf(g."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". fprintf(g.0*B)."e\n").A*sin(phi)).eps’\n"). return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi). fprintf(g.phi)."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").2. . if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4."set noytics\n").1.0 + ((B*B . for(phi=0.0*B."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". } void main() { double i.0*B. ’-’ t ’’ with lines.r."set noxtics\n").dy. fprintf(g.A*cos(phi). /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.2. FILE *g.-2. fprintf(g. */ fprintf(g."set size square\n").Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r."set multiplot \n"). phi<=2*M_PI. else Coeff=1."set output ’fig4."plot ’-’ t ’’.y. /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b.dx.0*B). */ double Ephi(double r. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).-2. */ fprintf(g.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.j. fprintf(g. double phi) { double Coeff.PhiComp."%g %g\n".A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).x.

B*sin(phi))."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").0. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount.0*B. dx=cos(phi)*RComp .y). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp. fprintf(g.sin(phi)*PhiComp.0*B * ((NUMLINES . */ x=-2. j<NUMPOINTS. fprintf(g.0) ? M_PI/2."%g %g\n".0.2. */ for (j=0. phi<=2*M_PI.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.B*cos(phi). /* * Draw field lines. /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. else phi=atan(y/x). y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx). j+=1."e\n"). /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. y=2. fprintf(g. i<=NUMLINES.0*i)/NUMLINES).x. for(phi=0. .phi)."%g %g\n".0) phi=(y>0. */ for (i=1.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot."e\n"). if (x==0.0.0 : -M_PI/2. i+=1. PhiComp=Ephi(r.phi).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. printf("Thank you for your support."e\n").\n"). }. } . fprintf(g.

The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . This is the same convention as in Section 1.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. and negative otherwise.6 for the electric dipole layer.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . Classical Electrodynamics. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. that is. if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P .

Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. and since the 1 . (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin.33) into cylindrical coordinates. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. Classical Electrodynamics. so its coordinates are (ρ.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Since there is no current in the z direction. we take the observation point x on the x axis. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. using the expressions of parts a and b. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. z). (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). φ = 0. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5.

16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. so ρ< = ρ. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. the φ integral yields 2π. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π .148). Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. otherwise it vanishes. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric.148). but with the expression from Problem 3. ρ> = a. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.

and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. φ0 . but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. (2) . Compare your result with the approximate result (5. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. R. Plugging it in to the above. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). In the “lab” frame. φ0 . We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. Comment.150). I1 (ρ) → 0. 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5.69).

as depicted in ﬁgure (??). Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . I think the former approach is easier. Evidently. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. which takes us to R . cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y .11.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. but more complicated in R. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. the opposite is true for B. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . The components of J are easy to express in R .

Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . i. since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). y = a sin φ . . and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ .e. In the surviving terms. j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . If the loop radius is a.

it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. As in the last problem. I . have an angle α between their planes. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. But r · Jb vanishes. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. respectively (b < a). current I) lies in the xy plane. so y = y . Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). Problem 5. φ = 0) in .12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. b and currents I.

Jackson’s equation (5. so Br = Br . we ﬁrst note that. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. θ = π/2. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. since the origins of R and R coincide. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. Of course.48): Br (r . with θ0 = α.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). (11) To transform this to frame R.) . r> = a and we have Br (r = b. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . the polar angle in frame R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. and for all such points r = b. if a point has angular coordinates θ. θ = π/2. φ0 = 0. but we don’t need to. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. Next. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. then r< = b. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . φ in R.

in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. Of course. This looks ugly. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. evaluated at points on the smaller loop.

13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. Problem 5. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . . 0. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. × H = Jfree = 0. These imply that. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. there is free current.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). but I can’t ﬁnd where. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. So. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space.14 A long. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0.1. Can anybody help? Problem 5. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. hollow. Neglect end eﬀects. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. In the external region. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. so things are not so simple. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. and of relative permeability µr . in the external region. i. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system.5. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. within the cylinder and in its inner region.

With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. With the above expressions for the components of H. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂φ n=1 . ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. φ) = Actually. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b.

For n = 1. − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . n=1 (18) n = 1. at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . µ0 On the other hand. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . Similarly. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . Equating (20) with (22). For n = 1. the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0.

a < r < b r r > b.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 -4 -4.5 log10 r -2 -2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0.5 -3 -3. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a . (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ . ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .5 (a/b) = 0.1 -1 -1.5 (a/b) = 0. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .

show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). r < a B1θ = On the other hand. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. r > a. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. since J2 vanishes for r < b. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. unity. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). (a) In the approximation of b a. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. r > a.

(c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. As r → 0. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. so that the boundary surface is z = 0. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). Problem 5. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. . whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. a. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually.

dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. z < d.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). On the other hand. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H = − Φm . H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). z>d z < d. so × H = 0 everywhere. 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). there is no free current. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). A = Aφ φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0.87).

z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d. we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation.

both inside and outside. There is no free current in this problem. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. z) satisfying the Laplace equation. so H(ρ. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). Classical Electrodynamics. both inside and outside. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 1 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 .

The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). ρ<a ρ > a. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). 0. integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. k .

Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 . 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ).

23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . + L2 2a . So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. Instead. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. but now there is just free space. two things happen.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. Since there are no free currents in the problem. First. (a) Show that. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. we can use the following little trick. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. Second. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. a .

integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). 0. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . µ0 . integrating from 0 to ∞. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. and using the identity (2). ρ<a ρ > a. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ).

0 < z < L. ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. . and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. and may thus be taken out of the integral. z>L 0 Hz (ρ. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. (0 < z < L). Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). we must have D → 0. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. we see that. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka).

k 0 Then () becomes . we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). and exchanging the order of integration.

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