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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . One image charge. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. so that term wins. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. conducting sphere of radius R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. The charged. isolated. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). As d → ∞. and the overall force is attractive. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. The second image charge. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): .

. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. The root is d/R=1. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0.43.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically.6178. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. So we have F →− q2 . then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . The root of this one is d/R=1. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image.88. makes no contribution in this limit. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. The second image charge. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2.

− 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential.6).11. and the energy discussion of Section 1. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a .9). (2. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. (2. and the energy discussion of Section 1. The potential energy between the point charge and . (2. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. (2. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . Eq. Eq. Eq. Eq.3).8). 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force.11.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2.

It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. liberating a quantity of energy (8). The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . which we could store in a battery or something. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. at which point we would be back where we started. This would seem to violate energy conservation. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). and its charge increases. I think the problem is with equation (8).

suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. we might write it as ψx0 (x).) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. x − ψx0 (x ) . However. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . More speciﬁcally. boundary. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. ∂φ ∂n dA . It’s useful to review this technique. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface.

we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . . Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). x (13) Again.

e. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. on the x axis. (c) the induced surface-charge density. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ .11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. i.3 for the potential of a line charge. Classical Electrodynamics. (d) the force on the charge.4 in units of τ /2πb. and a distance R away from. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis).

we have Φ= For large ρ. φ). We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . which requires R = γR. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. the φ term must drop out. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. (b) At a point (ρ. this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface.

we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. substitute them into the series. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. Problem 2. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? .12 Starting with the series solution (2. y = 0. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b.

φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . 0 Plugging back into (1).71). φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. (5) Φ(b. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. . For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). sin n φ. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. we know the bn are all zero. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. This problem is just like the previous one. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) .13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. With these coeﬃcients. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. (6) n odd .

b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 .) With this. . (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). n odd (Evidently.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.

(8) With the suggested expansion. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. see the Green’s functions review above. x . So G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. First. 1) = 0. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. y ) on the boundary. y.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. x . 0) = gn (y. (b) Taking for gn (y. Second. has an expansion ∞ G(x. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. g(y. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. y. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. x . x . y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. y ) vanishes for points (x . y.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y.

Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. y < y. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). Actually. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i.e. y > y. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . First let’s consider the boundary conditions. y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). (12) .

but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . y=. and vanish otherwise.15 with n=5. we have gn (y.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. In other words. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous.4 yprime 0. y < y. y = .41.2 0. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. which we have already done. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. y ) = δ(y − y ). y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). y > y. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy).6 0.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . y ) from Problem 2.

nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. Using the Green function of Problem 2. y. Referring to my Green’s functions review above. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . x . y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . and G vanishes there by construction. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13).16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.15. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . We’re also given that .

The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . n odd 0 . (17) The integrals can be done separately. (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . . but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof.

the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. +Z −Z Integrating. x . ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. φ. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . u = (z − z ). ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . y. ρ . where Z is taken to be very large. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ .15. y. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. x . y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. Show that apart from an inessential constant.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . (As in Problem 2.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x.

ρ . φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. ρ . φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. φ. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. φ. . ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. ρ . the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. φ). leaving 2 G(ρ. φ. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ . ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. Since Z is much bigger than a. φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 .

2m = 1 ρ . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0.15. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. . For m ≥ 1. ρ > ρ. ρ <ρ . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . ρ <ρ . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .

See (1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞).] (a) As before. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. Problem 2. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ.12. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 .17.17. ρ = b) = 0. ρ <ρ . ρ > ρ. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. no mistake is made in its use. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞.40)].18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. This requires that B1m = 0 .

φ. ρ . . Next. Finally. ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . ρ< ρ> m − . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . (22) . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. . Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ.

φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ.com). The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition.17 (c). φ.12. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder.integrals. the volume integral vanishes. φ) = Φ(b. although I cheated and looked it up on www.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. ρ . φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. . For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. If there is no charge inside the cylinder.

Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. This is the same gm we came up with before. The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . .12. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . In the surface integral.

θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). Third Edition Homer Reid June 15.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Include terms at least up to l = 4. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) .1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. 2l + 1 1 . θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. Classical Electrodynamics. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r.3 of the text. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . When a → 0. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . the above expression becomes Φ(r. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. In that limit. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. with the sign of V ﬂipped.36) in the text.27) with half the potential spacing. . 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. as treated in section 3.7 of the text. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere.

(c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. so the Bl in (1) are zero. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). 3. for l = 0. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. deﬁned by the cone θ = α.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . Pl−1 (cos α) = −1.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

36) of Section 3. Problem 3. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. θ. φ). ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. alternately. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. (8) For the solution within the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. (10) im .3. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. φ) Ylm (θ. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . θ. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V .

5n/2. m = n/2. et cetera. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . In that case. 2 2 (b) As shown above. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. and (10) equates to 2n . 3n/2. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. m = ±1. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. m = ±1 or ±3. m= n 3n . otherwise.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. otherwise. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. · · · = 0. . We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. · · · . 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. 5/2. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . so all n terms add constructively. with n = 2. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. 3/2. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. Then. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. and l = 3. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . · · · = im 0. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. m = 3n/2. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes.

6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. Φ(r. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. respectively. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. 4π 0 r2 . which I have skipped here. θ. (a) First of all. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. (b) Φ(r. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a.

2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). Show that in the limit a → 0.7 Three point charges (q. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. in which case we have the general expansion (1). θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. −2q. 1− Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. and that p . but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . by the orthogonality of the Pl . Q r5 Φ(r. θ. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. To calculate Φs . as indicated in the ﬁgure. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere.

the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). z). Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. Problem 3. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. The potential on the end faces is zero. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q .

Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ.13. πn .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . so that V (φ. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). 3. i. φ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. n = 1. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. (b) Assuming L >> b. which requires F = 0. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ).e. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. V (φ. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. In this case. which means we have to take k imaginary. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. 2. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . (14) Problem 3.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

(2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . dρ Plugging this into (3). dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. (5) .

Problem 3. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . Using this in (5). and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. A thin. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. ﬂat. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it.12 An inﬁnite. thin. . whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. ﬁlling the hole.

Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. so Q = 1. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. Also. To do it. (8) . z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. In this problem there is no φ dependence. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. I integrated by parts. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. Plugging this back into (6). 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. ∞ a Φ(ρ. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x).

x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x.1. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . φ ) Ylm (θ. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. For Dirichlet boundary value problems. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. so only the surface integral contributes. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. x ) ∂n dA . using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. φ) Rl (r. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 .

θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . and we have G(x. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. r ). x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. r ). θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. (l − 2)!! 1 .

to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). and at r = b with respect to r> . so the Green’s function is → G(x. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. Also. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. and that the total charge is Q. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. First of all. A grounded. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. r ) l=0 (13) . conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. where z is the distance from the midpoint.1.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. Problem 3.

. and (−1)l for z < 0. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r .2.4. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. θ. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0.. r . and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. θ )dV. θ )ρ(r . Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. where r = z. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. Also. 0 Rl (r.. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r.

we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). which do not satisfy the Laplace equation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . Rl (r.

Using the lumped circuit relations. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. In the steady state. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . as well as Ve + Vi = Vt .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. but the current density must be constant there. P = I 2 Re = IVe . (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere.

∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). θ) = Jr (r = a+ . Inside the sphere. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). θ).e.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. Jr (r = a− . In particular. θ) = Φin (r. θ) = Φout (r. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φ(r. Φ(r. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. So the current density is continuous everywhere. i. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. for r > a. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. which means charge would pile up in that region. we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. we have σ Using (16). Applying (17) to these expressions. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. θ) = Φin (r. Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . θ) = Φout (r. (16) Now. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). (17) Outside of the sphere.

and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. F a3 r−2 cos θ. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1.

Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. θ. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . dy. 3πaσ . Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. and dz. Also. so I = σEx dydz. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r.

x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. at all points x = x. . but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . At x = x. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. φ. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . G must be continuous. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). and must thus take one of the above forms. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates.

and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. we see that.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. i. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. This requirement excludes terms of the form . and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. x ) = mk γmk (z. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. Then G(x. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. where γmk is any function of z and φ. In this case.e. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. and yet it does. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). Then we have G(x. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). in which dimension (i. one on either side of the source point x. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). ρ. The question is. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term.e. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. Clearly. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ.. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . z. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere.e. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). at the radius of the source point. even though I never explicitly required this. Then. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. within each region. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27).. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. In other words. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. φ)Im (kρ). and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. Then we can write G as G(x. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L.

ρ. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. Bm (k. ρ. but not inﬁnite. over these terms: G(x . L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. ρ.12 are recovered. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). What about corrections for L a. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. With these restrictions. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. (28) . For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. φ. not a sum.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. so D = 0. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. because Km is singular at the origin. φ. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ .

z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. in Problem 3. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier.

By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . so the two terms in (33) add directly. The second integral. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3.12. in which region kz z/L 1. unfortunately. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . one grounded and the other at potential V. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. for all k. The result is that. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. .

(a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA.12 with Problem 3. 0 < z0 < L. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. Classical Electrodynamics. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.18 as the comparison problem. (1) 1 .

=?. Plugging into (1). (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. z) = 0. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. = 0. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. z) =? Φ(r. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. Then ρ(r. z) = 0.r<a so σ (r.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. z) = 0 σ(r. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. = V.19. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. z) dA = −q z=L. z) dA = 0 z=L. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L.18. z) =? Φ (r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point).25 may be of use. 2. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. ρ . (4) becomes σ (0. m = 1. As before. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . which requires that n = mπ/β. φ. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. Let’s break the region into two subregions. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . φ = β. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. L) = − (c) At a = 0. Problem 3. · · · . sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. φ). the solution must vanish at φ = 0. In both regions. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: .22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. Suppose the observation point is (ρ.e. as indicated in the sketch. and ρ = a. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. Bn = Dn = 0). ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. However. which excludes the cos terms (i.

e. φ.e. . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. ρ . mπφ β . i. φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. ρ . φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. φ. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. Bm . The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . at ρ = ρ. φ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. ρ . mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. ρ . Using these expressions for Am . i. φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.

ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. ρ . we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. but I can’t ﬁnd where. . κm fm (ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. At ρ = ρ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. φ. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. φ. ρ . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ).

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The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. respectively. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. Also. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. right circular. neglecting end eﬀects. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). Classical Electrodynamics. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. in the region outside the shell 1 .8 A very long. told to neglect end eﬀects. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. i.e. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1.

(6). we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . for n = 1. However. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . (3). and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. (4). for n = 1. which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. The four equations (1). (5). Next. the system of equations (2). so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . .

2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. Also. r ˆ b < r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. which is reassuring. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. we would have a → 0. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. = 5 0 . (b) In Figure 4. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. E(r. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . → 0 .

0 E(r.8 for b = 2a. r ˆ r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. b → ∞. . in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. = 5 0.

while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). in the limit / conducting sphere. r > d. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. a<r<d Φ(r. θ) = l Now. in the region r > a. ·D = 0 there. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. (c) Verify that. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. 0 → ∞. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). Φ(r. r > d. 4π 0 On the other hand. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). 4π 0 rl+1 .

as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). . θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular.

0<θ< 2 Φ(r. 0 < θ < π/2. That region is described by θ = π/2. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). respectively. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. as shown in the ﬁgure. a < r < b. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. and we . we have Φ(r. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. carry charges ±Q. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin.

13 Two long. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. coaxial. There are actually two components of this charge. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. In (13). Similarly. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. To begin. Bl = Dl . g is the acceleration due to gravity. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. l odd l even. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them.

the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. So the . For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. With this greater charge on the electrodes. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. However. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence.

πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ).e. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). However. i. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. With no potential between the cylinder plates. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. As we showed earlier. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. . The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. ln(b/a) On the other hand. Turning now to the situation in this problem. So suppose that.

namely. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. Actually we should note one detail here. . χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders.

/* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1. } .h> #include <math.c" #define EZ 1. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio. */ double Er(double r. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) . return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. else Coeff=1.0 /* no.phi).0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.8.0 .A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.((B*B .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) . double phi) { double Coeff.8.

fprintf(g. fprintf(g. */ fprintf(g."set noytics\n").phi. fprintf(g. fprintf(g.0*B)."set noxtics\n").y.phi).-2. /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b."%g %g\n".0*B. fprintf(g. fprintf(g. double RComp.2.r. else Coeff=1.A*sin(phi))."set multiplot \n")."e\n").x. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n")."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").1."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". FILE *g."set output ’fig4.0*B). double phi) { double Coeff.dx.2.0 + ((B*B .0*B. */ fprintf(g. phi<=2*M_PI. fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. . return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).dy. for(phi=0. fprintf(g.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM))."set size square\n").PhiComp.eps’\n")."plot ’-’ t ’’.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).-2. } void main() { double i. */ double Ephi(double r. g=GnuPlot("Field lines"). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.A*cos(phi). ’-’ t ’’ with lines.j."set yrange [%g:%g]\n".

y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx). i<=NUMLINES.0.0*B * ((NUMLINES .0.0) ? M_PI/2. fprintf(g.phi). for(phi=0.sin(phi)*PhiComp."%g %g\n".B*sin(phi)). and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.B*cos(phi). /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.phi). /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. y=2.x.2.y).0) phi=(y>0. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. dx=cos(phi)*RComp . /* * Draw field lines. else phi=atan(y/x). j+=1. fprintf(g."e\n")."%g %g\n".0*i)/NUMLINES). */ x=-2.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y). i+=1. */ for (i=1. phi<=2*M_PI."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). */ for (j=0.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot. j<NUMPOINTS. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount. if (x==0.0 : -M_PI/2. . fprintf(g."e\n"). PhiComp=Ephi(r.0*B.0. dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.

\n"). printf("Thank you for your support.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. }."e\n"). fprintf(g. } .

1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . Classical Electrodynamics.6 for the electric dipole layer. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. This is the same convention as in Section 1. 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. that is.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. and negative otherwise.

Since there is no current in the z direction.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. and since the 1 .33) into cylindrical coordinates. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. Classical Electrodynamics. φ = 0. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. using the expressions of parts a and b. we take the observation point x on the x axis. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). z). (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. so its coordinates are (ρ. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.

(c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. the φ integral yields 2π. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. so ρ< = ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. ρ> = a. 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through.148). but with the expression from Problem 3. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3.148). otherwise it vanishes.

but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. φ0 . Comment. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). so the ﬁrst term vanishes. (2) . I1 (ρ) → 0.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop.69). Plugging it in to the above. R. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. φ0 . (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order.150). 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. In the “lab” frame.

I think the former approach is easier. but more complicated in R. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices.11. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. which takes us to R . the opposite is true for B.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . The components of J are easy to express in R . cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . Evidently. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two .

since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). In the surviving terms. . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. y = a sin φ . i. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y .e. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . If the loop radius is a. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ .

have an angle α between their planes. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. respectively (b < a). b and currents I. I . But r · Jb vanishes. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. so y = y . it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. As in the last problem. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. φ = 0) in . Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. Problem 5. current I) lies in the xy plane.

the polar angle in frame R .48): Br (r . (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. (11) To transform this to frame R. Of course. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . since the origins of R and R coincide. Jackson’s equation (5. with θ0 = α. but we don’t need to. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). if a point has angular coordinates θ. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. θ = π/2. then r< = b. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. so Br = Br . 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. φ in R. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). θ = π/2. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R.) . φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8).11 to write down z in terms of x and z. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . r> = a and we have Br (r = b. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. φ0 = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. we ﬁrst note that. and for all such points r = b. Next.

integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . This looks ugly. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). evaluated at points on the smaller loop. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. Of course. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.

in the external region. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. . we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. i. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). but I can’t ﬁnd where. Problem 5.14 A long.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). there is free current. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. Can anybody help? Problem 5.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. 0. and of relative permeability µr . Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere.1. Neglect end eﬀects. × H = Jfree = 0. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. within the cylinder and in its inner region. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. so things are not so simple. These imply that. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm .5. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. So. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. hollow. In the external region.

Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. With the above expressions for the components of H. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. ∂φ n=1 . ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. φ) = Actually. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b.

Equating (20) with (22). multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . For n = 1. Similarly. For n = 1. n=1 (18) n = 1. µ0 On the other hand. .

5 -4 -4. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 log10 r -2 -2.1 -1 -1. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ . ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ .5 -3 -3. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. a < r < b r r > b.5 (a/b) = 0.5 (a/b) = 0. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .

B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. r > a. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. unity. since J2 vanishes for r < b.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). r > a.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). (a) In the approximation of b a. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity.

so that the boundary surface is z = 0. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ).18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. . Problem 5. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. a. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). As r → 0. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b.

The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ).87).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. so × H = 0 everywhere. H = − Φm . thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . z>d z < d. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). A = Aφ φ. (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). z < d. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . On the other hand. and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. there is no free current.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d.

we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d. it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents.

z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. so H(ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. both inside and outside.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. z) satisfying the Laplace equation. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. There is no free current in this problem. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ).Solutions to Problems in Jackson. both inside and outside. 0 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. Classical Electrodynamics. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 .

Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). k . integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . 0. ρ<a ρ > a. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k).

2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 2 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. Since there are no free currents in the problem. a . it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. + L2 2a . two things happen. Second. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. Instead. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. we can use the following little trick. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. but now there is just free space.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . (a) Show that. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. First. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis.

integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. µ0 . (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). 0. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. integrating from 0 to ∞. Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. ρ<a ρ > a. Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. and using the identity (2).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous.

and may thus be taken out of the integral. . so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. we see that. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). (0 < z < L). ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). z>L 0 Hz (ρ. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. we must have D → 0. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. 0 < z < L. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above.

k 0 Then () becomes .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). and exchanging the order of integration.

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