# Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2
Problem 2.1
A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;
0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2
0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:
∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy
−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet
∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2
Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3
A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where
2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy
0

y=0

We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
y=0

(c) Total charge per unit length in z

Qx

=
0

σdx y0 λ π
∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π
π/2 tan−1 − y 0
0 x

π/2

du −

du
tan−1
x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,
2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,
2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,
2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

  2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln  2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

One image charge. As d → ∞. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. so that term wins. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. isolated. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. The second image charge. and the overall force is attractive. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. conducting sphere of radius R. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. The charged.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) .4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere.

The root is d/R=1.88. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. makes no contribution in this limit.6178. The root of this one is d/R=1. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). So we have F →− q2 . (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2.43. . The second image charge.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0.

5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. (2. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. and the energy discussion of Section 1. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. Eq. and the energy discussion of Section 1. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a .11. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Eq. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward.3). (2.8).6). 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . Eq.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2.11. Eq. (2.9). (2. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. The potential energy between the point charge and .

Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. This would seem to violate energy conservation. which we could store in a battery or something. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. at which point we would be back where we started. and its charge increases. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. liberating a quantity of energy (8). It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . I think the problem is with equation (8). storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . and we should take (7) to be the correct result.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. ∂φ ∂n dA . (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. boundary. More speciﬁcally. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. we might write it as ψx0 (x). However. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . x − ψx0 (x ) . Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. It’s useful to review this technique.

Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. . Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. x (13) Again. x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions).

3 for the potential of a line charge. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . (c) the induced surface-charge density.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). (d) the force on the charge. and a distance R away from.4 in units of τ /2πb. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2.e. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. Classical Electrodynamics. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. on the x axis. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. i. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere.

this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . we have Φ= For large ρ. which requires R = γR.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. the φ term must drop out. we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . (b) At a point (ρ. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . φ). R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero.

y = 0. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. substitute them into the series. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder.12 Starting with the series solution (2. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. Problem 2. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 .71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.

We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . sin n φ. (5) Φ(b. . φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. we know the bn are all zero. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 .71). because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. 0 Plugging back into (1). For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b.

n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. (6) n odd .13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. With these coeﬃcients.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . This problem is just like the previous one. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ.

(7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. n odd (Evidently. . (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).) With this. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 .

0 ≤ y ≤ 1. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. has an expansion ∞ G(x. (b) Taking for gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. x . y ) on the boundary. x . 1) = 0. 0) = gn (y. (8) With the suggested expansion. x . y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. g(y. y ) vanishes for points (x . y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. y. y. y. x . (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. see the Green’s functions review above. Second. So G(x. y. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. First. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ .15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest.

Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). (12) . and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . First let’s consider the boundary conditions. where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). y < y. y > y.e. Actually. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ).

41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. y = . which we have already done.4 yprime 0. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). y ) = δ(y − y ). y=. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem.2 0. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. y < y. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y.6 0. (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. y ) from Problem 2. In other words. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . and vanish otherwise. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. we have gn (y. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous.41. y > y. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: .15 with n=5. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 .8 1 Figure 1: gn (y.

16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . We’re also given that . Referring to my Green’s functions review above. show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y.15. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. Using the Green function of Problem 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . and G vanishes there by construction. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) .

Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. . n odd 0 . The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . (17) The integrals can be done separately.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}.

u = (z − z ). (As in Problem 2. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. y. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. y. x . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. Show that apart from an inessential constant. +Z −Z Integrating. where Z is taken to be very large. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. x . I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x.15. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. φ. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 .

φ. φ. ρ . ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. φ. ρ . ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. φ. ρ . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. Since Z is much bigger than a. ρ . the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. φ). leaving 2 G(ρ. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. .

. 2m = 1 ρ . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . ρ <ρ . Now we have   γm gm =  γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm =   − 1 2m  − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. For m ≥ 1. we have to take B1m = A2m = 0.15. ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . ρ <ρ . Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. ρ > ρ. Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm .

1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this.40)]. This requires that B1m = 0 . ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. Problem 2. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .17. See (1. no mistake is made in its use. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. ρ <ρ . (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary.] (a) As before. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 .18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2.17. ρ > ρ.12. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. ρ = b) = 0.

. ρ< ρ> m − . φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. φ. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. Finally. dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . Next. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. ρ . ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . (22) . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ.

. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 .com).17 (c).12. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. ρ . φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. although I cheated and looked it up on www. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. the volume integral vanishes. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. φ. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . φ) = Φ(b. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure.integrals.

while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). . but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. In the surface integral. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2.12. This is the same gm we came up with before.

Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r.1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. 2l + 1 1 . (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Classical Electrodynamics. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . Include terms at least up to l = 4. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). Third Edition Homer Reid June 15.

θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞.36) in the text.7 of the text. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3.3 of the text. When a → 0. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . as treated in section 3. with the sign of V ﬂipped. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. the above expression becomes Φ(r.27) with half the potential spacing. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. In that limit. .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. 3. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. so the Bl in (1) are zero. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . deﬁned by the cone θ = α. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. for l = 0. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R .28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. Diﬀerentiating that expansion.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =
−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3
A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0
∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±
θ=(π/2)

σ
0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

Φ(r, θ) =
l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have

Al rl−1
l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)
x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K
0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K
0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

Φ(r, θ) =
l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
l=0

Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
1

= V
−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K
0 ∞

K
0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1
1

0

1

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +
0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.
0

φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. alternately. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V .3. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. θ. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. (8) For the solution within the sphere. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. φ) Ylm (θ. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. φ). and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. Problem 3.36) of Section 3. (10) im .

while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . · · · . Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. · · · = im 0. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. et cetera. In that case. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. m = ±1 or ±3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). and l = 3. m= n 3n . the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. 3/2. · · · = 0. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. . 2 2 (b) As shown above. with n = 2. so all n terms add constructively. m = 3n/2. m = ±1. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. m = n/2. 3n/2. Then. and (10) equates to 2n . otherwise. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . 5/2. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . otherwise. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. 5n/2.

θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. θ. (b) Φ(r. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. which I have skipped here. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. respectively. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. 4π 0 r2 .6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. Φ(r. (a) First of all.

Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. θ. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. and that p . in which case we have the general expansion (1). θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges.7 Three point charges (q. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. as indicated in the ﬁgure. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. by the orthogonality of the Pl . a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. Q r5 Φ(r. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. 1− Φ(r. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. To calculate Φs . Show that in the limit a → 0. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. −2q. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis.

The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. Problem 3. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . z).9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). The potential on the end faces is zero. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r.

(12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). 2. so that V (φ. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. n = 1. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. πn . z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. which requires F = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. 3. φ. V (φ.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). (14) Problem 3. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. (b) Assuming L >> b.e. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. which means we have to take k imaginary. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. i. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . In this case. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14).13.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
L π/2 3π/2

13

= V
0

sin(kn z) dz
−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −
π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0
L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V
0

sin(kn z) dz
−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −
π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn   Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · ·  −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b
ν

.

n,ν

The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0
ν

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18
Problem 3.11
A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

f (ρ) =
n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . (5) . so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. dρ Plugging this into (3).

a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). ﬂat.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. thin. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . Using this in (5). The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . . and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. ﬁlling the hole. A thin. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane.12 An inﬁnite. Problem 3.

Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. so Q = 1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. In this problem there is no φ dependence. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. Plugging this back into (6). (8) . To do it. I integrated by parts. Also. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. ∞ a Φ(ρ. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before.

(7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. x ) ∂n dA . du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. φ ) Ylm (θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . so only the surface integral contributes. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. For Dirichlet boundary value problems.1. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. φ) Rl (r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. r ). which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. and we have G(x. r ). θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . (l − 2)!! 1 . x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1.

whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . Also. and at r = b with respect to r> . r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials.1. r ) l=0 (13) . we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). so the Green’s function is → G(x. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. where z is the distance from the midpoint. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. A grounded. and that the total charge is Q. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. Problem 3. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. First of all. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b.

θ )ρ(r .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r.4. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. r .. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. Also. θ. and (−1)l for z < 0.2. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. θ )dV. 0 Rl (r.. where r = z..

z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. Rl (r. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here.

electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. In the steady state. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. but the current density must be constant there.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. Using the lumped circuit relations. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. P = I 2 Re = IVe . and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ).

θ) = Φin (r. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. Inside the sphere. (16) Now. i. θ) = Φout (r. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. for r > a. we have σ Using (16). ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. θ) = Φout (r. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. In particular. So the current density is continuous everywhere. θ). Φ(r. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. θ) = Φin (r. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . Jr (r = a− . which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. which means charge would pile up in that region. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. Applying (17) to these expressions. θ) = Φ(r.e. θ) = Jr (r = a+ . (17) Outside of the sphere. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ).

θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . F a3 r−2 cos θ. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . Also. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . 3πaσ . so I = σEx dydz. dy. and dz. θ. we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction.

but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. at all points x = x. G must be continuous. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. φ. At x = x. and must thus take one of the above forms. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. . z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ).

that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. x ) = mk γmk (z. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. at the radius of the source point. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. Then we have G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore.e. In this case. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). within each region. z.. This requirement excludes terms of the form . x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. Then G(x.e. we see that.. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). in which dimension (i. Clearly. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. one on either side of the source point x. Then. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. The question is. where γmk is any function of z and φ. Then we can write G as G(x. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). the entire range of z must be handled by one function. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z.e. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). and yet it does. φ)Im (kρ). (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). In other words. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. ρ. even though I never explicitly required this. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. i.

12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z.12 are recovered. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . but not inﬁnite. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. Bm (k. not a sum. ρ. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. φ. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL .18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. φ. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. so D = 0. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . over these terms: G(x . z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. What about corrections for L a. because Km is singular at the origin. ρ. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. ρ. ρ. With these restrictions. (28) . z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result.

∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. in Problem 3. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ.

12. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. one grounded and the other at potential V. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. for all k. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. unfortunately. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. so the two terms in (33) add directly. in which region kz z/L 1. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. The result is that. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . The second integral. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. . It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z .

12 with Problem 3.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential.18 as the comparison problem. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. Classical Electrodynamics. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . (1) 1 . 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. 0 < z0 < L.

so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r.19. z) = 0. z) dA = −q z=L. =?.18.r<a so σ (r. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. Then ρ(r. z) =? Φ(r. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. = 0. Plugging into (1). The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . = V.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. z) dA = 0 z=L. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. z) = 0 σ(r. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. z) =? Φ (r. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. z) = 0. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a.

e. as indicated in the sketch. which requires that n = mπ/β.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. Let’s break the region into two subregions. φ). φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. and ρ = a. L) = − (c) At a = 0. In both regions. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. As before. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. · · · . deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ.25 may be of use. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. 2. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . Suppose the observation point is (ρ. ρ .22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. m = 1. However. φ = β. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. which excludes the cos terms (i. φ. Problem 3. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. (4) becomes σ (0. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. Bn = Dn = 0). The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) .

φ. at ρ = ρ.e. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. φ. Using these expressions for Am . φ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. mπφ β . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . ρ . Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. φ.e. ρ . . mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. i. ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . Bm . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . ρ . This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. and Cm we can write G(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. i. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. ρ .

Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). ρ . ρ . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). but I can’t ﬁnd where. κm fm (ρ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. . φ. φ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. At ρ = ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · .

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8 A very long. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. respectively. Also. right circular. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. in the region outside the shell 1 . told to neglect end eﬀects. neglecting end eﬀects. Classical Electrodynamics. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a).

With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions:          rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ].e. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. i. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b).

(5). Next. (4). the system of equations (2). However. for n = 1. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. The four equations (1). and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. . (3). for n = 1. (6). and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 .

ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ .     a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. r ˆ r<a   2( + 2 2 2 0  b 0) − a ( − 0 )     a2 2 0 b2    2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r  b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2  r 0 0   a2 E(r. E(r. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. we would have a → 0. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 )  b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r     −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 )  b2 0   · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. → 0 . ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. Also. The electric ﬁeld is  4 0 b2   E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. r ˆ b < r. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. = 5 0 . which is reassuring. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is  −4 0 b2    2  b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. In that case the ﬁeld would look like  2 0 ˆ  r<b   + 0 E0 i. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. ϕ) =  ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0  0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. ˆ a<r<b   r     2   (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b  0  E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 ·   b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r     +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . (b) In Figure 4. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to .

. = 5 0. r ˆ r > a. in which case the ﬁeld becomes   4 0 E0ˆ   ( + )2 i. ϕ) =  2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a   E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. b → ∞.8 for b = 2a. 0 E(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.

θ) = l Now. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. in the region r > a. in the limit / conducting sphere. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d:  rl  q  Pl (cos θ). But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. ·D = 0 there. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. r > d. r<a      l  r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). r > d. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. 0 → ∞. r<d  4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. θ) = (9)  q dl   Pl (cos θ). (c) Verify that.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. Φ(r. 4π 0 rl+1 . whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . a<r<d Φ(r. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d     qdl    Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. 4π 0 On the other hand. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as   Al rl Pl (cos θ).

4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). and Bl → − qa2l+1 . we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. . since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes.

The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written  π  [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). a < r < b. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. respectively. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. as shown in the ﬁgure. θ) = π  l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). we have Φ(r. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. carry charges ±Q. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. 0 < θ < π/2. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. That region is described by θ = π/2. and we .10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a.

Bl = Dl . coaxial. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even.13 Two long. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. Similarly. g is the acceleration due to gravity.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. In (13). (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. l odd l even. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. There are actually two components of this charge. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. To begin.

then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . So the . It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). However. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. With this greater charge on the electrodes. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that.

In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. However. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. As we showed earlier. ln(b/a) On the other hand. i. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. With no potential between the cylinder plates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. Turning now to the situation in this problem. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. . and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh.e. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. So suppose that. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle.

2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. . namely. Actually we should note one detail here. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 .

((B*B .0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.8. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).h> #include <math.8.0 /* no.c" #define EZ 1.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 .0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.phi). */ double Er(double r.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. double phi) { double Coeff. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) . } . /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5. else Coeff=1.

A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).dx."e\n").A*cos(phi)."%g %g\n". fprintf(g.2."set noytics\n").-2.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.j."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. fprintf(g.0*B)."set multiplot \n"). fprintf(g.y. */ fprintf(g.0*B.0*B. for(phi=0.phi).PhiComp. else Coeff=1."set noxtics\n"). if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) )."set size square\n").eps’\n"). fprintf(g. } void main() { double i."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").x. g=GnuPlot("Field lines").A*sin(phi)). return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).-2. */ double Ephi(double r. fprintf(g. FILE *g.0*B). fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r."set output ’fig4. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). fprintf(g. double RComp. phi<=2*M_PI. ’-’ t ’’ with lines. fprintf(g.2.1.phi."plot ’-’ t ’’. */ fprintf(g. .dy.r.0 + ((B*B . double phi) { double Coeff. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g."set xrange [%g:%g]\n".

/* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount. */ for (i=1. for(phi=0."e\n").0. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.B*sin(phi))."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). /* * Draw field lines."%g %g\n".x. . i<=NUMLINES.B*cos(phi).0) ? M_PI/2.phi). if (x==0.0*B * ((NUMLINES ."e\n"). PhiComp=Ephi(r. fprintf(g.y).0*B. fprintf(g. dx=cos(phi)*RComp .0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.0. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx). */ for (j=0. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. */ x=-2.phi). y=2. j<NUMPOINTS. dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.sin(phi)*PhiComp. else phi=atan(y/x)."%g %g\n". /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r.0*i)/NUMLINES).0) phi=(y>0. fprintf(g. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.0.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).0 : -M_PI/2.2. i+=1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. phi<=2*M_PI. j+=1.

}. } .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }.\n"). printf("Thank you for your support."e\n"). fprintf(g.

6 for the electric dipole layer. that is. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . Classical Electrodynamics. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . This is the same convention as in Section 1. and negative otherwise. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x .

z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). using the expressions of parts a and b. Classical Electrodynamics. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. and since the 1 . z). 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. so its coordinates are (ρ.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. we take the observation point x on the x axis. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin.33) into cylindrical coordinates. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. Since there is no current in the z direction. φ = 0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . the φ integral yields 2π. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. but with the expression from Problem 3. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. otherwise it vanishes. ρ> = a.148). Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. so ρ< = ρ.148). 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.

In the “lab” frame. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 .69). We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. Plugging it in to the above. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). R. (2) . I1 (ρ) → 0. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0.150). so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. φ0 . The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. φ0 . The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. Comment.

11. The components of J are easy to express in R . To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . I think the former approach is easier.    cos θ0 cos φ0 x  y  =  − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0   x − sin θ0  y .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . as depicted in ﬁgure (??). The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by      x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x  y1  =  − sin φ0 cos φ0 0   y  (3) z1 0 0 1 z      x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x   y1   y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. which takes us to R . but more complicated in R. the opposite is true for B. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. Evidently.

In the surviving terms. y = a sin φ . Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . If the loop radius is a. cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R :      x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x  y  =  cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0   y  .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames:   ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0  ˆ  =  − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k  cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0  − sin θ0  0 cos θ0  ˆ i ˆ . i. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . . since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )).e. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation.

Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. φ = 0) in . b and currents I. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. I . We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. so y = y . As in the last problem. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. current I) lies in the xy plane. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. Problem 5. have an angle α between their planes. respectively (b < a). note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. But r · Jb vanishes. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b.

then r< = b.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. and for all such points r = b. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane.48): Br (r .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . Jackson’s equation (5. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. if a point has angular coordinates θ. the polar angle in frame R . How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. but we don’t need to. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ .) . we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. θ = π/2. with θ0 = α. θ = π/2. φ in R. (11) To transform this to frame R. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . φ0 = 0. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. Next. Of course. since the origins of R and R coincide. we ﬁrst note that. so Br = Br .

We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. evaluated at points on the smaller loop. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. This looks ugly. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. Of course. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ .

In the external region. in the external region. Can anybody help? Problem 5.5. . we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. and of relative permeability µr . So. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. there is free current. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. Problem 5. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. Neglect end eﬀects. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. so things are not so simple. These imply that.1. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm .13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ.14 A long.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). 0. i. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. within the cylinder and in its inner region. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. but I can’t ﬁnd where. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. × H = Jfree = 0. hollow. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b).

  ∂r n=1             ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. Hr =      ∞     (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. we have   ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ  n=1  Φm (ρ.   ∂φ n=1 . Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. With the above expressions for the components of H. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions:             ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. φ) = Actually. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞      ∞     (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b    ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ.

at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. For n = 1. we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . For n = 1. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . Equating (20) with (22). multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . n=1 (18) n = 1. Similarly. µ0 On the other hand. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 .

ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . a < r < b r r > b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.5 -4 -4.1 -1 -1. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 . − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .5 -3 -3.5 log10 r -2 -2. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 (a/b) = 0. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .5 (a/b) = 0.

which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. r < a   2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r =  µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n    P2n+1 (cos θ). and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. (a) In the approximation of b a. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞  µ0 Ia2  −   4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ).  2r3 2n n! r n=0       µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). since J2 vanishes for r < b. show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . unity.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . r > a. r > a. r < a B1θ = On the other hand.5:  ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n  µ0 I   P2n+1 (cos θ). which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.

As r → 0. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . while B1r → µ0 I/2a. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. . a. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. Problem 5. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. so that the boundary surface is z = 0. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if.

2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 =  Ia −  2       Ia   2 =  Ia   2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). z < d. so × H = 0 everywhere. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. On the other hand.10:  ∞  µ0 Ia  dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . Aφ = H1 =  µ0 Ia ∞ µ0   dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). z>d z < d.87). and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. H = − Φm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. A = Aφ φ. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) .  2 1 0 ˆ ×A. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. there is no free current. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential.

we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. z < d. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as   Ia   4 H1z =  Ia   4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] .

z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. both inside and outside. Dividing space into three regions                  ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. both inside and outside. Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. 0 1 . (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. There is no free current in this problem. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . z) satisfying the Laplace equation. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Classical Electrodynamics. so H(ρ.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5.

Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). ρ<a ρ > a. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). k . integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. 0. The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ.

2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 . (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). M1 a  2 0                  ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are  ∞ kL −kz   M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). Hρ = M 1 a  0    ∞  kL kz   dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. dk cosh    2 0    ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. Instead.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . two things happen. + L2 2a .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. a . we can use the following little trick. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. First. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. (a) Show that. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. Second. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. Since there are no free currents in the problem. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. but now there is just free space.

and using the identity (2). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type.    0   ∞  Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ).  0    ∞    dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). integrating from 0 to ∞. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). 0. ρ<a ρ > a. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence:  ∞   dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). µ0 . (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ.  0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k).

and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). we must have D → 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld  ∞  Ma  dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). z>L  0 Hz (ρ. (0 < z < L). z) = (13) ∞   −M a  dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. 0 < z < L. we see that. . ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. and may thus be taken out of the integral. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L.

we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). k 0 Then () becomes .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). and exchanging the order of integration.