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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. isolated. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. The charged. The second image charge. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. One image charge.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. conducting sphere of radius R. As d → ∞. so that term wins. and the overall force is attractive.

(c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. So we have F →− q2 . makes no contribution in this limit. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. The root of this one is d/R=1. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a.43.6178. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). The second image charge. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. The root is d/R=1. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. .88.

note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 .6). Eq. 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential.9). (2. Eq.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. The potential energy between the point charge and . and the energy discussion of Section 1. Eq.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . and the energy discussion of Section 1.8). (2. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Eq. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force.11. of an isolated charged conducting sphere.11. (2. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. (2.3).

Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. liberating a quantity of energy (8). and we should take (7) to be the correct result. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. which we could store in a battery or something. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. I think the problem is with equation (8). This would seem to violate energy conservation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . and its charge increases. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. at which point we would be back where we started. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere.

we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . ∂φ ∂n dA . x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. More speciﬁcally.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. It’s useful to review this technique. x − ψx0 (x ) . Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . boundary. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. However. we might write it as ψx0 (x).

Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). x (13) Again. . we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA .

Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. and a distance R away from. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. i. (d) the force on the charge. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ .11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. Classical Electrodynamics.3 for the potential of a line charge. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . (c) the induced surface-charge density.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.4 in units of τ /2πb. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). on the x axis.e.

we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. we have Φ= For large ρ. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . which requires R = γR. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. the φ term must drop out.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . (b) At a point (ρ. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. φ). this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ.

φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. substitute them into the series.12 Starting with the series solution (2. Problem 2. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. y = 0.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − .

Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . . we know the bn are all zero. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. (5) Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. sin n φ.71). we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. 0 Plugging back into (1).

(3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. This problem is just like the previous one.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ.13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . (6) n odd . the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. With these coeﬃcients. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2).

n odd (Evidently. (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 .) With this. . (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).

The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. x . y. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. First. y. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. y ) on the boundary. has an expansion ∞ G(x. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . show that the explicit form of G is G(x. So G(x. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. y ) vanishes for points (x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. (b) Taking for gn (y. 0) = gn (y. g(y. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. 1) = 0. see the Green’s functions review above. x . (8) With the suggested expansion. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. x . x . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. Second.

(b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. First let’s consider the boundary conditions.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . (12) . y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now.e. y < y. we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. y > y. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). Actually. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs.

y = . y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). y ) from Problem 2. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem.15 with n=5.4 yprime 0. (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. In other words. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. y ) = δ(y − y ). y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy).6 0. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. y=. y > y. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 .41.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . we have gn (y. and vanish otherwise. y < y. which we have already done.2 0. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y.

y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . and G vanishes there by construction. show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. Using the Green function of Problem 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . We’re also given that . we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. y. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . x . Referring to my Green’s functions review above. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z).16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.15. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y.

. n odd 0 . The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). (17) The integrals can be done separately. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume.

y. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. (As in Problem 2. y. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. φ.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ.15. x .) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. u = (z − z ). y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. where Z is taken to be very large. Show that apart from an inessential constant. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. +Z −Z Integrating. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. x .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. ρ .

The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ. φ). . φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . φ. ρ . ρ . The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. φ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ . ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . ρ . leaving 2 G(ρ. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. φ. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). Since Z is much bigger than a. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about.

ρ > ρ. Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . For m ≥ 1. ρ <ρ . the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. 2m = 1 ρ . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .15. . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ <ρ .

φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞.17. ρ <ρ . For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. no mistake is made in its use. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . ρ = b) = 0. See (1. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2.] (a) As before.40)]. This requires that B1m = 0 .18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2.12.17. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). ρ > ρ. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. Problem 2. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ.

ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. (22) . ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . φ. − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . Finally. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. ρ< ρ> m − . ρ . Next.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ.

the volume integral vanishes. φ) = Φ(b. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure.12. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ.17 (c). although I cheated and looked it up on www. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. φ. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer.com). ρ . For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . he did include it in his answer to problem 2.integrals. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2.

The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m .12. Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. In the surface integral. the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. This is the same gm we came up with before.

Classical Electrodynamics. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. 2l + 1 1 . 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) .1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . Include terms at least up to l = 4. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) .

with the sign of V ﬂipped. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even.7 of the text. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even.27) with half the potential spacing. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . When a → 0. the above expression becomes Φ(r. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . and is just the above result inverted for l odd. In that limit. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. as treated in section 3. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r.3 of the text. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. .36) in the text.

except for a spherical cap at the north pole. so the Bl in (1) are zero. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. for l = 0. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. 3. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 .28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

(8) For the solution within the sphere. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. φ). φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) .3. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. Problem 3.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. (10) im . (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. θ. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. alternately. θ. φ) Ylm (θ.36) of Section 3. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0.

Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. Then. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. et cetera.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). m= n 3n . 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). · · · = 0. m = ±1. 2 2 (b) As shown above. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . m = ±1 or ±3. 3n/2. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . otherwise. otherwise. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . m = n/2. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. with n = 2. . 5n/2. In that case. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. and l = 3. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. so all n terms add constructively. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. · · · = im 0. m = 3n/2. 5/2. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. · · · . This only happens if m/n = 1/2. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. and (10) equates to 2n . 3/2.

for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. θ. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. Φ(r. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. (a) First of all. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. (b) Φ(r.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. 4π 0 r2 . For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. which I have skipped here. respectively.

Q r5 Φ(r.7 Three point charges (q. but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. 1− Φ(r. θ. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. by the orthogonality of the Pl . Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. −2q. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. and that p . in which case we have the general expansion (1). as indicated in the ﬁgure. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. To calculate Φs . Show that in the limit a → 0. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0.

The potential on the end faces is zero. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). z). the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). Problem 3. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before.

(14) Problem 3. V (φ. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). which requires F = 0.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. 3. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. In this case. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. so that V (φ. πn . R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). n = 1. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. 2. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2.13. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . (b) Assuming L >> b. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ.e. which means we have to take k imaginary. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). i.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. dρ Plugging this into (3). (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). (5) . dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k .

and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. ﬂat. thin. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. ﬁlling the hole. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. . ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). A thin. Problem 3. plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it.12 An inﬁnite. Using this in (5). a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm .

(8) . I integrated by parts. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. Plugging this back into (6). ∞ a Φ(ρ. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). To do it. In this problem there is no φ dependence. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). Also. so Q = 1. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ.

z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. φ) Rl (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0.1.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. x ) ∂n dA . and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. For Dirichlet boundary value problems. x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. φ ) Ylm (θ. so only the surface integral contributes. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 .

x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. and we have G(x. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. r ). The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. (l − 2)!! 1 . x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. r ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x.

A grounded.1. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. so the Green’s function is → G(x. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. r ) l=0 (13) . and at r = b with respect to r> . First of all. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. Also. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . Problem 3. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. and that the total charge is Q. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. where z is the distance from the midpoint.

where r = z.4. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. and (−1)l for z < 0.2. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r .. Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface.. 0 Rl (r. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. Also. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. r . θ. θ )dV. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0.. θ )ρ(r .

we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). Rl (r. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ).

A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. but the current density must be constant there. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . P = I 2 Re = IVe . which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. In the steady state. Using the lumped circuit relations.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere.

e. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. (17) Outside of the sphere. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. θ) = Φout (r. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). θ) = Jr (r = a+ . (16) Now. In particular. Jr (r = a− . Φ(r. this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φout (r. which means charge would pile up in that region. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. θ). l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. So the current density is continuous everywhere. θ) = Φ(r. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. for r > a. Applying (17) to these expressions. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. i. θ) = Φin (r. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. Inside the sphere. θ) = Φin (r. we have σ Using (16).

p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. F a3 r−2 cos θ. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. Since the conductivity ratio is positive.

Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. and dz. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. dy. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . Also. θ. 3πaσ . the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. so I = σEx dydz. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r.

L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). At x = x. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. φ. and must thus take one of the above forms. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. . both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. G must be continuous. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. at all points x = x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] .

at the radius of the source point. we see that. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. the entire range of z must be handled by one function.. This requirement excludes terms of the form . and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. The question is.. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces.e. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. x ) = mk γmk (z. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x.e. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. within each region. ρ. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. In other words. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). Then we can write G as G(x. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). Then we have G(x. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. and yet it does.e. φ)Im (kρ). In this case. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. even though I never explicitly required this. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). one on either side of the source point x. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. z. Then G(x. Then. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. i. Clearly. in which dimension (i. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). where γmk is any function of z and φ. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27).18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). Bm (k. φ. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . over these terms: G(x .12 are recovered. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. not a sum. (28) . ρ. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. so D = 0. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. What about corrections for L a. φ. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. but not inﬁnite. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . because Km is singular at the origin. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL .12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. ρ. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. With these restrictions. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. ρ. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. ρ. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z.

L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. in Problem 3. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x).

but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. unfortunately. for all k. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. one grounded and the other at potential V. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). Calling the ﬁxed distance z . By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. so the two terms in (33) add directly. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . The second integral. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. The result is that.12. . This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. in which region kz z/L 1. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now.

Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (1) 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 0 < z0 < L. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA.18 as the comparison problem. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . Classical Electrodynamics.12 with Problem 3.

=?. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . z) =? Φ (r. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. Plugging into (1). L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. = 0. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. z) =? Φ(r. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. z) = 0. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L.r<a so σ (r.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r.18. z) dA = −q z=L. = V. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. z) = 0.19. Then ρ(r. z) = 0 σ(r. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. z) dA = 0 z=L.

as indicated in the sketch. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. As before. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. Bn = Dn = 0). φ. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. Let’s break the region into two subregions. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point).25 may be of use. φ = β.e. 2. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. (4) becomes σ (0. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. Problem 3. · · · . which requires that n = mπ/β. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. m = 1. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . In both regions. L) = − (c) At a = 0. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . φ). Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. ρ . which excludes the cos terms (i.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. However. and ρ = a.

Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. φ. φ. ρ . i. . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.e. i. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . mπφ β . at ρ = ρ. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. φ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. φ. ρ . Bm . This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything.e. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. Using these expressions for Am . ρ . ρ .

ρ At all points ρ = ρ. we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. At ρ = ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. κm fm (ρ. ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). but I can’t ﬁnd where. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . φ. ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. ρ . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. ρ . φ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). . β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · .

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right circular. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. neglecting end eﬀects. respectively. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. Classical Electrodynamics. Also.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r.8 A very long. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. in the region outside the shell 1 . told to neglect end eﬀects. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a.

ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ].e. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. i. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ].

and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. (3). for n = 1. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. However. The four equations (1). Next. (6). we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. the system of equations (2). for n = 1. (5). (4). .

which is reassuring. Also. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. → 0 . ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . = 5 0 . Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. (b) In Figure 4. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. r ˆ b < r. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. E(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. we would have a → 0.

ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. r ˆ r > a. . 0 E(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. = 5 0. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i.8 for b = 2a. b → ∞.

Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. θ) = l Now.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. 0 → ∞. a<r<d Φ(r. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. Φ(r. ·D = 0 there. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. (c) Verify that. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. 4π 0 On the other hand. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. in the region r > a. in the limit / conducting sphere. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. r > d. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). 4π 0 rl+1 . (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. r > d.

. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12).

respectively. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. we have Φ(r. carry charges ±Q. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. That region is described by θ = π/2. as shown in the ﬁgure. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). a < r < b. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. and we . θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. 0 < θ < π/2.

coaxial. l odd l even. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0.13 Two long. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. To begin. g is the acceleration due to gravity. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. There are actually two components of this charge. Bl = Dl . this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . In (13). since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. Similarly. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b.

the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. However.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). So the . With this greater charge on the electrodes. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case.

. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. As we showed earlier. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. Turning now to the situation in this problem. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. So suppose that. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. With no potential between the cylinder plates. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. However. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid.e. i. ln(b/a) On the other hand. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh.

Actually we should note one detail here. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . . Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. namely.

c" #define EZ 1.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 . else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .8. else Coeff=1. */ double Er(double r.phi). return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).0 /* no.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).((B*B .0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.8. /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r. } .0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.h> #include <math.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4. double phi) { double Coeff.

0*B).x. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. */ fprintf(g."e\n"). /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.j.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. fprintf(g. */ double Ephi(double r."set multiplot \n"). for(phi=0.y.A*sin(phi)).2.eps’\n").0*B). return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).r. g=GnuPlot("Field lines")."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". double phi) { double Coeff. fprintf(g.A*cos(phi). } void main() { double i. fprintf(g. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.-2. fprintf(g."set noxtics\n").A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). fprintf(g. .phi."set noytics\n"). fprintf(g. double RComp."plot ’-’ t ’’. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". FILE *g.0 + ((B*B . fprintf(g. fprintf(g."set output ’fig4. /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b."set size square\n").PhiComp. */ fprintf(g.dx.0*B. phi<=2*M_PI."%g %g\n".-2.1. ’-’ t ’’ with lines.phi). else Coeff=1.2."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").0*B.dy.

0 : -M_PI/2. phi<=2*M_PI.sin(phi)*PhiComp.0*i)/NUMLINES). */ for (j=0. .0."e\n"). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n")."%g %g\n".0. if (x==0. PhiComp=Ephi(r. fprintf(g. dx=cos(phi)*RComp . i<=NUMLINES.phi).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX."%g %g\n".0.0*B. fprintf(g.x. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).phi).y). j<NUMPOINTS. y=2. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).2. for(phi=0.0*B * ((NUMLINES .0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot. /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r."e\n"). j+=1. else phi=atan(y/x).0) phi=(y>0. i+=1.B*sin(phi)). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp. */ x=-2. /* * Draw field lines.B*cos(phi). fprintf(g. */ for (i=1. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount.0) ? M_PI/2.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. fprintf(g. } ."e\n"). printf("Thank you for your support.\n"). }.

I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. This is the same convention as in Section 1. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential.6 for the electric dipole layer. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. and negative otherwise. that is. Classical Electrodynamics.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule.

10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. z). (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. using the expressions of parts a and b. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. we take the observation point x on the x axis. Since there is no current in the z direction. Classical Electrodynamics. and since the 1 . so its coordinates are (ρ. φ = 0. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.33) into cylindrical coordinates. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction.

Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1). but with the expression from Problem 3. ρ> = a. the φ integral yields 2π. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. otherwise it vanishes.148). 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through.148).16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. so ρ< = ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop.

150). (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order.69). so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. In the “lab” frame. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . (2) . The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. φ0 . 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. R. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). φ0 . the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Plugging it in to the above. I1 (ρ) → 0. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. Comment. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here.

the opposite is true for B. I think the former approach is easier. Evidently. which takes us to R . The components of J are easy to express in R . There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. but more complicated in R. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5.11.

since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). y = a sin φ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. i. . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y .e. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . In the surviving terms. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . If the loop radius is a.

current I) lies in the xy plane. so y = y . We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. b and currents I. I . and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. respectively (b < a).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. Problem 5. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α).12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. But r · Jb vanishes. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. As in the last problem. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. φ = 0) in . have an angle α between their planes.

φ0 = 0. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. then r< = b. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). Next. (11) To transform this to frame R. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). if a point has angular coordinates θ. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . since the origins of R and R coincide. with θ0 = α. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. Of course. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. but we don’t need to. Jackson’s equation (5. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. the polar angle in frame R .) . θ = π/2. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . r> = a and we have Br (r = b. so Br = Br . θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R.48): Br (r . φ in R.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. we ﬁrst note that. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. and for all such points r = b. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. θ = π/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . This looks ugly. Of course. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. evaluated at points on the smaller loop. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ .

there is free current. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). but I can’t ﬁnd where.5. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. within the cylinder and in its inner region. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. i. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. Problem 5. Can anybody help? Problem 5. and of relative permeability µr . In the external region. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder.14 A long. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. in the external region. So. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. hollow. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). Neglect end eﬀects.1. These imply that. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. 0. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. so things are not so simple. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . × H = Jfree = 0.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ.

With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. With the above expressions for the components of H. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. ∂φ n=1 . Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. φ) = Actually.

we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . Equating (20) with (22). For n = 1. n=1 (18) n = 1. Similarly. at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . For n = 1. . the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . µ0 On the other hand. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) .

1 -1 -1.5 (a/b) = 0. ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ .5 (a/b) = 0.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr . The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .5 -3 -3. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.5 -4 -4.5 log10 r -2 -2. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure . a < r < b r r > b. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 . (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0.

5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. unity. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. since J2 vanishes for r < b. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). r > a. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). (a) In the approximation of b a. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r > a. r < a B1θ = On the other hand.

so that the boundary surface is z = 0. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). . (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). Problem 5. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . while B1r → µ0 I/2a. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. As r → 0. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ).18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. a.

and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). On the other hand. (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. z < d. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. so × H = 0 everywhere.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H = − Φm .87). for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. z>d z < d. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. A = Aφ φ. there is no free current. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3.

∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z < d. z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary.

both inside and outside. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. 0 1 . z) satisfying the Laplace equation. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. Classical Electrodynamics. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ).19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. so H(ρ. There is no free current in this problem. both inside and outside.

integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). 0. The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. ρ<a ρ > a. and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). k . Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ).

Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 2 . 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. two things happen. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. First. Instead. we can use the following little trick. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. Since there are no free currents in the problem. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. + L2 2a . Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. but now there is just free space. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. Second. (a) Show that. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . a . The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes.

integrating from 0 to ∞. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. and using the identity (2). and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). µ0 . 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). 0. ρ<a ρ > a. (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0.

to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. and may thus be taken out of the integral. we see that. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. 0 < z < L. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). . and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. we must have D → 0. (0 < z < L). z>L 0 Hz (ρ.

we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). k 0 Then () becomes . and exchanging the order of integration.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into ().

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