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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . The second image charge. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . As d → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . isolated. so that term wins. One image charge. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. conducting sphere of radius R. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. and the overall force is attractive. The charged. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge.

Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. The second image charge. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere.43. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 .6178. . If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. The root of this one is d/R=1. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image.88. The root is d/R=1. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. makes no contribution in this limit. So we have F →− q2 .

8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. (2.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. Eq. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. of an isolated charged conducting sphere.9).3). note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r.8). The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . and the energy discussion of Section 1. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward.6). Eq. The potential energy between the point charge and .11.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. and the energy discussion of Section 1.11. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. (2. (2. (2. Eq. Eq.

and we should take (7) to be the correct result. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. at which point we would be back where we started. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. which we could store in a battery or something. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. This would seem to violate energy conservation. I think the problem is with equation (8). liberating a quantity of energy (8).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. and its charge increases. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . and another of charge Q − q at the origin. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge.

) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . It’s useful to review this technique. we might write it as ψx0 (x). (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. However. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. More speciﬁcally. If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. boundary. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. x − ψx0 (x ) . If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. ∂φ ∂n dA . we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem.

in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). x (13) Again.

Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. on the x axis. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. (c) the induced surface-charge density. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (d) the force on the charge. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity.4 in units of τ /2πb. and a distance R away from. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8.3 for the potential of a line charge. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). Classical Electrodynamics. i.e. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to.

Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . which requires R = γR. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. we have Φ= For large ρ. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. φ). ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . the φ term must drop out. (b) At a point (ρ. |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface.

y = 0. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. Problem 2. substitute them into the series.12 Starting with the series solution (2. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − .71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder.

φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. 0 Plugging back into (1). We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. . φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. sin n φ. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . we know the bn are all zero. (5) Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1.71). For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ).

Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. With these coeﬃcients. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder.13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. This problem is just like the previous one. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. (6) n odd . and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 .

1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . . n odd (Evidently.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 .) With this.

1) = 0. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. (b) Taking for gn (y. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . has an expansion ∞ G(x. see the Green’s functions review above. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. x . g(y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. 0) = gn (y. y. Second. So G(x. y. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. x . show that the explicit form of G is G(x. y ) on the boundary. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. First. y ) vanishes for points (x . y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. (8) With the suggested expansion. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. y.

y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). First let’s consider the boundary conditions. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. (12) .e. we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . Actually. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). y < y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. y > y.

(14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. which we have already done.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn . and vanish otherwise. In other words.4 yprime 0.2 0. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). y > y.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. y = . but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). y=.41.15 with n=5. we have gn (y.6 0. y ) = δ(y − y ). The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. y < y. y ) from Problem 2.

x . because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . and G vanishes there by construction.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential.16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. We’re also given that . y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . Referring to my Green’s functions review above. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13).15. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . Using the Green function of Problem 2. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. y. x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y.

. (17) The integrals can be done separately. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. n odd 0 . Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) .

17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. u = (z − z ). y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. +Z −Z Integrating. x . ρ . ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. (As in Problem 2.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. Show that apart from an inessential constant.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . the Green function can be written alternately as G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. y. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . y.15. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. φ. x . a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . where Z is taken to be very large.

φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . ρ . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . . the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. leaving 2 G(ρ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. φ. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. Since Z is much bigger than a. ρ . The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ. φ. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. ρ . φ). These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. ρ . φ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ.

the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. ρ <ρ . 2m = 1 ρ . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ <ρ . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ.15. ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . For m ≥ 1. ρ > ρ.

ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. This requires that B1m = 0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞.12.17. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. no mistake is made in its use. See (1. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary.18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. ρ = b) = 0. ρ > ρ.40)]. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞.17. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. ρ <ρ . Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 .] (a) As before. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. Problem 2.

φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . Finally. . . ρ . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . Next. ρ< ρ> m − . Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. (22) . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ.

φ. . he did include it in his answer to problem 2. ρ . the volume integral vanishes.12. φ) = Φ(b. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ.integrals.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.17 (c). φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . If there is no charge inside the cylinder. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition.com). although I cheated and looked it up on www. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure.

The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . In the surface integral. but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) .12. while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . This is the same gm we came up with before. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . . Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2.

Solutions to Problems in Jackson. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) .1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. The other hemispheres are at zero potential. Classical Electrodynamics. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). 2l + 1 1 . Include terms at least up to l = 4. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0.

This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . the above expression becomes Φ(r. When a → 0. In that limit. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even.36) in the text. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. as treated in section 3. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r.27) with half the potential spacing. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .3 of the text.7 of the text. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. with the sign of V ﬂipped. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. . 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even.

so the Bl in (1) are zero. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. 3. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. for l = 0.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . (8) For the solution within the sphere. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude.36) of Section 3. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. θ. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . φ) Ylm (θ. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. alternately. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. φ). Problem 3.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0.3. θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . (10) im .

m = ±1. 5/2. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). Then. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. 3n/2. 2 2 (b) As shown above. so all n terms add constructively. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. and l = 3. 5n/2. In that case. otherwise. This only happens if m/n = 1/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. with n = 2. · · · = 0. otherwise. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. m= n 3n . m = 3n/2. · · · = im 0. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. m = n/2. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. . m = ±1 or ±3. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . et cetera. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . 3/2. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. · · · . the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. and (10) equates to 2n .

θ. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. respectively. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. Φ(r. (b) Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. (a) First of all. 4π 0 r2 . (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. which I have skipped here.

θ. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. as indicated in the ﬁgure.7 Three point charges (q. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. by the orthogonality of the Pl . q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. and that p . The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. To calculate Φs . Show that in the limit a → 0. in which case we have the general expansion (1). 1− Φ(r. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. −2q. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. Q r5 Φ(r. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole.

ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). z). and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. The potential on the end faces is zero. Problem 3.

The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). In this case.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. (14) Problem 3.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b.e. V (φ. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ.13. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). 3. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. πn . consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. φ. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. (b) Assuming L >> b. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. n = 1. which means we have to take k imaginary. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). i. which requires F = 0. 2. so that V (φ. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz .

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . (5) . dρ Plugging this into (3).

. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. ﬂat. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. ﬁlling the hole. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. Using this in (5). Problem 3.12 An inﬁnite. thin. A thin. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it.

Also. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. so Q = 1. Plugging this back into (6). To do it. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x).) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. (8) . I integrated by parts. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. In this problem there is no φ dependence. ∞ a Φ(ρ. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ.

13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. so only the surface integral contributes. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x.1. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. φ ) Ylm (θ. For Dirichlet boundary value problems. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. φ) Rl (r. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ . x ) ∂n dA . r ) 2l + 1 (10) .

(11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. r ). ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. r ). and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . (l − 2)!! 1 . and we have G(x. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish.

where z is the distance from the midpoint. First of all. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction.1. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . Also. A grounded. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. and at r = b with respect to r> . (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. r ) l=0 (13) . θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. so the Green’s function is → G(x. and that the total charge is Q. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . Problem 3.

z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface.. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . 0 Rl (r..Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. θ. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r .2. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. θ )ρ(r . r . In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. θ )dV. where r = z. and (−1)l for z < 0.4.. Also. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0.

z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . Rl (r. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14).

(b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. but the current density must be constant there. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. In the steady state. ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). Using the lumped circuit relations. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. P = I 2 Re = IVe .

(16) Now. for r > a. θ) = Φin (r. Applying (17) to these expressions. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). Φ(r. we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . which would mean we aren’t in steady state. θ). this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. θ) = Φout (r. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). Jr (r = a− .e. So the current density is continuous everywhere. (17) Outside of the sphere. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. In particular. θ) = Φ(r. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. Inside the sphere. i. we have σ Using (16). θ) = Jr (r = a+ . Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . θ) = Φin (r. θ) = Φout (r. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). which means charge would pile up in that region. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. F a3 r−2 cos θ. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k.

Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. dy.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . so I = σEx dydz. and dz. Also. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. θ. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. 3πaσ . The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere.

both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. and must thus take one of the above forms. but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. φ. At x = x. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). G must be continuous. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . at all points x = x. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. . sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x.

This requirement excludes terms of the form . to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. Then we can write G as G(x. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x.e. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). even though I never explicitly required this. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. at the radius of the source point. In other words. ρ. Then we have G(x. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. Then G(x. Then. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ.e. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. x ) = mk γmk (z. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space.e. and yet it does. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). i. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). one on either side of the source point x. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ).. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. in which dimension (i. where γmk is any function of z and φ. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L.. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. In this case. φ)Im (kρ). The question is. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. z. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. we see that. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. Clearly. within each region. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz).

ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. so D = 0. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. φ) as ∞ Φ(z. but not inﬁnite. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. φ. Bm (k. not a sum. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27).18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. because Km is singular at the origin. over these terms: G(x . Hence we must use terms of the form (26). z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. ρ. What about corrections for L a. ρ. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . ρ. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. ρ. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. φ. With these restrictions.12 are recovered. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. (28) . (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). while Im is singular at inﬁnity.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . in Problem 3. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ.

one grounded and the other at potential V. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. in which region kz z/L 1. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. The result is that. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1.12. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. so the two terms in (33) add directly. . coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. The second integral. unfortunately.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. for all k.

12 with Problem 3. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. (1) 1 . Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . Classical Electrodynamics.18 as the comparison problem. 0 < z0 < L.

z) dA = −q z=L. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. = 0.r<a so σ (r. =?. z) dA = 0 z=L. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. z) = 0 σ(r. z) =? Φ (r. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r.19.18. Plugging into (1). z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. z) = 0. = V. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. Then ρ(r. z) = 0. z) =? Φ(r. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) .

which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. As before. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. The solution must also vanish at φ = β.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. 2. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. Bn = Dn = 0). ρ . With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. which excludes the cos terms (i. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. · · · . and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). m = 1. (4) becomes σ (0. In both regions. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. φ). The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. Problem 3. Let’s break the region into two subregions. L) = − (c) At a = 0. as indicated in the sketch. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) .25 may be of use. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. φ.22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. which requires that n = mπ/β. and ρ = a. However.e. φ = β.

ρ . φ. . ρ . φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. φ. mπφ β . 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.e. Bm . ρ . Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. φ. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. at ρ = ρ. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . Using these expressions for Am . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. and Cm we can write G(ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. i. ρ . φ. i.e.

φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. . ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. ρ . At ρ = ρ. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. ρ . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. φ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). but I can’t ﬁnd where. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. φ. κm fm (ρ.

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(a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. right circular. Classical Electrodynamics. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem.8 A very long. neglecting end eﬀects. in the region outside the shell 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. Also. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. told to neglect end eﬀects. respectively. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4.

−E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ].e. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. i. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b).

we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. (3). (4). and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. for n = 1. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. Next. which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. . the system of equations (2). (6). so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. However. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . (5). The four equations (1). for n = 1. −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 .

r ˆ b < r. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. which is reassuring. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . (b) In Figure 4. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. = 5 0 . r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . Also.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . E(r. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ. we would have a → 0. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. → 0 .

r ˆ r > a.8 for b = 2a. 0 E(r. = 5 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. . b → ∞.

r > d. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). Φ(r. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). in the region r > a. θ) = l Now. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). 0 → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). a<r<d Φ(r. 4π 0 rl+1 . in the limit / conducting sphere. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a).9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. ·D = 0 there. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . (c) Verify that. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. r > d. 4π 0 On the other hand. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere.

. This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. and Bl → − qa2l+1 . the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11).

θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. respectively. and we . We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. as shown in the ﬁgure. carry charges ±Q. we have Φ(r. That region is described by θ = π/2. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. a < r < b. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. 0 < θ < π/2.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. g is the acceleration due to gravity. To begin. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. l odd l even. Bl = Dl . one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. Similarly. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . coaxial. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically.13 Two long. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . There are actually two components of this charge. In (13).

This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. With this greater charge on the electrodes. So the . However. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders).

so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. Turning now to the situation in this problem. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. However. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. With no potential between the cylinder plates. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . As we showed earlier. ln(b/a) On the other hand. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. So suppose that. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). . the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. i. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside.e. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes.

the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. namely. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. Actually we should note one detail here. . When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders.

*/ double Er(double r.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.0 . of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.8.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5. double phi) { double Coeff. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.((B*B .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot. else Coeff=1. /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.0 /* no.h> #include <math.c" #define EZ 1. } .phi). return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).8.

fprintf(g. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands. */ fprintf(g. fprintf(g."set size square\n").phi). phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. fprintf(g. fprintf(g.-2. fprintf(g.0 + ((B*B ."set xrange [%g:%g]\n".1. */ fprintf(g.A*cos(phi)."set yrange [%g:%g]\n".0*B. double phi) { double Coeff.phi.0*B)."%g %g\n".y. fprintf(g."plot ’-’ t ’’.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.eps’\n"). phi<=2*M_PI.PhiComp.r. ."set multiplot \n").A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). g=GnuPlot("Field lines"). fprintf(g.0*B).2. double RComp."set noxtics\n"). fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r."set noytics\n").0*B.dy. for(phi=0.A*sin(phi)). else Coeff=1. ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").-2. */ double Ephi(double r. FILE *g."e\n"). } void main() { double i.2. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. ’-’ t ’’ with lines."set output ’fig4.j.dx."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").x. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).

0*B.0) ? M_PI/2. y=2. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.y).0*i)/NUMLINES).phi). j+=1.0 : -M_PI/2. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).2.B*cos(phi). i<=NUMLINES."e\n").0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). PhiComp=Ephi(r.0.0*B * ((NUMLINES .phi).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g. /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. fprintf(g. i+=1.0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y). fprintf(g."e\n").0.sin(phi)*PhiComp. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. fprintf(g. ."%g %g\n". dx=cos(phi)*RComp . */ x=-2. j<NUMPOINTS. /* * Draw field lines. */ for (j=0.x.0) phi=(y>0. */ for (i=1. if (x==0. for(phi=0. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp. else phi=atan(y/x). /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount. phi<=2*M_PI.B*sin(phi)).0."%g %g\n".

} . }. fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }.\n")."e\n"). printf("Thank you for your support.

2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. that is. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P .6 for the electric dipole layer. and negative otherwise. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . This is the same convention as in Section 1. Classical Electrodynamics. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.

we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. using the expressions of parts a and b. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. φ = 0. Since there is no current in the z direction. z). (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. so its coordinates are (ρ. Classical Electrodynamics. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. we take the observation point x on the x axis. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5.33) into cylindrical coordinates. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). and since the 1 .

16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. so ρ< = ρ. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.148). the φ integral yields 2π. otherwise it vanishes. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . ρ> = a. but with the expression from Problem 3.148). 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3.

(a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. Plugging it in to the above. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5.69). I1 (ρ) → 0. In the “lab” frame. φ0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. φ0 .11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . Compare your result with the approximate result (5. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. (2) . There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. Comment. We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order.150). and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. R. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component.

11. the opposite is true for B. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. which takes us to R . The components of J are easy to express in R . To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. Evidently. cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. I think the former approach is easier. but more complicated in R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5.

y = a sin φ . . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. If the loop radius is a. since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). In the surviving terms. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ .e. i. cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y .

because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. have an angle α between their planes. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. current I) lies in the xy plane. As in the last problem. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. respectively (b < a). φ = 0) in . The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. b and currents I. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. Problem 5. so y = y . and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. I . But r · Jb vanishes.

if a point has angular coordinates θ. Next.48): Br (r . r> = a and we have Br (r = b. (11) To transform this to frame R. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. then r< = b.) . since the origins of R and R coincide. and for all such points r = b. θ = π/2. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . Jackson’s equation (5. but we don’t need to. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. we ﬁrst note that. θ = π/2. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. Of course. so Br = Br . φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. the polar angle in frame R . Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. φ0 = 0. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). with θ0 = α. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. φ in R. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8).

We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). evaluated at points on the smaller loop. we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . This looks ugly. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. Of course. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2.

H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0.1. hollow. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. Neglect end eﬀects. in the external region. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . within the cylinder and in its inner region. Problem 5. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. there is free current.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). but I can’t ﬁnd where. These imply that. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. × H = Jfree = 0. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. Can anybody help? Problem 5. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. So. and of relative permeability µr . .5. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. In the external region. so things are not so simple. 0. i. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder.14 A long.

With the above expressions for the components of H. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. ∂φ n=1 . Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . φ) = Actually. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes.

Similarly. multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . . multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . For n = 1. µ0 On the other hand. For n = 1. we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. n=1 (18) n = 1. Equating (20) with (22).

a < r < b r r > b. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 (a/b) = 0.5 log10 r -2 -2.5 -4 -4. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure . 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 . ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ .5 -3 -3.5 (a/b) = 0.1 -1 -1. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .

show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. r > a. unity. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r > a. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . since J2 vanishes for r < b. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ).5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. (a) In the approximation of b a.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.

The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). a. so that the boundary surface is z = 0. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. As r → 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . Problem 5. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . . Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25).

On the other hand. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). A = Aφ φ. there is no free current. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. H = − Φm . dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).87). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). z>d z < d. and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. so × H = 0 everywhere. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. z < d.10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d.

both inside and outside. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. z) satisfying the Laplace equation. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. Classical Electrodynamics.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. so H(ρ. Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. There is no free current in this problem. 0 1 . z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. both inside and outside.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ).

The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . k . 0. and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). ρ<a ρ > a. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ.

2 . 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

+ L2 2a . and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. (a) Show that. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. Instead. two things happen. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. but now there is just free space. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. Second. First. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. we can use the following little trick. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. Since there are no free currents in the problem. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. a . where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz.

(8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. and using the identity (2). 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). 0. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. integrating from 0 to ∞. ρ<a ρ > a. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). µ0 . integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ).

z>L 0 Hz (ρ. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). (0 < z < L).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. we see that. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). 0 < z < L. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. . 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). we must have D → 0. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. and may thus be taken out of the integral. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL).

k 0 Then () becomes .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). and exchanging the order of integration. we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka).

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