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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

One image charge. The charged. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . so that term wins. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. As d → ∞. The second image charge.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. conducting sphere of radius R. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. and the overall force is attractive. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. isolated.4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2.

Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1.88.6178. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. The root of this one is d/R=1. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 . F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The second image charge. The root is d/R=1. makes no contribution in this limit. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge.43. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. So we have F →− q2 . (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. .

11. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . of an isolated charged conducting sphere. and the energy discussion of Section 1.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. Eq.8). Eq. and the energy discussion of Section 1.9). Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential. Eq. The potential energy between the point charge and . note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. Eq. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. (2.6). (2.11.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2.3). (2. (2. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force.

Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. and its charge increases. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. I think the problem is with equation (8). storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. which we could store in a battery or something. at which point we would be back where we started. This would seem to violate energy conservation.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). and another of charge Q − q at the origin. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. liberating a quantity of energy (8).

boundary. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. It’s useful to review this technique. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. x − ψx0 (x ) .) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. ∂φ ∂n dA . we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. However. The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. we might write it as ψx0 (x). If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. More speciﬁcally.

we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions). . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. x (13) Again. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA .

(d) the force on the charge. and a distance R away from.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. i. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. on the x axis. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. Classical Electrodynamics.4 in units of τ /2πb. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis).3 for the potential of a line charge. (c) the induced surface-charge density.e. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity.

φ). this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. the φ term must drop out. but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . which requires R = γR. we have Φ= For large ρ. (b) At a point (ρ. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ .

4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . substitute them into the series. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . Problem 2. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge.12 Starting with the series solution (2. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. y = 0. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant.

φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . 0 Plugging back into (1). 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. . and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. sin n φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . φ) cos(nφ)dφ. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin.71). We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. (5) Φ(b. we know the bn are all zero.

Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. This problem is just like the previous one. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . (6) n odd .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). With these coeﬃcients. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b.13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) .

(I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. n odd (Evidently. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 . 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . .) With this. (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function.

x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. y. see the Green’s functions review above. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. 1) = 0. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. y ) vanishes for points (x .15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x. y ) on the boundary. 0) = gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. g(y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). (b) Taking for gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. has an expansion ∞ G(x. y. First. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. x . The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. x . in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. So G(x. y. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. y. x . The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. show that the explicit form of G is G(x. Second. (8) With the suggested expansion. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y.

(10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. y < y. Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. (12) . we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . First let’s consider the boundary conditions.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. y > y. y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). Actually. Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9).e.

(14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. y ) from Problem 2. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). y = .2 0.41. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. we have gn (y. y > y. which we have already done. y < y. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . y ) = δ(y − y ). y=. and vanish otherwise.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: .4 yprime 0. In other words.6 0.15 with n=5.

nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . y. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . Referring to my Green’s functions review above. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . Using the Green function of Problem 2. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z).15. x . and G vanishes there by construction.16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). We’re also given that . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x.

n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. . (17) The integrals can be done separately. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . n odd 0 . (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy .

ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. φ. u = (z − z ). y. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. ρ . where Z is taken to be very large. (As in Problem 2. with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. x . y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = .68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . +Z −Z Integrating.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. x .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. y. y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. Show that apart from an inessential constant. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x.15. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. ρ . . the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). φ. ρ . ρ . φ. ρ . leaving 2 G(ρ. These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. φ. φ. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ). Since Z is much bigger than a. ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem.

we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. . the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ > ρ. ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ <ρ . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. 2m = 1 ρ . and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. we have to take B1m = A2m = 0.15. ρ <ρ . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . For m ≥ 1. . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> .

ρ <ρ .] (a) As before. ρ > ρ. This requires that B1m = 0 .40)]. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )].18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞).17. Problem 2. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . no mistake is made in its use. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. ρ = b) = 0. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ.17. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . See (1.12.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. Next. . Finally. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. φ. . ρ . ρ< ρ> m − . Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. (22) . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ).

φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.17 (c). ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. φ) = Φ(b. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. the volume integral vanishes. . ρ .12. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder.com). We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ.integrals. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. φ. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. although I cheated and looked it up on www.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. . In the surface integral. Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . This is the same gm we came up with before. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term.12. The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21).

2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . The other hemispheres are at zero potential. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ).1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Classical Electrodynamics. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. 2l + 1 1 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. Include terms at least up to l = 4. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15.

7 of the text. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. with the sign of V ﬂipped.36) in the text. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. . In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. When a → 0. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem.27) with half the potential spacing. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. In that limit. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even.3 of the text. as treated in section 3. the above expression becomes Φ(r.

so the Bl in (1) are zero. (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). for l = 0. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . except for a spherical cap at the north pole. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. 3.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 . What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. alternately. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. θ.3. φ) Ylm (θ. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. θ. (8) For the solution within the sphere.36) of Section 3. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. φ). φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. Problem 3. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . (10) im .

2 2 (b) As shown above. 5n/2. and l = 3. otherwise. with n = 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). · · · = 0. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. 5/2. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . and (10) equates to 2n . so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . m = ±1. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. et cetera. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. . m = n/2. 3n/2. m= n 3n . 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). In that case. which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. so all n terms add constructively. otherwise. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. Then. m = 3n/2. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. 3/2. · · · = im 0. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. · · · . Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. m = ±1 or ±3.

Φ(r. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. (a) First of all. which I have skipped here. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. 4π 0 r2 . Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. respectively. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. θ. (b) Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential.

Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. Q r5 Φ(r. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. in which case we have the general expansion (1). To calculate Φs . The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. Show that in the limit a → 0. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. −2q. by the orthogonality of the Pl . we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. as indicated in the ﬁgure. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . θ. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b.7 Three point charges (q. 1− Φ(r. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. and that p . θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b.

and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . z). ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. The potential on the end faces is zero. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. Problem 3. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ).

φ. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ.13. 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. In this case. n = 1. (14) Problem 3. which means we have to take k imaginary. so that V (φ. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. 2. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz .9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. V (φ. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). i. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. πn . we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. which requires F = 0.e. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). one at potential V and the other at potential −V . (b) Assuming L >> b. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . (b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2). At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. dρ Plugging this into (3). (5) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. Problem 3. ﬁlling the hole. . disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. A thin. a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . Using this in (5). thin. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . ﬂat.12 An inﬁnite.

Also. ∞ a Φ(ρ. Plugging this back into (6). (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. I integrated by parts.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x). z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. (8) . we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. In this problem there is no φ dependence. 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. To do it. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. so Q = 1. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk.

z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x.13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. x ) ∂n dA . x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. r ) 2l + 1 (10) .1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. φ) Rl (r. so only the surface integral contributes. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. φ ) Ylm (θ. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . For Dirichlet boundary value problems. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ .

∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. r ). r ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. (l − 2)!! 1 . (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. and we have G(x. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r.

whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. where z is the distance from the midpoint. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. and at r = b with respect to r> . while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. Problem 3. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. and that the total charge is Q. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. r ) l=0 (13) . A grounded.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ).1. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. so the Green’s function is → G(x. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. First of all. Also.

the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. r . where r = z.. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0.. 0 Rl (r. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0.4. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r.. θ )dV. θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r .2. and (−1)l for z < 0. θ )ρ(r . Also.

which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. Rl (r. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14).

there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . Using the lumped circuit relations. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. In the steady state. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. P = I 2 Re = IVe . but the current density must be constant there. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt .

this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. θ) = Φ(r. we have σ Using (16). we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . Φ(r. Jr (r = a− . there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). which means charge would pile up in that region. θ) = Φout (r. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. θ) = Φin (r. for r > a.e. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). (17) Outside of the sphere. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). So the current density is continuous everywhere. Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . Applying (17) to these expressions. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. (16) Now. Inside the sphere. θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. In particular. i. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. θ) = Jr (r = a+ . the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. θ) = Φin (r. θ). θ) = Φout (r.

σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ . (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. F a3 r−2 cos θ. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞.

The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. dy. so I = σEx dydz.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. θ. Also. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). and dz. 3πaσ . we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state.

(27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . at all points x = x. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . φ. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). and must thus take one of the above forms.17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. . (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. G must be continuous. At x = x. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)].

to keep G ﬁnite everywhere.. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i.e. x ) = mk γmk (z. where γmk is any function of z and φ. Then G(x. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. In other words. one on either side of the source point x. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). Then we can write G as G(x. ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. ρ. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore.e. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. even though I never explicitly required this.e. The question is. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. we see that. The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. This requirement excludes terms of the form . imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). Then we have G(x. z. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. i. Clearly. Then. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . φ)Im (kρ). x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). within each region.. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. In this case. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. at the radius of the source point. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). in which dimension (i. and yet it does.

φ) as ∞ Φ(z. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. so D = 0. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. Hence we must use terms of the form (26). and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . over these terms: G(x . ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. ρ. What about corrections for L a. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. not a sum. ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). ρ. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . φ. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . With these restrictions. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. ρ.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. φ. (28) . Hence the Green’s function will be an integral.12 are recovered. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. Bm (k. but not inﬁnite. z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. because Km is singular at the origin.

0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ. in Problem 3. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ.

I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3.12. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . so the two terms in (33) add directly. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. . The result is that. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. in which region kz z/L 1. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. for all k. one grounded and the other at potential V. The second integral. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. unfortunately.

Classical Electrodynamics.18 as the comparison problem. 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA.12 with Problem 3. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 .19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. (1) 1 . with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. 0 < z0 < L. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system.

and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.r<a so σ (r. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. z) =? Φ (r. Plugging into (1). z) = 0 σ(r. z) = 0.18. z) =? Φ(r. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. z) = 0. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. =?. z) dA = 0 z=L. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. = 0.19. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . z) dA = −q z=L. = V. Then ρ(r. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a.

Problem 3. which excludes the cos terms (i. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. and ρ = a. Let’s break the region into two subregions. However. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. φ. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. φ = β. as indicated in the sketch. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. The solution must also vanish at φ = β.22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. φ). m = 1. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . As before. Bn = Dn = 0). Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. L) = − (c) At a = 0. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. In both regions. sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. ρ . φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. · · · . φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. which requires that n = mπ/β. 2.e. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . (4) becomes σ (0.25 may be of use. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region.

. ρ . φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. φ. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . φ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. i. ρ .e. φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. ρ . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β .e. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. at ρ = ρ. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . mπφ β . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. Bm . φ. φ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. i. ρ . This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. Using these expressions for Am . Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. At ρ = ρ. Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. φ. κm fm (ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. φ. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. ρ . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . but I can’t ﬁnd where. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. ρ . φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. . ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier.

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We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i.8 A very long. respectively. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. told to neglect end eﬀects. right circular. in the region outside the shell 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). neglecting end eﬀects. Also. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. Classical Electrodynamics.

−E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. i.e. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ].Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r.

Next. The four equations (1). . and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. the system of equations (2). we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . (4). (3). −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . However. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . (6). for n = 1. which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. (5). for n = 1.

2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . = 5 0 . (b) In Figure 4. → 0 . which is reassuring. ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. r ˆ b < r. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. Also. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. E(r. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ].1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. we would have a → 0. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to .

b → ∞. 0 E(r. r ˆ r > a. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. = 5 0. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.8 for b = 2a. ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ].

your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). 4π 0 On the other hand. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. (c) Verify that. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ).9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . r > d. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . a<r<d Φ(r. Φ(r. in the region r > a. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. θ) = l Now. while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). ·D = 0 there. 0 → ∞. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. r > d. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. 4π 0 rl+1 . in the limit / conducting sphere.

. the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). and Bl → − qa2l+1 .

all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. a < r < b. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. That region is described by θ = π/2.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. we have Φ(r. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. as shown in the ﬁgure. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. carry charges ±Q. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. and we . (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. respectively. 0 < θ < π/2. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ).

To begin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. coaxial. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. l odd l even. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . Similarly. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. In (13). There are actually two components of this charge. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l.13 Two long. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . g is the acceleration due to gravity. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. Bl = Dl . one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4.

If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. With this greater charge on the electrodes. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. However. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. So the .

the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). i. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . As we showed earlier. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17).e. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. However. With no potential between the cylinder plates. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. . namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. ln(b/a) On the other hand. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. Turning now to the situation in this problem. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. So suppose that. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ).

2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. Actually we should note one detail here. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. namely. . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift.

0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) .(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.0 /* no. double phi) { double Coeff.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1. else Coeff=1.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).c" #define EZ 1.0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8. /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 .8.h> #include <math. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).((B*B .0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4. */ double Er(double r.phi).0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4. of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4. } .8.

"%g %g\n". if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0*B. */ fprintf(g.0*B. fprintf(g. fprintf(g.eps’\n")."set terminal postscript portrait color\n")."plot ’-’ t ’’."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". } void main() { double i.phi. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.PhiComp. fprintf(g. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi). fprintf(g. fprintf(g."set size square\n").x.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. ’-’ t ’’ with lines.y."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). FILE *g. else Coeff=1.dy."e\n")."set noxtics\n").-2.j. */ double Ephi(double r. fprintf(g. phi<=2*M_PI.2.0*B).2."set noytics\n").dx.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r."set multiplot \n").0*B).phi)."set output ’fig4.r. for(phi=0. fprintf(g. double RComp. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). */ fprintf(g. .-2. double phi) { double Coeff.A*cos(phi). g=GnuPlot("Field lines").0 + ((B*B .1.A*sin(phi)). /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. fprintf(g.

*/ for (j=0. j<NUMPOINTS.0) ? M_PI/2. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount. for(phi=0. i+=1. PhiComp=Ephi(r."%g %g\n"."e\n").0.B*cos(phi). if (x==0.B*sin(phi)). /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. fprintf(g.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.0. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.y).x. y=2. */ for (i=1. else phi=atan(y/x). ."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX. dx=cos(phi)*RComp ."e\n"). fprintf(g. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx). */ x=-2.0*B.0) phi=(y>0. j+=1.phi). fprintf(g.0. i<=NUMLINES.0 : -M_PI/2. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line.2. phi<=2*M_PI."%g %g\n".phi).0*i)/NUMLINES).0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.0*B * ((NUMLINES .sin(phi)*PhiComp. /* * Draw field lines.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. fprintf(g. }. } . printf("Thank you for your support."e\n").\n").

2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. Classical Electrodynamics.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P .6 for the electric dipole layer. This is the same convention as in Section 1. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. that is. The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . and negative otherwise.

we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. and since the 1 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. z). Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. using the expressions of parts a and b. we take the observation point x on the x axis. so its coordinates are (ρ. Classical Electrodynamics. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction.33) into cylindrical coordinates. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. φ = 0.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. Since there is no current in the z direction. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. but with the expression from Problem 3. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1).148). otherwise it vanishes. so ρ< = ρ. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. the φ integral yields 2π. ρ> = a.148).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0.

I1 (ρ) → 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. (2) . so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. In the “lab” frame. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. Plugging it in to the above.69). Comment. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . φ0 . R. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 .150). and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. φ0 . There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV.

but more complicated in R. which takes us to R . the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. I think the former approach is easier. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R .11. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . The components of J are easy to express in R . cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . as depicted in ﬁgure (??). The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. the opposite is true for B. in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. Evidently. 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5.

cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop.e. i. . If the loop radius is a. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. In the surviving terms. y = a sin φ . since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ .

As in the last problem. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. Problem 5.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. current I) lies in the xy plane. respectively (b < a). But r · Jb vanishes. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. b and currents I. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. I . because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. φ = 0) in . where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. so y = y . note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. have an angle α between their planes.

θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). but we don’t need to. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. the polar angle in frame R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. so Br = Br . φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. φ in R. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. (11) To transform this to frame R. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. θ = π/2.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . since the origins of R and R coincide. θ = π/2. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.) . (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . we ﬁrst note that. Of course. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. Next. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . and for all such points r = b. the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. φ0 = 0. then r< = b.48): Br (r . if a point has angular coordinates θ. Jackson’s equation (5. θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. with θ0 = α. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b.

This looks ugly. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. Of course. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). evaluated at points on the smaller loop. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ .

in the external region. 0. there is free current. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. Neglect end eﬀects.5. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. These imply that. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. hollow.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. within the cylinder and in its inner region. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. Problem 5. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. but I can’t ﬁnd where. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem.1. and of relative permeability µr . is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. . so things are not so simple. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. In the external region.14 A long. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. i. So. × H = Jfree = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. Can anybody help? Problem 5.

we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. ∂φ n=1 . ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. With the above expressions for the components of H. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. φ) = Actually. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside.

Similarly. µ0 On the other hand. Equating (20) with (22). − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . For n = 1. n=1 (18) n = 1. For n = 1. multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) .

5 -4 -4.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure . (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ . ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ .1 -1 -1. a < r < b r r > b. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .5 log10 r -2 -2.5 -3 -3. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.5 (a/b) = 0.5 (a/b) = 0. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .

16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. since J2 vanishes for r < b. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . r < a B1θ = On the other hand. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). unity. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. r > a. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. r > a. (a) In the approximation of b a. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.

since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. a. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. As r → 0. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . Problem 5. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . . so that the boundary surface is z = 0. while B1r → µ0 I/2a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d.

(33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . so × H = 0 everywhere. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. z>d z < d. A = Aφ φ. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. there is no free current. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A.87). z < d. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ).10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). On the other hand. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H = − Φm . for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab.

The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . z < d. z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) .

Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). both inside and outside. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z) satisfying the Laplace equation. Classical Electrodynamics. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder.19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. both inside and outside. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . There is no free current in this problem. Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. so H(ρ. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 0 1 . (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.

Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . ρ<a ρ > a. 0. integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. k .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ.

Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k). Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. 2 . 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. + L2 2a . Instead. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. Since there are no free currents in the problem. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. but now there is just free space.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. a . between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. two things happen. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. (a) Show that. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. Second. we can use the following little trick. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . First.

µ0 . Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. 0. 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). ρ<a ρ > a. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). and using the identity (2). integrating from 0 to ∞. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous.

ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. 0 < z < L. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. . and may thus be taken out of the integral. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. we see that. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. z>L 0 Hz (ρ. The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). we must have D → 0. (0 < z < L). z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a.

k 0 Then () becomes . we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). and exchanging the order of integration.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into ().

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