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Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . and the overall force is attractive. The second image charge. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. One image charge. conducting sphere of radius R. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . so that term wins. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. The charged. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. As d → ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) . isolated. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge.

If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. The root is d/R=1. . Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The second image charge. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. The root of this one is d/R=1.43. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. makes no contribution in this limit.6178. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. So we have F →− q2 . the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image.88. (c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d).

and the energy discussion of Section 1. (2. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. Eq. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. (2.11. and the energy discussion of Section 1. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r. The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. (2. Eq.5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. Eq.3). (2. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 . Eq. The potential energy between the point charge and .11.9). of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a . 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential.8).6).

The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. This would seem to violate energy conservation. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. and its charge increases. which we could store in a battery or something. The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . and we should take (7) to be the correct result. at which point we would be back where we started.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). I think the problem is with equation (8). It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. liberating a quantity of energy (8).

we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . However. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . ∂φ ∂n dA . The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. boundary. −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. It’s useful to review this technique. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter. we might write it as ψx0 (x).) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. x − ψx0 (x ) . (9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. More speciﬁcally.

Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). x (13) Again. we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions). Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions).

and a distance R away from.e. Classical Electrodynamics. 1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder.4 in units of τ /2πb. Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ .11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s).3 for the potential of a line charge. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis).Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. (d) the force on the charge. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. i. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. (c) the induced surface-charge density. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . on the x axis. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder.

and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. the φ term must drop out. this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). φ). (b) At a point (ρ. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. we have Φ= For large ρ. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface. which requires R = γR.

12 Starting with the series solution (2. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 . 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. y = 0. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . evaluate the coeﬃcients formally. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant. Problem 2.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. substitute them into the series.

and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. we know the bn are all zero. φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . (5) Φ(b. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 .71). φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. 0 Plugging back into (1). For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. sin n φ. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b.

the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. This problem is just like the previous one. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 .13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. (6) n odd . (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 . With these coeﬃcients. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder.

Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently). 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . n odd (Evidently. (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. . Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 . (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 .) With this.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function.

y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. 0) = gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. x . First. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. y ) on the boundary. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1.15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. Second. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . has an expansion ∞ G(x. see the Green’s functions review above. g(y. (b) Taking for gn (y. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. y ) vanishes for points (x . show that the explicit form of G is G(x. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . (8) With the suggested expansion. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. 1) = 0. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). y. y. x . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. So G(x. y. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. x . x . y. y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions.

e. First let’s consider the boundary conditions.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function. (b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. y < y. An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. y > y. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). (12) . Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). Actually. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y . we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 .

y > y. y ) = δ(y − y ). but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y.4 yprime 0. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn .2 0. which we have already done. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. y=.41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. we have gn (y.41. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). In other words.6 0. and vanish otherwise. y ) from Problem 2.15 with n=5. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. y < y. y = . y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ). The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5.

16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.15. x . y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] . x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. Using the Green function of Problem 2. y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 . We’re also given that . because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 . show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). y. Referring to my Green’s functions review above. and G vanishes there by construction.

(19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume. . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . n odd 0 . (17) The integrals can be done separately. The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has.

y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . φ. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ. Show that apart from an inessential constant. ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )].68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. x .) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . x . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. y. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. ρ .17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. where Z is taken to be very large. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2.15. +Z −Z Integrating. (As in Problem 2. u = (z − z ). y. φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ .

the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . φ). ρ . ρ . Since Z is much bigger than a. leaving 2 G(ρ. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) . ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. φ. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. φ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. . These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. φ. φ. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ .

the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ <ρ . ρ <ρ . 2m = 1 ρ . . Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity. ρ > ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .15. Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. . For m ≥ 1.

Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . ρ > ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )].40)]. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞). See (1. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ.12. ρ = b) = 0. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2.17. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ.] (a) As before. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. ρ <ρ . For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. no mistake is made in its use. φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. This requires that B1m = 0 .17. Problem 2.

(22) . ρ . φ. dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. Finally. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ. ρ< ρ> m − . m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. 1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). . Next. ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ.

and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. . For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . φ. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2.12. ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. ρ . The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. If there is no charge inside the cylinder.com).17 (c). φ) = Φ(b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ]. the volume integral vanishes. he did include it in his answer to problem 2. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder.integrals. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . although I cheated and looked it up on www. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result.

(c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . In the surface integral. the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . This is the same gm we came up with before. .12. and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ . But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function. but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term.

1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . 2l + 1 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. Classical Electrodynamics. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . The other hemispheres are at zero potential. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ).Solutions to Problems in Jackson. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Include terms at least up to l = 4. θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) .

the above expression becomes Φ(r.36) in the text. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. with the sign of V ﬂipped. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. . This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem.3 of the text. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . as treated in section 3. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2. In that limit.7 of the text. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r.27) with half the potential spacing. 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . When a → 0.

(c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small.28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin. Diﬀerentiating that expansion.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole. 3. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. so the Bl in (1) are zero. for l = 0. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R .2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r. (8) For the solution within the sphere. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. alternately.36) of Section 3. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. θ.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. (10) im . φ). φ) Ylm (θ. θ. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V . By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. Problem 3.3.

m = ±1 or ±3. otherwise. · · · . the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . · · · = im 0. so all n terms add constructively. · · · = 0. m = ±1. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. In that case. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . and l = 3. 5/2. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. . 5n/2. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms. 3n/2. Then. 3/2. otherwise. m = n/2. 2 2 (b) As shown above. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. and (10) equates to 2n . et cetera. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. m= n 3n . m = 3n/2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. with n = 2.

θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. 4π 0 r2 . take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. θ. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. (b) Φ(r. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation. which I have skipped here.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. (a) First of all. respectively. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. Φ(r.

A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. and that p . The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures. φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b.7 Three point charges (q. Q r5 Φ(r. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· . Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. by the orthogonality of the Pl . 1− Φ(r. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. −2q. To calculate Φs . The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. as indicated in the ﬁgure. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. Show that in the limit a → 0. in which case we have the general expansion (1). θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. θ. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3.

ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder. and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. The potential on the end faces is zero. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ. z).9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). Problem 3. we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r.

we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. n = 1. i. z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. In this case.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. one at potential V and the other at potential −V .e. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin.13. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer. 2. V (φ. (14) Problem 3. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). (b) Assuming L >> b. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. which means we have to take k imaginary.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . 3. so that V (φ. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. which requires F = 0. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. φ. z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). πn .

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

(b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality. (5) . the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. dρ Plugging this into (3). we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2).

thin. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). Using this in (5). plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. ﬁlling the hole. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. ﬂat. A thin. a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . Problem 3. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately.12 An inﬁnite. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . .

so Q = 1. To do it. Also. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. In this problem there is no φ dependence. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. Plugging this back into (6). (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). ∞ a Φ(ρ. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x).) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. I integrated by parts. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. (8) . 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. so only the surface integral contributes. and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . For Dirichlet boundary value problems. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3. φ ) Ylm (θ. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. x ) ∂n dA . du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ .13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest.1. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. φ) Rl (r.

r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r. (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r. and we have G(x. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. r ). x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. r ). The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. (l − 2)!! 1 . and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere.

r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . and that the total charge is Q. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. and at r = b with respect to r> . x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. r ) l=0 (13) . First of all. so the Green’s function is → G(x. (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . Also. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. Problem 3. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. where z is the distance from the midpoint. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). A grounded.1.

and (−1)l for z < 0. θ. where r = z.4... Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface. z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. θ )dV.2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. 0 Rl (r. Also. r . This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l.. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . and add constructively for even l: Φ(r. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. θ )ρ(r .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 . we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here. Rl (r.

which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. but the current density must be constant there. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3. there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. Using the lumped circuit relations. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. P = I 2 Re = IVe . In the steady state. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ .

we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). (17) Outside of the sphere. So the current density is continuous everywhere. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). θ) = Φin (r. Applying (17) to these expressions. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). (16) Now. Φ(r. θ) = Φin (r. θ) = Φout (r. θ) = Φout (r. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density. In particular. i. Inside the sphere. which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. Jr (r = a− . θ). θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. for r > a. θ) = Jr (r = a+ . there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. which means charge would pile up in that region. we have σ Using (16). Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . θ) = Φ(r.e.

σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). F a3 r−2 cos θ. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1.

we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . 3πaσ . suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. and dz. so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . θ. the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. dy. Also. so I = σEx dydz. Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV .

both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. . At x = x. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ). the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. φ. x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km .17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. at all points x = x. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . and must thus take one of the above forms. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. G must be continuous. sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.

x ) = mk γmk (z. Then. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. one on either side of the source point x. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term.. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. In other words. Then we have G(x. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. i. The question is. ρ. mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ. and yet it does. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). Clearly. Then we can write G as G(x. even though I never explicitly required this. and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. This requirement excludes terms of the form . (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ .e. within each region. In this case. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). in which dimension (i. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. Then G(x. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. φ)Im (kρ). φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z.. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. we see that. the entire range of z must be handled by one function.e. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. at the radius of the source point.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). z. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. where γmk is any function of z and φ.e.

To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). ρ. not a sum. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. (28) . What about corrections for L a.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . φ.12 are recovered.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. over these terms: G(x . φ) as ∞ Φ(z. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. ρ. a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. ρ. because Km is singular at the origin. so D = 0. ρ. so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . Bm (k. but not inﬁnite. With these restrictions. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). Hence we must use terms of the form (26). z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk.

L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. in Problem 3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. one grounded and the other at potential V. coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. so the two terms in (33) add directly. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant.12. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. in which region kz z/L 1. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. unfortunately. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. Calling the ﬁxed distance z . so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. for all k. The result is that. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. . The second integral. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z .

Third Edition Homer Reid August 6. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. (1) 1 . 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential.18 as the comparison problem.12 with Problem 3. 0 < z0 < L. Classical Electrodynamics. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 .

0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 . z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign.18. =?. z) dA = −q z=L. z) = 0. L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a.19. z) =? Φ (r. z) = 0 σ(r. = V. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. z) =? Φ(r. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. Then ρ(r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . z) = 0. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r.r<a so σ (r. = 0. z) dA = 0 z=L. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. Plugging into (1).

· · · . With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: .22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0.25 may be of use. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. φ. 2. However. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. Problem 3. which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. which excludes the cos terms (i. m = 1. Bn = Dn = 0). as indicated in the sketch. L) = − (c) At a = 0. In both regions. φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ]. Let’s break the region into two subregions. and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. and ρ = a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. ρ . sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral. φ = β.e. The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . Suppose the observation point is (ρ. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. (4) becomes σ (0. φ). ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. which requires that n = mπ/β. As before.

i. ρ . φ. . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. φ. ρ . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. φ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. Using these expressions for Am . φ. i.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ.e. ρ . Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . Bm . mπφ β . at ρ = ρ.e. ρ . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β .

β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. . κm fm (ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). At ρ = ρ. but I can’t ﬁnd where. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . φ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ. ρ At all points ρ = ρ. ρ . we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . φ. the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). ρ .

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right circular. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. Classical Electrodynamics.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. in the region outside the shell 1 . and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity. Also. respectively. (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. neglecting end eﬀects. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a).8 A very long. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. told to neglect end eﬀects. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem.

the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ].Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b).e. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. i.

we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. the system of equations (2). we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . Next. The four equations (1). which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. (6). (5). −4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0. for n = 1. and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. for n = 1. However. (3).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. . (4).

= 5 0 . ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . we would have a → 0. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to . r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. E(r. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . (b) In Figure 4.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. r ˆ b < r. which is reassuring.1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. Also. → 0 .

ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. b → ∞.8 for b = 2a. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. = 5 0. 0 E(r. . r ˆ r > a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4.

θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. r > d. ·D = 0 there. a<r<d Φ(r. so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. (c) Verify that. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). 4π 0 rl+1 . in the region r > a. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. Φ(r. θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). θ) = l Now. 4π 0 On the other hand. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. r > d. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . in the limit / conducting sphere. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. 0 → ∞.

and Bl → − qa2l+1 . . 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ).

(a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. a < r < b. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry.10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. as shown in the ﬁgure. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). That region is described by θ = π/2. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. respectively. we have Φ(r. 0 < θ < π/2. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. (a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). carry charges ±Q. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). and we .

l odd l even. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. coaxial.13 Two long. g is the acceleration due to gravity. Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. Bl = Dl . Similarly. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. To begin. and the susceptibility of air is neglected. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. In (13).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. There are actually two components of this charge. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the . the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically.

the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. So the . Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. With this greater charge on the electrodes. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case. However.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders.

the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge.e. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes. However. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. . So suppose that. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length). With no potential between the cylinder plates. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. i. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. As we showed earlier. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. ln(b/a) On the other hand. Turning now to the situation in this problem. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh.

But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. . When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). Actually we should note one detail here. the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. namely. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift.

h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) . if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). } .A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) . /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4. double phi) { double Coeff. * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ).8.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.phi). of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.((B*B .0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250. else Coeff=1.0 .0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.h> #include <math.8.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.c" #define EZ 1. */ double Er(double r.0 /* no. return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.

A*sin(phi))."set xrange [%g:%g]\n". fprintf(g. for(phi=0. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.PhiComp. fprintf(g. fprintf(g. else Coeff=1. fprintf(g. } void main() { double i. */ double Ephi(double r.0*B."set noxtics\n").2."set size square\n"). fprintf(g.0*B)."plot ’-’ t ’’. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). .phi). ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").phi. fprintf(g."set output ’fig4."set yrange [%g:%g]\n".2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r. fprintf(g."e\n").dx. */ fprintf(g. /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).-2.j."set multiplot \n"). g=GnuPlot("Field lines").y."set noytics\n"). double phi) { double Coeff.r.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. FILE *g.-2. phi<=2*M_PI.0 + ((B*B . ’-’ t ’’ with lines.x.0*B). fprintf(g.0*B.dy. */ fprintf(g. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi). double RComp."set terminal postscript portrait color\n")."%g %g\n". phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.1.eps’\n").A*cos(phi).

phi).0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).0.2. i+=1. y=2. i<=NUMLINES.B*sin(phi)).0) phi=(y>0.0.0*B. j+=1. */ x=-2."%g %g\n"."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). else phi=atan(y/x). for(phi=0. /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount. fprintf(g.y).B*cos(phi)."%g %g\n". /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx).0) ? M_PI/2."e\n"). if (x==0. phi<=2*M_PI.sin(phi)*PhiComp. fprintf(g. */ for (j=0. */ for (i=1.0 : -M_PI/2. and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.0*i)/NUMLINES).phi). dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp. /* * Draw field lines. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line. dx=cos(phi)*RComp .0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot. j<NUMPOINTS."e\n").0*B * ((NUMLINES .x. PhiComp=Ephi(r.0. . fprintf(g. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g.

printf("Thank you for your support. }.\n"). fprintf(g.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. } ."e\n").

the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 . that is. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8.1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x . The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop. Classical Electrodynamics. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P .Solutions to Problems in Jackson. This is the same convention as in Section 1. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule.6 for the electric dipole layer. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential. and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . and negative otherwise. ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π.

so its coordinates are (ρ. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. and since the 1 .33) into cylindrical coordinates. φ = 0. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. Since there is no current in the z direction. z). using the expressions of parts a and b. we take the observation point x on the x axis. Classical Electrodynamics. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.

so ρ< = ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1.16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0.148). (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop. otherwise it vanishes. ρ> = a. 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through. the φ integral yields 2π. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1).148). Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. but with the expression from Problem 3. we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk.

2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5.150). I1 (ρ) → 0. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. φ0 . but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. Compare your result with the approximate result (5. (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. φ0 . The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. In the “lab” frame. Plugging it in to the above. R. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . Comment. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. (2) . There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld.69). Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = . and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there.

cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. the opposite is true for B.11. I think the former approach is easier. but more complicated in R. I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. The components of J are easy to express in R . 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . as depicted in ﬁgure (??). Evidently. or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. which takes us to R . which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R .

then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ . cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . In the surviving terms. If the loop radius is a. (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). .e.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . i. and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . y = a sin φ . Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0.

As in the last problem. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). φ = 0) in . because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. have an angle α between their planes. Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. so y = y . We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis. But r · Jb vanishes. respectively (b < a).12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. Problem 5. current I) lies in the xy plane. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. b and currents I. The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. I . Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result.

we ﬁrst note that. so Br = Br . the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide.48): Br (r . If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). θ = π/2.) . we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop. φ in R. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. Jackson’s equation (5. with θ0 = α. since the origins of R and R coincide. and for all such points r = b. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. but we don’t need to. Of course. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5. the polar angle in frame R . How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ . Next. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. if a point has angular coordinates θ. θ = π/2.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. then r< = b. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. (11) To transform this to frame R. (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. φ0 = 0. φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8).

we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . evaluated at points on the smaller loop. Of course. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. This looks ugly. so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ .

14 A long. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system. and of relative permeability µr . These imply that. i. right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). So. in the external region. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. Problem 5. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. there is free current. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. hollow. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm .5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). . Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. but I can’t ﬁnd where. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . In the external region. Neglect end eﬀects. so things are not so simple. Can anybody help? Problem 5. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region. 0. so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. within the cylinder and in its inner region.1. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. × H = Jfree = 0.

Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ. With the above expressions for the components of H. φ) = Actually. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. ∂φ n=1 . ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ.

Equating (20) with (22). multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) . n=1 (18) n = 1. . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 . For n = 1. at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . For n = 1. µ0 On the other hand. (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . Similarly. the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0.

1 -1 -1.5 -3 -3. 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i. ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ . a < r < b r r > b. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ .5 -4 -4.5 (a/b) = 0. The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .5 log10 r -2 -2.5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr . − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .5 (a/b) = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .

The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . r > a.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region.5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron. since J2 vanishes for r < b. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity. r > a. unity. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. (a) In the approximation of b a. which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). r < a B1θ = On the other hand.

while B1r → µ0 I/2a. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. Problem 5. As r → 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 . Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab. the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld. . whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . a.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). so that the boundary surface is z = 0.

10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ). 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ).87). (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. H = − Φm . H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. A = Aφ φ. z < d. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. there is no free current. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. On the other hand. dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). z>d z < d. so × H = 0 everywhere. 2 1 0 ˆ ×A.

The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. z < d.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??). The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ).

both inside and outside. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Classical Electrodynamics. There is no free current in this problem. so H(ρ. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. z) satisfying the Laplace equation. uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis. both inside and outside.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. 0 1 .19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 . Third Edition Homer Reid April 20.

0. k . Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka). ρ<a ρ > a. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ.

2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 . 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ).

+ L2 2a . So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. two things happen. we can use the following little trick. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. (a) Show that. Second. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . but now there is just free space. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. a . where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M. Instead.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. First. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. Since there are no free currents in the problem. To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation.

0. Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. and using the identity (2). integrating from 0 to ∞. integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. ρ<a ρ > a. Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k). 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k). µ0 . (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ).

we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. we must have D → 0. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. (0 < z < L). The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. z>L 0 Hz (ρ. to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up. The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z. and may thus be taken out of the integral. we see that. 0 < z < L.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. . z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld.

and exchanging the order of integration. k 0 Then () becomes . we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into ().

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