SULFUR PLANT DESIGN MANUAL INDEX

TAB SUBJECT

A

Table of Contents

B Introduction General

Modifications to Manual Historical Background and Patents Design Parameters

Source of Feed

RECEIVC:D

JUN;:; 1972

Plant Size

Feed Characteristics Desired Recovery

Utility Balance

General Guideline for Selection of Plant Type

Engrg. Standards

C

Process Description General

Process Description Combustion Methods Reheat Alternates

D

Flow Diagrams General

Plot Configuration

Suggested Hot Gas Bypass Layout

Process Flow Diagram - Hot Gas Bypass Reheat Process F~ow Diagram - Fired Reheat

Mechanical Flow Diagram - Hot Gas Bypass Reheat Mechanical Flow Diagram - Fired Reheat

Utility Flow Diagram

Process Flow Diagram - PanAm Direct Oxidation

E Equipment

F Qualified Vendors List

G

Vessels General

Sulfur Converters Discussion

Sizing Criteria Sulfur Product Coalescer

Converter Catalyst Volume Horizontal Sulfur Converter Vertical Sulfur Converter Horizontal Coalescer Vertical Coalescer

Complex Horizontal Coalescer

TABLE OR

FIGURE NO. PAGES

1-5

Figure B-1

Figure C-l Figure C-2

Figure D-l Figure D-2 Figure D-3 Figure D-4 Figure D-5 Figure D-6 Figure D-7

Figure c-i Figure G-2 Figure G-3 Figure G- 4 Figure G-5 Figure G-6

1-9

1-3

1-2

1-4

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TA3 SUBJECT

H Pumps and Compressors

JAN :J 1 1971

General Drivers Air Blower

Pumps

Typical Air Blower Specification Typical Sulfur Pump Specification Typical Sour water Pump Specification

Engrg. Standar::'3

I Furnaces and Heaters General

Sulfur Furnaces Reheaters Incinerators

Typical Reactor Furnace Specification Typical R~beater Specification Typical Incinerator Specification Typical Reactor Furnace Sketch Typical Reheater Sketch

Typical Incinerator Sketch

J Waste Heat Boilers General

Waste Heat Boilers Design Consjderations

Typical WHB Process Specification Typical WHB Narrative Specification Typical WHB Sketch

K Heat Exchangers (Economizers) General

Design Considerations

Typical Economizer Specification (BFW Heater) Typical Sulfur Condenser Specification Typical Gas-Gas Reheater Specification

Limits of "Fog" Formation

L Miscellaneous Equipment General

Purchased Sulfur Plants Waste Gas Stacks Vendor Lists and Costs

Typical Gas Stack Specification

TABLE OR

FIGURE NO. PAGES

1-2

Figure H-l Figure H-2 Figure H-3

1-6

Table 1-1 Table 1-2 Table 1-3 Figure I-la&b Figure 1-2 Figure 1-3

1-3

Figure J-l Table J-2 Figure J-2

1-2

Figure K-l Figure K-2 Figure K-3 Figure K-4

1-3

TableL-l Table L-2

17A-289-272

INDEX

--

TAB SUBJECT

M

N

o

P

Q

R

S

Piping

Codes

Specification

Miscellaneous Comments Typical Piping Specifications Typical Piping Details

Instrumentation General

Control Principles

Sulfur Storage General

Liquid Sulfur storage Sumps

Storage Tanks Solid Storage

Solid Block storage

Std. Size Tank & Sump Costs & steam Req'd Typical Single Sump Design

Typical Duel Sump Design

utilities and Chemicals General

Average Plant Operating Requirements Electrical Power

Fuel Gas

Steam

Chemicals & Catalyst Catalyst Properties

Operating Data for Reactor using Cobalt-Moly Catalyst with Activated Bauxite Catalyst

Sulfur Plant Economics

Summary of Fluor Plants (Modern)

Summary of Fluor Plants (Olin-Mathieson) 400 Alc Sulfur Plant - only Cost Curve

Process Hand Calculations General

Feed(s-)

Plant Configuration Air Requirements Combustion Converters

waste Heat Boiler Condensers

Example 1 - Acid Gas >50% Mol %

Alternate lA - Straight Through wlHot Vapor BYPass Reheat

Alternate lB - Straight Through w/Direct Fired Reheat

TABLE OR FIGURE NO.

PAGES

1-3

Table M-l Figure M-l

1-3

RECEIVEDAUG 28 1972

1-6

Engrg. Standards

Figure 0-1 Figure 0-2 Figure 0-3

1-3

Table P-l

Table P-2

Table P-3

1-2

Table Q-l Table Q-2 Figure Q-l

1-6

Figure 8-1

1-65

17A-289-0872-1

INDEX

TAB SUBJECT

T Example 2 - Acid Gas 30-50 Mol % Alternate 2A - Straight Through w/Feed and Air Preheat

Alternate 2B - Acid Gas Bypass

u

Example 3 - Acid Gas <15 Mol%

v

Example 4 - Acid Gas Containing NHs

W Example 5 - (Future)

TABLE OR FIGURE NO.

PAGES

Figure T-l

1-10

Figure U-l

1-7

Figure V-l

1-5

x

RECEIVED

1-13

Operating Instructions General

Equipment Preparation Startup of Cold Plant Startup of Hot Plant Plant Shutdown Special Procedures

Operating Instructions for Cobalt-Moly Catalyst (C29-2-01 from CCI)

AUG 28 1972

Engrg. Standards

Y

Analytical Procedures Equipment and Reagents Process Control Analysis Chromatograph Analysis

Fraction of Sulfur as COS and CS in Tail Gas Typical Chromatograph Tail Gas A~alysis Column Configuration and Analytical Sequence Relationship of "Tail Gas Ratio" to "True

Tail Gas Ratio" --

Relationship of "True" Tail Gas Ratio to Sulfur Conversion

z

Hazards Fires

Health Hazards Air Pollution

AA

Corrosion

BB Data

Psychrometric Chart Sulfur Vapor Pressure Conversion Chart, I=5

" ", I=25

" ", I=50

" ", I=lOO

Observed 6T in Catalyst Beds Sulfur Dew Point

Composition of Sulfur Vapor Sulfur Temperature - Enthalpy Sulfur Liquid Enthalpy

1-15

Table Y-l Figure Y-l Figure Y-2

Figure Y-3 Figure y-4

1-4

1-2

Figure BB-l
" BB-2
" BB-3
" BB-4
" BB-5
" BB-6
" BB-7
" BB-8
" BB-9
" BB-IO
" BB-ll
17A-289-0872-1 INDEX

TAB SUBJECT

BB Data (Cont'd)

Enthalpy of Gases - Low Temperature Range Enthalpy of Gases - Mid-Temperature Range Enthalpy of Gases - High Temperature Range Heat of Formation

Specific Gravity of Liquid Sulfur Viscosity of Liquid Sulfur Viscosity of Sulfur Vapor

Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Sulfur Thermal Conductivity of Sulfur Vapor

CC Guarantees

General

Typical Guarantee Ferformance Guarantee Performance Test

TABLE OR FIGURE NO.

PAGES

Figure BB-12, 1-4
" BB-13, 1-4
" BB-14, 1-4
" BB-16, 1-8
" BB-17
" BB-18
" BB-19
" BB-20
11 BB-21
1-2 RECEIV~D

AUG 28 1972

DD

Engrg. Standards

1-3

Pollution Control General Regulations

Tail Gas Treating Waste Disposal

Tail Gas Treating Processes

EE Computer Program Introduction

Basic Compound Data

General

Initial Data Sheet

Non-standard Compound Data Sheet Material and Heat Balance Data Printout Sheet

General Data Sheet Information Standard Output Format

Data Input and Error Messages Accounting Summary

Dump Alter Control Card Non-standard Specie Initial Data Sheet

Acid Gas Stream

Fuel Gas Stream Air Blower

Furnace

Figure DD-l

17A-289-0872-1

INDEX
TABLE OR
TAB SUBJECT FIGURE NO. PAGES
EE Computer Program (Cont I d)
waste Heat Boiler
Acid Gas Reheat
Fuel Gas Reheat RECEIVED
Hot Gas Reheat
Heat Exchanger AUG 28 1972
Combine streams fngrg. Standards
Spli t streams
Converter
stack
Print Out
FF Bibliography 1-4 17A-289-0872-1

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17B-290-272

GENERAL

The Sulfur Plant Design Manual has been revised an~ updated to make it a useful tool for calculating the more exact product quantities and qualities required in modern, competitive design.

This section is organized as follows:

1. Modifications to the manual.

_RECUVcD J £{ {II ') 1 "~-''' . , 0 .• '::! / L

2. Historical background and patents.

3. Design parameters.

Engrg. Standards

4. Plant selection.

The block flow diagram, Figure B-1, "General Guidelines for Type of Plant Arrangement", at the end of this section, will assist the engineer in the selection of the correct flow pattern. However, this chart should not be used to override good engineering judgment in the design of a plant. It

is intended to assist the engineer in formulating a basic process approach.

Modifications to the Manual (August 1971)

The following changes have been made to the manual issued in 1963:

"Tab B" - Introduction - Combines the "Scope" and "Special Considerations" sections in the previous issues of this manual. The format has been changed and updated to reflect (1) the expiration of Fluor's license

with Olin Mathieson and (2) clarification of the limitations in Pan American direct oxidation process.

A new agreement between Pan American and Fluor was negotiated in 1965. The patents pertaining to this agreement have been listed along with a brief description of each.

"Tab CIt - Process Description - Rewritten to reflect modern design philosophy including expanded and clarified methods for reheating converter feeds.

"Tab D" - Flow Diagrams - Process, Mechanical and utility Flow Diagrams have been added illustrating the minimum equipment and instrumentation considered essential for plant operation. These diagrams represent a "poor boy" design and are intended to be used as the base case. The old Mathieson flow diagrams have been deleted,

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"Tab E" - Equipment - The equipment list section has been deleted.

"Tab F" - Qualified Vendors List - This section replaces the equipment list section.

"Tab Gil - Vessels - Revised to include alternate converter configurations, methods of selecting vertical versus horizontal converter vessels, criteria for sizing the Tail Gas Scrubber and the Sulfur Converter, etc. Typical Vessel sketches and specification sheets are included.

"Tab H" - Pumps, Compressors, and Drivers - The discussion of air blower selection has been revised and a typical drawing added.

"Tab I" - Furnaces - Completely rewritten to include newly developed design parameters. A typical process specification is included. The incinerator specification has been updated.

"Tab J" - Boilers - Mechanical design features are defined and a new specification sheet and waste heat boiler sketch have been added.

"Tab K" - Heat Exchangers - Added a graph for predicting conditions producing sulfur fog in exchange equipment. Edited and updated the sample specifications and typical equipment drawings.

"Tab M" - Piping - Format has been changed and detailed pl.pl.ng specifications replaced by a one-page summary 2heet. The narrative presentation has been expanded.

"Tab N" - Instrumentation - Updated to reflect recent plant installations and operating experience. Emphasis has been shifted to defining prinCiples of sulfur plant control.

"Tab 0" - Storage - The drawings have been updated and the latest methods of sulfur storage have been included.

"Tab p" - Utilities - Revised to reflect recent operating data. Recommended values for quickie estimates have been added. The list of catalyst vendors has been expanded to include catalysts with higher conversion.

"Tab Q" - Plant Costs - A cost/capacity curve for 400 A/C estimate based on plants escalated to January 1971 is included. These charts represent one and two train designs utilizing two, three, or four conversion stages. Also included are 400 A/C estimates for a tail gas scrubbing facility.

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INTRODUCTION

Engrg. Standards

"Tabs R" through "w" - Process Calculations - Revised to include the new minimization of free energy method for predicting thermodynamic equilibria product distribution. Three typical problems and the recommended method for handling ammonia-rich feed streams are included.

"Tab X" - Operating Instructions - Revised to delete procedures relating to the Mathieson type plant. New instructions are included for modern plant designs.

"Tab y" - Analytical Procedures - Added new section discussing application of gas chromotography for control.

"Tab Z" - -Hazards Added discussion of air pollution and

reduction of sulfur dioxide emission.

"Tab M" Corrosion - Rewritten to reflect corrosion in modern plants.

~~--~----~-------

"Tab BB" - Data - New thermodynamic properties have been added consistent with the restructured computer program. Physical properties data have been expanded and updated.

"Tab CC" - Guarantees - Updated to include guarantees based upon the new calculation methods and actual operating experience.

"Tab DD" - Pollution Control - Replaces previous secti:::m called "waste Disposal". Has been revised to reflect present and pending legislation for pollution control.

"Tab EEl! - Computer Program - Completely restructured to represent the minimum free energy calculation approach and to define the new program which permits modular computerization of sulfur plant design similar to our GPS system.

"Tab FF" - Bibliography - All new section which includes all references applying to data and procedures in this manual. References to outdated and irrelevant articles have been excluded.

Historical Background and Patents

Sulfur recovery plant designs are based on the traditional Claus reaction in which ~S and S02 are catalytically converted to elemental sulfur and steam at elevated temperatures. This is basic to all traditional sulfur plants with equipment arrangement and mechanical detail variations being utilized to develop optimum conditions for maximum sulfur recovery. More

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INTRODUCTION

recently, sulfur recovery systems such as the SNPA-Lurgi IISulfreen Processll and the IIIFP Process", etc., have been developed, which utilize technology somewhat different than the traditional systems to recovery sulfur from gas streams containing.~S, CO2, etc.

Early Fluor plants (from about 1949 to 1959) offered the patented 01inMathieson process, which included a regenerative reaction furnace design developed by Mathieson and stacked vertical catalytic converters. The major drawback of this process was the cost of the reaction furnace which made this type of plant non-competitive with later designs. Fluor's contract with Olin-Mathieson has since expired and this type

of plant is uneconomical to offer.

Fluor (1959 to 1960) redesigned the Mathieson-type plant in order to obtain a more competitive position. The furnace was replaced by an external combustion chamber directly on the waste heat boiler or as

an alternate, direct firing into the lining tube of the waste heat boiler. The converters were changed from vertical to horizontal vessels, and in general, the equipment deSign criteria were tightened.

Fluor obtained a license from Pan American Petroleum Corporation in

1960 to offer sulfur plant designs based upon patents held by them.

Pan American's patents involve conventional Claus type plants and a direct low temperature oxidation process. This direct oxidation process is different from any experience or process design held by Fluor prior to the licensing agreement. A compact package plant with patented mechanical features is also covered in the agreement. This package unit, called the "Webb" package, is particularly attractive in capacities up to 50 LT/D.

The Pan American patents cover sulfur recovery processes as defined by the following:

(1) U.S. Letters Patent 2,724,641 - This patent covers the direct oxidation of ~S to sulfur at 400 to 1000°F in the presence of a catalyst with the products immediately injected into a liquid bath of molten sulfur or water held at a temperature of 230 to 320°F.

(2) U.S. Letters Patent 2,742,347 - This patent covers sulfur recovery in the following manner: Not more than 75 volume percent of the oxygen is added to the acid gas. This mixture is reacted at a temperature between 600 and 750°F in a hollow reaction zone consisting of an interior of catalytic ferrous metal. The balance of the stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is added and the mixture passes through a catalyst bed that maintains the reaction temperature between 400 and 1200°F by using inert materials in decreasing concentration through the catalyst bed.

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INTRODUCTION

Engrg. St3ndards

(3) U.S. Letters Patent 2,758,9l3/Canadian Letters Patent 553,058 - This patent covers the direct oxidation process. Insufficient oxygen is added to the first converter feed with the balance of the oxygen added ahead of the second catalyst bed. The reaction temperature is controlled by the use of decreasing inerts in the catalyst bed. The inlet of the bed contains 90 to 99% aluminum inerts and decreases to approximately zero at the outlet. The reaction temperature is maintained high enough to convert ~S

to elemental sulfur, but not high enough to oxidize hydrocarbons. The temperature does not exceed l200°F at any poin~ through the bed.

(4) U.S. Letters Patent 2,889,207 - This patent covers the addition of hydrocarbons or hydrogen and carbon monoxide to an acid gas containing at least 15% ~S to control the reaction temperature. The hydrocarbons or hydrogen and carbon monoxide are added before oxidation in the ratio of not more than 1/3 of the ~S (molal basis) .

(5) U.S. Letters Patent 2,939,769/Belgian Letters Patent 645,837/ British Letters Patent 890C793!Canadian Letters Patent 5 4 071 French Letters Patent 1,20 504 Mexican Letters Patent 7 5 2 S anish Letters Patent 2 7 970 West German Application Serial

No. P20 3 IVa l2i - This patent covers the "Webb" package plant. This plant is a compact sulfur recovery unit in which all lines are self-draining, thus eliminating steam jacketing. The "Webb" boiler combines the waste heat boiler and condensers into one piece of equipment. A combined separator and sulfur storage tank is also used.

(6) U.S. Letters Patent 3,057,698/Canadian Letters Patent 691,152 - This patent covers improvements to the "Webb" package unit. The combination separator and storage tank is eliminated and sulfur is separated in condenser outlet chambers. Sulfur seal legs are incorporated into the boiler to maintain liquid sulfur at the seals at all times.

Design Parameters

Combustion of the acid gas feed with a controlled amount of air is the first step in a conventional sulfur plant design for which the following two design approaches are used depending upon the ~S concentration in the feed gas: (a) straight-through plant - all of the feed gas goes

to combustion and (b) bypass plant - sufficient HaS is delivered to combustion to produce a minimum two to one H2S:S02 ratio in the converter feed.

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INTRODUCTION

A straight-through plant is normally used with feed gas ~S concentrations above 50 mole percent. A minimum adiabatic flame temperature of l680°F must be maintained to sustain combustion in a conventional (Scotch Marine) type furnace. This temperature can be reduced to l300-l400°F when a separate refractory lined furnace is used because added residence time is available to develop the same equilibrium as in the conventional furnace. When feed gas and/or air preheat is employed, the straight-through design is applicable down to approximately 30 mole percent feed H2S. Below 30%, the sulfur conversion drops off and other types of plant configuration

are recommended.

A bypass type plant is generally used in the 15 to 50 mole percent range of H2S feed concentration. In this type of plant, approximately 65-67% of tfie acid gas bypasses the combustion step and is combined with the oxidized product from the waste heat boiler. The actual bypass quantity is set so that the ratio of H2S:S02 in the sulfur converter feed is always slightly more than 2:1 to ensure a reducing atmosphere in the vessel. An oxidizing atmosphere at sulfur converter reaction temperature will corrode out the vessel in a few months. (2:1 maximizes conversion.)

Detailed designs of sulfur plants are a function of one or more of the parameters listed below:

a. Source of feed gas

b. Plant size

c. Feed characteristics

d. Desired recovery

e. Utility balance

a. Source of Feed Gas

Feed gas streams to sulfur plants originate primarily from acid gas treating units such as Fluor Econamine, Amine treating, etc., and contain essentially ~O, CO2 and ~S with small amounts of COS, CS2 and light hydrocarbons. ACld gases rich in ~ from refinery sour gas strippers are frequently fed to the sulfur plant to be processed concurrently with acid gases from gas treating units. These ammonia rich gases must be oxidized completely separate from the acid gas furnace before combining with the acid gas stream being fed to the sulfur converters, because ammonium sulfates may be formed in the furnace if the streams are combined before the ammonia is completely oxidized. The sulfates will precipitate at the lower temperatures

used for conversion and sulfur recovery and cause equipment fouling and subsequent plugging. The important factor to remember is that the feed mixture to a sulfur converter must contain an ~S:S02 ratio of no less than 2.

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INTRODUCTION

JUN J 1972

b. Plant Size

Engrg. Standards

Detailed designs are generally performed by Fluor for sulfur plant capacities above 50 long tons per day. Below 50 long tons per day, package unit designs are obtained from outside vendors (such as

the "Webb 11 type).

The maximum plant size in a single train unit is about 1500 long tons per day. However, for all plant capacities above 1000 long tons per day, an evaluation must be made to determine the economical plant configuration.

c. Feed Characteristics

A number of alternate methods which may be used for processing acid gas feeds containing H2S concentrations below 50 mole percent are listed below:

Types of Feed 30-50 mol % If:a S

Process Arrangement

Preheat the feed gas and/or the combustion air - this is economically attractive if an inexpensive heat source is available.

30-50 mol% I:kS

Add fuel gas to the feed acid gas - this can be used if fuel gas is cheap and does not result in the combined gases containing more than 0.1 mol % of hydrocarbons boiling above propane.

5-25 mol % ~s

Pan American's direct oxidation process - this can only be used for acid gas feeds containing E£ hydrocarbons boiling above propane. Maximum sulfur recovery is approximately 80% with this process. See the technical file 3.455.3.10 in the Process Library for details. Also included in this file is a write-up defining the operation of the plant Fluor designed for Home OiJ at the Carstairs - Cronfield Plant in Canada.

5-15 mol % ~S

Oxidized elemental sulfur +'0 obtain S02-

a portion of the sulfur produced is burned in a special furnace and then combined with the feed gas.

5-15 mol % ~S

Two-stage (or more) with one-third feed - two-third bypass plant with both air and feed gas preheated.

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IN'l~RODUCTION

Types of Feed NBs Rich

Process Arrangement

Oxidize this stream completely in a separate combustion zone and then combine with the combustion effluent from the other acid gas combustion. The important criteria is to produce a combined effluent feed to the sulfur converter containing no less than a two-to-one ratio of Has:802•

Feed concentrations of hydrocarbons should be limited to 1.0-1.5

mol % C3, less than 0.5 mol % C4, and less than 0.1 mol % C5+. This will ensure good catalyst life and "bright" sulfur production. At times, gases from other sources are also used to feed the sulfur plant. Hydrocarbons in the feed should be minimized in order to

(1) maintain reasonable combustion temperatures, (2) minimize

plant costs, (3) preclude depositing carbon on catalyst, and (4) prevent production of "off spec" product. Although methane and ethane in the feed are not deleterious to either the product specification nor the catalyst life, they co-influence plant costs and combustion temperatures. Feed gases containing as much as 30 mol % C -Ca have been successfully processed. Excess propane plus hydrocarton concentrations up to 3 mol % of the acid gas feed have been successfully processed without substantially reducing catalyst life. However, as

a practical limit, the total quantity of these components should be limited to less than 1.0 to 1.5 mol %, with the butane no more than 0.5 mol %. Unsaturates, aromatics and C5+ hydrocarbons must be

kept to less than 0.1 mol % at all times.

d. Desired Recovery

The recovery required for a modern sulfur plant will be generally set by air pollution control regulations as defined by customer specifications given to Fluor. In general, recovery will vary between 93 to 98-1/2%. As a rough rule-of-thumb, a two-stage

unit will recovery 93 to 95% of the sulfur in the feed, a three-stage unit about 97% maximum and a four-stage unit about 98.5%. Present (1971) sulfur plant technology does not economically permit the

high recoveries of sulfur required to meet the air pollution regulations proposed in pending Federal legislation. Therefore,

tail gas scrubbing units will become mandatory on sulfur plants whenever air pollution regulations specify maximum 80a stack emissions of no more than 2,000 ppm. An economic evaluation will

be required to determine the optimum between number of stages of recovery in the sulfur plant and size of the tail gas scrubbing unit.

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JA~~ J L 1972

e. Utility Balance

Engrg. Standards

The utility-steam balance in a sulfur plant affects the heat recovery scheme; and as a result, the various' exchangers (economizers) in the plant. The "Webb" package plant design

(for 50 long tons per day and less) favors low pressure steam generation because the waste heat boiler functions as a sulfur condenser. This lowers the temperature of the outlet gas which results in a lower pressure steam being generated, usually in the 35-50 psig range. High pressure steam (200-400 psig) can be produced in plants having separate waste heat boilers and sulfur condensers. The condensers can also be designed to produce low pressure steam and/or preheat boiler feed water. Any and/or all of these variables may be present in any given sulfur plant. Therefore, an economic evaluation is usually needed to determine the proper plant configuration and equipment selection unless a specific customer recommendation has been made.

l7B-290-272

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FLUOR CORPORATION

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PROCESS DESCRIPrION

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17C-29l-272

GENERAL

Engrg. Standards

Sulfur plant feed gases normally consist of a mixture of HaS, CO2, COS, H20, CS2 and hydrocarbons originating in gas treating and/or so~r water stripping operations.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Acid gas feed to the sulfur plant is first sent to a knockout drum to remove entrained liquids and then burned. The hot flue gases are

cooled by generating steam in a waste heat boiler and flow to one or more conversion stages for the production, condensation, and recovery of elemental sulfur. Cooled gases from the final conversion stage are first disentrained and, in most modern units, are then processed in a tail gas treating unit to achieve high sulfur recoveries required to meet air pollution regulations. Vent gases from this operation are then incinerated to completely oxidize all components and vented to the atmosphere through

a stack. Pollution standards may necessitate tail gas scrubbing.

The major reactions in a sulfur plant are:

Overall

H2S + 3/2 02~S02 + HaO 2H2S + S02 ~3S + 2~0 ~S + 1/2 02~S + HaO

Combustion

Conversion

Additional sulfur product is formed from other sulfur bearing compounds in the feed, such as mercaptans and sulfides.

Three methods which are now used for sulfur plant combustion are listed below and schematically charted on Figure C-l at the end of this section:

1. waste heat boiler with attached combustion chamber - consider for plants smaller than 100 LT/D.

2. A separate combustion furnace and waste heat boiler - preferred for larger sized units. Produces high overall sulfur conversion.

3. Waste heat boiler with direct firing into the lining tube - most economical arrangement up to 75 LT/D, but results in lower sulfur conversion.

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PROCESS DESCRIPI'ION

Hot gases from the combustion step are normally used to generate steam in the waste heat boiler. Sulfur produced during combustion may be condensed by generating

low l)ressure steam in a condenser upstream of the first converter. This is part:Lcularly advantageous if low level steam can be utilized elsewhere in the complex.

~S and S02 from the combustion step are reacted to produce sulfur over a bed

of granular catalyst in each converter stage. The gases to each converter stage may be reheated to maintain the optimum converter inlet temperature. The four methods m:lst frequently used for reheating are listed below and the-first three are shown schematically on Figure C-2 at the end of this section:

1. :[njection of hot vapor from either the combustion step or some point in the Naste heat boiler into converter feed gas.

2. Direct fired reheat burner using fuel gas or a small quantity of acd.d gas feed.

3. l}as-to-gas heat exchange of the converter feed and effluent gases to utilize the exothermic heat of reaction from the converter to reheat converter feed.

4. Indirect reheat using fuel gas or steam.

Method (1) results in the lowest overall sulfur recovery because some of the r-eac'tarrta bypass the converter stages. In addition, the piping and val ving requ:ired is expensive and complicated and may result in maintenance problems. Method (2) uses a direct fired reheater in which the hot flue gases formed by bu~ing either fuel gas or a slip stream of feed gas are combined with the

main stream of feed gas to develop the conversion temperatures required. Flow ratio controllers are required on each burner to maintain correct acid gas-to-

air :ratios, which results in additional instrumentation and piping and usually Lncr-eacea the cost over Method (1). Method (3) should be considered when high sulfur recovery guanntees (over 96%) are required and a high capacity turn-

down is not anticipated. It also has the highest installed cost because large excru~ers are required for the poor heat transfer coefficients associated with gas-to-gas exchangers, the interstage sulfur condensers must be designed for r...igher out.Let; temperatures which increases the feed to each converter stage, and the excrulnger imposes an additional 0.5 psi pressure drop in the equipment train. Method (3) also has limited operating flexibility because the heat of reaction

is v,=ry sensitive to varying feed compostions and total feed rates. It may be imp0,3sible to maintain the converter temperature at reduced R:aS concentrations

or lower feed rates without auxiliary heating. Three of four catalytic stages

are :involved and employing the effluent from the first bed to heat the feed to

the last bed will usually achieve the required recovery. Method (4) gives very high sulfur recoveries and a high capacity turndown ratio. However, the initial cost is usually higher than the other schemes when the additional equipment for firing fuel gas is included. The use of high pressure steam adversly effects the utilt ty balance in a sulfur plant and must be considered in the overall economics when evaluating a scheme.

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PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Another seldom used reheat method involves using an external source of heat. This alternate may be economically attractive if an inexpensive source of heat is available elsewhere in the complex.

Sulfur is recovered between each converter stage by cooling the product gases, usually by preheating boiler feed water and for generating low pressure steam. The condensed sulfur from each stage drains to the sulfur sump.

The final step in all "traditional" sulfur plants has been the disposal of tail gas by passing the effluent gases from the last sulfur condenser through a coalescer to remove all entrained sulfur, incinerating with fuel gas to ensure complete oxidation, and then venting the gas to the atmosphere through a stack. In some areas this may still be allowed. However,

pending governmental legislation allover the world will make additional tail gas treating mandatory to meet the proposed maximum allowable emission standards. In these units, the effluent from the last sulfur condenser passes through a coalescer and is then processed in a "tail gas treating unit" for removal of sufficient sulfur to meet the regulations. Effluent gases from this unit are then incinerated and vented to the atmosphere through a stack. An economic evaluation should be made to determine the optimum use of converter stages and tail gas treating capacity.

The liquid sulfur is pumped from the sump into tank cars, to liquid storage, or to a solid storage facility,

RECEiVC:O

Engrg. Standards

HJK

17C-291-272

FlLOR (llIPORAT ION

FIGURE C·1

COMBUSTION METHODS

EXTERNAL COMBUSTION CHAMBER (BELOW 100 LTfO)

STUD BOLTS

TO CONVERTER

,

RECE::iVC:O

SPECIAL EXTRA TH ICK FUllGE (TYPICAL FOR A.LL METHODS)

FE8 11 1972

_REHEAT BY PASS

Engrg. Standards

ACID GAS

2 SEPARATE REACTOR FURNACE (ABOVE 100 LT/D)

TO CIJIVERTER

STEAM

t

I

__ REHEAT BY PASS

ACID GAS

DIRECT FIRING

STEAM

__ REHEAT BY PASS

MAIN AIR

17C·C1197·272

FLLOR ro~RATICN

FIGURE C-2

SULFUR PLANT DESIGN MANUAL REHEAT ALTERNATES

- CONOEltSER CONVERTER CONDENSER CONVERTER CONDENSER
No.1 No. I No.2 No.2 No.3
OPTIONAL

REACTOR
~'-- &
W.H. BOILER

I AIR
(; HOT VAPOR BYPASS REHEAT ACID GAS

TAIL GAS

RECE I \- co

Ftr-B 1 "I ICj7)

~ ..... _ 1 __ . .-.

Engrg. Standards

CONDENSE TAIL GAS
No. I No.2 No.2 No.3
OPTIONAL


REACTOR
&
W. H. 80 I LER
AIR AC 10 GAS

DIRECT F I REO REHEAT

L-_~-f'COttDENSERt- TAIL GAS

No.3

REACTOR &

W.H. SOlLER

HEAT OF REACT! ON REHEAT

AIR

ACID GAS

17C.C 1198.272

GENERAL

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

RECEIVeD

FLOO DIAGRAMS 17D-292-272

JAN J 1 1972

Engrg. Standards

The flow diagrams and sketches included in this section are as follows:

Figure D-l Figure D-2

Figure D-3 Figure D-4 Figure D-5 Figure D-6

Recommended Hot Gas Bypass Layout

Process Flow Diagram - Hot Gas Bypass Reheat (+ NH3 Rich Feed)

Process Flow Diagram - Acid Gas Fired Reheat Mechanical Flow Diagram - Hot Gas Bypass Reheat Mechanical Flow Diagram - Acid Gas Fired Reheat Utility Flow Diagram - Hot Gas Bypass Reheat

TheSe flow diagrams illustrate the fallowing two widely used flow patterns which typify the many design variations which may be included in the design of "Claus" type sulfur plants: (1) Two stages of conversion with hot gas bypass type of reheat. Mobil Oil, Contract 4350, is an example of this type of plant; and (2) Four stages of conversion with reheating by acid gas fired reheaters and indirect reheating prior to the last conversion stage. Shell Canada, Ltd., Proposal 6350-15, illustrates this.

Schematic flow diagrams for typical tail gas treating processes are illustrated in Section DD, "Pollution Control".

Any or all of the alternate heating, reheating and bypass configurations shown on these flow diagrams could be incorporated in any new plant design depending upon feed characteristics, product requirements and pollution regulations.

The flow sheets included in this section represent sulfur plant designs having the bare minimum equipment, instrumentation and piping for a plant to operate satisfactorily, and illustrate what is known as a "poor boy"

or minimum cost plant. Additional equipment for a particular design is at the discretion of the designer. However, customer specifications may dictate the plant requirements.

Plot Configuration

A layout sketch is also included in this section as a general guide. This layout is based on the following requirements:

(a) The waste heat boiler economizers, tail gas scrubbers and boots on the converter outlet ducts should be as close to the sump as the foundation requirements permit because drain lines are subject to plugging.

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

FLOW DIAGRAMS

(b) The economizers and converters must be accessible for repair and maintenance purposes. Cleaning of condenser or economizer tubes is generally not required.

(c) Large ducting should be routed as directly as 'possible, expansion stress permitting.

The air blower, incinerator, stack and tail gas clean-up system are not shown.

Alternate layouts have been considered; such as, pJacing the economizers, boots in ducting, and the tail gas scrubber directly over the sump with the drain lines as vertical pieces of pipe less subject to plugging. However, the alternate layouts are estimated to be more expensive.

It is normally better to use a "package" plant approach for small units (50 LT/D and less) particularly for bypass type plants when required liquid sulfur storage is low. In these units, the economizers and WHB

are mounted above a horizontal vessel designed for low pressure. Sulfur from all condensers drain into seal legs in the sump inside the vessel. The last economizer discharges both gas and sulfur liquid into this drum. A vertical sump pump is used for pumping out sulfur and a pump well is provided. Drain lines from the boots on converter discharge ducts are not provided.

17D-292-272

AIR

FIGURE 0-1

SUGGESTED LAYOUT FOR HOT GAS BYPASS TYPE SULFUR PLANTS

RECE:.iVi::i)

JAr' .) 1 1('\-:"; IIJ J I:.J!..;..

Engrg. Standards

CONVERTERS

r:!!a._ I ~ 1 , "

f:~::~:~----~----------~I~

6~ r dD\.

FIRST f.J.. JI -,::" SECOND ,11

ECONOMIZER ECONOMIZER

TAIL GAS SCRUBBER

____ -{Li::}:~E\+_-~ TAIL

\(:;7 GAS

iii ...

WASTE HEAT

BOILER

SULFUR SUMP

ACID GAS FEED

17DoC 1199-272

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1972

Engrg. Standards

... u

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CL

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II.

FLUOR CORPORATION

QUALIFIED VENDORS LIST 17F-294-0872-1

Reactor Furnace

John Zink Company

J. T. Thorpe, Inc. Econo-Therm Corporation Foster-Wheeler Corporation

Waste Heat Boilers

Victoria Machinery Dept Company

(Vancouver, B.C.) Toronto Iron Works

Tower Iron Works (Seekonk, Mass.) Erie City Iron Works

Union Iron Works

Refractory-Castable Insulation A. P. Green

J. T. Thorpe, ~nc.

Pumps

Lawrence Pump Company Chas. P. Lewis Company Dean Hill Company Goulds Pump Company

Compressors Centrifugal Elliott Hoffman Allis-Chalmers DeLaval

RDtary Ingersoll-Rand Roots Connerville

Package Units

Ford, Bacon & Davis Trentham Corporation Pona Engineers Pritchard, Eco, Inc.

HJK

Page 1

RECEIVED

AUG 28 1972

Incinerators

Engrg. Standards

J. T. Thorpe, Inc.

Corina Incinerator Burners North American Manufacturing Peabody Engr. Company

John Zink Company

Sulfur Condensers (Economizers) VMD

Toronto Iron Works

Tower Iron Works (Seekonk, Mass.) Foster-Wheeler

Struthers-Wells

Any reputable shell & tube manufacture:

Bypass Valve on Reactor Furnace J. T. Thorpe, Inc.

Pumps

Taber Pump Company Allis-Chalmers Pacific Pump Co.

Catalyst

Porocell Corporation

Reynolds Metal Company

Stauffer Chemical Company

Mill White Company

Pechiney-Saint Gobain (France) Catalysts and Chemicals, Inc. (CCI)

Liquid Sulfur Burners Todd

Monsanto

Chemico

Chemipulp Process, Inc. Sirod Realty Corporation John Zink Company Celleco (Tumba, Sweden)

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

VESSELS

17G-295-272

RECEIVED

AUG 28 1972

GENERAL

Engrg. Standards

This section defines suggested procedures for the design of the sulfur converter, tail gas coalescer and feed gas knockout drum. Typical vessel sketches are included at the end of this section.

SULFUR CONVERTERS (See Figures G-2 & G-3)

Discussion

The selection of converter configuration must alw~ys be economically justified, especially when the catalyst volume exceeds 3000 cu ft and/or more than two-stage design is contemplated.

Horizontal and vertical designs have both been successfully employed. Horizontal vessels appear more economical in two-stage units and vertical vessels may be more advantageous in multi-stage, large sized plants.

Rail, barge and/or other shipping limitations strongly influence the maximum economical size of horizontal shop fabricated vessels and the choice of equipment. In some cases, two parallel shop fabricated vessels may be more economical than one large field fabrication.

Vertical converters conserve plot area, but require large diameters and extensive internal and external support members. These requirements result in costs typically associated with field fabrication.

Horizontal converter sizing procedures are described below under "Sizing Criteria". The first-stage converter is always lined with either castable refractory or firebrick across the bottom and up the sides, to the top of the catalyst bed when catalyst regeneration is required. The top section above the catalyst bed need not be lined. All other converters are left unlined.

Vertical converters consist of multiple beds stacked in a single unit separated by a "vapor tight" partition plate. The primary catalyst bed is placed at the bottom of the converter and lined with firebrick or haydite castable mix. Lining of the remaining beds is not mandatory. Inlet gas enters at the top of each bed and flows down through the bed to prevent fluffing of the catalyst and cut down losses.

The design pressure of converters should be specified as low as permissible, concomitant with its operating pressure (normally 0 to 7 psig), to minimize cost and avoid the need for code stamping. For instance, a design pressure below 14.9 psig avoids the need for code stamping in Canada.

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

Cover all structural internals with refractory to protect against excessive short term heat caused by local internal fires during upset conditions and/or decarbonization of the catalyst.

Sizing Criteria

Sizing of converters is based on the criteria listed below:

1. The total catalyst volume (activated bauxite plus cobalt-moly) is calculated from the space velocity obtained on Figure G-l. The space velocity is defined as the volume of total feed entering the reactor at reactor inlet conditions ~er unit time divided by the volume of catalyst. The figure is based on a

36" bed depth of total catalyst. In the first converter only, 12" of C29-2-01 cobalt-moly catalyst which is supplied by Catalysts and ChemicaLs,Inc. (CCl) is loaded immediately below 24" of activated bauxite catalyst when CS2 and/or COS are expected in the converter effluent stream and sulfur recoveries of better than 93 percent are required.

2. The length-to-diameter ratio of horizontal vessels will vary between 4:1 and 6:1. Provide sufficient space above and below the catalyst bed to ensure uniform flow of gas through the bed. In many cases, multiple nozzles or deflection plates may be advisable. Allow 2-1/2 ft. to 3 ft. free board space for leveling the catalyst bed, and for the possible future addition of a 6" catalyst overlay.

3. Place a minimum three foot square deflector plate 8 to 10 inches below the inlet nozzle drilled with two inch holes on one foot centers.

4. Locabe the inlet and outlet nozzles so that the path length followed by all m.aterial is approximately the same; i.e., inlet and outlet are at opposite ends, or center inlet with dual outlets on opposite end.

5. The pressure drop across an unfouled catalyst bed containing only conventional alumina or bauxite catalyst should be approximately 1.3 inches of water, not including entrance and exit losses. Preliminary pressure drop and other cperating data for a converter in which the C29-2-01 catalyst is used in conjunction with activated bauxite catalyst is listed in Table ~3 of Section P. Final design data must be obtained from the catalyst vendors (CCl, etc.).

6. Every converter chamber should have at least one manway above the catalyst bed and one under the bed to provide access for inspection. When catalyst regeneration is not planned an additional catalyst manhole dump may be installed at the catalyst bed support level.

7. Catalyst is loaded from the top manway and is supported on a carbon steel grating. Those listed below have been used on previous Fluor jobs. These configurations may be equally acceptable.

17G-295-0872-1

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 3

a. 3/8" x 2" carbon steel bearing bars on 1-3/4" centers - covered with a stainless screen.

b. 5/16" x 2-1/2" carbon steel bearing bars on 1-3/8" centers without a screen, but covered with graded firebrick balls.

c. 3/16" x 2" carbon steel bearing bars on 1-3/4" centers - with a 3/16" stainless steel screen.

d. Sulfuric acid converters use a meehanite grating with quartz.

13. Bauxite catalyst is placed on top of a layer of 3/4" and 1-1/2" screened firebrick particles nominally 6" in depth. In the first converter only, load the C29-2-01 catalyst below the bauxite catalyst and above the firebrick particles. The average density of bauxite catalyst is 54 Ibs/ft3• The average density

of C29-2-01 catalyst is 35 Ibs/ft3•

9. Insulate externally to maintain a metal wall temperature above 250°F to prevent formation of sulfurous acid which will severely corrode the metal wall.

13ULFUR PRODUCT COALESCER (See Figure G-4, G-5 & G-6)

Horizontal and vertical vessels have both been used as sulfur plant coalescers. r10st large capacity plants have employed horizontal vessels with a single inlet nozzle and dual outlets. Vertical vessels have been used almost exclusively in the Los Angeles office up to 150-200 long tons per day of sulfur production. An economic optimum between vertical and horizontal vessels must be developed for each design.

J\ complex, horizontal separator (sized using C=200 in the formula shown below) llhould be utilized when no tail gas facilities are contemplated, maximum suli'ur recovery is mandatory and cost is a secondary consideration. The typical design parameters and vessel configuration shown on Figure G-6 would provide a maximum su.Lf'ur entrainment loss of about 1. 5% for a plant designed to process a low (5-10%) ~S feed gas.

~fue use of tail gas treating units in modern plant designs may mitigate the need

for having a separate coalescer drum, because entrained elemental sulfur will be recovered together with whatever sulfur is formed in the treating unit. Alternately, a dis entrainment chamber may be included in the outlet channel of the last sulfur eondenser to minimize sulfur losses and reduce cost. If a decision is made to use

a coalescer drum, the following design criteria are recommended.

RECEIVC:D

AUG 28 1972

Engrg. Standards

17G-295-0872-1

FLUOR CORPORATION

1. Use the Brown-Souders correlation listed below to calculate the diameter of t::le vessel.

G ::r C PV(Pl -p)
Where G = Vapor Velocity, lb/hr/ft2
Pv = Vapor Density, lb/ft3
Pl = Liquid Density, lb/ft3
C = 200 to 900 The selection of the IIC" value in the above formula is somewhat empirical and is a function of the concentration of both the acid gas in the plant feed and the desired percent recovery of sulfur. Sulfur entrainment loss can amount to as much as 2% of the produced sulfur. Therefore, with high recoveries of sulfur and/or lower concentrations of acid gas in the plant feed, a "lower"

"c" value should be used. Conversely, at low recoveries and/or high acid gas concentration in the feed, a "higher" value may be acceptable. The final design of the coalescer is dependent on whether a tail gas clean-up unit is included in the plant design, and requires an economical evaluation to optimize the incremental costs between the tail gas unit and coalescer.

2. Install a 6" demister pad to remove finely entrained elemental sulfur. In some of our units a 1-1/2" steam coil has been positioned close to or in the n.esh element in order to melt solidified sulfur during upset conditions. This modification is not considered mandatory.

3. Jnstall a heating meditw, such as steam coils, electric tape, etc., in or ar-ound the bottom of the vessel to keep the sulfur from solidifying and plugging the drain. If a steam coil is used, it must be of all-welded construction to prevent steam leaks.

4. Hake sure that the top head of the top section of the vessel is properly insulated to prevent condensation of sulfurous acid which would produce exce s s Lve corrosion.

l7G-295-0872-l

·FWOR

FIGURE G·1

CONVERTER CATALYST VOLUME

RECeiVC:D

JUN 5 1972

Engrg. Standards

~

g

.... w > w

~

II. en

1600

l __ ~ _ •

- ,- j_

)

, i ---:--- i'~

, I---r-

1400

ti

>

.... 1200

j!

<[ U I'l

..:

IL

-

a:

5

:r: 1000

a

w w IL

I'l

..:

IL

.... <[

::I I-

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i _' __ -~, I _:__:~:_-~J

• _..L ... _' _~.! . ~_.:. I

.. .. .. -

800

400

200

o

10

50

20

30

40

MOLE" H:zS IN TOTAL PLANT FEED

PRINTED IN U.s.A.

17G-C1206-672·'

1.0. BY PROCEe -I M4

:; ~." • 1',4"

/--~~~,.-:'Z,..-:'Zn~""7,;-7;t_J~~GRADED

~ -f.!II~ BALLS OR

1\ /t~.: CRUSHED

(-----t-+----+4~: :~':~~;.o. FIREBRICK

t~.::: ~

.. ) ~HI@

~.::: ~

!L) ~ SULFUR DRAIN

® II- V·1A @ @ Iq~ ~-i (§

:ilffi~ <~ ~

~~~, @ ;: ~

~ VAPOR OUT~ 1:: ~

~ @ I- - - - -- - ~If. ~

~ VAPOR IN _ ~///////;//~

@ I- ---

Engrg. Stlf10arC3

3" LINING, HAYDITE AGGREGATE W/ALUMINA CEMENT IN A 4:1

MIX RATIO OR EQUAL.

I~

-r-

j

VAPOR IN

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.....J'--

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.;.,:.:

I ...... ~.:.

CATAL~~S-T~--~~~ CATALYST

SUPPORT

BED GRATING

COVERED ,,/SS 'WIRE MESH

BY

V.1A & 18 HORIZONTAL SULFUR CONVERTER (TYPICAL OF TWO)

FIGURE G-2.

DATE

OiK'D

APP'D

~' "·-r --.-- ............ , ''-''

PROCESS DESIGN DATA VESSELS

CODE STAMP NONE

OlHER SPECS:

DESIGN CONDITIONS: VolA V-IB

PRESSURE 10 PSIG 10

TEMPERATURE 775 *MAXIMUM LIQUID LEVEL

515

FT.

OPERATING CONDITIONS V·1A V-1B

PRESSURE 4 PS I G 4

TEMPERATURE 660

*NORMAL LIOUID LEVEL

465

FT.

CORROSION ALLOWANCES 1/8

MATERIAL:
SHEl.l. CARBON STEEL
INTERNALS CARBON STEEL (4)
TRAYS -
CAPS -
I.INING AS NOTED
flACKING -
TYPE OF TRAY -
TYPE OF PACKING -
F I REPROOF I NG NONE I NSUlATI ON YES (Min. Shell Temp. = 2S0aF)

NOZZLE SCHEDUl.E

MK SIZE RTG MK SIZE RTG
M", ".lS" W/hlnne
Tl·T6 6·1h" cplg
Al 12"
A2 10"
Bl 12"
B2 10"
01-2 2·6"x4 • SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIOUID

STRESS REl.1 EVE NO

NOTES a REF. DWGS .

(1) All Internals to be removoble thru 17" 1.0. monhole.

(2) Steom locketted nozzl .. 0·1 & 0·2 "/reduclng flange & 2·%" nipples.

(3) Can". In V.1A to be flush W/I.D. of lining.

(4) .\lIlnter"ol. except grating to be lined - 2" Hoydlte Aggregate pillS Alumina Cement in a 4:1 ratio oreqwl.

CONTRACT NO.

17G-C 1206-272

,(

'~ :)

:z Il Id 1- :Z

It IL

CATALYST

5.5. WIRE MESH

TYPICAL CATALYST BEO

®
s
€Y 6>
®
®
@ ®
®
<9
® @
®
@ BY

FIGURE G-3 V-1A,8,C,D

VERTICAL SULFUR CONVERTER (TYPICAL OF FOUR REACTORS)

PROCESS DESIGN DATA VESSELS

CODE STAMP

DATE

CHK·O

APP·D

D .. lon PS I G Int_nola for

of 750 of

FT.

OPERATING CONDITIONS

PRESSURE 0-5 PS I G

TEMPERATURE "60-600 OF *NORMAL LIOUID LEVEL

FT.

CORROS I ON ALLOWANCES 1/8 Shell. head & nazale.

None on ,nterno I

MATERIAL:

SHELL

CARBON STEEL

INTERNALS CARBON STEEL (2) TRAYS

CAPS

LINING PACKING

(2)

TYPE OF TRAY

TYPE OF PACKING

FIREPROOFING NO

INSULATION YES (Min. Shell temp = 2500F)
NOZZLE SCHEDULE
,~
MK SIZE RTG MK SIZE RTG
°2 - .. 6,. .. (5)
°1 6,. .. ( .. ) (5)
),1 - .. 72" Vapor Inlet
1 - .. 72" Vapor Outlet
M2 _ 8 2 .... w/Hlnge Manway
T1 _ 12 Hi" T1
M1 2 .. " w/Daylt SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUID

STRESS RELIEVE NO

NOTES & REF. DWGS.

(1) All Conn. to be flush w/I.D. of lining.

(2) Section Enclosing Bed No.1 to be lined w/3" Hoydite aggregate ml,.ed ":1 w/Alumlna cement or equal.

(3) All internals except grating to be lined w/2" Haydlte aggregate mixed "11 w/alumlno cement or equal.

( .. ) Flush w/linlng on bottom

(5) Steam Jacketted Nozzel wired flange & 2 _ ~ .. nipple ••

(6) Cotaly.t Bed Supports to be designed for 0.5 differential pre •• ure .

CONTRACT NO.

17G-C 1207-272

h ~ PROCESS DESIGN DATA RECt.lvcu
HORIZONTAL VESSEL Jc:'f\! J 1 1372
I •• ,.
... ~> Engrg. Standards
co ...
-z'" L/O= 4/1
~ c
z ... u
...... - -. III
oc", III
-%- Z
","'u Z -
z ... - ,j
g:1lI ,j CALC. USING
"'~ '" l- I-
FORMULA IN z
_c_ Z III
%?=~ III (§ SECT.G @ 0 @ ..,
a: - I!I ~
0'" z
"':::0 oC T T T T l-
I-
a:s- -
Wci hI I
ioa: I
i~~ -::J I
"':::Ii I Q I
~~ 0- t I t TYPE 304 6" 55
.. z
~I eta c ~i ..: I
?=~~ - - - :___:::?
~~~ W ~ W~~~~ !02:
~z~
zO \j rn ,.... Jj_
... La: h
... ::> ...
% STEAM
"'~~ 51 ®
--0 - -
oz ... '1 t..I L..I .i, & CONO.
I"'''' (3)
::>0 @
~L §
.... a:
oa:::>
~ L
~~>
z'", I
0'"
-:..10::
;S~ i
a:c
0 0 GRADE
LO ...
~i~
u",
a: ... a:
0",0
_ Z
.
j:a:~
......
",~a:
°iii CODE STAMP NONE OTHER SPECS:
~a:z
a:i-
... a: DESIGN CONDITIONS: PRESSURE 10 PSIG *MAXIMUM
~!I!0 LlOU 10 LEVEL FT.
a:~>
L .I=! TEMPERATuRE 330 of
... ~u
... z ...
o-a: *NORMAL LIOulD LEVEL
"'.- OPERATING CONDITIONS: PRESSURE -1 PSIG
co FT •
... a:
?=o~ TEMPERATURE OF
'" 2S0
"'- 0
-% ...
~'"
0 0 CORROSION ALLOWANCES liS
i"'L
0'"
olii LINING NONE
!!!o ...
"' ... '"
....... CARBON STEEL
CD%a: ~;ATERI ALS: SHELL
::>~ ...
L",?= CARBON STEEL
zoo INTERNALS
...
1Ij~5 FIRE PROOF I NG INSULATION YES (Min. Shell Temp=2S00F)
~~~
ocz
za:'" NOZZLE SCHEDULE
......
"'0
c-
% '" •
ZO MK. A BI_2 M °1_2 51_2
""O~
!u~
=!u SIZE 66" 4S" IS" (1) (2)(3)
co::
Q 00-
",I'" RTG. (2)
- u
~ .• ~ Q
>0'" SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF
•• ..J G: % LIQUID
wZa.CI)
UO&IJ- FIGURE G-4
- a:z <~ <J STRESS RELIEVE
a:
: ~ NOTES 8: REF. DWGS. HORIZONTAL PRODUCT COALESCER
r- - (TYPICAL)
BY (1) 01 & 02 ore Steam Jacketted Nozzles w/2-~ " nipples for steam
.... _ ........ --.-_ .... _-_ .. _--- in ond condo out •
DATE
... - ........ __ ....... _--. (2) wi Internal Pipe CONTRACT NO •
CHI('D (3) Steom coils must be tight against bottom shell •
...... - .... _ ........ _ 17G-e 1208-272
APP'D ,
•••• u •••••••••••••• __ • FLUOR CORPORATION. FORM E-Q99 REV.l0~7
\\

VENT fv), w/COVER~

__ ,- __ ~+TAN~~ __ ~~____ _ LINE

~ '! :I

~

Q 1&1 IZ

It:

D.

BY

DATE

CHK'D

APP'D

RECE:.IVi::D

JAN J 1 1972

Engrg. Standards

CALUCLATE FROM FORMULA

,/ IN SECTION G

I_~

1.0. H®

><~

6" YORKMESH OR

EQUAL TYPE 301 SS

FEED

0~

®

COND, OUT

STEAM IN

~

t-rTAN~. ~~-=c:::::d.- :::::;;~Jr H

LINE

--..._---:-;;ii'

--

o SULFUR DRAIN

FIGURE G-S

VERTICAL PRODUCT COALESCER (TYPICAL)

THE FLUOR CORPORATION. LTD.

PROCESS DESIGN DATA VERTICAL VESSEL

CODE STAMP

OTHER SPECS:

DESIGN CONDITIONS:

PRESSURE -2.51+10 PSIG

TEMPERATURE 650 OF

*MAXIMUM LIOUID LEVEL

FT.

OPERATING CONDITIONS

PRESSURE -1 PSIG

TEMPERATURE 2S0 OF

*NORMAL LIQUID LEVEL

FT.

CORROS I ON ALLOWANCES liS"

MATERIALS:

SHELL

CARBON STEEL

INTERNALS CARBON STEEL

TRAYS -
CAPS -
LINING -
PACKING -
TYPE OF TRAY -
TYPE OF PACKING -
F I REPROOF I NG NONE INSULATION YES (Min, Shell temp .. 2500F)

NOZZLE SCHEDULE

MK SIZE
A 12"
0 3x2"
VI 12"
SI _ 2 2 _ 2"
M IS"
)l SIZE

RTG

RTG

III

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LICUID

STRESS RELIEVE NOTES & REF. DWGS.

(1) w/lnternal steam call tight ogainst bottom .hell

(2) All Internal. to be remO¥oble thru 17" I,D. Manwoy.

CONTRACT NO.

FORM E-098 REV. 10-67

17G-C 1209-272

.:

~

J

Z o UJ IZ

a: a.

~ ~ PROCESS DESIGN DATA RECt.lVC:O
HORIZONTAL VESSEL
JUN J 1972
..J
CO..l
-Z..l Engrg. Standards
I- c LID - 4/1
Z..IU
W..J-
oc,,- ~
-x- -I~
"''''U
Z '" I:;
8!:5I oJ
"'I-'" I I~
_c_ Calculate 1.0.
xx ~ ® 101
1-1- /:::i:CformUla (t
'"
0'" ~
"'::liS T IICt.G at C-200 T I-
a::~- fli
~ci /'
0
a:: 0 a:: ~ 304SS
i~~
1-1- 6" mBlh
w"'c i ~ ~ .,.
~wx
~I-
0 ~~ ~
~~~ lI0U ID LEVEL J-11 ~
I-Z~
zo ~. ~ ,....
", .. a::
..I~'" Tvpe304SS * H
x 6" mesh A, - - :_fnl- 1- - - - t-. ®e(21
",I-I- --It- ------_ .. - - - - - ---
--0 (V
oz'" • j_ i.,.J;J. ~ _L L.J T
ia::'" 6"
~o
1- ..
• W a::
oa::~ o @J) ........ "ur Plate e ~
I- ..
_,~>-
z· '" i (1) 111 (11
0'"
-",a::
~~~ I
a::c
0 0 GRADE
.. 0..,
~~~
u
GI:~a::
0",0
~ _ Z
..I~
"
~ . J
"''''
.... a::
olEo CODE STAMP OTHER SPECS:
~a::z
",lj!-
'" a:: *MAXIMUM
~~o DESIGN CONDITIONS: PRESSURE PSIG LIQUID LEVEL FT •
a::1->
.. ..J TEMPERATuRE OF
.1-
",C!)U
..IZ",
O-a::
"'.- OPERATING CONDITIONS: PRESSURE PSIG *NORMAL LIOUID
co LEVEL FT.
",a::
xo ...
I- 0 TEMPERATURE OF
'"
"'-0
-x",
1-'"
0 0 CORROSION ALLOWANCES
i .....
0'"
:;J~Q LINING
XO'"
"'..I'"
..I"'.
IDXa:: ~;ATERIALS: SHELL
~I-w
..... ~
zoo INTERNALS
'"
wZ2:
IDOO FIRE
1-1-1- PROOFING INSULATION
o<z
za::",
"'..I NOZZLE SCHEDULE
"'0
<-
~ en 0"
f.:)~~ MK. A B 01-3 S1.S2
zu ..
;zo SIZE
<_u 111 121
a::
Q Q o·
",i'" RTG.
- u
~ .• Z! Q
>0'"
H...Ja:::% SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUID
~ZLu.
UO"'-
a:: Z <J <J STRESS RELIEVE Figure G-6
1-' ~
<;
NOTES II< REF. DWGS. COMPLEX HORIZONTAL
r-- . (1) 0,.028. 03 are steam jacketted nozzles with two "''' PRODUCT COALESCER
BY nipples for steam in and come out • (TYPICAL)
.... _-_ .................... - ...
DATE (21 Steam coils must be tight against bottom shell.
... __ ... _ .... _ .. _- .... CONTRIII'cT NO .
CHICO
. __ . __ .... _ ...... - ..
17 .(;1307.a72
APP'O I
_···.·._.·.n· .. ······· FLUOR CORPORATION FORM E-Q99 REV. 1~7 FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

PUMPS. COMPRESSORS AND DRIVERS l7H-296-272

RECt:.1'vC:D

GENERAL

Engrg. St3r.d:;::

Manufacturer's standard equipment shall be provided suitable for outdoor service and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for the particular

service.

Typical specifications for the air blower, sulfur p~ and sour water pump are included at the end of this section.

-_._. -_ . ._

The air blower is usually driven by a back pressure steam turbine operating at 200-300 psig inlet and 35-60 psig exhaust. This is particularly true in selfcontained plants. The air blower may be driven by an electric motor if the sulfur unit is integrated with other units and economics so dictate.

Motor drivers are almost always used for pump drivers. Motors shall be nonoverloading at any point on the pump curve, in addition to conforming to other customer pump specifications.

Types of motors will generally conform to one of the following electrical classifications.

Class I, Division 2, Group D

- Explosive vapors or gas of the gasoline type with a lower hazard potential.

Class II, Division 1 or 2, Group G - Dust hazard from non-conducting dust (normally used in a solid sulfur storage area).

AIR BLCMER

The design head of the air blower is determined by the pressure drop through the sulfur plant from the incinerator inlet back to the furnace. The design volume is determined by the feed gas quantity and composition and the selected process configuration.

The plant pressure drop is always defined by plant layout, which is generally unava i Lab La urrt LL long after the job schpriule requires a speci f'i~p+.:i ()n f'm' thp. air blower. Therefore, the values listed below have been developed from

operating data to estimate the pressure drop in the system starting from zero psig at the inlet to the incinerator. Add a 1 to 1.5 psi "safety factor" to the calculated value to establish the blower rating.

HJX

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

A~ross inlet filter

Across the air register of the burners Across each converter bed

Lines between equipment

Across each tube pass of WHB and tube side

of each condenser

Shell side of gas-to-gas exchanger Direct fired reheaters

Tail gas scrubber

Air control valve

Safety Factor

*Add entrance and exit losses to this value

0.1 psi
0.5 psi
0.05 psi*
0.05 psi
0.25 to 0.4 psi
0.5 to 0.75 psi
0.1 psi
0.05 psi
0.5 to 0.7 psi
1 to 1.5 psi Air blowers requiring internal lubrication (e.g., sliding vane rotary blowers) are unsuitable because the oil will carbonize and foul the catalyst and/or discolor the product sulfur. Lobe type blowers (e.g., Roots Connersville) have "been found to cause excessive vibration unless provisions are made to overccme this problem (e.g., pulsation bottles and adequate duct length, etc.)

PUMPS

SinglE!-stage centrifugal pumps with mechanical seals are preferred in sulfur plant service. These pumps require steam jacketing using 35-75 psig steam to keep temperatures between 270°F and 290°F.

Pump parts of cast iron and steel are satisfactory for normal liquid sulfur temperature ranges (below 300°F). Avoid pump parts made of copper alloys.

Pure Ilolten sulfur is not erosive or corrosive and is the preferred lubricant for both horizontal and vertical sulfur pumps. Carbon bearings are used in some t.ypes of sulfur pumps, but are not recommended.

Sulfill~ pumps should be piped and mounted over the sulfur sump to provide easy removal and installation. After the unit is in operation, welding and lining repa~~s cannot be done over the sump because of fire hazard.

17H-296-272

FIUURE H-l

THE FLUOR CORPORATION, LTD.

SPECIFICATION SHEET

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

SHEET NO. __ REV. _

JOB NO. DATE _

BY CHK'D _

(TYPICAL)

RECEiVC:D

Not.: VENDOR MUST ENTER ALL MISSING PERTINENT DATA AND RETURN WITH PROPOSAL.

JAN J 1 EF2

DESTINATION Sulfw' Plant ManUal

FOR Ty~lcal Speclfication

----~------~-----------------

MANUFACTURER

TYPE AND SIZE _

UNIT ~_:Ju_'l_f_ur______________ SERIAL NO.

ITEM NO. NO. REQUIRED QUOTE NO. DATE _

Air Blower (2)

SERVICE PURCHASER ORDER NO. ___:_ DATE _

PROCESS REQUIREMENTS

GAS HANDl,.ED

BAROMETER, psia

STD CU FT PER MIN (14.1 ,sia - 60 F - Dry)

OR

WEIGHT FLOW, Ib per hour

INLET CONDITIONS

Pressure, ps ia

Temperature, deg F

Relative Humidity, per cent

Molecular Weight (M)

c "! ::J

Z

o III IZ

a: a.

Compress ibility (Z 1)

Inlet Volume, cu ft per min

DISCHARGE CONDITIONS

Press ure, ps ia

Temperature, deg F

Compr.ssibi lity (Z 2)

HORSEPOWER REQUIRED BY DRIVER

SPEED, rpm

ESTIMATED SURGE, ICFM (At Speed Above)

ADIABATIC HEAD (Hg)

PERFORMANCE CURVE NO.

Fngrg StilRdar:;

Other Conditions
Normal Rated A B C
Air Air
14. 'r" ILj.7

it ,1(iO 8j,800 l~,. u

lLi.u

.i . I,

1.4

1. (}

J .f ,_:0.7

.L.Lj 1.4
1.0 1.0 CORROSIVENESS AND REMARKS REGARDING GAS

(1) Nurmal/Min. ------------------------

I7H·CI21~272

F'ORM E-523A REV. 2-66

FIGURE H-2

REC;:_.v ~J

FI.UOR CORPORATION

JA!\' '. l' 1':;-')

• ~ lJ 1_ • -

SHEET NO. REV. _

DATE _

Engrg. St~nc1#.i!~ NO. -----

BY CHK'D. _

SPECIFICATION SHEET CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

FOR ~T~yuP~l~·c~a~l~S£P~e~c~i~f~i~c=a~t~i=o~n~-------------- 'TEMNO.-~P--~l~O~l~---------------

UNIT Sulfur Plant Manual P.O. NO. _

SERVICE Sulfur Loading MOTOR DRIVE __ ....:X~ TURBINE DRIVE _

PUMP MFR . ..:..,_ SIZE a TYPE _ _:V!....e=..::..r~t~i:..:c:::a~l=- NO. REQ'D. 1

OPERATING CONDITIONS, EACH PUMP PERFORMANCE
LIQUID Li~uid Sulfur U.S.gpDl at PT, NOR. RATED .a00 PROPOSAL CURVE NO.
DISCH PRESS. , pail!: c)7 NPSH REO' D (WATER), Ct
PT,F 260 - o.:8Q SUCT PRESS., paiS MAX __Q_RATED __ Nl.OF STAGES RPM
SP GR at PT 1. 72 DIFF PRESS., poi <)7 DES EFF BHP
VAP PRESS. at PT, psla DIFF HEAD, It 74 MAX BHP RATED IMP
VIS at PT. Sau 8 - 10 cp NPSH AVAIL., ft Flooded MAX HEAD RATED III", Ct
<XlRR/EROS. caused by IfYD. HP 26.6 MIN CGNTINUOUS,gpDl (BY MFR)
CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS ROTATION FACING <XlUPLING END
CASING-MOUNTING (CENTERLINE ) (FOOT ) (BRACXET ) (VERTICAL X ) WATER COOLING
SPLIT (AXIAL ) (RADIAL X ) BEARINGS
TYPE (SINGLE VOLUTE X ) (DOUBLE VOL UTE ) (DIFFUSER ) STlFF. BOX
TAPPED OPENINGS (VENT ) (DRAIN ) (GAGE CONNS ) PEDESTAL
NOZZLES SIZE ASA RATING FACING POSITION GLAND
SUCTION COOLER
DISCHARGE TOTAL WATER REO'D. gpDl
III>EU.ER DUM RATED MAX TYPE Enc.Loaad FLUSHING
MFR'S BEARING til. RADIAL Sleeve TIIWST NQnt SEAL FLUSHING PLAN til. -
<XlUPLING and GUARD: MFR DRIVER HALF MTD BY AUX PIPING BY MFR
o PACKING: MFR and TYPE. Yes SIZE NO. OF RINGS COOLING WATER o TUBING o PIPE
---
o IlECH SEAL: MFR and MODEL NQot API CLASS. CODE SEAL FLUSH o TUBING l:l PIPE
FOR VERTICAL PIlIP s. SHAFT THRUST (UP) (DOWN) Ib TESTS
BASEPLATE SHOP TESTS REQUIRED WITNESSED
MATERIAL CODE-EXTERNAL CASING INTERNAL PARTS RUNNING PERF
I-CAST IRON INTERNALS CODE I B S C X NPSH
B-BRONZE IMPELLER I B S C II'un DISASSEMBLY
S-STEEL INNER CASE PARTS I I S C Iron
e-n- 13" CHROME SLEEVE (PACKED) Ch Ch At Af 4140 HT HYDROSTATIC PSIG
A-ALLOY SLEEVE (SEAL) C C C C 4140 HT MAX. ALLOW., CASE 1JP PSIG F
h-HARDENED WEAR PARTS I B Ch Ch Trnn APPROX. WEIGHTS: PtJII> BASE
--- -------
f-FACED SHAFT S S S S SAE 4140 HT MOTOR TURBINE
----- -----
X-

MOTOR DRIVER BY TUR BINE DRIVER BY MFR FINAL DATA (AS BUILT)
ITEM NO. MTDBY ITEM NO. MTD BY ACTUAL IMPELLER DIAM -----
-
HP ______ RPM ---~- FRAME - --- HP __ _ ____ RPM ____ MAT'L _ ---~-.- TEST CURVE NO. --- _. __ -
MFR II"R and TYPE OUfLINE DWG til.
TYPE TEFC INSUL ____ INLET STEAM,psig __ . __ TEMP F _____ PtJII> SECT.DWG til.
-_--_._- - -----
ENC TEll> RISE C ___ EXHAUST, psil!: ___ CW REQ' D, gpm SEAL IoI"R. DWG NO. ------ - -_.-_-_----
VOLTS/PHASE/CYCLES 44oOL60 STEAM RATE, FL Ib/BHP/HR PUll> SERIAL NO.
BEARINGS Ball LUBE BEARINGS LUBE WR CLEARANCE, DIAM
-------- ---
NOZZLES SIZE ASA RATING FACING POSITION (MECH SEAL) (PACKING) SHIPPED
.- _!_~ET o INSTALLED 0 BOXED SEPARATELY
EXHAUST API STD 610 GOVERNS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED. _

Steam jacketed column & discharge pipe & casjng

Pump length to be 11' -6" from floor plate to bell mQuth

17H-C 1211-272

PRIN [ t::D IN U.S.A

FIGURE H-3

JAil! J 1 ":'072

FL.UOR CORPORATION

SPECIFICATION SHEET CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Engrg. !3tIIiUlJdl. REV. ---

JOB NO. DATE _

BY CHK'D., _

FOR_~T~y~p~i~c=a=1~S~p~e~c=i7f~i~c~a~t~i~o~n~------------------ ITEMNO.----~P--=1~0=2-------------

UNIT Sulfur Plant Manual P.o. NO. _

SERVICE _ _:S:::.o::.:ur=-.:.W:.:.a:.t.:.::e.:.r_:T::r:.;a::.n==s.;:f:.:e::r~ --------- MOTOR DRIVE ~X~ __ TURBINE DRIVE __

NO. REQ'D. _-=1=--_

PUMP MFR. SIZE 8< TYPE _

OPERATING CONDITIONS! EACH PUMP PERFORMANCE
LIQUID Sour Water U.S.gpm at PT, NOR. RATED.2Q__ PROPOSAL CURVE NO.
DISCH PRESS •• psig 105 NPSH REQ'D (WATER), it
PT,F 90 SOCT PRESS., psig MAX _j__RAmD ____ NO.OF STAGES RPM
SP GR at PT __ ._L..Q_ DIF~' PRESS .. psi 1 ( )(1 DES EFF BHP
VIE' PRESS. at PT, psi a DIFF HEAD, it ') ~l MAX BlIP RATED IMP
VIS at PT, Ssu NPSH AVAIL., ft 10 MAX HEAD RAmO UF, it
CORR/EROS. caused byQO;dtlaS in HaQ HYD. IP MIN CGNTINOOUS, gpm (BY MFR)
CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS ROTATION FACING COUPLING END
CASING-MOUNTING (CENTERLINE ) (FOOT ) (BRACKET ) (VERTICAL ) WATER COOLING
SPLIT (AXIAL ) (RADIAL ) BEARINGS
TYPE! (SINGLE VOLUTE ) (DOUBLE VOL UTE ) (DIFFUSER ) STlJ"F. BOX
TAPPED OPENINGS (VENT ) (DRAIN ) (GAGE CONNS ) PEDESTAL
NOZZLES I SIZE I ASA RATI~ FACING I POSITION GLAND
SUCTION I i I COOl.ER
DISCHARGE j .---,- I TOTAL WATER REQ'D. gpDl
_j-_.
IMPELLER DIAM RATED -- MAX ------- _-_,--- TYPE --_. __ ._----- Fl.USHING MFR'S BEARING!i) RADIAL

THRUST

I SEAL FLUSHING PLAN !i)

.-._--- ----_. ----
COUPLING and GUARD: MFR ----- DRIVER HALF MrD BY AUX PIPING BY MFR
o PACKING: MFR and TYPE SIZE NO. OF RINGS --- COOl.ING WATER 0 TUBING o PIPE
o MECH SEAL: MFR and MOOn API Cl.ASS.CODE SEAL Fl.USH !:l TUBING o PIPE
_.
FOR VERTICAL PUdP S: SHAFT THRUST (UP) (DOWN) _. Ib TESTS
BASEPl.ATE SHOP TESTS REQUIRED WITNESSED
-- ----- - T
MATERIAL CODE-EXTERNAL CASING S INTERNAL PARTS I RUNNING PERF
~ -~-I-· .--_. -
I
I-CAST IRON I INT~:RNALS CODE I B S C X NPSH
B-BRONZE IMPELLER I B S C I I.uc t i I« In_,n DISASSEMBLY
S-STEEL INNER CASE PARTS I I S C T
I-
C-U-13'; CHROME Sl.EEVE (PACKED) Ch Ch Af Af HYDROSTATIC PSIG
A-ALLOY SLEEVE (SEAL) C (' C C 1 MAX. ALLOW •• CASE IW' PSIG F
.. - _.-
h-HARDENED WEAR PARTS I B Ch Ch 11-1, Cr APPRO X , WEIGHTS: PUW BASE
11-1:1_'1' ---- -----_ .. _-
f-FACED SHAFT S S S S MOTOR TURBINE
Impeller Rine:s .. ---- --- _. --
x- 11-1_) Cr
I
--- --
MOTOR DRIVER BY TURBINE DRIVER BY MFR FINAL DATA (AS BUILT)
--- _._. .
ITEM NO. MTDBY ____ ITEM NO, ___ ~. __ MTD BY ________ ACTUAL IMPELLER DIAM --_- -- -- -
IP ___ RPM FRAME - . HP -~.- __ . RPM _ .. __ ~MAT'l. __ ~-- TEST CURVE NO. -- ---- .. -
MFR WR and TYPE ____ . ~_. _____ .~ ____ OUTLINE DWG NO. -------
TYPE TEFC INSUl. -- - INLET STEAM,paig __ __ TEMPF PUMP SECT. DWG NO.
------
ENC TEW RISE C ___ EXHAUST,psig ___ CW REQ'D. gpm SEAL MFR. DWG NO. .--_. -_ -_- __ ._----
VOl.TS/PHASE/CYCl.ES 440/3/60 STEAM RATE, Fl. __ Ib/BHP/HR PUMP SERIAL NO. --------
BEARINGS Ball l.UBE BEARINGS ------- LUBE WR CLEARANCE, DIAM ---- -
~ZZl.~HASA RA'I'!NG IF~ING POSITION (MECH SEAL) (PACKING) SHIPPED
.. - -_--_ INLET i" i o INSTAlLED 0 BOXED SEPARATEl.Y
EX~UST I API STD 610 GOVERNS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

~-------- .... ------------------------------------------------------------

17H-C 1212-272

PRINTED IN U.S.A.

FORM E-559

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

FURNACES AND HEATERS

RECEIveD

17I-297-272

General

Engrg. ~t1r:::~~~

This section discusses the combustion equipment used in a sulfur plant which includes the sulfur furnace(s), the reheat furnace(s) and the incinerator. Included at the end of this section are typical process specifications for these equipment. The Olin Matheson furnace used in the past is considered uneconomical and has been deleted from the manual.

Sulfur Furnace

The sulfur furnace burns acid gas streams with a controlled amount of air. Present day sulfur planwuse either a "Sco tch Marine" direct fired design or an external combustion chamber (sometimes called a reactor furnace). The direct fired configuration provides for combination of the acid gas feed inside the Waste Heat Boiler and is limited to firing quantities of relatively high ~S concentration acid gases which will conform to economically sized boilers. These furnaces are discussed in detail in section J, "Waste Heat Boilers".

The "reactorll type furnace consists of a refractory lined cylindrical shell containing one or more burners. This design provides for completing the oxidation process before routing the products of combustion to the Waste Heat Boiler. The minimum theoretical flame temperature for combustion of pure ~S is approximately l68o°F. This temperature will vary depending on the quantity of other combustibles and inerts in the feed gas.

The air required for the burner is established by the type of sulfur plant (i.e., straight through or bypass) and the calculated flame temperature. Combustion temperatures in the 2000-2200°F range are common.

When ~ rich gases, such as Sour Water Stripper overhead, are processed in a sulfur plant, excess air is required to ensure complete combustion. Because the quantity of HaS normally associated with NEG is not enough to satisfy the 2/1 ratio of HaS/S~ of the commingled feed to the converter, supplemental ~S must be provided (usually from the primary HaS rich feed stream). In addition, a separate bUrner or preferably a separate combustion chamber is considered the most desirable design for obtaining overall sulfur plant recoveries above 96%. When recoveries below 96% are contemplated, a single combustion chamber is satisfactory (i.e., the MobilJoliet design).

The most economical arrangement for this system is as follows:

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

FURNACES AND HEATERS

Alternate Quench Arran ••• ent

H2S RICh ~ __ ~ ~ __ ~ -,

Ga.

Air

To Sulfur Convert~r H2S/S02= 2.0

NH3 Ri Ch __ ......_._-; Ga.

The shell of the furnace must be internally lined and externally insulated to maintain a shell temperature above the water dew point of the flue gases and prevent the formation of highly corrosive sulfurous acids.

Furnace heat release varies linearly between 30,000 and 12,000 Btu/hr/ft2 for ReS contents of 25 to 100 Mol.% respectively in a straight through plant design. The heat release will be approximately 20% higher for the bypass type plant.

The turndown ratio should normally be limited to 4/1, a standard in burners. The addition of specially designed burners as added burners allow 5/1 and 6/1 turndown ratios but at increased cost.

The furnace shell operating temperature must be maintained above 300-350°F to remain above the water dew point and avoid formation of highly corrosive condensed sulfurous acid. The effect of turndowns must be considered when setting the design surface temperature. One unique design method used for controlling shell surface temperatures in areas having wide range ambient air conditions consisted of installing a 1/8" insulation enclosed in a weatherproof aluminum shroud, equipped with a chimney vent and adjustable dampers.

The furnace lining consists of high temperature, pall resistant refractory plus a layer of inSUlation. The most widely used method consists of firebrick refractory backed by either castable insulation or insulating block. For preparation of the furnace specifications specify the combustion air and acid gas pressure at the burner as 0.5 psi above the desired

furnace outlet pressure.

Reheaters

Reheaters are used (instead of hot vapor bypass) for heating sulfur converter feed streams to maintain reaction temperatures. Design of these heaters conforms to generally accepted heater design practice and includes the same design limitations described in the "Sulfur Furnace" section.

171-297-272

FLUOR CORPORA.TION

Page 3

FURNACES AND HEATERS

RECi::iVC:O

Incinerators

Engrg. St3ndar~3

The incinerator is designed to burn either the sulfur coalescer vapor or tail gas scrubber tower vapor before these gases are vented to the atmosphere through the stack. Package unit designs usually are purchased for this service. Often it is convenient to also burn waste streams from other sources in the incinerator (SUCh as inlet separator liquids, hydrocarbons, liquids from regeneration of adsorbers, etc.). These streams must be listed as separate feed streams when preparing a process spe~ification.

A vertical incinerator at the base of a stack is not recommended unless the unit is small, the contract competitive and the client requests or sanctions this type of service. These units have frequently failed.

For checking vendor quotations use the following General Design criteria.

1. 40,000-50,000 Btu/hr/ft3 for firebox volume.

2. Allow 5% for internals.

3. Use 100 ft/sec maximum muzzle velOCity for sizing stack if included in the quote.

4. Use separate specifications for incinerators and stacks for sulfur

plants larger than 100 LT/day.

Normally, a natural (induced) draft incinerator followed by a vent stack is the most economical design. A smaller incinerator and stack is possible with a forced draft design. However, the increased operating and investment cost of the blower because of the increased capacity and added pressure drop of 0.1 to 0.25 usually overcomes the advantage of the smaller incinerator and stack. An economic analysis is required to determine the best design.

Provide a pilot light and ignition for the incinerator. At times, a torch may serve as the ignition. In addition, a flame failure alarm or breeching temperature alarm should be specified.

HJK

l71-297-272

Page 4

FLUOR CORPORATION

TABLE 1-1

TYPICAL SPECIFICATION FOR REACTOR FURNACE

ITEM H-l

SCOPE

This specification covers the design, materials, fabrication and installation of refractories for a Reactor Furnace for installation in the Province of Alberta. This Furnace will provide flue gas for a Waste Heat Boiler by the combustion of an acid gas stream containing HaS. Auxiliary fuel gas will be used during startup. The firing end, complete with burner, will be enclosed in a building.

PROCESS SPECIFICATION
Acid Gas
Component to Burner Air to Burner Furnace Outlet
N2 0.0 6466.39 6466.39
H2O 97.0 192.0 2785.73
CO2 785.06 0.0 785.06
COS 0.0 0.0 22·32
H2S 3368.21 0.0 613.05
S02 0.0 0.0 306.52
O2 0.0 1718.92 8.37
S7.5 0.0 0.0 323.51
C1 2.42 0.0 0.0
C2 0·95 0.0 0.0
Cs 1.75 0.0 0.0
nC4 2.87 0.0 0.0
nCs 0.25 0.0 0.0
Mols/Hr 4258.50 8377.31 11310.94
Lbs/Hr 151,421 239,624 385,828
MW 35·97 28.85 34.11
Pressure, psig 5.25 4.75 3.65
Temperature, OF 80 120 2110
Heat Release = 280 MM Btu/Hr
Desi~n Conditions Shell Design Pressure Code

Max. Acid Gas Rate

Max. Combustion Air Rate Max. Heat Release

Max. Operating Outlet Overall Pressure Drop Turndown

Atmospheric Pressure

14.9 psig None

4600 Mol/Hr 9000 Mcl/Hr 310 MMBtu/Hr 2800°F

3" w. C. (Acid Gas Side) 6:1

12.2 psia

171-297-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 5

~LE I-2

TYPICAL SPECIFICATION FOR ACID GAS REHEATERS

RECEiVC:D

ITEM H-2

'r\~\, r'1 1G/')

'- ""; i.. L'.... I ...... I ._

SCOPE

Engrg. St3ndsrc;;

This specification covers the design, materials and fabrication of three acid gas reheat burners. The process requirements for each reheater are set forth on separate pages.

PROCESS SPECIFICATION

Gas Stream Acid Combustion Hot Gas Stream
ComE2nent to Heater Gas Air From Heater
N2 6466.39 503.15 6969.54
HaO 2875.73 3019.81
CO2 785.06 61.09 846.15
COS 22.32 24.19
HaS 613.05 262.08 664.56
S02 306.52 332.28
O2 8.37 133.75 9.07
S7.5 1.02 26.20
C1 0.19
C2 0.07
Ca 0.14
nC" 0.22
nCs 0.02
10988.45 323.80 636.90 11981.80
Lbs/Hr 308,286 11,646 18,376 338,308
MW 28.06 35·97 28.85 28.24
Temperature, OF 280 80 120 483
Pressure, psig 2.55 3·50 3.50 2.45
Heat Release = 21.946 MMBtu/Hr Normal
= 25.000 MMBtu/Hr Design HJK

17I-297-272

Page 6

FLUOR CORPORATION

TABLE I-3

SPECIFICATION FOR INCINERATORS

ITEM H-3

SCOPE

This specification covers the design, materials, fabrication and installation of refractories of horizontal incinerator(s) to burn the residual H2S and elemental sulfur in the tail gas from a sulfur plant. The flue gas from incinerator(s) shall contain all available sulfur in tne form of sulfur dioxide which shall be dispersed into the atmosphere via a foot stack. The stack shall be provided by others. The process requirements for each incinerator are set forth on separate pages.

PROCESS SPECIFICATION

Component Tail Gas Fuel Gas
N2 7428.87 5.04
H2O 3879.99
CO2 926.13
COS 6.44
B2S 45.81
S02 22.91
O2
S7.,s 1.15
C1 356.28
C2 20.84
C3 2·35
12311.30 384.50
Lbs/Hr 322,284 6587
MW 26.18 17.13
Temperature, OF 100
Pressure, psig Atmos. 20 Mins.
Heat Release = MMBtu/Hr
Excess Air "/0
Turndown Ratio = Atmospheric Pressure = 12.2 psia

Ambient Air = _40°F to 90°F

Combustion Air

Stack Gas

4158.18

11592.09 4710.27 1337.57

1105.31

83.79 221.06

5263.49 151,852 28.85 75 Atmos.

17944.78 480,723 26.79 1200

17I-297-272

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FLUOR CORPORATION FIGURE I·lb

TYPICAL REACTOR FURNACE

RECE.IVC:D

JII [\, ') 1 lQ7?

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AIR INLET

MODEL DAZ46

PILOT

& TORCH DOOR

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END VIEW A· A

AS PURCHASED

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I7I·CI213b.272

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TYPICAL WASTE GAS INCINERATOR & BREECHING

J f! ,.. ., 1 1(0'-" r-i.\ t) 1 jl L

Engrg. Standards

WASTE GAS I

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G,U BURNERS

SIDE ELEVATION

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

WASTE HEAT BOILERS

l7J-298-272

General

Engrg. Stlncar:3

This section discusses the two alternate methods which are used to specify a waste heat boiler for a sulfur plant and the two types of boilers which are usually designed for this service.

Normal practice at Fluor is to provide a process and mechanical specification to vendors and select the economical design when bids are obtained.

Typical specifications for a waste heat boiler are included as Figure J-l and Figure J-2 at the end of this section.

Waste Heat Boilers

Two alternate boiler designs are usually associated with sulfur plant design. The most widely used configuration consists of a "Scotch Marine" type boiler in which the sulfur furnace and waste heat boiler are combined by positioning the combustion tube within the boiler. This arrangement usually consists of one or more large diameter corrugated tunnel furnace tubes in which the combustion gases discharge followed by a refractory lined rear reversal chamber and one or more flue gas tube passes. However, this design is economically limited to system having ~S concentrations above 50% and/or a waste heat capacity which permits the boiler shell diameter to remain within an economic size and/or plants limited to lower sulfur recoveries.

The second approach is becoming more preferred as plant sizes increase and are required to meet air pollution regulations. This design consists of a separate furnace and boiler configuration. The separate furnace produces increased sulfur conversion by developing a greater flame retention time.

The associated boiler is generally two pass in 150 LT/D or smaller lunits and the temperature in the flue gas turnaround channel is specified when required for reheat. Above 150 LT/D, the boiler is usually single pass.

Hot gas reheat bypasses must be defined to properly design the boiler. However, the reheat temperature and vent streams cannot be precisely specified for widely varied operating conditions by boiler design alone. The reheat lines must be adequately sized and a back pressure control is needed on the boiler vent gas to ensure correct reheat at reduced plant flow rates.

Design Considerations

Provision for condensation of about 20 to 30% of the elemental sulfur formed in the furnace and present at the waste heat boiler inlet should be included in the design requirements even though the calculated vent gases indicate a temperature above the dew point. However, the steam rating for the boiler must be calculated based on the calculated dew point.

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

WASTE HEAT BOILER

Toxic gases are produced by combustion of acid gases. Therefore, the boiler must be specified to be leakproof at 10 psig with shop test at 15 psig. Some designs weld the channel to the tube sheet to prevent leaks (but makes it difficult to replace tubes).

Design the shell side of boilers in accordance with the boiler code applicable for the plant location.

Pressure drop across the process side of the boiler is normally set a 0.05 psi in the first pass tunnel furnace and 0.25 psi per pass of smaller tubes.

Tubes should be seal welded to the tube sheets and the flue gas inlet ends of the first pass boiler tubes protected by ceramic tube ferrules. The space between the ferrules is lined with castable refractory (high alumina or plastic refrCi.ctory) held in place by "V" clip anchors attached to the ligament area. This allows proper heat exchange in the area immediately adjacent to the tube sheet.

Design for all carbon steel construction with a 1/8" corrosion allowance on the shell, tube sheet, inlet/outlet and return channel. The shell side corrosion allowance will occasionally be established by the customer and has been designed as low as 0.05 inches.

Provide tubes which are two gauge heavier than required by code.

Reheat connections on the reversing chamber cover are stainless steel or refra.ctory lined carbon steel nozzles inserted through the cover so that they are flush with the internal refractory lining.

Install a steam jacketed liquid sulfur outlet nozzle in both the reversing chamber and outlet gas chamber to remove any condensed elemental sulfur produced in the boiler.

Inlet refractories must be suitable for flame temperatures up to 2800°F. No internal lining is required for channels operating below 800°F.

Insulate all exposed carbon steel surfaces to maintain a shell temperature above 300 to 3500 to prevent the formation of highly corrosive sulfurous acids.

For competitive plants design the main steam outlet from the boiler to limit the carry-over in the steam to 0.5% by weight using a dry pan separator. A carryover limit of 1 ppm requires a more expensive separator design; i.e., centrifugal type.

17J-298-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 3

WASTE HEAT BOILER

Evaluate the potential for "fog formation" in all exchangers using Figure K-4, "Limits of Fog Formation" at the end of Section K which is based on

an article in I&Ee, Vol. 42, No. 11 (1950) by H. F. Johnstone. "Fog" formation in sulfur plant exchangers is a phenomenon that occurs when sulfur vapors condense in the presence of inert gases and may severely reduce overall sulfur recovery. "Fog" generation is particularly troublesome in waste heat boilers producing low pressure steam, especially in a "straight through" plant design immediately after the free flame conversion.

REC i: IV c.J

17J-298-272

FIGURE J-l SPECIFICATION SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER

RECt.I·~ i:i)

'ORM E.513 REV. 7·62 ~RINTED IN U.S.A.

VENDO. MUST COM'LET. THIS '~'C"'C'T'ON IH'ET IE'ORI R,Tu.NING.

IT'M, M .... D • M'Y IE OMITT.D UNTIL SEL.CTION 0' VINDO.·d dBY CHK'O

WASTE HEAT BOILER Engrg. Stan ar ~JO:"'B-N-O-.---=~--

I. ITEM NO.=---,~~:- SERVICE ..:_ ...=.;=...:..;.::..:..... _

2. nrrv _..!7..:1:..:,..:6~MM.::..:.. BlU/HR. EXOiANGER TYPE: HOR I Z., ~ _ .... F!i..~::.· r~e~.:.Tu=b~e~Typ'"'_E~e~ _

u. U. CODE REOU

IN 17. COOE STAM

1& MATERIA

31. TUBES ••

.0. TUBE SH

• " BA"LES

U. TUBE SU O. TIE ROD

••• LONG BA

••• SHELL ••

••• SHELL COVER/'LANGE ••

4'. CHANNEL ..

••• CHANNEL COVER/FLANGE ~-----------L--- __ - --4

.". FLOATING HEAD COVER.

I(~ CHANNEL 'LANGES ••••• 51. CHANNEL NOZ. FLANGES

3. VENDOR

4. FLU I 0 I. TOTAL F I. 7. LIWID I. SP. GR

I. THUMA

10. Sl'EC1'

II. VISCOS

12. n.

14. VAPOR ••

II. MOLECU

II. THERMAL

17. SPECI'

II. VISCOS

II. Steam

20. ADDI TlON

21. OPERATI

22. PRESSU

U. VELOC

24. PRESSU

U. DESIGN

21. PRESSU

n. 'OUL.R

21. MIN. C

II. NUMBER 30. FLOW AR

31. TOT. ARE ...

32. LMTD •••• n. CORRECT[ 34. TRANS'ER

THE ,.LUOR CORPORATION. LTD.

JAN 3 1 197,.=SA:.:,:E:::.,ET:...,;N:.:,:o:.!.,. _..::OA::.,:T.=,E __

REV DATE

MFRS I DENT NO

SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
· ......................... Water & Steam Sulfur Bearing Gases
LOW ••••• , •••••••••• , • LBS/HR ~6,000 117,000*-
INLET OUTLET INLET OUTLET
• •••••••••••••••••••• LaslHR e3.000 4,000 - 4,tj~u
· ............................ @ ., @ 0, @ ., 0 OF
l COND ••• BTUI HR • SO FT .·,I'T. @ 0, @ 0, @ ., @ 0,
IC HEAT ........... BTU/La • ., @ ., @ ., @ 0, @ 0,
ITY ............... CENTIPOISES @ OF @ ., Gl OF @ 0,


• •••••••••••••••••••• LaslHR P, 000 92 000 117 000 (4_l 110.200
LAR WEIGHT ................... 18 18 ~2
COND ••• BTUlHR • so 'T .O,I'T @ 0, @ D, @ 0, @ 0,
IC HEAT ••••••••••• BTU/LB • 0, @ 0, @ 0, @ OF @ 0,
I TY ............... CENT I PO I SES IOl 0, e 0, @ 0, @ 0,
Purity, •••••••• ,10 99.'5
AL DATA ON SHEET NO ......
a 307 307 2,180 532
NG TE .. ERATURES • ~~ : »'" F
RES •• I.A.T!"P.S v, P.S.I.A •• ' , .PSI G 60 5
ITIES ................... FT/SEC
RE DROPINOTr ... , ••••••••••• PSI AllOW. Nel2'l. CAL.C. AllOW. 0.') CALC.
TEMPERATURE ••••••••••••••• 0, ~')O
RE ••••••••••••••••••••••• PSI G MIN. gO TEST MIN. See Note 2 TEST
ESIST ..... 50 FT • HR x OF/BTU MIN. ,0010 C ... L.C. MIN. .0010 C ... lC.
ORROSION ... LlOWANCE ••••••••• IN 178" 1/8"
OF PASSES PER SHELL ......
RANGEMENT ................ PAR.S"'NKS OF EXCH. IN SERIES P"'R.BANKS OF EXCH. IN SERIES
INoTE B' SO FT SHELL. NO. X 1.0. .... • IN CROSS B ... FFlES, TYPE ..
......... .... TUBES, NO. PER SHElL. ••• NUMaER • SPACING •• x IN.
o MTO ••.••••• 0.0. x L.ENGTH ••••••• I N. x IN. SEGMENT CUT •••••••
RATE, CLEAN GAUGE, SWG ••••. (11 "'VE. MIN.W"'LL IMPINGEMENT BAF'lE •• (YES) INO)
.....
SERVICE TUBEPITCH •••• . .... IN. LlOO WEIGHTS EACH BUNDLE. LBS
IREMENTS •••• 1(2) ... SME: 'K1IJIC REMOVABLE TUBE BUNOL.E x~ INO, BUNDLE. SHELL •••• Las
OT[ 0' (YESI (W i~m' ~m: u. TUBE FUll 0' W ... TER ..... LBS
P ......... ,. FLOATING HE ... O ••••.•..
SHELL ! D •
LSIM ••• STRESS RELIEvED.S.R.,RAoIOGRA'HEo.X.R.l NOZZLES INO SIZE RATING • FACING O. SIZE RAT ING • FAC I N"
Carbon Steel (NOT[ CI
............. INlET ••••••••
EETS ••••••••• Carbon Steel OUTLET .......
............. DRAIN ........
PPORTS ••••••• VENT •••••••••
'RESS. (;AG[
S 10 SPACERS •• lu. NOZlLEI.
THERMOWELL
"lE ••••••••• IE •• NOZZLE'.
.............. Carbon Steel . ............ *Composition Mols. i N2

H20

~S

S02

O2

etc,

Carbon Steel

Car-ben Steel

Carbon Steel

5~~ SHELL FLANGES •••••••

Carbon Steel

'4.

5:1. SHEll NOZ. 'LANGES ••

Section Vr~J ~plifS if C.P. and 15 psig

(1) 2 tube gauges over that required by Boiler Code

hr. after

B: OUTSIDE TUBE AREA EXCLUDING ARlA IN TUIE SHEETS.

.ATE PER AS .... 16E LATEST !UPPLEMENTi'irst pass'@ "" 0: UNITS EXEM,T 'ROlli CODE ST ... M, SHALL HAVE LON,., TUD IHAL WILD 110(

Sf"WS spoT £XAMINED P(R 'ARA. UWe 52 OF ASIIE CODE. ~~

'OR CONDENSERS AND THIE .... SVPHQM REIICIII.,[R$ .. RESSURE DROF- STATED SHALL INCLUDE C:

STAllC HEAD IETwEEN CEMTERLlfCS 0' INLET AND OUTLET 'LANGES.

FLUOR CORPORATION

Rt:"C'"'Vt:O

_ t:.1

TABLE J-2

TYPICAL SPECIFICATION FOR WASTE HEAT BOILER

J A.t\; 3 i 1972

Contract __

Customer

------------------

Location

Date ------------------

Scope

This specification covers the design, material, and installation of refractories for a Waste Heat Boiler. This boiler will be installed outside with housing provided by others on the firing end only.

Process Requirements

Type: Fire tube unit with HaS-rich flue gas feed from furnace furnished by others.

Normal Duty:

Tube Side

Inlet Outlet
Compo MolsLHr. MolsLHr.
N2 6201.76 6201. 76
R:a0 2947.65 2947.65
C~ 750.)-3 750.13
COS 25.42 25.42
~S 582.62 582.62
S02 291.31 291.31
~ 9.53 9·53
S7.5 309.14 247.31
11117.55 11055.73
Lbs/Hr. 374,550 359,684
MW 33.69 32.53
Temp. - of 2111 600
Press. - Psig 3.65
Sulfur Condensed - Lbs/Hr. 14,866
Allowable Pressure Drop, Psi
Atmospheric Pressure, Psia
Duty Available, MM Btu/Hr. 17J-298-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

Shell Side

steam Generation, Lb/Hr. (~erating Pressure, Psig Feedwater Temperature, of

l)e sign Duty

Design duty and flows shall be normal flows and duty.

Mechanical Design

~l'ube Side

Design Pressure, Psig Design Temperature, of Corrosion Allowance Fouling Factor

Shell Side

Des i.gn Pressure, Psig Des i.gn Temperature, of Corrosion Allowance Fou Li ng Factor

,'me of Uni t

'Unit shall be of single pass, fixed tube sheet construction. If required, the unit can be broken up into two separate single-pass units with a ~ommon steam drum. A two-pass alternate will also be considered. In either case, however, the Vendor shall specify the terminal temperature and pressure drop for each section.

Refractory

The front tube sheet shall be lined with A.P. Green, or equivalent, 85% Alumina material suitable for 3300°F temperature.

Tube ends at the front tube sheet shall be protected by closely fitted ceramic ferrules protruding outside the tube sheet to the extent of the refractory thickness, and extending at least 2" into the tubes.

l7J-298-272

S .5

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FLUOR CORPORATION

Pagel

EXCHANGERS (ECONOMIZERS) 17K-299-272

RECEiVeD

JAN 31 i972

General

Engrg. Standarcs

Exchangers in sulfur plants are primarily Sulfur Condensers and/or Gas t~ Gas reheater exchangers. These exchangers are specifically designed for sulfur plant service (i.e. large diameter-heavy gage tubes, steam jackets on drains, etc.) and may be designed to be either horizontal or vertical. However, horizontal construction is generally less costly when ~ the installed costs are compared.

Sulfur bearing gases flow through the tube side of Condensers which are generally designed to heat boiler feedwater or generate steam on the shell side. Therefore, these exchangers are generally specified and constructed in accordance with ASME Boiler Code Section I and/or TEMA codes. When used in non-boiler services exchangers may be specified without code stamp to reduce cost if the customer agrees to this approach.

Typical specification for sulfur condensers heating boiler feedwater and generating steam are included on Figures K-l and K-2 at the end of this section. Also illustrated as Figure K-3 is a gas to gas reheater exchanger.

Design Considerations

Sulfur must be kept above 250°F to remain liquid; therefore, keep the cooling media well above this level to prevent sulfur deposition in the tubes and always insulate any surfaces which are in contact with sulfur rich streams.

Design the sulfur condensers to avoid flashing particularly when the plant is expected to have a variable capacity.

Specify the primary sulfur condenser for the bulk dew point of the total waste heat boiler inlet gas.

Maintain the mass flow at the channel cross section above the last tube row below 3300 Ib/hr/ft2 to minimize entrainment from the outlet of horizontal condensers. Vertical exchangers are usually designed with a channel baffle below the tube sheet to prevent condensate from being swept into the outlet nozzle. Reentrainment of sulfur around the edge of this baffle is limited by designing the flow area between the baffle edge and the channel wall for less than 3300 Ib/hr/ft2 or C = pgva, where

C V

Pg

=

15

gas velOCity, ft/sec gas density, lb/ft3

=

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

EXCHANGERS

Slope horizontal exchangers in sulfur service a minimum of 3/16" per foot of length to allow condensed sulfur to flow in the tubes.

Use carbon steel construction for all sulfur plant exchangers.

Evaluate the potential for "fog f'ormat Lon" in all exchangers using Figure K-4, "Limits of Fog Formation" at the end of this section which is based on an article in I&EC, Vol. 42, No. 11 (1950) by H. F. Johnstone. "Fog" formation in sulfur plant exchangers is a phenomenon that occurs when sulfur vapors condense in the presence of inert gases and may severely reduce overall sulfur recovery. "Fog" generation is particularly troublesome in waste heat boilers producing low pressure steam, especially in a "straight through" plant design immediately after the free flame conversion.

17K-299-272

FIGURE K-l

SPECIFICATION SHEET -IAN 31191'2

HE ATE X C HAN G E It" ~ =:5H'-!!:E=-ET:....N~0:.:... 1:__t:';...:::O;:.,:AT:..:;,E _

THE F"LUOR CORPORATION. LTD REV. DATE

\llfllDII). "~ST "!r,."'L£ 1[ TN 1$ ,'IC" I C.T I O~ s ... r£ T .t •• r.J~atd3 .!l.!:~~-. __ ...!:!!!!=-- _

IT t .. , , .... rD. .. •• If ~ .. 11 T (D U' TI L st ~ [ C to .r4'~" V[ N DO. • _!B:..:Y_- _';_~~-,co_...!C::.H:.:;K:...·.:::D __

BOILER FW HEATER (ECONOMIZER) JOB NO.

EXQiANGER TYPE: HORIZ., VERT. _~F:...;·I~X~E~·D::._TU;:.:;:;B::.E=S.::HE=E~T _

re •• E.!in REV.7·52 'IINTED '" U.S.A.

,. ITEM NO. - SERVICE

41. 335 HM

l. IOUTY BTU/HR.

3. 'VENDOR

MFRS I DENT NO

5HELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
..... ......... - BOILER FEE DWATE R SULPHUR BEARING GAS
• • • • • •• • • • LB5/HR 331,000 359.684
INLET OUTLET INLET OUTLEl
•••••••••• LBslHR 331,000 331,000 59 224 (2)
••••••••••••• 4 ••• @ 0" @ 0" @ 0, 1.8 @ 280 0"
HR& SOFT ,O"/FT. "" 0" @ 0" @ 0" @ 0,
..
••••.• ITU/LB. Of @ 0" @ 0, @ °F @ 0,
•••••• CENTIPOI5ES @ 0" @ 0" @ 0, @ 0,


•••••••••• l8S1HR i'iq 684 r n 300.460
................. 32.53 '27 80
HR. so rT 'OF/rT ~ OF @ OF @ 0, @ 0,
•••••• BTU/LB. 0, ~~- ." @ °F @ 0, @ ."
•••••• C£NTIPOI5ES ;; 0" e OF e 0" @ 0"

SHEET NO ......
ES··12··2·· '" 260 '1RO f,nn ?RO
!.S.I.A.~) •• PSIG 280 1 1<;
.......... "T/SEC
AI ........... P51 ALLO.. 10 CALC. ALLOW. o ,'\ CALC.
" ••••••••••• 01' 450 f\ <;0
............ PSIC MIN • 325 lEST MIN. 14 q TEST
'T • HR 1°F/BTU MIN. 0.001 CALC. IoIIN. 0.01 CALC.
WANCE ......... IN. 1/16" 1/8"
R SHELL ...... ____ 9Il~ onp
................ 1 PAR. BANKS OF 1 EXCH. IN SERIES 1 PAR. BANKS OF 1 EXCH.IN SERIES
T 49,700 SHELL. NO. X 1.0. .... 1 • 126 IN CROSS BA"FLES.TVPE ••
TUBES. NO. PER SHELL ••• 3830 NUMBER. SPACING •• x IN.
83.3 0.0. I LENGTH ....... I!.; IN .• 396 IN. SEGMENT CUT •••••••
GAUGE, BWG ••.• _ ..... 10 (AVE,)MIN.WALL IMPINGEMENT BAFFLE •• IYES) INO)
t- --
r:-J_Q.O __ TUBE PITCH .... _ ..... 1 7/8IN.(Ll)O 0 WEIGHTS EACH BUNDLE. LBS
(3) ASME' TEMA R REMOVABLf_ TUBE BUNOLE eYES) eNOl BUNOLE a SHELL •••• LBS
eYES) HOATING HEAD ........ ~~ ~~~. mb: U.TUI[ FULL OF WATER ..... LBS
SHELL Slot TUIE 5
S R[LI[V[o·S.R.,R&DIOG.&~~rD.x.R.) NOZZLES No SIZE RATING' 'ACING INO. s r z e ftATING e: FACtH!:
s-i t» STEEL (NOTE C\ 1 8" 30011 RF 1 7?" 125 IILW FFSO
INLET •••••••
STEEL OUTLET ••••••• 1 8" 30011 RF ! 1 60' 125 IIUI FFSO
STEEL ORAIN ........ 1 1" 6000# CnlQ. 11 6" 150 tIFF *
STEEL VENT ••••••••• 1 I" DITTO 11 I" 6000tl Cp Lz •
STEEL '.[SS. GAGE 1 1/i1 DITTO i1 3/4' DITTO
lEA •• OIU[).
I;!~ .. ::g~ ... ) . 1 I" DITTO I, 1" DITTO
STEEL i:
·(l) .... · .. C MOL%"
~~ N2 ( 56.10

H20 26.66

C02 6.78

COS 0~23

H2S 5.27

S02 2.63

53. SHELL NOZ. FLANGES.. a O. 09 ~

14. REMARKS: __ (~2~)~~L~i~q u~~~' d::;.S~u~l~p~h~u~r;;.. :;;:;::::::-:r::~ -=~~ ~~2=. ~24~(=MW::..=.:2~4.:0:...) :

(3) Shell to be designed per 00. 00 _ u·

'--------~~-.A~S~ME~'S~e~cnt~~~onn-,I~CF-o~dr-e~.~-----------------------------------------------------~.

_ 4. FLUID ••••••••••••

..TOTAL FLOW ..

..

7. I.IWID ..

.. SP. GR .

.. THERMAL COND ••• BTUI

,~ SPECIFIC HEAT •••••

11. ViSCOSiTy .

12. U. '4. VAPOR •••••••••••••

I.. MOLECULAR WEIGHT ..

,I. THERMAL COND ••• BTU!

,~ SPECI'IC HEAT •••••

'I. VISCOSITY ......... ,t. 2~ "DDITIONAL DATA ON 21. OPERATING TEIoPERATUR

22. PfcESSURES • .I.A.T.MfJ.S,.

Z~ VELOCITIES •••••••••

24. PRESSURE DROPINOT[

ZL I:lE51 (;'oj TEMPER~TURE .. 21. PRESSURE •.•••••••••

27. "OUL.RESIST ..... so

2L MIN. CORROSION ALLO It. IruMBER OF PASSES PE 3~ I=LOW ARRANGEMENT ••

31. "OT. AREA INoH B) sa"

32. I.MTO •••••••••••••••••

n. C:ORRECTEO MTO •••••••• ,4. 1rRAN5I'ER RATE. CLEAN

'L

SERYICE

I~ CODE REOUIREMENTS ••••

INOTt 0)

'7. 'CODE STANP ..

II. MATERIALSIM STIl'

't. TUBES •••••••••••••••

.~ TUBE SHEETS •••••••••

.,. BAFFLES .

• 2. TUBE SUPPORTS •••••••

.~ TIE RODS 6 SPACERS ..

.4. LONG BAFFLE •••••••••

.L SHELL ••••••••••••• - ••

.1. SHELL COYER/FLANGE ..

'7, CHANNEL ..

.a. CHANNEL COYER/FLANGE ••• 'LOATING HEAO COVER. I~ CHANNEL FLANGES •••••

51. CHANNEL NOZ. fLANGES

52. SHELL "LANGES .......

STEEL

STEEL

STEEL

* 6" nozzle w/8" Steam Jacket. Provide 2 _ 3/4"

6000# Cplgs. for Steam in & out.

8: ouTSIo[ 'YI, AAtA (~CLUCJNG .~[A IN Tul( SM(rTs.

0: UNITS (1:( .... , 'ROM COOl sT.N, SHAL.L HAV[ LONGI'L1DI" .. \. .CLO 5[aWS SPOT ( ...... N[D .. rR , .... .A. u e .. 52 0' AS"( COOl.

'0" COI'IO(frIIURS ""'0 TWrRIoIQSY"IotOfil "rIOIL[RS ""£55'.1"( DAOJ. STAT[O SMALL latCLUD( C:

STATIC "(AD I,TwtCJrrI C[NT(RL.INl:S 0' 'N",[T ."'0 C"uTL[T 'LANGES.

tlOTE A:

FIGURE K-2 SPECIFICATION SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER

THE P'LUOR C:ORPORATION. LTD.

JAN 3 1 19UE:::.....,=T....:.N:.:.;O.=----=D~AT.:..=E _

REV. DATE

\

FCI." E.513 REV. 7·12 Phl.TID IN U.S.A.

VENDOR MUST COMPLET[ THIS 5P[CI,ICATION IM[IT I,'ORE .'TURNING.

ITE" 0 • MAY IE OMITTED UNTIL "LECTION 0tnvw.~ndaT!!!; .. ..,., ..::C::.:H::.:K..:·D:::...... __

,. ITEM NO._......,.. __ SERVICE SULFUR CONDENSER JOB NO.

2. nrrv 12 .677 MM BTU /HR. EXOiANGER TYPE: HOR I z., \/'.DOC _:::,F..::IXE=.=:::D__.::TU.:::,:::B:::E:::SHE::;::E:::T=- _

3. VENDOR

sa. SI CODE REQU

INO 37 .. COOE STAM

II. MATERIA

31. TUBES ••

40. TUBE SH

4'. BAFFLES

42. TUBE SU

43. TIE ROD

4~. LONG BA

41. SHELL •• 4" SHELL COVER/FLANGE •• 4 r, CHANNEL............. i-=::S_:t:..::e:....:e::.;l::- __ "T""'_--::-:-_=--_-l

41. CHANNEL COVER/FLANGE I-=S...;t:._e:._e.:..;,;"l J...__-=:":":"::''::''''_--I

u. FLOATING HEAD COVER. 1(1. CHANNEL FLANGES ••••• 51. CHANNEL NOZ. FLANGES

"- FLUID.
L TOTAL F
I.
7. LIClJID
L SP. GR .. THEIINA

,0. SPECI F

". VI SCOS

,2. U. I'" VAPOR ••

15. MOLECU

'I THERMAL

17. SpECI F

,& VISCOS

,I.

20. ADDI TlON

21. OPERATIN

2Z. PRESSU

II. VELOCI

24.. pRESSU

n.. DESIGN T U. pRESSU

27.. FOUL. R

lao MIN. C

U. NUMBER 0 so.. FLOW ARR

31. TOT. AREA S2. LMTO .... n. CORRECTE S'" TRANSFER

MFRS I DENT NO

.
SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
· ......................... STEAM & CONDENSATE SULFUR BEARING GAS
LOW •••••••••••••••••• LBS/HR 14,100
INLET OUTLET INLET OUTLET
• •••••••••••••••••••• LBSlHR g,)74 (2 )
· ............................ @ OF @ D, • @ 0, 1 8@ 280°'
L COND ••• BTU/HR. SO'T • °F/ FT. @ 0, @ 0, @ OF @ 0,
IC HEAT ........... aTU/La • 0, @ 0, @ 0, @ 0, @ OF
I TY ............... CENT 11'0 I SES @ 0, @ 0, Cil 0, Cil 0,


• •••••••••••••••••••• LBSlHR 14,100 (4) 316,e67 (1) 307,293
LAR .EIGHT ••••••••••••••••••• le 26.87 26.14
COND ... BTUlHR • so 'T .0F/'T. @ OF @ 0, @ 0, @ OF
IC HEAT ••••••••••• BTU/LB • 0, @ OF @ OF @ 0, @ OF
ITY ............... CENTI PO I SES @ 0, e 0, @ 0, @ OF

AL DATA ON SHEET NO ••••••
0 ~'32 ') ~2'5 4'58 ~40
G TEMPERATURES. r .. 2' .. , ,
RES •• (.A.T!"P.S v, P.S.I.A.~ •• pSIG 8r: 1.60;
TIES ................... FT/SEC
RE DROPINOTl AI ........... pSI ALLO •• Nil CALC. ALLO •• 0.25 CALC.
EMPERATURE ••••••••••••••• 0, 400 '550
RE ....................... PSIG MIN. 100 TEST MIN. 14.9 TEST
ESIST ••••• SO FT • HR • OF/BTU MIN. 0.001 CALC. MIN. 0.01 CALC.
ORROSION ALLO.ANCE •••••••.• IN 1/16" 1/8"
F PASSES PER SHELL ...... One One
ANGEMENT ................ 1 PAR. BANKS OF 1 EXCH. IN SERIES 1 PAR. BANKS OF 1 EXCH. IN SERIES
INOTE H) SO r r 20.000 SHELL. NO. X 1.0. .... 1 • 140 IN CROSS BAFFLES,TVPE ••
............. I TUBES, NO. PER SHELL ••• 2550 NUMBER x SPACING •• x IN.
o MTD ••••.••• 5.27 0.0 •• LENGTH •••.••• ll/~ IN. x 240 IN. SEGMENT CUT •••••••
RATE, CLEAN GAUGE. BWG ••••••••• 10 (AVE}MIN.WALL IMPINGEMENT BAFFLE •• IYES) (NO,
SERVICE 12 TUBE PiTCH .... ..... ~. IN.(~bo WEIGHTS EACH BUNDLE. LBS
IREMENTS •••• 3) ASME' TEMA R REMOVABLE TUBE BUNDLE (YES, (NOI BUNDLE 6 SHELL •••• LBS
TE D) (YES) 1Jt!);! ~~~~~. mb: U. TUBE FULL OF .ATER •••••
1' ........... FLOATING HEAO •••••••• LBS
SHELL SIDE. •
LS(M ... STRESS RELIEVEO.S.R.,RADIOGAAPHEooX.R.) NOZZLES o SIZE RATING' FACING O. 51 ZE RATING' 'ACING
A-178 Steel (NOTE C) l ~- 1 soJJ Rli' 1 72" 12'):/1 LW FFSO
............. INLET ........
EETS ••••••••• Steel OUTLET ••••••• 1 10" 1 sOli: Rli' 1 70" 12')# LW FFSO
............. Steel DRAIN ........ 1 1" 6000:/1: Co Lz 1 4" 150# FF *
PPORTS ....... steel VENT ••••••••• 1 1" Ditto 1 1" 6000# Cplg.
Steel PRESS. GAGE 1 ~/4' Ditto 1 r~14" Ditto
S a SPACERS •• I ... NOZZLE).
THERMOWE.LL 1 1" Ditto 1 1" Ditto
FFLE ......... 110. HOZlLE) •
............. Steel . ............ (1) Camp M:Jl% * 4" Nozzle w/6"
N2 58.63 Steam Jacket.
Steel H2O 32.86 Provide 2-3/4"
CO2 7.25 6000# Cplgs. for
COS 0.08 steam in and out.
H2S 0.52
S02 0.27 N
Sv 0.39 (MW=240) ...
~
'"
100.00 N
Section I Code ---
u

Hr. :>,.
!:: 54:" SHELL FLANGES .

5lL SHELL NOZ. FLANGES ••

"L REMARKS: 2 Li uid Sulfur

3 Shell to be desi

C: RATE PER ASA • 16E LATEST SUPPLEMENT.

0: UNITS ExEMPT FROW CODE ST"M' SHALL HAVE LONGI TUDIMAL WELD SEANS SfIOT EXAMINED PER 'UtA. UW. 52 0' ASN[ COD[~

NOTE A:

STATIC HEAD I[T.£[N C[MT[RLIN[S 0' IML[T AND OUTLET B: OUTSIDE TUBE "RE" EXCLUDING "REA IN TUBE SMEETs.

If. ITEM NO.,r--."..,.,....... __ SERVICE

l~ DUTY 11.000 MM BTU/HR.

l~ VENDOR

SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
.......................... ~·ULFtJRBEARING GAS SULFUR BEARING GAS
LOW •••••••••••••...•• LBS/HR 1-313,216 330 650 .
I'<LET OUTLET INLET OUTLET !
••••••••••••••••••••• LBS/HR 1300 0) j
----
~ OF @ 0' @ OF 1.8 @ 280 OF
............................. F
L CONO ••• BTUI HR • SO FT • OF In. ,t; OF @ OF @ OF @ OF
IC HEAT ••••••••••• BTu/LB • OF ,q; OF @ OF @ 0, @ 0,
lTV ••••••••••••••• CENTIPOISES ~ OF @ O~ e 0, @ 0,
I---
.
• • ••• • • , ••••••••••••• LB~/HR 313,216 (2) 313,216 330.650 0) 329 350
i 25.99 25.99 28.56 28.46
LAR WEIGHT ••••••••••••••••••• i
COND ••• BTU/HR • SO rr .cr/~T.i--- :g OF @ OF @ 0, @ 0,
I CHEAT ........... IHUI L I) • <r L. __ ..••. _.;t. or @ OF @ OF @ ?F
, OF @ 0, @ OF 0,
I TV ••••••••••••••• CENT! PO I SES L-_~ @
SHEET NO •••••• ~--.-.
AL DATA ON
G TE""ERATURES. '12' .~.. ?~~. 280 400 59? 470
RES •• (.A.T."'f'.S ••• P.S.I .... ~~ •• psici 0.75 2 'i'i
r r .. " "", .. " .. ' , " •. s t) "'r-
RE DROPINo .. AI ........... "51 Altn •. 0.70 CALC. ALLOW. 0.25 CALC.
EMPERATURE ••••••••••••••• n, 500 650
Rt. ..................... PSI (; __ ~.!!'t! -- 1~:~9- TEST MIN. 14.9 TEST
csrsr .. " sc r t • "' • ',. "'~ 0,01 cxi,c. MIN. 0.01 CALC.
-'mrr--- 1/8"
ORROSION ALLOWANCE. ••••••• IN • _________ .•
F PASSE.S PER SHELL •••••• One One
ANGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PAR. BANKS OF 1 EXCH. IN SERIES 1 PAR. BANKS OF 1 EXCH. IN HIIIE$
9600 1 1 124
(NOTt BI so FT ! SHELL. NO. X 1.0. .... x IN CROSS BAFFLES,TYPE ••
............ TUBES, NO. PER SHELL ••• 2050 NUMBER x SPACING •• x IN.
MTD ........ 191 0.0. • LENGTH ....... 1~ I N. x 144 IN. SEGMENT CUT •••••••
RATE, CLEAN GAUGE. 8WG ••••.••••• 13 ~V[) MIN. WALL IMPINGEMENT BAFFLE •• (VES) (NO)
SERV I CE 1-, 6 TUBE PITCH •••• ..... -7/8 IN{~:O 0 WE I GHTS EACH BUNDLE. LIS
UIPEMENTS •••• ~.ASMEi lEM. R (YESI ~ 0
REMlVAu'.l TLoSE BUNDLE BUNDLE a SHELL •••• LBS
Tl 01 J..U.sJ (>;0) nnATING HEAD •••••••• H~~~' mb: U.TUll FULL OF WATER ••••• LU
P ...........
S CI"UI NOZZLES SH ELL $IOf. U.
$T.rss RILIEVEt.S.R.,RaOIOC •• 'H(D.X.R.J lNo 5 I ZE RA'tHG • He ING IINo. SI IE RATIHe • FAC PIG
A-~7R _Srppl CNOTI ":) 1 7f..1 h 2511 LHEFSO ,17f,1I h ?_SJ1 _LlJ 'j:''j:'~n i
............. INLET ..... '"
EETS ••••••••• Steel OUTLET ....... , 7",1 h ? C,if T.T.J'F1<'c:n , 7?" 11 ? C,if T.tJ 1<'1<'c:n
............. Steel DRAIN ........ , 1 II ; ()()()JI ('~, ~ , ':I" I, <;'()/f 1:''1:' *
Steel 1 I" Ditto ·0 1 I" 6000#
PPORTS ....... VENT ••••••••• CIl1g. !
Steel 'AISS. GAGE 1hlL:" Ditto 11 1/4' Ditto ,
S • SPACERS •• I ... NOZZU) •
TIHAweWILL 1 1" Ditto 1 1" Ditto
FFLE ••••••••• (EA •• ozzu).
............. Steel
VER/FLANGE •• .. "ConIE:" (1) }loT% tI) Mo L% n, u, CODE REO

(NO n. CODE STAM

II. MATERIAL

II. TUBES ••

Ae. TUBE SH

AI. .AHLES

A~~ TUBE SU

A3. TIE ROD A~. LONG 81.

AI. SHELL ..

A.. SHELL CO

.~'. CNANNEL 1- __ __::S:._t;_e=e.:;l;.- -I

AI. CHANNEL COVER/FLANGE f- __ S_t_e_e_1 _ _;__...:S~t;;_e..:._e...:1=-- __ ---1 AI<. FLOATING HEAD COVER.

Ie. CHANNEL FLANGES •••••

II. C~NEL NOZ. FLANGES

Sl~ SHELL FLANGES ••••••• Ill. SHELL NOZ. FLANGES ••

. 1

1

L- ---..l

141. REMARKS: -;('73~)-_;L;_;i:..::g~u;:-:1;::· d~s:::.u~l.::.f_=u~r-~--:-_::_-_:_-=-=_-= -----:--~:-------------

(4) Shell to be de~ig_!1ed for ASME-UPV Code * 3" nozzle w/4" steam jacket

C: .Yr~~~!~;. ~-;ti&:; .. Gp,~~.J .. qrT.steam in [,

r ... E. S63 Rn. '.62 ".'.T[O I~ U.S,A.

41. fLUID

II. TOTAL F II.

1'. LIWIO

II. Sf'. GR

•• THERMA

Ie. Sf'ECIF

". YISCOS

1l:.

, ~L

'41. VAPOR ••

1!i.

MOlECU THERMAL SPECI' VISCOS

,., ..

III. 11~ t!~ ADDI TlON

ZI. OPERAT)N Zl~ Pr.ESSU

Zll, V[LOCI

140. PRESSU

2!1. DESIGN T

14. PRESSU

I~'. FOUL. R iii. MIN. C II. NUMBER 0 se, FLOW ARR

11., TOT. AREA 12., LMTD ..... U. CORRECTED .. , TRANSFER

.-. - ,

rvz, ...... ::'1 ri C __

FIGUREK-3 SPECIF-4CATIOH surr r

HEAT EXCI-IA NGER

J.l\N 3 1 1972

Engrg. Stando<a~~=-ET:....;..;.NO=-.,--__;;O.;.;;A.;..;TE..;...' _

THE FLUOR CORPORATION, LTD. DATE

"r"D~ ...... !.r :O"'Lrtr THIS ~"'{CI"CATIO'" SH(fT "fOlr JltT" ..... 'JIIIG. REV. ----~~----

It, .. , .. a I ... ) • .. s r • ( flU ITT 1:" U H TIL S' L (C T 10'" 0' V," D 0 JII • BY eHK-O

JOB NO.

lXOiANGE.R lYPE: tiOR I z.. ~~ _--=.F.=I::.;X:.:E:.:D;__::T:.;:l._:'B:;;:E:.:S:;;:H.::E:.:E:..:T=----- _

M-RS 10I:NT NO

GAS-GAS REHEATER

N2 H20

CO2 COS H2S S02 Sv

57.95 58.91
31.39 33.19
7.13 7.31
0.12 0.06 N
1.60 0.35 ...
'1'
0
0.83 0.17 N
~
0.99 0.01 (MW = 240) u

:.:
100.00 100.00 !:: 0•· ..

~-

NOTE A:

'D. CQND(NS(IIIS "NO TH(lu.osn ... o .. _flOILlltS "A('i5U.r oln. SYAH_O ~HALL IIoICLUO( 'TATIC M(AD I(T.,'tI CI",TtItLlfriI['S 0' ''''LET ""'0 OuTLET 'L .... GES.

0: UNITS UtE"'" '''OM COot s r ... ,. SHALL "'AV( La"'''' TUDI ....... (LO

9: cu r s r e r TVlr "fir" (lelL'O'''''\. ,,!frio Ih T'.I~( c;"'rr,-s.

Lb. SULFUR VAPOR/Lb. INERT GASES Engrg. Standan:'5

...

.,;

..

.,;

...

.,;

'"
C 0: ILl
c.:I
I 0", ~ IL
.... ... - N01.l
~1LI1Ii 0
-e '" 0
~ ILI~U~ % ~bfl.l ~.r 0
ILl o:o:C~ 52 00~-.r on
::Ii :::IO"'::Ii ~ +
~ 0: .... ... 0: :10009 ...
0 Cc.:IlLI- ::Ii 0
~ o:%~ ... :::I ::Ii
ILI_% '" ILl ... .. -
'" G..t.I't-u., '" ~ :loOOi OOOS' ~
0 ::Ii% - C ....
% ILI~~ILI ::Ii °a
0 ~%c.:IO: ILl ~ ~
... .... '" 0
'" ILl 0 1:::1 113 0
ILIUUO~ « ...: .... 0 .. ..
O:c 5C 0 ....
0: ... 0:0'0: % « -' ....
0 VI u.
Oo::::I_w '" ... '" 0
UILI .......... -e '" 0
~ .... ::Ii W ~ '" u. ....
0
.. %:::IO:w ~ II< U.
~ _"'O~ 0 IU
U Z -'
0
0
... o g

...

:E: 0
0 on
.- ~
'C V) >
~ :.: ~ 0
It: 0 % 8
~ .. C;) 0.. ..
<t ~ IL GO
'" -< 0-
N
0 ILl > N
c, CO!)
'" 0:
0 :::I C;) ~ ci
u o IL ...
~
'" u. IL )0- ~
0 IL 0
::J ...J 113
...J C:> %
LL ~ 0 0
V) ci ~ 0
..,., ILl ....
!= % ~
N % %
;! .. ILl 52
VI ....
. .J _j ILl «
0 0: ::Ii
> ... 0:
W 0 ...
)0- Il< u, 0
0: W 0
.... o 0
II:: ... ILl
'" :::I 0 0:
i .... ... :::I
W )( ~
:z: i ..- C
U ~ 0:
C) 0: ILl
0 % ...
Z ... ILl ::Ii
~ C > ILl
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Page 1

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

l7L-300-272

RECt.i'VC:i)

JAN 31 1972

General

Engrg. Standan!3

This section defines the scope of purchased sulfur plants which consist of skid mounted or package units and the design of the waste gas stacks.

Purchased Sulfur Plants

A "package" plant refers to closely integrated units purchased from vendors which include the equipment required to recover sulfur fram acid gas streams and store the product. These units normally do not include the feed knockout drum, product coalescer, incinerator or vent stack and can be enveloped in an area 25' x 50' for capacities up to 50 LT/D. Skid mounted units refer to supplying sulfur plant equipment on one or more skids which simplifies field erection. Ford, Bacon & Davis supplies

these units for plant capacities up to 150 LT/D of sulfur. They recommend that the plant be completely preassembled, disassembled, and re-erected

at the plant site for all units above 20 LT/D capacity.

The companies listed on Table L-l provide sulfur plant packages. However, only Ford, Bacon & Davis will guarantee recovery in the 98~ range. They use the Pan American Petroleum Corporation process followed by a licensed tail gas scrubbing process.

Waste Gas Stacks

waste gas stacks are provided to vent effluent gas from a sulfur plant to the atmosphere. Stack configuration is determined by the quantity and temperature of the gases leaving the incinerator in the sulfur plant

and also by the local air pollution codes as discussed in Section DD, Pollution Control. A typical stack specification is included in this section. A common stack is generally used when two or more incinerators

are required in a sulfur plant with individual breeching for each incinerator. A sample connection must always be installed about 100' above grade to measure the sulfur loss. Be sure that access to this connection is provided.

HJK

Page 2

Company

Trentham Corporation

*Ford, Bacon & Davis

FLUOR CORPORATION

TABLE L-l Plant Capacity

Location LT/D

Guarantee Recovery

97r1p max. 80-9~ with HaS < 2~

Houston, Texas

2-70

Garland, Texas

3-150

97%

9r:1'1o with tail gas scrubbing

Howe-Baker Engr., Inc. Tyler, Texas

Pritchard, Eco, Inc.

Pona Engineers

Kansas City, Missouri

Houston, Texas

(1) Quoted by Trentham Corporation, January 1971:

5 LT/D 15 LT/D 50 LT/D 75 LT/D

100 LT/D

Elemental Sulfur Plant Skid Mounted, Two Stage Sulfur Plant

(not including incinerator and stack)

$ 70,000 $160,000 $275,000

Cost Data Cost in function of 0.6-0.7 power

of capacity. (1)

On application for specific proposal.

(2)

(2) Howe-Baker indicate they no longer bid competitive applications but reserve their interest to plants offering unique processing problems (high ammonia feeds, etc.) where their custom design capabilities are fully utilized.

*Pan American Petroleum Corporation licensor.

l7L-300-272

FLUOR CORPORATION TABLE L-2

TYPICAL WASTE GAS STACK SPECIFICATION

Page 3

Scope

This specification covers the design, materials, fabrication and installation of a stack for the dispersal of flue gas from two sulfur recovery plant incinerators.

Process Requirements

NORMAL FLCMS
Mols!Hr

Incinerator Incinerator
ComE· F-A-50:2 F-A-:206
N:a 11592.09 16591.26
HaO 4710.27 6498·99
C~ 1337.57 1897.37
sa.a 83.79 231.53
a.a 221.06 344.76
17944.78 25563.91
Lbs/Hr 480,723 690,976
MW 26.79 27.03
Temp. , OF l200°F 1200°F RECt.;'v cO

J c, r: () • 1Cr7') .'-' !\~ 0 1 I ....... i ,.:_

Engrg, ~t3ndar:3

Total 28183.35 11209.26 3234.94 315.32 565.82 43508.69

1,171,699 26.93 l200°F

OPERATING CONDITIONS

Required Draft at Base Minimum Temperature at Base Excess Air

Atmospheric Pressure Ambient Air

2" Water Minimum lOOO°F

25'10

12.2 psia -40°F to 90°F

Mechanical Design

Stack height shall be (1) feet.

Stack diameter shall be (1) feet I.D. of the liner at the top.

(1) Based on local ground level emission standards for air pollution.

HJK

l7L-300-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

RECE:i\'-C:O

Page 1

PIPING

J/-\N J 1 1972

17M-301-272

Engrg. Standards

Codes

All piping shall be in accordance with applicable portions of the latest revisions of the ASA Code Pressure Piping and ASA B-31.1 except as modified.

Specification

Sulfur plant piping is normally carbon steel throughout. Table M-l & Figure M-l represent typical piping requirements and the major "special" considerations

in sulfur plant piping. Detailed specifications may be obtained by

referring to any of the Fluor designed sulfur plant projects listed in

Section Q.

Miscellaneous Comments

a. Sample Connections

Sample points should be placed on the top or sides of the ducts above the center line and be conveniently accessible to facilitate sampling. Such positioning will reduce the problem of sample valve plugging.

b. Insulation

Selection of insulation should be made on economic heat conservation principles. This should provide a more conservative insulation specification than would other process considerations such as minimum wall temperature, moisture dew point, etc.

c. Line Sizing

Piping should be sized for optimum design based on economic evaluation. However, 100 ft/sec will prove to be the optimum velocity for most plants. This should correspond to 0.05 to 0.15 pSi/100 ft of duct.

Ducting from converters to the exchanger downstream should be deSigned for thermal stresses at no less than 800°F to allow for conditions present when regenerating the catalyst.

d. Sulfur Lines

Sulfur drains to the rundown sump may be required from:

(1) Economizers or gas eXChangers (2) Converters

(3) Tail gas scrubber (4) Waste heat boiler

(5) Low point in process line (6) Collector rings

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

PIPING

The actual number of drain points will depend on the process design, equipment arrangement and type of equipment, and extraordinary conditions, such as startup.

Nozzles must always be steam jacketed with steam connections being provided. Sulfur lines to the rundown sump should be steam jacketed (or traced) to prevent plugging of the line. Some sulfur plant designers insist that all sulfur lines including sulfur transfer lines must be steam jacketed.

On a well-designed steam jacketed sulfur line, crosses at elbows are not really necessary if the steam heating system is reliable. A minimum of one trap every 20 feet is considered essential in this

service to avoid cold spots in jackets partially flooded with condensate. In addition, limit the length of spools to 20 feet for ease of rodding out sulfur plugs.

Steam jacketing is recommended instead of steam tracing with heat transfer cement. However, the economics of its use must either be justified, or the customer must request its use. Poor workmanship

in tracing installations has been one of the principal causes of dissatisfaction with heat transfer cement tracing in previous jobs. Traced transfer lines may be applicable where the ambient temperature seldom gets below O°F and when installed with a metal channel cover strapped to the pipe to provide physical protection for the traCing

and to ensure the cavity is filled with transfer cement (Mobil used this tracing system for a half mile sulfur transfer line at their Joliet refinery). In low temperature zones (below O°F) steam jacketing of the pipe is recommended.

Extruded aluminum pipe, sold under the trade name "Unitrace" or "Duotrace", and providing aluminum channel for steam heating as an integral part

of the pipe, has not gained acceptance for piping inside a sulfur

plant. Its low initial material c~sts are offset by problems and

expense in its installation. However, it may be applicable for a

long (mile or more), Single sulfur line with lateral branches.

vents over the sulfur sump and sulfur tanks should be at least 6" diameter and steam traced to avoid plugging with sulfur vapors.

Sulfur drain lines usually terminate at the sump inside seal legs. However, some plant layouts may be more economical with local steam jacketed seal legs which overflow to a common sump. See these seal legs in a sketch of sulfur plant piping details in this section.

l7M-30l-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

RECf..iv'C:D

Page 3

PIPING

Engrg. Standards

e. Bypass Valves

The hot gas bypass line is normally refractory lined carbon steel. However, Mobil (Contract 4350) is using Type 309 stainless steel with two 600 psig steam tracers for the hot gas bypass line. The engineer should evaluate the performance of this service. Refractory lined valves may be purchased but most designs favor the use of Type 309 stainless steel valves. Automatic control of these valves is not necessary as they require a minimum of attention once the sulfur plant is on stream.

f. Acid Gas Feed Line and Knockout Drum

The acid gas feed line must not be pocketed. The knockout drum should be installed as close to the burner as possible and the downstream acid gas line steam traced to preclude condensation. The entire acid gas line from reflux accumulator to burner inlet should be steam traced if there is possibility of freezing!

The knockout drum should be provided with a high-level alarm. The high level switch may also be used to activate a level control dump valve, if one is provided. A safety shutdown system activated by the high level switch has been used in the past, but is not recommended.

g. Bypass to Flare

A quick opening pressure-controlled bypass valve to flare should be installed on the acid gas feed line, set to open before either the treating plant or sulfur plant is shut down. This bypass aids in startups and shutdowns. A butterfly block valve on the acid gas should be installed just upstream of the sulfur plant furnace. Both valves should be easily accessible and operable f'rom the ground.

HJK

l7M-30l-272

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17M-301-272 FLUOR CORPORATION

TYPICAL SULFUR PLANT PIPING DETAILS

FIGURE 14-1

CONOENSATE TO TRAP

SULFUR TO

DRAIN
j -
<»:

J .. \ j
j 1---'
~
~t l ./

SULFUR FLOW ./
STEAM JACKETING

PROCESS LINE

SEAL LEG WITH goo NOTCH ORI E"TED TOWARD INSPECTION COVER ON SIJolp

FIGURE M-la

SEAL LEG FOR SULFUR ORA I N LINES

FIGURE 14-1c REHEAT GAS 141 X I NG TEE (PREFERRED METHOD)

STAINLESS REFRACTORY LINED +

CARBON S~

I

I I I I I I

: I}

I I

I I I I I I

LJ

PERFORATED SECTION

FIGURE M-lb REHEAT MIX ING TEE (ALTERNATE IETHOD)

REC!::.l\ C:J

FeB ')'" " -_-

L -' " -

Engrg. St3nu~r~,.

TO CONVERTOR

17M·C 1222.272

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

INSTRUMENTATION

17N-302-272

REC~IVt::D

J f\ t" ~,l \972

i-\!~ v

General

Engrg. St3noards

This section contains a discussion of general instrumentation philosophy for sulfur plant design. Review the mechanical flow diagrams under tab D, "Flow Diagrams", for a more detailed outline of instrumentation.

Primary control of the sulfur plant is the metering of the total acid gas stream (or totalizing flows when there are more than one stream),

and the proportioning air flow based on an assumed normal composition for the sulfur-bearing streams. Plants can be operated with no more additional controls than furnace shutdown instrumentation, temperature control on

the incinerator, plus temperature indication for manual adjustment of

other plant variables. The tail gas sample analyses can indicate appropriate adjustment to air flow ratio.

Use of continuous analyzers on the tail gas stream has posed problems, the largest of which is plugs in the sampling system. Tracing the sample line and minimizing the distance to the analyzer are keys to a successful working system. Fluor has applied chromatographs in this service in two recent jobs, and vendors have also rep~rted successful applications.

DuPont Instruments report in the Oil & Gas Journal, August 10, 1970, Page 155, the successful application of the DuPont 400 Photometric Analyzers to sulfur plant tail gas HaS/SOa ratio measurement. This instrument system had been used to replace a chromatograph installation that had sampling system problems and is reported to have increased sulfur yield 0.5-1% by closed loop reset of the air rate. Moreover, outage time of only 1% was claimed during eight months of operation.

Sampling in the incinerator pose no problems so long as they are withdrawn well up the stack where the reactions are complete. Infrared analyzers supply a continuous monitor of S~ emissions. Sample ports on the stack at right angles to each other to run pilot tube traverses and take samples are recommended and in same areas are mandatory.

Instrument specifications follow normal chemical plant practice, except for the temperature indicator at the outlet of the reactor furnace where the materials used include a ceramic well, metal-ceramic tube with a platinum-platinum-rhodium thermocouple, or a well made of Haynes-Stellite.

Bare copper tubing must be avoided in instrument lines and mercury cannot be used in the instruments. Polyethylene is preferred for the control tube.

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

INSTRUMENTA TI ON

Control Principles

Controls for automatically diverting acid gas flow from the sulfur plant are almost mandatory. Acid gases are toxic and must be vented safely before release to the atmosphere. Safety devices monitor'acid gas feed to the sulfur furnace which would vent acid gas flow during an emergency shutdown. These vent gases must be routed to the incinerator or flare!

The total gas flow rate is the primary process variable, and the air flow ~'oportioned to that measurement. The chemistry of the entire process depends on adding air to burn all the hydrocarbon to &!O and C<1.!, and exact.ly 1/3 of the total R:aS fed to the system to S~ and Ha0' Deviation in the stoichiometric quantity of air added will reduce sulfur recovery. Metering the inflow of Hia S is subject to error rising from variations in streem composition plus inherent errors in flow measurement. The measurement of flow can be improved by including a compensation for pressure and temperature variations. Direct compensation for shifts in composition of the acid gas stream{s) has not been attempted to date.

In split-flow plants, a maximum of 2/3 of the acid gas approximately is diverted around the furnace to keep the flame temperature at a sufficiently high level. The total acid gas/air ratio control concept remains the same.

~? ro ortionin H2S to the sulfur lant

by measurin the H S saa ratio in the plant tail as. The most important control objective is to achieve a 2 1 mol ratio of 112S to S02' which reflects a perfect proportioning of air and acid gas needed to achieve

a maximum conversion to sulfur. Use of the tail gas H2s/S~ ratio to reset the air flow rate is, therefore, an indirect way to compensate for variations in acid gas stream composition. Note that the penalties for operating with a given excess of air are not as severe as would be the corresponding air deficiency. When guaranteed recoveries of 96% or higher are r equt red , three or four catalytic stages may be required. Under

these conditions, the presence of COS and CS:a will have a significant bearing on recovery, and the correct tail gas ratio is: ~S + COS + 2CS2 =

S02

2.0.

The quantitative loss of sulfur from a plant can be monitored by stream analyzers on the tail gas or stack gas streams. Achieving the optimum addition rates of ingredient does not ensure the maximum recovery of sulfur. conver-ter inefficiency and vapor pressure and entrainment loss of sulfur

will still produce sulfur losses to the atmosphere. Air pollution

regulations might require a monitor on the actual sulfur vent losses. "Evaluation of Sulfur Plant Efficiency" is a pertinent article in December 14, 1970, Oil and Gas Journal.

17N-302-272

RECEIVi:O

FLUOR CORPORATION

JAN 31 1972

Page 3

mSTRUMENTATION

Engrg. Standards

Pressure drop of all streams must be minimized. The major acid stream usually is not throttled, but floats on the back pressure through the sulfur plant. Low pressure drop flow meters and control valves are mandatory throughout.

A complete temperature profile of the plant is inexpensive and useful

in trouble-shooting operating problems. Proper interpretation of shifts in plant temperatures can indicate the deactivation of catalyst beds (usually caused by fouling), the entrainment of sulfur, or 9ther probable causes for a decline in yields.

Control the air compressor in a manner that will minimize power consumption. Venting of air on the compressor discharge side as a means of control

serves only as a protection against surge. Throttling of air flow on the compressor suction or variable speed control of turbine drives are preferred control methods.

HJK

l7N-302-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

UTILITIES AND CHEMICALS

17P-304-0872-1

General

Page 1

utility and chemical requirements are listed in Table P-l for use in "quickie" type estimates for sulfur plants (not iTIcluding tail gas treating) having feed ~oncentrations of from 30 to 90 mole per cent ~s and ~ concentrations of from 0 to 30 mole per cent of the total H~S in the total plant feed. The values in Table P-l are not to be used in final des i gn calculations.

'rail gas treating technology is developing rapidly. Fluor's latest in house :process design parameters should be checked for the treatment methods to be used and for the utility data available.

Table P-l

Average Plant Qperating Requirements (1)

Fuel Gas Fbwer (2)

Boiler Feedwatie r Consumed, 240 of

Total steam Generated, 250 psig (saturated) Steam to Drive Air Blower, 250 psig to 50 psig 250 psig steam (sat.), Net Production

Chemical and Catalyst

Per LT/Day of Sulfur Plant Production

0.15 MM Btu/hr (LHV) 0.054 KW

330 Ib/hr 300 Ib/hr 100 Ib/hr 200 Ib/hr 0.41 tons

RECEIVE:O

AUG 28 1972

Engrg. Standards

(1) Correction is required to these values for water and steam conditions other than those shown,

(2) Add 150 watts for lighting and instruments for all size plants.

Electrical Power

Electric power consumption in a sulfur plant is normally small because the air '~lower is usually driven by a steam turbine operating at 250 psig steam pressure and exhausting to 50 psig. Motor drivers are normally used for all pump drivers, a.nd the air blower may occasionally be motor driven. When the air blower is steam driven, the consumption for other services is normally intermittent (i.e., operates for about four hours each day).

HJK

Page 2

FLUOR CORPORATION

UTILITIES AND CHEMICALS

Fuel G9.S

Fuel gas is used in the incinerator to completely oxidize all components in the tail g9.S, and also during startup to bring the feed to combustion temperature. Fuel gas may also be used to fire any feed and reheat heaters. Fuel gas is occasi:mally mixed with the feed gas to ensure combustion temperatures in the furnac:. Startup usually requires 2 to 5 MM Btu/LT sulfur.

Steam

Steam 15eneration is normally greater than steam consumption. The gene ratied steam is usue Ll.y used to drive the air blower and for plant heat. When there is need for 45 to ~55 psig steam on plot or in adj acent units, the sulfur plant is designed

to generate steam at a pressure (over 150 psig) whf.ch will operate a steam turbine on the sulfur plant air blower and exhaust at about 50 to 55 psig. This exhaust steam can then be used for sulfur plant sump heating, steam tracing, etc., with any exeess exported to other units. When the adjacent units do not require low pressu:re steam, the sulfur plant is designed to generate only enough steam for the air blower and on plot heating.

The sulfur condensers are used to preheat boiler feedwater and/or to generate additional low pressure steam when required.

An exbe rna L source of steam must be available to operate the air blower and/or sump heating coils and for steam tracing during startup and down time.

Boiler feedwater consumption includes 10% blowdown.

Chemicals & Catalysts

Chemical consumption in a sulfur plant is primarily the catalyst used in the' conver-cer s , Normal life for the conventional activated alumina or bauxite catalyst is two to five years. Since the C29-2-01 cobalt-moly catalyst has been used in conjunct t on with bauxite catalyst in sulfur plant converters only since early Januar:r, 1971, a one year catalyst life is the best that can be estimated at this time (,July, 1972). Properties for sulfur plant catalysts are listed in Table P-2.

Two ty:?es of conventional conversion catalysts are available; low silica grade activated bauxite and activated alumina. Activated bauxite is the economic

choice when moderate conversion efficiencies of 90 to 95% using two stages are required. However, the more expensive activated alumina may be economical whenever high efficiency and sulfur recovery is required in a two-stage unit and/or where the plant size is very large.

l7P-304-o872-1

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 3

.1lTILlTIES AND CHEMICALS

catalysts and Chemicals, Inc. (CCl) has developed operating data on use elf a 12 inch layer of C29-2-01 cobalt-moly catalyst immediately below the conventional bauxite catalyst in the first converter. Use of the cobaltuloly catalyst has consistently achieved 70 to 85% conversion of COS and esa• This percent conversion is significantly greater than the percent c:onversion that can be achieved with only conventional bauxite catalyst Ln the first converter. The CCl data is listed in Table P-3.

~~he number of conversion stages, type of catalyst, type of tail gas process muaf all be evaluated for optimum design.

RECEIVED

AUG 28 1972

Engrg. Standards

HJK

17P-304-0872-1

Pap 4
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I Engrg. Standards
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17P-304-0872-1 FLUOR CORPORA.TION

Page ~

SULFUR PLAM DESIGN MANUAL TABLE P-3

OPERATING DATA FOR REACTOR USING COBALT-MOLY CATALYST WITH ACTIVATED BAUXITE CATALYST

Cobalt-Moly Catalyst

Size of Cobalt-Moly Catalyst Bed Depth, inches *

Inlet Temperature, OF Estimated 6P, inches of H 0

2

C29-2-01

1/8" extrusions 12

650-750

9

Expected Conversion COO, 10 Ini tial 6 months 1 year CS ,10 Initial 2

6 months 1 year Expected Cycle

95 RECEIVED
90 AUG 28 1972
85
90 Engrg. Standards
75
70
6 months to 1 year *Load 12" ofC29-2-0l below 24" of activated bauxite catalyst all in the first reactor.

Note: The above data obtained from CCI is based on actual operating information from existing plants.

l7P-304-0872-1

FLUOR CORPORATION

RECEIVe:O

Page 1

SULFUR PIANT ECONOMICS

JAN J J b7~

17Q-305-272

Engrg. Stancarcs

The cost data evaluated in this section are confidential and for use in Fluor optimization studies. These costs may not be presented to outside sources without the approval of the Manager of Process Engineering. Table Q-l and Q-2 represent a summary of all sulfur plants designed by Fluor in Los Angeles and Houston since 1956.

The sulfur plant 400 AIC equipment costs shown on Figure Q-l are based on U.S. Gulf Coast costs for January 1971. These costs have been developed from Fluor plants erected since 1962 and corroborated with data available for sulfur plants erected by competitors during the same period. Cost data prior to 1962 are considered obsolete because they are predicated on designs not considered applicable to modern optimized high recovery sulfur plants.

The incinerator and stack are 20 to 35% of the total equipment cost in a conventional sulfur plant. These stacks are designed to meet specific ground level S02 concentrations. The installation of tail gas treating units in modern sulfur plant designs may result in lower stacks because 80 to 85% of the equivalent S~ previously vented through the stack will be removed. Therefore, stack and incinerator costs in modern plants should be a much smaller percentage of the total plant cost.

The Cost Engineering Department must be consulted when developing a "selling price".

Current sulfur prices and shipping costs can be obtained from Sulphur, a quarterly magazine published by The British Sulphur Corporation, Ltd., London.

Page 2

J'LUOR CORPORATION

S1n:FUR PLANT COSTS

Current (March 1971) delivered sulfur prices per long ton are:

u.s. Gulf Coast $23-25
tr.s. Atlantic Seaboard $27-31
Northwest Europe $22-26
Mediterranean $26-32
Indian Ocean Area $28-32
Far East and Pacific $25-30
Latin America $25-29 Current (March 1971) sulfur prices FOB at the plant are as low as $8 at per long ton at Canadian prices.

l7Q-305-272

SULFUR PLANTS TABLE Q-l

(Recent Sulfur Plant Designs by Fluor)

Name & Location Contract No. Year
Carstairs Operators' Committee 8271 1961
Carstairs, Alberta, Canada
Transcontinental Gas Company 6266 1961
Tilden, Texas
Caltex Oil Company 1023 1964
Capetown, South Africa
Canadian Superior Oil, Ltd. 6347 1965
Didsbury, Alberta, Canada
Kuwait National Petroleum Company 8504 1966
Shuaiba, Kuwait
Creole Petroleum Corporation 8764 1968
Amuay, Venezuela
Shell Oil Company of Canada 8268 1969
Waterton, Alberta, Canada
Mobil Oil Corporation 4350 1970
Joliet, Illinois
Wintershall, A.G. Page 3

RECt:.i. cJ

JA f.r '} 1 JCrn

,~U .~ 1_

Engrg. Standarcs

Capacity Long Tons/Day

41

75

8

958

570

375

1240

250

17Q-305-272

I

j

I

Page 4

RECE.IVeD

SULFUR PLANTS TABLE Q-2

(Sulfur Plant Designs by Fluor under Olin-Mathieson Patents)

JAN 31 1972

Engrg. Standards

Capacity
Name & Location Contract No. Year Long Tons/Day

American Oil Company 5759 1956 50
Yorktown, Virginia
Caribbean Refining Company 6154 1955 20
Bayamon, Puerto Rico
Great Northern Oil Company 5607 1954 65
Pine Bend, Minnesota
Gulf Oil Corporation 5190-80 1951 23
Crane County, Texas
Gulf Oil Corporation 5550-23 1954 150
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Humble Oil & Refining Company 5510-62 1953 15
Jourdanton, Texas
Nevis Operators' Committee 8234 1959 104
Nevis, Alberta, Canada
Pontiac Eastern Refining Corporation 6146 1955 20
Hattiesburg, Mississippi
Potash Company of America 5075-74 1950 30
Silvertip Field, Wyoming
Shamrock Oil & Gas Company 5140 1952 31
Shearin, Texas
Shell Chemical Corporation 5190-58 1951 56
Deer Park, Texas
Shell Oil Company 5540-6 1954 40
Jumping Pound, Canada
Sinclair Refining Company 5190-84 1951 20
Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania
Stanolind Oil & Gas Company 5292-9 1951 20
North Cowden Field, Texas
Stanolind Oil & Gas Company 5298 1951 55
Slaughter Field, Texas
Union Oil Company 5466 1953 60
Oleum, California 17Q-305-272

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FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 1

SULFUR PLANT CALCULATIONS

CALCULATION ffiOCEDURE

l7R-306-272

JAN' 'J 1 Kif!

'tl ,~ , ._

Engrg. Stand5r~3

GENERAL

This section describes the various parameters involved in each step of a sulfur plant "handll calculation. Examples of detailed calculation procedures for various plant configurations are included in Sections S, T, U, V, and W.

FEED(s)

The feed characteristics required to perform a sulfur plant calculation includes the following:

(a) Complete component breakdown particularly for all sulfur bearing compounds.

(b) Inlet temperature and pressure.

(c) Expected fluctuations in feed conditions.

A sulfur plant feed(s) is(are) assumed to be saturated with water at the operating temperature unless specifically called out as water free. Saturation water is calculated if not given in the original feed specification. The enthalpy of each feed stream is calculated using Figures BB-12-l to BB-15-4.

PLANT CONFIGURATION

Selection of plant configuration depends upon the concentration of H2S in the acid gas feed. The following tabulation describes the suggested plant configuration for ranges of B2S in the feed gas:

(1) Mol % H2S ~ 50%, dry basis.

All of the acid gas feed is sent to the combustion step.

(2) Mol % HeS < 50%, ~ 30%, dry basis.

Two alternate schemes are possible and each should be carried far enough so an economic selection can be made.

(a) Feed and air preheated to a high enough temperature so that the combustion temperature is above l68o°F.

(b) Two-thirds of the acid gas feed bypasses the combustion step.

All of the required air and one-third of the feed are sent to the combustion step.

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 2

SULFUR PLANT CALCULATIONS

JAN J 1 19/2

(3) Mol % HaS < 30%, ~ 15%, dry basis.

Engrg. Standards

All of the air required and one-third of the acid gas feed are sent to the combustion step. Two-thirds of the acid gas feed bypasses the combustion step.

(4) Mol % Ik S < 15%, dry basis.

The S02 required for reaction with H2S in the feed is generated by oxidizing elemental sulfur. None of the acid-gas feed goes to the combustion step.

Am REQUIREMENTS

The principal reactions in Claus type Sulfur Plants are:

(thermal)

(thermal and catalytiC)

The overall reaction for one mol of H2S is:

~S

+ ~O

The type and distribution of hydrocarbons and mercaptans in a suifur plant feed gas will depend on the source of gas. The hydrocarbons will normally be C1 Z C2Z Cs and C4 with C1 the major component and will react with oxygen during complete combustion as ShOvffi below. Mercaptan sulfur will also be completely burned as indicated.

CH4 + 202--~ CO2 + 2H2O
C2Hs 7 2C02 3H2O
+ ~2_____'" +
CH4S + 202~ CO2 + 2H2O + S
C2HsS + 7 2C02 3H2O + S
~2--- + Each mol of hydrocarbon or mercaptan fed to the combustion step with n atoms of carbon requires (3n + 1)/2 mols of oxygen for combustion.

Oxygen must also be provided for other compounds in the fUrnace feed such as NHsz COS, CS2z H2Z etc.

3

+ ~20

COS

+

S

CS2 + O2 --+ CO2 + 2S H2 + ~2 --+ H2O

17R-306-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

Page 3

The total oxygen required for combustion is supplied from ambient air. (21% Oa, 79% Na + HaO.) Design conditions for ambient air are usually

the design air specified in the Basic Jobsite Data Questionnaire. Figure BB-l is used together with these air data to develop the total HaO concentration

in the air.

The temperature of the mixture entering the combustion zone is calculated by heat balance using Figures BB-12-1 to BB-15-4.

COMBUSTION

The combustion step is calculated using the computerized minimization of free energy technique available on the computer which calcu~ates the complete combustion effluent product distribution and adiabatic flame temperature. The combustion temperature must be above 1680°F for the HaS to oxidize to SOz in a standard design furnace or above 1300°F in a special design furnace.

Computer liaison must be consulted before filling out the input sheets.

During combustion, many side reactions occur. These include:
Fast
C14 + 4s Slow CSa + 2HzS
Fast RECE:.iVC:jJ
- HzO
COz + HzS~; COS + JAN 31 1972
COz + HzS - co + HzO + S Engrg. Standards
+--
co + HzO ( Hz + COz The COS concentration in the combustion effluent gas is usually close to thermo chemical equilibrium while the CSa concentration is more than 100 times higher than the equilibrium value. In sulfur plant feed gases containing only C1 and Cz hydrocarbons, negligible quantities of CSa are produced by the reaction shown above and are therefore unimportant to overall sulfur recovery. However, heavier hydrocarbons in the feed gas drastically increase the CS2 production. Both COS and CSa form rapidly

at furnace flame temperature and decompose slowly as temperature is reduced. These relationships must be carefully evaluated when setting guarantees

for overall sulfur recovery.

The combustion effluent usually contains Hz, CO, and SO which will react as they pass through the waste heat boiler. To simplify the hand calculation procedure, we assume that these components react before entering the boiler and calculate an "equivalent" waste heat boiler feed by converting these compounds as follows:

(1) HzS formation from H2 and S02

Ha + SOa __,.,. Hz S + 02 (2) COa formation from CO and 0a CO + ~2 ~ CO2

17R-306-272

FLUOR CORPORATION

RECt.iVC::O

Page 4

(3) S02 formation from SO and O2 SO + to2 ----+ S02

JAN J 1 1972

Engrg. Standards

An oxygen balance is then calculated. If excess 02 is formed in (1), (2) and (3), it is reacted with elemental sulfur in the WHB effluent according to Equation (4). If a deficiency of 02 exists, it is generated by assuming the reaction of ~O and S02 in the WHB effluent according to Equation (5).

3

+ ~2

WASTE HEAT BOILER' (WHB)

The outlet temperature from the waste heat boiler depends upon the sulfur plant configuration, the steam pressure generated in the WHB, and the desired overall sulfur recovery. In general, higher WHB outlet temperatures (say 450 to 500°F or more) produce minimum sulfur condensation in the WEB and lower overall plant recoveries. Lower temperatures (say 350 to 450°F) give more WHB sulfur condensation and higher sulfur recoveries.

The following temperatures are recommended based on Fluor experience:

(1) Straight through design -- Set the WHB minimum outlet temperature at the sulfur dew point determined from Figure BB-8 plus 20°F. The actual temperature will depend upon steam pressure and sulfur recovery.

(2) Acid gas feed bypass -- Set the WHB outlet temperature high enough to maintain the selected inlet temperature to the first converter when the WHB effluent is mixed with the acid gas feed bypass.

(3) Hot vapor bypass

Same as (1) above.

Hot vapor bypass reheat is usually obtained from the furnace effluent line ahead of the waste heat boiler at about 1000 to 1300°F or from one of the return channels in the waste heat boiler at about 700 to 1000°F. The smaller the hot vapor bypass quantities the higher the sulfur recovery, particularly if the reheat stream bypasses a conversion stage. Therefore, higher reheat temperatures are usually preferred because hot vapor gas flows are reduced.

Plo..nt cpcr at tng -::=P:::i:'~::2: ~~-:'i.~:1t:::: t~:::..t 2.!;" :::"I'r!"eci~.~l'? ~.~':"Jnt. ()f' ~1l1 f'"..,. !':'_?-~.I condense in the WHB even though no condensation can be calculated based on the "observed" outlet temperature. This is caused by the condensation of sulfur vapor on the walls of tubes in the WHB which are cold enough to produce a sweating effect similar to hot, moist air on a cold surface. For sizing all equipment downstream of the WHB, assume that 20% of the elemental sulfur present in the waste heat boiler effluent will condense at temperatures above 400°F. Do not change the WHB specification to show this condensation above 400oF. Below 400oF, assume that condensation follows

17R-306-272

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