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Dr. Murray October 25 2010
Abstract The experiment was conducted to determine the impact different sugar types have on yeast fermentation. It was hypothesized that glucose, sucrose and fructose would all produce energy through yeast fermentation, but that sucrose would have the greatest rate of energy production. The carbon dioxide production was tracked in the fermentation of yeast with solution of no sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose over a period of twenty minutes. All of the sugars produced energy, but glucose was the most efficient of the three, even producing energy at three times the rate of fructose. This difference in efficiency is a result of the various pathways the sugars must take to enter glycolysis. Glucose could enter directly while sucrose had to be broken down and fructose required modification to enter as an intermediate.
Respiration makes up a cell’s metabolic process where carbohydrates are converted into energy to be used by the cell. ethanol fermentation occurs. glycolysis is followed by a side reaction to regenerate the NAD+ used to accept electrons from the carbohydrate. 2008). In animals. Since carbon dioxide is an immediate by-product of the anaerobic respiration of yeast. The amount of carbon present is the most important nutritional requirement since yeast produces energy through the processing of carbohydrates (Cellular. The Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are blocked since oxygen is not present to accept the electrons at the end. 54). In anaerobic respiration. it is found on the skins of fruit and uses their sugars for food. This pathway produces much less oxygen than aerobic respiration because only glycolysis occurs. There are many environmental factors that can impact the efficiency of the energy yield of baker’s yeast. aerobic or anaerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen. Through its anaerobic respiration. These include pH. Ethanol fermentation begins after glucose has been converted into two pyruvates during glycolysis. its production can be tracked to determine the efficiency of the energy production. 2 . this reaction is lactic acid fermentation while in plants and fungi. 2011). Ethanol is formed through the reduction of acetylealdehyde by NADH (Freeman. temperature and available nutrients. Cellular respiration can take one of two pathways. Saccharomyces cerevisiae or baker ’s yeast is a type of fungus that undergoes ethanol fermentation when there is a lack of oxygen. 54). it is used to produce ethanol for alcoholic drinks and allows bread to rise with its carbon dioxide production (Cummings. In the wild. These methods are far less efficient than aerobic respiration (Cellular. This pyruvate then is broken into acetylealdehyde and a carbon is released in the form of carbon dioxide.
sucrose and fructose would all produce energy but would vary in efficiency. Different types of yeasts can process different forms of carbon compounds but most yeast can metabolize glucose and sucrose. It was hypothesized that during yeast fermentation glucose. Both glucose and fructose have the same molecular formula. Stelling-Dekker’s detailed studies on yeast also concluded that if a certain species of yeast can process glucose. 189). and form a hexacarbon ring. 72-73). it can also metabolize fructose and mannose. The only difference lies in the hydrogen-oxygen arrangements (Freeman. Previous research and results supported that this hypothesis was plausible. Yeast can process many forms of sugars through different methods of integration into glycolysis but glucose is the most efficient since it is the original reactant in the chain (Berg. though there are some exceptions (Berg. C6H12O6.Yeast is not limited to glucose for its sugar requirement in glycolysis. Sucrose is a polysaccharide that consists of glucose and fructose. fructose is an intermediate before the formation of pyruvate and the raw form can enter the chain at the appropriate step (Berg. Though glucose is the reactant in glycolysis. 2002). 2002). Many types of yeast contain the necessary enzymes to break sucrose into the monomer subunits necessary for glycolysis (Freeman. Materials and Methods Preparing the Solution 3 . The majority of yeasts ferment glucose most efficiently. 2002).
4 Each . In a 200ml beaker. Each of the fermentation tubes was placed in the 30 degree Celsius water bath. the fermentation tubes were removed from the water bath. 14mg of yeast was added to 100ml of deionized water. Four fermentation tubes were obtained and labeled 1-4. The carbon dioxide produced by fermentation was determined by subtracting the initial height from the actual height. After this was completed. sucrose and fructose solutions was acquired and 15ml of glucose solution was added to beaker 2. Beaker 1 was designated as the control and contained no sugar solution. The initial height of the gas bubble was recorded at the top of the tube for all four solutions. 15ml of the yeast solution was added to each of the beakers at the same time so that fermentation time was consistent across the four solutions. This process was continued for twenty minutes. 15ml of fructose solution was added to beaker 3 and 15ml of sucrose solution was added to beaker 4. Every two minutes the actual height of the air bubble was recorded for each tube. 5% glucose. Recording Fermentation Rates Solutions were transferred to their respectively labeled fermentation tubes.Four 100 ml beakers were obtained and labeled 1-4. The solution was mixed completely and set aside. Data Analysis A scatter plot graph of carbon dioxide production in mm versus time in minutes was created to analyze how different sugars impacted the rate of fermentation of yeast. 5ml of deionized water were added to each of the beakers. A 30 degree Celsius water bath was prepared.
The slope of each line indicated the average rate of fermentation for each tube.fermentation tube had a designated point on the graph with each 2 minute increment marked at the appropriate carbon dioxide height. Results Production of CO2 by Yeast with Various Sugar Compounds time (min) tube 1 tube 2 tube 3 tube 4 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 actual 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 CO2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 actual 28 45 55 68 85 97 105 115 122 132 CO2 14 31 41 54 71 83 91 101 108 118 actual 0 0 3 6 10 17 20 34 42 56 CO2 0 0 3 6 10 17 20 34 42 56 actual 9 18 25 37 50 59 69 81 91 102 CO2 4 13 20 32 45 54 64 76 86 97 test tube 1 2 3 4 sugar none glucos e fructos e sucros e average rate of production (CO2 mm/min) 0 12.27 5 .99 9. A line of best fit for each of the tubes was created.64 3.
The control that contained no sugar produced no energy because a source of sugar is required for glycolysis and fermentation to occur. Glucose produced the most with a gas bubble of 132mm while sucrose yielded 102mm of carbon dioxide. The gas byproduct in fructose measured only 56mm.The different types of sugars used in fermentation had a significant impact on the amount of carbon dioxide produced. Glucose had the greatest rate of energy production because its rate of carbon dioxide production was the largest. Glucose’s rate of energy production was more than three times that of fructose. The control that contained no sugar had no rate of carbon dioxide production. Discussion The hypothesis was supported in that all forms of sugar produced energy and that glucose was the most efficient. Sucrose yielded 9.99 mm of carbon dioxide per minute. The rate of production of carbon dioxide for both glucose and sucrose remained fairly constant throughout the experiment. producing 12. The slope of the line of best fit was analyzed to determine the average rate of carbon dioxide production over the 20 minute time frame. Sucrose had the second highest rate of production while fructose had the lowest rate out of the three sugars. The rate for fructose began slowly but increased rapidly as time went on. The control with no sugar resulted in 0mm of carbon dioxide and was the least productive of the tubes. 54). Glucose was the most efficient. The rate of production of carbon dioxide remained at a constant 0 throughout.27 mm of carbon dioxide per minute during fermentation while fructose functioned at a rate of 3.64 mm of carbon dioxide per minute. The carbon dioxide produced can be directly related to the energy produced through fermentation because carbon dioxide is a by-product of ethanol fermentation (Cellular. Glucose was directly used 6 .
The measurements of sugars would be measured in equal molarity and not by percent in a solution so that the sugar molecules are equal across all of the tests. The yeast was added to the fructose solution well after the glucose and fructose yeast solutions began fermenting.in the glycolysis cycle and did not require any extra energy to convert it into a usable form (Freeman. Other follow-up experiments may include testing other types of yeasts to see how fermentation rates are impacted. If this experiment were to be repeated. The results of these experiments could impact what sugars are the most efficient in alcohol fermentation. These processes required to convert the non-glucose sugars into a usable form reduced their efficiency when compared to glucose. 189). Fructose also could not be used immediately in the glycolysis chain but had to be altered to enter the chain as one of the intermediates (Berg. 154). Glucose and sucrose appear far more efficient than fructose because of this error. Fermentation takes time to reach its maximum rate of energy production so the time gap left glucose and sucrose further ahead than fructose in the fermentation process (Berg. Sucrose required an enzyme and energy input to break it down into glucose and fructose in order for it to be processed in glycolysis (Freeman. 2002). extra care would be taken to ensure that fermentation began at the same time. 2002). The largest source of error for the experiment was the start time of fermentation. The data on rate of carbon dioxide production was therefore skewed because the start of fermentation was not controlled. This could determine what types of sugar brewers should use for the most efficient production of alcohol. This supported why glucose was the most efficient. 7 .
"16. Esko. Freeze. Web. Scott." Biological Science. Richard D. 72+.nlm. "Cellular Respiration and Fermentation.nih. CA: Benjamin Cummings.H." Symbiosis: The Pearson Custom Library for the Biological Sciences. Print.Works Cited Berg. NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. 2008. Freeman.1: Glycolysis Is an EnergyConversion Pathway in Many Organisms. 2010. By Ajit Varki.. and Lubert Stryer. 24 Oct.ncbi.ncbi. Print. 8 . John L. Cold Spring Harbor. the Model Yeast. and Marilynn E. "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.gov/books>." Essentials of Glycobiology. San Fransicso. 53-54. Freeman. New York: Pearson Custom. Jeffrey D. Gerald W. 2010.nih.nlm. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 24 Oct. Hudson H. 2002. 2009. <http://www. Cummings. Etzler. 2011. Ed. New York: W. Web." Biochemistry. National Center for Biotechnology Information. "An Introduction to Carbohydrates. <http://www. Tymoczko. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. Kelly Harris.. Hart.gov/books>. Jeremy M.
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