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Z 1p Z 1

2

1− x3 dx or e−x dx

0 0

we can’t use the Fundamental Theorem √ of Calculus 2to evaluate them since there are no elementary

functions that are antiderivatives of 1 − x3 or e−x . The best we can do is to use approximation

methods for such integrals.

The trapezoidal rule is a numerical method that approximates the value of a definite integral. We

consider the definite integral

Z b

f (x) dx.

a

We assume that f (x) is continuous on [a, b] and we divide [a, b] into n subintervals of equal length

b−a

∆x =

n

using the n + 1 points

x0 = a, x1 = a + ∆x, x2 = a + 2∆x, ..., xn = a + n∆x = b.

We can compute the value of f (x) at these points.

y0 = f (x0 ), y1 = f (x1 ), y2 = f (x2 ), ..., yn = f (xn )

We approximate the integral by using n trapezoids formed by using straight line segments between

the points (xi−1 , yi−1 ) and (xi , yi ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n as shown in the figure below.

y0 yn

y1 y3

y2 yn−2

yn−1

x

a = x0 x1 x2 x3 ··· ··· xn−2 xn−1 xn = b

∆x

The area of a trapezoid is obtained by adding the area of a rectangle and a triangle.

1 (y0 + y1 )∆x

A = y0 ∆x + (y1 − y0 )∆x = .

2 2

y1 − y0

y1

y0 y0

∆x ∆x

Z b

(y0 + y1 )∆x (y1 + y2 )∆x (y2 + y3 )∆x (yn−1 + yn )∆x

f (x) dx ≈ + + + ··· +

a 2 2 2 2

which simplifies to the trapezoidal rule formula.

Z b

∆x

f (x) dx ≈ (y0 + 2y1 + 2y2 + · · · + 2yn−1 + yn )

a 2

Z 5p

1 + x2 dx.

1

5−1

Solution. For n = 8, we have ∆x = 8 = 0.5. We compute the values of y0 , y1 , y2 , . . . , y8 .

√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

y = 1 + x2 2 3.25 5 7.25 10 13.25 17 21.25 26

Therefore,

0.5 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Z 5p

1 + x2 dx ≈ 2 + 2 3.25 + 2 5 + 2 7.25 + 2 10 + 2 13.25 + 2 17 + 2 21.25 + 26

1 2

≈ 12.76

x

2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6

y

3.2 2.7 2.9 3.5 4.1 5.2

Z 3.6

Use the trapezoidal rule to estimate y dx.

2.1

Z 3.6

0.3

y dx ≈ (3.2 + 2(2.7) + 2(2.9) + 2(3.5) + 2(4.1) + 5.2)

2.1 2

≈ 5.22

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