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What is Negative Pressure Supercharging?

Negative Pressure Supercharging is a revolutionary new clean burn HTCSI supercharging


combustion process that substantially improves torque, acceleration, towing power, fuel
efficiency and emissions of street engines

For more details see What is NPS about? and How It Works

Negative Pressure Supercharging does NOT use...


Supercharger air pumps
Turbocharger air pumps
Mechanically complex parts
Computers

NOTE
Computers and complex parts are NOT needed for NPS to work
but they may be used to enhance it.

Negative Pressure Supercharging uses a unique combination of mechanically simple parts to


supercharge and substantially improve the efficiency of engines...
•Compact high velocity Tri-Y Headers
•SVT Camshaft
•Hot Air Induction housing
•Cold Cooling System
•Special Ignition Timing

NOTE
Engine runs HOT with Cold Cooling
System, ONLY the coolant passages run
cold.

The combination of parts used by Negative Pressure Supercharging produce several highly
advanced processes that allow NPS to work...
•CHVEG – Compressed High Velocity Exhaust Gas
•SVT – Synchronised Valve Timing
•HPDT – High Pressure Differential Turbulence
•HAI – Hot Air Induction
•HTCSI – Homogeneous Thermal Charge Spark Ignition combustion

Negative Pressure Supercharging is the SAME as Vacuum Supercharging


Vacuum Supercharging or "heaps more suction" may be easier to understand by the average
laymen, but technically the process is Negative Pressure Supercharging. This is because the
pressure in the cylinder must be reduced FIRST in order to create a vacuum or suction.
Therefore, the more the pressure is reduced in the cylinder, the higher the vacuum or suction, the
more air is pulled into the cylinder.
Negative Pressure Supercharging can be easily applied to all engines...
•Old or new
•Mechanically simple or complex
•Carbureted or fuel injected
•Petrol, gas or diesel

What is Negative Pressure Supercharging about?

Negative Pressure Supercharging is about making mechanically simple carbureted or fuel


injected street engines produce...

• More torque and horsepower from idle to 4500 rpm using low octane fuel
• Faster acceleration
• More towing power
• More fuel economy
• Lower emissions
• Lower maintenance
• Lower running costs

...than today's mechanically complex high rpm wonder engines.

For more details see What is NPS? and Performance Improvements

Negative Pressure Supercharging is NOT about...


• making street engines rev higher to produce more peak horsepower
• using supercharger air pumps to produce more peak horsepower
• making street engines more mechanically complex

Negative Pressure Supercharging is NOT about making street engines rev higher to produce
more peak horsepower because the drawback with high rpm engines is they...

• DO NOT produce the wide range of performance improvements produced by Negative


Pressure Supercharging

• Cost more than Negative Pressure Supercharging

• Reduce driveability, towing power, fuel economy, idle quality and manifold vacuum

• Produce poor low rpm torque which produces poor low speed acceleration

• Increase emissions, maintenance and running costs

• Must use high octane fuel or expensive high octane fuel additives
• Must use many expensive and heavy duty parts to handle the higher horsepower

• Must use race parts or mechanically complex systems to produce respectable low speed
acceleration such as...
• 4-6 speed transmissions
• 4-5:1 diff ratios
• 4000-5000 rpm high stall converters
• Long intake manifolds
• Variable intake manifolds
• Roller cams
• Variable valve timing
• Variable valve lift
• Must use expensive pollution control systems to reduce the much higher emissions they
produce such as...
• Catalytic converters
• Exhaust gas recirculation
• Vacuum (smog) pumps
• Secondary air injection
• Computers
• Fuel injection

Negative Pressure Supercharging is NOT about using supercharger air pumps to produce more
peak horsepower because the drawback with air pumps for street applications is they...

• DO NOT produce the wide range of performance improvements produced by Negative


Pressure Supercharging

• Cost 3 times more than Negative Pressure Supercharging

• Reduce fuel economy

• Increase emissions, maintenance and running costs

• Require the engine to use high octane fuel or expensive high octane fuel additives

• Require the engine to use many expensive and heavy duty parts to handle the higher
horsepower

• Require the engine to use expensive pollution control systems to reduce the much higher
emissions they produce such as...
• Catalytic converters
• Exhaust gas recirculation
• Vacuum (smog) pumps
• Secondary air injection
• Computers
• Fuel injection
Negative Pressure Supercharging is NOT about making street engines more mechanically
complex because the drawback with mechanically complex systems* is they...

• DO NOT produce the wide range of performance improvements produced by Negative


Pressure Supercharging

• Cost 2 times more than Negative Pressure Supercharging

• Produce only small improvements in power, fuel economy or emissions with each system
which require making engines more and more mechanically complex in order to improve their
efficiency

• Require using more and more expensive computers to operate the increasing number and
complexity of mechanically complex systems

• Substantially increase the already high cost of mechanically complex engines to the point
that only the rich will be able to afford to buy and repair them in the near future

Performance Improvements

Negative Pressure Supercharging combines the performance advantages of 3 different engines


into 1 engine...

Fast acceleration of a race car

Smooth idle, acceleration and fuel economy of a


family car

Massive towing power of a truck

Negative Pressure Supercharging offers many more performance advantages...

• More horsepower at peak 4500 rpm than typical performance engines produce at 6000
rpm
• Peak torque produced FROM 1000 - 3500 rpm
• 2 times more torque FROM 1000 - 3500 rpm at full throttle
• 3 times more torque FROM 1000 - 3500 rpm at part throttle
• Faster acceleration using low rpm torque instead of high rpm horsepower
• Smooth idle and acceleration at part throttle whether the engine is carbureted or fuel
injected
• Massive towing power FROM 1000 - 3500 rpm
• Less throttle needed to produce fast acceleration, cruise or tow a trailer
• Extremely responsive at any throttle position
• More manifold vacuum; 18-20" Hg at 500 rpm idle and 22-24" Hg at 2000 rpm cruise
• 30-50% more fuel economy than standard or high rpm engines
• 50-70% more fuel economy than engines with supercharger air pumps
• Ultra low to near zero emissions
• 1/3 the price of conventional supercharger air pump systems
• 1/2 the price of high rpm engines
• Same low maintenance as standard factory engines
• Less wear and tear on engine parts than high rpm engines
• Allows engine to use low octane fuel with no pre-ignition (pinging)
• Low and smooth exhaust note with a deep thump of a big block at idle and highway
speeds
• Powerful growl of a race car at full throttle
• Easy starting
• More torque and horsepower the hotter the air induction temperature is increased from
50-121°C (122-250°F)
• Improves thermal efficiency of engine by converting more combustion heat into
mechanical power
• Ultra fast burn prevents less combustion heat from dissipating into water passages which
allows the water to run cooler
• Engine and combustion run hot while only the water passages run cooler at 50°C (122°F)
• Engine reaches the optimum operating temperature in half the normal time
• Water coolant runs cooler at half the normal temperature of standard and high rpm
engines
• Water coolant runs cooler while towing in hot weather or heavy traffic
• Ultra fast burn and cooler water temperature eliminates overheating
• Allows carbureted engines to idle for long periods in heavy traffic and not foul the plugs
• Allows carbureted engines to be driven immediately from a cold start like fuel injected
engines
• Allows full throttle acceleration from a cold start using a carburetor (not recommended
even though possible)
• Makes mechanically simple pushrod engines a lot more powerful, fuel efficient and run
cleaner than today's mechanically complex multi-valve/cam engines
• Can be applied to the world's 700 million existing old and new engines to make them
more powerful, fuel efficient and run clean which eliminates the need for radical new
engine designs
• More performance per dollar than any other product or engine technology
• How Negative Pressure Supercharging works compared to standard and race engines
• Negative Pressure Supercharging is a highly advanced 6 cycle supercharging combustion
process that produces substantially more torque and horsepower and much lower fuel
consumption and emissions over a lower and wider rpm range than the old 4 cycle
process used by today’s engines

Negative Pressure Supercharging Standard and Race engines


Cycle 1 Combustion Stroke - Pressure Release Cycle
Cycle 2 Exhaust Stroke - Exhaust Cycle = Cycle 1 Exhaust Stroke
Cycle 3 Intake Stroke - Primary Induction Cycle
Cycle 4 Intake Stroke - Secondary Induction Cycle = Cycle 2 Intake Stroke
Cycle 5 Compression Stroke - Compression Cycle = Cycle 3 Compression Stroke
Cycle 6 Combustion Stroke - Pressure Drive Cycle = Cycle 4 Combustion Stroke
• For more details see Operating Principles of NPS
• NPS 6 cycle process compared to the old 4 cycle process
• After 130 years of refinement the old 4 cycle process used by today’s engines produce a
lot more horsepower over a narrow high rpm range. However, they also produce poor low
rpm torque, high fuel consumption and a lot more pollution. Therefore, to make the old 4
cycle process produce more torque and horsepower over a broader rpm range and reduce
its high emissions and fuel consumption, today’s street engines have become a nightmare
of mechanical complexity and emission controls.
• The NPS 6 cycle process is a lot more efficient than the old 4 cycle process. It produces
substantially more torque and horsepower and much lower fuel consumption and
emissions over a lower and wider rpm range. The NPS 6 cycle process achieves this
using a unique combination of mechanically simple parts and NO emission controls. This
eliminates the need to make engines mechanically complex in order to improve their
efficiency. What’s even more remarkable is that this new 6 cycle process is in its infant
stage of development and is currently a lot more efficient than the old 4 cycle process
used by today’s engines. Therefore, given the same refinement as today’s engines the
NPS 6 cycle process has the potential to improve its rpm range and the efficiency of
street engines far beyond the capability of the old 4 cycle process and mechanical
complexity.
• NPS Cycle 1 Combustion Stroke – Pressure Release Cycle

Negative Pressure Standard and Race Engines


Supercharging
This cycle is NOT
produced by
standard and race
engines with large
pipe headers and
conventional valve
timing.

(see next cycle)


As the exhaust valve opens, the
high pressure gas from
combustion forces itself
through the small and short
pipes of the NPS Tri-Y header
at twice the gas speed of large
pipe headers used by standard
and race engines. This
produces a much higher
vacuum in the small pipe
header which pulls the exhaust
gases out of the engine and
reduces the pressure in the
cylinder.

• NPS Cycle 2 Exhaust Stroke – Exhaust Cycle

Negative Pressure Standard Engine Race Engine


Supercharging (Cycle 1) (Cycle 1)
At the end of the exhaust The larger pipe headers used The much larger pipe headers
stroke, the lower pressure by standard engines produce a used by race engines produce a
(higher vacuum) produced by slow gas speed. This does slower gas speed than standard
the NPS Tri-Y header is NOT produce enough vacuum engines. This also does NOT
trapped in the combustion to pull the gases out of the produce enough vacuum to pull
chamber during the overlap engine or reduce cylinder the gases out of the engine or
period by... pressure. reduce cylinder pressure.
•Closing the exhaust valve
early before TDC Therefore, at the end of the Therefore, at the end of the
•Using less overlap duration exhaust stroke the exhaust exhaust stroke the exhaust
•Using less exhaust valve lift valve remains open after TDC valve remains open much
•Synchronising the above 3 to allow the piston to push the longer after TDC than standard
valve timing events remaining gases out of the engines.
engine.
NOTE This allows the piston to push
The above 3 valve timing the remaining gases out of the
events are part of a more engine and the momentum of
complex valve timing process the gas flow in the large pipe
that requires synchronising 8 header to help pull the intake
valve timing events in order charge into the cylinder.
for Negative Pressure However, the effect is small
Supercharging to work. and works ONLY at high rpm.

• NPS Cycle 3 Intake Stroke – Primary Induction Cycle

Negative Pressure Standard and Race Engines


Supercharging
This cycle is NOT
produced by
standard and race
engines with large
pipe headers and
conventional valve
timing.

(see next cycle)

At the beginning of the intake


stroke, the intake valve opens
early before TDC. This allows
the lower pressure (higher
vacuum) trapped in the
combustion chamber during the
overlap period to pull the
intake charge into the cylinder
BEFORE the piston begins the
intake stroke.

As a result the intake charge


rapidly fills the cylinder during
the EARLY part of the intake
stroke.

• NPS Cycle 4 Intake Stroke – Secondary Induction Cycle

Negative Pressure Standard Engine Race Engine


Supercharging (Cycle 2) (Cycle 2)
As the piston moves down the As the piston moves down the As the piston moves down the
cylinder during the intake cylinder during the intake cylinder during the intake
stroke, it further reduces the stroke, it reduces the pressure stroke, it reduces the pressure
pressure (increases the (creates a vacuum) in the (creates a vacuum) in the
vacuum) in the cylinder in cylinder. cylinder like the standard
addition to the lower pressure engine.
(higher vacuum) trapped in the This pulls the intake charge
combustion chamber during into the cylinder during the This also pulls the intake
the overlap period. LATE part of the intake stroke. charge into the cylinder during
the LATE part of the intake
As a result the higher stroke.
vacuum...
•Pulls a larger intake charge
into the cylinder at a higher
velocity during the EARLY
part of the intake stroke
•Produces violent air
turbulence with NO
restriction to air flow
•Creates a homogenous intake
charge that burns faster and
cleaner
•Allows large intake ports and
valves with high lift to flow a
larger volume of air into the
cylinder from 1000-4500 rpm
than small intake ports and
valves with low or high lift

• NPS Cycle 5 Compression Stroke – Compression Cycle


Negative Pressure Standard Engine Race Engine
Supercharging (Cycle 3) (Cycle 3)

At the end of the intake stroke, Because standard engines pull Because race engines also pull
the intake valve closes early the intake charge into the the intake charge into the
after BDC to... cylinder during the LATE part cylinder during the LATE part
•Trap the larger intake charge of the intake stroke, the intake of the intake stroke, the intake
pulled into the cylinder valve closes late after BDC to valve closes much later after
during the EARLY part of the allow more air to fill the BDC to allow even more air to
intake stroke cylinder. fill the cylinder.
•Prevent the larger intake
charge from being forced This produces more This produces even more
back into the intake manifold horsepower at high rpm. horsepower at high rpm than
during the compression stroke However, at low rpm the late standard engines. However, at
closing intake valve allows the low rpm the much later closing
piston to force the intake intake valve allows the piston
charge back into the intake to force a lot more of the intake
manifold during the charge back into the intake
compression stroke. manifold during the
compression stroke.
As a result the late closing
intake valve substantially As a result the much later
reduces low rpm torque. closing intake valve reduces
low rpm torque substantially
more than standard engines.

• NPS Cycle 6 Combustion Stroke – Pressure Drive Cycle

Negative Pressure Standard Engine Race Engine


Supercharging (Cycle 4) (Cycle 4)
Negative Pressure Standard engines pull a larger Race engines pull a much larger
Supercharging pulls a larger intake charge into the cylinder intake charge into the cylinder
intake charge into the cylinder from 4000-5500 rpm than from from 5500 to 7000 rpm than
from 1000-4500 rpm than 1000-3500 rpm. from 1000-5000 rpm.
standard and race engines.
Therefore, standard engines Therefore, race engines
This allows Negative Pressure produce more horsepower over produce a lot more horsepower
Supercharging to produce a lot a narrow high rpm range but over a narrow high rpm range
more torque and horsepower sacrifice performance in other but sacrifice performance in
over a broader rpm range. areas such as... other areas such as...
•Low torque and slow •NO torque and NO
However, the larger intake acceleration from 1000-3500 acceleration from 1000-5000
charge is more difficult to rpm rpm
ignite the colder the air •Poor towing power •NO towing power
induction temperature BELOW •High fuel consumption •Much higher fuel
40°C (104°F). •High emissions consumption
•Much higher emissions
Therefore, Negative Pressure To improve poor low speed
Supercharging uses... torque and acceleration, This is the reason race engines
•Hot Air Induction to increase standard engines use long ram are NOT practical or allowed
the speed of combustion to intake manifolds, variable for street use.
just BEFORE the point of self valve timing or high stall
ignition in order to increase converters. This is NOT
combustion pressure needed with the much higher
•Cold Cooling System to torque and faster acceleration
maintain the optimum produced by Negative Pressure
combustion temperature and Supercharging.
burn rate in order to increase
combustion pressure and Also, to reduce the high
prevent the hotter and faster emissions produced by poor
burn from igniting combustion, standard engines
prematurely
•Special Ignition Timing to use a lot of emission controls.
prevent the hotter and faster This is NOT needed with the
burn from igniting CLEAN burn HTCSI
prematurely combustion produced by
Negative Pressure
Supercharging.

• Hot Air Induction is also produced by supercharger and turbocharger air pumps
• A fact easily overlooked with supercharger and turbocharger air pumps is that they
generate so much heat they produce a hot intake charge.

• Operating Principles of Negative Pressure Supercharging


• Negative Pressure Supercharging is a highly advanced 6 cycle supercharging combustion
process that substantially improves the volumetric and thermal efficiency of the
conventional 4-stroke* internal combustion engine

Negative Pressure Supercharging * The conventional 4-stroke
Cycle 1 Combustion Stroke - Pressure Release Cycle internal combustion engine is
Cycle 2 Exhaust Stroke - Exhaust Cycle used in every vehicle produced
Cycle 3 Intake Stroke - Primary Induction Cycle over the last 100 years from
Cycle 4 Intake Stroke - Secondary Induction Cycle cars, motorcycles, trucks,
Cycle 5 Compression Stroke - Compression Cycle boats to planes and in many
Cycle 6 Combustion Stroke - Pressure Drive Cycle different sizes from 2, 4, 6, 8,
10, 12 cylinders with inline,
slant, flat to V designs.

• NPS Cycle 1 Combustion Stroke – Pressure Release Cycle

After combustion about 300psi of high pressure gas


remains in the cylinder of a typical V8 engine before the
exhaust valve opens. The Negative Pressure
Supercharging process uses this high pressure gas to
REDUCE the pressure (increase the vacuum) in the
cylinder and pull a larger intake charge into the engine.

As the exhaust valve opens, the high pressure gas


from combustion forces itself through the small and
short pipes of the NPS Tri-Y header at 600 ft/sec. This
is twice the gas speed of the large pipe headers used by
standard and race engines shown by the broken lines.

The high velocity gas produces a much higher vacuum in


the small pipe header which pulls the exhaust gases out of
the engine and REDUCES the pressure (increases the
vacuum) in the cylinder.

However, the high pressure gas will remain compressed


in a small pipe for only a short distance before it builds
up backpressure and restricts the gas flow.

• Therefore, the small pipes of the NPS Tri-Y header are very short and connect to a
megaphone pipe. This allows the compressed gas in the small pipe to gradually expand
into the larger section of the megaphone pipe at a high velocity BEFORE it builds up
backpressure and restricts the gas flow. For more details see NPS Tri-Y Headers
• NOTE
Lower pressure (higher vacuum) is produced behind all moving objects that travel
at a high speed
Therefore, the faster the speed of a moving object, the lower the pressure (higher the
vacuum) is behind the object. The same principle applies to the gas flow in the primary
pipe of a typical header. The smaller the pipe, the faster the gas speed and therefore the
lower the pressure (higher the vacuum) is behind the gas flow in the header. However,
this only works if the small pipe is short and made shorter the smaller the pipe.
• NPS Cycle 2 Exhaust Stroke – Exhaust Cycle

At the end of the exhaust stroke, the lower pressure


(higher vacuum) produced by the NPS Tri-Y header is
trapped in the combustion chamber during the
overlap period by...
•Closing the exhaust valve 12° earlier before TDC
•Using 10° less overlap duration
•Using .150" less exhaust valve lift
•Synchronising the above 3 valve timing events

The lower pressure (higher vacuum) in the cylinder also


helps pull the piston towards TDC during the exhaust
stroke which reduces the engines pumping work.

However, the above 3 valve timing events are part of a


more complex valve timing process that requires
synchronising 8 valve timing events and optimising
them to within 1° duration and .010" lift in order to...

•Trap the lower pressure (higher vacuum) in the cylinder at the
end of the exhaust stroke by closing the exhaust valve early and
using less overlap duration and exhaust valve lift
•Move the lower pressure (higher vacuum) to the intake stroke
during the overlap period by synchronising the exhaust valve
closing, overlap duration and exhaust valve lift events
•Trap the larger intake charge pulled into the cylinder during the
early part of the intake stroke by closing the intake valve early
•Prevent the lower pressure (higher vacuum) from pulling the
intake charge into the exhaust system during the overlap period

For more details see NPS Valve Timing


• NOTE
The above 3 valve timing events are examples only. They are not the optimum valve
timing events for each different size engine which is proprietary information.
• NPS Cycle 3 Intake Stroke – Primary Induction Cycle

At the beginning of the intake stroke, the intake valve


opens 5-10° earlier before TDC. This allows the lower
pressure (higher vacuum) trapped in the combustion
chamber during the overlap period to pull the intake
charge into the cylinder BEFORE the piston begins
the intake stroke.

As a result the intake charge rapidly fills the cylinder


during the EARLY part of the intake stroke.

Therefore, the lower the pressure (higher the vacuum)


that is trapped in the combustion chamber during the
overlap period, the larger intake charge the Negative
Pressure Supercharging process pulls into the cylinder
during the early part of the intake stroke.

NOTE
The above valve timing event is an example only. It is not
the optimum valve timing event for each different size
engine which is proprietary information.

• NPS Cycle 4 Intake Stroke – Secondary Induction Cycle


As the piston moves down the cylinder during the
intake stroke, it further reduces the pressure
(increases the vacuum) in the cylinder in addition to
the lower pressure (higher vacuum) trapped in the
combustion chamber during the overlap period.

As a result the much greater pressure differential between


the higher atmospheric pressure outside the engine and
the much lower pressure (higher vacuum) in the
cylinder...
•Pulls a larger intake charge into the cylinder at a higher
velocity during the EARLY part of the intake stroke
•Produces violent air turbulence with NO restriction to air
flow
•Creates a homogenous intake charge that burns faster
and cleaner
•Allows large intake ports and valves with high lift to
flow a larger volume of air into the cylinder from 1000-
4500 rpm than small intake ports and valves with low or
high lift

• NOTE
Negative pressure below zero shown in the NPS Cycle 4 diagram is used only as an
example to demonstrate the force of a vacuum
While it’s understood that negative pressure (vacuum) can not be reduced below zero, the
force of a vacuum (which is measured in air molecules per cc instead of psi) is not
understood as well as the force produced by psi of positive pressure. Therefore, -15psi of
negative pressure below zero is used only as an example to demonstrate that whether the
same pressure differential is below or above 15psi at sea level it produces the SAME
force. For more details see Negative pressure produces the SAME force as positive
pressure
• Negative pressure produces the SAME force as positive pressure
• Negative pressure (vacuum) and positive pressure (boost) produce the SAME
FORCE...the only difference is that negative pressure pulls inward and positive pressure
pushes outward
• While it’s understood that negative pressure (vacuum) can not be reduced below zero, the
force of a vacuum is not understood as well as the force produced by positive pressure
(boost). Also, there is a false perception that only 14.7psi of negative pressure (vacuum)
exists between 14.7psi at sea level and zero pressure.
• The fact is there’s billions of psi of negative pressure (vacuum) between 14.7psi and zero
pressure but negative pressure (vacuum) is measured in air molecules per cc instead of
psi. For example, the best man-made vacuums contain less than 100,000 air molecules
per cc compared to about 30 billion billion (30×1018) air molecules per cc at sea level.
The tremendous force produced by the best man-made vacuums is equivalent to the force
produced by 440 thousand billion psi of positive pressure.
• Therefore, the force of the vacuum in a typical engine can be increased a lot more than
14.7psi shown on the vacuum gauge.
• However, measuring vacuum in air molecules per cc makes it difficult to compare the
force of a vacuum to the same force produced by psi of positive pressure. Therefore, the
example below uses psi of negative pressure to demonstrate that whether the same
pressure differential is below or above 14.7psi at sea level it produces the SAME force.
• For example,
• If the pressure outside the engine is +15psi measured at sea level then...
•Increasing the pressure outside the engine to +38psi produces a pressure differential of 23psi
•Reducing the pressure inside the engine to -8psi also produces the SAME pressure differential
of 23psi and therefore the SAME force as increasing the pressure above sea level
• Reference
Vacuum is measured in air molecules - The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.

• NPS Cycle 5 Compression Stroke – Compression Cycle

At the end of the intake stroke, the intake valve closes


10° earlier after BDC to...
•Trap the larger intake charge pulled in the cylinder
during the EARLY part of the intake stroke
•Prevent the larger intake charge from being forced back
into the intake manifold during the compression stroke

The lower pressure (higher vacuum) trapped in the


combustion chamber during the overlap period causes the
intake charge to rapidly fill the cylinder during the
EARLY part of the intake stroke. This pulls a larger
intake charge into the cylinder from 1000-4500 rpm but
requires the intake valve to close much earlier in order to
trap the larger intake charge in the cylinder.

NOTE
The above valve timing event is an example only. It is not
the optimum valve timing event for each different size
engine which is proprietary information.

• NPS Cycle 6 Combustion Stroke – Pressure Drive Cycle


At the beginning of the combustion stroke the larger
homogenous intake charge produces substantially
more combustion pressure and a faster burn from
1000-4500 rpm than standard or race engines.

This allows Negative Pressure Supercharging to produce


a lot more torque and horsepower over a broader rpm
range.

However, the larger intake charge is more difficult to


ignite the colder the air induction temperature BELOW
40°C (104°F).

Therefore, Negative Pressure Supercharging uses...


•Hot Air Induction to increase the speed of combustion to
just BEFORE the point of self ignition in order to
increase combustion pressure
•Cold Cooling System to maintain the optimum
combustion temperature and burn rate in order to
increase combustion pressure and prevent the hotter and
faster burn from igniting prematurely
•Special Ignition Timing to prevent the hotter and faster
burn from igniting prematurely
•Low compression and open chamber heads to prevent
the hotter and faster burn from igniting prematurely

• By using Hot Air Induction with the Negative Pressure Supercharging process it produces
Homogenous Thermal Charge Spark Ignition (HTCSI) combustion. This produces a
much faster and cleaner burn and more combustion pressure than cold air induction. The
Cold Cooling System and Special Ignition Timing maintain the optimum burn rate of
HTCSI combustion.
• As a result Negative Pressure Supercharging and HTCSI combustion produce a lot more
torque, fuel efficiency and a cleaner burn than standard engines that use cold air
induction, hot cooling systems and more ignition timing. For more details see Ultra Fast
Burn

• Hot Air Induction is also produced by supercharger and turbocharger air pumps
• A fact easily overlooked with supercharger and turbocharger air pumps is that they
generate so much heat they produce a hot intake charge. This causes pre-ignition and
reduces power. Therefore, intercoolers are used with air pumps to reduce the temperature
of the intake charge to the optimum burn rate but the intake charge is still hotter than
outside temperatures which is Hot Air Induction.
• The NPS process has the opposite problem...it reduces the air induction temperature
which makes the larger intake charge too cold and difficult to ignite. Therefore, heat is
drawn from the exhaust headers to increase the temperature of the intake charge to the
optimum burn rate. This produces an intake charge that is hotter than outside
temperatures which allows the larger intake charge to burn faster and produce more
power. However, because the NPS process uses a Cold Cooling System instead of an
intercooler it allows using an even hotter intake charge which produces a further increase
in power.
• Therefore, Hot Air Induction is needed to ignite the larger intake charge produced by
supercharging whether the heat is generated by supercharger air pumps or drawn from the
exhaust headers by the NPS process.
• NPS process uses a Cold Cooling System instead of an intercooler
• The NPS Cold Cooling System prevents combustion from exceeding the optimum
temperature and burn rate with the hotter and faster burn produced by Hot Air Induction.
This prevents pre-ignition and allows the engine to produce more power the hotter the air
induction temperature ABOVE 40°C (104°F) but ONLY if the water temperature is kept
between 40-50°C (104-122°F). Because cold water is able to draw more heat from the
hotter and faster burn produced by hot air induction than hot water, the cold water
prevents the combustion chamber from running too hot and igniting the intake charge
prematurely. Therefore, cold water is a lot more effective than hot water at maintaining
the optimum combustion temperature and burn rate with the hotter intake charge. This
allows the engine to run HOT with cold water and hot air induction...ONLY the water
passages run cold.
• Therefore, supercharger and turbocharger air pumps can also use the NPS Cold Cooling
System and Ignition Timing to produce more power with Hot Air Induction than with
intercoolers.

High Velocity Tri-Y Headers

NEW header design combines 5 conventional pipe designs to substantially increase vacuum and
produce a supercharging effect

1. Tri-Y Header
2. Small Pipe
3. Short Pipe
4. Stepped Pipe

5. Megaphone Collector

Negative Pressure Supercharging Tri-Y header works differently to other headers and does NOT
work alone
The NPS Tri-Y header produces Compressed High
Velocity Exhaust Gas by using small-short pipes and a
megaphone collector. This produces a much higher
vacuum than other headers and pulls a larger intake
charge into the engine.

However, special valve timing is needed to trap the


higher vacuum in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust
stroke and move it to the intake stroke during the overlap
period. Otherwise with conventional valve timing the
higher vacuum produced by the NPS Tri-Y header pulls
the intake charge into the exhaust system instead of into
the cylinder.

Therefore, the NPS Tri-Y header works differently to


other headers and does NOT work alone even though it
uses a Tri-Y configuration.

Difference between NPS Tri-Y header and conventional headers


Negative Pressure Supercharging Conventional
Tri-Y Header... Tri-Y and 4-1 Headers...
Produces Compressed High Velocity Exhaust Gas Produce a much lower vacuum that is
(CHVEG) which produces a much higher vacuum and able to only scavenge the exhaust
pulls a larger intake charge into the engine. gases from the cylinder.
Uses small header pipes that produce a much faster gas Use large header pipes that produce a
speed and a higher vacuum. much slower gas speed and a lower
vacuum.
Uses CHVEG in the small header pipes to increase gas Use large header pipes to increase gas
flow. flow.
Uses short header pipes and a megaphone collector to Use a large collector after the long
prevent the CHVEG in the small header pipes from header pipes to prevent the long header
building up backpressure and restricting gas flow. pipes from building up backpressure
and restricting gas flow.
Gradually increases the pipe diameter along the length of Substantially increase the pipe
the header and collector to maintain a high gas velocity diameters of the header and collector
and prevent a sudden drop in gas speed and vacuum. which cause a sudden drop in gas
speed and vacuum.
Small-short header pipe and megaphone collector design Large header pipe design allows the
prevents the CHVEG from flowing back into the engine exhaust gases to flow back into the
during the intake stroke. engine and dilute the intake charge.
Does NOT work with conventional valve timing that Work with conventional valve timing.
has...
• Late closing intake and exhaust valves
• Excessive overlap duration
• High exhaust valve lift
MUST be used with Synchronised Valve Timing (SVT) DO NOT need to use special or
in order to... synchronised valve timing in order to
1) TRAP the higher vacuum in the cylinder at the end of work.
the exhaust stroke.
2) MOVE the higher vacuum to the beginning of the
intake stroke during the overlap period.
3) TRAP the larger volume of air pulled into the cylinder
by the higher vacuum during the intake stroke.
4) PREVENT the higher vacuum from pulling the intake
charge into the exhaust system during the overlap
period.

NOTE
NPS Tri-Y header works
ONLY with synchronised
valve timing and special
ignition timing.

NPS Tri-Y header compared to conventional headers


Negative Pressure Supercharging Conventional
Tri-Y Header Tri-Y and 4-1 Headers
Gas speed 600 ft/sec 300 ft/sec
Primary pipe diameter 1/2 the diameter 2 times larger
Header length 1/3 the length 3 times longer
Stepped pipes in 1/8" increments Full length of header No
Megaphone collector Yes No
Reduces cylinder pressure (increases Yes more details No more details
vacuum)
Produces Compressed High Velocity Yes more details No
Exhaust Gas
MUST be used with Synchronised Valve Yes more details No
Timing
Compact header Yes No
Exhaust scavenger No Yes
Produces backpressure No more details Yes
Small primary pipes restrict gas flow No more details Yes
Uses pressure wave tuning to optimise pipe No Yes
length
Allows gases to flow back into the cylinder No Yes

NPS Tri-Y header reduces cylinder pressure (increases vacuum) to pull a larger intake charge
into the engine
When the exhaust valve opens after combustion the high
pressure gas forces itself through the small pipes of the NPS
Tri-Y header. This compresses and doubles the speed of the
gas in the small pipes of the header which produces
Compressed High Velocity Exhaust Gas (CHVEG).

The CHVEG produces a


much lower pressure (higher
vacuum) behind itself in the
small pipes of the NPS Tri-Y
header which reduces
cylinder pressure (increases
vacuum) during the exhaust
stroke and pulls a larger
intake charge into the engine.

The short pipes and megaphone collector of the NPS Tri-Y


header allow the CHVEG to gradually expand into the larger
section of the megaphone collector before the CHVEG builds up
backpressure and restricts the gas flow in the small pipes of the
header. This also allows a larger volume of gas to flow through
the small pipes of the NPS Tri-Y header.

However,

NPS Tri-Y header MUST be used with Synchronised Valve Timing


To get the higher vacuum produced by the NPS Tri-Y header to
pull a larger intake charge into the engine, the higher vacuum
needs to be trapped in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust
stroke and moved to the intake stroke during the overlap period
using Synchronised Valve Timing that uses...
•Early closing intake and exhaust valves
•Low overlap duration
•Low exhaust valve lift

Conventional valve timing shown below does NOT allow the


higher vacuum produced by the NPS Tri-Y header to pull a
larger intake charge into the engine.
•Late closing intake and exhaust valves
•High overlap duration
•High exhaust valve lift

For more details see Negative Supercharging Valve Timing

Small header pipes with a short length do NOT restrict gas flow
This is because the limited amount of high pressure gas that remains in the cylinder after
combustion can be forced through a small pipe for only a short distance before it builds up
backpressure and restricts the gas flow. Therefore, by making the small pipes of the NPS Tri-Y
header short and connect to a megaphone collector it prevents the small header pipes from
restricting gas flow.

Conventional Tri-Y and 4-1 headers are NOT able to reduce cylinder pressure because the...
• Gas speed is too slow
• Vacuum behind the slow gas flow is too weak
• Diameter of pipe is too large
• Length of pipe is too long
• Pipes join together too far from the exhaust port
• Exhaust gas flows back into the engine during the intake stroke

Lower pressure (higher vacuum) is produced behind all moving objects that travel at a high
speed
Therefore, the faster the speed of a moving object, the lower the pressure (higher the vacuum) is
behind the object. The same principle applies to the gas flow in the primary pipe of a typical
header. The smaller the pipe, the faster the gas speed and therefore the lower the pressure (higher
the vacuum) is behind the gas flow in the header. However, this only works if the small pipe is
short and made shorter the smaller the pipe.

Synchronised Valve Timing

NEW synchronised valve timing traps the higher vacuum produced by NPS Tri-Y header in the
cylinder and allows it to pull a larger intake charge into the engine
Synchronised Valve Timing is used to...
1) TRAP the higher vacuum in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust stroke.
2) MOVE the higher vacuum to the beginning of the intake stroke during the overlap period.
3) TRAP the larger volume of air pulled into the cylinder by the higher vacuum during the intake
stroke.
4) PREVENT the higher vacuum from pulling the intake charge into the exhaust system during
the overlap period.

Synchronised Valve Timing synchronises 8 special valve timing events together to allow
Negative Pressure Supercharging to work
Synchronised Valve Timing is a highly sophisticated valve timing process that uses a
combination of 8 special valve timing events to precisely control the time the valves open and
close in order to trap the higher vacuum in the cylinder, move it to the intake stroke and prevent
it from being pulled into the exhaust system. The 8 special valve timing events also precisely
control the time the valves open and close to trap the larger intake charge pulled into the engine
by the higher vacuum and prevent the larger intake charge from being pushed back into the
intake manifold or pulled into the exhaust system.

Some of the 8 special valve timing events may be similar to the valve timing used by low
performance engines. This gives the false perception that the 8 special valve timing events
produce the same results as the valve timing used by low performance engines. However, this
overlooks the fact that the 8 special valve timing events must be SYNCHRONISED and used
TOGETHER for Negative Pressure Supercharging and the NPS Tri-Y headers to work. Just like
any good recipe it’s the combination that makes it work.

For example,

1) Intake valve opens 8° earlier NOTE


2) Intake valve closes 10° earlier These valve timing events are examples only to
3) Exhaust valve opens 8° later demonstrate the 8 special valve timing events that must be
4) Exhaust valve closes 12° earlier used together for the Negative Pressure Supercharging
5) Exhaust duration 8° less process to work. They are not the optimum valve timing
6) Exhaust valve lift .150" lower events for each different size engine which is proprietary
7) Exhaust gas speed 100% faster information.
8) Overlap duration 10° less
Synchronised Valve Timing becomes more complex the higher the gas speed and vacuum
The higher vacuum produced by the NPS Tri-Y header is more difficult to control and the valve
timing becomes more complex the higher the gas speed above 300 ft/sec produced by
conventional headers. For example, if the NPS Tri-Y header produces a faster gas speed of 450-
500 ft/sec, 6 valve timing events need to work together in synch whereas, if the NPS Tri-Y
header produces an even faster gas speed of 600-650 ft/sec, 8 valve timing events need to work
together in synch in order for Negative Pressure Supercharging to work.

Also, synchronising the valve timing events to work at optimum becomes more critical the
higher the gas speed above 300 ft/sec. This requires the 8 special valve timing events to be
precisely synchronised together within 1° duration and .010" exhaust lift in order for Negative
Pressure Supercharging to work. The only part of the valve timing that is not critical is the intake
lift which can be as high as possible. For more details see Negative Supercharging Camshaft

For example,

With 600 ft/sec exhaust gas velocity Result


If the overlap duration is 2° more than the The higher vacuum produced by the NPS Tri-Y
optimum overlap duration... header will pull a lot of the intake charge into
the exhaust system instead of into the cylinder
If the exhaust valve closes more than 2° later
and substantially reduce power.
than the optimum closing point...
If the exhaust valve closes after TDC and the The higher vacuum produced by the NPS Tri-Y
overlap duration is 2° more than the optimum header will pull most of the intake charge into
overlap duration... the exhaust system instead of into the cylinder
and the engine will lose ALL power.
If the intake valve closes more than 2° later than The larger volume of air pulled into the cylinder
the optimum closing point... by the higher vacuum will be pushed back into
the intake manifold and substantially reduce
power.
If the exhaust valve opens earlier than the Each one of the other 7 valve timing events must
optimum opening point... also be moved to a critical position in order for
Negative Pressure Supercharging to work with
the higher vacuum. For more details Opening
the exhaust valve earlier

Therefore,

Negative Pressure Supercharging and the NPS Tri-Y header do NOT work with conventional
valve timing that has...
Intake and exhaust valves open at the same time at TDC
Exhaust valve close after TDC
High exhaust valve lift
Long overlap duration
Intake valve close late after BDC

Opening the exhaust valve earlier increases the supercharging effect but requires re-
synchronising the 8 special valve timing events
The massive torque produced by Negative Pressure Supercharging can be increased even further
by opening the exhaust valve earlier. This forces more combustion pressure through the small
primary pipes of the NPS Tri-Y header which increases the gas velocity which in turn produces
an even higher vacuum in the cylinder during the overlap period. As a result the much higher
vacuum pulls an even greater volume of air into the engine during the intake stroke.

However, it's not as simple as opening the exhaust valve earlier and the engine will produce an
additional boost in power with Negative Pressure Supercharging. To trap an even higher vacuum
in the cylinder and for it to pull an even greater volume of air into the engine, it requires re-
synchronising the 8 special valve timing events with new valve timing events that work together
with the much higher vacuum.

Basic description of parts and processes that work together to produce Negative Pressure
Supercharging

For more details see Combination of parts and processes that work together to produce NPS

Tri-Y Headers with small short pipes and megaphone collector produce Compressed High
Velocity Exhaust Gas
• Substantially reduces the pressure (increases vacuum) in the
cylinder during the exhaust stroke

• Pulls a larger volume of air into the cylinder during the early
part of the intake stroke by the lower pressure (higher
vacuum) trapped in the combustion chamber during the
overlap period with synchronised valve timing

• Produces a homogenous intake charge as a result of the


violent air turbulence produced by the much greater difference
in pressure between the cylinder and atmosphere

Camshaft with Synchronised Valve Timing, high intake lift and low exhaust lift

• Traps the lower pressure (higher vacuum) in the cylinder at


the end of the exhaust stroke by closing the exhaust valve
early and using less overlap duration and exhaust valve lift

• Moves the lower pressure (higher vacuum) to the intake


stroke during the overlap period by synchronising the exhaust
valve closing, overlap duration and exhaust valve lift events

• Traps the larger volume of air pulled into the cylinder during
the intake stroke by closing the intake valve early

• Prevents the lower pressure (higher vacuum) from pulling the


intake charge into the exhaust system during the overlap
period

Hot Air Induction housing

• Increases the temperature of the homogenous intake charge

• Uses hot air to increase the speed of combustion to just


BEFORE the point of self ignition

• Vapourises the liquid fuel into a gas to reduce fuel


consumption

• Produces a faster cleaner burn and more combustion pressure


(torque)

Cold Cooling System

• Reduces the water temperature to maintain the optimum


combustion temperature and burn rate with the hotter and
faster burn produced by the homogenous hot intake charge
• Allows the homogenous hot intake charge to produce a faster
cleaner burn and more combustion pressure (torque) than a
cold intake charge

• Allows the engine to run HOT with cold water and hot air
induction...ONLY the water passages run cold

Special Ignition Timing

• Uses a special advance curve to increase combustion pressure


(torque) and prevent the hotter and faster burn produced by
the homogenous hot intake charge from igniting prematurely

Combination of parts and processes that work together to produce Negative Pressure
Supercharging

The basic combination of parts and processes needed to produce and control Negative Pressure
Supercharging are...

•High Velocity Tri-Y Headers


•Synchronised Valve Timing
•Special Profile Camshaft
•Special Ignition Timing
•Cold Spark Plugs

...but it’s the combination of parts and processes shown below that allow Negative Pressure
Supercharging to work at optimum

Negative Pressure Supercharging


NPS is produced by... NPS is produced and controlled
by...
High Velocity Tri-Y
Headers Synchronised Valve
NEW compact small pipe Timing
high velocity Tri-Y NEW synchronised
megaphone headers. valve timing process
with early closing
Special Profile Camshaft intake and exhaust
NEW high lift intake, low valves.
lift exhaust profiles
applied to conventional NOTE
flat-tappet camshaft. Negative Pressure Supercharging
is controlled mechanically
NPS is controlled by... therefore it does NOT need
computers but they may be used to
Special Ignition Timing enhance the NPS process.
NEW ignition advance
curve with less advance. NPS is enhanced by...

Modified Cylinder Heads Hot Air Induction


NEW specs and features NEW hot air and cold
applied to conventional water system produces
cylinder heads. ultra fast burn.

Cold Cooling System Ultra Fast Burn


NEW cooling system NEW HTCSI combustion
uses low flow and produced by a
conventional parts. combination of NPS, HPDT
and HAI processes.
Cold Spark Plugs
Conventional spark plugs Spark Amplifiers
with cold heat range. NEW plasma spark
technology improves ultra
fast burn.
NPS uses 7 highly advanced processes

• NPS - Negative Pressure Supercharging


• CHVEG - Compressed High Velocity Exhaust
Gas
• SVT - Synchronised Valve Timing
• HPDT - High Pressure Differential Turbulence
• UHV - Ultra High Vacuum
• HAI - Hot Air Induction
• HTCSI - Homogenous Thermal Charge Spark
Ignition combustion

NOTE
Today's mechanically complex wonder engines
do NOT use any of these highly advanced
processes.

HTCSI combustion compared to HCCI combustion

HTCSI combustion is a more efficient combustion process that has a lot more advantages than
the outdated HCCI combustion

The major difference between HTCSI and HCCI combustion is that HTCSI combustion...
• Produces MORE power and fuel economy and LOWER emissions
• Works at ALL engine speeds and throttle positions whereas HCCI combustion works at ONLY
one engine speed and one part throttle position
• Increases the temperature of the homogenous intake charge to just BEFORE the point of self
ignition instead of to the point of self ignition
• Produces a MORE uniform homogenous intake charge with NO restriction to air flow using
High Pressure Differential Turbulence (HPDT) generated by the Negative Pressure
Supercharging process
• Can be controlled by EITHER spark or compression ignition
• Uses a COLD instead of a hot cooling system to help control combustion
• Does NOT use or need computers and the wide range of complex and expensive systems
required by HCCI combustion to ignite the homogenous intake charge

NEW OUTDATED
HTCSI Combustion HCCI Combustion

Homogeneous Thermal Charge Spark Ignition Homogeneous Charge Compression


combustion is mechanically controlled, increased Ignition combustion is computer
to just BEFORE the point of self ignition by hot controlled and increased to the point of
air and ignited by a spark or compression self ignition by hot air and compression
Mechanically simple combustion process that costs Mechanically a very complex and
much less to service and repair than new vehicles. expensive combustion process that requires
mortgaging your house to service and repair
it.
Produces consistent clean burn combustion and is Produces erratic combustion and is very
easy to control mechanically. difficult to control even with computers.
Works at ALL engine speeds and throttle positions Works at ONLY one engine speed and one
which is USEFUL technology that can be used by part throttle position which is USELESS
every vehicle from cars, trucks, motorcycles, boats to technology for vehicles.
planes.
Unfortunately this doesn’t prevent some
confused carmakers and universities
wasting millions trying to improve the
outdated HCCI combustion while more
advanced combustion technology is
available.
Works at full throttle. Does NOT work at full throttle.
Works with ALL old and new vehicles from Works with ONLY computerised new
carburetion, gas to fuel injection that use spark vehicles modified with direct injection,
ignition. compression ignition and many additional
complex and expensive systems.
Uses a unique combination of mechanically simple
parts and systems to produce and control HTCSI
combustion that bolt on easily like conventional
performance parts to ALL old and new vehicles.
Also works with ALL old and new diesel vehicles Does NOT work with diesel vehicles.
that use compression ignition.
Increases power at ALL engine speeds and throttle Reduces power but at least it works at
positions. ONLY one engine speed and one part
throttle position.
Increases fuel economy by 30-50% at ALL engine Increases fuel economy by 15% at ONLY
speeds and throttle positions. one engine speed and one part throttle
position. At all other engine speeds and
throttle positions the engine converts back
to conventional spark ignition combustion
which reduces fuel economy.
Substantially reduces toxic emissions at ALL engine Reduces toxic emissions at ONLY one
speeds and throttle positions. engine speed and one part throttle position.
At all other engine speeds and throttle
positions the engine converts back to
conventional spark ignition combustion
which increases toxic emissions.
Uses conventional points, electronic or computerised MUST use a wide range of complex and
ignition system with special ignition timing to ignite expensive systems to ignite the
the hot homogenous intake charge. homogenous intake charge with NO spark
such as...
Can also use compression ignition used by diesels to • computers
ignite the hot homogenous intake charge. • direct injection
• cylinder pressure sensing
HTCSI combustion does NOT use or need the • hot air induction
complex and expensive systems required by HCCI
• exhaust gas recirculation
combustion in order to work.
• electric cam phasing
• variable valve timing
• variable valve lift
• higher compression
• variable compression
• lean burn combustion
• multiple fuel systems

Just what everybody wants...even more


complex and expensive vehicles fitted with
more useless systems.
Does NOT need computers but they may be used to Does NOT work without computers
enhance HTCSI combustion. therefore, they MUST be used to control
HCCI combustion.
Uses High Pressure Differential Turbulence (HPDT) Uses direct injection, high swirl intake ports
generated by the Negative Pressure Supercharging that restrict air flow, close chamber heads
process to produce a homogenous intake charge with and higher compression to produce a
NO restriction to air flow. homogenous intake charge.
HPDT produces a MORE uniform homogenous Produces a LESS uniform homogenous
intake charge with carburetion, gas, fuel injection or intake charge than HPDT.
diesel than direct injection, high swirl intake ports,
close chamber heads and higher compression.
Uses hot air induction to increase the temperature of Uses hot air induction or exhaust gas
the homogenous intake charge to just BEFORE the recirculation to increase the temperature of
point of self ignition. the homogenous intake charge to the point
of self ignition.
Does NOT use or need exhaust gas recirculation.
Uses a COLD cooling system to prevent the Uses a HOT cooling system to help the
homogenous hot intake charge from exceeding the homogenous intake charge self ignite which
optimum hotter combustion temperature and igniting also helps reduce power.
BEFORE spark or compression ignition.
Uses fixed Synchronised Valve Timing (SVT). Uses variable valve timing.
Uses fixed 8.5 compression. Uses variable compression.
Uses OPEN chamber heads. Uses CLOSE chamber heads.
Uses HIGH flow NON-swirl intake ports. Uses LOW flow high swirl intake ports.
Uses 13 – 15:1 RICH burn combustion which Uses 18 – 20:1 LEAN burn combustion
produces a much faster CLEANER burn. which produces a much slower DIRTY
burn.
Uses ONLY one fuel system. Uses multiple fuel systems.
Works with low or high octane fuel. Works with ONLY high octane fuel.
Working prototype engines

Negative Pressure Supercharging was developed on a Chrysler 360ci V8 and 245ci Hemi 6
cylinder and has been successfully working on these engines since 1997

360 NPS prototype engine


We started development of the Negative Pressure
Supercharging process in October 1988 on a standard 1972
360ci Chrysler small block. This engine was used because
of its mechanically simple and robust design. It allowed us
to understand and develop the complex fluid and thermal
dynamics of this new HTCSI supercharging combustion
process without the interference of mechanical complexity
and computers.

After many years of trial and error testing we succeeded in getting NPS to work on 10 December
1997. We found that by using high velocity tri-y headers with synchronised valve timing, NPS
produced the huge low rpm torque and fuel mileage of turbocharged diesels. However, NPS used
no air pump and produced much lower emissions. Peak horsepower also improved but the much
faster
acceleration and better fuel mileage produced by the huge
torque from idle made it easy to forget about peak
horsepower.

The evolution of NPS is similar to the way today’s


mechanically complex engines have evolved from
mechanically simple engine designs. However, the major
difference between these technologies is that NPS uses a
new HTCSI supercharging combustion process instead of
mechanical complexity to substantially improve the
volumetric and thermal efficiency of engines. Development
to improve the NPS process still continues today using the same 360 Chrysler small block. For
more details see History

360 NPS prototype engine with Thermocharger


After 1997 we began to learn more about the unusual
requirements of NPS. We found that the air induction
temperature had a major influence on the burn rate of the
larger intake charge pulled into the cylinder by NPS.
During hot weather NPS produced neck snapping
acceleration but ran sluggish during cold weather. The
problem was the cold weather reduced the optimum burn
rate of the larger intake charge which reduced power even
though cold air is denser. As a result the cold weather made
the larger intake charge more difficult to ignite.
Therefore, in 2001 we built the first prototype hot air induction system for the 360 Chrysler
small block. It was a crude but effective engine cover (not shown) that collected heat from the
exhaust headers and had a dome shape similar to the engine cover used on the 245 Chrysler
Hemi 6 cylinder below. The engine cover was used during cold weather and removed during hot
weather. This allowed the engine to produce the optimum burn rate with NPS during different
outside temperatures. It also helped us find the optimum hot air induction temperature.

However, the V8 engine cover was impractical for normal


use. This led us to develop the V8 Thermocharger in 2003
which is a thermostatically controlled air cleaner housing
that maintains the optimum hot air induction temperature
during all weather conditions. At the same time we also
developed a cold cooling system to maintain the optimum
combustion temperature and burn rate with hot air
induction. This prevented pre-ignition (pinging) with hot
air induction and allowed the air induction temperature to
be increased further to just before the point of self ignition.
This created the more efficient HTCSI supercharging combustion process and produced even
more power.

Features of the 360 NPS prototype engine


The 360 Chrysler small block was fully rebuilt in 1988 using a standard 360 block, crank, con-
rods, bolts and standard 318 heads and 4BBL intake manifold.

Included in the rebuild was NPS headers, cam, valve timing and ignition timing. The 318 heads
and 4BBL intake manifold were modified to the NPS specs. Also included in the rebuild was a
number of high performance parts such as hi-volume oil pump, oil sump baffle plate, double
roller timing chain set, cast-iron roller rockers, flat head stainless intake valves, positive valve
stem seals and all the other performance parts used in the stage 4 Kit.

Additional parts were added to the system in 2003 such as the NPS Thermocharger hot air
induction housing and cold cooling system. The following year the 318 heads and intake
manifold was replaced with 360 heads and 4BBL intake manifold modified to the NPS specs
which further increased torque from idle to peak rpm.

245 NPS prototype engine


In 2000 we applied the Negative Pressure Supercharging
process to a standard 1976 245ci Chrysler Hemi 6 cylinder.
This was done to figure out the critical specs of NPS with
smaller size engines and to bridge the gap between
different size engines. After much trial and error testing, in
2002 we worked out a formula to allow NPS to be applied
to any size engine from small 50ci Harleys to monster
1000ci Caterpillar engines.
However, NPS produced neck snapping acceleration with the 245 Hemi 6 during hot weather but
ran sluggish during cold weather like with the V8. Therefore, in 2001 we built a prototype hot air
induction system for the 245 Hemi 6. It was a simple 2 piece engine and exhaust cover (see
photo’s) that collected heat from the exhaust headers. The top section had a dome shape similar
to the V8 engine cover. The 6 cylinder engine and exhaust covers were used during cold weather
and the engine cover only was removed during hot weather like was done with the V8 engine
cover. This allowed the engine to produce the optimum burn rate with NPS during different
outside temperatures.

The 6 cylinder engine and exhaust covers also helped us


find the optimum hot air induction temperature like with
the V8 engine cover but they’re impractical for normal
use. Therefore, the 6 cylinder Thermocharger will be a
thermostatically controlled air cleaner housing that
maintains a hot air induction temperature during all
weather conditions like the V8 Thermocharger housing.

Features of the 245 NPS prototype engine


The 245 Hemi 6 cylinder was fully rebuilt in 2000 using a
standard 245 block, crank, con-rods, bolts and heads and the intake manifold was modified to a
4BBL.

Included in the rebuild was NPS headers, cam, valve timing and ignition timing. The 245 heads
and 4BBL intake manifold was modified to the NPS specs. Also included in the rebuild was a
number of high performance parts such as oil sump baffle plate, double roller timing chain set,
aluminium roller rockers, 3/8" pushrods, flat head stainless intake valves, positive valve stem
seals and all the other performance parts used in the stage 4 Kit.

245 NPS – Rex Killer!


The prototype 245 NPS Hemi 6 cylinder stage 4 produces
such a huge increase in low rpm torque, it makes a 1976
Chrysler Centura (Chrysler Cricket in the USA) produce
faster acceleration and more fuel mileage than a 2001
Subaru WRX with a turbocharged 122ci (2L) 4 cylinder.
Yet the Centura is NOT equipped with all the racing gear
of the Subaru needed to produce faster acceleration.

For example,

The 1976 Chrysler Centura uses a mechanically simple engine with 2 valves per cylinder, flat-
tappet cam, 4BBL carburetor, 3 speed auto, 2.9 diff ratio, 2WD and NO gear multiplication.
Whereas the 2001 Subaru WRX uses a mechanically complex turbocharged engine with 4 valves
per cylinder, 4 roller cams, computers, fuel injection, 5 speed manual, 3.9 diff ratio, 4WD, gear
multiplication and a formula 1 race team to change the tyres. For more details see Performance
Comparison
Performance comparison between Centura and WRX

1976 Chrysler Centura 2001 Subaru WRX


Negative Supercharging Kit – Stage 4 Turbocharged
Induction Hot Air Induction Cold Air Induction
Engine Size 245ci (4L) 122ci (2L)
Engine Type 6 cyl OHV 4 cyl DOHC
Compression Ratio 9:1 8:1
Fuel System 4BBL Carburetor Fuel Injection
Computer NO YES
Camshaft Flat-tappet cam 4 roller cams
Valves 2 valves per cylinder 4 valves per cylinder
Intake Manifold Short runners Long runners
Torque / hp @ 1500 rpm 370 lbs/ft / 106 hp 90 lbs/ft / 26 hp
Torque / hp @ 2500 rpm 370 lbs/ft / 176 hp 170 lbs/ft / 81 hp
Torque / hp @ 3500 rpm 370 lbs/ft / 246 hp 200 lbs/ft / 133 hp
Peak Hp 250 hp @ 4000 rpm 215 hp @ 5600 rpm
Transmission 3 speed auto 5 speed manual
Converter Stall 2000 rpm N/A
Diff Ratio 2.9 3:9
Gear Multiplication NO YES
Drive 2WD 4WD
0-62 mph (0-100 kph) 5.1sec 6.9 sec
1/4 mile (400m) 13.9 sec 14.9 sec
Average Fuel Mileage 28 mpg (10.1 L/100 km) 23 mpg (12.3 L/100 km)
Vehicle Weight 2,625 lbs (1,190 kg) 3,065 lbs (1,390 kg)

Acceleration and fuel mileage produced by the stage 4 Negative Supercharging Kit can be
substantially improved with the addition of...
•Impulse ram intake manifold from stage 6 Kit
•Impulse roller cam from stage 7 Kit
•Gear multiplication
•Fuel injection

Therefore, when Negative Pressure Supercharging is used in conjunction with a ram intake
manifold, gear multiplication, roller cam and fuel injection, it makes a mechanically simple
245ci (4L) 6 cylinder engine produce much faster acceleration and a lot more fuel mileage than
today's mechanically complex turbocharged 122ci (2L) 4 cylinder engines.

For example,

13.2 sec ET with the addition of... Acceleration of the 245 Hemi 6 Centura can be increased
•Impulse ram intake manifold by adding the Impulse ram intake manifold (long runners)
to the stage 4 Kit. This will increase torque to 440 lbs/ft
from 1000–3500 rpm and produce a faster 1/4 mile time of
13.2 sec.
12.7 sec ET with the addition of... Acceleration can be increased even further by adding a 4
•Gear multiplication or 5 speed gearbox with overdrive and a 4:1 diff ratio to
the Centura in conjunction with the Impulse ram intake
manifold to produce an even faster 1/4 mile time of 12.7
sec.
12.3 sec ET with the addition of... Acceleration can be increased even further again by
•Impulse roller cam adding the Impulse roller cam to the 245 Hemi 6 in
conjunction with the 4 or 5 speed gearbox with overdrive,
4:1 diff ratio and Impulse ram intake manifold. This will
increase torque to 480 lbs/ft from 1000–3500 rpm and
produce an even faster 1/4 mile time of 12.3 sec.
31 mpg with the addition of... Average fuel mileage will also improve to 31 mpg with
•Impulse ram intake manifold the ram intake manifold, 4 or 5 speed gearbox with
•Gear multiplication overdrive and a 4:1 diff ratio.
36 mpg with the addition of... Average fuel mileage will increase even further to 36 mpg
•Fuel injection by adding fuel injection in conjunction with the ram intake
manifold, 4 or 5 speed gearbox with overdrive and a 4:1
diff ratio.

Vacuum or Boost is the result of high pressure forcing itself into low pressure environment

High (positive) pressure naturally forces itself into a low (negative) pressure environment in
order to equalise pressure. Therefore, a pressure difference must be initially created for air to
move from a high pressure to a low pressure environment in order to produce vacuum or boost.

For example,
To produce vacuum a lower (negative) pressure environment below atmospheric pressure must
be initially produced inside the engine (ie: when a piston moves down the bore it reduces the
pressure in the cylinder) while the higher atmospheric pressure outside the engine remains
constant.

To produce boost a higher (positive) pressure environment above atmospheric pressure must be
initially produced outside the engine (ie: when an air pump compresses the air it increases the
atmospheric pressure) while the lower pressure inside the engine remains constant at a given
rpm.

How Internal Combustion Engines and Superchargers Actually


Work
All naturally aspirated engines are negative or low pressure air pumps

As the piston moves down the bore it reduces the pressure in the cylinder which
causes the higher atmospheric pressure outside the engine to force air into the
lower pressure environment in the engine. Since naturally aspirated engines are not
able to increase atmospheric pressure outside the engine like superchargers, they
use high rpm to further reduce the pressure inside the engine which forces a larger
volume of air into the engine. However, during low rpm the engine is not able to
reduce the pressure inside the engine as much as during high rpm which forces less
air into the engine and produces less power. This is the reason naturally aspirated
engines produce less power the lower the rpm and more power the higher the rpm.

All conventional superchargers and turbochargers are positive or high


pressure air pumps
These devices are auxiliary air pumps which increase atmospheric pressure outside
the engine in order to force a greater volume of air into the lower pressure
environment in the engine. By increasing the speed of the auxiliary air pump
without increasing engine rpm, the air pump further increases the atmospheric
pressure outside the engine which forces even more air into the same low pressure
environment in the engine. This is the reason auxiliary air pumps are able to force a
greater volume of air into the engine from idle and produce substantially more
power than naturally aspirated engines.