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Explaining Motion

Explaining Motion

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Explaining motion

Written by Dr Peter Hubber

Dr Peter Hubber January 2008

EMS301 Week 1A

Ideas about Forces
• Forces are pushes or pulls of one object onto another. • Forces are vector quantities (magnitude and direction) that can be represented as arrows. • What forces are necessary to twist off the jam jar cap?
Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A

Forces are vector quantities represented as arrows
Push on back of cap due to fingers Push on front of cap due to thumb

Push on front of base due to thumb

Push on back of base due to fingers

Dr Peter Hubber January 2008

EMS301 Week 1A

Key ideas about forces
• Forces are pushes or pulls of one object on another. • Forces are vector quantities that have both magnitude (Newtons) and direction. • Forces only occur in pairs in situations where there are two objects interacting. • One of the force pair acts on one interacting object, the other force pair acts on the other interacting object. • The force pairs are equal in size but in opposite directions.
Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A

Newton’s Third Law of motion in written and symbolic form Object A Object B FAB FBA Newton’s Third Law Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object. the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 FAB = .FBA EMS301 Week 1A .

3. Neither. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . Suzie.Arnold Strongman and Suzie Small pull on opposite ends of a rope in a tug of war. 2. The force is the same. Arnold. The greater force exerted on the rope is by 1.

3. Neither. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . The force is the same. Suzie. Arnold. 2. The greater force exerted on the rope is by 1.Arnold Strongman and Suzie Small pull on opposite ends of a rope in a tug of war.

2. A. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . The amount of stretch is greater in the band that connects 1. 3.Two identical rubber bands connect masses A and B to a string over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass. B. Both the same.

B. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .Two identical rubber bands connect masses A and B to a string over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass. 3. 2. Both the same. A. The amount of stretch is greater in the band that connects 1.

field force – force that is applied at a distance.Forces terminology For each of the following types of forces think of a context in which the force is applied. • Contact force • Weight • Friction – Static friction – Dynamic friction • • • • Tension Compression Shear force Normal force EMS301 Week 1A Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 . like a gravitational force. For example. or gravity.

It is measured in Newtons (N) • Mass is the quantity of matter in an object.Weight and Mass • In physics weight is defined as the gravitational force of attraction between two objects with mass. isn’t the weight force on the apple equal to the weight force on the Earth (Newton’s Third Law of motion)? Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . It is measured in kilograms (kg). • If the apple falls to the ground because of the weight force due to the Earth then why doesn’t the Earth fall to the apple? After all.

F Forces in the same direction F =20 N E F = 0 N F =14 N NE Forces in opposite directions Forces in different directions Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .Forces add vectorially to give the Net Force (or Resultant Force) Push from each person = 10 N North Net Force.

• If F = non-zero. In this situation the object can be – at rest (stationary).Net Force (F) on an object  • If F = 0. or – moving at constant velocity. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . In  this situation the object changes its velocity by – changing direction. the object is accelerating. then object is in mechanical  equilibrium. and/or – changing the magnitude of velocity (speed).

Forces Simulation Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .

Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia and Mechanical Equilibrium • Inertia is the property of an object to resist changes in motion. if a = 0. if  = 0 then a = 0 F – Conversely. then  = 0.” – Symbolically. F Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . • Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) – “every object will maintain mechanical equilibrium unless acted on by a non-zero net force.

Why? Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . the driver slams on the brakes but the car continues to slide forward.What is likely to happen to the child in a head-on car collision if his seat belt is not connected? Why? What is known about the forces acting on the child whilst she rests on the table reading her book? What is known about the forces acting on the car as it moves along the street at a constant speed of 50 km/hr? The car hits an icy section of the road.

50/50 chance of either side breaking Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . Left side 2. Which side of the line is most likely to break? 1. Right side 3.Nellie Newton hangs motionless by one hand from a clothesline as shown—which is on the verge of breaking.

Right side 3. Left side 2. 50/50 chance of either side breaking Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . Which side of the line is most likely to break? 1.Nellie Newton hangs motionless by one hand from a clothesline as shown—which is on the verge of breaking.

When the pellet fired into the spiral tube emerges. C Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . B 3. A 2.) 1. which path will it follow? (Neglect gravity.

When the pellet fired into the spiral tube emerges. B 3. C Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . A 2. which path will it follow? (Neglect gravity.) 1.

2. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .When the ball at the end of the string swings to its lowest point. the string is cut by a sharp razor. 3. Which path will the ball then follow? 1.

the string is cut by a sharp razor. Which path will the ball then follow? 1. 3. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .When the ball at the end of the string swings to its lowest point. 2.

• Symbolically.  = ma F – The direction of the net force (vector quantity) is the direction of the acceleration (vector quantity). Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .If  ≠0 what happens? F • If the net force on an object is non-zero then it will accelerate at a value that is inversely proportional to the object’s mass (Newton’s Second Law of Motion).

2. 3. The weighted dart. The regular dart. It’s a tie. the other a weighted dart. One fires a regular dart. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . Which dart hits the ground first? 1.Two identical spring-loaded dart guns are simultaneously fired straight downward.

The regular dart. It’s a tie. Which dart hits the ground first? 1. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . One fires a regular dart. 3. the other a weighted dart.Two identical spring-loaded dart guns are simultaneously fired straight downward. 2. The weighted dart.

Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . 2. In which case is the acceleration greater? 1.In both cases an applied force of 100 N accelerates the 100-N block.

In both cases an applied force of 100 N accelerates the 100-N block. In which case is the acceleration greater? 1. 2. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .

– A car is able to travel around a corner because of the friction force of the road surface on the wheel surface.Friction • Friction is a force that opposes the motion of an object whose surface slides or tends to slide over another surface. – A box resting on an incline is held in place by friction force of the incline’s surface onto the box’s surface. • Friction forces don’t just slow moving objects. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . – A person walking is able to do so because for friction between the ground surface and the shoe surface holds the show in place for each step.

• There are two forms of friction. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . However. static and sliding (or kinetic) friction. including chemical bonding and electrostatic interactions. there are other processes at work.Static and Sliding Friction • To explain friction one can imagine on a microscopic scale hills and valleys of one surface sliding over another. Static Friction friction applied on objects at rest Sliding Friction friction applied when object is moving (sliding) The maximum static friction is greater than The maximum sliding friction.

04 0.20 • The level of friction that different materials exhibit is measured by the coefficient of friction. µ is independent of surface area of contact.30 µ=F/N where µ is the coefficient of friction.80 0.00 0. F is the amount of force that resists motion.04 0.40 0.60 0.74 0. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . N is the normal force.40 0. Steel on steel Teflon on teflon Glass on glass Tyre on concrete Tyre on wet road Tyre on snow 0.57 0.Coefficient of Friction Surfaces Static µ Sliding µ 0.94 1.

downward. 3. Friction on the book by the wall acts 1. can’t say. 2.She holds the book stationary against the wall as shown. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . upward.

upward. can’t say. 3. Friction on the book by the wall acts 1. downward. 2.She holds the book stationary against the wall as shown. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .

• Fluid friction terminology – Air resistance – Drag • Air resistance or Drag depends on – Mass – Surface area of contact Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .Fluid Friction • Fluids can be liquids (water) or gases (air).

or 2.Which encounters the greater force of air resistance— 1. A falling feather? Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . A falling elephant.

A falling elephant.Which encounters the greater force of air resistance— 1. or 2. A falling feather? Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .

the iron ball. The ball to encounter the greater force of air resistance on the way down is 1.Two smooth balls of exactly the same size. the wooden ball. Neither. one made of wood and the other of iron. 3. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . The force is the same. are dropped from a high building to the ground below. 2.

one made of wood and the other of iron. 3. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A . The force is the same. the iron ball. Neither. the wooden ball. 2.Two smooth balls of exactly the same size. are dropped from a high building to the ground below. The ball to encounter the greater force of air resistance on the way down is 1.

3.As she falls faster and faster through the air. her acceleration 1. remains the same. increases. decreases. 2. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .

her acceleration 1. 2. 3. decreases. remains the same. Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .As she falls faster and faster through the air. increases.

• First Law – Law of Inertia – If  = 0 then a = 0 F • Second Law – Law of Acceleration – If  ≠0 then a ≠0 and a F/m F • Third Law – Law of Action & Reaction. – F12 = F21 Dr Peter Hubber January 2008 EMS301 Week 1A .Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws should be not be seen as independent of each other.

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