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3 – DEMOGRAPHICS
Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey is home to 10,072,447 people [2000 census], making it one of the most populated cities in the world. The population is spread out in a roughly symmetrical pattern on both continents, with the highest density on the European side. [Fig 1] About 75 percent of Istanbul residents are of Turkish ethnic origin; the remainder of the population is made up mostly of immigrants from Eastern Europe. Turkey is a secular state, though 99% of the population is Islamic. The relatively high immigrant population and somewhat European character in Istanbul result in a significantly smaller majority of Muslims within the city.
Fig 1 Istanbul is a unique city in many regards. Most of the people living in Istanbul are immigrants from rural Turkey, from a wide variety of local cultures. The municipality has an almost even distribution of males and females, though men generally dominate the workforce and society. The population boasts a high literacy rate, somewhere between 80 and 90 percent. Most of the employed work in manufacturing industries; most people between the age of 20 and 65 are or have been married. Age Distribution The population of Istanbul is a fairly young one. In 1990, the 15-19 age group was the largest of the total population. Males make up 50.5 percent of the population and females 49.5 percent. Men outnumber women in almost all age groups except after age 64, where the trend shifts.
[Fig 2] The next largest age groups in the population are the 10-14 and 25-33 age groups. The number of women in childbearing age indicates great potential for population growth.24 10 .44 30 . A natural increase coupled with continued inmigration could present a serious crisis for the city.84 70 . as an indicator of services that are needed today. and also what will be needed in the next 10 to 20 years. the literacy rate for big cities such as Istanbul may be . 80 . Because of the differences in rural and urban culture.14 0-4 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Female Male TOTAL [Fig 2] Distribution by age and gender The population distribution pattern can be used. A national educational policy.54 40 .34 20 . In 1998 the age limit for compulsory education was extended from five to eight years [Howard 2001]. Education One major need for the growing young population of Istanbul will be its education. but somewhat higher for women. had made primary education free and compulsory to both boys and girls.74 60 . Turkey’s literacy rate in 1990 was approximately 81 percent.64 50 .Average life expectancy is 65.
according to Douglas Howard . since 1998. However.higher than for the rest of the country. mat ching High School Collage Fig 3 The disparity in the educational level of the gender can be attributed to two factors. children living in more rural areas have to be bused to schools in bigger towns. Census data reveals that more men are literate than women. Because of the overall small difference between the number of men and women.i They were more concerned with preserving their daughters for marriage than they were with ensuring that they got an education. Parents were afraid to send their daughters far distances on a bus with boys without chaperones. mat ching Junior High School High School Schools. . 1800000 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 Male Female 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 Primar y School Junior High School Schools. which place more emphasis on the education of boys than girls. the disparity in education is not a very dramatic one for Istanbul. the disparity is more obvious in rural areas where tradition prevents young girls from enjoying the equal educational opportunity granted to both boys and girls. military compulsory training for men and traditional cultural practices. For example.
Fifteen months of military service is required of all male citizens[Howard 2001]. 4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 MALE FEMALE 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Total Literate Nonliterate [Fig 4] . this might be considered less than minimum-level. According to Howard the military has traditionally played an important political role in the Turkish government. it is important to have a deeper understanding of the education of the population. In most developed countries. relieving them of the task of having to teach reading and writing skills. Its influence in changing the education policy might have been the military’s way of ensuring that young men entering the service are already at a certain educational level. especially in the developed world. less than half of the population has attained this level in Turkey. Men are taught reading and writing while enlisted in the military. completion of high school is considered an acceptable minimum level education. On a world scale. It should be noted that the educational level attained by the majority of the population is basically an elementary level education. While the city of Istanbul boasts a high literacy rate. The military might have influenced the extension of the compulsory education age in 1998.
Istanbul’s goal for the future [Tuncay & Kücük] would be to obtain world city status. the education level of any population determines employment and income to a large extent.7] has mentioned that the city will continue to increase scholarships for Master and PhD students.This fact could have far-reaching implications on the development of the city and the population. A greater effort is needed to increase the number of college graduates to supply the potential job market that might follow the expected economic shift. For Istanbul this means that a great portion of its population will be earning minimum wage and will be employed in unskilled jobs. A commercial. The Industrial Plan for the city of Istanbul in the Master Plan of 1937 might have been the catalysis for the flood of rural migrants into the city and something that would have far reaching effects on the growth and development of the city. The more dependent the population is on the state. according to Unsal. leaning more towards the commercial and technological service type industry than manufacturing. This could also affect the social services that can be provided for the population and whether these services will have to be provided for free or whether the population can be expected to pay. a generous gesture on the part of the city. Neighborhoods that once were mostly .2. With this goal in mind the government will also have to consider the educational level of its population. business oriented city.000 people annually. Migration Istanbul can be considered a city of immigrants since more than 60 percent of its residents were born outside of Istanbul [Sonmez. Istanbul has experienced population increase by migration of up to 500. if the city is to be successful in its quest for global status. 1996:125]. For example. The plan for the Greater Municipality [3. the thinner the distribution of available resources. The challenge is to prepare that work force adequately for the new job potentials.( Istanbul also experienced growth from international immigration in the early industrialization period) Migration not only affected the population growth but also transformed neighborhoods and reshaped the city form. Erbas and Cavusoglu ii. The potential revenue from taxes for the city will be far less than it would have been if a large portion of the population were being paid more. The number of college graduates is extremely low. Maybe what is needed is a national push such as the one that was enforced in the early years of the Republic of Turkey. The city has grown faster as a result of migration than it has by natural growth. But what is greatly needed is a push for higher education levels further down the education chain. serving an international market will require a different work force. The lack of a higher education level for the majority of the population is in fact a major liability to the city’s economic growth and development.
Most of the immigrants migrate from Northern and Central Anatolian regions. but as indicated in the diagram below the immigrants come from all over Turkey.have made the city of Istanbul a more attractive alternative [Foundations of Turkish Social Structure. a decrease in overall agricultural production due to deteriorating soil fertility.residential and dominated by more upscale residents were transformed physically to accommodate industries. The 2000 census indicated that. such as Kucukcekmece and Umraniye recorded over 15% of population growth in the 1990 census. 995. 1]. Industrialization also changed the demographics of some of these neighborhoods as the wealthier residents moved out and were replaced by poor migrant workers. From 1985 to 1990 alone. changes in the rural environment -including reduced the demand for manual labor. except for a few. Buyukcekmece and Gaziosmanpasa are also popular destinations for immigrant . most boroughs recorded an increase in population over the total amount recorded in 1997. increased mortality rate. terrorism and the availability of education to more rural families. (Income and settlement of newcomers according to their place of birth) Over the years.717 people moved to Istanbul. Some boroughs. This has in some cases led to a deterioration of the neighborhood and the creation of illegal houses called gecekondus to spring up near industries.
This requires not only financing but also the power and will of the municipal government to enforce land use policies that will better manage development and to enforce seismic codes on all buildings in the city. It is customary for new immigrants to settle in areas where there is an established community of friends or relatives creating enclaves of residents in each borough that represents their town or region of birth. In addition to not being able to provide basic services for all the residents. except for education. 4] More men are employed than women in almost all sectors.settlers. This puts the poorest at a great disadvantage because they are the ones who suffer most from the lack of services. utilities and mining among others make up the remainder of the sectors that form the employment pool in Istanbul [Fig. health related jobs and clerical jobs as shown in Fig 5. leading to illegal housing and the overloading (and sometimes pirating) of utilities and other infrastructure. According to 1990 census the leading employment sector in Istanbul was the manufacturing industry. This is attributed to both culture and the disparity in the education of the genders. industry and construction. Employment Turkey’s leading employment sector is agriculture followed by service. some serious steps have to be taken to manage the growth of the city. Overall. as there are more educated men than there are women. Traditional settlement areas such as Kadikoy have become less attractive to immigrants because of overcrowding and high rental rates. Mitigation has to begin with migration. there are some jobs that have traditionally been dominated by men and some by women. The volume and rate of migration flow has presented one of the biggest challenges facing Istanbul today. it should either be controlled at the borders or plans should be made to accommodate the arriving immigrants with legal. Service industry. community/ social and personnel services and construction are other sectors employing a great portion of the population. affordable housing. Buyukcekmece recorded a 38% and Gaziosmanpasa a 17% increase. there is also the challenge of keeping them safe from the risk of earthquakes. Agricultural activities (limited to special areas such as the Black Sea region). Jobs such as pilots and boat operators are jobs with very low representation of . There is also movement from borough to borough but most of the apparent growth in the boroughs can be attributed to rural to urban migration. Most women still follow the traditional trend to work in the home. On a global scale.
However. contributing about 40 percent of the GNP. postal employees in Istanbul are mostly men with very few women. furniture. Istanbul is city is a very important asset to the economy of the country. 5. Pilots. 6 7 According to Mustafa Sonmez [1996:144] Istanbul houses 242 of the 500 largest industrial companies in Turkey. high level exec. It is still the leading employer in the city. Istanbul’s manufacturing industries produce a wide range of goods including. As well there are some that are typically dominated by women. Because of the strong manufacturing base.Postman 6. in Istanbul some of these jobs.Hairdresser Beautician etc. bio-medical and automotive related products and processed food. . machine officer 2. leather. chemicals. Indicators suggest that manufacturing is still a major factor in the economic base of the city of Istanbul. Sportsman and related jobs 3. deck. such as hairdressing are dominated by men.Telephone. telegrapgh operator 7. A growing service industry has the potential to become the leading employer depending on the decentralization of the manufacturing industry and the city’s quest to become a global city.Accountant.Legislative power. Jobs by gender 100000 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1 2 3 4 5 Total Male Female 1. 4.females. cashier etc. clothing.
people are employed by the public and private bus service. Agriculture/ fishing Mining Manufacturing Utilities/ Construction Retail/Service related Transportation/Communicatio n Finance Employment sector The transportation sector is another viable option in terms of employment for the city.1].Global status if attained might shift the economy from a manufacturing base to a business related service industry.4 quadrillion [Foundations of Turkish Social Structure. However as mentioned earlier serious considerations have to be taken regarding how ready the population will be for this shift in terms of education. A business related economy will need more people with college level education and at least a minimum a high school ducation. The Turkish economy has undergone serious decline in the past year.2. Turkey is now in the process of seeking assistance from the World Bank and the IMF. Besides the rails. and the budget deficit in 2001 was 18. Not many women are employed in the transportation sector. Expansion to the outskirts of the city might offer opportunities to more people in smaller districts and towns. Hopefully as more jobs open up women will be better represented in this sector. 4. as taxi operators and as ferry operators. and . most of the available jobs are limited to people in the larger towns and city centers where service exists. The GNP has decreased. Transportation is a growing sector with potential contingent on the city’s investment in plans for expansion. Because of the limited distribution of the transportation network.
This could cause an increase in unemployment and reduction in government services and expenditure. The city needs to anticipate this and make plans to accommodate this growth or to deter it. The overall economic state of the country will undoubtedly affect the city of Istanbul. According to Unsal.income residents own their homes (this includes illegal housing). If these businesses are in trouble it will affect the employment rate of the country. One solution being examined is the privatization of the state economic units. at some point there might be other family members in transition. living with family until he/she is able to establish his or her own family and rent or possibly buy a house. Urban families are mostly nuclear. Istanbul is a major metropolitan city with myriad functions that is very attractive. Rural extended families are linked to land owner and agricultural production where the patriarch owns the land and his sons and their wives work the farm. Family Life Turkish family life is rooted in tradition and exhibits a strong sense of family. Nuclear and patriarchal extended families are the more common family types. Presently most of the industries are state owned. younger in more rural areas. Most women have at least one child. They also pointed out how difficult it is even for someone of the middle class with possibly academic employment. Therefore the government will have to find funds to subsidize mitigation efforts in order to protect a large percentage of national productivity. Mitigation efforts are very expensive and unaffordable by many. however the number of children born to a large percentage of women is 4. Structure is determined by location: rural versus urban. Erbas & Cavusoglu owning a residence is the most important instrument of social security in Istanbul. to purchase a house on existing salaries and working within the legal framework of the system. many people will always be drawn to the city. only 50 percent of low. This will have serious effects on a city trying to safe guard itself from devastation by earthquake. The average age at marriage in Turkey is 25. However. or if other cities can provide jobs that most of the migrants seek. Failure of family farms has forced couples from an extended family setting into urban centers to establish their own nuclear families. and belief in marriage and the subordination of women. it might slow to a manageable level if policies are implemented to stem migration at the source. .efforts are being made to restructure the economy. with some women having as many as 10 children. however. The landless tend to follow a more nuclear pattern. Trends and Forecasts There is no indication that rural-to-urban migration will stop.
Erdem & Cavusoglu. Also. The government might have to provide funding for this. 2001 . There has to be a push for higher education beyond elementary level. but it could be a major factor in the future development of the city. Fatms. More high school students have to be encouraged to attend college. Service related jobs and businesses might become the leading employer. Social Cohesion and Spatial Segregation in Globalization Era: The Case of Isatanbul. a shift in the economic base seems to be pending. Erbatur.The prevailing educational situation sounds very impressive but in fact needs improvement. i ii Foundations of Turkish Social Structure Unsal. Erbas.
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