ISO 14000 INTRODUCTION

In the present day, environmental matter is not limited only in one country or specific area. The environmental impact effects everywhere and leads to problem all over the world. Environmental conservation has become so complicated that it causes pressure to all business organizations. The International Organization for Standardization had led to the development of the International Standard for environmental management system series (ISO 14000).

ISO 14000 INTRODUCTION
‡After the success of the ISO9000 series of quality standards in 1987, the International Standards Organization is nearing completion and publication of a comprehensive set of standards for environmental management. ‡This series of standards is designed to cover the whole area of environmental issues for organizations in the global marketplace.

Continues..

The structure of the standards is as follows:  Environmental Management Systems (EMS)  Environmental Auditing and Related Environmental Investigations (EA)  Environmental Labeling (EL)  Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE)  Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)  Terms and Definitions (T&D) ISO 14000 Series is the set of standards relating to environmental management system. Generally, the standard used for certification is 

ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems Specifications with Guidance for Use.

ISO 14000 SERIES

The ISO 14000 series is a set of standards concerning EMS including the activities of designing, producing, delivering and servicing. The concept of the standard is to enable the organization to continually develop and improve its EMS. Although the series comprises of many standards, the standard ISO 14001 is used as the direction for EMS certification.

WHO SHOULD IMPLEMENT ISO 14000

Any organization: manufacturers and service organizations. Any activities of each organization may cause the environmental aspects and impacts such as noise, dust, waste, contaminants in manufacturing process and ineffectively resources consumption in servicing. These can be minimized by implementing EMS. Although each country has already had her own environmental regulations, organizations are able to apply ISO 14000 series effectively within their system on voluntary basis and the benefit obtained is not only for organizations themselves but their society also.

WHAT IS ISO 14000

ISO 14000 is a series of voluntary international standards pertaining to environmental issues. They are designed to reduce the environmental effects from all aspects of business activities. It is believed that higher efficiency would be realized and "the cost of doing business" would also be reduced , by minimizing business exposure to environmental issues.

What is not ISO 14000

Is not a PRODUCT and PERFORMANCE standard. Does not establish levels of pollutants or performance. Does not establish test standards. Does not involve initial performance testing. Does not requires or establish final performance goal. Does not require the meeting of zero emissions. Does not mandate best practice technology. Does not require disclosure of performance levels. Does not require disclosure of audit results.

HISTORY OF ISO 14000

The reasons for developing these national standards stemmed from the European success terms of the ISO 9000 Quality Management Standards, and from the "green movement" in Europe. These standards were envisioned to provide a market-driven, competitive attitude in business. ISO 14000, which is an evolution of ISO 9000 standards, is designed to address process improvements in these environmental areas by way of energy audits, hazardous materials management, and other techniques

ISO 14000 holds great promise for reduced waste and higher material quality because it emphasizes the elimination of waste early in the procurement process, especially in industries such as coatings where there are significant amounts of raw material input. ISO 14000 identifies and eliminates all waste that enters production through current procurement practices before it enters the manufacturing environment.

When ISO 9000 quality management systems are integrated with ISO 14000 environmental systems, the two processes support each other. Opportunities for better quality practices exist in the quest for better environmental practices, and better environmental processes are often the result of improved quality. A merged system, which is currently available, is often the answer for companies seeking improvement in both areas.

Historically, document disarray and communication redundancies have made implementation of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 slow and costly. . The advent of new Web-based technologies, however, makes it possible for companies to host entire documentation, project management, and training systems for the implementation of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 standards, significantly reducing the cost of each individual component and minimizing the time to implementation.

60

EVOLUTION OF ISO 14000
BSI developed its own committee to develop BS7750 and its first edition was established ISO sets up a new Second Edition of BS 7750 published

50

40

30

ISO establishes 20 SAGE
10

committee: ISO/Technical Committee 207 for Environmental Management and European Commission publishes Ecomanagement and Audit Scheme (EMAS)

0 1991 1992 1993 1994

Continues..
60

Work on the revision of ISO 14001 begins and Remainder of the initial ISO/TC 207 work programme completed

ISO 14001 route to EMAS registration and BS 7750 withdrawn 50 BS 7750 route to EMAS registration 40 and First five ISO 14000 Standards published
30

Verification to EMAS 20 begins
10

0 1995 1996 1997 1998

ISO 14000 SERIES
Organizational Evaluation Standards

Product Evaluation Standards

Organizational evaluation standards are operational and effective because, the focus was on the process rather than the product. The development and acceptance of product evaluation standards will be much more difficult.

The structure of the standards is as follows: Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Environmental Auditing and Related Environmental Investigations (EA) Environmental Labeling (EL) Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Terms and Definitions (T&D)

ORGANISATIONAL EVALUATION STANDARDS

EMS 14001 specification

EA 14010 general principles 14011 audit procedures 14012 auditor criteria

EPE 14031 guidelines

PRODUCT EVALUATION STANDARDS
Environmental Labeling 14020 Basic Principles 14021 Self Discipline 14022 Symbols 14023 Testing and Verification 14024 Third Party

Environmental Aspects in Product Standards Guide 64 EAPS Guide

Life Cycle Assessment 14040 principles Framework 14041 Goals and Definition 14042 Impact Assessment 14043 Improvement Assessment

ISO 14000 FAMILY
ISO Standard 14001:1996 Title Environmental Management Systems² Specification with Guidance for Use Environmental Management Systems² General Guidelines on Principles, Systems and Supporting Techniques Guidelines for Environmental Auditing²General Principles General Description Main organizational environmental standard and the ISO standard to which an EMS is formally registered Complementary document to ISO 14001 which provides more information and assistance in understanding and implementing the EMS standard. Covers the concepts of environmental auditing which can be used separately to create an organizational environmental audit program or is used to implement a program in support of the ISO 14001 EMS audit requirements Thrust Area Organizational

14004:1996

Organizational

14010:1996

Organizational

ISO Standard 14011:1996

Title Guidelines for Environmental Auditing² Audit Procedures: Auditing of Environmental Management Systems Guidelines for Environmental Auditing: Qualification Criteria for Environmental Auditors

General Description Provides additional detail into the auditing of an EMS.

Thrust Area Organizational

14012:1996

Presents the consensus international requirements for certification as an environmental auditor; each national registration accreditation organization is charged with developing and implementing the program for registering auditors to the national program. Series that includes requirements for selfdeclaration, testing and validation and symbols used

Organizational

1402014025 :1998

Environmental Labeling

Product specific

ISO Standard 14031:2000

Title Guidelines on Environmental Performance Evaluation

General Description Presents methods for monitoring and measuring the environmental performance of an organization or elements within the organization Provides principles and framework, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation of the environmental aspects associated with specific products or services including the design, manufacture, distribution, inventory, use .

Thrust Area Organizational

14040:1997 14041:1998 14042:1999 14043:1999

Life Cycle Assessment

Productspecific

14050:1998

Terms and Definitions

Details the terminology and use of ISO 14000 specific language for consistency of meaning to support the efforts of developing and implementing the standards

Overall

ISO Guide 64:1997 (formerly 14060)

Guide for the Inclusion of Environmental Aspects in Product Standards

Provides guidelines to specification writers to consider and incorporate environmental aspects.

Product-specific

ISO 14000 POLICY

Prevention of pollution. Continual Environmental Improvement. Commitment to comply with Environmental Laws and Regulations Applicable in size and scope.

ISO 14000 Policy, Continued

Establish framework for setting and reviewing objectives and targets Documented, implemented, maintained, and communicated to employees. Available to the public

ELEMENTS OF ISO 14001 
ISO-14001, outlines 18 elements that must be followed if a facility wishes to be in conformance.  The 18 elements are divided into six clauses  Six clauses are

4.1 General Requirements 4.2 Environmental Policy 4.3 Planning 4.4 Implementation & Operation 4.5 Checking & Corrective action 4.6 Management review

4.2: ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY.
Ensure commitment to the EMS and define policy that: 
  

Is based on company¶s mission and values. is appropriate to the nature, scale and environmental impacts of the business includes a commitment to continual improvement includes a commitment to comply with relevant environmental legislation and regulations is documented, maintained and communicated to all employees is available to public 



4.3.1: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS 
Environmental aspects of activities, products, or services that the organization can control must be established, maintained, and kept up to date, in order to determine which can have significant impacts on the environment. The organization shall insure that the aspects related to these significant impacts are considered in setting its environmental objectives.

PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Define Scope Periodically Review and Update

Define Process

Record Results

Gather Data

Evaluate Impacts

Assemble appropriate people

Identify Environmental Aspects

Identify Environmental Impacts

Example: Environmental Aspects
Activity Aspect Potential Impact Regulated Rating

MSW Air Emissions Combustion (Nox, SO2, metals, dioxin, CO) Residuals Handling Boiler water production Residuals (ash) Disposal Chemical spills/release s

Air quality degradation, smog, acid deposition

Yes

51

Land/water Yes contamination Land/water Yes contamination Aesthetics Yes

51

30

Recyclables Windblown Receiving Litter

36

4.3.2: LEGAL AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS.
Procedures to ensure that the company can identify legal and other environments requirements are required to be established and maintained. It is also required to know how the organization 
Access and identify legal and other requirements  Keep track of changes to legal and other requirements Communicate relevant information about legal and other requirements to employees

4.3.3: OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS. 
Documented environmental objectives and targets for each relevant function and level within the organization are required to be established and maintained.  These set objectives and targets must address legal consideration and other requirements, the facility's significant environmental aspects, technological options, financial/ operational/business requirements, and views of interested parties.  These objectives and targets must be consistent with the environmental policy.

4.3.4: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM(S). 
A program(s) for achieving set objectives and targets is required to be established and maintained.  The program must include designated responsible parties for achieving objectives and targets at each relevant function and level of the organization and the means and timeframe by which the objectives and targets are to be achieved.  In addition, the program must be amended as needed to ensure that the environmental management program applies to new developments and new or modified activities, products, or services.

4.4.1: STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITY. 
Roles, responsibilities, and authorities are required to be defined, documented, and communicated to facilitate effective environmental management.  Sufficient resources must be provided to implement and control the environmental management system.  A specific management representative(s) must be appointed to ensure that EMS requirements are established, implemented, and maintain in accordance with the standard.  The management representative must have defined roles, responsibilities, and authority for reporting on EMS performance to top management

4.4.2: TRAINING AWARENESS AND COMPETENCE.
Appropriate training for all personnel whose work may create a significant impact on the environment must be identified. Procedures are required to be established and maintained to make employees aware of:  The importance of conformance with the environmental policy and procedures and with EMS requirements,  The potential environmental impacts of work activities  Roles and responsibilities in achieving conformance with policy, procedures, EMS requirements

4.4.3: COMMUNICATION. 
Procedures for internal communication between levels and functions of the company are required to be established and maintained.  Procedures must also be developed for receiving, documenting and responding to relevant communication from external parties.  Finally, processes for external communications must be considered and the decision recorded.

4.4.4: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. 
Information describing core elements of the management system and their interaction is required to be established and maintained.  The information must also provide direction to related documentation.  ISO 14000 requires documentations much similar to ISO 9000 which makes integration of two systems easier.

4.4.5: DOCUMENT CONTROL.
Procedures for controlling all documents required by the standard are required to be established and maintained. These procedures must ensure the following:  The documents can be located ,  The documents are periodically reviewed,and approved by authorized personnel,  The current versions are available at locations where operations essential to the functioning of EMS are done.  Obsolete documents are promptly removed  Further, documentation must be legible,

4.4.6: OPERATIONAL CONTROL.
Operations and activities associated with the significant environmental aspects are required to be identified. These activities must be planned,and an organization must:  establish and maintain documented procedures to cover situations where their absence could lead to deviations from the environmental policy and the objectives and targets,  stipulate criteria in the operational procedures, and  establish and maintain procedures related to the environmental aspects and communicating those relevant procedures and requirements to suppliers and contractors

4.4.7: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE. 
Procedures to identify potential for and respond to accidents and emergency situations, are required to be established and maintained.  In addition, the emergency procedures must be reviewed and revised, when necessary, especially after an accident or emergency situation.  Where practicable, it is required that these procedures are periodically tested through drills, exercises, etc.

4.5.1: MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT 
Develop and maintain procedures to regularly monitor and measure performance against objectives and targets  Maintain and document program for calibrating monitoring equipment  Identify and investigate non-conformance and implement corrective and preventative action  Establish and maintain program to conduct periodic internal audits  The organization must also maintain a documented procedure for periodically evaluating compliance with relevant environmental laws and regulations

4.5.2: NONCONFORMANCE & CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE ACTION. 
Procedures

for defining responsibility and authority for handling and investigating nonconformance, taking action to mitigate any environmental impacts, and for corrective and preventive action completion, are required to be established and maintained. 

Environmental incidents includes emission, chemical spills All environmental incidents require full evaluation of root cause, initial response, and identification and implementation of corrective and/or preventative action 

4.5.3: RECORDS. 
Procedures for identification, maintenance, and disposition of environmental records are required to be established and maintained.  The records must be legible, identifiable and traceable to the activity involved.  The records must be stored/maintained so that they are readily retrievable and protected against damage, deterioration, or loss.  Retention times must be established and recorded.  Records must be maintained, as appropriate, to demonstrate conformance to the standard.

4.5.4: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AUDIT.
A program and procedures for conducting periodic environmental system audits are required to be established and maintained. The audit program/procedures must:  determine whether the EMS conforms to requirements of the standard and has been properly implemented and maintained 

ensure that information on the audit results are provided to management

4.5.4: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AUDIT.
The audit program/procedures must: 
be based on the environmental importance of the activity concerned and results of previous audits  cover audit scope, frequency, methodologies, and responsibilities and requirements for conducting audits, and reporting results.

4.6: MANAGEMENT REVIEW. 
Review is to involve the top management in the EMS continuous improvement process. Conduct Annual (at least) Management Review of EMS to ensure:  Its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness  Adequate information is collected to perform the management review  Address the need for changes to policy, environmental aspects, objectives,elements of the environmental management system.

EMS
A continual cycle of planning, implementing, reviewing and improving the actions that an organization takes to meet its environmental obligations.

Environmental Management System
‡ Serves as a tool to improve environmental performance ‡ Provides a systematic way of managing an organization¶s environmental affairs ‡ Is the aspect of the organization¶s overall management structure that addresses immediate and long-term impacts of its products, services and processes on the environment ‡ Gives order and consistency for organizations to address environmental concerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes ‡ Focuses on continual improvement of the system

Environmental Management System
An EMS follows a Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle, or PDCA. The diagram shows the process of first developing an environmental policy, planning the EMS, and then implementing it. The process also includes checking the system and acting on it. The model is continuous because an EMS is a process of continual improvement in which an organization is constantly reviewing and revising the system.

This is a model that can be used by a wide range of organizations ² from manufacturing facilities to service industries and government agencies

Environmental management system model
1. Environmental policy Initially, the organization¶s top management should have commitment and define the policy on EMS which is used for the direction of implementing and improving its EMS. . Planning In order to achieve environmental policy, at least, the organization should : ‡ Identify the environmental aspects of its activities and specify those which have significant impacts on the environment. Identify legal and other requirements to which the organization involved. Establish objectives and targets of its activities having impacts to environment. Establish environmental programs for achieving its objectives and targets.

3. Implementation

In order to achieve environmental planning, at least, the organization should : Define roles, responsibilities and authorities for facilitating EMS effectively.
‡

Communicate to the staffs at each level for the importance of conformance to the environmental policy; provide appropriate training to personnel performing the tasks to gain their knowledge and competence.
‡ ‡ ‡

Establish and control documentation relating to EMS.

Control operations and activities to meet the specified objectives and targets. Identify potential accidents and emergency situations for preventing and mitigating the environmental impacts that may be associated with them and periodically test such procedures where practicable.
‡

4.

Checking and corrective action

ensure that the organization is performing in accordance with the stated EMS programmes, at least, the organization should: ‡ Monitor and measure its operations and activities against the organization¶s plans. ‡ Identify non-conformance and take action to mitigate any impact caused. ‡ Record the on-going activities of the EMS. ‡ Conduct periodic EMS audits.
5.

To

Management review

organization¶s top management should review and continually improve its EMS, with the objective of improving its overall environmental performance.

The

Environmental management system model

ISO 14000 Concepts
The basic concept underlying the ISO 14000 series is that in order to consistently meet environmental performance expectations, an organization must implement and maintain an effective environmental management system. While the system cannot guarantee that environmental incidents will never occur, --it is intended to minimize the likelihood and severity of their occurrence -- it can guarantee that when they occur, there is a mechanism in place to investigate the causes and to take corrective and preventive action.

Key EMS concepts 

Continual improvement
- It is to note that an effective EMS doesn¶t just happen. An effective EMS needs ongoing management support. This endorses the concept of continual improvement. - The concept of continual improvement recognizes that problems will occur, but a committed organization learns from its mistakes and prevents similar problems from occurring in the future. - ISO 14000 Continuous improvement model begins with top mgmt¶s commitment to corporate governance by a set of overarching principle¶s including: ‡ Environmental protection as one of the highest corporate priorities with clear assignment of responsibilities and accountabilities to all employees.

Compliance with all environmental laws and regulations applicable to the organization¶s activities, products and services. Ongoing communication on environmental commitment and performance with all stakeholders. Strategic planning that sets forth environmental performance objectives and targets, implemented through a disciplined mgmt process. Periodic performance measurement, as well as systems audits and mgmt reviews, to achieve continual improvement wherever possible. 

Employee involvement
Getting employee involvement in designing and implementing the EMS demonstrates the organization¶s commitment to the environment. So to build and achieve an effective EMS mgmt should communicate the importance of: ‡ Conviction and commitment towards effective environmental mgmt for organization¶s survival. ‡ Building environmental mgmt in all aspects of orgznal oprnsproduct and process development. ‡ Addressing environmental problems as opportunities.

- 

Flexibility
- Dynamicity in EMS will :
1. Allow the organization to adapt to rapidly changing business environment 2. Help making the formulated EMS understandable to all concerned who must implement it. 3. Allow assessment of how organization manages environmental obligations and finds cost-effective solutions.

Some unique and important characteristics of ISO 14001 are:
It is comprehensive: all members of the organization participate in environmental protection, the EMS considers all stakeholders, and there are processes to identify all environmental impacts. It is proactive: it focuses on forward thinking and action instead of reacting to command and control policies. It is a systems approach: it stresses improving environmental protection by using a single environmental management system across all functions of the organization.

Legal and other requirement
Compliance to laws and regulations Issuance of consent and permit conditions Organization ± specific codes and programmes that it voluntarily subscribes. Standards and guidelines in the regions where the organization undertakes business.

Purpose

If one does not know what laws are applicable, how can one be sure if the facility is in compliance with them or not? Noncompliance may cost an organization dearly in many ways, e.g., loss of productivity, health, safety, and environment. Organization is required to establish and maintain a procedure to identify legal requirements. By anticipating new requirements and making changes to operations and activities, one can avoid future compliance obligations and their associated costs.

In order to be in conformance with this provision of ISO 14001 an organization must be able to demonstrate three specific points

First, the organization must understand which environmental laws and regulations (federal, state and local) govern its operations Second, it must also be able to explain how the requirements of the appropriate laws and regulations apply to the organization. Third, the organization must be able to demonstrate that it keeps up to date with the appropriate laws and regulations and their specific requirements

Questions That Need To Be Answered
1.Has the organization developed a procedure to identify applicable environmental legal and regulatory requirements? 2. Has the organization developed a procedure to identify any voluntary requirement to which it subscribes? 3.Does the organization have a procedure to insure completeness and availability of the required documents? 4.Is the information relative to Legal and Other Requirements kept up to date?

OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS

ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

Environmental objectives, in consistence with the environmental policies, encompass significant environmental impacts and applicable laws and regulations.

ENVIRONMENTAL TARGETS

Environmental target is a performance requirement based on the underlying environmental objective to be achieved.

PURPOSE
The purpose of the procedure is to ensure that the organization establishes documented environmental objectives and standards.

PURPOSE
POLICY

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

LEGAL & OTHER REQUIREMENTS

OPINION OF THE PARTIES

OBJECTIVES & TARGETS

TECHNOLOGY

OTHER FINANCE OPERATION FUNCTION

SCOPE

The procedure applies to environmental objectives and targets set at each relevant function and level within the organization.

PROCEDURE

Top management is responsible to establish environmental objectives on an annual basis. Plant/ Department managers involve operation staff in developing environmental objectives for improvement in environmental performance. Each department manager is responsible to provide inputs and evaluate potential impacts in specific functions. Manager makes preliminary evaluation of its environmental performance, and enlists primary objectives. Progress towards the objectives/targets is reviewed at management review meetings and communicated to operational staff via bulletin boards.

OUTLINING OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS

Objectives are set to establish overall and often long term goals of the organization. Invariably, the operational targets should be identified at the departmental level and included in the frame work of annual budgetary/planning process. It should be consistent with the overall business mission of the organization. Objectives should be kept flexible.

CONTD..,

Targets should be set at several levels of the organization. Evaluation and modification of environmental objectives and targets may be carried out annually by an update of the environmental aspects. Opportunities might exist for suppliers and contractors to assist the organization in conformance to the standard should not be ignored.

EXAMPLE
yReduce usage of hazardous chemicals yImprove employee awareness of environmental issues. yImprove compliance with waste water discharge permit limits.

OBJECTIVES

TARGETS
yEliminate use of CFC to the extent possible. yZero period limit violations by the end of the current year. yReduce use of electricity by 10% over a two year period.

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

yEmission/wastes per unit production yEnvironmental incidents/violations yEnvironmental operational cost.

STEPS TO BE TAKEN

A cross functional team of an organization set realistic objectives and standards. Work out the information sources that the cross functional team will need to establish objectives and standards. Examine if any other information might be useful to the teamidentify the availability of the information. List the significant environmental impacts those are already identified and categorize impacts make a brief notes of the impact. Examine processes and activities.

CONTD..,

Identify the applicable regulatory requirements that may affect the production facility, and for which specific actions have been identified. List models of communication with interested parties and ascertain the need for additional objectives to address views of customers, suppliers and others. Re-examine the lists of objectives developed in the earlier steps Determine effective performance indicators for each of the selected objectives. For each selected objective, determine and develop the action plan.

EMP
Objectives and targets

EMP defined

Monitoring and measurement executed

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

To

ensure that objectives and targets are achieved, an action plan is needed. EMP is a a road map for achieving environmental goals.

An

ISO 14001- 4.3.4
Environmental management programme requires that an organization shall establish and maintain a programme for achieving its objectives and targets. It will include,

‡ Designation of responsibility for achieving objectives and targets at each relevant function and level of the organization. ‡ The means and time frame b y which they are to be achieved.

PURPOSE - EMP

To accomplish an organization¶s functions and objectives, the EMP has a direct linkage to the organization¶s environmental objectives and targets. EMP should develop specific, prioritized actions dealing with the products, processes, services, projects and facilities that relate to establishing significant environmental aspects, objectives and targets.

Contd..,

EMP should describe how the organization will translate its goals into concrete action plans to achieve the delineated objectives and targets. It should not only designate responsibilities for achieving goals, but also define the means and time frame for achieving the goals.

DEVELOPING EMP

For a dynamic EMP, it should be integrated with existing organizational structures. It should receive due representations at the business management levels, jointly with the other groups within the organization. An action plan should be prepared on how the organization will meet its objectives and targets.

Contd«,

The action plan may be initiated with projects for new products, processes and equipment. These would be expected where the business investments are aimed at reducing environmental effects, to allow high performance level, or cost reduction. It is investigated and identified during initial gap analysis and review.

GAP ANALYSIS

Is a technique for setting targets for the objectives that can be achieved through information from the comparative or benchmark study. It examines performance over time.

EMP ON SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
ACTION ITEMS PRIORITY RESPONSIBILITY SCHEDULE RESOURCES REQD. REMARK

DRIVERS INFUENCING AN ORGANIZATION

BASELINE ASSESSMENT
ACTIVITIES
Establish the scope of your assessment. Try mapping out the physical boundaries of your proposed ISO-14000 Use a series of simple process flow diagrams. Identify any changes to the environment that your organization causes and activities that cause them. Review of existing management practices.

DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

‡Key environmental costs and benefits to your organization

‡Measures of performance that are achievable ‡ Simple indicators that are not confusing when you evaluate or communicate the information.

‡ Any other key concerns to your
orgn or key interested parties

‡ Actions required to implement
data collection ‡ How indicator information will be used(communicating performance to work force).

IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
Review the findings of the baseline assessment(find the potential cost savings) Brainstorm with anyone who has had experience of continual improvement Ask other employees for ideas and Prioritize improvement programmes that give the ³Quick wins´ Develop indicators, which enable you to track the effectiveness of any initiatives Celebrate your successes and communicate these back to the work force using your indicators.

STEP-BY-STEP PLAN
1)Management commitment 2)Choose a leader 3)Budget and schedule 4)Cross-functional team 5)Involve employees 6)Initial review 7)Establish plan 8)Identify environmental aspects 9)Establish environmental policy and objectives 10)Procedures/documents 11)Plan for change 12)Train employees 13)ISO 14000 implementation 14)Assess performance

1. Gaining Management Commitment: An organization must have commitment and careful planning to figure out 1) What it needs to do, 2) How it will be done, and 3) Which people of the organization should be involved 2.Choosing a leader: The choice of the leader is critical. The person must have some experience with the quality management programme and have the time and temperamental commitment . Necessary authority, an understanding of the organization and project management skills

3. Preparing a budget and Schedule: Leader is responsible for preparing a preliminary budget in which costs will likely include staff and employee time, training consultant fees, materials. The schedule should consider the various tasks and roadblocks, depending on the dimension and complexity of the organization. 4. Constituting a project team: A team with representation from key management functions and production or service areas can identify and assess issues, opportunities and existing processes.

5. Employee participation: A great source of knowledge on environmental and health and safety issues related to their areas well as on the effectiveness of current processes and procedures. 6. Undertaking an initial review: Preparation of a list of the environmental requirements of the organization (regulations, guidelines and other documents). The preparatory review itself should be comprehensive in consideration of input processes and output.

7.Establishing a plan: Quantified targets will show management the quantum of workload required for implementation what resources are needed and opportunities for cost-effective improvement. 8.Evaluating Environmental aspects: Actual environmental aspects and impacts of the organization should be listed out. To each of these identified aspects, the level of risk involved with conformance and nonconformance should be evaluated.

9.Establishing an environmental policy and objectives: Foundation and direction for the management system. The policy needs to clarify compliance with environmental legislation that may affect the organization and stress a commitment to continuous improvement. The organization will declare its primary environmental objectives. 10.Preparing procedures and Documents: Develop procedures and other system documents which might involve modifying current environmental procedures or adapting other business procedures (such as quality,ergonomics, health and safety management procedures)

11.Planning for Change: It should be made sure that the system is sufficiently flexible and simple. Avoid making it so rigid to reflect the realities of operations and activities. 12.Training of Employees: Training of employees wit regard to the environmental impacts of their activities, any new/modified procedures and any new responsibilities.

13.Implementation of ISO14000: To clean up the obvious problems, and identify areas where the organization is not complying with the regulations or customer demands. Those areas where that organization stands to gain greater efficiency should be targeted. (scrap and waste reduction projects, recycling and elimination of liabilities) 14.Assessing the performance: Planned comprehensive periodic audit to ensure that it is effective in operation, meeting specified goals, and the system continues to perform in accordance with relevant regulations and standards. Management review is also required to ensure that it is suitable and effective in operation. Provides the opportunity to improve the system and environmental performance over time.

BARRIERS FOR SME¶s IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO14000
Lack of training Lack of Awareness Lack of incentives Lack of Guidance Lack of resources Inappropriate tools and techniques Lack of skills Internal and external

High cost of implementation barriers and maintenance ‡

Clauses for implementation

Structure and Responsibility (Clause 4.4.1) Training, Awareness, and Competence (Clause 4.4.2 Communication (4.4.3) EMS documentation(4.4.4) Document control(4.4.5) Operational control (4.4.6) Emergency Preparedness and Response (Clause 4.4.7)

Successful Implementation

Stipulating the EMS policy Planning Implementation of the EMS according to the policy Checking and corrective actions Environmental management system review

Issues related to implementation

although the standards provide guidance in terms of functional requirements, they are silent with regard to implementation methods or organizational processes that are fraught with human and systems change issues. manage transitions and focus on shared visions and behavioral norms as core supports for the change effort. Change is scary and the courage to forge ahead must be summoned.

Issues.. transition
It is often useful to begin the process of change by starting at the end; by looking at the end result, Link the change effort to a vision (the core) of a desired future state; when people share a common vision of a desired future, they are likely more willing and more able to make changes that will move the business forward.

Issues .. communication.

It is possible that new patterns of communication will have to be adopted such that appropriate feedback and interaction can be achieved. Information needs to be shared and employees need to know that sharing this information is crucial in establishing the basis for environmental controls. Reward and incentive programs should be evaluated for conformity with the goals that the organization is trying to achieve. This "open-book" management represents a shift away from traditional command and control and may be distrusted by top and mid-level managers.

Issues«awareness

Personnel within the organization need to understand that competition among businesses and the increasing awareness about the state of our environment and the costs associated with its maintenance can make environmental performance a competitive differentiator.

Issues« Attitude & interpretation

Many companies tend to isolate environmental issues and keep them "harbored" within the environmental department. ISO 14001 requires a commitment to the prevention of pollution. Note the use of the verbiage prevention of pollution as opposed to pollution prevention. Prevention of pollution is defined in the standard as the "use of processes, materials or products that avoid, reduce or control pollution, which may include recycling, treatment, process changes, control mechanisms, efficient use of resources and material substitution."

Issues.. Product process designs

industrial products that are being designed and developed today will dictate the impact that industry will have on the environment in the future, process and product design engineers hold a key to future industry - environment interactions.

Issues.. product life cycle

When the product is finally disposed of, the product may end up almost anywhere, in any country, in a hightechnology landfill, an incinerator, on the side of the road, or in a river that supplies drinking water to a small community.

Issues«product life cycle
Industrial ecology is an approach to industry-environment interactions to aid in evaluating and minimizing life cycle problems. It involves the design of industrial products and processes from the dual perspectives of product competitiveness and environmental interactions.

Issues.. processes

processes define much of the flow of solids, liquids, gases and energy into a manufacturing facility and are responsible for much of the flows of solids, liquids, gases and energy leaving that facility. Product designers must consider industryenvironment interactions that are primarily outside the province of the process designer: choice of materials, product packaging, environmental impacts during product use, and the optimization of product recycling.

No longer«

Environmental managers have been talking about integrating environmental issues into the business decision making at an organization, however, historically, this has been met with resistance. Now, all facility personnel will have to start integrating environmental issues into their day-to-day activities. It can no longer be an end-of-the-pipe issue.

Monitoring and Measurement

Non Conformance, Corrective and Preventive Actions

Records
EMS Audits

ISO Explanation

The ISO 14001,4.5.1- Monitoring and Measurement, requires that the organization shall establish and maintain documented procedures to monitor and measure , on a regular basis, the key characteristics of its operations and activities that can have a significant impact on the environment This shall include the recording of information to track performance,relevant operational controls and conformance with the organization¶s environmental objectives and targets

PURPOSE««.

To assess how well the EMS is working Helps to Manage a Business better Identify the performance indicators to monitor the EMS To gauge the Environmental Performance Analyze root causes of Problems Identify areas where corrective action is needed Improve performance and increase efficiency of the organization

Getting Started«..
Which operations & activities may have significant environmental impacts

Which are the key characteristics of these operations & activities

How can you measure these characteristics?

Procedure for Performing Monitoring and Measurement

Key Process Characteristics Process and Outcome Measures Equipment Calibration Regulatory Compliance Environmental Performance Audit versus Performance Evaluation Linkages of Environmental Information

Auditing and EPE

AUDIT

EPE

Periodic Sample of data

Ongoing Frequent

Independent Verify Conformance

Line Function Assess Performance

ISO Explanation

ISO 14001,4.5.2 - Nonconformance and corrective and preventive action , requires that the organization shall establish and maintain procedures for defining responsibility and authority for handling and investigating non conformance , taking corrective action to mitigate any impact caused, and for initiating and completing corrective and preventive action

Purpose

Management Review

System Audit

Corrective Action

Typical Causes of EMS Problems

Getting Started

The results of monitoring and measurements,audit findings and other systemic reviews should be documented and reviewed and must lead to corrective actions.If the organization already has an ISO 9000 QMS ,a corrective and preventive action process already exists.The same model may be used for EMS purposes. For a documented problem . The root cause of the systematic failure should be determined.The organization must be committed to implementing corrective actions as quickly as possible. The corrective and Preventive action process should specify responsibilities and schedules.Progress should be reviewed regularly and any deficiencies followed up

Contd...

The extent of planning and documentation required for corrective and preventive actions may vary with the severity of the problem(and its potential environmental impacts).An appropriate suggestion is ³A simple method always works better´ It should be ensured that adequate data and information is collected to determine why a problem has occurred and what corrective actions may be necessary.

EMS Elements that Lead to corrective Action and Management Reviews

Monitoring

Audits

Employee Involvement

Corrective Action Process

Management Review

Hints that should not be Ignored!

Workers on the shop floor are in the best position to see problems and suggest solutions. All employees should be informed that it is their responsibility to identify and perform corrective actions. This would include reporting nonconformance of operational and procedural natures.It should also be well communicated to all employees that everyone is responsible for solving nonconformance as well. A suitable system improvement process e.g.., via suggestion boxes,incentive programmes should be employed for greater employee participation. In small companies same employees might have been engaged in multiple function,including management review and corrective action processes..A strong link should exist between the processes for better EMS effectiveness...

ISO Explanation

ISO 14001,4.5.3 - Records, states that the organization shall establish and maintain procedures for the identification, maintenance and disposition of environmental records. These records shall include training records and the results of audits and reviews

Key Questions in Records Management
Identify what records to be maintained. Authorize who keeps them and where and how they are kept. Determine how long they are kept (retention time) Determine how they are accessed and disposed ,including good storage and retrieval system

Purpose...

Records Management under ISO14001 must be able to prove that the organization is actually doing what it says! To prove that the organization is actually implementing the EMS as designed,one should have a system for managing EMS records. While records have value internally over time one may need to provide evidence of EMS implementation to external parties (such as customers, a registrar , or the public). For records Management, the organization shall develop procedures to maintain, identify,collect, index and store records.

TYPES OF RECORDS

Environmental aspects determination documentation Legal and other regulatory requirements and records of regulatory violations. Permits consents, licenses and other approvals Progress reports towards meeting objectives and targets. Hazardous material spills, other incident reports and follow ups. MSDS Sampling and monitoring data Maintenance records Calibration and maintenance records for instrumentation Training records EMS audit and regulatory compliance audit reports Management review documentation

Intro...
EMS

audit refers to a systematic and documented verification process to determine whether an organization¶s EMS conforms to the audit criteria set by the organization and for the communication of the audit results to the top Management.

Purpose

To determine whether or not EMS conforms to planned arrangements for environmental management including the requirements of this International Standards and has been properly implemented and maintained Provide information on the results of audits to Management Results of EMS audits should be linked to the corrective and preventive actions. Systematic identification and reporting of EMS deficiencies provides a great opportunity for the Management functions to focus on the environment and ensure its cost effectiveness External Auditing is suggested

Getting Started

The organization should have an Audit Procedure describing Audit Scope Audit Frequency Audit Methods Key responsibilities Reporting Mechanism

AUDIT FREQUENCY The nature of the Operations The significant Environmental aspects/impacts identified The results of the monitoring programme Findings of Previous audits audited at least annually

AUDITING METHODS - Internal,External auditors The number will depend on the size and complexity of the organizational functions Auditing Techniques ,Management System Concepts Quality systems,Legal compliance etc

Linkages between EMS audits,Corrective Action and Management Reviews
Periodic EMS audits

EMS Established

Corrective Action Process

Management Review

Intro
Management reviews ensure how the EMS will remain viable. It can be used to demonstrate top management¶s ongoing support for the environmental issues. It shall address the possible need for changes to policy, objectives, and other elements of the EMS.

MR Considers

Progress on objectives and targets towards continuing suitability,adequacy and EMS effectiveness New standards legislation and regulations Audit results Environmental Performance measures Reports of emergencies (e.g, spills,leaks, other incidents) New scientific/technical data on products, materials and processes used Internal and External Communications etc

Getting Started

It should involve- those who have the right information and knowledge and who have the authority to make decisions. Schedule and frequency for Management reviews should be determined, typically once or twice in a year. It should assess whether different organizational functions have complied with policy and procedures using audit reports. It should be determined if Capital and other resources , including information management systems are adequate to support the EMS requirements of the Organization.

Contd«.

It should be determined if the operational controls,procedures, corrective and preventive actions and the continuous improvements efforts have resulted in enhanced environmental performance.changes that result in process improvements should be documented Possible improvements in the organizational structure , operational procedures , training requirements , work instructions , pollution prevention , waste management, energy utilization, process improvements, that may lead to environmental opportunities and organizational benefits should be determined

Business Transformation Through ISO 14000

Case Studies
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
A. Water Conservation Measures Reuse of wastewater generated from filter press operation for other miscellaneous uses and recirculation of cooling water at jiggering and kiln areas. B. Energy Conservation Measures Optimise Kiln loading, insulation of ducts, Process flow improvement by introduction of capacitor bank, use of high efficiency motors and variable speed drives. C. Air pollution control measures Introduction of wet scrubber for standardised glazing Dust Extraction System, reconditioning of Dust Extraction System of Shot blasting machine at foundry

Case Studies
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited«Contd.
D. Waste Minimisation Programmes Recovery of solid waste generated at grid washing Crushing and reuse of rejected ceramic tiles E. Mitigation of Green house Gases Energy efficiency studies have been conducted on kilns furnaces, dryers & boilers and implemented efficiency improvement programme to reduce specific fuel consumption, which in turn reduces green house gases emission.

Case Studies Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited«Contd.
Cost Benefit Analysis for Implementing ISO 14000 System
Costs
Consultancy Fee Training fee Certification fee (per 3 years)

Annual Cost (in Rs. Lacs)
3.64 2.02 2.48

Investment on Environmental Pollution control Equip. 11.05 Miscellaneous Costs 0.65 Total Rs. 19.84 Lacs

Quantified Benefits Lacs )
Power Savings Fuel Savings Lubricants Savings Rs. Savings in Waste disposal costs Resource Savings Savings through Recycling Total

Annual Savings( in Rs
15.0 14.0 00.6 00.2 40.0 30.3 Rs. 100.1 Lacs per year

Copley Square Hotel

A prominent hotel created an aggressive environmental program that provides a foundation for ISO 14001 registration. The hotel is an historic one with an upscale clientele. Their aggressive approach to reducing their impact on the environment helped them identify many ongoing benefits. The major benefit areas were: recycling, energy use reduction, and water use reduction. The following are the major actions and their results:

RECYCLING

:

Energy Use Reduction: ‡ Energy efficient lighting was installed in public areas which are light 24 hours per day. 60 watt incandescent corridor ceiling lights were replaced 15 watt compact fluorescent lights: savings equal $3,622 annually plus 90% reduction in labor costs. 90 watt incandescent lights in table lamps in the lobby and elevator landings were replaced with 22 watt compact fluorescent lights: savings equal $1,540 annually and reduced labor costs. 30 watt exit sign lights were replaced with 1.8 watt LED exit signs: savings equal $1,179 annually. ‡ Install compact fluorescent bulbs in guest room table lamps and hanging lamps: predicted payback equal 1.81 years. ‡ Install compact fluorescent bulbs in back areas which are lit 24 hours: savings equal to $59.57 per bulb. ‡ Remind employees to turn off all energy using devices that are not being used: no estimate of savings.

Water Use Reduction: ‡ Installing toilets with 1.5 gallon capacity, replacing ones with 3.5 gallon capacity will save $3,276 and 430,000 gallons annually. ‡ Showerheads of greater efficiency will save $6,546 and 859,000 gallons annually. ‡ Guest have been offered the option of reusing their towels and linens when staying more than one night. Projected savings are $4,000 annually.

Comments This case includes savings that are well known and some that are innovative. Some of the reasons the program has been successful are: ‡ Everyone in the hotel participates in the program and can contribute from within their job responsibilities. Thus, the power of each individual to contribute in a positive way is harnessed. ‡ Small savings are as important as big ones. This recognizes that small savings add up and creates a culture that values contributions at all levels of the organization and of any size. The cumulative effect of many small acts of environmental impact reduction may not be quantifiable, but it may be significant.

ISO 14000-SERIES
BENEFITS AND OTHER ISSUES

REASONS FOR IMPLEMENTING ISO 14000

Recognition Bottom-line benefits Trade Regulatory Financial sector

INDUSTRY ACCEPTANCE OF ISO 14000 SERIES

ISO 14001 ± market driven approach to environmental protection. It is seen as market place trend by many organizations. There is noticeable change in the mindset of organizations for responding to their environmental obligations.

ISO-14000 IN SMALL ORGANISATIONS

ISO 14001 is flexible to fit into any size, industry or facility. ADVANTAGES: Lines of communication are short Organizational structure and climate are less complex People often perform multiple functions

COST ESTIMATES
COST INCLUDES : Staff/ employee time, Consultant expenses and Training of personnel.

COST ESTIMATES 

Total implementation time can usually be estimated as one workday per employee. 12 to 14 months to fully implement ISO 14001's 62 elements Implementation costs can range from $20,000 to $250,000  

BENEFITS OF ISO 14000 
     

Better conformance to environmental regulations, Greater marketability, Better use of resources, Higher quality goods and services, Increased levels of safety, Improved image and Increased profits.

SOME ISSUES RELATED TO ISO 14000 

There is no guarantee that certification will result in increased profits for a company. ISO 14000 which is stricter than ISO 9000.  

Multisite registration of subsidiaries is permitted only if there is a common management and central control of each site

ISO 14000 AND ISO 9000

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ISO 14000 AND ISO 9000
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Policy and Defined organization and responsibilities Defined and documented standard practices Control of critical operations Document control Training Records system Internal audits Corrective action system Management review for continual improvement

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ISO 14000 AND ISO 9000
ISO 9000
1.Encourage organizations to institute quality assurance management programs. 2.The major system requirements are defined by customers

ISO 14000
1.Deals with the management of the environmental effects of an organization 2.Customers as well as many additional stakeholders

3.Includes evaluation of suppliers 3.Include methods of evaluating and review of customer contracts. environmental impacts and systems 4.The goals of a quality system are generally quite clear 4.The situation for environmental systems is not so straightforward

OTHER EMS STANDARDS
British Standard 7750 (BS 7750) -the world's first standard for environmental management systems (EMS) and The European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) -European Union

INTEGRATING SYSTEMS FOR BUSINESS

INTEGRATING SYSTEMS FOR BUSINESS

Develop and maintain a comprehensive business management system -quality and environmental requirements Must be based firmly in the needs and values of the Business itself Each new requirement that emerges can be carefully considered and integrated into the existing systems framework.

INTEGRATING SYSTEMS FOR BUSINESSCONTINUES«.
Companies that are registered to ISO 9001 already have a head start.

These systems satisfy internal business needs as well as the external requirements Systems which are non-value adding should be closely examined and improved

INTEGRATING SYSTEMS FOR BUSINESSCONTINUES«.

Conduct a gap analysis to determine which system elements are in place and which elements need to be improved or developed Use ISO 14001 as a guideline or model of a comprehensive EMS. Examine the company's existing environmental systems, as well as quality systems Determine the business' priorities for improving existing systems and developing new systems.

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