Indian Logic | Truth | Logic

Indian Logic and its Relevance to Computer Science and Information Technology1 Prof. V. V. S.

Sarma, FNA, FASc Department of Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 5 February 2001 1. Introduction Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high Where knowledge is free Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way in the dreary desert sand of dead habit ? Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake Rabindranath Tagore Indian Logic (Nyaya Sastra) has a long history spanning about three thousand years. Nyaya Sastra includes logic, the art of debate ( Tarka Sastra ) and the science of reasons or causes ( Hetu Vidya ). There have been three distinct phases of development of logic in India. The ancient school spans the period (650 B. C. up to 100 A. D.). The earliest name of this science is Anvikshiki (The Science of Inquiry). Akshapada Gautama?s work Nyaya Sutra is the representative text of this period. The medieval school extends from 100 A. D. up to 1000 A. D. This period witnessed extensive contributions by Buddhist and Jaina logicians. An important text is Pramana Samuchchaya of Dignaga. In this period, the subject is called Pramana Sastra (The Science of Right Knowledge). The modern school, called Navya Nyaya (New logic) includes the work done after 1000 A. D. continued to this day by traditional schools of Sanskrit learning. The most influential work of this period is Gangesa?s Tattva Chintamani (The Jewel of Reflection of Reality). Panini derives the word Nyaya from the root "i", (as in niyate prapyate vivakshitarthasiddhir anena), which conveys the same meaning as "gam" (= to go) and so it is etymologically identical to Nigama. Nyaya is the apprehension (or examination) of an object with the help of all Pramanas. Vatsyayana?s Nyaya Bhashya states " pramanair arthapariksha nyayah". Nyaya is also known through other words such as Tattva Sastra (the science of categories), and "Vadartha"(the art of discussion and debate). Gangesa?s Tattva Chintamani is considered the foremost text of new logic or the modern school of Indian logic. According to Philips, the success of Tattva Chintamani is due to "Gangesa?s uncanny ability to distill arguments, to bring out the clear thrust of a consideration, or a host of considerations and counter considerations and to decisively formulate a bottom line, a thesis ( siddhanta ) or position established by argument. The Tattva Chintamani is also a masterpiece of organization; its focus is epistemology, with other topics such as ontology, semantics, theology and theory of debate taken up according to their relation to epistemological considerations. There are also numerous other innovations." According to Gangesa, the means to veridical awareness are: The "Pramana" of veridical perception Cogent inference Analogical vocabulary acquisition Reliable testimony The techniques of Navya Nyaya are so thorough and subtle that it is almost impossible to conceive a more perfect and unambiguous method of expression in Sanskrit and the methodology can easily be extended to all Indian languages. In the last millennium, the whole of India has accepted this methodology in all branches of learning in Sanskrit language. Sanskrit grammar has, of late, received much attention in the context of Natural Language processing (NLP) and Information

Chomsky and others have discussed similar generative structures for English only in the twentieth century. software engineering.) is concerned with the structure of correct reasoning. Panini?s Ashtadhyayi. It took several decades of effort to realize the knowledge-intensive nature of MT. Aristotle gave an account of logic in his Organan. The philosophy of AI has been outlined succinctly by Herbert Simon. It is being increasingly realized by many that the concepts of right knowledge. (All men are mortal. . C++ or JAVA for solving problems. A challenging task here is to endow computer programs with the ability to change themselves for the better as a result of their own experience. Living in today?s highly competitive. The most familiar example of his deductive logic is the following syllogism: All a are b. we concern ourselves with Logic. In the first approach. involving artificial (= man-made) objects or artifacts such as a digital computer. reason. COBOL. account etc. the procedural knowledge contained in Panini?s work is used as a basis for building grammars for all natural languages. While natural sciences are concerned with generating knowledge about natural objects and phenomena. speech. Two lines of work have received attention. word. NLP is computer processing of languages such as English or Sanskrit. A computer engineer?s primary goal is to build intelligent machines (such as the Chess-playing program ?DEEP-BLUE?) while his secondary goal is to understand the nature of human intelligence. (Socrates is mortal. In this paper. Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC) is considered father of Western logic. proposition and inference. its development in India over three millennia and its relevance to science today in the information age. Pune and IIIT. Applications of "Intelligent Systems" span the domains of entertainment. Logic is a major tool used by Computer Scientists in the design of intelligent systems. dissemination and retrieval for commerce. The subject of ?Artificial Intelligence? (AI) evolved simultaneously with the development of computers. as a symbolic language or a programming language such as PROLOG) and as a reasoning tool. This logic is very useful in closed-world applications such as set theory and plane geometry but is not that useful for the real world. He talked of prior and posterior analysis.) Then conclude X is b. Simon notes that AI is concerned with design of artifacts. A man is a real object and mortality is one of his attributes. Leibnitz. Boole and Russell are credited with the development of mathematical (or symbolic) logic used for proving theorems. Machine Translation appeared an easy matter once one had access to a dictionary and the grammars of both the languages. Kanpur. CDAC. dharma and karma ) emphasized in the enormous Sanskrit literature left by ancient seers and sages come to our rescue in these turbulent times. one of the early leaders of the field. Recent researches have shown that it is possible to evolve a Paninian approach to NLP. This work with about 4000 rules and aphorisms presents the framework appropriate for a universal grammar that might be used for any language. Hyderabad and several other institutions are involved in the development of information systems using Indian languages.) X is a.Technology in Indian Languages. business management and warfare. linguistics and psychology. Computers have evolved from simple data processing systems to global networks of Information and Knowledge. viveka. meaning collection. prajna. complex and interconnected world requires new paradigms for the very survival of human species. A comprehensive study of the developments in Nyaya and its relations to Philosophy and Western Logic may be found in the work of Matilal. e. It has been recognized by 19 th century mathematicians that the above conclusion is reached purely by the structure of the sentences (syntax) rather than through their meanings (semantics). information storage. AI has interactions with mathematics. This is different from computers using programming languages such as FORTRAN. One of the main application areas of NLP is Machine Translation (MT). term. Logic Logic (from Greek logos. composed prior to 600 BC is surely one of the greatest monuments of human intelligence. wisdom and ethical action (characterized by jnana. The concepts survive to this day as predicate logic. a classic on Sanskrit grammar. Each "sentence" in the example is considered a FACT (described as being TRUE) and the conclusion is another fact.) Aristotle is concerned with real or existing things. He further notes that a computer is a physical symbol system analogous to human mind-brain system capable of exhibiting intelligent behaviour. (Socrates is a man. Logic may be used both as an information (or knowledge) representation tool (i. 2. This approach has nothing to do with our feelings and emotions but depends on cold reasoning. In the second approach. In India. IIT. knowledge of Sanskrit is used for designing MT systems for Indian languages.

The first sentence is a precise statement while the second set consists of fuzzy (ambiguous) propositions. These are questions of possibility and necessity.3 Redundancy theory This looks at the redundancy in the truth of a proposition P such as: P P is TRUE "P is TRUE" is TRUE et cetera. This is the result obtained by using inputs from several knowledge sources. FALSE} just as a "LINGUISTIC VARIABLE" (e. MORE OR LESS TRUE. introduced by Zadeh in 1965. According to Kanada. Apart from a logic of categorical statements (such as those containing. Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy sets are finding many applications in the design of Intelligent Systems.1. ?Krishna is TALL? and ? Rama is MORE OR LESS TALL?. (Plato states that a statement is true if it states things as they are. Vaiseshika Sutra of Kanada is the ancient text available. data processing. information processing and knowledge engineering. An observer?s perception of the heights of Rama and Krishna may be expressed by the statements.g. has gone through the stages of numerical computation. QUITE TRUE. " X is a" or "X is not c"). What these terms mean depends on the context or "the Universe of Discourse". 3.The Ancient School (Nyaya Sastra . Computing.Prachina) Vaiseshika and Nyaya are the two basic ancient Indian Logic schools. Reality and Certainty are related concepts and have been objects of study both in philosophies of East and West. From this we can calculate his present age.2 Coherence Theory A statement is TRUE if it hangs consistent with a whole system of other truths. TRUTH itself is a matter of degree expressed by term such as: {ABSOLUTELY TRUE. QUITE TALL. What is stored in a computer is not really KNOWLEDGE. Rama?s height is 165cm. For example. In a modern logic such as the fuzzy logic. by comparing his date of birth with the present date. the highest goal (nihsreyasa) is obtained by tattva-jnana (knowledge of reality or nature) of six elements. we have to consider MODAL LOGICS with statements such "X may be d" and "X must be e". From this information. if we attempt to assess his suitability for a job. Truth. SHORT}.1. We may come up with judgments of the form "He is too old" or "He is too young" for the job on hand. There is an observer and an observed entity. 2. NOT QUITE TRUE. guna (property or quality attribute). These are dravya (matter or substance). Data is to be processed to obtain information. NOT SO TALL. Fuzzy Sets. karma (action) samanya (particular or generic property) visesha (particular or differentiating individuality) and samavaya (inherence) on account of their sadharmya (similarity of properties) and vaidharmya (dissimilarity of properties). Cognition comes into picture. we may treat it as data. This is the notion of truth used in mathematics. Theories of truth are different accounts aiming at defining truth by some criterion or other. TALL. 2. The . Tallness is a matter of degree and may be described by the elements of the set {VERY TALL. TRUE.) 2. This is not always possible. Indian Logic . deal with linguistic ambiguity in modeling real world systems. It is either DATA or INFORMATION. 2. Vaiseshika is one of the earliest Darsanas. MORE OR LESS TALL.1 Correspondence Theory A statement is true if it corresponds with a fact. Aristotle?s deduction is of this type. it becomes a sort of knowledge processing. There are other theories of truth such as Semantic Theory and Pragmatic Theory. Example: Krishna?s height is 180 cm.1 Truth Truth itself is a complex concept. if a person gives his date of birth in an application form. "TALL") can be described using several linguistic terms.1. This is termed data processing and this helps in obtaining specific information.A basic question is the relation of logic to the real world in which we choose to apply it. over the last few decades. These supplement probabilistic models for accounting for chance phenomena.

say "truth" or "validity" is denoted by "pramanya". He has also only "bounded rationality (limited ability to reason)". More general qualities (dharmas) which may be found in categories include existence. the very first sutra of Gautama indicates that supreme felicity ( nihsreyassadhigama ) is attained by the knowledge about true nature of sixteen categories. army and police ( Dandaneethi ) and Logic (Anvikshiki) Anvikshiki trayi. but a product. guna etc. (Na hi kriyasvabhavam jnanamapi tu phalasvabhavam . D. By definition.(hetu). The concept "Symptom" ( linga ) is important in diagnosis (Pattern Recognition) while that of Cause ( Hetu ) is important for etiology (Explanation). Commerce and Agriculture ( Varta ). See Table 1 for these categories and approximate English terms. "I doubt" is not included in "I know".2 Charaka and Logic Progress in medicine is marked especially by the great work of Charaka (100 A. even samsaya (doubt) is considered as a species of jnana. According to Kautilya. Charaka?s work contains a section on Logic. a finite human being?s knowledge is incomplete. vague and uncertain. permanence or non-permanence. C. through an intermediary characteristic (middle term or linga). Legal system. Charaka introduces additional terms in Nyaya such as Sthapana Argument to establish proof Upanaya Application Nigamana Conclusion Pratisthapana Counter establishment of an opposite statement Vakya Sentence Pratijna Proposition (or statement) to be proved . varta dandaneetischeti vidya Anvikshiki is praised as the lamp of all sciences. These means of knowledge are due to a quality (guna) in the Vaiseshika system called consciousness (or intellect. Charaka?s work should be classified under Vaiseshika Darsana.categories (padarthas) are specified in terms such as dravya.) held it in high regard as seen from the following aphorism.perception ( pratyaksha) and inference (laingika). effect (karya). 3. Jnana is a guna of the self. In Computer Science applications. handling of uncertainty in knowledge is an important aspect of system design. In Nyaya. The logical inference is of the variety of INDUCTION but introduces the idea of a middle term (linga). Knowledge in this system is obtained by two means . Even a relatively simple term such as "knowledge" as it is used in English and a term such as jnana as it is used in Sanskrit are different in scope and usage. Jnana is not an activity. the resource of all actions and the shelter of all virtues.Nyayamanjari).1 Anvikshiki (The Science of Inquiry) This may be considered the early theory of causes and reasons. Kautilya in his Artha Sastra (327 B. buddhi) of the substance soul (or atman). 3. as a branch of knowledge requiring to be cultivated by doctors (physicians) both for the purpose making inferences connected with diagnosis of a disease and for arguments with colleagues and others and also for the study of ethics in the medical tradition. Charaka?s form of proof remained the basis of debate and argument in India down to modern times. it should be noted that many technical terms present problems in translation. the proper education of a ruler should include four disciplines: Vedas ( Trayi ). inconsistent. In ordinary English usage. ABDUCTION is the term used now to describe the logical explanation of observed symptoms in the process of medical diagnosis.). The appendix presents some of the popular terms of Logic and Philosophy. In Nyaya. At the outset. cause (karana). This must be remembered while trying to understand the classical texts. Inference is based on relations (sambandhas). causes and effects. conjunction (samyoga) and contradiction (virodha) and combination (samavaya). universal or particular. In many translations of Nyaya Sastra the term "knowledge" is usually denoted as jnana and one of its attributes. Pradeepah sarva vidyanamupayah sarva karmanam Asrayah sarva dharmanam saswadnvikshiki mata. namely.

e. The hetu is called a rule (with syntax IF <percept>. Even though the perceptual knowledge is obtained by contact of the sensory organ with the object. Therefore A is so. Conclusion (Nigamana) (Therefore. Its structure is: 1. But this proof is not the main issue or objective of Indian logic. the Indian logicians ( Naiyayikas ) introduced a five-limbed syllogism (panchavayava) as a standard format for inferential information. (A is such.Hetu Middle term In addition. This is a mistaken perception. which must be avoided in a proof: Nyuna : Deficiency.e. Because of environment (bad light) a rope may be confused as a snake. there is fire. A Þ B. Acquiring of valid knowledge of the real world is its main objective. Hypothesis (Assertion) (Pratijna) (To assert: The hill has fire. ensuring deductive certainty. C: i..g. X. According to a Nyaya Sutra Pratyakshanumanopamana sabdah pramanani There are four means of acquiring valid knowledge: pratyaksha.3 The Five-Limbed Syllogism To validate the knowledge obtained by inference. . say. e. including something irrelevant Anarthaka: Meaninglessness Aparthaka: Disorder Viruddha: Contradiction 3. anumana. a hearth in a kitchen.) (Parvato vahnimaniti Pratijna) 2. conclude: The hill has fire. Charaka enumerates five faults. missing any part of the argument Adhika: Redundancy. Because of C. Sources of valid knowledge are sensory perception. Even about the means of sensory perception ( pratyaksha) there are concerns as the Nyaya Sutra says: Indriyartha sannikarshotpannam-jnanam-avyapadesyam-avyabhichari-vyaavasayatmakam. this may also be stated as. (A implies B or If A is true. B. a task such as medical diagnosis or treatment).) (Tatha cha ayamiti upanayah) 5. there are problems. then B is true).) (Yo yo dhumavan sa vahniman yatha mahanasa ityudaharanam) 4. C. Reason or cause (Hetu) (Because it has smoke) ( Dhumavatvat iti hetuh) 3. analogy and verbal testimony (of an expert or quotation from a source recognized as standard). i.g.) In symbolic logic. e.. Example or analogy (Udaharana) (Wherever there is smoke. upamana and sabdah . Whatever is C is also B. Application (Upanaya) (The example applies to the present situation. as in a mirage. which is only a visual illusion. Such systems have been in use since 1980s in diverse applications. THEN <action>) in a modern rule-based Expert System (used for.) (Tasmattatheti nigamanam) The Indian Syllogism (Nyaya-Vakya) may be summarized as follows: A is B. inference. Water may be perceived when it is not there.

Seshavat: The cause is inferred from the effect.4 The Problem of Universals Knowledge is about two kinds of things: real objects and concepts. his statement is verifiable. a class label which characterizes a class of animals called cows. This provides a reasonable prediction as in weather forecasting. existence of non-believers such as atheists. In modern knowledge-based systems. The effect follows the cause in a causal system. our concepts of them are general. The issue of this aspect received greater attention in the medieval period of the Nyaya and Buddhist schools. teacher? and ?blind-man? are not real universals. of course. (E. The Buddhist treats the universal as a thought construction (apoha). plurality of religions. Questions also arise about the measure or standardization of the level of an expert?s expertise. his statement cannot be verified ( adrsta). This can fail in an exceptional case.The Medieval School pramana (validity) of sabda (verbal testimony) are the following: . Even if we see a particular cow. A causes B. Vyaktyakrtijatayastu padarthah The primary components of a term denoting a real entity (or a padartha) are of three kinds: the generic character (Jati). that any teacher or expert?s knowledge is correct. This is an example of "Learning by being told" an important part of the educational process. From the cloud cover. An expert?s opinion may be taken as pramana. While the individual objects we see with our eyes are particulars. a case of "common sense reasoning". In modern logic this reasoning is called abduction. complete and valid. The words of sruti (scripture) may also be taken as pramana. we can recognize a genus. (This does not preserve truth. ii. A causes b. nor it can be an effect. Dharmakirti asks the Naiyayikas the question . Another Sutra characterizes a real entity. every politician wants to represent the "common-man". If a saint says "Doing yajna leads one to swarga (heaven)". Samanya drsta: This means "commonly seen".With respect to anumana. e. Lack of a common scripture. conclude that "X flies". From "birds fly" and "X is a bird". This ghatatva (potness) differentiates a ghata from a pata (a piece of cloth). The universal is existentially and ontologically different from the particular.g. They are not natural classes. The term ghata (pot) signifies the generic character (ghatatva). The knowledge is that of a causal relation. Concepts such as ?man?. but provides plausible explanation). this method of using Apta-vakya corresponds to "knowledge acquisition" from domain experts. Observe b and infer A. Two rules from Nyaya Sutra regarding the Aptopadesa sabdah "Sa dvividhoh" drsta adrstarthatvat The word of Apta (A rshi. Concepts such as ?cook?. The Buddhist Logician. differences in the words of scriptures and diversity in expert opinions weaken the validity of this type of knowledge. ?cow? and ?pot? are real universals ( jati). or arya ) may be taken as TRUE ( pramana). Today. The relation between cloud and rain is previously held knowledge of the observer. The Buddhist argues that an eternal entity can never be a cause. While ?potness? and ?cowness? capture the essence of a natural class ( jati). the form or shape of the object ( Akrti) and the individual object (Vyakti). iii.is the universal identical with the particular? In the Buddhist view all relations are reducible to two: identity and causality. There is. This is called "default reasoning". even if they are common nouns. the following rule is stated: Atha tatpurvakam trividhanumanam purvavat seshavat samanyato drstancha i. These are reflected in our language as common nouns and proper nouns. no guarantee. ?cookness? and ?blindness? only have a weaker label. (This is class drsta). Indian Logic . infer (predict) it will rain shortly. Hence it is a non-entity. if X is a penguin. Who is he? What are his attributes? Is he a real entity or an apoha?) 4. A is TRUE.g. upadhi. It is similar to the process used by doctors to see signs and symptoms of a patient and identify causes such as what the patient consumed yesterday. If a doctor (of Ayurveda) suggests "Eating butter gives strength". 3. Purvavat: The effect is inferred from the cause. guru. Infer B.

He observes that perception has to be freed from preconception and has to be disconnected with its name. a tree is inferred). From non-perception (anupalabdhi) of the mark (linga or hetu ). Inference for oneself (Svarthanumana). From identity ( svabhava ). It has six chapters entitled Perception (Pratyaksha). When a person sees a cow. This is the basis of the HETUCHAKRA (The wheel of reasons) of Dignaga and comes very close to symbolic logic. The law of extension (Paksha dharma) of the middle term (smoke) refers to the "intersection" of minor (hill) and major terms (fire) and is stated as follows: a. which is general knowledge regarding cows. For a detailed exposition of Buddhist formal logic including a study of Dignanga?s Hetuchakra and Kuei-chi?s commentary on the Nyayapravesa in Chinese. c. Dignaga also notes that a person can perceive a thing without knowing its name or genus. The middle term must be present in the homologue of the major term (sapaksha). According to him inference for one?s self has one of three features. He observes that perception and inference together with their fallacies are useful for self-understanding (Svarthanumana) and demonstration and refutation together with their fallacies for arguing and contesting with others ( Pararthanumana ). The middle term must be absent from the heterologue of the major term (vipaksha). D. although they have their role in learning and acquisition of new knowledge. From cause. The hill has fire. Negation of the opposite (Apoha) and Analogue ( jati). His Pramana Samucchaya is considered as a masterpiece. (Looking at a Simsapa. Among the three possible case of ?presence?. Drstanta ). Reason and example ( Hetu. presence of fire is inferred. The predicate or major term ( Anumeya or Sadhya ) is the object. genus etc. who is The destroyer of the snare of ignorance I am expounding the determination of The probans with three-fold characteristics.) is probably the greatest Logician in the medieval period of Indian Logic. inference or verbal testimony. He accepts only Pratyaksha and Anumana as means of valid knowledge and does not consider Upamana and Sabda as Pramana. Vasubandhu. The middle term must cover the minor term (paksha). For example. which does not contradict the information obtained by perception.1. Suppose a person in twilight mistakes a rope for a snake. It is possible to conceive of nine reasons or middle terms. the non-existence of a thing is inferred. his information and belief about the snake is a preconception. which are present in or absent from homologues or heterologues wholly or partly. Inference for others (Pararthanumana) This occurs when a person demonstrates to others the conclusion drawn by him through self-understanding. Some equivalent terms have also been used. he only sees a particular cow with all its peculiarities while he can indicate to others only an idea of a certain class of cows. such as sadhya for paksha. b. The Sanskrit original is lost but is available in its Tibetan translation. (From the absence of a symptom or sign. The knowledge gathered through inference is different. Inference for others ( Pararthanumana ). He was from Kancheepuram. see Chi (1990). tattulya and tajjatiya for sapaksha and asapaksha for vipaksha .) 2. Buddhist Logic Dignaga (460-520 A. ?absence? and ?both? Of the probans in the probandum . E. An English translation of a segment of Hetuchakra follows: Homage to the Omniscient One. an effect is inferred. This tallies with the modern views in the scientific inquiry. which is to be established by means of a minor term. from smoke. g. later lived in Vengi desa and was a pupil of another great logician of the time. a class label is inferred. the hypothesis regarding a particular disease can be rejected as in the technique of differential diagnosis in modern medicine.

are as follows: 1.) (Sound is permanent. This is a very important concept of Indian logic. impermanent and effort-made Permanent. While its ?absence? is not. similar instances (pot) (space) 4. Vyapti denotes the certainty of coexistence as in the sentence ?Wherever there is smoke. the sadhya. The class of fire-possessing things. There are five classes. effort-made and incorporeal Are used to prove the properties of being Permanent. The unit class ?that mountain?. a. permanent. Non-effort-made. Impermanent. impermanent. where it can be interpreted in terms of class properties.) 2. It is Dignaga. produced. along with two examples. The case of both ?presence and absence? is inconclusive It is therefore not valid either. validity (valid) (contradictory) 1. which is the paksha. Historians of Indian logic generally credit Dignaga with discovering and refining this concept of pervasion. The stock example of inference in Indian logic since ancient times is: That mountain possesses fire. permanent. like kitchen and unlike lake. s . Vyapti (Invariable Concomitance or Pervasion) Vyapti is alternatively defined as inseparable connection. because it possesses smoke. there is fire". and permanent ? ? The steps in Dignaga?s method. audible. whether presence or absence in vipaksha (absence in vipaksha ) (presence in vipaksha) 7. effort-made. p b. Tarka Samgraha by Annam Bhatta (17th century) defines thus: Yatra yatra dhumah tatra tatraagniriti sahacharyaniyamo vyaptih.Only the case of presence is valid. dissimilar instances (space) (pot) 5. whether presence or absence in sapaksha (presence in sapaksha) (absence in sapaksha) 6. the probandum (Sound is impermanent. the probans (It is produced) (It is produced. Produced. who refined it to a level. impermanent.) 3. ? ? Knowable.

May be. May be. sapaksha. The class of smoke-possessing things. who fully understood the implications of rules 1. vipaksha. Hetu-bindu and Sambandha-pariksha. a e. the Jaina doctrine of relativism of judgments states that all assertions in regard to an object are relative and therefore conditionally true or false. Inference ( Anumana ) is the means by which we gain indirect ( Paroksha ) knowledge. The paksha must fall within the hetu. Pramana or a complete judgment describes an object in terms of seven possibilities ( Saptabhangi Naya ) as follows: i. s. as a flower or as a thing possessing the attributes common to all flowers or as a thing possessing attributes peculiar to the rose as distinguishing it from other flowers. In his Sanskrit work Nyayavatara. it is not (Syad-nasti) iii. This shows the realistic and relativistic standpoint of the Jaina philosophy. it is and it is not at the same time which means it is indescribable (Syad-avaktavya) v. The class of lakes.c.2 and 3.) The trairupya or the three-fold mark as interpreted by Dignaga is: 1. May be. which a person offering an inference wants to prove is (p Ù Ø s = 0).) is another great Buddhist logician. Here we briefly describe his theory of hetu-centricity of anumana . It is Dignaga. May be. The vipaksha must occur completely outside hetu. it is and it is not and also indescribable (Syad-asti-nasti-avaktavya) Bharucha?s recent work explores the connections between Jaina philosophy and quantum theory of modern physics. 4. h d. Bhadrabahu describes this in his work Sutra-krtanga Niryukti. 2. 3.) was the first Jaina writer on systematic logic. D. time and space. The latter category includes matter. Paksha. The concept is analogous to that of conceptual clustering in Pattern Recognition and using measures of similarity (sadrsya) and dissimilarity. Sadhya and Hetu are context-freely necessary and sufficient constitutive conditions of Anumana. 1. Vyapti and Pakshadharmata are the only two regulatory conditions of Anumana. Work of Dharmakirti Dharmakirti (about 635-650 A. May be. it is and it is not different times (Syad-asti-nasti) iv. Dharmakirti tries to investigate the question "What sort of structure should Anumana have in order that inferential cognition may arise (Utpatti) or be certified (Jnapti)?" According to him. D. which is a method of comprehending things from particular standpoints. the hetu. it is not and also indescribable (Syad-nasti-avaktavya) vii. it is (Syad-asti) ii. He has several Sanskrit works to his credit such as Pramana-vartika. The Naya is of seven kinds. May be. The class of kitchens. . Syadvada . gives an exposition of the doctrine of Pramana (Sources of valid knowledge) and Naya. Nyaya-bindu. and h are not empty classes. the conclusion. v Assuming that p. The Jainas bring the whole universe under one or other of two everlasting categories: the conscious ( Jiva ) and the non-conscious (Ajiva). we may consider a rose.5 Jaina Logic Siddhasena Divakara alias Kshapanaka (480-550 A. (The symbol Ù stands for conjunction and Ø stands for negation. For example. The sapaksha must occur partially or completely within the hetu. May be. it is and yet indescribable (Syad-asti-avaktavya) vi.

g. when the pot is broken it ceases to exist 3. 5.) and Gangesopadhyaya (1200 A. abhava or nonexistence. the qualifier (Viseshana) and the relation (Sambandha) between the two. The counter-positiveness of the ?absence of a pot? resides in the Pratiyogi pot. endless. In the Vyaptipanchaka Gangesa defines Vyapti (pervasion) as Sadhyabhavavadavrittitvam. subsequent non-existence (pradhvamsabhava). In the techniques of Navya-Nyaya negation or absence (Abhava) plays a very important part. In the first category are the qualification relation (Viseshanata).g. 2. a qualifier (Viseshana). three things become primarily the content of knowledge: the qualificand (Viseshya). (pratirupam yujyate iti = pratikulasambandhavati). Jagadisa Tarkalankara and Gadadhara Bhattacharya are other great names in the context of Navya Nyaya. It flourished after the works of Udayanacharya (1000 A. In a qualified knowledge (Visistadhi).g. This is very necessary for dealing knowledge of the form "ghato nasti" (There is no pot). Abhava is divided into four kinds: 1. e. whose other name is Viseshanata. beginning-less. it is to be understood as a contradictory relation.1 Special features of Navya Nyaya 1. Both negation and double negation are used to put forward and clarify a number of ideas. antecedent non-existence (pragabhava). From the derivation of the word Pratiyogi.). A second concept of utmost importance in Navya Nyaya is avacchedaka. D. In a way Navya Nyaya may be called "relational logic". Raghunatha Siromani. that is. or Abheda). Dandi purusha (a man with a stick) the qualifier is stick (danda). Ghatatva or potness is an avacchedaka or is a limitor of the import (or Sakti) of the term pot. If. which means the non-existence of the hetu in the locus of absence of sadhya or the object of inference. a lump of clay becomes non-existent as soon as a pot is made out of it. The word Prakarata in the Navya Nyaya terminology means an adjective. Relations are divided into two categories: occurrence exacting (Vrittiniyamaka) and non-occurrence exacting (Vrittianiyamaka). 3. indistinguishable and inconceivable. 4.Samantabhadra?s Aptamimamsa uses the concepts of Syad-asti and Syad-nasti and discusses the relation between asti. inherence relation (Samavaya) and identity relation (Tadatmya. 5. D. Its precise vocabulary enriched Sanskrit language and influenced learning in diverse fields. It may be seen that the middle term (hetu) exists in the locus of absence of sadhya (smoke) leading to a wrong conclusion of Dhumavan Vahneh (Fire always exist with smoke) as can be seen from the confirming example (sapaksha drstanta) of a red hot iron ball . Prakarata is a particular kind of Vishayata. the absence of life in a dead body.g. the qualificand is man (purusha) and the relation is the contact (Samayoga) between them. D. This deals with the knowledge characterized by the absence (abhava) of an entity. Jayadeva Misra. Mathuranatha Tarkavagisa. contact relation (Samyoga). mutual non-existence (anyonyabhava) e. An entity called pratiyogitva or pratiyogita is another concept of Navya Nyaya. bhava or existence and nasti. 2. Gangesa is from Mithila (Bihar). e. which is an already accepted category. on the other hand. that is. relation between the pot and the clay with reference to each other and 4. It has also been observed that on the supposition of existence and the entire exclusion of non-existence a thing becomes all pervading. Jagadisa defines the relation as contentness (Vishayata) other than the qualifierness (Viseshanatva) and the qualificandness (Viseshyatva) of a qualified knowledge. New Logic (Navya Nyaya) Navya Nyaya is considered one of the most important branches of Sanskrit studies after 1000 A.g. This latter statement also shows the nature of language used in Navya Nyaya. sadhya is dhuma (smoke) and hetu is vahni (fire) and if Vyapti is defined without negation as Sadhyavadavrittitvam this is not correct. absolute non-existence (atyantabhava) e. by virtue of which it becomes a qualifier is its qualifierness (Prakarata). The reader can easily discover the formal logical basis for the concepts of Brahman and Atman in Indian Philosophy expounded from ancient literature such as Vedas including Vedanta (Upanishads) 5. An avacchedaka has similarly an attribute called avacchedakatva or avacchedakata. The elaborate structure of Navya Nyaya rests on the concept Sambandha (or relation). For e. So the property which resides in the qualifier.

Apprehension of truth . Upamana Khanda. Apprehension of falsity . Perception (Pratyaksha Khanda ) deals with Mangala Vada.intrinsic (svatah). Jnanam and Anantham become qualities ( guna ) of Brahman. View 4 is said to be that of Buddhists.extrinsic (paratah). Venn diagram)) among other things. Appearance is different from Reality. see the use of Sat in " Ekam Sat Vipra Bahudha Vadanti " and " Brahmekam Paramartha Sat ". Visistadvaitha and Dvaitha philosophies. Book 3. The debates are analogous to the debates between idealists and realists in Western philosophy. There is also the concern whether the pramanya is svatah (from within) or paratah (from without). Samavaya Vada (Inherence). Apprehension of falsity .extrinsic (paratah) 2.intrinsic (svatah). of course. Anyathakhyati. (Invocation of Blessings). These are concerned with Atma Vidya (Knowledge of Self) and Brahma Vidya (Mystical knowledge of Brahman. The Scope of Tattva Chintamani The contents of Tattva Chintamani show the scope of the work and its contributions. The Naiyayikas accept view 3. Nanritam" and "Brahma Satyam Jagan Mithya". For example. Satyam and Rtam are to be distinguished. Isvaranumanam (Inference of God) is also considered here. we should be able to speak of satyatva. Apprehension of truth . There is need to divide the concept of Sat itself into Prathibhasika Sat. The illusion is the first category. Pramanya Vada. Apprehension of truth . It is a term related to existence and hence to reality. "Satyam Jnanam Anantham Brahma" is given as a description of Brahman. One has also to consider the origination (utpatti) of truth and its apprehension ( jnapti). . deals with analogy and comparison. which is considered to be the scientific view today. Some well-known aphorisms are "Satyameva Jayate. intrinsic or extrinsic for svatah and paratah. Prama denotes valid knowledge and pramana is the means of establishing it. it has been used to establish foundations for Advaita. is not an optical illusion (like water in a mirage) or a misperception (like in the snake-rope analogy). The first book. Can Satyam be translated as TRUTH? Sat is a related term. It is obvious that science is concerned with paratah-pramanya of the vast amount of scientific knowledge being generated today. Vyavaharika Sat and Paramarthika Sat depending on the plane in which the concept operates.) In later days. The second book on Inference (Anumana Khanda) deals with Anumiti Nirupana and Vyapti Panchakam (Invariable Concomitance (set description. Then as per Navya Nyaya . Abhava Vada (Non-existence (or Negation)) and Pratyaksha karana Vada (Causes of Perception). Sannikarsha (Intercourse between senses and objects). Apprehension of falsity . View 2 is held by the votaries of the Samkhya philosophy. In Indian logic. the concept of truth in Navya Nyaya can be understood in terms of Gangesa?s Pramanya Vada. 5. The first question that arises is: Is pramanya svatah or paratah ? If validated knowledge is taken a truth as represented by a set of facts. Apprehension of falsity . It is the second sense that is important in answering the above question.(taptayo-golakah). The second is the reality of the world (Brahman covered by Maya) as perceived and the third is the absolute reality which is nothing but the absolute truth. Mithya.intrinsic (svatah) View 1 belongs to Kumarila Bhatta and Mimamsakas . Can we say that a combination of Correspondence and Semantic Theories are relevant in the context of Indian Logic? The emphasis in Indian Logic is in acquiring knowledge and establishing its validity. jnanatva and anantatva of an entity.2 Truth Logic has been used in ancient times in India mainly to interpret the meanings of various statements of Upanishads. 3. Vedantins prefer to distinguish between two kinds of truth: metaphysical truth ( tattvika pramanya ) and empirical truth (vyavaharika pramanya).extrinsic (paratah) 4. In this case Satyam. Apprehension of truth .extrinsic (paratah). Sabdabodha and Sakti Vada are important issues considered here. Conflicting theories regarding apprehension of truth and falsity may be summarized as follows: 1. Navya Nyaya is concerned with cognition rather than premises. The word pramanya may mean either the property of being instrumental in bringing about true knowledge ( pramakaranatva) or simply the truth of a knowledge item (pramatva). We may use the words.intrinsic (svatah) 3. (Invalid knowledge). Book 4 Sabda Khanda deals with verbal testimony. The former means whether the knowledge and its truth originate from the same source or whether they are apprehended together. A statement such as "Sun rises in the East" is true only to the extent of being perceived to be true only by observers on earth. (Validity of knowledge).

Recent Western Work Navya Nyaya has received considerable attention in the West in recent years. He studied Navya Nyaya logic in Calcutta in 1941 under Sri Kalipada Tarkacharya and was Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard for a number of years. An excellent introduction of Navya Nyaya is provided by Daniel Ingalls. 6. Vyapti jnana is an instrumental cause of inference ( nimitta karana ). We can talk of the concepts of Pervader ( vyapaka ) and Pervaded ( vyapya ). deals with refutations of Realism and the emergence of New Logic (Navya Nyaya). The inference is "parvato vahniman" but often stated as "parvato-vahniman-dhumat. of Philips (1995). the following are among some of the important theories and techniques of Navya-Nyaya Logic. meaning. But fire is not pervaded by smoke. Philips lists the following statements about Brahman. Brahman is beyond the locus of value and awareness of the Brahman is the "supreme personal good" (parama purushardha) and "liberation" (mukti) from fear and evil. Smoke is pervaded by fire. 5. while tracing the criticisms of classical logic in Sri Harsha?s Khandanakhanda Khadya. According to Ingalls. 7. Sri Harsha tried to establish the Advaitha view by challenging the views of classical logicians. minor term) of that which is qualified by vyapti. pervades or fills-completely." There is some ambiguity of use of the term anumana. 2. From the vyapti-jnana . coincidence of opposites and omnipresent. like water in a jug or salt in the sea. For understanding Navya Nyaya. 3. Brahman is transcendent of names and forms (nama-rupa). Brahman is mystically discoverable.1 Indian Metaphysics and the emergence of New Logic The book. 4. Brahman is beyond the power of thought uninformed by mystical awareness. " vahni-vyapyo dhumah " through paramarsa generate " vahni-vyapyo-dhumavan-parvatah ". The knowledge of a man is non-eternal. Brahman is unitary. An operation called paramarsa (consideration) involves the knowledge of the occurrence in a paksha (field. (Extra one used by theists) Philips studies how Navya Nyaya attempts to establish the truth of these statements. (a) The Vyapti Panchaka Vyapti (Pervasion) is from the verb vyapnoti. he exhibits the typically Western prejudiced look on . Brahman is the essence of everything. Classical Indian Metaphysics. 6. the Absolute and the Real from Upanishads: 1. 8. 6. The Realist-Idealist debate is at the heart of the traditions of philosophical inquiry in India just as it is in the Western Philosophy.6. Philips extensively uses the commentary of Ramanuja Tatacharya.g. E.1 Metaphysics and Misinformation While the philosophy portions of the work of Philips are interesting. which is the product of the inferential process may be designated Anumiti while the tool or instrument is the process of Anumana as per Tattva Chintamani.GOD or Iswara. This shows the depth to which Naiyayikas have gone in formally defining this concept. which states Vyapti-visishta-paksha-dharmata-jnana-janyam-jnanam anumitih Tatkaranam anumanam. An IDEALIST tends to presume that all we know and understand depends on mind or consciousness. the then Vice-chancellor of Rashtreeya Samskrita Vidya Peetha at Tirupati. Brahman is self (atman) and consciousness. The Nyaya-kosa lists 21 defective and 13 acceptable definitions of Vyapti . Gangesa lists five of these to arrive at an acceptable description of the notion. Knowledge. Brahman is a PRIMORDIAL WILL and CONTROLLER . (b) The Inferential Process All non-eternal entities are the result of a complex of causes (karana) and of operations (vyapara). A REALIST on the other hand would assume facts or realities independent of mind and consciousness.

Brahmins set themselves up as priests. Despite what later Exegetes claim. REALITY and CERTAINTY and the means of using LOGIC for acquiring RIGHT KNOWLEDGE. 14. A. 3.). 12. Philips mentions Indus valley civilization in a footnote. 7. The figure apparently illustrates a yogic meditation pose. namely the Vedas have central importance. 5. Vedas are "Revealed Knowledge" composed over centuries in an archaic pre-classical Sanskrit. To appreciate the veridicality of these 14 statements and the eight listed below we should add 15. Philips shows his inadequate knowledge of Sanskrit literature and Advaitha. Within the umbrella religion of Hinduism. The following invalidated assertions in his book are illustrative of some of his preconceived notions: 1. claiming descent from the European country X and has the religious label Y and accepts all the Western accounts of Ancient Indian History as truthful. 2. 4. (See 8) 8. Upanishads represent a break with previous literature in the freeing of an abstract intellect from myth and ritual.) 10. i. Advaita and all Vedanta has its closest affinity with Mimamsa ("Exegesis") a very old and conservative school bent upon defending Brahminism. Cults of yogic practice may have flourished in India among indigenous non-Sanskrit-speaking populations before the coming of Indo-Europeans and the composition of the Veda and the Upanishads as some archeological discoveries suggest. et cetera. with their offices hereditary. Philips is an American Professor of Philosophy. a city predating the invasion of Sanskrit speaking tribes by more than a thousand years. Sanskrit ceased to be anyone?s mother tongue probably before 200 CE (Common Era. no unity of theory obtains in the twelve or thirteen most commonly recognized early Upanishads. through this example from chapter 3. 13. His statements in the first chapter are unnecessary noise in a book dealing with philosophy of TRUTH. Texts older than the Upanishads. He seems to be unaware of the new information about the Saraswathi river. but some or not. Khandanakhanda Khadya. However the Upanishads. the dating of the Mahabharatha war based on astronomical data and the discovery of the submerged city of Dwaraka through marine archeology studies and the possibility of a greatly revised time scale for the early Vedic times. For example. The Buddha was a historical person (c. 500 BCE) and the Bhagavad-Gita of the Mahabharatha belongs to the period (c. 6. He seems to be unaware of the concerns about the myth of Aryan invasion voiced by well-known historians and traditional scholars. 11. some are ritualist. D. An Indian student must necessarily recognize his preconceived notions and his religious background such as church affiliation. B. Sri Harsha is the author of the philosophic masterpiece.Indian history giving over-importance to writings of Western Indologists and historians. 9. some or theistic. . Sanskrit-speaking tribes began invading the Indian subcontinent from the northwest as early as 1500 BCE. the story of Nala and Damayanthi retold. He states: A. One important discovery is a so-called proto-Shiva clay figure found at Mohenjodaro. Sri Harsha is the author of Naishadha Charitha. The reason for the above is that some passages are idealistic. though probably not all composed by Brahmins came to be preserved in Brahminical lineages. some or not. Brahminism may be considered the traditionalist camp. He (Gangesa Upadhyaya) belonged to the Brahmin caste (as would be expected). some anti-ritualist. Culturally. the religion and social order of ritual and caste. 200CE) (Philips repeats the unsubstantiated and arbitrary dates given by Indologists such as Hopkins. which could affect his world-view.e.

These experiences are in public domain and can be objectively assessed. The branch of Expert Systems or Knowledge-based systems is concerned with acquiring this expertise to be stored in a Computer System. normal states of consciousness. neuroscientists and AI researchers. who ruled Kanyakubja (Kanauj) during 606 . The third Sri Harsha was a king from Kashmir whose rule was in (1089-1101) (Kalhana?s Rajatarangini. Consciousness A human being?s expertise in a particular subject can be seen to have two components: education. The proposition F is more likely to be TRUE. King Jayachandra was killed by Shahabuddin Ghori in 1194 A. There are three persons by name Sri Harsha. Krishna?s message in Gita. is the author of Naishadha Charitha.). One is the author of Khandanakhanda Khadya. We noted in section 1 that the Internet and the World Wide Web are giant information sources. Tarka-Samgraha states 10 : Jnanadhikaranam-atma Sa-dvividhah paramatma-jivatma-cha . For example. development lines of consciousness. In recent days. D. closes his or her eyes. while there is no exact agreement as to their relationship. A 4500-year old figure on a well-known Harappan seal. But there are deliberate misinformation campaigns launched through various web sites. Indian logic is aware of the spiritual dimension of human beings since its early days. the technique of meditation (dhyana). The Western medicine of today calls this "The Relaxation Response" referring to "a set of integrated physiological changes that are elicited when a subject assumes a relaxed position in a quiet environment. But the material cited above perpetuates several myths propagated by some Indologists. countering D. The first meaning is to "participate in" or "live through". is being increasingly used as a method for improving both physical and mental health. shows Siva-Pasupathi in a cross-legged yogic posture and later texts such as the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali document the available knowledge regarding this mode of perception of absolute reality.. Here the experience is a mental event or inner process that eludes public scrutiny. There seems to be a general consensus that neither mind nor brain can be reduced without a reminder to the other. The well-known events of the enlightenment experience of Gautama Buddha 2500 years ago or Ramana Maharshi?s mystic experience of death a century ago are examples of this phenomenon. They generated fundamental knowledge for mankind to be explored for millennia.) was in the court of king Jayachandra of Kanauj (Kanyakubja). psychologists. and makes typically Advaita moves. To these propositions we may add F. its history and its heritage. C. The word experience itself is something difficult to define. E. altered states of consciousness and the self or self system. Advaita is a monistic philosophy of awareness. This Sri harsha (1150-1200 A. One might say "I have combat experience" or "I have experience with personal computers and Internet". The second.C. Wilber considers the mind side of the equation and notes that at least five main components of mind are to be included in any comprehensive theory: development levels of consciousness. D. King Harsha .). "be aware of" or "be conscious of". and the perceptions of Vedic Rishis. Phyllis Granoff speculates that Sri Harsha was a Kashmiri. Sri Harsha is philosophically an Advaitin. which arose in a religious context in Asia. 7. "observe". preserved to this day as Vedas and Upanishads belong to this category of eternal knowledge.. The second meaning of experience is to "directly perceive". D. through which the person acquires the specialized knowledge of his field and the experience of applying this knowledge to solve problems in his field. D.646 A. see the web site dalitstan.org with links to United Christian Forum for human rights in Delhi for the venomous propaganda being carried out by some anti-national forces operating freely and involved in malicious misinformation campaigns against India." Consciousness plays a central role in the creation of human experience and there is a renewed interest in the West for an interdisciplinary study of human consciousness involving cognitive scientists. engages in repetitive mental action and passively ignores distracting thoughts. We may excuse Philips on the count that he is a professor of Philosophy and not a historian or an Indologist. Bhattacharya?s contention that he lived in Bengal.

APPENDIX Terms commonly used in Philosophy and Logic Agnosticism (from Greek. and especially concerning the claims of religious scriptures. while tens of millions enthusiastically take a bath in triveni-sangam on an auspicious day at the Kumbhmela. with "i-me-mine". ignorance-based misinformation and malicious misinformation. As regards the study of Indian Logic itself. Thunder and Lightning Dialectics: The art of discussion. This aspect is also briefly touched upon. invalid and unsound knowledge of doubtful quality. Indian Logic is eminently more suitable for studies involving consciousness. in proportion to (something else) Concomitance: One who accompanies or that which accompanies (in Logic also Pervasion (or Vyapti)). An aspect of spiritual practice is to inquire into the question "Who am I?" ( koham ?). It is twofold: paramatma and jivatma. Our education system miserably failed in imparting adequate knowledge regarding our scientific heritage to this ocean of humanity. because of. we have summarized the science of Logic as it evolved for over three thousand years in India from the point of view of Computer Science and Information technology. buddhi (intellect. which is the instrument in obtaining the knowledge of pleasure etc. Concomitant: Accompanying. A modern psychology inquiry is entitled "Consciousness evolves when the self dissolves" involving transformation of "I-ME-MINE" to a more gentle soul. and occurring along with. Example: Smoke and Fire. chitta (consciousness) and ahankara (ego) or two sheaths or layers of manomaya kosha (ordinary mind) and vijnanamaya kosha (higher illumined mind). Proper study of languages and an exposure to Nyaya has the potential to equip a scientist to prepare a quality thesis on the subject of his choice and defend the same in a meeting of experts.) (Mind is the internal organ. which Computers. The former is omnipotent. . omniscient and one only. The content of these giant information sources includes information. while providing loads of irrelevant. it is not sufficient to demonstrate to the world that India had great ancient traditions similar to those of Greece. It is twofold: paramatma and jivatma. is all pervading and eternal. 1. a not.) Sukhadyupalabdhi-sadhanamindriyam manah (The soul is the substratum of knowledge. with appropriate modern day examples. The immediate objective is to bring this material in simple terms (in all Indian languages) to be used by all in their pursuits.Tatreswarah Sarvajnah Paramatmaika eva Jivatma prati-sariram bhinno vibhurnityascha (The soul is the substratum of knowledge. The latter is different in each body. imparting right knowledge to the future citizens of India rather than providing mere functional literacy should be the goal of a national educational policy. gnosticos suitable for knowing ): The view that our powers of knowing are bounded in certain regards. Communications. Media and Information Technology can assume in this context is obvious. is all pervading and eternal. more particularly as regards the ultimate reasons to things. The former is omnipotent. In the author?s view. Concluding Remarks In this brief account. The altered states he talks about are known as samadhi and turiya avastha. The procedure was to accept an opponent?s view provisionally and to elicit from it contradictory consequences. This is a step towards answering Tagore?s prayer. where a few claim that they are "secular" or "agnostic" intellectuals.) Indian philosophy since long has distinguished mind into four levels of manas (mind). omniscient and one only. The entire machinery of Navya-Nyaya is directed towards the establishment of God as the Supreme Reality. The underlying context and the purpose behind the development of these traditional disciplines should also be recognized. Conjoined. wisdom). The latter is different in each body. We live in a country. scientists or philosophers calling many of their day-to-day religious activities "private superstitions". The enormous role. It is easy to see the influence of Indian philosophy on Wilber?s work cited above.

Notions and terms such as Brahminism and Hinduism have no scriptural validity. What is it about "blue" and "not blue"? There is no opposite of "blue" and the reality of "blueness" is to confirm to what is seen. Mahatomaheeyan. Negation of a concept also poses problems. by agreeing to use a word in a certain way. Is ALMIGHTY similar to INFINITY in Mathematics translated as ANANTHA? Infinity is necessary to theoretically complete a mathematical structure. The God of Bible is transcendent. Sakteya . and hence with the nature of knowledge and the things that can be known. Beauty vs. Jehovah or Allah. God. while describing Indian philosophy. though it is not useful for practical computations. Describing "Adavaitha" as "Monism" is an imperfect and an even misleading translation. Atma . Saura Kaumara and Ganapathya traditions. Western writers often use descriptors such as pantheism. by inducements. Naga etc. Christians and Muslims do believe that their God is the only true God and till today are concerned about "converting" others. "The people of the book" (Jews. Ex out and hegesthai to explain) Interpretation. Devas. Rudras. Apasaras. Adithyas. Hinduism is a recently introduced blanket term to encompass various traditional schools of thought such as Saiva. Vasus. His name is Yahweh. Gods: In many philosophical positions God and gods have to appear in one form or another. while interpreting terms such as Linga. The Christian . Vayu and Agni. For Aristotle. Muslims) recognize one single God. Pitrus. Is the meaning of "beauty". polytheism. propaganda or sword (depending on the situation) to their respective religions. Similar confusion exists between maya and illusion. Similarly can we say that atheism is not a complete system but it is more like elementary arithmetic at school level? Atheism might. Man is conceived as an image of God. caste system and practice of idolatry as the fundamental features of Hinduism.Exegesis: (From Greek. ugliness is in a beholder?s eye. or is it something we decide. smallness is in a thinker?s conception.Purusha and Brahman have distinct connotations and the notion of God as understood in the West is a small subset of these conceptualizations. Does language confirm to an objective reality? Even if the terms we use have objective reality. dealing with finite subsets.Parameswara. God was the prime mover who set the whole world in motion. Computers also cannot use infinity. Largeness vs. Christianity and Islam): Here God is the creator of Heaven and Earth and all that dwells there in. The first kind of scepticism is about there being "any principle of correctness in names other than convention and agreement". if the need arises for some and "the Merciful and the Compassionate" for some others. The Indian and Western notions differ widely with respect to God and gods. is objectively correct? God. God was a remote and unconcerned figure that had organized the world system and then let it run on its own. and can be known and recognized only through some act on his part. who retains close interest in how we proceed. He could be "jealous" and "cruel". Rishis. God may loosely be defined as the ultimate power on which the World and all that are in the Universe depend on. There are distinctions between "What is intelligible?" and " What is sensible?" Example (Plato): More beautiful than an ape and less beautiful than a goddess. Too small and too large are beyond its scope. One has to think of One who is Anoraneeyan. Christians. Vaishnava. which was the existing original matter. he lies beyond our grasp. therefore. "largeness".Paramatma. Kubera. used by Philips for Mimamsa in the context of Veda) Epistemology: (From Greek episteme knowledge) the branch of philosophy concerned with the justification of knowledge claims in the face of two kinds of scepticism. There are degrees of beauty and ugliness. In Protestant theology. We have to conceive of and accept about powers that vastly exceed ours. who in their opinion are worshipping false gods. Greek Gods: According to ancient Greeks. "holiness" and so on. God fashioned the world out of chaos. Prakriti . Christianity and Islam are essentially faiths or beliefs based on the teachings of a single prophet and a single book assumed to be relevant for all time to come and in this aspect have little or no philosophy associated with them. More errors creep in. namely the granting of divine grace. Lakshmi and Parvati). Gods and Goddesses of Sanathana Dharma : HINDU is a geographical name derived from "SINDHU" (the river INDUS). Greeks conceived God in the image of Man. Iswara . Dikpalas such as Indra. be dismissed as a philosophy of no consequence. Sanathana Dharma as described in Puranas recognizes several levels of divinities: Gandharvas. explanation (esp. God (Judaism. These divinities are in their loka s such as Vaikuntha and Kailasa in a complex cosmology (Brahmanda). Tri Murthis (Brahma. God in all his aspects is unknowable and must be revealed. something we can be said to know. Vishnu and Maheswara) and their concerts (Saraswati. He is conceived as an all-powerful king. For Plato. in Biblical context). Varuna. Most of them have no overall appreciation of the complex structure and historical evolution of the underlying religion. can we be sure that whatever we say using these terms. Yama. Sati.

Vaiseshika and later NYAYA are also initially deemed to be schools of realism. that our knowledge must rest on EXPERIENCE. mist or fogginess and unreality of thought. father of Artificial Intelligence. while drafting the Indian constitution. a field of Computer Science asserts that humans have only bounded rationality and that the term RATIONALITY only refers to economic rationality. It is a branch of enquiry that deals with fundamental questions about BEING (which is involved in saying that something is) and about what kinds of things there are in the world. In fact. Kant (1724 . The notion that IDEAS are something inside the human mind is that of Descartes (1596-1650). If an individual accepts the principle of "Sarva Dharma Sama Bhava". Idealism: (from Greek idea a thing seen) strictly "idea-ism" in philosophy is a doctrine that holds the world to be essentially a mental vision. The DVAITHA and the VISISHTADWAITHA views are said to be examples of realism. In some Islamic countries. Philosophy: (From Greek philos friend.g. and not merely in .) Ontology: (From Greek on. personal law). that part of metaphysics which treats of the nature and the essence of things. several Muslim leaders objected to translating Allah by terms such as God or Iswara. " Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism" is a book edited by Alf Heitelbetel. and sophos wisdom. Countries such as Saudi Arabia prohibit practice of other religions. it is illegal for non-Muslims to use the word Allah. General questions of a philosophic kind occur in all fields of systematic study? Examples: What is the philosophy of Computer Science? What are the goals and limits of Artificial Intelligence? What are the limits of language in explaining a concept? Rationalism: (From Latin ratio. hence "love of wisdom") In philosophy.1804) puts forward what may be called a theory of critical idealism. Herbert Simon. A statement such as "All roads lead to Rome" should be understood as with roads of differing distances. Example: Bhuvanam Satyam. Satyam Jagat Reality: (From Latin res thing) whatever is regarding as having existence as an objective thing. by means that are essentially held secret. For example. as against the common sense realist view that it something "out there" and independent of us. Some things are universal while others are individual. existence of different laws for different individuals in India on the basis of their religious labels is a violation of the constitutional principle of "equality of all citizens before the law" (e. seeking to attain a state of direct communion with God or the divine. In this theory. it amounts to his lacking discriminating ability (viveka). while Socrates is an individual. Knowledge is constructed in terms of ideas in the mind (either acquired by experience or held innately). where universals are mere names. "Iswara Allah There Nam" is only a Hindu conception. It should. no doubt. The title itself should be suggestive of the author?s attitude and bias. an outlook called EMPIRICISM. a Professor in the department of Religion at George Washington University. Brahminism is a term coined for a non-existent concept.Heaven and Hell are totally different from Swarga and other higher worlds and nether worlds such as Patala. See Sankara?s saying . the mind has equipment of its own (the concepts of SPACE and TIME as concepts of sensibility and the CATEGORIES as concepts of understanding) with which to digest experience and while nothing can be said about things in themselves. (Related to mystery. ontos to be and logos discourse) The science that treats the principle of pure being. be a guiding principle for the government. Realism: (a term of medieval philosophy) is that universals have real (thing like) existence.Viswam darpana drsyamana nagari tulyam nijantargatham and the aphorism Brahma Satyam Jagat Mithya Metaphysics: (From Greek meta after and physica natural things) so called because early editors of Aristotle put his book on "first philosophy " after that on "nature" (physics). This appears somewhat similar to ADVAITHA view. as it should not distinguish between individual citizens based on the religious labels acquired by them by virtue of their birth. Similarly. For example. Mysticism: (From Greek mysticos secret) is a speculative (or based on individual experience) streak in religion and philosophy. Opposed to this is the view. reason) is the philosophic position that sees that all knowledge of the world as based on reason alone. "man" is a universal. Logic provides a basis for a study of such contemporary political issues and concepts. as against Nominalism. Aristotle spoke in terms of things. it is illegal to carry icons and pictures of "Hindu" Gods even for personal use in such countries. Similarly "Sarva Dharma Samabhava" is a wrongly stated notion described by some as characterizing contemporary Hinduism and claimed by the so-called "secular" Hindu intellectuals as a guiding principle for Hindus. we are dealing with general questions.

Gautama?s Nyaya Sutras Pramana Prameya Proof. equivocation Cavil. Is a Real number in mathematics Veridical: Truth telling coinciding with fact. Purpose. Relevance Example. Dispute using sophistry Quibbling. Knowable. Members of syllogism Fallacy (false middle terms) Occasion for rebuke. thought or language. means knowledge of Jati Tarka Futility. Defeat situation Instance Thesis Samsaya Prayojana Dristanta Siddhanta Avayava Hetvabhasa Nigrahasthana Nirnaya Vada Jalpa Chala Vitanda Tattvajnanat Nihsreyassadhigama Conclusion. Debate. Conclusion. Objects of knowledge Doubt Aim.appearance. seemingly true to a fact more real than an Imaginary number ? Table 1. refutations judgment Provable. decision Discussion. wrangling debate From knowledge of true nature Attainment of supreme good References .

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