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Artificial intelligent

Artificial intelligent

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Published by Akash Rajput

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Published by: Akash Rajput on Oct 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Team Name: Aryan Team Members: Akash Rajput Anurag Tyagi Gaurav Jakhar Team Topic: Artificial Intelligence

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) is concerned with building something that will exhibit behavior we call intelligent. It only became feasible on any scale with the development of computers in the 1950s. Initial work was dominated by a particular idea of what was intelligent, which influenced both the problems selected and the methods of solution. Many of the problems involved high-level formal reasoning—for example how to produce mathematical proofs or to play chess. It was hoped these would be amenable to general problem-solving methods, in which the initial question and the solution were seen as points in a multidimensional space, the task being to find a path between them. This approach therefore focused on techniques for representing problems in such spaces, for searching through them, and for classifying the points within them. Important achievements include EXPERT SYSTEMS which use production systems as local rules-of-thumb for navigating through search spaces, and have been employed for example in the diagnosis of bacterial infections.

AI is the field within computer science that seeks to explain and to emulate, through mechanical or computational processes, some or all aspects of human intelligence. Included among these aspects of intelligence are the ability to interact with the environment through sensory means and the ability to make decisions in unforeseen circumstances without human intervention. Typical areas of research in AI include the playing of games

such as checkers or chess, natural language understanding and synthesis, computer vision, problem solving, machine learning, and robotics. There are four major AI methodologies: symbolic AI, connectionism, situated robotics, and evolutionary programming (Russell and Norvig 2003). AI artifacts are correspondingly varied. They include both programs (including neural networks) and robots, each of which may be either designed in detail or largely evolved. The field is closely related to artificial life (A-Life), which aims to throw light on biology much as some AI aims to throw light on psychology. AI researchers are inspired by two different intellectual motivations, and while some people have both, most favor one over the other. On the one hand, many AI researchers seek solutions to technological problems, not caring whether these resemble human (or animal) psychology. They often make use of ideas about how people do things. Programs designed to aid/replace human experts, for example, have been hugely influenced by knowledge engineering, in which programmers try to discover what, and how, human experts are thinking when they do the tasks being modeled.

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