FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

NATURE AND SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

Educational planning is an instrument for providing the needed coordination and direction of the different components of an educational system. It also ensure that widely accepted long term goals, such as universal primary education, are approached more objectively. It provides a realistic appraisal of the country's resources (human, on-human and institutional) which is an important factor in the successful implementation of the plan.

Through educational planning, a country indicates its willingness to effect an orderly change or reform in its educational system by bringing into focus the shortcomings or needs that hitherto had been ignored or unknown and so that appropriate action be affected. Overall educational planning, either as a part of the National Development Plan or as an independent plan is characterized by-

(A) An attempt to bring a balanced development of all sectors of the educational system. (B)The correlation of the educational effort with the national policy for ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (C)An effort to coordinate the QUANTITATIVE EXPANSION necessitated by Demographic factors and social demand with the QUANTITATIVE IMPROVEMENT in content, structure, and methods (D)The determination to ensure that the investment in education brings good dividends in the form FULFILLMENT OF MANPOWER NEEDS, the OVERALL DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL and the NATIONAL ECONOMIC,SOCIAL and CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT.

. It is a common experience that(A) A much wider variety of objectives(national/social/individual) than ever befialore is expected to be achieved from the function of education.CONCEPTS OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The concept of education has undergone a significant change in recent years. (B)what was once available to a limited(elitist)group or privileged persons is now being demanded by increasing number of persons belonging to all section of society.

(C) The task of providing educational facilities to all those who seek it is becoming a Function beyond the means of private individuals and organization. It includes the acquisition of occupational household skills. and the assimilation of pertinent knowledge and information of many sorts. and (D) An intensive search for strategies for educational development has become urgent Education is equated broadly with the teaching-learning situation that goes beyond the four walls of the school. the development of aesthetic appreciation and analytical modes of thinking. the formation of attitudes. . values and aspirations. It takes place under all kinds of circumstances and embraces much more than the conventional academic skills and subject matters.

family and social relations. FORMAL and NONFORMAL. religious beliefs and rites from daily experiences and environment where they belong. and social contacts relating to political and cultural activities. both verbal and non-verbal. . radio and television. INFORMAL EDUCATION is an unorganized an unsystematic but a truly life-long process whereby individuals acquire communicating skills. namely: INFORMAL.Education is categorized into three groups. etiquette. customs. so the adults continue to benefit from the informal education provided by newspaper periodicals and books.

g. academic awards and so forth. It caters solely for the purpose of teaching a clientele according to a set of patterns. school equivalency program. examinations. e. Agricultural extension and cooperatives. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION is any organized educational activity established outside the formal system whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activities that are intended to identifiable learning clientele and learning objectives. chronologically-graded educational system from the primary through the university. A pattern consists of such elements as grades or classes prescribed syllabuses and timetables. .FORMAL EDUCATION refers to the hierarchically-structured. functional literacy. programs such as pre-school of day-care centers and nurseries.

WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL PLANNING? Educational planning implies the taking of decisions for future action with a view of Achieving pre-determined objectives through the optimum use of scarce resources there are three main elements in this definition. (1)PRE-DETERMINED OBJECTIVES (2)USE OF SCARCE RESOURCES (3)TAKING DECISIONS .

EDUCATION IN THE WIDEST SENSE AS CONCIEVED FOR PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. . IS A SOCIAL ACTIVITY WHOSE RESULTS BECOME MEASURABLE ONLY AFTER A CONSIRDERABLE TIME SPAN.TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL PLAN The determination of the horizon or duration of an education plan is a must for planners Conformably.

is prepared against the backdrop of a long-term perspective plan. LONG-TERM OR PERSPECTIVE PLAN. MEDIUM-TERM PLAN-usually 4-5years. The planners should envision the kind of society. 2. It has proven operationally to be most efficient. It defines the goals and targets with greater clarity and provides a definite basis of action.A plan may be classified according to time horizon/duration as follows 1. the kind of political. . Educational planning has to be based on a concept of the future. intellectual and social leadership.extends from 10 to 20 or even 25 years.

SHORT-TERM PLAN needs to be adopted only as an inevitable alternative to medium-term planning and on an emergency basis. SINGLE-PURPOSE PLANis an administrative operation. 4. The introduction of "rolling plan´ has eliminated the need for short term plan. which is usually adopted when particular objectives like implementing a reform measure. .3. building an institution or piloting legislation is to be achieved.

communicating. utilities and has its origins in the regulations and control of town development. 2. ALLOCATIVE AND INNOVATIVE PLANNING ALLOCATIVE PLANNING-is concern with coordination. PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC PLANNING PHYSICAL PLANNING-is the planning of an area's physical structure-land use. the resolution of conflicts ensuring that the existing system is ticking over efficiency through time in accordance with involving policies. ECONOMIC PLANNING-is concerned more with economic structure of an area and its overall level of propriety.TYPES OF PLANNING ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS 1. .

and time bounded . specific. GOAL is an ideal and should be expressed in abstract terms. It is known as DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 3.INNOVATIVE PLANNING-is concerned with improving. while an objective is capable of both attainment and measurement. MULTI AND SINGLE OBJECTIVE PLANNING Whatever is type or form. OBJECTIVE should be measurable. result oriented. attain table. realistic. developing the system as a whole. planning has goals and objectives.

4. but all of them maybe summarized under three major categories.involves specific directives. APPROACHES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING The significant job of planning education must be based on well-defined objectives.merely lays down general guidelines and is advisory in nature. actually the definition of objectives defends on the choice that a nation makes out of alternative approaches to educational planning. INDICATIVE AND IMPERATIVE PLANNING INDICATIVE PLANNING . Several approaches have been discussed in literature and adopted by different countries for planning educational activities. IMPERATIVE PLANNING. .

and prospective area of national income. .SOCIO-CULTURAL APPROACH 2. MANPOWER/PERSON POWER APPROACH 3. social aspirations and cultural goals. INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY APPROACH SOCIO-CULTURAL APPROACH is the determining of educational needs and development in terms of current demands for education at different levels on the basis of population. age distribution.1.

the planners should have to foresee the future occupational structure of the economy of the nation and to plan educational system that will provide the requisite number of personnel with qualification that the structure demands. .MANPOWER/PERSON POWER APPROACH is gearing of educational efforts to the fulfillment of national manpower requirements. In other words.

11.INVESTMENT EFFECIENCY APPROACH is the determining of the investment to be made in education according to the rate of return or benefit of effectiveness. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING SOCIOLOGICAL-consideration should be borne in mind when overall educational planning is done plans maybe be very accurately drawn up but these may fail unless the necessary attitudes are acquired by the people to be trained. Four salient aspects are worthy of focus: .

social upheaval become a dilemma of the educational planner.(A) IMPACT OF PLANNING ON SOCIETY-one of the functions of planning is determining collective action for future changes. He has to ensure how the limited resources available for education . This may not be as strong as the caste in India. for the attainment of collective goals within the bounds of available resources (B) SOCIAL ASPIRATIONS RELATING TO EDUCATION-every society seems to have system of STRATIFICATION that is a way by which its members are divided into higher or lower strata. but we do have it here as in the case of the farmers group.

(D) ROLE OF EXTERNAL PRESSURE IN EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT . Each society has a culture or a collection of subcultures which consists of what each society or its group has selected from the natural environment.(C) SOCIAL SANCTIONS AND TABOOS IN EDUCATION an educational planner should have understanding of the social sanctions and taboos which have a bearing on change.

. The politician's attitude oftentimes brings him in conflict with the ideas of the educational planner or administrator.External pressures on educational planning and management are generated by the following. (a) Political ideologies (b) Politicians (c) Lobbies (d) International agencies and movements (e) Foreign aids The impact on the political ideology of the government in power on educational policy is vital and has to be recognized by the planner as providing the overall framework within which education is to be planned and developed.

) or consumption now versus future consumption to spend right now or to save for later spending) . etc. clothing recreation.ECONOMICS ECONOMICS-deals primarily with the allocation of scarce resources to alternative uses this may refer to the behavior of an individual. different elements of consumption (food. the distribution of limited recourses (his income) over his expenditures that satisfy different needs.

. we concern ourselves only to formal or in-school education. Again it is useful to distinguish the cost to society as a whole (which is the concern of the government) from the cost to the person who receives the education.THE COST OF EDUCATION For our purpose.

BENEFITS FROM EDUCATION A listing of the benefits from education is much less straightforward than that of the cost elements. Another reason is that. . One reason for this is that there are several among them that are not measurable in simple economic terms. Much of the branch of economics that is called the "ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION" is based on the assumption that more education leads to higher productivity. it is not always possible to determine whether a benefit we see is due to one factor to another.

Lack of efficient Communication and coordination between the planning Service and the financial service and the financial and management service . Demand far in excess of capacity 3. Imbalances which prove wasteful within the Educational system 2. Insufficient job opportunities for the Graduates Resulting to Unemployment and under Employment 5.1. Cost Rising faster than income 4.

why should an educational planner be conversant with the structure of the educational system? If one examines the main reforms that have taken place in very recent times in educational system.PEDAGOGICAL PEDAGOGY or the science of teaching comprises the sum total of our knowledge and experience in bringing about learning. teacher needs and the like. one finds that the structure has been the first element to be reviewed and changed every change in the structure has immediate repercussion in the work of the educational planner. . his costing and financial statements have to be change to match the structure. All his projections of enrolment.

DEMOGRAPHIC DEMOGRAPHY is the statistical study of the characteristics of human population especially with reference to size and density. migration and vital statistics and the effect of these on social and economic conditions. distribution. . growth.

and its ultimate aim is to maximize the welfare the population. educational planning cannot be separated from considerations about dynamics of population growth and change . age and sex composition. and geographic distribution.POPULATIONS DYNAMICS The educational planning is for people. Developing as it does with a "target" population which is constantly changing in number.

the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) has been created as mandated by the constitution to assume the central role of coordinating planning at the aggregate level and overall program implementation. .EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT THE NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL LEVELS THE PLANNING MECHANISMS On the national level. It is charged with the task of planning and overseeing government development policies and motivator project activities.

. depending on the location and/or level the education plan.THE EDUCATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS AT NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL LEVELS Each sector is responsible in the preparation of plans to be integrated into the national/regional/provincial/city and/or municipal development plans. so that the education sector continuously coordinates horizontally and vertically with the other sector. like those of other sectors. constitutes only one component in these development plans.

so as to get the change dissemmeted and adopted in an actual school situation. or in any segment of the personnel group involved in education. designing the kind of education we want and ought to have for the future is difficult but not impossible task.The Philippine government has now come to recognize that the achievement of social progress and accelerated productivity must defend on the development of the region. NECESSITY FOR LINKAGES AND COORDINATION At any level of the educational enterprise. vertical and horizontal. There has to be a built-in and clear implication for all levels of education the so called "linkage system". .

PLANNING CHALLENGES AT THE NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL LEVELS PLANNING CHALLENGES AT THE NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL LEVELS Planning at the national and sub-national level is confronted with several problems that our educational system faces presently. Among these problems . Now it is imperative to look briefly at them for what they tell us about the concentrate tasks which educational planning at the national and subnational levels must now cope with.

If choices do not exist. they should be freedom to an individual teacher to plan something for himself and so on. districts. Even in an institutional plan. The existence of choices and planning go together. there can be no planning. . Likewise.EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT THE INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL School heads with the genuine interest and the desire to render efficient work that maybe expected of them must have clearly thought of in advance what they propose to accomplish during their tem of duty. The national plan leaves a very large freedom to the regions to plan in the light of their own conditions. the division. and institutions/schools should enjoy a good deal of freedom to plan for themselves.

It is a challenge because of the several intricacies and complex problems for which practical and realistic solution will have to be found. . It also requires that all persons concerned.A CHALLENGE AND AN OPPORTUNITY The program of institutional planning has both a challenge and opportunity. The program is also an opportunity. it is probably the principal tool which will help us improve education in the present situation when financial resources are so scare and the need is so urgent.

they emphasize human efforts rather than additional money investment. from this point of view. .CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INSTITUTIONAL PLAN INSTITUTIONAL PLANS ARE NOT A CHARTER OF ADDITIONAL DEMANDS. Their primary objectives is to make the best utilization of existing resources and.

. and students. teachers. A good educational plan must be known to all. They must involved everyone concerned the principal. parents. that it must be able to secure their full cooperation and that it must assign specific responsibilities and duties to each teacher and other officials.INSTITUTIONAL PLAN MUST BE BROADBASED AND DEMOCRATIC.

With pride in oneself and with success If we can follow this up. This is what we have to insist upon doing things with dignity. we will not accept any excuse to failure. we do not mind how small a plan a teacher prepares. institutional plan can be put up successfully on the ground. our motto should be: "not high aim but failure is a crime. But once you decide to do something. .INSTITUTIONAL PLANS MUST BE PRACTICAL AND REALISTIC RATHER THAN UTOPIAN OR OVER-AMBITIOUS For educational plans."I want to improve the handwriting of my children what you decide to do is immaterial. Let somebody say.

COMPONENTS OF AN INSTITUTIONAL PLAN In institutional planning attention should be focused to four important matters. namely: 1.THE OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING. regional or rational program. The aims of institutional planning cannot be different from the aims of educational planning but the immediate objectives and specific purpose of the programs of action at instructional level may differ in the order of priority and degree of importance with the district. division. . This is inherent in the very nature of the type of problems which institution faces.

II. (1) Improving the school Plant (2) Improvement Of instruction (3) Extra curricular activities for pupils (4) Community programs for the schools .THE SCOPE OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING: the scope of institutional planning may be spelled out as follows.

THE PROCEDURE: the technical and procedural aspects of educational planning at institutional level cannot be rigidly defined or specifically laid down.III. Being essentially institution-centered it will have to accommodate a wide range of differences in conditions and methods of operation the cardinal principles of planning and techniques of implementation should identify the following stages in the institutional planning procedure: .

care has to be taken to see that: (a) Existing facilities and recourses are utilized to the maximum extent (b) Participation and involvement of the public. . teachers.(a) Identification of the needs of the school and demarcation of its lines of development. and pupils are facilitated. (b) Estimating resources available and resources harness able for the improvement and development of the school. (c) Determination of priorities and formulation of the plan IV.IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANS: (1) In the IMPLEMENTATION of institutional plans.

TAHA Professor .(2) EVALUATION. Prepared by: ROLANDO A. Performances audit which would examine achievements in the terms of objectives. diagnose difficulties and the offer solution to the problems.

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