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TITLE: “PAPER BAG MANUFACTURER OF NORTH INDIA” (How much beneficial for Yash Paper Limited )

A Report Submitted to Ishan Institute Of Management & Technology, Greater Noida as a part Fulfillment to Full Time Post Graduate Diploma In Management

Submitted to:

Dr. D.K.Garg, Chairman, IIMT,Greater Noida.

Submitted to: Dr. D.K.Garg, Chairman, IIMT,Greater Noida. Submitted by: Jay Ganesh Tripathi Enr. No.-14095 PGDBM, 14

Submitted by:

Jay Ganesh Tripathi Enr. No.-14095 PGDBM, 14 th Batch

Ishan Institute of Management & Technology

1A, Knowledge Park-I, Greater Noida, Distt. G.B. Nagar (UP) Website: www.ishanfamily.com, E-mail: - ishan_corporate@yahoo.com

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to all those persons who extended

their help, guidance and suggestions without which it would not have been

possible to complete the project report.

I am deeply indebted to my guide Mr. Shailesh Singh ( Asst. Marketing Manager,Yash Papers Limited Darshan Nagar, Faizabad). For his

valuable and enlightened guidance and who encouraged me in compilation

of my project.

I am really thankful to Dr. D.K. Garg (Chairman, Ishan Institute of

Management and Technology), who has been the chief facilitator of this project and I could enhance my knowledge in the field of paper industry.

JAY GANESH TRIPATHI ENR NO-14095

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DECLARATION

The summer training project on PAPER BAG MANUFACTURE OF NORTH INDIA (How much beneficial for Yash Paper Limited ) .Under the guidance of Mr. Shailesh Singh is the original work done by me. This is the property of the institute and use of this report without prior permission of the institute will be considered illegal and actionable.

Date:

Signature- Jay Ganesh Tripathi Enr No.-14095

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TRAINING CERTIFICATE

TRAINING CERTIFICATE 3

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title: PAPER BAG MANUFACTURER OF NORTH INDIA (How much beneficial for Yash Paper Limited )

Chapter No.

Chapter Name

Page No.

1

Executive Summary

6-7

2

Objective

8

3

Indian Paper Industry

 
 

Paper Industry In India

9-13

 

Major Deterrent – Fibre Deficiency

14-16

 

Pulp And Paper Industry -(Raw Material Preparation)

17-34

 

Indian Paper Manufacturers Association (IPMA)

35-40

 

Paper And Its Types

41-89

4

Study Of Leading Five Companies

 
 

Century Pulp And Paper(CPP)

90-101

 

Jk Paper Limited

102-114

 

Rama Paper Mills Limited

115-119

 

West Coast Paper Mills Limited

120-138

 

Orient Paper & Industries Limited (OPIL)

139-142

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Introduction On Yash Papers Limited

143

 

Mission And Vision

144-146

 

Code of Conduct & Equipment

147-166

 

Products

167-170

 

Managing Risks At Yash Papers

171-177

 

Managerial Hierarchy

178

 

Paper Manufacturing

179

 

Balance Sheet Of Company

180-189

 

10-Year Financial Summary

190-193

6

Demand And Supply

194-211

7

Trade Profile Of Company

212-250

8

Business Strategy

 
 

Company Policies

251

 

Marketing Policies

251-252

 

Expansion Plan

253

 

Sales Network

254-260

 

Social Commitment

261

4

 

Investors

262

 

R & D Initiatives

262-263

9

Job Profile/ Assignment Profile

 
 

Work Assign

264

 

Finding

264-268

 

Swot Analysis

269

 

Learning

270-272

 

Suggestion

272-273

10

Conclusion

274-278

11

Bibliography

279

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CHAPTER 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This project was undertaken to understand the market of Paper bag .Yash Papers specialize in low grammage unbleached Kraft Paper made by agricultural residues such as Bagasse (sugar cane waste) and Jute bags. Yash paper is the global trading company, seeking for trade partners to start new business deals and keep onwards the strong relationship. Company aim is to serve you the best as holding on win-win solution.

The paper grocery bag is an American innovation and was designed in 1883. It’s made from kraft paper – the word ‘kraft’ coming from the German language meaning ’strong’. Kraft paper is known for its strength and course texture. It’s strength lends to its reusability.

According to the American Forest & Paper Association, 2007 marked an all-time high of 56% for the recycling of paper consumed in the U.S. Curbside paper collection is easy and readily available in most parts of the country. While I applaud the consumer and the industry for reaching this goal and beyond (the industries goal is 60% by 2012) I’d like to point out that the manufacturing of paper products, like plastic, consumes natural resources and creates pollution. As a matter of fact, the production of a paper bag consumes 1 gallon of water (yep, per bag) equating to 50 times that of plastic bags. Yikes!

How does a paper bag get from forest to grocery store? Trees are found, marked and felled. Machinery is then used to remove the logs from the forest floor – whether by logging or, in more remote areas, helicopters.

Machinery requires fossil fuels and roads (which destroy habitat) thereby creating stress on the forests’ inhabitants (even logging a small area has a large impact on the entire ecological chain in surrounding areas).

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Trees must dry at least three years before they can be used to make paper. Once aged, machinery is used to strip the bark, which is then chipped into 1 inch squares and cooked under tremendous heat and pressure. This wood stew is then ‘digested’ with a limestone and sulfurous acid for eight hours. The steam and moisture is vented to the outside atmosphere, and the original wood becomes pulp. It takes approximately three tons of wood chips to make one ton of pulp.

The pulp is then washed and bleached, both stages requiring thousands of gallons of clean water. Coloring is added to more water, and is then combined in a ratio of 1 part pulp to 400 parts water to make paper. The pulp/water mixture is dumped onto a web of bronze wires, the water showers through, leaving the pulp to dry. This final product is then rolled into paper.

Whew! What a lot of resources to just make the paper. We must include all of the chemicals, electricity, and fossil fuels used in the shipment of this raw material and in the production and shipment of a finished paper bag.

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CHAPTER 2

OBJECTIVE

How much paper bag manufacture beneficial for Yash Papers Limited?

To know Demand of paper bag mostly in urban area .

How manufacturing of paper bag is very profitable for business.

To find how the services provided by Yash paper limited are better and cheaper to there competitors.

TO find out how much GSM paper use by Paper Bag manufacturer.

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PAPER BAG MANUFACTURER OF NORTH INDIA

CHAPTER 3

INDIAN PAPER INDUSTRY PAPER INDUSTRY

The new millennium is going to be the millennium of the knowledge. So demand for paper would go on increasing in times to come. In view of paper industry's strategic role for the society and also for the overall industrial growth it is necessary that the paper industry performs well.

Government has completely delicensed the paper industry with effect from17th July, 1997. The entrepreneurs are now required to file an Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandum with the Secretariat for Industrial Assistance for setting up a new paper mill or substantial expansion of the existing mill in permissible locations.

The Paper industry is a priority sector for foreign collaboration and foreign equity participation upto 100% receives automatic approval by Reserve Bank of India. Several fiscal incentives have also been provided to the paper industry, particularly to those mills which are based on non-conventional raw material.

PAPER INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Paper industry in India is the 15th largest paper industry in the world. It provides employment to nearly 1.5 million people and contributes Rs 25 billion to the government's kitty. The government regards the paper industry as one of the 35 high priority industries of the country. Paper industry is primarily dependent upon forest-based raw materials. The first paper mill in India was set up at Sreerampur, West Bengal, in the year 1812. It was based on grasses and jute as raw material. Large scale mechanized technology of papermaking was introduced in India in early 1905. Since then the raw material for the paper industry underwent a number of changes and over a period of time,

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besides wood and bamboo, other non-conventional raw materials have been developed for use in the papermaking. The Indian pulp and paper industry at present is very well developed and established. Now, the paper industry is categorized as forest-based, agro- based and others (waste paper, secondary fibre, bast fibers and market pulp).

In 1951, there were 17 paper mills, and today there are about 515 units engaged in the manufacture of paper and paperboards and newsprint in India. The pulp & paper industries in India have been categorized into large-scale and small-scale. Those paper industries, which have capacity above 24,000 tonnes per annum are designated as large- scale paper industries. India is self-sufficient in manufacture of most varieties of paper and paperboards. Import is confined only to certain specialty papers. To meet part of its raw material needs the industry has to rely on imported wood pulp and waste paper.

Indian paper industry has been de-licensed under the Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951 with effect from 17th July, 1997. The interested entrepreneurs are now required to file an Industrial Entrepreneurs' Memorandum (IEM) with the Secretariat for Industrial Assistance (SIA) for setting up a new paper unit or substantial expansion of the existing unit in permissible locations. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) up to 100% is allowed on automatic route on all activities except those requiring industrial licenses where prior governmental approval is required. Growth of paper industry in India has been constrained due to high cost of production caused by inadequate availability and high cost of raw materials, power cost and concentration of mills in one particular area. Government has taken several policy measures to remove the bottlenecks of availability of raw materials and infrastructure development. For example, to overcome short supply of raw materials, duty on pulp and waste paper and wood logs/chips has been reduced.

Following measures need to be taken to make Indian paper industry more competitive:

Improvements of key ports, roads and railways and communication facilities.

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Revision of forest policy is required for wood based paper industry so that plantation can be raised by industry, cooperatives of farmers, and state government. Degraded forest land should be made available to the industry for raising plantations.

Import duty on waste paper should be reduced.

Duty free imports of new & second hand machinery/equipment should be allowed for technology up gradation

The Indian Paper Industry accounts for about 1.6% of the world’s production of paper and paperboard. The estimated turnover of the industry is Rs 25,000 crore (USD 5.95 billion) approximately and its contribution to the exchequer is around Rs. 2918 crore (USD 0.69 billion). The industry provides employment to more than 0.12 million people directly and 0.34 million people indirectly. The industry was delicenced effective from July, 1997 by the Government of India; foreign participation is permissible. Most of the paper mills are in existence for a long time and hence present technologies fall in a wide spectrum ranging from oldest to the most modern.

The mills use a variety of raw material viz. wood, bamboo, recycled fibre, bagasse, wheat straw, rice husk, etc.; approximately 35% are based on chemical pulp, 44% on recycled fibre and 21% on agro-residues. The geographical spread of the industry as well as market is mainly responsible for regional balance of production and consumption.

With added capacity of approximately 0.8 million tons during 2007-08 the operating capacity of the industry currently stands at 9.3 million tons. During this fiscal year, domestic production of paper and paperboard is estimated to be 7.6 million tons. As per industry guesstimates, over all paper consumption (including newsprint) has now touched 8.86 million tons and per capita consumption is pegged at 8.3 kg.

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Demand of paper has been hovering around 8% for some time. During the period 2002- 07 while newsprint registered a growth of 13%, Writing & Printing, Containerboard, Cartonboard and others registered growth of 5%, 11%, 9% and 1% respectively. So far, the growth in paper industry has mirrored the growth in GDP and has grown on an average 6-7 per cent over the last few years. India is the fastest growing market for paper globally and it presents an exciting scenario; paper consumption is poised for a big leap forward in sync with the economic growth and is estimated to touch 13.95 million tons by 2015-16. The futuristic view is that growth in paper consumption would be in multiples of GDP and hence an increase in consumption by one kg per capita would lead to an increase in demand of 1 million tons. As per industry estimates, paper production is likely to grow at a CAGR of 8.4% while paper consumption will grow at a CAGR of 9% till 2012-13. The import of pulp & paper products is likely to show a growing trend.

Foreign funds interest in the Indian paper sector is growing. IFC, the investment arm of the World Bank is already associated with at least three of the IPMA member mills.

GROWTH PANGS

The increasing demand for paper brings with it new challenges of economies of scale, efficient usage of resources, need to develop and expand sustainable use of fibre, and value chain management, etc. Despite the fact that the Indian Paper Industry holds its importance to the national economy, unfortunately it stands fragmented.

Paper sector is dominated by small and medium size units; number of mills of capacity 50000 tons per annum or more is not more than 25. Less than half a dozen mills account for almost 90% production of newsprint in the country. There is a growing need to modernize the Indian mills, improve productivity and build new capacities.

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AGRO FORESTRY

In India, the paper industry is primarily rural based with close linkages with farming community. Over the years it has evolved into an agro-based industry from its earlier character of a forest-based industry.

WOOD REQUIREMENT OF PAPER INDUSTRY:

Currently Indian paper industry is consuming only about 7 million MT or about 3% of the total wood consumed in India; about 90% is consumed as fuel wood.

Additional raw material requirement by 2012-13 is anticipated to be about 8 million tons of wood which will be about 6% of total consumption of the country. This would require afforesting 2 million Ha of land mass to maintain proper ecological balance.

MYTH AND THE REALITY

While all pervading myth that continues to slur the image of the industry is that it perpetually uses forest raw material and consequently denudes natural forests of the country, the truth is that over the last decade, industry led farm/social forestry have brought around 0.25 million hectares under pulp wood plantations, mainly degraded marginal lands of farmers. At the current estimate, wood based segment of the industry uses 80 per cent of the total requirement from farm produced wood. In particular, IPMA member mills have been actively promoting agro forestry with private land holders/farmers to meet imminent raw material needs in a sustainable manner thereby, positively impacting the Greening India mission of the Government. Also, the industry initiative has created major employment in the remote areas in close proximity to the manufacturing facilities thereby, helping rural development.

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GLOBAL SCENARIO

Globally, paper industry has realized a linkage between production of paper and the farming community thereby infusing huge capital in agricultural economy. The USA, Latin America, Scandinavian countries, Australia, Japan and neighboring Asian countries viz. China, Indonesia etc. all have been quick to create conducive land use/forestry policies to encourage large-scale production plantations and attract mega investments in pulp and paper/paperboard manufacturing and in the process creating millions of jobs.

INDIA IMPERATIVE

In order to replicate success stories of major global players in the field of Production/ Industrial Plantation, IPMA continues to advocate for atleast 2% access to degraded forestland on lease. It is IPMA’s firm belief that besides facilitation of social/farm forestry on private/revenue waste lands, if paper mills are permitted to grow pulpable wood in the radius of 150 – 200 KMs to their facilities on the available degraded forest land as well, it would hugely help mills to achieve cost competitiveness in terms of wood and freight and would also, help generate employment, create wealth for the rural poor and lend protection to environment. In this context, IPMA has pleaded for adoption of Multi Stakeholder Partnership (MSP) model recently propounded by MoEF for afforestation of degraded land.

MAJOR DETERRENT – FIBRE DEFICIENCY

WOOD

India’s wood resources are limited therefore, cost of wood is much higher in global comparison. Since there is conspicuous absence of Government’s enabling policies favouring industrial/production plantation, securing future wood supplies will be Industry’s biggest challenge. Wood based segment of the paper industry meets its current

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wood requirements mainly through social/farm forestry and supplements with purchases made from the State Forest Development Corporations.

BAGASSE/ STRAW

Though annual availability of agro residues is large yet, this may not be able to sustain the future growth of the Industry, taking due account of quality of paper required, environmental issues involved, etc. Moreover, bagasse is increasingly used by sugar mills for co-generation of power and no more easily available to the paper mills as raw material.

WASTE PAPER

Recovered fibre consumption is going up globally. In India about 850,000-1,000,000 tons of waste paper is being currently recovered annually. The recovery rate works out to about 20% which is much lower in comparison with 65% recovery achieved by many global players. Low recovery is on account of alternate use of paper in wrapping, packing, etc. The utilization rate of recovered fibre is only 47%. Paper mills are heavily dependent on imported waste paper which commands exorbitant price due to inadequate availability. India needs a well-defined and aggressive system for collection, sorting, grading and utilization recyclable waste paper to contain imports.

ENERGY COST

The Government of India has recently withdrawn core sector status hitherto enjoyed by the paper industry. Cost of coal is escalating and prospect of availability of quality coal is diminishing. The imported coal price (Indonesian Origin – GCV 6000Kcal/Kg) had crossed USD 100/MT; such steep price rise had resulted in escalation of cost of production of those mills which happened to be dependent on imported coal for generation of steam/power. Also, power purchased from the grid is proving expensive for the industry.

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The Indian Paper Industry is among the top 15 global players today, with an output of more than 6 millions tones annually with an estimated turnover of Rs. 150,000 millions. (approx. USD 3400 million).

Paper Industry in India is riding on a strong demand and on an expanding mood to meet the projected demand of 8 million tones by 2010 & 13 million tones by 2020.

A large number of expansion programme & expansion of capacities with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 crores have been announced covering the various sectors like paper, paperboard, newsprint etc.

The Indian Economy is progressing well and targeting 8%+ growth. The economic reforms coupled with the liberalized Government Policies, India today offers excellent business opportunity for investments.

One of the first FDI Projects may come through the proposed Finnish proposal to set up a 400000 tpa capacity plant with an investment of US$240 million.

The expanding Industrial Scenario calls for efforts to tackle related problems:

Industry needs capital and technology.

Since energy cost accounts nearly 25 per cent of cost of production there is an urgency to improve energy management and energy consumption.

Quantum jump in production, called for by the demand projection is possible only by expansion of existing capacity and creation of additional capability. Upgradation of technology and new capacities also involve massive investment.

Use of agro residues for preparation of pulp also throws up challenges like pollution control, recycling, use of cost effective technology for utilization of agro residues, etc.

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THE WORLD PAPER INDUSTRY

The paper industry tends to be concentrated in those countries that are industrially advanced and have abundant supplies of fibrous raw material, especially wood. There is a large-scale international trade in wood pulp, pulpwood, and paper flowing from those countries with large forest resources to those countries with less or that are as yet undeveloped.

PULP

PREPARATION)

AND

PAPER

INDUSTRY

-(RAW

MATERIAL

WOOD BASED MILLS - SELECTION OF CHIPPERS & CONVEYING EQUIPMENT:

Chippers are one of the major consumers of power in a wood based paper mill. It is suggested that energy efficient, high capacity, chippers be selected. The unitisation of equipment (select only one high capacity chipper) results in obtaining good operating efficiency.

Another factor to be seen in achieving optimum efficiency at chipper house is the optimal feed rate. To achieve the optimal feed rate, mechanised conveying to chipper is to be planned at design stage. This will result in better capacity utilisation of the chippers.

Conveying of chips also consumes considerable energy. The different methods of conveying chips are pneumatic conveying, screw conveying or belt conveying. The most energy efficient chips conveying is through belt conveyor. During design stage consideration should be given for layout to minimise transportation. This will result in power savings in chipper house. Planning of belt conveying systems for chips transport

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will also reduce maintenance cost (due to lower wear and tear compared to pneumatic conveying systems) and reduce atmospheric emissions from chippers.

During design stage, the paper mills should plan to burn chip-dust in the paper mill's power boilers. This will reduce consumption of purchased fuels in the paper mill's power boilers and eliminate environmental problems associated with chip-dust disposal.

WASTE PAPER BASED MILLS:

In countries like India, where there is a shortage of conventional raw material, every effort should be made to encourage utilisation of waste paper. It can be either imported or indigenous.

BAGASSE PROCESSING:

The general practice followed in the paper industry is to carry out moist depithing in the paper mill. Instead, the following can be thought of at the design stage itself.

Plan moist depithing operations at sugar mill instead of paper mill. Also, plan to compact the moist depithed bagasse at the sugar mill, before transportation to the paper mill. This will eliminate transportation of pith from the sugar mill to the paper mill, and also reduce the volume of bagasse to be transported to the paper mill.

Plan for burning the pith, generated by moist depithing, in the sugar mill boilers. This will reduce the consumption of purchased fuels in the sugar mill boilers.

Plan a thickening system for pith generated at wet cleaning, and burn the thickened pith in the paper mill's power boilers. This will reduce the consumption of purchased fuels in the paper mill's power boilers.

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PULP MILL -

Pulping converts wood chips into fibres by the chemical reaction between lignin and the active chemicals in the cooking liquor.

EXTENDED DELIGNIFICATION

WOOD PULPING

The advanced cooking process, with extended delignification based on displacement heating in batch digesters or continuous vertical digesters, has given good results. The benefits of such process sequences are multi-fold.

Saves energy Energy recycling saves upto 75% of steam demand. The steam consumption can be brought down from 2.0 t/t of unbleached pulp to 0.65 t/t of unbleached pulp.

Uniform and better pulp quality/properties, resulting in better machine runnability and efficiency

Higher brightness levels can be achieved due to low kappa from digesters

Considerable savings in bleaching chemicals, and less pollution

NON-WOOD FIBRES

Continuous digesters may be planned for cooking non-wood fibres instead of using rotary spherical batch digesters. The following are the benefits realised by using continuous digesters.

Uniformity in pulp quality

Flexible production through controlled retention time

Optimum heat economy

Incorporation of cold blow system prevents damage to pulp fibres during blowing and eliminates the need for blow heat recovery system.

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WASHING

Though washing is not a major consumer of energy, there still exists a scope for energy saving and environmental impact reduction. The suggested black liquor concentration leaving the washing section is 18% for wood pulp and 12% for agro residues. Some of the proven equipment in washing are

Flat belt/wire washer

Double wire press

DD washer

Twin roll press

The above are advanced types of washing equipment and have several advantages. Some of them are

Less energy intensive when compared to conventional drum washing.

Operate at higher pulp consistency levels; pulp enters at 3.0% consistency and leaves at 32% consistency. BOD and COD discharged with the pulp, is less. Hence, less bleach chemical is required and colour of the bleach plant effluent is significantly reduced.

Increased black liquor solids concentration to evaporators and reduced steam demand in evaporators. The black liquor concentration at inlet to evaporators increases from 15% to 18%.

Chemicals loss is only 10 kg/t of pulp when compared to 20 kg/t of pulp in conventional drum washing.

These equipment operate with a dilution factor of 1.5 as against a dilution factor of 3.0 for conventional drum washers. Hence, water consumption is only 50% as compared to conventional drum washers. This increases the weak black liquor

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(WBL) concentration and results in substantial reduction in steam requirement in black liquor evaporation plant.

Hence, it is recommended that such energy efficient washing systems are installed, instead of conventional drum washers.

SCREENING

Many improvements have taken place in screening. The installation of pressure screens can result in good energy savings. The pressure screens can be operated at a higher consistency, typically 3.5%, against the conventional screening at 1.5% consistency. This results in enormous energy savings in pumping energy. The separation efficiency of the pressure screen is 95%, while that of the conventional screens is only 65% to 70%. Another advantage is that the centricleaners can be completely avoided, if high pressure screens with slotted baskets of proper slot size are installed. Therefore, pressure screens should be installed and centricleaners should be avoided in pulp mills.

OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION

With oxygen delignification, it is possible to reduce the kappa number of the pulp by nearly 50%, thus resulting in savings in bleach chemicals. It also results in reduced effluent load from the pulp mill, with reduction in the formation of organic material, like COD and AOX.

The additional black liquor solids generated in oxygen delignification stage is sent to chemical recovery for recovery of heat and chemicals in black liquor. This stage not only recovers chemical in an environmental-friendly manner but also recovers energy, which otherwise adds to COD, BOD and AOX load of effluent from bleach plant.

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BLEACHING

The type of bleaching sequence significantly impacts environmental aspects. In India, most of the plants still use elemental chlorine as a bleaching chemical. In this era of strict environmental regulations, usage of elemental chlorine is frowned upon. For wood based paper mills, use of elemental chlorine does not permit compliance with the tolerance limits for total organic chlorides in the mill effluent.

Hence, new plants have to consider Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) or Totally Chlorine Free (TCF) bleaching sequences. In the long run, all plants would be would require to be TCF, if environmental considerations become more stringent. Medium consistency pumping (8 to 12%) is an established practice in developed countries while developing countries normally use low consistency (3 to 4%). The medium consistency pumping brings down the energy consumption for pumping considerably. Hence, ECF/TCF bleaching, with medium consistency (8 to 12%) operation, is suggested.

BLACK LIQUOR EVAPORATION PLANT

Black liquor evaporation plant is one of the major consumer of steam in paper mill. The steam consumption depends on the number of stages at the evaporation section. During design, provision of a seven stage falling film evaporator with a steam economy of six is an ideal choice to optimise the steam consumption. These plants operate with a minimum steam economy of 6.0 compared to the normal steam economy of 4.5. This results in reduction in steam consumption by about 25%.

In the conventional systems, forced circulation consumes a lot of power in terms of pumping. In the new systems, forced circulation is completely avoided with considerable reduction in power consumption. The additional cost for the new system will be paid back in two (2) years.

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In Indian mills efficient screening of weak black liquor is not practiced. This results in

down time of evaporation plant in the form of water boiling and steam energy

requirement for water boiling. Installation of pressure filters for weak black liquor

ensures removal of fibers prior to feeding weak black liquor to multiple effect

evaporation plant. This results in reduced 'scaling' of evaporator heat transfer surfaces

and, hence, higher availability and capacity. This in turn reduces the steam requirement

for water boiling.

At present, in Indian mills, the average black liquor concentration leaving the evaporators

is about 50%. A few mills have achieved a black liquor concentration at the outlet of

evaporators as high as 65% (abroad, it is 75 to 85%). For the new mills, the black liquor

concentration is to be planned at 65% leaving the evaporation plant.

Present day Indian mills do not practice condensate stripping. This results in venting out

of obnoxious malodorous mercaptan gases. From an environmental angle, segregation,

collection and utilisation of non-condensable gases must be thought of during the design

stage, even though energy available in non-condensible gases is recovered in rotary lime

kiln/chemical recovery boiler. Design should consider effective thermal insulation of

black liquor system and black liquor tankages.

RECOVERY BOILER

At recovery boiler, the steam generation per tonne of black liquor solids depends on the

concentration of black liquor entering the boiler. The present average steam generation is

only 3 t/t of black liquor solid (with 45% concentration black liquor entering the boiler).

The steam generation increase with increased concentration of black liquor is as follows

Black Liquor Concentration (in percentage)

Steam Generation (t/t of black liquor solid)

45

3.0

65

3.4

85

3.8

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Therefore, there exists a good potential for increasing the steam generation by at least 13% (from 3 to 3.4 tonnes of steam per tonne of fuel) by improving the black liquor concentration at the evaporator.

The advantages of high solids liquor firing are increased capacity of the boiler, increased steam generation, very low SOx emission, low power consumption and high sodium sulphate reduction efficiency.It is suggested recovery boilers be installed with 1)A large economiser (to recover the waste heat from flue gas and to eliminate direct contact secondary evaporator of black liquor by flue gas) increase steam generation and increased availability of boiler 2)A two stage air preheater 3)An ID fan with variable frequency drive 4)FD fans with variable frequency drive 5)Environmental protection equipment such as Electro Static Precipitator (ESP)

Causticiser and rotary lime kiln

Installation of lime kiln is imperative for the new plants, from environmental considerations of eliminating solid-wastes disposal problems. Kiln is also a major fuel energy consumer. The following points can be considered while designing the lime kiln system

6)The dryness of lime mud feed is to be increased by installing snap blow filters. The suggested dryness is 70-75%. For example, by increasing the dryness from 50% to 70%, the fuel consumption comes down from 220 l/t of burnt lime to 160 l/t of burnt lime. 7)Kiln has to be provided with in-built preheating, double layer (with insulating layer) refractory and a high efficiency, low NOx, burner for higher fuel efficiency .8)Installation of ESP for dust recovery and environmentally friendly operation. Design should also consider good thermal insulation of white liquor tankages.

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REFINERS

Refiners are the major consumers of power in stock preparation section. It is possible to save a considerable amount of energy (20-25% savings) by installing energy efficient refiners. Energy efficient refiners consume very low 'no-load' energy. 'No-load' energy refers to the power consumed by the refiner with pulp stock passing through the refiner when refiner tackles are moved apart. The ratio between net refining energy to total refining energy, should be as high as possible. This should be the selection/sizing criterion for refiners.

CENTRICLEANERS

There is a good scope for optimising the power consumption by considering the following points at design stage

Installation of low pressure drop centricleaners (maximum 15 m drop).

The operating consistency should be 1% (against the present average consistency of 0.7%). However, this could be over-ridden by the paper machine headbox consistency, which is configuration-dependent.

Installation of double dilution system. It gives better control and saves considerable energy, particularly when machine headbox consistency requirement is low. Centricleaners can then be run at optimum consistency independent of head box consistency.

The water cycle has to be closed as far as possible, to minimise fresh water consumption. The water consumption at paper machine can be brought down to 12 m3/t of paper at paper machine and approach system.

AGITATORS

Agitators also consume considerable energy. There are two types of designs in agitators, namely, mixing type and suspension type. The suspension type agitators are suggested where the pulp has to be kept in suspension for pumping. On the other hand, mixing type agitators are suggested to mix different types of pulp. Therefore, mixing type agitators

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generally require high torque motors and with higher motor capacity. Proper selection of agitators appropriate to the duty conditions can save upto 50% of power consumption in agitators.

Hence, proper type of agitators as per application should be selected.

Paper machine

Forming Area

Design formers with low power consumption and low friction suction boxes.

At the forming area, drainage provisions have to be made with less frictional losses. The flat boxes can be of ceramic material. This saves 5-7% energy.

Evaporation from free wet surfaces is to be avoided by optimising ventilation at the wet end of paper machine.

PRESSES

Paper machine is the major steam consumer in a paper mill. The steam consumption in paper machine area depends mainly on the off-press dryness. The off-press dryness of 50% can be achieved by extended nip press/shoe press. Pulp or paper web should not be overdried by evaporation rather it should be dried maximum by efficient pressing. Hence, new plants should plan with extended nip/shoe press.

CONDENSATE REMOVAL SYSTEM

Proper condensate removal system with the latest design, high speed separation efficiency, stationary siphon improves the evaporation rate at the paper machine drying section. Selection of rotary or stationary siphons is dictated by the machine operating speed. Modern high speed paper machines are with stationary siphons. Design of stationary siphons has advanced to such levels that differential pressure can be kept to the minimum for efficient evacuation of the dryer cans. The amount of blow through steam is dependent upon the siphon differential pressure required for efficient evacuation. The

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lower the differential pressure, lower the blow through steam and higher the overall thermal efficiencies. By choice of the right stationary siphons with low differential pressure requirement, thermal efficiencies can be improved.

At higher machine speeds, the thickness of the condensate rim dictates the heat transfer rates for drying. Lower the rim thickness, higher the heat transfer rates and lower the steam consumption. Siphon clearance dictates the rim thickness. Modern stationary siphons can operate at low siphon clearance.

Breaking the condensate rim by means of spoiler bars can significantly improve thermal efficiencies in drying. With a good steam and condensate system and good siphon design, steam requirements can be brought down to 1.3 kg steam for every kg water evaporated from the paper web. Inefficient systems can be as high as 1.8 kg steam for every kg of water evaporated.

Hence, it is recommended to install stationary siphon with high separation efficiency condensate system.

CLOSED HOOD SYSTEM

A

well designed hood system will reduce the heating requirements at the drying section

as

high as 35%. An automatic hood control system can be installed at the suction of the

exhaust fan to have better results. Modern totally closed hoods can operate with dew point as high as 65oC. This would mean that the exhaust air and supply air volumes can

be brought down quite substantially, thereby saving on drive power for the fans. Further,

since the same amount of heat is available in a smaller quantity of air, this exhaust air is better utilized for heat recovery because of higher differential pressure at the heat recovery units. So , a well designed closed hood system and automatic hood control at the suction of the exhaust fan is recommended.

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TYPE OF DRIVE

In the present context of highly reliable AC drives in the market, it is suggested to install A/c drives for the paper machine main drive.

VACUUM PUMP

Vacuum pumps also consume considerable energy in paper machine area. Some of the simple aspects to be taken at design stage are

Selection of energy efficient vacuum pump.

Segregation of low vacuum and high vacuum levels.

Correct sizing and routing of pipes to minimize losses.

Vacuum pumps shall be limited to minimum possible numbers and to be provided with large capacity motors with double ended shaft and of synchronous motor design. Hence , correct size vacuum pumps have to be selected to optimize power consumption .In recent times, mills abroad are using centrifugal exhausters for vacuum generation at paper machine area. These centrifugal exhausters are energy efficient by 30% compared to water ring vacuum pumps. Conventional liquid ring vacuum pumps are fixed volume/variable vacuum intensity devices and, therefore, have constant power characteristic. Centrifugal exhausters are variable volume/fixed vacuum intensity devices and, therefore, have a varying power characteristic. Paper machine vacuum systems are characterized by variable air flow requirements in the life cycle of the machine clothing. Liquid ring vacuum pumps will consume the same quantity of power through this life cycle. Centrifugal exhausters follow the system characteristics and, thereby, offer savings in power (lower power when air flow requirements are on the lower side during the felt life cycle).Hence, a centrifugal exhauster can be selected, instead of vacuum pumps.

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MOISTURE CONTROL SYSTEM

An online moisture control system is very helpful to monitor the moisture to be maintained at the paper machine (immediately after the drying cylinders). The advantages are.

Better control on the moisture.

Avoids over drying, saves steam and increases the production.

Hence online moisture control is suggested.

GENERAL MILL-WIDE DESIGN FEATURES

The following general mill-wide design features have to be considered while designing a new plant

Transport: The plant should be designed with minimum transport of raw

material, chemicals, fuel, steam and water.

Pipe lengths: Steam water, chemicals and pulp pipe lengths should be

minimum to minimise temperature loss and pressure losses. Plant layout should take care of this.

SOURCE OF POWER FOR NEW PULP AND PAPER MILL

Cost of electrical energy being about 25% of the manufacturing cost of paper, it is of vital importance to have a correct choice of in plant generation and utility drawal of power. At present, the grid power cost exceeds the in plant generation cost in most of the cases. The 100% in plant generation is a better option for mill design, considering the utility scenario obtained in the country, with its vagaries, interruption in availability and higher cost of grid power.

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PUMPS & FANS

Over-sizing of pumps and fans should be minimized and energy efficient pumps and fans need to be selected. A detailed write-up on the selection and energy conservation aspects to be considered in pump and fans. A margin of 10% is considered adequate at design stage.

INSTALLATION OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (AC DRIVE)

The concept of installation of variable frequency drive (VFD) is picking up in paper industry. VFDs are recommended wherever speed variation is required from 50 to 100% range. Several mills abroad are operating with VFD for all the pumps. Indian paper industry should also explore the possibility of installing VFD for different equipment.

The suggested areas where VFDs can be considered in paper industry are as follows

i) Recovery Boiler

a)

Installation of VFD for forced draught fans

b)

Installation of VFD for induced draught fan

ii)

Washing, Screening and Bleaching

a) Replacement of eddy current drives with VFD for drum washers drives

b) Installation of VFD for primary, secondary and tertiary centricleaners, pumps of unbleached/bleached pulp.

c) Installation of VFD for all dilution pumps of unbleached and bleached sections.

iii) Stock Preparation

a) Installation of VFD for stock pumps to blending chest

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b) Installation of VFD for machine chest pumps

iv) Paper Machine

a) Installation of VFD for fan pumps

b) Installation of VFD for secondary and tertiary centricleaner pumps

c) Installation of VFD for mould fan pumps

d) Installation of VFD for save-all clarified water pump

e) Installation of dual speed motors for couch pit and press pit agitators

f) Installation of VFD for MG machine/MF machine hood fans

g) Installation of VFD for coating knife edge blowers

h) Replacement of small steam turbines with DC drives or AC motors with

VFDs

v) Raw Water/Recycle Water Pumps

a) Installation of VFD for raw water/recycle water pumps

vi) Effluent Treatment Plant

a) Installation of VFD for roots blower (for agitation purposes)

b) Installation of VFD for final effluent discharge pumps

MOTORS

Over sizing of motors to be minimized and energy efficient motors are to be planned at the design stage for the complete mill. Energy efficient motors will give a 2% saving in the energy input when compared to the motors that were hitherto being used.

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HIGH PULP CONSISTENCY OPERATIONS

Higher the pulp consistency, lesser will be the pumping requirements in the mill. Hence, it is advisable to design the mill with higher pulp consistencies wherever possible.

INSULATION

Proper insulation of steam lines, condensate lines, digesters, paper machine sides, black liquor piping and tanks should be given due consideration at design stage to, to effect significant energy savings.

CONDENSATE RECOVERY

The plant should be designed and operated with maximum condensate recovery to improve the fuel economy and also reduce water consumption.

TRAPPING SYSTEM

Selection of proper trapping system saves steam considerably.

UTILISE NATURAL LIGHT

The building should be designed with adequate natural light to minimise artificial lighting during day time. Use of energy efficient lamps like high pressure sodium vapour lamps will result in a 40% reduction in energy needed for lighting.

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

The power factor in the industry should be maintained at 0.95 or better, to save the maximum demand drawn from the grid and also obtain effective usage of in plant generation. The reduced demand on the grid not only reduces energy bill but also saves the national grid from the "wattless" current and increased utilization capacity of their

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equipment. The capacity of the electrical equipment in mills is utilized better with enhanced power factor. The cost of installation of capacitors to improve the power factor at 0.9 is paid back in less than a year.

APPLICATION OF PAPER

To write or print on: the piece of paper becomes a document; this may be for keeping a record (or in the case of printing from a computer or copying from another paper: an additional record) and for communication.

Paper can be produced with a wide variety of properties, depending on its intended use.

To represent a value: paper money, bank note, cheque, security (see Security paper), voucher and ticket

For entertainment: book, magazine, newspaper, art, zine,

For packaging: corrugated box, paper bag, envelope, wrapping tissue and wallpaper

For cleaning: toilet paper, handkerchiefs, paper towels, facial tissue and cat litter

For construction: papier-mâché, origami, quilling, Paper honeycomb, used as a core material in composite materials, paper engineering, construction paper and clothing

Other uses: emery paper, sandpaper, blotting paper, litmus paper, universal indicator paper, paper chromatography and Capacitor Dielectrics (Permittivity 1.5 - 3)

ISSUES AND CONCERNS

The Indian paper and paperboards industry has potential and also capabilities to service the growing demand in domestic and international market and also to create huge employment avenues in the rural-India through agro/production – forestry and at mills, provided the competitiveness of the value chain is encouraged by the government.

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CERTIFICATION

Forest stewardship council certification is becoming a non trade barrier for Indian paper companies. As bulk of the raw material is obtained from farm and agro- forestry, IPMA is of the view that it would not be practical for huge number of farmers involved in social/farm forestry to group and obtain the FSC certificate for their produce. Though the farm forestry is a sustainable model promoted by the paper industry, the FSC principles and criterions are difficult to satisfy. IPMA is monitoring the move set afoot by the Government of India to establish Indian Forest Stewardship Council to help the process of certification.

DEVELOPMENTAL CHALLENGES

Enhancing Industry’s competitiveness to face global competition

Economies of scale

De-fragmentation of industry

Modernization of mills

Building new capacities

Meeting incremental demand of paper

Productivity/quality improvement

Creation of robust raw material base

Environmental upgradation and green technologies

Setting mechanism for collection, sorting, grading and utilization of recyclable waste paper

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INDIAN PAPER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (IPMA)

Indian Paper Manufacturers Association (IPMA) as a body represents the resurgent and organized face of paper sector in India. Large Integrated Paper Mills from private and public sector with a product mix of all varieties of paper (writing, printing, packaging, speciality, paperboards and newsprint) located in all regions and using conventional fibre such as wood and bamboo and also unconventional raw materials like recyclable waste paper, agro-residues, viz. bagasse and wheat straw comprise the membership of IPMA in a broad spectrum.

IPMA members account for more than one-third of industry’s production of paper and paperboard. IPMA is registered with the registrar of socities, Goverment of NCT of Delhi.

IPMA Secretariat: IPMA secretariat is located in the prestigious premises of PHD

Chamber of Commerce & Industry, at New Delhi. The Secretariat is professionally managed and equipped with office automation. It is fully geared to meet the growing requirements of paper industry and others, directly and indirectly associated with it. IPMA welcomes intraction and exchange of information with individuals, agencies and organizations having interest in paper industry.

HISTORY

Indian Paper Manufacturers Association (IPMA) is a national level organization having come into being in December 1998 with merger of more than century old Indian Paper Makers Association, Delhi and the 63 year old Indian Paper Mills Association, Calcutta (Kolkata).

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OBJECTIVES

As an association of large, dynamic paper manufacturers with global vision, IPMA presents a broad based platform to project Indian paper industry’s views and articulate its strategy The overriding objective of IPMA is to promote the interests of paper industry in India and help it achieve global competitiveness while striving to be an active participant in the policy making process.

ACTIVITIES

Interface with government, media, opinion leaders, NGOs and industry associations so as to present the perspective of paper industry and thereby participate in the policy making process

Promote excellence in paper manufacturing through presentation of awards

Networking with international bodies with a view to gain better visibility for Indian paper industry

Coordinate with research institutes and arrange platforms for industry-research collaboration

Convene meetings and discussions to evaluate policies having direct or indirect bearing on the paper industry and to make suggestions to the policy makers on the issues and concerns of constituent member mills

Sponsor and participate in events, workshops, seminars, exhibitions, delegations and promotional activities related to paper industry

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MEMBERS

 MEMBERS AFFILIATIONS/PARTICIPATION IPMA has wide spectrum linkages with apex industry chambers in India and paper

AFFILIATIONS/PARTICIPATION

IPMA has wide spectrum linkages with apex industry chambers in India and paper industry associations both nationally and internationally. Besides it actively collaborates with R&D institutes, Academic institutes and Economic Research institutes in advancing the study and research on various aspects of pulp and paper industry. These include contribution of paper to Indian economy, enhancing competitive edge of paper industry, upgradation of technologies, raw materials availability through agro - forestry and initiatives such as recycling of paper.

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NATIONAL

INTERNATIONAL

NATIONAL

Here is a partial list of organizations (arranged alphabetically) which IPMA is affiliated with or actively collaborates Nationally:

Apex Chambers

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI)

Associated Chamber of Commerce & Industry (ASSOCHAM)

PHD Chamber of Commerce & Industry (PHDCCI)

Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI)

Research Institutes

Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute (CPPRI), Saharanpur

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi

Forest Research Institute of India, Dehradun

Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore

Indian Grass and Fodder Research Institute, Dharwad (Karnataka)

Indian Council of Forest Research & Education, Dehradun

Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore

Thapar Centre for Industrial Research and Development, Yamuna Nagar

Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), New Delhi

Economic Think-tank

Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE)

CRISIL Limited (A Standard & Poor’s Company)

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Academic Institutes

Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad

Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal

Trade Associations

All India Federation of Master Printers (AIFMP)

Federation of Paper Traders Association (FPTA)

Government Bodies

Bureau of Indian Standards

Development Council for Pulp, Paper & Allied Industries

National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council

Peer & Core Committee of Central Pollution Control Board

Industry Bodies

Indian Pulp & Paper Technical Association (IPPTA)

INTERNATIONAL

Here is a partial list of organizations (arranged alphabetically) which IPMA is affiliated with or actively collaborates Internationally:

Research Institutes

Centre Technique Du Papier, France

STFI, Sweden

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Trade Associations

FINPRO, Finland

Swedish Trade Council

Swedish Pulp and Paper Technology Group (Stockholm)

Zellcheming, Germany

Industry Bodies

Asian Pulp and Paper Association

Chinese Taipei Paper Industry Association

Confederation of European Paper Industry, Brussels (CEPI)

FAO’s Advisory Committee on Paper and Wood Products

Federation of ASEAN Pulp and Paper Industry (FAPPI)

Indonesian Pulp & Paper Association

International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA)

India-China Trade Centre

Japan Paper Association

Korean Paper Manufacturers Association

Malaysia Pulp & Paper Manufacturers Association

Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Brazil (ABTCP)

Philippines Pulp & Paper Manufacturers Association

Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada

Taiwan Paper Industry Association

The Thai Pulp and Paper Industries Association

Vietnam Pulp & Paper Association

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PAPER AND ITS TYPES PAPER

Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and occasionally as a food ingredient, particularly in Asian cultures.

HISTORY

The word paper derives from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. The immediate predecessor to modern paper is believed to have originated in China in approximately the 2nd century CE, although there is some evidence for it being used before this date. Papermaking is considered to be one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China, since the first papermaking process was developed in China during the early 2nd century CE by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun. China used paper as an effective and cheap alternative to silk, letting them sell more silk, leading to a Golden Age. The use of paper spread from China through the Islamic world, and entered production in Europe in the early 12th century. Mechanized production of paper in the early 19th century caused significant cultural changes worldwide, allowing for relatively cheap exchange of information in the form of letters, newspapers and books for the first time. In 1844, both Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and German inventor F.G. Keller had invented the machine and process for pulping wood for the use in paper making. [1] This would end the

41

nearly 2000-year use of pulped rags and start a new era for the production of newsprint and eventually all paper out of pulped wood.

Paper has a long history, beginning with the ancient Egyptians and continuing to the present day. For thousands of years, hand-made methods dominated and then, during the 19th century, paper production became industrialised. Originally intended purely for writing and printing purposes, a wide variety of paper grades and uses are now available to the consumer.

3000BC

Of all the writing and drawing materials that people have employed down the ages, paper is the most widely used around the world. Its name derives from papyrus the material used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Papyrus, however, is only one of the predecessors of paper that together are known by the generic term ‘tapa’ and are mostly made from the inner bark of paper mulberry, fig and daphne.

Tapa has been found extensively in nearly all cultures along the Equatorial belt and is made by what is possibly the oldest papermaking technique – one still practised in some parts of the Himalayas and South East Asia. Indeed, recent archaeological excavations in China have revealed some of the oldest ‘tapa’ paper ever found which shows that paper was being produced in China before western records began.

The tapa technique involves cooked bast, which is flattened with a wooden hammer to form a thin, fibrous layer and then dissolved in a vat with water to make a pulp. A screen consisting of a wooden frame with a fabric base is then laid in a puddle or big basin and floats with the fabric just under the surface of the water. The papermaker then pours the quantity of pulp needed to make one sheet into this ‘floating mould’ and spreads it evenly, by hand, across the surface. The screen is then carefully lifted out of the water, allowed to drain off and a sheet of paper forms on the wire. Once the water has dripped off, the screen is placed in the sun or near a fire to dry. When dry, the sheet easily peels

42

off and, apart from possible smoothing, requires no further treatment. This technique has two basic drawbacks. Firstly, a separate screen is needed for each new sheet, and is only available for use again after the last sheet has dried. And secondly, an increase in production can soon lead to a shortage of raw material, since fresh bast is not always available everywhere in the required quantity.

The fibers normally used for textiles, like flax and hemp, also served as substitutes for bast. In later times, the fabric was replaced by fine bamboo sticks, which freed the papermaker of the need to let the paper dry naturally in the mould, since the poured or ladled sheet could be ‘couched’ off.

AD 105

In AD 105, the Chinese court official, Ts'ai Lun, (if we are to believe the chronicle recording the claim) invented papermaking from textile waste using rags. This can be considered as the birth of paper as we know it today. Later, Chinese papermakers developed a number of specialities such as sized, coated and dyed paper, and paper protected against ravages by insects, but they had great problems satisfying the growing demand for paper for governmental administration. They also used a new fiber-yielding plant - bamboo - which they de-fiberd by cooking in lye.

AD 610

Chinese papermaking techniques reached Korea at an early date and were introduced to Japan in the year 610. In these two countries, paper is still made by hand on a large scale in the old tradition, preferably from the fresh bast fibers of the mulberry tree (kozo in Japanese). Following the cooking process, the long, uncut fibers are merely prepared by beating, which gives the paper its characteristic look and excellent quality. The latter is due, among other things, to multiple, rapid immersions of the mould, which results in a multi-layer fiber mat.

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Very soon, knowledge of papermaking spread to Central Asia and Tibet and then on to India. When the Arabs, in the course of their eastern expansion, neared Samarkan they too became acquainted with the production of paper and paper mills were subsequently set up in Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo, and later in Morocco, Spain and Sicily. Owing to the lack of fresh fibers, the raw material used by the Arabs was made almost entirely from rags: however, their defective and poorly designed processing equipment (such as breaker mills) produced a rather inferior ground pulp. But, by using this method, with screens made of reeds, thin sheets were made and then ‘coated’ with starch paste. This gave Arabian paper its good writing properties and fine appearance.The export of Arabian-made paper, along with the secrets of its product

14th CENTURY

In the course of the rapid expansion of trade in the late Middle Ages, more and more merchants dealt in the commodity called ‘paper’ that was growing in importance for public and intellectual life. The Nuremberg councillor Ulmann Stromer (Stromeir) mulled over the advantages of making his own paper and, with the help of skilled workers from Italy, transformed the ‘Gleismühle’ by the gates of his home town into a paper mill. The dates noted in his diary, 24 June 1390 (start of work on the waterwheel) and 7 and 11 August 1390 (oaths sworn by his Nuremberg foremen), are the first assured records of papermaking on German soil.

The wording of Stromer's diary entries suggest that he regarded papermaking as a largely unknown and secret art, that he had to prevail against the clan of immigrant Italians, and that he had to overcome many technical difficulties. Stromer’s mill - illustrated in the world chronicle of Hartmann Schedel in 1493 - was initially designed with two waterwheels, 18 stamping hammers (i.e. six holes) and 12 workers using one or two vats.

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16th CENTURY

The advantages of this mill-based papermaking technique, which spread throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries far outweighed the disadvantage of considerable outlays of time and capital for building and fitting out with new machinery and equipment. However, the change in the production process, thanks to the division of labour, boosted output and improved quality. And it could certainly generate a profit, as some examples prove. On the other hand, there was a growing risk of an imbalance between costs and earnings, a state of affairs noted in the numerous reports of business failures among papermakers.

Later, many paper merchants took over the mills as owners, while the master papermakers practised their trade as lessees. This trend was stepped up by the special conditions prevailing in the book sector, where a book printer or publisher had to fund the production costs (paper, composition, printing) of a work before the sale of the print run generated revenue. The result was that he was often indebted to the paper suppliers.

Work at the vat normally involved four people: the vatman, who made the sheet using a mould; the couch squirt, who worked in time with the vatman and placed the sheet on felt; the layman, who drew off the still moist sheets from the felt after pressing; and the apprentice, who had to feed material to the vat and provide for vat heating. The press was operated jointly by the team. Depending on format and basis weight, up to nine reams (4,500 sheets) of paper could be made in the course of a working day of around 13 hours.

17th CENTURY

Technical progress continued in the 17th century. Smoothing the sheets by hand, using a creasing knife or ‘blood stone’, was supplemented by the use of a smoothing hammer (similar to a forging hammer). This led to a split in the craft between the tradition- conscious ‘smoothers’ and the modern ‘stampers’ who refused to recognise one another

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as fully-fledged papermakers. Towards the end of the 17th century, a new and much more efficient beater, called a ‘hollander’, was invented. This supplemented, or even replaced the stamping mill and further divided papermakers into two new camps.

The tremendous upsurge in papermaking during the Reformation in the 16th century, coupled with the introduction of printing with movable type, soon led to a serious shortage of raw materials and to regulations governing the trade in rags. The systematic search for substitute materials met with little immediate success. In the early 18th century straw was certainly used as a raw material but failed to make headway on quality grounds. Only the invention of groundwood pulp by Saxon Keller (1843) and of chemical pulp (first patented in 1854 by Mellier Watt) solved this problem.

18th CENTURY

During the 18th century there had been some concentration of craft activities in large operations, the ‘manufactories’, which were dependent on skilled papermakers organised into craft groups. The efforts made to step up production as much as possible and to have many of the jobs done by machine (partly to get round the constraining rules of papermakers' craft ‘usages’) culminated in the design and construction of paper making machines. The initial model was the vat that was used by J.N.L. Robert, who built the first flat-screen papermaking machine in 1798. This was further developed in England, mostly by Donking and the Fourdrinier brothers.

Shortly afterwards other types appeared, like the Dickinson’s cylinder machine, and machines which filled wire moulds transported on an endless chain and couched the sheets on an continuous felt. Flat screen and cylinder machines, which were first seen in the 19th century, were continually improved and extended to include a dryer section. This soon led to a considerable widening of the paper web and to an increase in production speeds.

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It also heralded industrialisation. In this new era, the small operators who were unable or unwilling to afford machines sought to survive with piece-work or by producing special grades, but they were sooner or later compelled to discontinue their activities. Others had to adapt their existing buildings or set up new mills elsewhere

19th & 20th CENTURY

The history of the paper industry in the 19th and 20th centuries can be broken down into five partly overlapping periods, each marked by definite trends.

In the first stage (from about 1800 to 1860), all work sequences previously performed by hand were mechanised. This included the rag preparation, the use of fillers, pulp beating, the paper machine with its various parts, and the machines required for finishing the paper (the headbox, wire section, press section, dryer section, units for reeling, smoothing and packaging).

During the second stage (about 1840 to 1880), efforts were made to obtain rag substitutes on an industrial scale (groundwood pulp and chemical pulp) and appropriate industrial plants (groundwood and chemical pulp mills) were developed.

The third stage (1860 to 1950) was marked by the enlargement of the web width, an increase in working speeds, the introduction of electric drive and further improvements to various machine parts. Machines designed specifically for the production of particular paper and board grades (for example the Yankee cylinder and multi-cylinder machines) were also developed. The web working width grew from 85 cm (1830) to 770 cm (1930), while production speeds rose from 5 m/min. (1820) to over 500 m/min. (1930).

The fourth stage (1950 to 1980), which was still dependent on the old methods as far as the mechanics were concerned, brought unprecedented changes in papermaking. Alongside further increases in web width and working speeds, there was the use of new

47

materials (thermo-mechanical pulp, deinked recovered paper, new fillers, processed chemicals and dyes), new sheet forming options (e.g. by twin-wire formers), neutral sizing, greater stress on ecology (closed loops) and, most of all, automation. The operational impact of these changes was: specialisation in certain paper types; development of new paper grades (LWC - lightweight coated paper); corporate mergers; company groups with their own raw material supply and trading organisations; closure of unprofitable operations.

1980 ONWARDS

The fifth stage leads into the future. The evolution of new sheet-forming principles (with fluid boundaries between paper and non-woven fabrics) and chemical pulp processes have been the main process improvements. However, the situation on the global market (increased demand, above all in the Third World, trends in chemical pulp prices, problems of location), are again raising capital intensity and encouraging the formation of big company groups with international operations. At the same time there are definite opportunities for smaller, local firms satisfying specific needs.

2000 & BEYOND

The new Millennium will be dominated by the tremendous progress that has been made in computer science, thus triggering a complete change in our commercial and private communication and information behavior. Does this mean that the paper era will come to an end? The answer is most definitely "No".

Clearly there will be a huge amount of data being generated electronically, but the issue is how to preserve it. The difficulties of data storage over a long period of time are well known (for example, the durability of disks; frequent changes of hard and software, electronic breakdowns etc.). Once again, paper offers the most convenient and durable storage option. The advance in technology will affect only the printing of items like short-lived handbooks and encyclopedias.

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Reading a book will remain a great pleasure into the future and paper, as a ubiquitous material with its many uses, will continue to play an influential role. Many artists will continue to express themselves by using this most versatile material.

PAPERMAKING

CHEMICAL PULPING

The purpose of a chemical pulping process is to break down the chemical structure of lignin and render it soluble in the cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose fibers. Because lignin holds the plant cells together, chemical pulping frees the fibres and makes pulp. The pulp can also be bleached to produce white paper for printing, painting and writing. Chemical pulps tend to cost more than mechanical pulps, largely due to the low yield, 40–50% of the original wood. Since the process preserves fibre length, however, chemical pulps tend to make stronger paper. Another advantage of chemical pulping is that the majority of the heat and electricity needed to run the process is produced by burning the lignin removed during pulping.

Papers made from chemical wood-based pulps are also known as woodfree papers.

The Kraft process is the most commonly practiced strategy for pulp manufacturing and produces especially strong, unbleached papers that can be used directly for bags and boxes but are often processed further, e.g. to make corrugated cardboard.

MECHANICAL PULPING

There are two major mechanical pulps, thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and mechanical pulp. The latter is known in the USA as groundwood pulp. In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into large steam-heated refiners where the chips are squeezed and fibreized between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into

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grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones and fibreized. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is very high, >95%, but also causes paper made from this pulp to yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibre lengths and produce weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than chemical pulp.

RECYCLED PAPER

Paper recycling processes can use either chemical or mechanical pulp. By mixing with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again. Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre in the interests of quality.

There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:.

MILL BROKE OR INTERNAL MILL WASTE — this incorporates

any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill which then goes back into the manufacturing system to be repulped back into paper. Such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore often not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre. However, most paper mills have been recycling their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling become popular.

PRECONSUMER WASTE — this is offcuts and processing waste, such as

guillotine trims and envelope blank waste. This waste is generated outside the paper mill and could potentially go to landfill, and is a genuine recycled fibre source. Also includes de-inked preconsumer (recycled material that has been printed but did not reach its intended end use, such as waste from printers and unsold publications). [2]

POSTCONSUMER WASTE — this is fibre from paper which has been

used for its intended end use and would include office waste, magazine papers

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and newsprint. As the vast majority of this paper has been printed (either digitally or by more conventional means such as litho or gravure), it will either be recycled as printed paper or go through a de-inking process first.

Recycled papers can be made from 100% recycled materials or blended with virgin pulp. Recycled papers are (generally) not as strong nor as bright as papers made from virgin pulp.

ADDITIVES

Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay, which improve the characteristics of the paper for printing or writing. Additives for sizing purposes may be mixed into the pulp and/or applied to the paper web later in the manufacturing process. The purpose of sizing is to establish the correct level of surface absorbency to suit the ink or paint.

DRYING

After the paper web is produced, the water must be removed from it by pressing and drying.

Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, felt (not to be confused with the traditional felt) is used to collect the water. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used.

Drying involves using air and or heat to remove water from the paper sheet. In the earliest days of papermaking this was done by hanging the paper sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. These dryers can heat to temperatures above 200°F (93°C) and are used in long sequences of more than 40 cans. The heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than 6% moisture.

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FINISHING

The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.

Paper at this point is uncoated. Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens. (Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above 150 lpi.) Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image.

The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes. The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut "long-grain", i.e. with the grain parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet.

All paper produced by paper machines as the Fourdrinier machine are wove paper, i.e. the wire mesh that transports the web leaves a pattern that has the same density along the paper grain and across the grain. Textured finishes, watermarks and wire patterns imitating hand-made laid paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine.

Wove paper does not exhibit "laidlines", which are small regular lines left behind on paper when it was handmade in a mould made from rows of metal wires or bamboo. Laidlines are very close together. They run perpendicular to the "chainlines", which are further apart. Handmade paper similarly exhibits "deckle edges", or rough and feathery borders.

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MANUFACTURE OF PAPER AND PAPERBOARD PREPARATION OF STOCK Mechanical squeezing and pounding of cellulose fibre

MANUFACTURE OF PAPER AND PAPERBOARD

PREPARATION OF STOCK

Mechanical squeezing and pounding of cellulose fibre permits water to penetrate its structure, causing swelling of the fibre and making it flexible. Mechanical action, furthermore, separates and frays the fibrils, submicroscopic units in the fibre structure. Beating reduces the rate of drainage from and through a mat of fibres, producing dense paper of high tensile strength, low porosity, stiffness, and rattle.

An important milestone in papermaking development, the Hollander beater consists of an oval tank containing a heavy roll that revolves against a bedplate. The roll is capable of being set very accurately with respect to the bedplate, for the progressive adjustment of the roll position is the key to good beating. A beater may hold from 135 to 1,350 kilograms (300 to 3,000 pounds) of stock, a common size being about 7 metres (24 feet) long, 4 metres (12 feet) wide, and about 1 metre (3.3 feet) deep. A centre partition provides a continuous channel.

Pulp is put into the beater, and water is added to facilitate circulation of the mass between the roll and the bedplate. As the beating proceeds, the revolving roll is gradually lowered

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until it is riding full weight on the fibres between it and the bedplate. This action splits and mashes the fibres, creating hairlike fibrils and causing them to absorb water and become slimy. The beaten fibres will then drain more slowly on the paper machine wire and bond together more readily as more water is removed and the wet web pressed. Much of the beating action results from the rubbing of fibre on fibre. Long fibres will be cut to some extent.

The beater is also well-adapted for the addition and mixing of other materials, such as sizing, fillers, and dyes. By mounting a perforated cylinder that can rotate partially immersed in the beater stock, water can be continuously removed from the beater, and the stock therefore can be washed.

Although many design modifications have been made in the Hollander beater over the years, the machine is still widely used in smaller mills making specialty paper products. For large production modern mills have replaced the beater by various types of continuous refiners.

In mills that receive baled pulp and use refiners, the pulp is defibred in pulpers. While there are a number of variations in basic design, a pulper consists essentially of a large, open vessel, with one or more bladed, rotating elements that circulate a pulp-water mixture and defibre or separate fibres. The blades transform the pulp or wastepaper into a smooth mixture. Unlike beaters and refiners, pulpers do not reduce freeness and cause fibrillation in the fibres. A typical pulper has a capacity of 900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) of fibre in 6 percent solution and requires 150 horsepower to drive it.

The original continuous refiner is the Jordan, named after its 19th-century inventor. Like the beater, the Jordan has blades or bars, mounted on a rotating element, that work in conjunction with stationary blades to treat the fibres. The axially oriented blades are mounted on a conically shaped rotor that is surrounded by a stationary bladed element (stator).

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Like other refiners, the disk refiner consists of a rotating bladed element that moves in conjunction with a stationary bladed element. The disk refiner's plane of action, however, is perpendicular to the axis of rotation, simplifying manufacture of the treating elements and replacement. Since the disk refiner provides a large number of working edges to act upon the fibre, the load per fibre is reduced and fibre brushing, rather than fibre cutting, may be emphasized.

Sizing has been described above as the treatment given paper to prevent aqueous solutions, such as ink, from soaking into it. A typical sizing solution consists of a rosin soap dispersion mixed with the stock in an amount of 1 to 5 percent of fibre. Since there is no affinity between rosin soap and fibre, it is necessary to use a coupling agent, normally alum (aluminum sulfate). The acidity of alum precipitates the rosin dispersion, and the positively charged aluminum ions and aluminum hydroxide flocs (masses of finely suspended particles) attach the size firmly to the negatively charged fibre surface.

Paper intended for writing or printing usually contains white pigments or fillers to increase brightness, opacity, and surface smoothness, and to improve ink receptivity. Clay (aluminum silicate), often referred to as kaolin or china clay, is commonly used, but only in a few places in the world (Cornwall, in England, and Georgia, in the United States) are the deposits readily accessible and sufficiently pure to be used for pigment. Another pigment is titanium dioxide (TiO2), prepared from the minerals rutile and anatase. Titanium dioxide is the most expensive of the common pigments and is often used in admixture with others.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), also used as a filler, is prepared by precipitation by the reaction of milk of lime with either carbon dioxide (CO2) or soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3). Calcium carbonate as a paper filler is used mainly to impart improved brightness, opacity, and ink receptivity to printing and magazine stocks. Specialty uses include the filling of cigarette paper, to which it contributes good burning properties. Because of its reactivity with acid, calcium carbonate cannot be used in systems

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containing alum.Other fillers are zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, hydrated silica, calcium sulfate, hydrated alumina, talc, barium sulfate, and asbestos. Much of the filler consumed is used in paper coatings .

Since most fillers have no affinity for fibres, it is necessary to add an agent such as alum to help hold the filler in the formed sheet. The amount of filler used may vary from 1 to 10 percent of the fibre.

The most common way to impart colour to paper is to add soluble dyes or coloured pigment to the paper stock. Many so-called direct dyes with a natural affinity for cellulose fibre are highly absorbed, even from dilute water solution. The so-called basic dyes have a high affinity for groundwood and unbleached pulps.

Various agents are added to paper stock to enhance or to modify the bonding and coherence between fibres. To increase the dry strength of paper, the materials most commonly used are starch, polyacrylamide resins, and natural gums such as locust bean gum and guar gum. The most common type of starch currently used is the modified type known as cationic starch. When dispersed in water, this starch assumes a positive surface charge. Because fibre normally assumes a negative surface charge, there is an affinity between the cationic starch and the fibre.

The natural cellulose interfibre bonding that develops as a sheet of paper dries is considered to be due to interatomic forces of attraction known to physical chemists as hydrogen bonding or van der Waals forces . Because these attractive forces are neutralized or dissolved in water, wet paper has practically no strength. Although this property is convenient for the recovery of wastepaper, some papers require wet strength for their intended use. Wet strength is gained by adding certain organic resins to the paper stock that, because of their chemical nature, are absorbed by the fibre. After formation and drying of the sheet, the resins change to an insoluble form, creating water-resistant bonds between fibres.

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FORMATION OF PAPER SHEET BY MACHINES

In a paper machine, interrelated mechanisms operating in unison receive paper stock from the beater, form it into a sheet of the desired weight by filtration, press and consolidate the sheet with removal of excess water, dry the remaining water by evaporation, and wind the traveling sheet into reels of paper. Paper machines may vary in width from about 1.5 to 8 metres (5 to 26 feet), in operating speed from a few hundred metres to 900 metres (about 3,000 feet) per minute, and in production of paper from a few tons per day to more than 300 tons per day. The paper weight (basis weight) may vary from light tissue, about 10 grams per square metre (0.03 ounce per square foot), to boards of more than 500 grams per square metre (1.6 ounces per square foot).

Traditionally, paper machines have been divided into two main types: cylinder machines and Fourdrinier machines . The former consists of one or more screen-covered cylinders, each rotating in a vat of dilute paper stock. Filtration occurs by flow action from the vat into the cylinder, with the filtrate being continuously removed. In the Fourdrinier machine a horizontal wire-screen belt filters the stock. In recent years a number of paper machines have been designed that depart greatly from traditional design. These machines are collectively referred to as "formers." Some of these formers retain the traveling screen belt but form the sheet largely on a suction roll. Others eliminate the screen belt and use a suction cylinder roll only. Still others use two screen belts with the stock sandwiched between, with drainage on both sides.

In a typical modern Fourdrinier machine the various functional parts are the headbox; stock distribution system; Fourdrinier table, where sheet formation and drainage of water occur; press section, which receives the wet sheet from the wire, presses it between woolen felts, and delivers the partially dried sheet to the dryer section; dryer section, which receives the sheet from the presses and carries it through a series of rotating, steam-heated cylinders to remove the remaining moisture; size press, which permits

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dampening the sheet surface with a solution of starch, glue, or other material to improve the paper surface; calender stack, for compressing and smoothing the sheet; and the reel.

The function of the headbox is to distribute a continuous flow of wet stock at constant velocities, both across the width of the machine and lengthwise of the sheet, as stock is deposited on the screen. Equal quantities of properly dispersed stock should be supplied to all areas of the sheet-forming surface. The early headbox, more commonly called a flowbox or breastbox, consisted of a rectangular wooden vat that extended across the full width of the machine behind the Fourdrinier breast roll. The box was provided with baffles to mix and distribute the stock. A flat metal plate extending across the machine (knife slice) improved dispersion of the fibre suspension, providing distribution of flow across the machine, and also metered the flow to produce a sheet of uniform weight. To accommodate increased speed in modern headboxes, the knife slice is designed to develop a jet of liquid stock on the moving wire. Modern headboxes are enclosed, with pressure maintained by pumping.

The Fourdrinier table section of a paper machine is a large framework that supports the table rolls, breast roll, couch roll, suction boxes, wire rolls, and other Fourdrinier parts. The wire mesh upon which the sheet of fibre is formed is a continuous rotating belt that forms a loop around the Fourdrinier frame. The wire, not a permanent part of the machine, is delicate and requires periodic replacement. It is a finely woven metal or synthetic fibre cloth that allows drainage of the water but retains most of the fibres. The strands of the Fourdrinier wire are usually made of specially annealed bronze or brass, finely drawn and woven into a web commonly in the range of 55 to 85 mesh (strands per inch). Even finer wires are used for such grades as cigarette paper, coarser wires for heavy paperboard and pulp sheets. Various types of weave are used to obtain maximum wire life.

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The table rolls, in addition to supporting the wire, function as water-removal devices. The rapidly rotating roll in contact with the underside of the wire produces a suction or pumping action that increases the drainage of water through the wire.

The dandy roll is a light, open-structured unit covered with wire cloth and placed on the wire between suction boxes, resting lightly upon the wire and the surface of the sheet. Its function is to flatten the top surface of the sheet and improve the finish. When the dandy roll leaves a mesh or crosshatch pattern, the paper is said to be "woven." When parallel, translucent lines are produced, it is said to be "laid." When names, insignia, or designs are formed, the paper is said to be "watermarked." Paper watermarks have served to identify the makers of fine papers since the early days of the art. A watermark is actually a thin part of the sheet and is visible because of greater transmission of light in its area compared with other areas of the sheet. Because light transmission can be varied by degrees, it is possible to produce watermarks in the form of portraits or pictures.

The final roll over which the formed sheet passes, before removal from the Fourdrinier wire, is the couch roll. Prior to the transferring operation, the couch roll must remove water from and consolidate the sheet to strengthen it. In modern machines the couch roll is almost always a suction roll.

The press section increases the solids content of the sheet of paper by removing some of the free water contained in the sheet after it is formed. It then carries the paper from the forming unit to the dryer section without disrupting or disturbing sheet structure and reduces the bulk or thickness of the paper.

The first two functions are always necessary. Pressing always results in compaction, and this may or may not be desirable depending upon the grades being made.

Felts for the press section act as conveyor belts to assist the sheet through the presses, as porous media to provide space and channels for water removal, as textured cushions or

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shock absorbers for pressing the moist sheet without crushing or significant marking, and as power transfer belts to drive nondriven rolls or parts.

Woven felts of wool, often with up to 50 percent synthetic fibres, are made by a modified woolen textile system. Selected grades of wool are scoured, blended, carded, and spun into yarn. The yarn is woven into flat goods, leaving a fringe at each end. The ends are brought together and joined to produce an endless, substantially seamless belt.

Paper machine felts have a limited life ranging from about a week to several months. Their strength and water-removal ability is gradually lost through wear and chemical and bacterial degradation and by becoming clogged with foreign material.

Press rolls must be strong, rigid, and well-balanced to span the wide, modern machines and run at high speed without distortion and vibration. Solid press rolls consist of a steel or cast iron core, covered with rubber of various hardnesses depending upon the particular service required. Suction press rolls consist of a bronze or stainless steel shell two inches (five centimetres) or more in thickness and usually covered with one inch of rubber.

Paper leaving the press section of the machine has a solids content or dryness of 32 to 40 percent. Because of the relatively high cost of removing water by evaporation, compared with removing it by mechanical means, the sheet must be as dry as possible when it enters the dryers. The dryer section of a conventional paper machine consists of from 40 to 70 steam-heated drying cylinders. After passing around the cylinders, the sheet is held in intimate contact with the heated surfaces by means of dryer felts.

Until recent years, relatively heavy, rather impermeable cloths composed of wool, cotton, asbestos, or combinations of these materials covered the dryer portion of the paper machine. Such cloths are termed dryer felts, though felting or fulling process is rarely used in their manufacture. Relatively lightweight, highly permeable cloths called dryer fabric also are employed.

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For conventional dryer felts, cotton is still the most commonly used fibre, although it is seldom used alone. The main difference between the conventional dryer felt and the open-mesh dryer fabric is air or vapour permeability. High permeability is desirable because it allows the escape of the water vapour from the sheet.

For every ton of paper dried on the paper machine, approximately two tons of water are evaporated into the atmosphere. About 50 to 60 tons of air are required to remove the water vapour, with about 2,700 kilograms (6,000 pounds) of steam required by the dryers.

FINISHING AND CONVERTING

The rolls of paper produced by the paper machine must still undergo a number of operations before the paper becomes useful to the consumer. These various operations are referred to as converting or finishing and often make use of intricate and fast-moving machinery. There are two distinct types of paper conversion. One is referred to as wet converting, in which paper in roll form is coated, impregnated, and laminated with various applied materials to improve properties for special purposes. The second is referred to as dry converting, in which paper in roll form is converted into such items as bags, envelopes, boxes, small rolls, and packs of sheets. A few of the more important converting operations are described here.

Paper has been coated to improve its surface for better reproduction of printed images for over 100 years. The introduction of half-tone and colour printing has created a strong demand for coated paper. Coatings are applied to paper to achieve uniformity of surface for printing inks, lacquers, and the like; to obtain printed images without blemishes visible to the eye; to enhance opacity, smoothness, and gloss of paper or paperboard; and to achieve economy in the weight and composition of base paper stock by the upgrading effect of coating.

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The chief components of the water dispersion used for coating paper are pigment, which may be clay, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, satin white, or combinations of these; dispersants to give uniformity to the mixture or the "slip"; and an adhesive binder to give coherence to the finished coating. The latter may be a natural material such as starch or a synthetic material such as latex.

Equipment installed between dryer sections on the paper machine can apply the coating (on-machine coating), or it can be done by a separate machine, using rolls of paper as feed stock (off-machine coating).

The extrusion-coating process, a relatively new development in the application of functional coating, has gained major importance in the past 20 years. The process is used to apply polyethylene plastic coatings to all grades of paper and paperboard. Polyethylene resin has ideal properties for use with packaging paper, being waterproof; resistant to grease, water vapour, and gases; highly stable; flexible in heat sealing; and free from odour and toxicity.

In the extrusion-coating machine, the polyethylene resin is melted in a thermoplastic extruder that consists of a drive screw within an electrically heated cylinder. The cylinder melts and compacts the resin granules and extrudes the melt in a continuous flow under high pressure. The resin is discharged through a film-forming slot die. The die has electric heaters with precision temperature controls to give uniform temperature and viscosity to the plastic melt. The slot opening can be precisely adjusted to control film uniformity and thickness.

The hot extruded film is then stretched and combined with paper between a pair of rolls, one of which is a rubber-covered pressure roll and the other a water-cooled, chromium- plated steel roll. The combination takes place so rapidly that a permanent bond is created between the plastic film and the paper before they are cooled by the steel roll.

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The most widely used package for commodities and manufactured products is the corrugated shipping container. A corrugated box consists of two structural elements: the facings (linerboard) and the fluting structure (corrugating medium).

Linerboard facings are of two general types: the Fourdrinier kraft liner is made of pine kraft pulp, usually unbleached, in an integrated mill as a continuous process from the tree to the paper web; and the cylinder liner is made from reprocessed fibres, generally from used containers, providing a content of about two-thirds kraft.

The operation begins by unwinding the single-face liner and corrugating medium from holders, threading the medium into the fluting rolls, applying adhesive to the tips, and bringing the medium in contact with the liner to form a single-face web. Next, the single- face web passes another glue roll that applies adhesive to the exposed flute tips of the medium. The second face liner is brought in contact with the single-face web, and the combined board travels through a hot plate section between belts to set the bond, to a cooling section, and then to a slitter-scorer.

STRENGTH AND DURABILITY

The strength of paper is determined by the following factors in combination:

The strength of the individual fibres of the stock,

The average length of the fibre,

The interfibre bonding ability of the fibre, which is enhanced by the beating and refining action,

The structure and formation of the sheet.

Resistance to rupture when subjected to various stresses is an important property in practically all grades of paper. Most papers require a certain minimum strength to withstand the treatment received by the product in use; but even where use requirements are not severe, the paper must be strong enough to permit efficient handling in

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manufacture. Tensile strength is the greatest longitudinal stress a piece of paper can bear without tearing apart. The stress is expressed as the force per unit width of a test specimen.

Since the weight of the paper and the width of the test specimen affect the force of rupture, a conventional method of comparing inherent paper strength is the breaking length--that is, the length of a paper strip in metres that would be just self-supporting. This value varies from about 500 metres for extremely soft, weak tissue to about 8,000 metres for strong kraft bag paper, and to about 14,000 metres for sheets of paper made under ideal laboratory conditions.

Because some paper products such as towels, sanitary tissues, and filter paper are subjected to wetting by water in their normal use, wet tensile testing has become important. This test is essentially the same as that for dry tensile strength, except that the specimen is wetted. Paper that has not been specifically treated to produce wet strength possesses from about 4 to about 8 percent of its dry strength when completely wetted. By treating paper as described above, wet strength can be raised to about 40 percent of the dry strength.

One of the oldest and most widely used strength tests for paper and paperboard is the bursting test, or Mullen test. It is defined as the hydrostatic pressure (caused by liquids at rest) necessary to cause rupture in a circular area of a given diameter. Other strength tests for which standard methods exist are tearing strength and folding endurance.

The resistance of paper to a bending force is evident in the various operations of its manufacture and in its many uses. The range in this property extends from very soft, flexible tissues to rigid boards. Thicker and heavier sheets tend to be stiff, whereas soft, flexible sheets are light and thin. Even at the same weight there is a considerable difference in stiffness, chiefly due to the compactness and the amount of bonding of the sheet

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Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fibre, the structure has a varying degree of porosity. Thus, the ability of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, to penetrate the structure is a property both highly significant to the use of paper and capable of being widely varied by the conditions of manufacture.

Sizing paper with vegetable materials and rosinlike substances has already been described. When paper began to be used for wrapping, consumers demanded sizing treatments that could protect the contents of the package from the effects of fluid transfer through the paper wrapping. In some instances complete impermeability was required. In another direction the use of paper as an absorbent medium for wiping up liquids, for filtering, and for saturating has created a demand for maximum wettability and permeability toward water and other fluids.

In certain types of packaging, paper must resist grease and oil penetration. The resistance of paper to the penetration of water can be increased by treatment of fibre with materials that lack affinity for water, with little effect upon sheet porosity, but the penetration of oil materials is little affected by such treatment. Oil and grease resistance is attained, in fact, by reduction in porosity. So-called greaseproof paper is made by beating an easily hydrated pulp to extremely low freeness, which results in a dense sheet with very little void space.

Absorbent papers such as toweling, sanitary tissue, and blotting and filter paper are normally made from lightly beaten stock. Since cellulose is naturally hydrophilic (i.e., has a strong affinity for water), absorbent papers have a minimum of foreign materials associated with the fibre. Of particular importance are the wood rosins that may be present in pulp and produce a self-sizing effect, especially upon aging.

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APPLICATIONS

To write or print on: the piece of paper becomes a document; this may be for keeping a record (or in the case of printing from a computer or copying from another paper: an additional record) and for communication; see also reading.

Paper can be produced with a wide variety of properties, depending on its intended use.

TO REPRESENT A VALUE

for personal use: diary, note to remind oneself, etc.; for temporary personal use: scratch paper

for communication to someone else:

by transportation of the paper from the place where it is written or printed to the place where it is read: delivered by sender, transported by a third party (e.g. in the case of mail), or taken by the receiver

by writing at the same place as where it is read:

o if sender and receiver are not there at the same time, in the case of a posted notice

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o if sender and receiver are both present, but use paper for illustration, or if communication by talking is not suitable:

because one is mute or the other is deaf

to avoid other people hearing it, because it is secret, or in order not to disturb them

in a noisy environment

FOR PACKAGING

FOR CLEANING

FOR CONSTRUCTION

OTHER USES

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TYPES, THICKNESS AND WEIGHT

Card and paper stock for craft use comes in a wide variety of textures and colors.

The thickness of paper is often measured by caliper, which is typically given in

and

thousandths

0.18 millimetres (0.0071 in) thick.

of

an

inch.

Paper

may

be

between

0.07 millimetres

(0.0028 in)

Paper is often characterized by weight. In the United States, the weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream, 500 sheets, of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. For example, a ream of 20 lb, 8½ x 11" paper weighs 5 pounds, because it has been cut from a larger sheet into four pieces. In the United States, printing paper is generally 20 lb, 24 lb, or 32 lb at most. Cover stock is generally 68 lb, and 110 lb or more is considered card stock.

The 8.5" x 11" size stems from the original size of a vat that was used to make paper. At the time, paper was made from passing a fiber and water slurry through a screen at the bottom of a box. The box was 17" deep and 44" wide. That sheet, folded in half in the long direction, then twice in the opposite direction, made a sheet of paper that was exactly 8.5" x 11".

In Europe, and other regions using the ISO 216 paper sizing system, the weight is expressed in grammes per square metre (g/m 2 or usually just g) of the paper. Printing paper is generally between 60 g and 120 g. Anything heavier than 160 g is considered card. The weight of a ream therefore depends on the dimensions of the paper and its thickness.

The sizing system in Europe is based on common width to height ratios for different paper sizes. The largest standard size paper is A0 (A zero). Two sheets of A1, placed upright side by side fit exactly into one sheet of A0 laid on its side. Similarly, two sheets

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of A2 fit into one sheet of A1 and so forth. Common sizes used in the office and the home are A4 and A3 (A3 is the size of two A4 sheets).

The density of paper ranges from 250 kg/m 3 (16 lb/ft 3 ) for tissue

(94 lb/ft 3 ) for some speciality paper. Printing paper is about 800 kg/m 3 (50 lb/ft 3 )

paper to 1500 kg/m 3

PAPER TYPES

ABRASIVE KRAFT

Used For : Abrasive Kraft is used for making sand paper used in roughening applications.

ABSORBENT KRAFT

Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

ALKALINE PAPER

Paper having pH values greater than 7 made by an alkaline manufacturing process.

ANTI RUST PAPER

Paper which has the property of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rust.

ANTIQUE PAPER

Printing paper having good bulk and opacity with rough or matt surface.

ART PAPER

Normally, china clay (kaolin) coated on both sides of the paper. This finish of both the sides is same, be it glossy or matt.

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Used For : Brochures, calendars, magazine covers, magazine text, where high quality printing is required

AZURELAID PAPER

A laid paper usually bluish green in colour having a good writing surface.

BAROGRAPH PAPER

Red thin paper coated on one side with a white wax, so that the needle of the barograph leaves a red line on a white ground, sold in rolls and coils and to suit the type of barograph.

BASE PAPER

This paper is generally used by a converter to either coat or laminate. Different grades are available for different applications.

Used For : Mostly used for converting into a value added grade

BATTERY JACKET

Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

BEEDI WRAP PAPER

Used For : Used for decorative purposes in different colours.

BIBLE PAPER

Thin white opaque heavily loaded, used for printing bibles. Not suitable for pen and ink, because of its absorbency.

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BLADE WRAPPER (SS)

Used For : Used for making of small packs for keeping razor blades.

BOND PAPER

This paper has good strength properties, good stiffness and good aesthetical look. The name "bond" was originally given to a paper which was used for printing bonds, stock certificates, etc. Important characteristics are finish, strength, and freeness fro

Used For : Mostly used for letterheads and for image building stationery

BOOK PAPER

A general term used to define a class of papers used by the book publishing industry;

most commonly used for the book text paper but also for book cover paper.

BUSINESS FORMS PAPER

Paper made for the manufacture of business forms.

Used For : Used for business forms and data processing such as computer printouts.

CARBON BASE

Carbon is normally manufactured in lower grammages like 20 gsm or less. The most important property in this paper is porosity which should be controlled at about 15-20

ml/min, so that absorption leads to cost increase while less absorption makes poor quality

of carbon paper which is used many a time.

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CARBON PAPER

This thin paper could be either coated on one side or both sides with dry impressionable ink. The main function being to impart an identical copy of the original on the substrate.

Used For : Mostly used where more than one copy is required simultaneously.

CARBONLESS PAPER

Paper stock specially treated or coated to provide copies without the use of interleaved carbon. The copy process requires mechanical pressure such as from writing or typing and sometimes a chemical reaction.

Used For : Application forms, computer stationery, time saving stationery. Also used in copying applications without carbon paper.

CARDBOARD

A range of various boards such as pulp board, paste board, bristol board, ivory board, art

board, chromo board in the form of a coherent sheet or web used for printing, packaging,

decorating etc.

CAST COATED PAPER

A coated paper with high gloss and absorptivity in which the coating has been allowed to

harden or set while in contact with a mirror like polished chrome surface.

CHROMO PAPER

China clay (kaolin) coated on one side. The coating on one side could be glossy or matt

as per requirement of the customer.

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Used For : Mainly used for self adhesive stickers, calendars , posters, labels and for applications where only one side has to be printed

CIGARETTE SLIDE

Used For : Used for making of Cigarette Slides (180-200 gsm).Pulp board are multi layer boards can be used

CIGARETTE TISSUE

It is a product of fashion. Hence brightness and whiteness of paper needs to be maintained. It is highly technical.

Used For : Used in bobbins of 25 mm width or so.

CINEMA POSTER

Used For : For printing Cinema posters, Wall papers

CLAY COATING BASE PAPER

Used For : Used for coating with Clay for making chromo and art paper

COATED PAPER

Paper could be coated on either or both sides. Coating applied on the paper could be as per the requirement. For example, china clay coating for glossy paper used for high quality printing or gum coated paper for use of printing stamps

Used For : Could have different applications for different coated papers

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COPIER PAPER

Mainly used for copying. Used extensively in photocopiers, plain paper faxes, etc. and other office stationery. Thickness could range from 70 GSM onwards.

Used For : Copying, typing, plain paper faxes, general stationery

CREAMWOVE PAPER

Used For : Used for Computer Stationery purposes.

DEFENCE KRAFTS

Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

DIARY PAPER

Used For : Used for making of diaries and sometimes for book printing and other applications.

DIAZO BASE PAPER

The process involves coating of paper with Diazo solutions and a coupler. This is exposed to ultra violet rays coming through the image. The final print is developed by making the coating alkaline. In some cases it is developed by ammonia vapour.

Used For : Used for making of ammonia paper for image recording.

ELECTRICAL INSULATING PAPERS

Used For : Used for Electrical insulation.

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EXTENSIBLE SACK KRAFT

This paper is characterised by very high stretch and high capability to absorb tensile energy.

Used For : Used for packaging in sacks, the bulk commodities.

FAX BASE PAPER

It is first coated with photo conductive zinc oxide on which images exposed. Hence electrical conductivity / resistivity is to be controlled to ensure that the image is not conducted through the paper to the other side

Used For : For making Fax images

FLEXIBLE CARTON BOARD

Used For : Used for making Flexible Cartons.

FLUORESCENT PAPER

Used For : Used for Labels, Posters and decorative applications.

FLUTING MEDIUM

Used For : Used for Corrugated Board manufacturing.

FOIL BASE POSTER, BOARD

Paper is laminated with metal foil using a suitable adhesive. Hence paper must have porosity to accept glue.

Used For : Used for lamination of paper with metal foil.

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GENERAL WRITING PAPER (NOTE BOOK)

Paper used for Note Books should have excellent bulks because note book should appear bulky, as otherwise it will be perceived as having less number of pages. Another important factor is cobb, since writing ink must go into the paper instantly and dry.

Used For : Used for note books.

GLASSINE PAPER

These papers are characterised by very low porosity (air permeability less than 10 cubic

cm

min. Preservation of aroma and perfection against attack of external environment to

the

packed contents are also important qualities of the subject papers.

Used For : Used for food packagings and other special wrapping applications.

GREASEPROOF PAPER

These papers are characterised by very low porosity (air permeability less than 10 cubic cm min. This gives resistance to grease and moisture. Preservation of aroma and perfection against attack of external environment to the packed contents are also important qualities of the subject papers.

Used For : Used for food packagings and other special wrapping applications.

GYPSUM BOARD

Used For : This is used for making panel boards for interior partitions, false ceiling etc.

ICE CREAM CUP

Used For : Used for making Ice Cream Cups.

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INTER LEAVING KRAFT

Used For : Inter Leaving Kraft is used for separation of steel sheets in a stack.

KITE POSTER

Used For : Used for decorative, purpose, Kites

LABEL PAPER

Labels are normally printed on offset machine. Hence good wax pick is required. Wire side of the paper used for application of gum should have adequate porosity. Good printability, compressibility, absorbency and ink hold out give satisfactory printing.

Used For : Used for printing of labels in multi colour.

LASER PAPER

Used For : Used for printing purposes where Laser beams are used.

LINER BOARD

Used For : Used for Corrugated Board manufacturing.

METALISATION BASE PAPER

Used For : Used for vacuum metalisation for packaging applications.

MICR CHEQUE PAPER

MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. Codes, figures and words are read by computer by magnetic field created on them. By careful formulations the paper is designed to react against a wide range of ink eradicators. It gives a characteristic coloured

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stain of "flare up" on contact with acid, alkali, bleach and organic solvents like acetone, benzene, ethanol.

Used For : Used in making of cheques which are processed by computer.

MULTI PART STATIONERY

Used For : Multi part stationery paper is used for computer applications where number of copies are printed in one attempt.

NEWSPRINT

It has to be made with adequate strength properties and surface characteristics; especially

wax pick. Optical properties brightness is required for better readability and appeal (with ink to paper contrast which improves readability of print) and opacity.

Used For : Used for printing our daily news papers and associated issues. It is used under very stringent shop-floor conditions by the news paper blouses for printing our daily news papers and associated.

ONE TIME CARBON (OTC) PAPER

A carbon paper intended to be used once as opposed to many times or multiple use

carbon papers.

Used For : Mostly used in multi-part continuous stationery.

POLY EXTRUSIN BASE PAPER

Used For : Used for Poly Extrusin for packaging.

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SANITARY TISSUE

Sanitary Tissues are made with rag pulp content in lower grammages from 5 gsm onward. Normal gsm range is 15 to 30. These papers are made in soft loosely felted conditions in order to obtain max. absorbency so that they can take water quickly and hold it after absorption. Made with high content of Alpha Cellulose or Rag %, they are treated with wetting agents to improve absorbency.

Used For : Used as Paper Towels, napkins, toilet tissues etc.

SHELL BOARDS

Used For : Used for making of Cigarette Slides (180-200 gsm).Pulp board are multi layer boards can be used

SOAP WRAPPER POSTER (ARSR)

Used For : Used for Wrapping of Soaps and detergents.

SOAP WRAPPER POSTER (TDL)

Used For : Used for Wrapping of Soaps and detergents.

TEA BAG PAPER

Used For : Used for retail packing of tea.

TEXTILE TUBES AND CONES

Used For : Used for Laminates, tube making and defence applications.

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TWIST WRAP TISSUE

It possess properties of with standing breaking stress when twisted during packing of toffees. High bursting strength combined with excellent machine runnability makes it suitable for special packing operations which require papers with high twisting properties.

Used For : It is used in packing of pharmaceutical products after poly lamination or coating.

WALL PAPER

Coated with multiple colours or floral designs.

Used For : Used as an alternative to paint. To give better aesthetic appeal to the walls.

YELLOW PAGES

Paper used for this needs to have high bulk (1.1 to 1.2), high tensile strength of about 2 kg/15 mm in MD and good opacity (90%) so that the fine print made on thin paper like 40 gsm would be readable on both side. Excellent reel build up is required for smooth feeding during printing. This requires every uniform profile of bulk, gsm, caliper, moisture etc.

Used For : Used for printing classified addresses and information in telephone directory.

TYPES OF PAPER

Paper is often characterized by weight. The weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream (500 sheets) of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers.

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DENSITY OF PAPER

The density of paper ranges from 250 kg/m3 (16 lb/ft3) for tissue paper to 1500 kg/m3 (94 lb/ft3) for some speciality paper. Printing paper is about 800 kg/m3 (50 lb/ft3).

SOME OTHER TYPES OF PAPER

Bank Paper

Bond Paper

Book Paper

Construction Paper/ Sugar Paper

Cotton Paper

Electronic Paper

Fish Paper (Vulcanized fibres for electrical insulation)

Ink jet Paper

Kraft Paper

Laid Paper

Leather Paper

Mummy Paper

Tyvek Paper

Paper Towels

Wall Paper

Washi

Wax Paper

Wet and Dry Paper

Wove Paper

Coated Paper: glossy and matt surface

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BANK PAPER

Bank paper is a thin strong writing paper of less than 50g/m2 commonly used for typewriting and correspondence.

BOND PAPER

Bond paper is a high quality durable writing paper similar to bank paper but having a weight greater than 50 g/m2.It is used for letterheads and other stationery and as paper for electronic printers. Widely employed for graphic work involving pencil, pen and felt-tip marker. It is largely made from rag pulp which produces a stronger paper than wood pulp.

BOOK PAPER

A book paper (or publishing paper) is a paper which is designed specifically for the

publication of printed books. Traditionally, book papers are off white or low white papers (easier to read), are opaque to minimize the show through of text from one side of the page to the other and are (usually) made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case bound books. Typically, books papers are light weight papers 60 - 90gsm and often specified by their caliper/substance ratios (volume basis).

CONSTRUCTION PAPER / SUGAR PAPER

Construction paper or sugar paper, is a type of coarse colored paper typically available in

large sheets. The texture is slightly rough, and the surface is unfinished. Due to the nature

of

the source material from which the paper is manufactured, small particles are visible

on

the paper’s surface.

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COTTON PAPER

Cotton paper is made from 100% cotton fibers. Cotton paper is superior in both strength and durability to wood pulp-based papers, which may contain high concentrations of acids.May also be known as cotton rag or ragged paper.

Cotton fiber papers is known to last several hundred years without fading, discoloring, or deteriorating; so is often used for important documents such as the archival copies of dissertation or thesis. As a rule of thumb, each percentage point of cotton fiber, a user may expect one year of resisting deterioration by use (the handling to which paper may be subjected).(reference - Southwest Paper Co). Legal document paper typically may contain 25% cotton.Cotton paper is also used in banknotes.

ELECTRONIC PAPER/ E- PAPER

Electronic Paper is a display technology designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper.Electronic paper reflects light like ordinary paper and is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity, while allowing the image to be changed later.E-paper can be crumpled or bent like traditional paper. Pixels on e-paper are image stable, or bistable, so that the state of each pixel can be maintained without a constant supply of power.

INKJET PAPER

Inkjet paper is paper designed for inkjet printers, typically classified by its weight, brightness and smoothness, and sometimes by its opacity.

PHOTO PAPER

Photo paper is a category of inkjet paper designed specifically for reproduction of photographs. The best of these papers, with suitable pigment-based ink systems, can match or exceed the image quality and longevity of traditional materials used for printing color photographs, such as Fuji CrystalArchive (for color prints from negatives) and

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Cibachrome/Ilfochrome (for color prints from positive transparencies). For printing monochrome photographs, traditional silver-based papers are widely felt to retain some advantage over inkjet prints.

KRAFT PAPER

Kraft paper is paper produced by the Kraft process from wood pulp. It is strong and relatively coarse. Kraft paper is usually a brown colour but can be bleached to produce white paper. It is used for paper grocery bags, multiwall sacks, envelopes and other packaging.

LAID PAPER

Laid paper is a type of paper having a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process.Laid paper is still commonly used by artists as a support for charcoal drawings.

TYVEK / TYVEX

Tyvek is a brand of flash spun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. The material is very strong; it is difficult to tear but can easily be cut with scissors or any other sharp object. Water vapor can pass through Tyvek, but not liquid water, so the material lends itself to a variety of applications: medical packaging, envelopes, car covers, air and water intrusion barriers (housewrap) under house siding, labels, wristbands, mycology, and graphics. Tyvek is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Tyvex."

PAPER TOWEL

A paper towel is a disposable product made of paper. It serves the same general purposes as conventional towels, such as drying hands, wiping windows and dusting. Because paper towels are disposable, they are often chosen to avoid the contamination of germs.

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WALL PAPER

Wallpaper is material which is used to cover and decorate the interior walls of homes, offices, and other buildings; it is one aspect of interior decoration. Wallpapers are usually sold in rolls and are put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come either plain so it can be painted or with patterned graphics. Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, gravure printing, silk screen-printing, and rotary printing."Wallpaper" is also a term for computer wallpaper.

WASHI

Washi or Wagami is a type of paper made in Japan. Washi is commonly made using fibers from the bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub (Edgeworthia papyrifera), or the paper mulberry, but also can be made using bamboo, hemp, rice, and wheat. Washi comes from wa meaning Japanese and shi meaning paper, and the term is used to describe paper made by hand in the traditional manner.Washi is generally tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, and is used in many traditional arts.

WAX PAPER

Wax paper (also called waxed paper) is a kind of paper that is made moisture proof through the application of wax.The practice of oiling parchment or paper in order to make it semi-translucent or moisture-proof goes back at least to medieval times. Thomas Edison claimed to have invented wax paper in 1872, but what he really invented was a cheap and efficient means to manufacture such paper.Wax paper is commonly used in cooking, for its non-stick properties, and wrapping food for storage, as it keeps water out or in. It is also used in arts and crafts.

WOVE PAPER

Wove paper is a writing paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or watermarked.

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COATED PAPER

Coated paper is paper which has been coated by an inorganic compound to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight and surface gloss, smoothness or ink absorbency. Kaolinite is the compound most often used for coating papers used in commercial printing. One function of coating is to protect against ultraviolet radiation.

PAPER POLLUTION

The production, use and recycling of paper has a number of adverse effects on the environment which are known collectively as paper pollution. Pulp mills contribute to air, water and land pollution. Discarded paper is a major component of many landfill sites, accounting for about 35% by weight of municipal solid waste (before recycling). Even recycling paper can be a source of pollution due to the sludge produced during deinking.

"People need paper products and we need sustainable, environmentally safe production." The amount of paper and paper products is enormous, so the environmental impact is also very significant. It has been estimated that by 2020 paper mills will produce almost 500,000,000 tons of paper and paperboard per year, so great efforts are needed to ensure that the environment is protected during the production, use and recycling/disposal of this enormous volume of material.

Pulp and paper is the third largest industrial polluter to air, water, and land in both Canada and the United States, and releases well over 100 million kg of toxic pollution each year (National Pollutant Release Inventory, 1996).

Worldwide, the pulp and paper industry is the fifth largest consumer of energy, accounting for 4 percent of all the world's energy use. The pulp and paper industry uses more water to produce a ton of product than any other industry.

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SOURCES OF PULP MILL RELATED POLLUTION

CHLORINE AND CHLORINE-BASED MATERIALS

Chlorine and compounds of chlorine are used in the bleaching of wood pulp, especially chemical pulps produced by the kraft process or sulfite process. Plants using elemental chlorine produced significant quantities of dioxins. Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants that are generally recognized among the most toxic human-released pollutants in existence. Elemental chlorine has largely been replaced by chlorine dioxide and dioxin production very significantly reduced. The promise of complete removal of chlorine chemistry from bleaching processes to give a TCF (totally chlorine-free) process, which peaked in the mid-1990s, did not become reality. The economic disadvantages of TCF, the lack of stricter government regulation and consumer demand meant as of 2005 only 5-6% of kraft pulp is bleached without chlorine chemicals. A study based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data concluded that "Studies of effluents from mills that use oxygen delignification and extended delignification to produce ECF (elemental chlorine free) and TCF pulps suggest that the environmental effects of these processes are low and similar."

The used process water from a pulp mill contains a lot of organic material such as lignin and other organic material from the trees (including chlorinated organic material) resulting in high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). It also contains alcohols, and chelating agents and inorganic materials like chlorates and transition metal compounds. Recycling the effluent (see black liquor) and burning it, using bioremediation ponds and employing less damaging agents in the pulping and bleaching processes can help reduce water pollution.

SULFUR, HYDROGEN SULFIDE, AND SULFUR DIOXIDE

Sulfur-based compounds are used in both the kraft process and the sulfite process for making wood pulp. Sulfur is generally recovered, with the exception of ammonia-based

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sulfite processes, but some is released as sulfur dioxide during combustion of black liquor, a byproduct of the kraft process, or "red liquor" from the sulfite process. Sulfur dioxide is of particular concern because it is water soluble and is a major cause of acid rain. In 2006 the pulp and paper industry in Canada released about 60,000 tonnes of sulfur oxides (SOx) into the atmosphere, accounting for just over 4% of the total SOx emission from all Canadian industries.

A modern kraft pulp mill is more than self-sufficient in its electrical generation and normally will provide a net flow of energy to the local electrical grid. Additionally, bark and wood residues are often burned in a separate power boiler to generate steam. If the harvested trees are replanted a kraft mill can be carbon-neutral, but reforestation has been criticized for reducing biodiversity.

Air emissions of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and other volatile sulfur compounds are the cause of the odor characteristic of pulp mills utilizing the kraft process. Other chemicals that are released into the air and water from most paper mills include the following:

ammonia

mercury

nitrates

methanol

benzene

Wood pulp produced primarily by grinding wood is known as "mechanical pulp" and is used mainly for newsprint. These mechanical processes use fewer chemicals than either

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kraft or sulfite mills. The primary source of pollution from these mills is organic material such as resin acids released from the wood when it is processed. Mechanical wood pulp is "brightened" as opposed to bleached using less toxic chemicals than are needed for chemical pulps.

PAPER MILL POLLUTION

It is a common misconception that all mills are "pulp and paper" mills. This is true only for "integrated mills" that consist of both a pulp mill and a paper mill on the same site. While pulp mills are often conspicuous by their size and odor, paper mills are often indistinguishable from factories seen in most communities. The major effluent from a paper mill is a suspension of paper fibers in water and it is in the mill's best interest to keep such fiber loss to a minimum since any lost fiber translates to lower paper production.

THE FUTURE OF PAPER

Some manufacturers have started using a new, significantly more environmentally friendly alternative to expanded plastic packaging made out of paper, known commercially as paperfoam. The packaging has very similar mechanical properties to some expanded plastic packaging, but is biodegradable and can also be recycled with ordinary paper.

With increasing environmental concerns about synthetic coatings (such as PFOA) and the higher prices of hydrocarbon based petrochemicals, there is a focus on zein (corn protein) as a coating for paper in high grease applications such as popcorn bags.

Also, synthetics such as Tyvek and Teslin have been introduced as printing media as a more durable material than paper.

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CHAPTER 4

STUDY OF LEADING FIVE COMPANIES

CENTURY PULP AND PAPER(CPP)

Century Pulp and Paper(CPP) a division of Century Textile and Industries Ltd (CTIL) is manufacturer of Rayon Grade Pulp (RGP) and an exhaustive range of excellent quality of Writing & Printing Paper. The unit successfully achieved significant efficiencies in various disciplines within a short span of time. Located at Lalkua (District Nainital, U.K.), CPP has provided direct and indirect employment to the people of the surrounding areas.

Century Pulp and Paper(CPP) a division of Century Textile and Industries Ltd (CTIL) is manufacturer of Rayon Grade Pulp (RGP) and an exhaustive range of excellent quality of Writing & Printing Paper. The unit successfully achieved significant efficiencies in various disciplines within a short span of time. Located at Lalkua (District Nainital, U.K.), CPP has provided direct and indirect employment to the people of the surrounding areas.

BRIEF PROFILE

Century Pulp & Paper (an ISO-9001:2000 & ISO-14001:2004 certified Division of Century Textiles and Industries Ltd.) , a Division of Century Textiles and Industries Ltd. is a member of B.K. Birla Group of Companies. The company chairman is Syt. Basant Kumarji Birla. Established in 1984, the Division is situated at Lalkua on the Bareilly- Nainital Highway. The Head Office of the Division is on the 11 th Floor of Industry House, 10, Camac Street, Kolkata.

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Product range of the CPP comprises a vast range of quality Writing & Printing Paper and superior quality dissolving Rayon Grade Pulp used for Viscose/Staple fiber/filament yarn. It has other uses in preparing urea, formaldehyde, melamine formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde.

CPP has a well equipped and planned department for Environmental Conservation and Pollution Control. CPP pays sincere attention to the overall development of its employees and that of the community. It also has a well organized HRD Department for supervising these activities. CPP maintains an excellent infrastructural set up with modern facilities in order to carry out organizational activities.

Century Pulp & Paper is the recipient of the following awards

Eco-Mark by BIS for its Bagasse based products.

Central Pollution Control Board and National Productivity Council have selected the company as a “Model” unit in the field of “Waste Minimization” among pulp and paper industries.

CPP’s Effluent Treatment Plant has been selected by Central Pollution Control Board for carrying out studies and data collection for preparation of Minimal National Standards (MINAS) for large pulp and paper industry group.

CPP’s waste reduction schemes have been included in the “World Bank” – Data Base on Waste Minimisation.

Awarded Indo German Greentech Award for Environment Excellence for the year

2000-01.

CPP was awarded ‘First Prize’ at All India Farmer’s fair for the year 2004-2005 for its significant efforts towards farm forestry.

CPP was adjudged as the “Efficient Unit” in energy conservation by CII for the year 2004-2005

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CPP was awarded “First Prize” for energy conservation by Indian Paper Makers Association as well as the “National Award” for Energy Conservation in Pulp & Paper Sector by the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India for the year 2004-2005.

VISION

Our vision for the millennium remains manufacturing of international quality products at optimum cost in consistence with the physical and psychological environment best suitable for customers and stakeholders.

CONCRETE VISION ELEMENTS

Product quality

Safety and Environment

Satisfaction of customer and stakeholders

Cost Effectiveness

Energy conservation

BUSINESS STRENGTHS

Century Pulp and Paper is the manufacturer of Rayon Grade Pulp, Wood based Writing Printing Paper & Bagasse based Writing Printing Paper. CPP employs around 2500 well trained manpower including 700 staff and 1800 workmen.

CPP SPECIALTIES IN MANUFACTURING

Wide variety of quality writing printing paper (agro based) with Bagasse as raw material.

Best quality photocopiers paper which has been highly appreciated in the market, both international and domestic.

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The mill established at Lalkua is unique because :-

It is the only mill in the world producing both rayon grade pulp, wood-based

paper and bagasse based paper.

The level of control instrumentation is relatively high.

CPP is the first mill in the world to use ClO2 for bagasse pulp bleaching.

The mill features a unique pile building system for preventing deterioration of

stored bagasse fiber. Bagasse fiber fed to the digester has a high fiber pith ratio

(more than 5:1).

CPP’s farm forestry scheme ensures that raw material is cultivated and

replenished. CPP is the driver for good forestry management and manages socio-

forestry nurseries for cultivation and distribution of plant saplings.

The mill has a well equipped laboratory to monitor various water and air pollution

control measures including AOX level.

MARCHING AHEAD

CPP has embarked on a prestigious green field expansion programme to implement a

modern technology paper manufacturing unit of 250 TPD based on Secondary Fiber

including de-inking plant.

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Value in INR (Crores)

Value in US$ (million)

Year (2002 – 03) Turnover

463.78

103.06

Profit Year (2003 – 04)

4.43

0.98

Turnover

497.66

110.59

Profit

30.53

6.78

Year (2004 – 05) Turnover

556.35

123.63

Profit

30.41

6.75

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PRODUCT PRODUCT 1

CPP’s range of products includes some of the finest varieties of writing and printing paper which has carved a niche in the market.

CPP also manufacturers raw material for viscose filament yarn/staple fiber and also paper grade pulp.

A. Writing and Printing Papers (45 to 210 gsm)

(Wood based)

Azurelaid

Maplitho White/NS

Maplitho Deluxe CG

SS Maplitho

Dye line base

Offset printing paper

Maplitho NS (ARSR)

Century Parchment

Super Printing

Century Bond

Railway Bond

Copier

Continuous Stationery (HB)

Base Paper for coating

Plain Paper

Opaline Base Paper

Overlay tissue

Century Maplitho

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NCR Base Paper

MICR Cheque Paper

Color Ptg Paper

Century Excel Ptg

Century Index Paper

Broke cover MF – Sticker Base

(BAGASSE PLANT)

Copier

Super Maplitho white

Super shine Printing

B. Rayon Grade Pulp

C. Bleached Hardwood Pulp (Paper Grade)

PRODUCT 2

PACKING DETAILS

Pulp Sheets of Size 80+ 60 cms. Packed in Bales with strong wropper & tied with steel wires by Automatic Tying Machine. Bale Wt : 175 Kgs.

CPP is following IS specification for its entire range of product. However, various properties can be custom made to meet the customer requirement.

MESSAGE TO THE INTERNATIONAL AUDIENCE

At Century Pulp & Paper, we do not confine ourselves to manufacturing superior quality products. Besides catering to the society, we also take deep interest in maintaining the ecological balance i.e. restoring natural resources. We have explored the natural world and have associated it with the main streamline of

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our business. Since our main thrust is on export, we have chosen the net as the best medium to connect to our international friends. We wholeheartedly welcome business enquiries from your end and look forward to a long-lasting relationship.

Century Pulp & Paper, is headed by dynamic and experienced people from different fields. Their rich experience and expertise has enabled the organization to operate successfully over the years and deliver to the society the best of products. Maintaining a perfect balance between the society and nature has been the key word in Century since its inception and retaining it over the years goes to the credit of the excellent management skills of the people managing the company.

QUALITY CONTROL

Century Pulp and Paper, Lalkua has well organized laboratory equipped with modern pulp and paper testing equipments including Autoline from L&W Sweden, Qualified and experienced staff manage the quality control department.

For all inputs fibrous/non fibrous, in-process material (digester section, bleaching section, stock preparation); finished material (Paper/Pulp) at paper machine rewinders/cutters, finishing house and Godowns, standards/ specifications are followed as per guidelines of ISO-9001:2000) quality system (quality Inspection Plant).

product

Testing/analysis is carried out as per TAPPI/ISO standard.

Inputs

and

Finished

is

allowed

only

after

conforming

to

standards.

A separate customer cell has been formulated to redress customer grievances and recourse to quick solutions. This cell understands changing needs of customers, caries out periodical market research to improve customer-choice process and also monitors competitor moves

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PRODUCTION PROCESS

PROCESS

CPP is the first large pulp and paper mill in India, who had not only floated the idea of consuming bagasse for manufacturing Quality paper but also gave concrete base to its idea in the form of Bagasse Unit. The Bagasse Unit of CPP was commissioned in early 1995 with a capacity of 211 TPD for manufacturing quality paper. The salient features of bagasse unit are latest bagasse handling, pulping and paper making technologies.

Bagasse handling, moist depithing, pile building reclaiming and washing

Beloit UK.

Bagasse cooking continuous digester, cold blow to avoid Emissions and to retain fiber strength

Sunds

Brown Stock Washing.

HDO

Screening and cleaning

Ahlstrom,Finland

Bleaching system based on C/D, E/O D sequence to attain final pulp brightness of +88 without affecting the strength of pulp.

Sunds, Sweden

BAGASSE

Bagasse is received from the Sugar Mills either in bale form or in loose form as per the requirement. Whole bagasse from the sugar mill is available only in the sugar cane crushing season which is stretched over a period of maximum six to seven months only, whereas the process of production of paper is continuous throughout the year.

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Therefore, it is essential to store bagasse in a proper way so as to make it available for paper making through out the year i.e. during off season without affecting the quality

Hence, the total amount of bagasse required for the production throughout the year is carefully stored so that the production is not affected due to the shortage of bagasse

WRITING AND PRINTING PAPER PLANT PROCESS (WPP)

This integrated plant is based on Eucalyptus and Bamboo furnish to produce paper ranging between 45 to 210 gsm.

The best selected species of Eucalyptus and other hard wood/bamboo which are locally available from nearby forest is used for pulping. Pulping process is conventional kraft process. For high brightness and good strength pulp output latest technology of bleaching sequences consisting of Hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide & sulphur dioxide is used. Pulp is further processed in highly sophisticated continuous stock preparation plant.

To cater to market requirement of reels and sheets facilities of winding, sheeting and packing is available. The packing of reels & sheets is conforming to seaworthy standards suitable for export

TECHNOLOGY WRITING & PRINTING PAPER PLANT (WPP)

Capacity - 37250 TPA

Integrated Pulp & Paper Unit based on Eucalyptus & Bamboo Furnish.

Two Paper Machines equipped with size press.

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Paper Grammage Range

45-210

Machine deckle

2.69 Meters

Rewinders

Jagenberg

R/W speed

1000 m/min

Cutters

1.45 m width with 200 m/min. speed

BAGASSE PAPER PLANT

CPP has recently commissioned Bagasse Paper Plant to manufacture 211 TPD quality paper based on Bagasse furnish. The salient features of the project are the latest pulping technology involving oxygen bleaching and a comprehensive computer-aided control system.

Bagasse handling,depithing, pile building Reclaiming & Washing.

Beloit Corporation, U.K.

Bagasse cooking: continuous digester cold Blows to avoid emissions and to retain Fiber strength.

Sunds Defibrator, Sweden

Brown stock washing & deckering.

Hindustan Door-oliver

Screening & Cleaning

AhlstromCorpn.Finland

Bleaching System based on D/C-E/O–D Sequence to attain final pulp brightness of

Sunds Defibrator, Sweden

88(+).

Paper Machine

Equipped with Film-Press for on-line coating Voith-Sulzer, Germany

Capacity

84600 TPA

Deckle

5.2 MTR

Qualities

Fine varieties of writing & printing paper 53-130 GSM including light weight coated varieties copier.

Slitters & Cutters

Jagenberg, Germany

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RAYON GRADE PAPER PLANT/PAPER GRADE PULP

Based on Eucalyptus furnish

Bleaching sequence includes Chlorine-Di- Oxide treatment

Sheeting Machine with 105 TPD capacity (Carmano, Italy)

Deckle 2.4 Meters with on-machine cutters and Bailing Press

POWER BLOCK

3 Nos. AFBC Coal Fired Boilers

23T/Hr (47 ata, 420° C)

1 No. Spreader Stroker Coal Fired

25T/Hr (47 ata, 420° C)

2 Nos. AFBC Coal Fired Boilers

50T/Hr each (53 ata, 480° C)

BHEL Recovery Boiler

325

Tons/day dry solids (47 ata, 420° C)

ABL Recovery Boiler

350

Tons/day dry solids (63 ata, 480° C)

6.8 MW BHEL TG Set

Extraction Back Pressure

21 MW TDK TG Set

Double Extraction, Condensing

DG Sets

3 x 1450 KVA

Grid Power available 132 KVA

10 MVA at (Maximum demand)

Producer Gas Plant

An innovation and pioneering project implemented to substitute RFO in Lime Kiln.

CPP has also undertaken a project to generate green power by installation of a Boiler dedicated on Bio-fuels.

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COMPANY POLICY

We at Century Pulp and Paper are committed to strengthen our position as market leader in manufacturing of writing and printing paper and rayon grade pulp by developing a company wide culture that promotes :

Customer delight

Quality, Environment, Safety and Information Security initiatives

Environment friendly, Safe and Energy efficient operation

Protecting Information of all Stakeholders

We will continuously pursue for :

Continual improvement in our products, processes & services in all areas.

Protecting information assets and customer information from all threats through the implementation of suitable information security management systems.

Remain incompliance with applicable legislations.

Communicate and reinforce this policy through out the company.

This policy is made available to employees and on request to interested parties.

EXPORT FIGURES MAJOR COUNTRIES EXPORTED

Major countries to which Century has exported during the year 99-00 are UAE, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Bangladesh, Nepal & Myanmar.

COUNTRIES EXPORTING CURRENTLY

CPP is currently exporting to UAE, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Bangladesh & Nepal, Myanmar, Malaysia, South Africa, Malta, Tanzania and Austria.

SEEKING EXPORT ENQUIRIES

CPP is currently seeking export enquiries from all over. The company wholeheartedly welcomes innovative ideas and productive schemes.

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JK PAPER LIMITED

JK Paper Ltd. is among India’s foremost paper manufacturers. It is part of one of India’s leading Business Houses – JK Organisation, which has a significant presence in Automotive Tyres, Cement, V-Belts, Oil-Seals, Agri-seeds and Pulp & Paper.

JK Paper Ltd., India’s largest producer of Branded papers is a leading player in the Printing and Writing segment. It operates two plants in India, one in the East – JK Paper Mills (JKPM) in Rayagada, Orissa with a capacity of 125,000 tonnes per year and the other in the West – Central Pulp Mills (CPM), located in Songadh, Gujarat with a production capacity of 55,000 tonnes per year. Both plants are ISO 9001 – 2000 and ISO 14001 certified and operate at around 120% capacity utilization. The aggregate annual output is over 180,000 tonnes per year of Paper and Pulp, using contemporary technology. The Company has commissioned a 46,000 TPA state-of-the-art Coating Plant at its JKPM unit in July 2005. This facility employs superior blade coating technology to produce international quality coated art paper and boards, being marketed in the brand name of JK Cote. About 40% of paper produced by the Company is sold under various brand names, JK Copier, JK Excel Bond, JK Bond, JK Savannah, JK Copier Plus and JK Easy Copier. Being the largest selling branded copier paper in India, JK Copier is the Company’s flagship brand. The other major product is JK Maplitho, a superior uncoated Writing and Printing paper. The Company sells through a nationwide distribution network of over 120 distributors and 2500 dealers.

JK Paper enjoys highest Operating Margins and Highest Net Sales Realization (NSR) in over 90% of the products it sells, amongst the paper mills across India. It is the only Company in the industry with such a large share of branded products in its portfolio.

The Company passionately believes in Environment and Safety and has been introducing cleaner and environment-friendly technologies. JK Paper Mills at Rayagada has been adjudged as the Greenest Paper Mill in India.

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The Company’s plantations, driven by in-house research programme, have covered more than 45,000 hectares of land over the years. By providing farmers high quality plant species through the Company’s plantation research centre, it is helping the farmers to improve their economic well being. Very large number of farmers in the states of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra are benefiting from this programme. The plantation with its superior quality plants contribute towards a strong base for high quality raw materials. The Company is also implementing TPM with the help of Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance. The Company has an export footprint for high value branded products in the Middle East, South East Asia, SAARC and various African countries.

MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

JK Paper has two large integrated paper manufacturing plants - Paper Mills in the Eastern part in the State of Orissa with 1,25,000 tons coated, uncoated and market pulp manufacturing capacity; and Central Pulp Mills in the Western part in the State of Gujarat with 55,000 tons paper and market pulp manufacturing capacity. Both the mills manufacture premium grade writing and printing papers largely branded.

JK Paper Mills

JK Paper Mills, a Unit of JK Paper Ltd. is a premier integrated Pulp and Paper Mill located at Jaykaypur, Dist. Rayagada, Orissa. Since its inception, JK Paper Mills has strived for excellence and consistently set high standards in quality, productivity, conservation of energy and water, industrial safety as well as pollution control and environment protection which are indicated by achievements like:

Manufacture of surface sized Maplitho for the first time in the country with indigenous raw material.

Capacity utilization of 120%.

First Paper Mill in India to get ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.

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Adjudged First Greenest Paper Mill in India in 1999.

Most modern and largest pulp mill in the country.

JKPM was commissioned in the year 1962 with an integrated pulp and paper plant with 15000 TPA installed capacity for manufacturing high quality writing and printing papers. Over the years, the production capacity has been enhanced to a level of 127,000 TPA with the addition of 4 more paper machines manufacturing diversified product range from 29 GSM to 300 GSM of different grades of paper. In 2005, an offline coating machine has also been set up to manufacture premium grades of coated papers.The secret of success of the mill is attributed to its policy for sustained efforts for quality, new product development and continuous offering of value added products to customers.

The company was a pioneer to introduce in market a surface sized finished paper - JK Maplitho - equivalent to uncoated woodfree printing paper in international parlance. Since then JKPM has further consolidated its position in the market and has established itself as a brand leader in different varieties of writing and printing papers like JK Copier, JK Copier Plus, JK Bond, JK Excel Bond, Super Hibrite (SHB) Maplitho and JK Cote premium coated paper and board. All these brands are extremely popular papers in the market place throughout the country and are invariably the first choice of the consumer.

OUR PHILOSOPHY

At JK Paper, we believe that leadership is not merely a matter of size. With leadership, comes theresponsibility to drive growth in all its possible dimensions. Leadership demands transformation. The ability to constantly move up the value chain from what is to what can be. And to that extent, leadership shapes the very quality of growth.

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Growth needs to be viewed in a holistic manner. At JK Paper, it is this ceaseless quest for holistic growth that has shaped our operations in the present as well as influenced our investments in the future - in world-class technologies for enhancing our customer experience, besides enabling us to fulfill our social responsibilities.

At JK Paper, technology up-gradation has meant more than just better business sense. We have moved beyond enhanced productivity, wider product range and better value, to investing in and nurturing a future ready organization that is driven by its two core growth engines Customers and Environment.We firmly believe that much more than the technology, it’s how well equipped we are to harness it, that determines the road to transformation. And therefore, our investments are focused on continuous and consistent up-gradation of processes, people and nature. Be it converting wastelands into productive plantations to produce world-class pulp, or scouting for and mentoring professionals who can drive the technology movement at JK Paper.

JK PAPER & TECHNOLOGY

Over the last decade the constant endeavour of JK Paper has been to upgrade its manufacturing processes at grass-root levels to help create customer value. Be it the most modern Pulp Mill or an automatic cut-size line for branded products, it has been a saga of continuous process development with an eye on the customer.

JK Paper Ltd. has always leveraged technology for constant product upgradation and has been a pioneer in many arenas, of the paper industry. Some of the landmarks which JK Paper achieved much before the rest of the Indian paper companies are:-

• First to introduce Surface Sized Woodfree Paper

• First Paper Mill to get ISO 9001 certification.

• First Paper Mill to get ISO 14001 certification.

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These pioneering moves have given JK Paper pride of place as the change leader, ushering in a phase of complete makeover in the Indian paper market. On the pathway of moving focus from commodity to branded and high value categories, JK Paper Ltd. has undergone major technical upgradation in the machines and processes for manufacturing paper.

The Company has taken a major initiative to deliver world-class service through implementation of an Enterprise Resource Planning system. This transformational technology will bring in best practices across all functions of the organization to deliver highest value to all external and internal customers.

Continuing the chain of constant technological development our operational state-of-the- art Coated Paper manufacturing facility at Jaykaypur, Orissa, is driving the next big revolution in the Indian paper industry. The project to manufacture high quality coated paper was completed in a record time of just 15 months from Concept to Commissioning.

The plant manufacturing coated paper owes the excellence achieved in manufacturing coated paper to its fully automated coating colour kitchen that ensures world-class quality. Besides the advantage of using the high quality base paper made in-house at JK Paper Mills, it derives its strength from the well controlled, feature- laden coating plant with features like three-stage online controls for GSM, coat weight, moisture etc. It is also equipped with electronic controls for cross profile and gloss. On the other hand, due attention has been given to the finishing and packaging end by installing state-of-the-art synchro fly sheet cutters, ensuring perfect cutting and finishing.

Apart from commissioning the Coating Plant, this has been a watershed year, considering the path- breaking initiative from JK Paper in setting up a state-of-the-art Packaging Board Plant at its Central Pulp Mills Unit, Songadh, Gujarat at a substantial Rs.235 crore investment. This plant of 60,000 TPA capacity will be equipped with the most

106

contemporary technology sourced from global leaders like Voith of Germany and several other leading names in the paper board machinery sector. Once again, technology will be the key driver to revolutionize packaging in India.

JK PAPER & QUALITY

We at JK Paper have always believed that it is our customer, who is our best teacher as he indeed, is our best critic. It is with this belief which we have always listened to him with an open mind that has kept us constantly ahead. Clearly, it is this philosophy that has led to the creation of the ‘Quality Culture’ placing the customer at the core of all our business plans and strategies. Be it investments in the area of technological excellence, continuous improvement, development of the human resource, building of brands and customer relationships, our constant endeavour has driven us to a state of Customer Obsession across the organization. No wonder, JK Paper Mills was the first Paper Mill in India to attain ISO 9001 certification in 1995. Central Pulp Mills followed in 2003.

Establishing international quality benchmarks and creating customised products to meet the unique needs of the different consumers has been the essence of our product development activities. It is this philosophy that has led us to develop and enlarge the range of our products and brands to meet the consumers’ needs across all quality and price points.

In the Printing & Writing segment, our journey which began with SS Maplitho for the specific customer needs of quality has moved on to customers of SS Maplitho SHB in the High Bright category and subsequently to SHB Evervite for top end customers.

Over the last four decades, this journey covered several milestones, starting with products like SS Maplitho. Ranging from the top end segment ‘JK Evervite’ to the middle segment Maplitho SHB, it has continuously enriched its product portfolio, meeting the wider customer requirements. Brands like ‘JK Copier Plus’, a multi purpose premium business

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paper, ‘JK Copier’ for the mid segment high speed Copier Machines to ‘JK Easy Copier’ for the economy range, reflects the company’s diversity of product portfolio and dominant leadership in the Branded Segment.

In the Branded water-marked segment, ‘JK Bond’, a name synonymous with the House of JK over the years, has led to the development of premium products like ‘JK Excel Bond’, available in international consumer friendly packs. ‘JK Savannah’ is yet another offering of an exclusive grade of office stationery paper just introduced in select markets.

In all its product segments, JK commands an undisputed Quality leadership position in the Industry. No wonder, with quality being a way of life at JK Paper, we do not attempt to restrict quality to a mere definition.

JK PAPER & ENVIRONMENT

Any improvement in technology has an impact on the environment. At JK Paper, we have always been indebted to Mother Nature and have worked ceaselessly towards employing processes that are in sync with ecology. This passion and sense of responsibility is evident in the various initiatives that the Company has undertaken.

Our technology based plantation movement with in-house R&D along with the involvement of thousands of farmers across several states, has aided our plans to enhance raw material availability, greening of surroundings and livelihood for a large number of local population. It has been part of JK Paper’s corporate philosophy to protect the environment through process innovations rather than end-of-the-gate treatment. The results of our investments in environment have been widely recognized in various fora winning us numerous awards over the years.

Rated as the Greenest Paper Mill of India (JK Paper Mills) by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) in their first study on paper industry (1999)

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Again won the prestigious 3 Leaves award in 2004-05 from CSE in their second study

ISO 14001 Environment Management System since 1998 (JK Paper Mills) – first in India; in 2003 (Central Pulp Mills)

Beyond Plantations, the Company’s thrust on environment is also visible in various ecofriendly processes that it employs at its Plants like the most modern Fibreline based on latest technology (Oxygen delignification)

Today, the Company sources nearly 60% of its raw material requirement from man-made plantations. Side by side, it also promotes social/farm forestry within a radius of 200 KMs from its plants. Till date, in excess of 48,000 Ha of land has been planted with high yielding pulpwood species by the farmers in the adjoining areas of mill locations with the assistance of the Company. Every year it adds another 4500/5000 Ha by distributing 30 million saplings to the farmers. Through its dedicated R&D wing, the Company has been able to develop 6 JK Superclones for Eucalyptus, which gives 2-3 times higher yield to the farmer.

JK Paper & People

Customer obsession is at the core of JK Paper’s mission statement. Passion to deliver highest value to all our external and internal customers has led the Company to take major initiatives in the direction of implementing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system in the organisation. This ERP System will tie-up the total supply chain, enabling seamless flow of information in ‘Real time’. It will open a transparent dialogue between the supplier and the customer, bringing in greater of efficiency, responsibility and effectiveness to the entire system at JK Paper.

At JK Paper, we recognize the power of knowledge. Hence, extensive investments are made toward people and people practices. Fostering the spirit of entrepreneurship among

109

these professionals has enabled JK Paper to establish the role of true leadership guiding the future growth and development of the industry. The talent pool at JK Paper would rank among the very best in the Indian Paper Industry today.

Today, these world-class people practices have galvanized TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) into a Truly People’s Movement at JK Paper. A practice that is best exemplified by JK Paper’s much acclaimed ‘Quality Circle’ practice that started way back in 80s and actually paved way for the successful implementation of TPM. Today JKPM Orissa alone has over 66 such quality circles that constitute of over 40% employees, ensuring active involvement in implementation and decision making at all employee level. At JK, you can see in practice, people of grass-root level involved emotionally and physically to bringing up new ideas of improvement.

But, like any other movements the real momentum was fuelled from the top management, who actually got down to the shop floor to lead by example. So whether it was about getting involved in cleaning and maintenance of machines and equipment every morning or helping workmen find and plug daily problems on the shop floor, the top leaders demonstrated and practiced what they were preaching. Finally, this TPM movement has not only helped further the cause of quality commitment but also brought about a total transparency, Spirit of sharing and caring and willingness to continuously improve and take on new challenges in the Organisation.

PRODUCT

OFFICE DOCUMENTATION

We offer a range of Office Documentation Papers from Economy to Premium grades. They include Photocopy and Multi Purpose Papers for use in Desktop, Inkjet and Laser Printers, Fax Machines, Photocopiers and Multi-functional Devices.

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Premium Watermarked and Laidmarked Business Stationery Papers are also being marketed to satisfy the varied needs of Corporates and Individuals.

Ideal for Quality Photocopying, Project Reports, Resumes, Inkjet & Laserjet printers, Presentation copies or any aesthetic job

Suitable for any job on Office printers - Inkjet and Laserjet, Photocopiers and Multi- functional Devices

Ideal for photocopying & desktop printing

Ideal for Photocopying

Ideal for Letterheads, Brochures, Certificate, Presentations, Project Reports, Envelopes, Pamphlets, Manuscript writing, Corporate Stationery

Suitable for Corporate Stationery, Reports, Certificates, Presentations, Resumes, Invitation Cards, Hotel/Airline Menu Cards, Personal Letterheads

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UNCOATED PAPER & BOARD

Our Maplitho paper has been acknowledged in the market for its superior performance and we offer a range of such uncoated writing & printing paper for varied needs including the super bright JK Evervite. Apart from this, we also produce MICR cheque paper as well as High-end Pulp Boards, Ledger Papers and Parchment grades

Features

JK Evervite

Superior brightness (brightness value 93 plus)

Higher strength

Excellent printability

Long lasting colour and shade

End Uses

Printing of Quality Books, Calendars, Maps

Making Premium Diaries, Hi end Exercise Book, Notepads, Scribble Pad

Sizes

Available in standard folio sizes as well as special sizes on order, Also available in Reels

GSM-60 to 100

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JK Maplitho Paper

Features

Long lasting shade

Superior strength

Excellent dimensional stability

Trouble free Printing

Excellent Smoothness

End Uses

 

Printing of Books, Calendars, Maps

Making Diaries, Notepads, Scribble Pad, Exercise Book

Also used in Food grade applications

Sizes

Available in standard folio sizes as well as special sizes on order, Also available in Reels

GSM-60 to 150

JK MICR Cheque Paper

Features

Hi Quality Paper For Cheques

Lost Lasting & Strong Paper

End Uses

Used For Making Cheques

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Sizes

Standard Sizes in Reels & Sheets

GSM-95

Packaging Board

Range of High-end Coated Packaging Boards to service the varied needs of the packaging industry:

JK TuffCote

JK Ultima

JK PureFil base

JK TuffPac

JK IV Board

Corporate Vision

To be a dynamic benchmark and leader in the Indian paper industry

Corporate Mission

To achieve growth and leadership through the JK brand equity, customer obsession, technological innovation and cost leadership, with a clear focus on environment, while continuously enhancing shareholder value

Quality Policy

To provide 'customer delight' - both internal and external - through our products and services at lowest cost by continuous improvement in processes, productivity, quality and management systems

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RAMA PAPER MILLS LIMITED

Rama Paper Mills Limited was incorporated as a Public Limited Company in the year 1985 to manufacture Newsprint, Duplex Board and Writing and Printing paper by recycling waste paper.

RMPL commissioned its duplex manufacturing unit with an installed capacity of 3300 TPA in the year 1988. It then diversified into writing and printing/newsprint paper in 1992-93. Today the total installed capacity of 3 units is 44000 TPA, located at Kiratpur, Distt Bijnor in Uttar Pradesh. The company has further undertaken the installation of one more unit for manufacturing Tissue & Poster Paper having capacity of 16320 TPA, thus increasing the total capacity to 60320 TPA. The site of unit is well located; excellent connectivity by road and rail transport makes availability of raw materials and inputs easy and also brings finished products markets in close proximity.

The company is professionally managed by a well-qualified, highly motivated and experienced personnel. It employs around 500 people including skilled, semi skilled and unskilled workforce.

INFRASTRUCTURE

The site of unit is well located having all infrastructure facilities like road and rail connections easy availability of raw material and inputs locally or from nearby areas and close proximity to potential finished product markets

Rama Paper Mills Limited has 12 acres of land which is fully developed and in actual use of company for its industrial activities. All the essential facilities like internal roads , water supply , electricity , pollution control equipments etc. are fully installed and functional at the factory site.The company has build a residential colony for its employees which has 36 livable units for its executive and 100 units for workers.

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PRODUCTS

Unit-I:- A multi-cylinder mould plant to manufacture coated/uncoated varieties of

Duplex board of medium quality. This is used t make small packaging / small cartoons used by pharmaceuticals, soaps, paste, apparels, tea and other similar industries.

PRODUCTS

 

GSM

LWC DUPLEX BOARD

230-410

LWC

PREMIUM

DUPLEX

 

BOARD

230-410

UNIT-II:- A Fourdinier wire part M.F machine to manufacture Writing/Printing ,

Newsprint and Kraft grades of paper.

PRODUCTS

GSM

BRIGHTNESS

DELUXE

CREAM

   

WOVE

50-80

60+

SUPER CREAM WOVE

DELUXE

54-80

66+

PRIME CREAM WOVE

54-80

72+

SUPER

DELUXE

   

NEWSPRINT

48+

60+

UNIT-III:- A high speed M.F machine to manufacture Newsprint and also capable of

making other varieties of paper such as writing / printing paper.The plant has been

116

imported

refurnished machine.

from

Germany

through

Bon

Engineering-Sweden.It

is

a

second

hand

PRODUCTS

GSM

BRIGHTNESS

STANDARD NEWSPRINT

48

45+

DELUX NEWSPRINT

48

52+

BUSINESS ENQUIRIES

For business, product, supplies and other enquires, please contact Vice President - Marketing at our Delhi corporate office, or mail us.

FINANCIAL REPORT

Operating Performance

Rs in Lacs (2007)

Capacity Utilisation

94%

Sales

8390.00

Gross Profit

1227.00

Interest

176.00

Depreciation

239.00

Net Operating Profit/ (Loss)

812.00

Prov. For Taxation

434.00

Net Profit / (Loss) after tax

378.00

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Financial Position

Rs in Lacs (2007)

Net Fixed Assets

5606.32

Net Current Assets

2455.30

Bank Borrowing for W/c

1512.93

Long term Liabilities

2223.19

Unsecured Loan

121.03

Equity Share Capital

966.47

Pref. Capital

500.00

Reserves

1987.02

Net Worth

3453.49

Social Activities

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY & ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY

While discharging commercial functions, the company had not forgotten its responsibilities towards society and environment. The company is virtually a zero discharge unit. All effluent is FULLY treated and entire water is recycled and re- consumed. A waste in the shape of sludge having left out fibres is converted into millboard and sold in market that yields a good price for waste. Millboard manufacturing equipments have been installed for this conversion.

The company’s endeavor is to make wealth from waste and proud to be associated with the national cause of conserving its forest reserve and making environment green and clean by consuming waste paper.

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Investors Information

Stock Exchange

Stock Exchange

Mumbai Stock Exchange

BSE Scrip Code

BSE – 500 357

DEMAT Details

CENTERAL DEPOSITORY SERVICES LIMITED (CDSL)

DP ID: 12026000

INDUS PORTFOLIO PVT LIMITED, NEW DELHI

ISIN NO

INE 425E 01013

SHARE TRANSFER

In House

SECRETARIAL DEPTT. 12/22, 2 nd Floor EAST PATEL NAGAR, NEW DELHI –110 008 PH.NO. 011-25851185, 25850503 E-MAIL : delhi@ramapaper.com

Registrar

INDUS PORTFOLIO PVT LTD G-65, BALI NAGAR NEW DELHI -110 015. PH.NO 25422805/25422801 (SEBI REGISTRATION NO: INR000003845)

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WEST COAST PAPER MILLS LIMITED

The West Coast Paper Mills Ltd. is the flagship company of SK Bangur Group, based at Kolkata. The mill location was opted as the most suitable and advantageous, Dandeli being situated in the heart of thick forests on the bank of river Kali.

The prospects of continued supply of forest-based raw materials on the assurance of the then State Government of Karnataka, perennial availability of water, assured power supply, vicinity of rail and road linkages were the major factors that weighed in favour of Dandeli.

CORPORATE PROFILE

The West Coast Paper Mills Ltd., is the flagship company of SK Bangur Group, based at Kolkata. The SKB Group is a growing conglomerate with diverse interests across Paper, Power Cables, Telecommunication Cables, Chemicals, Tea, Coffee, Rubber and Wind Mills. Approximately 60% of the group’s revenue is contributed by West Coast.

Established in the year 1955 at Dandeli, Karnataka, over the past five decades the Company has exemplified all the qualities of leadership in the Industry, with a vision to make the nation self reliant in paper production. Today Paper, Paperboard and Coated Duplex Board from the The West Coast Paper Mills Ltd. address the writing, printing and packaging demands of millions of customers across the globe. West Coast is an ISO 9001:2000 accredited by the DNV, the Netherlands.

The mill location was opted as the most suitable and advantageous, Dandeli being situated in the heart of thick forests on the bank of river Kali. The prospects of continued supply of forest-based raw materials on the assurance of the then State Government of Karnataka, perennial availability of water, assured power supply, vicinity of rail and road linkages were the major factors that weighed in favour of Dandeli.

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Not one to rest on its laurels, the Company is looking ahead and is sensitive to meet the emerging challenges and trends. Actively engaged in Research and Development to design and develop the products for tomorrow’s needs, the Company has a progressive outlook that will take it through a second innings, with goals, plans and a vision to take it forward through the next 50 years.

At the same time, the West Coast is consciously engaged in giving back to nature through forestation drives, looking after its employees through community development initiatives and ensuring prosperity to its shareholders through sustainable growth policies.

SHEER LONGEVITY:

West Coast has grown from strength to strength across five decades (established

1955)

This has established the Company as a key player in the industry.

The wealth accumulated over the decades comprises rich goodwill, process and product knowledge, trend reading capability and distribution depth.

Its competitive strengths are based on low historical costs in what is otherwise a capital-intensive business.

CAPACITY:

Originally the plant was designed to manufacture 18,000 MT per year of writing, printing and packaging paper.

The commercial production from May 1959.

The company was granted a license in December 1964 for 45,000 TPA capacities and the balancing equipments program was completed in 1972 to increase the production to 45,000 TPA.

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The company also implemented the Crash program in 1974 to increase production capacity to 60,000 TPA against the license issued in July 1972 for 60,000 TPA.

The license capacity was re-endorsed for 69,000 TPA in November 1991 on the basis of actual production.

The paper industry has been de-licensed from July 1997.

The production capacity has increased to 119750 TPA after successful completion of modernization / expansion program in 1999.

After commissioning of 100 TPD duplex machines (PM-IV) and rebuilding of PM – II production capacity has further increased to 163750 TPA in 2001-02.

PRODUCTIVITY & RECOGNITION

Recognized as an efficient paper mill with utilization of 106% of its installed Capacity in 2004-2005.

Consumption of 1,169 units of energy per tonne of production (paper, paperboard and duplex), lower than the industry average.

Thirteen awards conferred by the National Productivity Council (Government of India) and other organizations including Chemical & Allied Products, Export Promotion Council.

The performance of the company during the last 5 years period was as under:

Year

Ended

Production (Paper & Board) [in M.T.]

Net

Sales

Gross Profit [Rs. in Crores]

31st March

with Excise Duty

2004

1,63,714

491.84

60.57

2005

1,73,070

533.35

56.48

2006

1,76,221

606.84

69.22

2007

1,78,871

619.44

95.52

2008

1,69,891

652.66

114.38

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The Company has an excellent track record of timely repayment of loans/ lease rentals to financial institutions and leasing companies and has maintained such record even in the recession period to which this industry has been subjected many a times. This has been highly appreciated by the financial institutions & lessors.

INFRASTRUCTURE & FACILITIES

RAW MATERIAL:

The main source of raw material is wood i.e., Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Subabul & other Hardwood to the extent of 100% of the furnish. Bamboo, which was earlier, the main source of the raw material has now become scarce and is not used. Small quantity of Pine wood pulp is also imported for specialty papers. The company's raw material procurement is basically from private cultivators within the state and from Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu & Pondicherry. Total requirement of raw material is about 3,50,000 MT per annum. The company is dependent on private cultivators for its raw materials i.e. hard woods and no problem is faced in procurement of wood. Eco-friendly environment norms are strictly observed in this regard.

WATER:

The water is drawn from Kali river - a perennial river. The water is soft and of very low iron contents, pure and potable. The water requirement is of the order of 75,000 to 80,000 KL/day.