Study Guide —BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY (KEY

)
SHORT ANSWER 1. Choose the most appropriate answer for each term. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Animals process and integrate information gained from experiences, then use it to vary or change responses to stimuli. Well-defined environmental cues that trigger suitable responses. Term applied to genetically based behavioral reactions of hybrid offspring. Time-dependent form of learning; triggered by exposure to sign stimuli and usually occurring during sensitive periods of young animals. A behavior performed without having been learned by actual environmental experience. A piece of information about the external or internal environment that has been detected by a receptor. A program of coordinated muscle activity that runs to completion independently of feedback from the environment. Observable, coordinated responses to stimuli.

___c___ intermediate response ___f___ stimulus ___e___ instinctive behavior ___b___sign stimuli ___g___ fixed action pattern ___a___ learned behavior ___d___imprinting ___h___animal behavior

2. Choose the most appropriate statement for each of the following terms. a. b. c. d. e. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Any behavior that helps perpetuate an individual's genes Behavior expressed as interactions among individuals of the same species Reproduction in which at least some of the offspring survive A behavior that improves an individual's chance to reproduce regardless of the impact on the population Self-sacrificing behavior

____a__ adaptive behavior ____c__ reproductive success __b____social behavior ___d___selfish behavior ___e___ altruistic behavior

1

3. Match each of the following terms to the appropriate statement. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The signaler touches the receiver in a ritualized manner. Unambiguous cues sent and received by members of a species. A combination of signals that are used to relay the intensity of the message. A pattern of behavior that is a social signal. Announces that the signaler is about to attack the receiver. Induce the receiver to respond quickly. Cause physiological responses. These rituals must be performed prior to forming a mating pair.

__b____communication signals ___c___ composite signal ___d___communication display ___f___ signaling pheromones ___g___ priming pheromones ___e___ threat display ___h___courtship display ___a___ tactile display

4. Complete the following table to supply the common names of the animals that fit the text examples of sexual selection.

ANS: a. b. c. d. grizzly bears; humans Hangingflies bison, lions, elephant seals, elk sage grouse

2

5. Choose the most appropriate statement for each of the following items. a. b. c. d. e. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Competition for resources, rapid depletion of food resources, cannibalism, and greater vulnerability to disease. A simple society brought together by reproductive self-interest; in bluegill sunfish, the larger, more powerful males tend to claim the central nesting locations. The alarm calls of some mammals, and the writhing, regurgitating reaction of Australian sawfly caterpillars to a disturbance. Some individuals of a baboon troop adopt a subordinate status with respect to the other members. Social groups of predatory animals.

____a__ disadvantages of sociality ____d__dominance hierarchy ___c___ cooperative predator avoidance ___b___the selfish herd ___e___ cooperative hunting

6. A sexually reproducing, (1)__ diploid __________________ parent caring for offspring is not helping exact (2)_____ genetic ____ ___________ copies of itself. Each of its gametes, and each of its offspring, inherits (3)____ one-half ________________ of its genes. Other individuals of the social group that have the same (4)___ ancestors _________________ also share genes with their parents. Two siblings are as (5)_____ genetically _______________ similar as a parent and its (6)_____ offspring _______________. Nephews and nieces share about (7)_____ one-fourth _______________ of their uncle's genes.

Sterile _______________ workers may be indirectly promoting genes for (9)____ selfsacrifice __ through altruistic behavior that will benefit their close (10)____ relatives
(8)_____ ________________. All of the individuals in honeybee, termite, and ant colonies are members of a great extended (11)____ family ________________. Nonbreeding family members support siblings, a few of which are future kings and (12)____ queens ________________. Although a guard bee dies after driving her stinger into a bear, siblings in the hive will perpetuate some of her (13)___ genes _________________.

3

7. ___ The observable, coordinated responses that animals make to stimuli are what we call animal ______. a. imprinting b. instincts c. behavior d. learning 8. ___ In ______, a particular behavior is performed without having been learned by actual experience in the environment. a. natural selection b. altruistic behavior c. sexual selection d. instinctive behavior 9. ___ Newly hatched goslings follow any large moving objects to which they are exposed shortly after hatching; this is an example of ______. a. homing behavior b. imprinting c. piloting d. migration 10. ___ A young toad flips its sticky-tipped tongue and captures a bumblebee that stings its tongue; in the future, the toad leaves bumblebees alone. This is ______. a. instinctive behavior b. a fixed reaction pattern c. altruistic d. learned behavior 11. ___ a. b. c. d. Self-sacrificing behavior is called ______. altruism instinctive selfish social

12. ___ The claiming of the more protected central locations of a colony by the largest, most powerful males suggests ______. a. cooperative predator avoidance b. the selfish herd c. dominance hierarchies d. self-sacrificing behavior 13. ___ A chemical odor in the urine of male mice triggers and enhances estrus in female mice. This chemical would be an example of a ______. a. generic mouse pheromone b. signaling pheromone c. priming pheromone d. threat display

4

14. ___ a. b. c. d. 15. ___ a. b. c. d.

When musk oxen form a "ring of horns" against predators, it is _____. a selfish herd cooperative predator avoidance self-sacrificing behavior dominance hierarchy Competition among members of one sex for access to mates is called ______. altruism social behavior inclusive fitness

sexual selection
A lek is a ______. form of threat display type of pheromone communication signal communal display ground

16. ___ a. b. c. d.

17. Define the term animal behavior.

Observable, coordinated responses to stimuli.

18. What explains the fact that coastal and inland garter snakes of the same species have different food preferences?

Genes interacting with the environment produce the distinctive food preferences.

19. Describe the intermediate response obtained in Arnold's experiment with coastal and inland garter snakes.

The hybrids demonstrated about a 50% preference for slugs; intermediate response.

20. Explain instinctive behavior and give an example.

A behavior performed without having been learned by actual

5

environmental experience. Examples: knee-jerk in humans; spider web construction.

21. Define the term sign stimuli.

Well-defined environmental cues that trigger suitable responses.

22. Describe and cite an example of a fixed action pattern.

A program of coordinated muscle activity that runs to completion independently of feedback from the environment. Spider’s predatory response to any vibrations made on its web is an example.

23. Distinguish learned behavior from instinctive behavior.

Learned behavior is when animals process and integrate information gained from experiences, then use it to vary or change responses to stimuli. Instinctive behavior is when a program of coordinated muscle activity runs to completion independently of feedback from the environment. These are genetically based.

24. Explain imprinting.

Imprinting is a time-dependent form of learning; triggered by exposure to sign stimuli and usually occurring during sensitive periods of young animals (birds particularly).

25. Explain how adaptive behavior, social behavior, selfish behavior, and altruism can all promote an individual's reproductive success.

All of these forms of learning can be adaptive, that is, increase the odds of getting one’s genes into the next generation. Adaptive behavior (operant learning) allows an individual to modify behavior based on experience. Social behavior can increase survival by the increased
6

ability of the group to ward off predators.; selfish behavior can gather in more assets which can increase reproductive success; and altruism can enhance social groups and indirectly select for close relatives (promotes some fraction of your genes to get into the next generation).

26. Understand the various forms of communication signals and displays used by animals.

Communication signal: Information-laden cue directed by one
member of a species to another. May be chemical, visual, acoustic, or tactile. Displays: courtship (These rituals must be performed prior to forming a mating pair.); threat (Announces that the signaler is about to attack the receiver); tactile display (The signaler touches the receiver in a ritualized manner.); communication display (A pattern
of behavior that is a social signal.)

27. Distinguish between signaling and priming pheromones, and cite and example of each. Signaling pheromones: Induce the receiver to respond quickly. Ant’s alarm signal.

Priming pheromones: Cause physiological responses. Queen mole rat suppresses
ovulation in females in the colony.

28. Explain the benefit of sexual selection.

Mode of natural selection; favors a trait that gives the individual a competitive edge in attracting or keeping a mate, hence in reproductive success. Females select best genes from potential partners.

29. Define a lek.

A communal display ground for grouse.

7

30. List the types of costs and benefits of social organisms. Costs: Competition for resources, rapid depletion of food resources, cannibalism, and greater vulnerability to disease.

Benefits: Improved detection of predators; many eyes
Improved repulsion of predators; group can exploit resources

31. What is the theory of inclusive fitness?

“Inclusive fitness encompasses conventional Darwinian fitness with the addition of behaviors that contribute to an organism’s individual fitness through altruism. An organism’s success, from the gene's point of view, ultimately depends on leaving behind the maximum number of replicas of its genes present within a population.”
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclusive_fitness

8

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times