Touch-Sensitive Musical Bell with Timer
This circuit is built around CMOS IC CD4011 and popular melody generator IC UM66. When touch plates are bridged by hand for a moment, the circuit starts to generate music. After a few seconds the music automatically stops. Maximum supply voltage for this circuit is 5 volts only because of IC UM66. This IC cannot operate beyond this voltage. IC 7805 regulator based power supply can be used to power this circuit. Time delay can be changed by changing values of capacitor C1 and resistor R2. Two silicon diodes connected in series between pin 2 of UM66 IC and positive 5-volt rail keep voltage applied to pin 2 of UM66 below 3.8 volts because of the drop of approximately 1.2 volts across them
Figure : Touch-Sensitive Musical Bell with Timer
PC-Based 7-Segment Rolling Display
It is very interesting and convenient to be able to control everything while sitting at your PC terminal. Here, a simple hardware circuit and software is used to interface a 7-segment based rolling display. The printer port of a PC provides a set of points with some acting as input lines and some others as output lines. Some lines are open collector type which can be used as input lines. The circuit given here can be used for interfacing with any type of PC’s printer port. The 25-pin parallel port connector at the back of a PC is a combination of three ports. The address varies from 378H-37AH. The 7 lines of port 378H (pins 2 through 8) are used in this circuit to output the code for segment display through IC1. The remaining one line of port 378H (pin 9) and four lines of port 37AH (pins 1, 14, 16, 17) are used to enable the display digits (one a time) through IC2. The bits D0, D1 and D3 of port 37AH connected to pins 1, 14 and 17 of ‘D’ connector are inverted by the computer before application to the pins while data bit D2 is not inverted. Therefore to get a logic high at any of former three pins, we must send logic 0 output to the corresponding pin of port 37AH. Another important concept illustrated by the project is the time division multiplexing. Note that all the five 7-segment displays share a common data bus. The PC places the 7-segment code for the first digit/character on the data bus and enables only the first 7-segment display. After delay of a few milliseconds, the 7-segment code for the digit/character is replaced by that of the next charter/digit, but this time only second display digit is enabled. After the display of all characters/digits in this way, the cycle repeats itself over and over again. Because of this repetition at a fairly high rate, there is an illusion that all the digits/characters are continuously being displayed. DISP1 is to be physically placed as the least significant digit. IC1 (74LS244) is an octal buffer which is primarily used to increase the driving capability. It has two groups of four buffers with non-inverted tri-state outputs. The buffer is controlled by two active low enable lines. IC2 (75492) can drive a maximum of six 7-segment displays. (For driving up to seven common-cathode displays one may use ULN2003 described elsewhere in this section.) The program for rolling display is given in the listing DISP.C above. Whatever the message/characters to be displayed (here five characters have been displayed), these are separated and stored in an array. Then these are decoded. Decoding software is very simple. Just replace the desired character with the binary equivalent of the display code. The display code is a byte that has the appropriate bits turned on. For example, to display character ‘L’, the segments to be turned on are f, e and d. This is equivalent to 111000 binary or 38 hex. Please note that only limited characters can be formed using 7-segment display. Characters such as M, N and K cannot be formed properly.
Figure : PC-Based 7-Segment Rolling Display
REMOTE-CONTROLLED FAN REGULATOR
Using this circuit, you can change the speed of the fan from your couch or bed. Infrared receiver module TSOP1738 is used to receive the infrared signal transmitted by remote control. The circuit is powered by regulated 9V. The AC mains is stepped down by transformer X1 to deliver a secondary output of 12V-0-12V. The transformer output is rectified by full-wave rectifier comprising diodes D1 and D2, filtered by capacitor C9 and regulated by 7809 regulator to provide 9V regulated output. Any button on the remote can be used for controlling the speed of the fan. Pulses from the IR receiver module are applied as a trigger signal to timer NE555 (IC1) via LED1 and resistor R4. IC1 is wired as a monostable-multivibrator to delay the clock given to decade counter-cum-driver IC CD4017 (IC2). Out of the ten outputs of decade counter IC2 (Q0 through Q9), only five (Q0 through Q4) are used to control the fan. Q5 output is not used, while Q6 output is used to reset the counter. Another NE555 timer (IC3) is also wired as a monostable-multivibrator. Combination of one of the resistors R5 through R9 and capacitor C5 controls the pulse width. The output from IC CD4017 (IC2) is applied to resistors R5 through R9. If Q0 is high capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R5, if Q1 is high capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R6, and so on. Optocoupler MCT2E (IC5) is wired as a zero-crossing detector that supplies trigger pulses to monostable multivibrator IC3 during zero crossing. Opto-isolator MOC3021 (IC4) drives triac BT136. Resistor R13 (47-ohm) and capacitor C7 (0.01μF) combination is used as snubber network for triac1 (BT136). As the width of the pulse decreases, firing angle of the triac increases and speed of the fan also increases. Thus the speed of the fan increases when we press any button on the remote control. Assemble the circuit on a general purpose PCB and
house it in a small case such that the infrared sensor can easily receive the signal from the remote transmitter.
Figure : REMOTE-CONTROLLED FAN REGULATOR
AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP WITH MORNING ALARM
This circuit automatically turns on a night lamp when bedroom light is switched off. The lamp remains ‘on’ until the light sensor senses daylight in the morning. A super-bright white LED is used as the night lamp. It gives bright and cool light in the room. When the sensor detects the daylight in the morning, a melodious morning alarm sounds. The circuit is powered from a standard 0-9V transformer. Diodes D1 through D4 rectify the AC voltage and the resulting DC voltage is smoothed by C1. Regulator IC 7806 gives regulated 6V DC to the circuit. A battery backup is provided to power the circuit when mains fails. When mains supply is available, the 9V rechargeable battery charges via diode D5 and resistor R1 with a reasonably constant current. In the event of mains failure, the battery automatically takes up the load without any delay. Diode D5 prevents the battery from discharging backwards following the mains failure and diode D6 provides current path from the battery. The circuit utilises light dependant resistors (LDRs) for sensing darkness and light in the room. The resistance of LDR is very high in darkness, which reduces to minimum when LDR is fully illuminated. LDR1 detects darkness, while LDR2 detects light in the morning. The circuit is designed around the popular timer IC NE555 (IC2), which is configured as a monostable. IC2 is activated by a low pulse applied to its trigger pin 2. Once triggered, output pin 3 of IC2 goes high and remains in that position until IC2 is triggered again at its pin 2. When LDR1 is illuminated with ambient light in the room, its resistance remains low, which keeps trigger pin 2 of IC2 at a positive potential. As a result, output pin 3 of IC2 goes low and the white LED remains off. As the illumination of LDR1’s sensitive window reduces, the resistance of the device increases. In total darkness, the specified LDR has a resistance in excess of 280 kilo ohms. When the resistance of LDR1 increases, a short pulse is applied to trigger pin 2 of IC2 via resistor R2 (150 kilo ohms). This activates the monostable and its output goes high, causing the white LED to glow. Low value capacitor C2 maintains the monostable for continuous operation, eliminating the timer effect. By increasing the value of C2, the ‘on’ time of the white LED can be
adjusted to a predetermined time. LDR2 and associated components generate the morning alarm at dawn. LDR2 detects the ambient light in the room at sunrise and its resistance gradually falls and transistor T1 starts conducting. When T1 conducts, melody-generator IC UM66 (IC3) gets supply voltage from the emitter of T1 and it starts producing the melody. The musical tone generated by IC3 is amplified by single-transistor amplifier T2. Resistor R7 limits the current to IC3 and zener diode ZD limits the voltage to a safer level of 3.3 volts. The circuit can be easily assembled on a general-purpose PCB. Enclose it in a good-quality plastic case with provisions for LDR and LED. Use a reflective holder for white LED to get a spotlight effect for reading. Place LDRs away from the white LED, preferably on the backside of the case, to avoid unnecessary illumination. The speaker should be small so as to make the gadget compact.
Figure: AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP WITH MORNING ALARM
Automatic Switch For Audio Power Amplifier
Circuit of an automatic switch for audio power amplifier stage is presented here. The circuit uses stereo preamplifier output to detect the presence of audio to switch the audio power amplifier on only when audio is present. The circuit thus helps curtail power wastage. IC1 is used as an inverting adder. The input signals from left and right channels are combined to form a common signal for IC2, which is used as an open loop comparator. IC3 (NE556) is a dual timer. Its second section, i.e., IC3(b), is configured as monostable multivibrator. Output of IC3(b) is used to switch the power amplifier on or off through a Darlington pair formed by transistors T1 and T2. IC3(a) is used to trigger the monostable multivibrator whenever an input signal is sensed. Under ‘no signal’ condition, pin 3 of IC2 is negative with respect to its pin 2. Hence the output of IC2 is low and as a result output of IC3(a) is high. Since there is no trigger at pin 8 of IC3(b), the output of IC3(b) will be low and the amplifier will be off. When an input signal is applied to IC1, IC2 converts the inverted sum of the input signals into a rectangular waveform by comparing it with a constant voltage which can be controlled by varying potentiometer VR1. When the output of IC2 is high, output pin 5 of IC3 goes low, thus triggering the monostable multivibrator. As soon as the audio input to IC1 stops, pin 5 of IC3 goes high and pin 1 of IC3 discharges through capacitor C3, thus resetting the monostable multivibrator. Hence, as long as input signals are applied, the amplifier remains ‘on.’ When the input signals are removed, i.e., when signal level is zero, the amplifier switches off after the mono flip-flop delay period determined by the values of resistor R8 and capacitor C3. If no input signals are sensed within this time, the amplifier turns off—else it remains on. Power supply for the circuit can be obtained from the power supply of the amplifier. Hence, the circuit can be permanently fitted in the amplifier box itself. The main switch of the amplifier should be always kept on. Resistors R1 and R2 are used to divide single voltage supply into two equal parts. Capacitors C1 and C2 are used as regulators and also as an AC bypass for input signals. Diode D1 is used so that loading fluctuations in power amplifier do not affect circuit regulation. Transistor T2 acts as a high voltage switch which may be replaced by any other high voltage switching transistor satisfying amplifier current requirements. Value of resistor R10 should be modified for large current requirement. The LED glows when the amplifier is on. The circuit is very useful and relieves one from putting the amplifier on and off every time one plays a cassette or radio etc.
Figure : Automatic Switch For Audio Power Amplifier
Automatic Telephone Answering Machine
Here is a circuit of a simple telephone answering unit which may be used with any telephone. The circuit consists of three main sections: 1. Ring detector section. 2. A timer controlled electronic switch and telephone line interface. 3. A voice IC having a specific pre-recorded message.
This is not very critical and any other device (such as tape player with message recorded on an endess tape) which does not overload the circuit or the telephone line, may be used. The incoming line is protected by metal-oxide varistor (MOV) RDN 130/14 followed by polarity guard circuit comprising diodes D1 through D4 in bridge configuration. Transistor T1 (MPSA92), having a high breakdown voltage (Vce max.) is used as electronic switch/telephone line interface. It is controlled by transistor T2. Ring detector section comprises capacitor C1, resistor R10 and optocoupler NEC 2505. (In case of its non-availability, one may substitute it with MC2TE or a similar optocoupler with additional diode 1N4148 placed with its cathode connected to pin 1 and anode to pin 2 of the opto-coupler.) Timer NE555 (IC1), configured as monostable flip-flop, is powered by external 230V AC via transformer X1, rectifier diodes D5, D6 and filter capacitor C5. When switch S1 is on, the incoming telephone line as well as transformer X1 get connected to the circuit and D8 LED lights up. Normally the monoshot IC1 is off (output at pin 3 is low) and so also are the transistors T1, T2 and relay RL1. When ring is received, the opto-coupler operates and takes trigger pin 2 of timer from high-to-low potential, thereby triggering it. This causes the output at pin 3 of IC1 to go high, which causes relay RL1 to energise and create a bypass for the ringing voltage to the opto-coupler as transistor T2 also gets forward biased. Conduction of transistor T2 causes forward biasing of switching transistor T1. This, in turn, causes the positive voltage from rectifier diodes D3, D4 cathode junction to be extended to voice IC chip after being limited to steady 6.2 volts by resistor R3, zener D10 and capacitor C2. As a consequence, the voice IC operates and feeds the voice message into the telephone lines via capacitor C6, base-emitter junction of transistor T1 and polarity guard bridge. The pulse width of timer monoshot (decided by in-circuit value of potentiometer VR1 and capacitor C6) is so adjusted to cover the period of the voice message. At the end of the mono period relay RL1 de-energises and the circuit returns to its original condition. In this circuit about 100 mA is catered for the voice IC. The circuit can be easily modified (such as by use of DPDT relay etc) for operation with different answering devices. For testing the circuit you may use a musical COB IC.
Figure : Automatic Telephone Answering Machine
Car Anti-Theft Wireless Alarm
This FM radio-controlled anti- theft alarm can be used with any vehicle having 6-volt to 12-volt DC supply system. The mini VHF, FM transmitter is fitted in the vehicle at night when it is parked in the car porch or car park. The receiver unit with CXA1019, a single IC-based FM radio module, which is freely available in the market at reasonable rate, is kept inside. Receiver is tuned to the transmitter's frequency.
When the transmitter is on and the signals are being received by FM radio receiver, no hissing noise is available at the output of receiver. Thus transistor T2 (BC548) does not conduct. This results in the relay driver transistor T3 getting its forward base bias via 10k resistor R5 and the relay gets energised. When an intruder tries to drive the car and takes it a few metres away from the car porch, the radio link between the car (transmitter) and alarm (receiver) is broken. As a result FM radio module gene-rates hissing noise. Hissing AC signals are coupled to relay switching circ- uit via audio transformer. These AC signals are rectified and filtered by diode D1 and capacitor C8, and the resulting positive DC voltage provides a forward bias to transistor T2. Thus transistor T2 conducts, and it pulls the base of relay driver transistor T3 to ground level. The relay thus gets de-activated and the alarm connected via N/C contacts of relay is switched on. If, by chance, the intruder finds out about the wireless alarm and disconnects the transmitter from battery, still remote alarm remains activated because in the absence of signal, the receiver continues to produce hissing noise at its output. So the burglar alarm is fool-proof and highly reliable. (Ed: You may have some problem catching the thief, though, if he decides to run away with your vehicle_in spite of the alarm!)
Figure : Car Anti-Theft Wireless Alarm
Audio-Visual Extra Ringer for Phone
Many a times one needs an ex- tra telephone ringer in an ad- joining room to know if there is an incoming call. For example, if the telephone is installed in the drawing room you may need an extra ringer in the bedroom. All that needs to be done is to connect the given circuit in parallel with the existing telephone lines using twin flexible wires. This circuit does not require any external power source for its operation. The section comprising resistor R1 and diodes D5 and LED1 provides a visual indication of the ring. Remaining part of the circuit is the audio ringer based on IC1 (BA8204 or ML8204). This integrated circuit, specially designed for telec- om application as bell sound generator, requires very few external parts. It is readily available in 8-pin mini DIP pack. Resistor R3 is used for bell sensitivity adjustment. The bell frequency is controlled by resistor R5 and capacitor C4, and the repeat frequency is controlled by resistor R4 and capacitor C3. A little experimentation with the various values of the resistors and capacitors may be carried out to obtain desired pleasing tone. Working of the circuit is quite simple. The bell signal, approximately 75V AC, passes through capacitor C1 and resistor R2 and appears across the diode bridge comprising diodes D1 to D4. The rectified DC output is smoothed by capacitor C2. The dual-tone ring signal is output from pin 8 of IC1 and its volume is adjusted by volume control VR1. Thereafter, it is impressed on the piezo-ceramic sound generator.
Figure : Audio-Visual Extra Ringer for Phone
Here is a teleremote circuit which enables switching ‘on’ and ‘off’ of appliances through telephone lines. It can be used to switch appliances from any distance, overcoming the limited range of infrared and radio remote controls The circuit described here can be used to switch up to nine appliances (corresponding to the digits 1 through 9 of the telephone key-pad). The DTMF signals on telephone instrument are used as control signals. The digit ‘0’ in DTMF mode is used to toggle between the appliance mode and normal telephone operation mode. Thus the telephone can be used to switch on or switch off the appliances also while being used for normal conversation. The circuit uses IC KT3170 (DTMF-to-BCD converter), 74154 (4-to-16-line demultiplexer), and five CD4013 (D flip-flop) ICs. The working of the circuit is as follows. Once a call is established (after hearing ring-back tone), dial ‘0’ in DTMF mode. IC1 decodes this as ‘1010,’ which is further demultiplexed by IC2 as output O10 (at pin 11) of IC2 (74154). The active low output of IC2, after inversion by an inverter gate of IC3 (CD4049), becomes logic 1. This is used to toggle flip-flop-1 (F/F-1) and relay RL1 is energised. Relay RL1 has two changeover contacts, RL1(a) and RL1(b). The energised RL1(a) contacts provide a 220-ohm loop across the telephone line while RL1(b) contacts inject a 10kHz tone on the line, which indicates to the caller that appliance mode has been selected. The 220-ohm loop on telephone line disconnects the ringer from the telephone line in the exchange. The line is now connected for appliance mode of operation. If digit ‘0’ is not dialed (in DTMF) after establishing the call, the ring continues and the telephone can be used for normal conversation. After selection of the appliance mode of operation, if digit ‘1’ is dialed, it is decoded by IC1 and its output is ‘0001’. This BCD code is then demultiplexed by 4-to-16-line demultiplexer IC2 whose corresponding output, after inversion by a CD4049 inverter gate, goes to logic 1 state. This pulse toggles the corresponding flip-flop to alternate state. The flip-flop output is used to drive a relay (RL2) which can switch on or switch off the appliance connected through its contacts. By dialing other digits in a similar way, other appliances can also be switched ‘on’ or ‘off.’ Once the switching operation is over, the 220-ohm loop resistance and 10kHz tone needs to be removed from the telephone line. To achieve this, digit ‘0’ (in DTMF mode) is dialed again to toggle flip-flop-1 to de-energise relay RL1, which terminates the loop on line and the 10kHz tone is also disconnected. The telephone line is thus again set free to receive normal calls. This circuit is to be connected in parallel to the telephone instrument.
Figure : Teleremote Control
Long-range FM Transmitter
Several circuits for constructing FM transmitters have been published in EFY. The power outputs of most of these circuits are very low because no power amplifier stages were incorporated.
The transmitter circuit described here has an extra RF power amplifier stage, after the oscillator stage, to raise the power output to 200-250 milliwatts. With a good matching 50-ohm ground plane antenna or multi-element Yagi antenna, this transmitter can provide reasonably good signal strength up to a distance of about 2 kilometers. The circuit built around transistor T1 (BF494) is a basic low-power variablefrequency VHF oscillator. A varicap diode circuit is included to change the frequency of the transmitter and to provide frequency modulation by audio signals. The output of the oscillator is about 50 milliwatts. Transistor T2 (2N3866) forms a VHF-class A power amplifier. It boosts the oscillator signals’ power four to five times. Thus, 200-250 milliwatts of power is generated at the collector of transistor T2. For better results, assemble the circuit on a good-quality glass epoxy board and house the transmitter inside an aluminium case. Shield the oscillator stage using an aluminium sheet. Coil winding details are given below: L1 - 4 turns of 20 SWG wire close wound over 8mm diameter plastic former. L2 - 2 turns of 24 SWG wire near top end of L1. (Note: No core (i.e. air core) is used for the above coils) L3 - 7 turns of 24 SWG wire close wound with 4mm diameter air core. L4 - 7 turns of 24 SWG wire-wound on a ferrite bead (as choke) Potentiometer VR1 is used to vary the fundamental frequency whereas potentiometer VR2 is used as power control. For hum-free operation, operate the transmitter on a 12V rechargeable battery pack of 10 x 1.2-volt Ni-Cd cells. Transistor T2 must be mounted on a heat sink. Do not switch on the transmitter without a matching antenna. Adjust both trimmers (VC1 and VC2) for maximum transmission power. Adjust potentiometer VR1 to set the fundamental frequency near 100 MHz. This transmitter should only be used for educational purposes. Regular transmission using such a transmitter without a licence is illegal in India.
Figure : Long-range FM Transmitter
NAME ADDRESS MOBILE NO EMAIL
: V.M.MOHAMED SALAHUDEEN : 7/7 PAIKKARA STREET, KOOTHANALLUR 614101 : 9952213504 : email@example.com, Fletcher_alas@rediffmail.com