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Yul. II. SHATCHAKRANIROPA1YA of P1IrIl:\nanda Svfuni, with Commentary of Knlicharaea and notes by Shangkara. P J..DU KApANCHAKA, with Commentary of KJdicharalla, With tht..,c are notes [1'0111 the Tika o[ Vishvanatha on the Second Pa/ala of Kaivalya-ks.lika Tantra,






WORKS ON TANTRA BY ARTHUI~ AVALON TANTRA OF THE GREAT LIIH:RATIOK C\IAH1- NIRVA1\TA TANTRA). A 1 ranslatiou [r0111 the Sanskrit, with Introduction and Comrnentarv.


\101s. I and I I.






HYl\INS TO THE GODDESS (from the Tantra and other Sbitstra and Stotra of Shallg·kanlch[in·a).

~ ,


EllITEIl 1:\'

:\ R T Il U RAY. \ L 0 x




P:\RT 1, CI-{'\PTERS I-X\'III.

U!lTEf) BY



46, Guu.vr HC~"l:J.1. STlU.l)T,


I:": TROJ)l·CTIO;\.

The Tantrar.ij«, as its name implies, is an important work of its class which is. in one of its parts, here published for the first time with a COl1lmClltary called :\lal1oram:L or Subh~g:tnanclauat.ha of (as Hh:bkarar:L~'a in his commcntury on the :\itY;lsh(ldashik:'tr1l<l\'a says) the Kashmir school.

There are three sections of this Tantra each dealing- with a scparate :'Ilat~. that is way of rl'.~"ardillg and \\"orsbipping the ] )eY:lt:l. namely l\:;ldi. 1 [:ILli. and Kuhudi, terms alluded to in 111)' "Shakti and Shukta" and explained later, The last portion is also I am told called Shaktisangg"ama which has four parts. The first is here published, namely the Kfrdimata part of Tuntrardja consist in« of 36 Chapters of 100 verses each.


The manuscri pts wh ich ha ve been used for the preparation of this Edition belong to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. the Sanskrit College an.l Panclit Yajnapuru.oia respectively. To the last I am indebted for help in the preparation of this and other works, Ha is Blja of Shiva. Ka is the first letter of the Bija mantra of Kidi o'r Kring. In the Bijttbhidflnal11 quoted at p~!..;e 32 I of Pandit Jagrtnmohana Tarkalangkara's Edition of :\IaMnin'{ll1a it is said :-

K~ Ktdi Brahrna ra proktarn mah:LI11'LyfLrthakashcha i Vishvarnfurarthako Il~ldo bindur duhkhtLpah[lrakah Tcnaiva kttliktlll~ devill~ pujayed duhkhashftntaye

\\'hen Devi asks (\"\'.;,8) "what is Kaeli" Shiva replies, that Kttli and Ktldi are Shakti and that "TLy form is the meaning of Kt~di" (K,'tdisangjnft bhavadrupa}. 'I he meaning of this is that the triangle is the form of the Devi, The letter Ka written in Bengali. ( <f. ) and generally in earlier De\'cll1;:'tgara forms of the letter shows a triangle in the left. According to the VarJloddhtlra and l\:,'tmadhenu Tantras (sec Shabdakalpadrurna sub. ,'DC. Ka) the left line of the triangle is red Brahms. the right line white \"ishJlu and the bottom line is dark green (:\Iarakatal Rudra. The },Ii'ttn't is the white Stlksh~lt Sarasvati. The crooked portion on the right like a goad is the li~htning-I:ke Klllldalinl. The empty space in the triangle is the white Sudarshana shining like millions of moons and with Him is Kidi the grantor of Kaivalyn and in the three corners are heshlk'l, \. ,tm:l and Raudri Shaktis, This Trikona is



known as the Yonimaez/ala which is the seat (Asana) of Tripura Devl. She is lnfll1titmft in wbom are the four Kalas and as the collectivity of ) nfuia, Ichchhfi, Kriya, She is the M urtirnfut Prakriti. From Kakara comes Kama, I t -is the 1\,1 ulaprakrrti of all Varvas and the imperishable Power of Blossom (Sphuradavyaya] the Xl cther of all Devas and the Giver of Liberation. 1;1 Chh:'\nclogya Upanishad (4-10'5) it is said "Kang Brahrna"; "Ka is Bralnna." It is that Shakti \Vhich being spread by means of the nine Narhas (the means of experience-ears (2) mouth, eyes (2) nostrils (2) penis and anus) manifests throughout the earth Kalpa after Kalpa, and at the cnd of the Kalpa they ancl She return to him (Sa tailz sftrddham brajechchamfun). Shiva and Shakti are one and where one is worshipped the other is worshipped. Sammohann Tantra (Chapter I) says IGldimata is that 1\lata in which the l\Idntras begin with Ka. In Hudi they begin with Ha. It is also called Hangsaraja. Knhftdi is formed by the union of K ftdi and Hftdi which is U ttar:tmnuyagochara. K ul:\wa\-a, which is 0 rddhvfunnftya, IS I have been told the highest T antra in Kahftdi-rnata.

The Tnntras of the Kftdi class are according to the present Text nine in number and are according to the 1\lanoram:\ ;Sundarihz-zclaya, Nityclshodashikitmava, (published in Vol. 56 of Anandftshrama Sanskrit Texts) Chandrajnann. 1\lfltrik:\, Samrnohana, V ftmakesh vara, Bah uru paslzta ka, Prastn rachintfuriazz], and ~ I eruprastftra.

Bhfiskararftva, the learned Commentator on various Tfmtrik and Aupanishtl~lic texts, questions the accuracy of the Manoram'i on this point ill his Setubandha which is a Commentary of his on the f\ityfishodashikftrnava. He there says that the Kit),<lsRodashikfi. is 'part of the V~lll1akesll\'ara Tantr;l and the Sundar/ or \'clginihridaya is a part of the former. The three therefore make oneTantra. He also Sa\'S in tbe same COll1- mentary that the BahurllpftsRI;lka is not one Tantra but eight named after the seven l\I:ltr/s bccinninsr with Br:'thml and

;-, i::>

Shivadnti. I may here observe that if the Samrnohana

Tantra be counted' as one of the nine it cannot be the Tantra of that name published by Rasika Xl ohana Chuttopadhynya for that is it VaisRllava Ta ntra and a fravmcut of a work COIlsisting of 40.000 verses. A copy of another work of the same name was supplied to me Irom the collection of 1'.1 ah.unahopi\clhy:A1ya Vindhycshvariprnsada Divcdi aile! copies arc said to be available in Nepal of this Tantra which is a j(·l.cli Tantra ,111(1 therefore it must be to this and not to the published Sammohann that the 1\ I a noranut refers.



The K:ieli Tuntras f_!'j\"\.! detailed injunctions wliching the worship llf Shakti ill~llcr various IOrIi)s: such worship l)cing' either gross (Sthulu) subtle (SI'tks/tllla) Ill' SUprl'llle (Para). :\ aturallv the S tdllaka be~'il1s with the first and the ritual takes the S:ldl;;t1.;a lip to the highest. The aim ancl object is the pr.ictical realization of the truths of the i\c1\'aita \'ed:\nta.

Tripurasuudnri or l.aliu) has tln cc aspects (Rupa), Sthula, Sl')bhma. Para. The ritual of ller worship is also of three kinds. Kaviku by body. \':ichika by speech and :\l£lnasa by mind. also called B,lhyay:iga. Antary{tga, and Bh;'w<lnit.

This Tantra gi\'es all the three forms whereby the Saclhakn is led by his Guru thro~lgh ascending stages to .Xclvaita Sidclhi. The Guru is one with ~\d\";\ Shakti \'imarsh;l!l1ad the cause of all. The ninefoldness o(his body is seen in the ;line apertures.

Gururadyn bhavechchhaktie s:\ vimarsharnayi lllattl 1\ a\,at\'<lng- tasva dehasva randhratvcna vabhusate

~, ,

The nine Gurus are in the form of the nine apertures, The bodv of the Sadhuka is the Shrichakra which consists of nine Chakras. The object of worship of the Shricha kra is the realisation of the inseparatcncss (A bhedabhavanh) of J n:ha which is H ot-t, of J nana which is Arghya and of J ncya which is Havizi.

In·it:l sdtmi't. bhavejjn uiam arghyang jneyang ha\·i/l sthitam Shrichakrapujanang tcsham ekikaravam iritam.

The scheme of Sadhan-i and the different parts of the Shrichnkra are explained in the Vtisanfl. Pa/ala (ell. XXXV) of this work. Tbe Tripur.uapini Upanir/iad deals with Kfryik« and Vftchika Karma and the Dh:'l vanopanisead wi th B h;L\,ana. or :\ J anasa Karma. This last lJ panishacl summarise" in the main the \'ii.san:L Pa/ala of the Tantrarfija and beg-ins with the SCltra "Shrivurue sarvakararzabhuta shaktih" cndin« with "Bhava-

~ '"

n:lparo jivanrnukto bhavat i."

In order to follow the ritual of this work it is necessary to understand the Shriyantra figured on the cover of this volume. This celebrated Yantra represents the human body and the whole universe and man (for what is in the former is in the latter and vice versa) as also the Shiva-Shakii Svarupa or Atrnt. I t is thus the symbol of the Dcvi as She is in I I cr (j\YI1 form (Svarupa) and as She is in the form of the universe



(Visl1\·atma). 'J he account here gi\'cn is taken from the Text. which account avrees with that g'ivcn in other Kftdi Tantras such as Yoo-inih';'idcl\'a and l'\in-lsizodashikftrlIClva and with the

b J •

Bhavancpanisviad which is an U p~lnisizad of the K£tdimata.

The Yantra is composed of nine triangles and Chakras one within the other until the central point or Bindu is reached. 111 each of the nine Chakras the Devi is worshipped in its centre under one of Her nine names united with the PDcluk"L :\Ll11tra of seven letters. The nine triangles are four with points upwards that is the Shrika1lth"s or Shiva element. and the h\'e downward pointed triangles or Shivayuvatis, the Shakti element. All are formed by the :\1 ulaprakz-zti of the Shivabindu, the ninth being the ':\I ulaprak/vti, and the eight the Vik-ztis which in relation to their productions are Prakzvti. The nine Chakras also represent Sris/ui (Creation) Sthiti (;\Iaintenance) and Sangh tra. (Absorbtion) each set of three being formed of the combinations Sris/ui-Sris/u). S6shti-Sthiti, Snslzti-Sangbftra; Sthiti-Snshti, Sthiti-Sthiti, Sthiti-Sangh-tra :

Sangh'l.ra-Snslzti, Sangh\ra-Sthiti. Sanghara-Sanghara. The object of the worship is, as the Bhavanopanis ead says (Surra 10), the realisation of the unity of J nata, J nftna, J neya (J natnJllflllajneyfmamabhedabhavanam ) which is the aim and object of e,-ery Advaitin. The nine Chakras are (I) Bhupura (2) sixteen petals (3) eight petals (4) first set of fourteen angles (5) second set of ten inner angles (6) tbird set of ten ang-les within these (7) fourth set of eight angles within these (8) three angles within these and (9) the point or Bindu. These are called (commencing with the first above named or outermost) Trailokyarnohana, Sarvashaparipuraka, Sarvasangkreobhava, Sarvasaubhagyadnyaka. Sarvarthasadhaka, Sarvarogahara, Sarvarak oiftkara, Sarvasiddhiprada and Sarvanandamaya,

There are two ways in which the Shrivantra mav be described. \ Ve mav sta~t fr0111 the outer Ch;kra and '",ork inwards which is c~lIed Lavakrama, or commence with the Bindu and work outwards. ~rhe latter which is called Snshlikrama, is here adopted. The central Bindu or the Supreme united IGlmesh~ara and Kameshvar i is the Devi Tripura or Lalita \Vho is Atma whether as Jh'at111<1, in bodies or as the bodiless Paramfitmft. For Kfuncshvara is the Supreme Samvit without I,' padhi and K:tmeslwari is J I is Shakti. This Bindu is in the innermost triangle or All-blissful (San'{\'nandal11aya) Chakra, The word Y oni in this worship does not mean the generati\'e organ of a woman but means K£traJlam or Cause, the Womb of the Universe. This Binclu is threefold (Binclu-

tr'l~'a) one above heing' the face of the Dcv i .uu l the t wo lx-low l l r-r Brl'asts, This is s~ Illbnlisl1l of worship in which in India as eL"L'\\ here anthropomorphic Iorms a rc cmpl! ,yc:d. those j~lnl1s beillg' tho-«- seen II>' the \\'ofshippns of the r;IC<.:, :'I[orc ab-tractc.l!v the three Hindlls arc Sun. :'II()()n ;Inc! Fire: not the luminaries ;)1' element SI) called hut names givC'n to the Praktlsha .uicl Vimarsh« aspects of the [>ar.lbindll differcntiating to create the l'nin'rse. such aspects heing' ag'aill symbolised by the singlc and double Hindus the .Vnusvur« .m.l \'isarga hreathings respecti"ely, The worship of Laliui is a pan (If Shrh'idy;1. Lalit I is also called the :\lk\ or .\ngg'init\';1 ))c\';].t,\ \\'ho is S,lt and _\nancla and Purll\ ~lnd arOL;,;d I leI' as l\ng'g'a or .\. ,'aralia Dcvat is arc the fifteen :\,it\':1 Dcvutus or' '])e\'is rcpresL'l1till') the five Hhutas with their fiftcen GlIlI;:S or (as oue account g(l~) the three GlIllas Sattva, Rajas. Tamas,

The number '15' is got hy dealing with each of the Hhutas from their Sat tva. Rajas. Tamas aspects or by addition or the C uvas of the B h II tas t hcmsel vcs. In the triangle sur rouncli ng the Devi are the nine Lords or :\,~'lth;ts, These are thc nine apertures which exist both in thc cosmic and individual bodies namely the two Eyes and mouth (Di,'yaugha) the two ears and Penis (SiclJhaugha) and thc two ;\ostrils and Anus (\Ilna \'augha),

Lalita is the \'imarsha Shakti of Prakasha Shiva. Lali(l, is red: for in the z Sth Surra of the Bh:hanopanishad it is said "Redness is the \'imarsha of all this (LCluhityal1l ctasva sarvasya vimarsha.s ) By 'San'asya' is meant. as Bh·\skaranlya says in his commentar~' 011 the Bhl\'anopanishad. K£\'meslwara. Laliri, and the S:ldhaka'> self. H,.'lga and redness are one. I t is said that "One's ~\tl11:\ is Devi La litt \ Vhose body is the universe (\'ish\'Cl\'igrah:l), Redness is Her Vimarsha and worship is the meditation on this." The Hindu is surrounded by a triangle or the Siddhiprada Chakra. At the corner:' of this triang-lc which is the Second Chakra arc the Shaktis (distinct' from the ~it)'as of that name) 1~'\mesl1\'ari (to be distingllished both fr0111 Supreme Ki'ullClSh\'ari and the .:\itytl KtIl11csh,'ari) Vajreshvari and Bhagam;dini who are Avyakta or Prakr-zti, :\[ahat the Cosmic Bucldhi and Ahanok u a. The three corners arc the Pithas K\marltp:J., PlJrJla~'i·~i. J tlandhara, I 11 chc CCIl tre is ; \ uda'i yana Pitha the Shrip iduk.t vl antra beiJ1~ "fHtng. Shring. Sam.rst trn :'Illtia vid y un, Au Idir[tnapit lie Sh ri mah 'ur i purasunclari- Dcv i S~rip,iduk·lm pujayumi :\'all1all." In the spaces outside this tnan6'le are the five Tanrnatras which arc the five arrows of



K'una, i\Ianas. the sugar-cane bow of Kama Raga which is his noose and Dver.ia which is his goad.

The third Cha kra (Sarvarakxeukara) is composed of eight angles being the first eight angles formed by the intersection of the triangles other than that already described which are Vashini, Knmeshvari, Mohini, Virnala, Arum), Jayini, Sarveshvari and Kaulini which are Devat.ts of Cold (Shira) Heat (Ushlla) Happiness (Sukha) Pain (Duhkha) Desire (I chchhft) and Sattva, Rajas, Tamas. At this stage the Sil.dhaka strives to control the Cusas and to be unaffected by the Dvandvas.

The fourth or Sarvarogahara Chakra is composed of ten angles presided over by the ten Shaktis Sarvajna, Sarvashoktipradt. Sarvaishvaryyaprad'i. Sarvaj ni\nama yi, Sarva vyadhivinftshinl. Sard\'dhara. Sarvapapaharft Sarvfuiandamayi, Sarvarakshft, Sarvepsitaphalaprada. These are the Devatns of the functions of the vital fire (VahnikaFt) which are Rechaka (elimination) P[\chrtka (Digestion) Shoshaka (tbat which removes the Dosha of J atharft.gni) Dahaka (burning) Pltvaka (flooding, that is spreading of Rasa which helps Jathadgni) Ksharaka (bile secreting) U dg:"traka (belching), Kshobhaka (churning of the food) Jrimbhaka (yawning) l\Iobaka that which causes pain and fainting.

The fifth outer Chakra Sarvarthas'tdhaka of ten angles is presided over by the Devis Sarvasiddhiprada, Sarvasarnpat prada, Sarvapriyang kari, Sarvamangnlakftrini, Sarvak.tmaprada Sarvadue k havimochani, Sarvamr-ztyuprnshamant, Sarva vivhna-

, b

niv:lrilll, Sarvangasundari, Sarvasaubhjtgyydayini; These are

the Devis of the ten Prallas which are controlled by their worship.

The sixth Chakra (Sarvasaubh-tgyadayaka) has fourteen angles ill which are the Shaktis Sarvasangk.oiobhivt, Sarvav idrftvirzi, Sar\'akarsizilll, Sarvfthlftdini, Sarvasammohani, Sarvastambhini, Sarvajambhini, Sarvavashangkar i, Sarvaranjani, Sarvonrnftdini, Sarvarthasudhani, Sarvasarnpattipuravi, Sarvamantrarnayi, Sarvadvandvak.oiayangkari, who are the Aclhidevatts of the fourteen principal I\i\dis uiz : Alambush:\ Kuhu Vishvodaru, V:lralll, Hastijihvg., Yashovati, Payasvini, Gfmdh,\rl, Pl'lS!t:\, Shang khini, Sarasvati, rd(i, Pinggal·! and Sur/rumnf) ..

The seventh Chakra is the eight petalled San'asangshobhaxa Chakra which surrounds the circle in which the other



triangles mentioned are placed. The Dcvis here are l\nallg-g:lkusuma, :\nanggalllekhal:l.. l\llanggamadall i. 1\ nanggamadan:\tur:i. .\ nallgga re kh:l, . \ nangga\'egi ni, f\ Ilanggamaclall:lllgkusha. :\nan!.!"!..~·al1l:Uini. which arc ])e\'al'ls of the Bucldhi of speech (\'acha;l;l) grasping (\.ci;lna) walkipg (Ga mana ) excreting or rejccting' (\'isargcl) pleusura hle feeling (.\ nunda) relinquisluncnr (11:ll1a) concentration (l' p:d:Lna) and detachment (L' peksh:l).

Outside this again is a lotus of sixteen petals which is the :-;.In·ishiparipllraka Chakra, Ilere are sixteen Shakt is narnclv : - i(:l.lllikar.dl.llli, Buddll\':ikarshalli. l\hallo-!.;:·'lr:\kar-

~ ; ~

s/t;.l.Jli. Shabd:ik;tr.,haJll. Sparsh:i.karshalli, Rl'p'd.::arshalll, R;lS'!-

kar.,hani. Gandh·[ karskwl. Chilt~t1.::arshallJ, I )hain·~a~arskllll Slllrt'td karshalli :\ ,\ Ill:!. ka rsl. all i. B ij 'd.::arshalll, .:\ tl;l,'Lkarsh;tlli: ,\mr/(;''tkarshalll. 'Sharirakars/zalli. who are Dcvatas of the attainment of the object of desire by. in particular. the acquisition and strengthenin;~: (as regards the self) and the control (as regards others of powers over Bucldhi, Ahangk:tra. Shabcla (such as hearing at a distance) Sparsha, R1Jpa. Rasa. Gandha. Chitta, stead-fastness, memory; name (attraction by saying'). grO\yth. the subtle body. revivification, and the gross body. These Siddhis are acquired by worship in the Chakra.

Outside the sixteen petals in the surrounding space of

the Bhupura are (see Bh tvanopaniread S. I::!) the ten

~ l udrashaktis namely Sarvasanyrzsobhivi, Sarva vid ra\'illi.

San't. karshalli, San'[l veshakfrri.z], Sarvonrnatlin], ~l ahrt ngkushit, Khcchari, Bljamuclrit., :\lah·l)"oni. and TrikhaJldikit.. The first nine ~I udras belong to the nine Chakras of the Shri- Yantra respectively. the tenth being above all. The nine :\Iudrit Shaktis represent. that is are shaped into the form of. the r inc Adhiras other than the last which is above all. Bh;'tskarLiltiya ~'a\'s: the nine Adhnras are the six Chakras :\ltlitldht\l;J cmel th~ rest. and the two Lotuses of a Thousand Petals and Larr.bik ' g-ra. a centre approximately below the eyes and behind the I1O'ie.

Outside the sixteen petals are four circular lines contauunjj three circular spaces. The outer circle is 011 the same level with the sixteen petalled, eif,;ht petalled, and first outer fourteenan~led Chakras and connected with these Chakras. The middle circle is on the level and connected with these Chakras, The middle circle is on the level and connected with the two sets of ten angles and the ei;,;ht angles; and the innermost circle is on the same level and connected with the inner Chakra of three angles.


10:TROD"C'CTI00: .

Outside these and on the outermost line of the I3htlpUra are worshipped the ten Sicldhis, ;\llim~L and the rest. These in the :\Ianoramu. arc said to be not different from (1\ bhec1a) :,\iYati and the nine Rasas. FOLlr are at the doors, OIlC at ea~h ; four at the corners, one at each, and one is above and one below. At the middle line the eight l\Iatri\.;/j.s are worshipped, four at the doors and four at the corners. These are 13r1hm1, :\Llheslwari, Kau1111ri, Vaishll<wl. \,ftr'l.h\, I nclrf\1l1 Chlnnuuli... and ':'Iahttlakshml, considered as constituted of Kama (Kftmal11aya) Krodha, Lobha, :\Ioha, Xl ada, :\I-ltsaryya, Papa and PCl1lya. Brthml is conjoined with Kama because She creates, :\lftheslwari \yith Krodha because She 'destrovs.' Kaurnf .. ri with Lobha because, being youthful, She is full of long-ing, VaishllClvl with :'Ioha because She fascinates the Universe bv I i er Xl oha, \·,'trflhi with Xl ada because the boar is an oLstil1;~te and proud animal ('pigheaded'), I ndrttlll with ,\I:"ttsarn'a because I nell-a Her consort is a jealous Devat'i, Ch~LnHl~lj;\ with Papa because by and through -Her mediation injury is done, Lakshm1 with Pllllya because She is benign and leads the Sadhaka to all virtuous acts. On the inner line of the Bhupura the ten Dikpalas are worshipped, placed in the same war as the Sidclhis. These Mudn't Shaktis, Dikpftlas l\ffttrikfts, and S iclclhis consti tu te the ni 11 th Chakra ca lled Trailokyamohana. The Sidclhis are first worshipped for selfprotection during S:ldhan'i,. The Xl ntrild.s are worshipped to suppress all evil inclinations associated with each of their names and to gain virtue, and the Dikpfil'ts for protection of the S;\dhaka and his Sfl.clhaniL The Bhupura is that in which the whole Yantra is placed. The Tantrarftja says that after worship in manner enjoined let the Sadhoka consider himself as like unto Dey! (Svatmtlnang tatsamang smaret) and one with Devi (De\'yatmft). He is then happy.

Let us then consider the principle involved in this worship.

T:Ll1trik S~clhaI1a is based on a verv profound knowledsre of

- ;:,

the principles of psychology. The object here is the realiza-

tion of the unity of the Jidtt11l, with the Mother or Devi. 1'\ ow one may tell a Chela that this is the fact without anvthin« more following from such mere instruction. The truth ~s n~~ realised by mere oral instruction but br action follo\yillg it. If the Chela were to call the statement ill question the answer of the Guru would not be a mere philosophical arguI11ent thouoh reasoninz has its place, but a direction to do certain thinvs i\'~h

~ 0

the statement that the achievement of them will produce Loth

capacity for the actual knowledge required. 110\v? 1'\0 one can really know any spiritual truth except he personally



experiences it. U ntil then it merely remains an instruction for the mind which. though based' all Scriptural authority is evidence of a secondary character. \ Vhat is sough t is not a mere statement of fact however true it may be but that actual experience which it indicates and to which it leads. Thc mind must then be first prepared to fully receive and then realise the truth taug-hl. Such preparation consists in placing before it successively and continuously the idea that every thing- which exists in nature and therefore in the human body is, from the Devat-t aspect. a Shakti. The universe is the bod" of the Xl othcr as the Lord of all. But all is Shakti whethe; as the Xl other in I ler Supreme Self (SvarClpa) or in the form of every object in the universe, Matter is not something wholly apart from Spirit or God, I t is an aspect assumed by Spirit. Further as "all this is Brahman" every single thing or person is Brahman in that particular form. The Brahman Svarfipa is pure Spirit and its Power or Shakti which manifests as the Universe is that same Spirit in material forms. But the matter also of these forms is Shakti for there is nothing but Shakti anvwhere in anvthinv which is apparent to us. There-

, ,b

fore :\lind and Senses in their varying forms are each in their

Devata aspect particular Shaktis, that is the whole Universe is informed by. and is the manifestation of, Spirit, but a particularly named Dcvatt is that Spirit in the particular manifestation to which the name is given. Thus the Brahman or ShivaShakti is the name of the Universal Spirit, But Shakti in that aspect in which It exists at rest in the )'Ili.ltldhara as the static centre round which all the bodily forces revolve is called KUJldalini Devi. Shakti as the source of, and manifesting as, the vital functions is Prftllashakti and each again of these functions is a separate Shakti, that is the general Shakti manifesting Herself in that particular way. The S'\dhaka is taught to realise this in his worship. He looks upon each part of and function of his body as a Shakti or Devatft, or more simply in earlier stages as presided over by a Dcvatt (Adhishthhrl Dcvat-i), An elementary view is to reg-ard, sa)" the Mind as something apart, over and governing which is a Devatft or Shakti. The more experienced and correct view is that the Mind is Shakti, that is a particular manifestation of It. By continual and repeated practice in Chakra after Chakra everything thus become divinised. I t is seen not as gross and socalled inert matter but as what it is, namely Brahman or Shakti in that form I t is so seen because the i\I ind by constan t and earnest association of the Divine with the U nivcrse familiarises itself with, and then realises, the fact. Everything' is thus a particular Shakti. The next step is to realise that all these



particu.lar Sha~.;:tis, a.s ~t were, frag1}1en~s of th~ one Po~er which IS the Primordial Divine Power (Adya ShaktI) and thirdly that the Sildhaka himself both in his essential nature (Atma or Spirit) and in his mind and body (particular aspects of Shakti) is one with that Supreme Shakti which is the end of all Vediintic monistic teaching (Advaitavada) SA. ham "She I am" The Sfidhaka worships all forms as particular Shaktis. He is then led lip from lower to higher forms of Shakti until he places before himself for worship the Supreme Power Who is both the Mother of all these particular Shaktis and Who appears in, and as, them. For there is nothing but the one Mother. As the human father is reborn in his son so the Mother Who creates the Universe Herself enters into it. She makes and is the form in which She in Her formless aspect abides. Thus to take the particular example under discussion the Sadhaka in the outermost Chakra meditates (in connection with Devatft) upon forms of sin and virtue, the emotions and then desire, the mind and senses, the Ntttlis, the vital airs and fires, the Manas, Tanrnatra., RAga, Dvesha, Ahangkhra, Buddhi, Prakriti and the Bhutas of which the Devis are the fifteen Nitytts who are parts of the body (as indeed are all the rest) of the Supreme Shak ti Tripurasundari or Lalita Devi from Whom they 'emanate. The Devi as Kftmcshvari is one with Kameshvara and the Sndhaka thinks of himself as one with Devi, The Chhandogya Upanishad says that as one thinks so he becomes. Practice of the ritual transforms the mind itself and what is at first seen merely as external Yantra with lines, curves and petals becomes a pure mental state ill the Sftdhaka himself. He too is a Shri- Yantra and he realises himself as such. This realisation is not to be had by ,mere discussion (Vichftra) but by the practical methods of the spiritual discipline enjoined. In the same way for the Tfmtrik methods are everywhere substantially the same though the forms vary) the Sftdhaka in the Buddhist Demchog (l\I.(lhftsukha) Tantra, which I am about to publish, meditates on the l\'Ia71dala of the Devata. H e the Devatft as method (Thabs or U paya) which is compassion (Karu1l1,) is united with His spouse the Mahfiyogin! Who is wisdom (Shesrab or J nfuia) which is the Void or Shunyat-t. Around these "two in one" are AvaraJla Devatns which form part of the Body of the Supreme Devatft in whom by meditation they are merged and the Sadhaka unites himself with them and him according to the doctrines of the "not two" wisdom (Nyismed yeshes) that is Advaita. So also the object of worship of the Indian Shr i-Chakra is the realisation of the inscparateness of J niltil. which is Hot:'L of J ni'ina which is Arghya, and of J neya which is Havie.



The follo\\"ing is a short analysis of the Chapters of the work here published.

Cht1/,hr I. This begins with a prayer followed by a request made by Devi of Shi va that J J e should declare to II er an indcpcuclcnt Tantra of the sixteen 1\ ity;' Devatts, because the nine then existing Tantras, throujrh their interdependence, were the cause of confusion. That is none of these Tantras were complete and DeYI wished to have a Tantra which should be nll-inclusivc. There would then be no necessity to have reCl1l1rSC to any other. Shiva in reply gi\'es the Ineanill.~" of K:'\di. a S1l111111ar\" of the contents of the Tuntra, the marks of the ri:~ht Gur~1 and Shishya, the mode of worshipping the Guru and the manner of selection of a Mantra, though He adds that this is not nccessarv ill the case of Mantras of the I'\it,"as. ·Vv. 68-71 speak o(the men who are qualified to gain SiclJhi. V. 72 defines the terms Yog-a Pallava, Sampu/a. Crathana and Vidarbha as applied to J ap of :\Iantra. This is followed by nine verses enumerating twenty-five defects (Dosha) of :'Ilantras which it is the dun" of the Guru to remove before givillg the Xlantra to the disciple. Vv. 82, 83 state the duty of the Guru to be to teach the disciple the making of the Y onimudra and to gi\'e him Vi ryyayojan 't of Mantra. This means imparting to the disciple the power (Viryya) of the Xlanira : a process which is given in some detail in Ch. XXX\' but can be only fully learnt of the Guru. The latter should (the verses continue) protect the disciple and leach him the meaning- of the first and last letters of the :'I:\triklls. \\'ithout this the letters are like the autumn clouds which come and go without fruit of useful rain. V. 84 says that the knov ledge of this is Ahangkrz'ti. from which Ahang-k-Alra man becomes like unto Shiva pIatsal1lo jtlyate narah), Ahangkrili or Ahang kftra literally means the makingof or realization of "1". The union of A the first letter and l l a the last letter makes Aharn = 1. which contains withi'n it all the letters of the alphabet and is therefore in the terms of Mantra the full expression of the Self. The union of the first and last letters of the .:\Uttriktt is Tflc!:\tmya-sidc1hi the receptacle of the sense of all :\Iantras. Through it is realised the idcntitv of the SfHlhaka with the .:\Hltrikft and th« Devatas who are the Artha thereof VV. 96- roo contain the following :-




Obeisance to Thee Oh Lord oi, Bhagavan

Thou art Shiva Whose nature is auspicious (Shiva) I t is Thou who hast devised the various modes Whereby knowledge (Vidya) descends.

Thou art ever nine

Thy form is of nine aspects

Thou art the Sun which dispels t.he darkness of Ignorance

Thou art free (Svatantra) and l\Iassive Consciousness (Chidghana)

l\Iercy is Thy form

And Thou art all good (Shivatma) Thou art the support of the devotee And the being of all that are

Thou art the Viveka of the Vivekins And the Vi marsha of the Virnarshins (I) Thou art the revelation of all revelations And the J nftna of all J nftnins

I bow to Thee as in front of me, as on either side of me As behind me, as below me. and as above me

Grant me this that Thou hast Thy abode ever In my mind.

Chapter II. This deals with the Mandala of the rune N'1thas or Lords who are enumerated in vv. 2-5. The Divyaugh (two e,?-rs and mouth) are Prakashftnanda, Vimarshananda and Anandananda. The Siddhaugha (eyes and penis) are Shri J nttnananda, Shri Satyananda and Shri PCml:lnanda, The ?\IttIlavaugha (t\VO nostrils and anus) are Svabh tva, Pratibha and Subhaga. The first class ever abide with Shiva (l\Iadantike nit yam) the second both near Him and on earth (Bhum tvihnpi cha) and the third on earth (Bhlunaveva satat mg nivasanti). They are all Shiva (Madfitrnaka) in varying aspect. By their help the K'tdishakti Who is inseparate fr0111 Shiva revealed the fullness of the Tantrash tsrra on earth in the Krita Yuga. They are described as beautiful forms having two arms, two eyes, smiling and of gracious mien. making with their hands the gestures (Mudra) of granting favours and dispelling fear. So they should be worshipped in their respective 1\1a1l(1alas (v. 8).

(I) That is the knowledge of the difference of the" I" and" This" (.-\han1a and Idant d ) and ut the manner in which they are yet one, Vimarsha is the object and Virnarshin is the "1" which perceives it.

\'\'. 12- I 6 gin> the P:'tduk:\ mantra of seven letters, Then follow the names of sixteen letters of the nine i\':'ithas who arc one with the sixteen :\ity:\ Dcvants (Shodashallity:ltm:i). l nstructions follow for the drawing- of the i'.Iaudala and worship of the Guru. Yv, 37-38 state the length of time a disciple should be tested before initiation is gi\'en to him. Vv, 39-43 speak of the three modes of Pratishth:t (placing of the Dcvi) which may be ill the Chakra (that is the Lalitfirchachakraj, in the disciple. or in the image of Devi : as also of the time when this should be clone. It is the Siddhatnul (z'.c. Tattvavit) and not the man proud of his knowledge (] nflnagarbita) who should do this. He who performs it without the permission of his Guru either in ignorance or prompted by hope of gain goes with wife and child to Hell. Y v, 44-5 r speak of the Pratishthi of the Shrichakra and other connected rites. (The above arc followed by 25 verses which occur in one of the Texts but are not noticed or commented upon by the :'IIanoram:t. These have not been numbered). Vv. 5~-57 lay down the rules for instructing a good disciple. Fifteen verses beginning with v, 58 describe two kinds of Abhislteka and their respective merits. I n these nine gems are put into medicated water of one Khftri (-=4096 pala) namely ruby (Padrnaraga) pearl C\ r ukta) coral (Pravfila] eat's-eye (Vaiduryya] topaz (Pusltparilja) diamond (Vajra) sapphire (Xila) cow's fat stone called Gomeda, emerald (Xlarakata). These gems represent the nine component parts of the human body uamely, chyle (Rasa) flesh (:'lIang-sa) skin (Tvak) blood (Rudhira) semen (Shukra) marrow (:'Iajj'l) bone (Asthi) fat pIeda), Vv, 73-74 enjoin that daily worship be performed thrice (Sandhyatraya-bhajana) and speak of Kftrnyanyasavidhi. Vv. 75-79 prescribe the auspicious periods for Abhislteka, and the following four verses the worship of the Guru and other rites. V v. 84-S 5 give the articles to be used in the makin« of the Guru :'Ialldala. \'V, 88-98 contain a Stotra


of :'I£ltrik£L Devi which also occurs in Chapter I of the Xityft-

slzoaashikarnava. I n its interpretation of this Stotra the Xlanorama follows the Kashmir School. Bhaskaranlva differs

from it in some particulars. '

Cltapter I II, From the S:\dhaka's standpoint this is of ~reat importance for it gi,'es the Vl an tras of the sixteen r\ityfLs. These are Ad)';\' or Anovinitva Devata and the other fifteen

~r, _

or Anggas are described by Hh.'tskarar:lya as like unto, and rays of, the Adyft ::\itya I Iersclf She alone is united with Kumeshvara. in this differin« from the rcmaininr. :'\ in·tls, who in

,.." " -

other respects resemble Her (see p. ~5 :'\ityflslzodashik:lrll<l\·;t).

Kflmeshvara is defined ill the 26th Surra of Bhuxanopanisltacl




as 'Nirupadhika-sangvideva Karueshvarazi.' that is Samvit without U pftdhis : and Lalita. as the supreme Kameshvari is 'Sadanandapurvazi svfttrnaiva paradevata Lalita,' that is one's self is Puma, Sat and Ananda (ib 27). She is in the centre of. the Shri Yantra which is Sarvftnandarnaya. The Mantra of Adyfi. Nitya is (vv. 3-5) Hrit (=S) lnl71Cl (=K) IIA, (=L) Hangsa (=H) Daha (=R) Vahni (=[) Khang (=Bindu). H can be placed in the beginning. middle or end. By changing its position the other Mantras are obtained. H at the end is appropriate for l\lukti and elsewhere for prosperity (Sampat). The Mantras of the other Nityas are given in vv, 6-72.

Adyft Nitya is Virnarsha Shakti that is the Shakti of Prakftsha Shiva. Shiva is Prakasha and Vimarsha Shakti is in the language of the Kfunakalftvilasa "the pure mirror in which He reflects Himself." (Prariphalati vimarshadarpazze vishade). I t is in this mirror which is another aspect of Himself that He knows Himself as the universe. It is this supreme "I" (Parfthanta.) which is the seed of~ all multiple world experience. According to this Tantra, the Adya Nitya or Vimarsha Shakti becomes fivefold in the Bhutas, ether, air, fire, water, earth, and by association of each of these with the three Gunas, there are the fifteen Nityas which are rayed forth from Her (EkaikagU1labriddhyfi. tu tithisangkhytltvamagata). The number 15 is also got in another way that is by Vya vakarava or arithmetical progression of the num bel' of the Guvas of the five Bhutas, Akasha having one, Vft.yu two, and so on until we get to Pz-zrhivi which has five. The addition of these gultas makes fifteen. In the Subhagodaya it is said that the fifteen minor Nityas are the Kalfts of the fifteen Tithis beginning with Pratipat of the light half of the lunar 1).10nth and ending with the PCtwimft and the sixteenth that is Adytt is Sachchidanandarupici. The 33rd Surra of the Bhavanopani.sead says ,. Panchadashatithirupezza ldlasya pariefunftvalokanam." Bhftskaraya in his commentary on this Sutra says that the Prapancha or Universe is of three kinds, Kala (Time) and Desha (Space) and that which is the union of both. "Realising the evolution of time through the fifteen letters" is thus the dissolution of the external world in one's Atma, as is shown in Ch. XXXV of the present work.

Tithirupeua ktdasya parimlll1{tvalokanam

Nityfdl panchadashaitfte syur iti proktuscha v:'tsannlz

Verses 73-87 give the Mantras of Vttnlhi and verse 88 the five names of Varflhi which are Vanthl, Pancharni, Vishvavijayft

1:-: T1WJ)li CTlO:-: .


Bhadrakaurnadi and \':lrt:t1i. In \·Y. 89-93 is found the Mantra of Kurukulla.

V:inlhi is fatherhood (Pitrt'nip:'t) and Kurukullit is motherhood. They are outside the 1'\itY:ls and a Chapter is devoted to them.

Bh.ivanopauisead says (5) :-

.. \'adhi pitr/rilpt kurukulhvali dcvnt.t ma t-i": and this Tantra says:

Balidcvyazi syam:iytlh syuh p.uichami janakfttrnikf Kurukullu bhavcn m:h:1 PUrllJltclrth'lstll stlgar:lh

Panchami here mentioned is Vilnihi who is janakfurnikn and Kurukull-i is mother. Though \'ar;lhi is female she is yet Pit.-zrl'ip:l Her aspect being male (Pungrilptt). She is the Devata of Bone Asthi) which a child gets from its father and K urukullu is the Devata of flesh (:\Ia.ngsa) which it receives from its mother.

Vv, 9-+-95 give the Prapanchayftga Mantra and v. 96 the Mantras of each of the five Hhuta.

Chapter 1 V. This and the two following Chapters deal with the rites relating to the Ady:l 0:itytt Lalita. The Compiler of the Catalogue of Xl ss in Nepal seems to have been insufficiently acquainted with the :\lss he described. Thus he incorrectly says that the third Chapter is devoted to this subject. In his summary of the sixteen :\ity:'\s he leaves out three of them (namely Vahnivnsini, Sarvamangala, and J"ftltllllttlini and \Hongly includes \Tar:'lh! and Kurukull-i amongst thc 0:ityrls and repeats the name of 1\ it)':\ twice as the first and eleventh. He makes no mention of the Shrichakra the important part of this work nor deals with the XXXVth Chapter which gives its philosophy. He states, in some cases incorrectly, the names of the nine :\tlthas on the authority of the late Librarian, N epa] Darbar though the names are correctly given in the 1\1 s. described. He confuses the nine j\tithas here described with Adin:i tha, Kant han:l tha and other recognised A vat:i ras of Shiva.

The fourth Chapter begins with Karashuddhividyn, Shadanggany:isavidy:t Devyn t l11'\ sa na vidyt, Cha kpisana\'id )':'1, Sarvarnantrasana vidyn, S:idhyasidclh,isana vidy», A viihanCl vidyt.



Some of the rites such as S/tadangganyi\sa are common to all the Nityfts. Vv. 14-20 give the names of eight Shaktis namely, Vashini, K:imeshvari, Mohini, Vimal~,. Arumi, [ayini, Sarveshvari and Kaulini as also their Mantras and N Yftsakrama the performance of which renders the S:'tdhaka Devyutmaka. These eight Shaktis represent cold (Shita) heat (UshJla) pleasure (Sukha ) pain (Duhkha) desire (Ichchhn] and the three Guvas Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The places in which l'\ rAsa is done with these Shaktis are given in v. 2 I. Cf. Bhitvanopanixead Sutra 20. Vv. 22-25 gi\'e the Dija Mantras of the nine Mudras. Cf. A.dhttranavakam mudnAtshaktayah in Bhavanopaniread I2. VV. 30, 3 I enumerate twenty 1\I udras, They are AVlthanl, Sthnpani, Sannirodhani, Avagullihani, Sannidh-tpani, Heti,,(i. c. the four Mudras \Tn,na, Dhanu/i, Phsha, Angkusha) Narnaskriyft, Sangkshobhalli, Dni,villi, Akarshanl, Vashy', U nmndani, Mahttngkushn Khechari, Bija, Y oni, and Shaktyutthfipani also called Trikhalld:\. Heti above described is fourfold as the five Arrows (VtLua) Bow (Dhanue) Noose (PtLsha) and Goad (Angkusha). Thc fivc arrows are the fi\·c Tanm ttras. The ~Iind as Manas is the Emv of Sugarcane. Attachment to objects is bondage or the noose (I~."tg;'lh ptLshfth) and Aversion to objects is the goad (Dvesho'ngkushah). See Bh/tvanopanisziad 2 I -24. Vv. 34-54 describe the Mudrfts which in vv. 55-59 are said to bc of three kinds, Sthula, S{,kshma, Para, according as they are made with the hands or body, thought of in Mantras, and understood as they really are (T'attvarupcsza]. The last ten l\1 udrfis are alluded to in the Sutra cited. Trikhalldi, or Shaktyutthftpani is so called because it cuts the three which are J nat;"l" J nana, J nera from the Sangsftra (T ribhie jnAtnj nanajneyatmabhi/s sangsarakhalldanftt). This is the Mudr.t by which Lalitf is invoked (Lalitfivahft}. V. 58 defines Mudrft (i\Iudang n'ttiti Mudrft) as that which causes pleasure (to the Devatfi). The least little mistake it says might produce displeasure where pleasure was intended. The mcaning of the Surra in the Bh-tvanopanis.ead is lhat the last ten 1\1 udras are associated with (Abheda) nine Adhftras namely the six Chakras beginning with Mulftdhtra, the Lambik-tgra am! two lotuses of a thousand petals one of which is in the head and the other below the 1\1 {tl:'tdh''ira, the tenth being the collectivity of <til these.

\T\,. 60, 61 speak of the five kinds of Arghyap ltra.

Lalit:'! should be meditated upon as being red in colour. In the z Sth Surra of Hlutvanopanisziad it is said "Redness is the Virnarsha of all this" (LauhityanJctasya sarvasya vimarsha/i]. Bhitskaran,)'a says that hy "of all" (Sarvasya] is meant KUI11-

I:\TIWlll'CTI( J:\,


eshvara, Lnlit.i. and the Sildhaka's self. The Vi marsha of these is the redness of the Devi, \Vho is object of worship. This is so because of the welding (_\_tmanyanuriig:lt) of these three in aile, and this attachment (R:'q._:·a) or \\'l'lding and Redness (Lauhity") are one (sec also Ch. XXX\') Cf. "One's Atm:! is the Dcvat.t Lalitt \ Vhosc hody is the universe (Vish\';t\'ig-rah·\). Redness is J ler \'imarsha (as mere Pr.iknsh« She is white and redness indicates l chchht and Rajas) and worship is the Xlccliuuion on this". She is of blissful mien, carries in l l cr hands arrows, bow, noose and goad. She is seated and united with Ktllllan'ija and is surrounded 1)\· Shaktis. These arc of the same colour, are decked in the 'same ornaments and carry the same weapons but are not (as Lalit-t is) united with K:ll1ladj-i.

Vv. 66-71 enumerate the eighteen Shaktis who should be worshipped in the first or Trailokyamohana Chakra. These again arc divided into two groups. The first of ten beginning with ,\Jlimi and the second of eight bcgins with Br:ih1l11. The places of worship arc gi\'cn in Chapters I and VIII of ::\ity;isho. dashik:lrJla\'a (See also Bhavanopanirziad S. 1 I and Ch. XXV of this book). The first group of ten are associated with Xiyati and the nine Rasa beginning with Shrt'ngg{ira, and the second group of eight represent Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Xl oha. .:'II ada, l\l:ltsaryya, Pf11lya and P:lpa. (See Bh.rvanopanis/iad S. I I).

V v. j2. j 3 name the Shaktis to be worshipped on the sixteen petalled lotus. These are Ktlm"!I,arshi1l1 and others. These Shaktis are Adhiclcvatfts of A Earth (Pzvrhivi) Water (Ap) Fire (Tejas) Air (Vtl)'U) Ether (\_ktLsha) Hearinf,; (Shrotra) Touch (T\'ak) Sight (Chakshu), Taste (Jihd) Smell (Ghr;ilta) Speech (\':lk) Feet (P.-lela) Hands (P:illi) Anus (P:lyu) Genitals (L' pastha), There is then .:'IIanovik:ira which some read as applying to all sixteen and others to Manas alone. The sixteen (See Bh ivanopanix/iad) are enumerated not only in the Tantrarilja but in the :\ itY;lshoaashiktlrna\'a, Yoginihrt'daya and other works.

v v, 75, j6 give the names of the eight Shaktis to be worshipped on the petals of the eight-petalled lotus (third Chakra). They are Ananggakusuma and others. These are the Budclhi of Speech (Vachana), Taking (Adana), Motion (Gamana) Elimination (Visarga). Bliss (Anancla) relinquishment (Hnna), concentration (U p"ld'lna) and Detachment ( L' peksha) (See Ch. XXXV) Bhi'i. Up. I4 Kitytlshodasiktlwa\'Cl I 177-178 \'III14o-r43).


The fourteen Shaktis to be worshipped in the Saubhftgyad'Lyaka Chakra of fourteen angles are given in vv. 77-79. They are Sarvasangkshobhilli and others. They are the Devis of the fourteen Nrw'is (See Ch. XXXV Bh t, Up. 15).

V v, 80-83 give the ten Shaktis Sarvasiddhipradn and others to be worshipped in the Dash'tra called Sarvnrthas'tdhana. These are the Devat ts of the ten "airs" in the body, PntJla and the rest (Ch. XXXV Bha. Up. 16-18) .Nitytshodashik\rnava I. 184-186, VIII 151-155. The first five belong to the Pentad commencing with Pr tzza and the second to that commencing with N{lga.

V v. 84-86 name ten Shaktis to be worshipped in the inner Dash'ira called Sarvarogahara. These are Sarvajnn and others and the Kal-ts of fire. These are Rechaka Pitchaka Shoshaka, Dahaka, Plftvaka, Ksh:t.raka, U dg:'traka, Kshobhaka, J rz'mbhaka, and Mohaka. Some say that the vital fire is tenfold because it is in the seven Dh'ttus and the three Dosha. (See Introduction Prapanchas'tra Tantra vol. I I I Tantrik Texts Ed. A. Avalon); but this is not apparently so according to the Tantraraja (See Ch. XXXV also Bh\, Up. 19). Nitynskodashiktmzava 187-190 VIII 156-159 Yoginihridaya III.

V. 87 gives the Mantra and rules of worship of the eight Shaktis Vashini and others to be worshipped in the eight angles (Ashtc\ra) or Sarvarakshftkara Chakra. These, though not named in this Chapter, are Vashini, Krtrneshi, Modini, Vimal't Arue), J ayini, Sarveshi, and Kaulini (vv. 14-20). Between this Chakra and the next which is a triangle called Sarvasiddhimaya are worshipped the arrows, the bow, the noose and the goad representing the Tanrn'ttras, Manas, and Dvesha. The second line of v. 89 gives the place of worship of the nine N,tthas at the back of the Devi (Devyfth prishthatah) in the inner triangle. V. 90 says that inasmuch as the Devi ill the centre manifests Herself in sixteen different forms (Shodashak~tratah sthita}, the other fifteen should be worshipped in Her body (Tasyae tanau). The three Shaktis Kumeshvari. Vajreshvari, and Bhagamalini are to be worshipped in the three corners beginning with the western, that is lower, angle and going round on the right. That is wherever the S'rdhaka faces is regarded as the east. Therefore the lower point of the triangle is the west. These are not the N ityfts so called but A varruza Devatjts bearing the same name. These three corners are the Pithas Kumrupa, P(\wagiri, and Fdandhara. These Shaktis are A vyakta, Mahar and Ahangk:l.ra that is Prakzvti, the cosmic


B uddhi and :\ hang-b.ra (See BhtL\'anopan isliad 2 s) Then the 1 )C\'j should be \\ orshippcd in the middle that is in the middle of the ninth Chak ra which is A lIddyitnapillia, This is the Sthulapuj«. Her Padllk:\ Mantra is ""ring Shrillg Sal11asttlm III ida v id Y;llll auddyitnapit he sh ri mahtl tri purasundari -dcvish rip·idukim piljayilmi", I n each of the nine Chakras the Dcvi is worshipped in the centre under one of I Ier nine names (gi\'cn ill the following Chapter vv, 14-15) united with the P;1dllld Xl.uura of seven letters,

Her worship again is of three kinds :-Sthtlla (as where She is thought of as red) S llkshm<t (i n the man t ra- body or man tratanu] and Para when the Pflj{l and the fruit thereof is offered to Her. The Sthula worship is Samastavidyn, the Sllkshma worship in the form of the letters is Nfunarupavidyf and the Para worship is Arpana \'idytl.

V v, 98- I 00 speak of Meditation on the identity of Guru, Devaet and Mantra which (says the ;\Ianoramfl) is very secret (Rahasya) and should not be disclosed and is only to be learnt from the Guru. The highest (Turiya) form of the Devi is the three Bindus (Dindutraya) which are also the form of the fourth vowel. This Chakra has one Bindu above and two below. The former is the face and the two below are the breasts and the lines of the fourth vowel (I) arc Her lower limbs. By meditation all these the S'tdhaka becomes one (Tadatmaka) with Devi.

Chapter V. This continues the worship of Lalita. After worshipping Her in manner enjoined the StLdhaka considers himself as the Devi (S\';ttm'tnang tatsamang srnaret and one with Devi (Dcvyfuma). He is then happy (v. 5).

There are nine Chakras which Bhrlskarartlya (p. 40) says fall under three heads Snshti, Sthiti and Sallgh:tra, creation, maintenance and withdrawal. The first three (r, 2,3,) are Sris/u, of which the first is Snshti-srzshti, thc second Srzslttisthiri the third Snshti-sangh'ha. The second group of three (.·l, S' 6). of the nine arc Sthiti of which the first is Sthiti-srzshti, the second Sthiti-sthiti and the third Sthiri-sangh'ira. The last group of three (7,8.9) of the nine are Sanghftra of which the first is Sanghara-Srzshti the second Sallghtlra-Sthiti and the third Sangh:lra-Sanghftra. In the Tantruntara Tantra these three primary groups are called Xloon (Soma or Srishti I Sun (Sllryya or Sthiti) and Fire (Anala or Sanghttra). The names of the nine Chakras are (I) Trailokya-rnohana (Srzshti-Srzshti . (2) SMVU-



sha-paripuraka (Snshti-Sthiti), (3) Sarvasangkshobba71a(SrzshtiSanghttra), (4) Sarvasaubhag yadftyaka (Sthiti-Srishti), (5) Sarvarthasfldhaka (Sthiti-Sthiti), (6) . Sarvarogahara (SthitiSanghara), (71 Sarvarakrzia- kara (Sanghara - Sris/lti), (8) Sarvasiddhiprada (Sanghflra-Sthiti), (9) Sarvfmandarnaya (Sanghara-Sangbara). This last is the place of the Central Bindu and is Shivatrnaka (vv. 9 and 10). The Voginis in these Cbakras are (I) Prakazft (2) Gupta (3) Guptatara (4) Sampradftya (5) Kulakaulft (6) Nigarbha (7) Rahasya (8) Parapararahasya (9) Atirahasya, These are in the Middle of the Chakras and are gross forms (Sthulavigraha) being the covering (A.varalla) of the Sukshma or Mantra form. The Para is. unconditioned by time or space and is immanent in the last. The nine names of the Devi are TripuriL, Tripureshi, Tripurasundari, Tripuravasinl, Tripurashri, Tripuramalini, Tripurasiddha, Tripurfunbft, and Mahatripurasundari (v. 14). In each of these nine forms the Dcvi is worshipped in the nine different Chakras with the prescribed Mantra (v. 15). Vv, 17, 18 say that as soon as the Sadhaka rises from his sleep in the early morning he should think of himself as Tripura (Tripurfurnftnarn) and meditate on Her lustrous Light form (J yotirupa) in the head.

Vv. 19-21 enjoin that during worship the Sftdhaka should wear a red cloth, smear himself with red sandal, wear red garlands and red ornaments. He should be in a pleasant frame of mind, scented with camphor. He should sit in Padmusana facing East and keep himself and his vital airs (PnlJlfi.h) under control.

Vv. 23-25 enjoin the worship of the 11111e gems, the garden of Kalpa trees (Kalpakodyana] the six seasons, the senses, which are compared to horses and the objects of the senses which are likened to elephants. V. 26 also refers to the nine gems. In this connection may be noted Bhavanopanishad (6-8) which says that the body is the island of nine o·ems (Deho navaratnadvipae) which are Pushpartlga (topaz) ""NIIa (sapphire) Vaidury« (catseye) Vidrurna (coral) l\Iauktika ( pearl) Marakata (emerald) Vajra (diamond) Gomeda, Padmaraga (ruby). Tvag{t.disaptadhaturomasangYliktah. These g'el1ls in the body are Tvak (touch) the seven Dhatus namely Rasa (chyle) Mfuigsa (Hesh) Rudhira (blood) Shukra (semen) l\IajjtL (marrow) Asthi (bone) and :\Ieda (fat) together with Roma (hair). Time is divided into nine parts oiz, Ghatikll. (24 minutes) Yuma (3 hours) Ahorfura (day and night) Vara (clay of a week) Tithi (lunar day) Paksha (lunar fortnight) l\Ulsa (solar month) Ritll (season or two months) and Al.;(ja (year).



The principal \1 udras beginning with Sangksnobhilli are nine. The ;\h\trikils arc divided into nine groups. There are nine Gurus. The Tattvas are nine (obtained by combinations of J n;hrt'. J nuna. J ncya). The planers are nine as are also the Dluuus (Tvak. c\snk etc.) V. +7 speaks of the worship of the arrows (\';llla) bow (Chapa) noose (Pftsha) and goad (Angkusha). The arrows arc either Sthula, SCtksnma or Para. As being the first the)' are made of flowers. as being second they arc in the form of Xlantra (:'I[antrtttl1l;lnan) and as Para they are (as described in the Chapter dealing- with Vftsana) the five Tnumutras. As Sihula they are of the following flowers. Lotus (Kamala) Red 0:ight- Lotus (Rakta kairava) " v ·ater lily (Kalhfira) blue lotus (I ndivara) and mango flower (Sahakaraja). The Bow, Xoose and Goad are similarly Sthula, Sflksnma and Para,

The bow is sugarcane (Sthula), made of Mantra, and the Xlanas, The noose and the goad are of material, or Mantra form. and their Para form is RCtga (desire: noose) and D\'esha (hostility: goad),

Then follows description of the 1\ ityaplljiL

Vv, 78-79 direct that when doing Purashchfiraxa the company of an unbeliever (Xastika) should be avoided and vv. 79-80 enjoin the a voidance of desire for, or decrying, the land, house and wife of another, and being angry with and beating women even if they be wicked.

111 v, 8 I it is said that in the Vasana Chapter (XXXV) the signs which indicate the attainment of the state of a Siddha arc given ; the following indicate that a man is moving to that state; dreams of association with women, or of riding on an elephant, of enjoyment in a palatial house or on a mountain top. the seeing of kings, procession of elephants, singing and dancing of women in dream, the seeing of festivals in dream, the seeing and taking of wine and meat in dream. Some other signs arc mentioned which indicate that a man is straying from the path of Siddhi viz. Seeing black soldiers, beating, smearing of oil (which is not done by Brahmacbnris), sexual connection with others' wives, state of anarchy. fear of fire, air, water, death of a friend, slighting a Guru, accumulation of wealth, disease and worshipping with other mantras than the Sadhaka's own.

He (v. 88) who does Japa without knowing Kurmasthiti not only fails to get the fruit thereof but he meets with destruction. Therefore should Kurrna be first known. K nrma is of four




kinds namely firstly Para K urrna. This which is steady (Sthira) and extends to 50 Koti (500,000,000) of Yojanas (between 8 and 9 miles) supports Prithivi. The others are Deshagata, Gramaga and Grihaga. That is just as the Supreme Tortoise supports the whole universe. the others support particular countries, vil1ages, and dwellings.

Clzaptcr VI. I\ aimittika and Karnya Pllja are here dealt with: the first in verses 1-32. H ere the rites are described which are to be performed from Chaitra to Falguna. The Shatkarma of those devoted to N aimittika rites are Yantra, Homa, Kl iytl, Dhyfma, Yoga and Tarpa-za which are described in the rest of the Chapter. The six Kftrnya Karmas are Raksha, Shanri, J aya, Labha, N igraha and N idhana, i.e., protection and peace giving. victory and gain giving, punishing and destruction (v. 35). For the first worship should be done in the Bhupura : for the second in the Vttrimalla'ala, for the third in the Dahanngara, for the fourth in the Anilarnanveala and for the fifth and sixth in the Vyornamae.zala (v. 37). Onward to v. 5 T details are given of worship in the five Bhuta l\Ialla'alas as regards the appropriate season, 1110nth, letter, day of the week and the articles of worship. Then follow the fruits gained by worship in different parts of the Shrichakra (vv. 52-57); how to control Apsarft and Yakshilli (vv. 58-70); worship productive of knowledge of past, present and future (vv. 73-74) worship to gain four kinds of proficiency I P;111a'itya) I vv. 75-77) which "according to the Ma110ra111a) are Vitditva, Kavitva, Vitgmitva and Vyakhyatritva or the power to speak clearly, literary ability, eloquence, and power of explanation. Then follows worship for the avoidance of all ailments (vv, 78-80); the names of the seven articles for making Shrichakra, to wit, saffron, vermilion, red ochre (Gairika) Lac, red lead (Darada) and sandal both red and white (v. 78). Each of verses 93-98 give a different form of worship (Bhajana) and v. 99 states the final aim of worship namely the realisation of the unity of the Devi, the self, Chakra, the Devatas therein and the surrounding Shaktis.

Chapter VII. This is devoted to the second Nityft, Kfuneshvari who (I I I. v 8) is fulfiller of Desire (Kftmada). After speaking of Nyasa-krama (in vv, 3-6) verses 8- TO give the following Dhyana of this Devl. She is (lustrous red) like ten million rising suns, wears a bright crown of rubies and is adorned with throat ornament (Graivcya), necklaces, waistchains and rings on Her hands and feet. Her ornaments are set with gems. Her raiment is red. She is six-armed and three-eyed find carries the crescent (Kali't) of the l\Ioon on Her head. Her


face is lit up with a soft smile and Her eyes are merciful. She is in Her Chakra or Ynntra which is on a lotus, She carries in Her hands a bow of sllg'arcClne, arrows of flowers, noose and goad and a ClIp made of ~gems filled with nectar, She makes the gesture granting boons. The live arrows are to be \\'01'shipped in each of the petals of the five petalled lotus which is K:lIl1esln'ari's YClntra. Their names arc Mada na. U nmadnna. Dipana, Mohana and ShositaJlCl the five effects of desire. longing maddening, kindling, enchanting, wasting (v. 13). The eig'ht Shak tis in the eight petalled lotus are Ananggakusllmft; Anangg-amekhal:1. Allanggamadani't. Anang'gamadanflturiL, Mada,oegini. Bhuvanapaht. Shashirekbft. Gagallarekh:l (vv, r 4-15). In the lotus of sixteen petals the following- Shell, tis are to he worshipped :- Shraddlnt. Priti. Rati, Dhrz"ti. Kanti, Manoranu), Manoharft, Xl anoratha, :'Iadanonmadini, Mohini, Dipani, Shoshalli. Vashangkari, Sinjini, Subhag:l, Priyad.irshana, Each of these is to be worshipped with one of the vowels before Her name (n°. 16- J 8) In the outer lotus of sixteen petals sixteen )(alas of the l\Iooon are to be worshipped. These are Pi'tsk\, Aveshfr, Shrirnanasa, Rati, Priti, Dhriti, Buddhi, Saumya, Marichi, Angshumfllini, Shashini, Anggirft., Chhttytt, Sarnpuruarnav.rala, Tuslzti, Amn'tft (vv. 19-:20). In the corners of the outer Hexagon is worshiped Dakin! and others (v. 2 T). Outside this and round the square Ba/uka Gasapa, Durga and Kslletresha should be worshipped. The Supreme Dcvi first created the five Kamas or Desire- Devatfts which arc J nftnatma! a and which the Commentary explains to be Her five J nfmendrz'yas. 'J he former are of bewildering power and can move and agitate the three worlds (Lob) (\·v. 27-28). '1 hese Kfunas are Kamarfija (King of Desire) l\Ianmatha (Agitator) Kandarpa (Inflamer) :'Iakaraketana (whose banner bears a Makara) and l\Ianobhava (1\Iind-born, for desire is born there). These agitate the world (vv. 29-30). They are of he colour!'. yellow, white, red, purple (Dhumra the colour of smoke) and blue. They have two eyes and arms and are of smiling countenance and carry sugarcane bow and flowery arrows. They are Bhautika (Bhltt:,tmaka) and exist in the form of all things (Visbvavijrraha) (vv. 3 r- 33). The concluding verses give the Mantras, N yasa, and Yantras and so forth in the worship of this Devi.

Chapter Vii 1. This deals with the third ~ityft, Bhagamftlini through whose worship (111-31) the Sudhaka charms his wife and the whole world (V anita-janamohini), II er Dhyftna is given as follows :-

She is beautiful and red. of smiling countenance. three-eyeel,


six-armed, seated on a lotus. She carries the night-water-lily, noose, sugarcane bow in Her left hands, in the right hands She holds a lotus, a goad, and flowery arrows. She is surrounded by Shaktis on ail sides like Herself The Devi is worshipped as surrounded by two classes of Avarava Shaktis twenty in all, namely Madana, Mohini Lola, J arnbhini, U dyamfi, Shubhft, Hladini, Dravivi, Priti, Rati, Rakta, Manorama, Sarvonrnada, Sarvasukhft, Ananggft, Amitodyama Analpa, Vyaktavibhava, Vividhavigrahn. Kshobhavigrahfl, (V\'. 9-I T). The next eighteen verses describe the PLljakranM of the Devi and the fruit gained thereby. Then follows description of articles for making of the Yantra (vv, 30-32); the making of the fourteen petalled Yantra (vv. 33-38); the fourteen fruits gained by worship of the Yantra (vv. 39'40); the making of the Yantra of thirty-three sections (vv, 43-45); the thirty-three fruits gained thereby (vv. 46-49) ; the method of drawing the complete Chakra and the complete Pujt~ ritual (vv. 52-71). The Mantra which is given in the third Chapter is one of.the longest known. being of 135 K Mas.

Then follow nineteen verses (72-90) of disordered letters (Vyakulitakshara). This is a cryptic style of writing adopted to keep the contents concealed and which can only be read by those who have the key. The notes to the verses are also in the same character. As here printed the words have been wrongly arranged as the Texts consulted are at fault. Whilst reproducing the texts I add here a correct reading:

~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ Q en ~ TH ~ o:ri fir q r ~ I

~ ~ '=iT fu ill 1! fer §f~ Q ~ er (!q ~ if ~ Cfi II ~ II ~ futq~mm~efiif~Cfi~(!q1Tlcr~ I


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fiR'i{ ~ ~ ~ 0' CfiT i{ 'ei ~: tI i{t (1 r cfit i{ en II s II

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, ~


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~ ~ €f ~ jr 'fIT Cf men mrt ~ l1 ~ ~ <f Cf ~ II~ ~II

... ...

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~ ~T ~ ~' ~ ?I ft m '0: ~T en iffT ~ ~ ~ f~ II ~ ~II

nI' ~ <f m ~ Cfi1 ~'" tfi li m ~ <f Cf l1 Cf ~ (ttt) I ~ m mT fl: iff: ~ -q; ~T ~ 1JJ ~T Rrr ~ ~ f1r B II ~ ~ II

~ if ~ ~ m li tfi ~T ft(={ f'Cf 'OT B" tf f~ ~ ~ I

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({ B q ({ Cf 'tf ~ ~T Cf ~ 0 l1 '0 Cf~~ 1I~811

~ 1: li B ~ ~ fi1 ~T ~ cn ~ u.ri ~ it fif ~ I

m 00 '0: ~ l1 ei 0 ~cri{ f~ ft~'R!cq'ffi! ~~ 1I~':jJI 1": fi{ 'fIT ~ ~ em ~ BT ~ ~: ~" m ~ P:7 fi{ ~ I

... ...

~ ~ ~(={ en fu ~ fi{ if 0i! i1 ~ ~ ~ -dr fif ~ II ~ ~ II

({ err ~ ~ eft ~ en={ tfT cr: ~ .rr Cf ~ 'fIT i1 err I

~: n ~ 0: l1 en f({ 0 ci If fu 0 ~ cfit Cf tfT II ~011

... ~


~ U ij' Cf efT oT ~ ~ (fT ~ ilT ¢f 1J iff Cf fq I

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, '

~ ~ ~T is" m ~ oc{ f~ ~q (0) cq m m ~ ~ iJl (f II ~c..ll

The key is as follows 8, 4, 6, 2, 7, 3, 5. J, that is the first letter is given as the eighth and so on. These verses describe only the different kinds of wine to be used in the worship, how to make and how to drink them. There is no mention here or in the rest of the volume of Maithuna, It states that the Siddha should never drink wine unless it has been first offered as Arghya to the Devi on whom as the object of worship the Mind must be kept. Wine should be drunk until the Mind is wholly absorbed in the Devi. To drink more than that is to sin. He, who drinks without offering and for the satisfaction of his desire, is a sinner, a worshipper of ignorance and should be punished by the King. The following verses of which the above is a translation should be noted by those who criticise this Sbastra,

Na kadachit pivet siddho devyarghyamaniveditarn. Panancha tavat kurvita yavata syftn manolayah. Tatah karoti chet sadyah pataki bhavati dhruvam. Devatftgurusevj,n yat pivan nttsa vami'tshaya.

Patak] rajadalldyashchavidyopasaka eva chao

V. 9I and following describe the Yantra called Yonyar-zava, the worship thereof and the fruits gained thereby.

Chapter IX. This deals with the fourth Nityft, called Nityaklinnfi. Her Dhynna is as follows :-

She is red with red raiment and smeared with red sandalpaste. She smiles. Three eyes enhance the beauty of Her face. On Her forehead are beads of sweat shining like pearls. Above it is the half-moon. I n Her four hands She holds' he noose, goad, drinking cup, and with the last hand makes the g'esture dispelling fear. She is seated in the middle of the Lotus, listless with desire (Madalasa) (vv. 7-9). She should be worshipped with all Her Shaktis, In the corner of the triangle are Kshobhilll, Mohiul, Uh't (v. 10). In the eight petals are N ityft, N iranjanfi, Klinnil, Kledini, l\Iadanfttun\ Madadravft,

[:\TJ.'OilL"CTI():\ .

.., ..


Dni\"ini and Yidh;\n;i. (v. 1 I) ; in the Square (Chaturasra) are also worshipped :'I[ad,hihi. :'I[anggal:i, :'II <In Illath;t rl;t. ;\[<In:ls\'inl. :'I Iohn, Arnodt. :\[;tll:lmayi. :\[:I)":L. ;\lancl:i. ;"ian()\"ati (v. 13). Then follows a description of the Chakra of the Devi and the Pllj;i-kram<l (v v. 14-23); the method of Vidyapura shcharav», articles of I l oma and Tnrpava. and the different fruits gained from 1I0ma done with different articles (vv. 23-26). (\'v.61-il) describe the Yantra of the Devi and (vv. 72-74) another k ind of Yantra. The rest of the Chapter is devoted to Prayoga of the ~1 antra and Yanrra. In praise of this Devi it is said (I J I. 34) that he. who attains Siddhi of Her Mantra. becomes more beautiful than Kandarpa and makes his wives do what he wills.

Chapter X. This deals with the fifth I\'ityh or Bhefll1ltttl whose Dhyftna and that of Her Shaktis is given (vv. 16-19) as follows :-

Her body is like molten gold. She has three eyes and Hcr face is lit with smiles. She is adorned with ornaments of celestial beauty. with earrings, necklace, armlets, waist-chain and rings on hands and feet. She carries the noose,. goacl, shield. sword, mace and thunderbolt (Vajra) and bow. Her Shaktis are gi\'en (vv. 6 10) as follows: Bn'ihmi and others who are the Yoga Shaktis, should be worshipped on the aliter part of the Yantra and Vijay:i., Vimalfl, Shubhft, Vishn'i Vibhuti. Vinata, Vividhft and Viratf in the lotus of eight petals. J n the eight corners (within the lotus) are to be worshipped Kamala, Karnini. Kiratfl, Tirti. Kuttani, Kulasundari, Kalyani, and K:ilakol:'L J n the corners of the six-angled figure are to be worshipped D,'ikini. Rukilll, Lakini, Kftkinl, Shfikini, and H II kin); in the corners of the triangle Ichchha, J nana, Kriya; and in the spaces outside the figure of eight angles the eight weapons should be worshipped. The Chakra is described (vv. 11-13); a second Yantra (vv. 25-35); a third Yantra (vv. 36-46) and a fourth (51-63). J apa of the name of Bheru1lda frees from the evil effects of the three kinds of poison (v. 80 and see I I I. 37). These are according to the :'IIanorama, Srhnvara (from trees and herbs) J anggama (serpents and other animals) and Kritrima (prepared by the m ixi ng of various i ngred ien ts). Verses 81 -85 speak of Trailokya-rnohana-vidyft yoga.

Chapter X I. This speaks of the sixth ;\'ityft or Vahuivftsini. whose Dhyana (vv. 9-13) is as follows :-

With the beauty of early youth She is lustrous like burning gold. Her lotus face with three eyes is lit by a gentle smile.


She is eight-armed and dressed in yellow silk with ruby ornaments. Such is the strength of the rays of the rubies on Her diadem that they make ruddy the surrounding region. Her radiance is enhanced by anklets and waist-chain of gems, pearls and other ornaments making clusters of jewels. In Her left hands She holds a red lotus, a conch, a bow of red sugarcane and the full moon and in Her right hands a white water lily, a golden horn, flowery arrows and a citron (l\lhtulung·ga). She is surrounded on all sides by Shaktis like unto Her. So should She the Fire-d weller (Vahni vasini) Who assumes the form of the Universe (Vishva-vigraha) be meditated upon and worshipped. According to Pandit Yajna Purusha the right reading is Vishvaghasman\ (She Who devours the universe) and not Vishva-

. hA vIgra a.

Her Shaktis are (vv. 14-22) J valin! Visphu1inggini Manggahi, Sumanoharft, Kanaka, Angkita, Vishvft and Vividhfi who are worshipped in the eight corners. The Rftshi Shaktis Meshft, Brzsha and the others are to be worshipped in the twelve petals. Her Nityapujft Chakra is described (vv. 22-27). The Tithis beginning with Pratipat and ending with Panchadashi are the fifteen Devis beginning with Kftmeshvari and ending with Chitrft (vv. 34-35). General rules for the attainment of Vidytt (Vidyaprnptividhi) are given (vv. 39-57). Vidyft and Mantra are distinguished (vv. 61 -62) and some Yantras 'and their worship is described (vv. 63-67). He who is Siddha in the Mantra of this Nitya can by its utterance subject the three worlds (I I I. 46).

Chapter XII. Vajreshvari the seventh Nitya is here spoken of. Her Dhyana is given (vv. 6-10) as follows :-

She is seated at Her ease on Her chakra (Yantra) consisting of a triangle, hexagon, lotuses and Malripura (Bhilpura) placed on a throne (Singhi'tsana). She is seated on this throne in a golden boat Rowing in an ocean of blood. She has four arms and three eyes. She is red. attired in red raiment, surrounded with red unguent and garlanded with reel flowers. On Her head is a diadem of lustrous rubies. 111 Her hands She carries noose. goad, sugarcane bow and arrows of pomegranate Rowers. She looks upon Her Sadhaka with the cooling gaze of mercy. Her lotus face being in smiles. She is surrounded in the boat, which is swaying, by Shaktis unto Her.

Ichchhft, J m'tna. KriytL arc in the corners of the triangle and Dakini and others in the corner of the hexagonal figure (v. I J). In the twelve petals (If the lotus are the twelve Shaktis


H rillekh;'i, Klec1ini. K linn;l KsitobhiJli, :\ l adanfuun). N iranjadL~ R:iga\'ati, :\laclan:'n'ati, :\Ickhal:t, Dr:hilll and Veg;]. vati (vv. I c- J 3). I n the lot us of sixteen petals the following sixteen Shaktis are to he worshipped. Kumal.). K:\mini. Kalpfl. Kal:i. }"::alit:i, Kautuku. K irtlt'i, K:tl:l. Kadan:i, Kaushik:l. Kambuvahini, K:i.tad, K a pa/;'i, Kin), K urnari a ncl Kling-kuma (vv. 14- I 5). The Shakris in the Square J ambhik-t. Vcgiui. Nfunn}, Chapa!:"l. I\:'>hal:i. Sari, Rati, Shradlu). Bhogalobh:t (?) :\Iacl:i, L nmatt-), :\lanaS\'ini. I njunctions for the Sadhanf] of this Dcvi arc gi\'cn (·,T. 23-35): a list of the articles required for doing- Homa are given (vv, 36-62) and rules are given for the drawing of the Yantras .\lah:l,vajra. Vajra and others (vv. 63-73). The rest of the Chapter deals with Yantras of various kinds and the purposes for which they are made. This Nitya is K:'tn t·ira-s·ig ara-krura-cluekha-sangjrh» ta-ttl rill) or the DesI ructrcss of the cruel Evils dense as boundless forests or the wide ocean. This Evil is Avivcka. for from want of discrimination all evils arise. The Sicldha in the Xl antra of this Nityft is freed of A. viveka (see I I I, 43).

Chapter XII/' This Chapter give details of the Plljtt, Dhyan«, ?\y:isa. Chakra and so forth of the eight Nitya, Shindill) whose Dhy.tna (vv, 14- 17) is as follows :-

She has eight arms and three eyes and is bright like the midday sun in slimmer. She is g-arbed in red raiment and wears various kinds of ornaments on different parts of Her body, which enhance its beauty. There are nine gems in Her diadem. Her face smiles gently. The g-reat Rishis are hymning Her praise. In Her left hands She carries a horn, shield (Kheta), mace, and cup (Chashaka) made of gems, In Her right hands She holds a goad, sword (Kha~~a) axe (Kuth:ira) and a lotus. She is the Destroyer of wickedness and is eager to grant the pleasing objects of desire.

Her A\'araJla Shaktis are gi\'en in vv. 7 to 22 and arc as follows :-

I n the Bhupura Vihvala, Karshalli, Loln, ?\ityi\, :\Iadan:t ~.l:"dini, Vinoda, Kautukfi, Puuy:\, and Puri\ni\, In the figure of c!ght angles are \'i\gishf', Varadft, Vishvfi, Vibhavft, Vighnakftriei \ in\, \'ighnaharfl, Vidyft. I n the lotus of eight petals are Sumukhi, Sundar i, S:",rtl, Samarfi Sarasvati, Sarnaya, Sarvaga and Siddha, Drlkini and others are ill the lotus of six petals, Shi\,a. \'uui, Dura-siddha, Tva ivivrahu, :\'" ~da and :\Ianomayi should be worshipped in th~ si~'" petals. Ichchhfi. J n[II1,'1 and




Kriya are to be worshipped in the corners of the triangle. In the middle is to be worshipped the eight (Nityft) who has assumed a supreme form (Parn tanu) for the saving of Her devotees.

Directions are given for the drawing of Yantra (vv. 62-68) ; the Prft1lapratishtha Vidya is givcn (V\" 62-68); as also a Dhyftna of Prallashakti (which may be compared with that set out in the Prapanchas'tra Tantra in the third volume of this series) and her ten Par ivarashaktis are stated. These are the ten vital airs J'rfl1la, Ap'tna, and so forth. I n praise of this Nityft it is __said (I I I. 46) that her Vidyft or Mantra is Samastapatttlri1l1 Apat according to the Manorarnft = A viveka. It destroys this and therefore all evils, makes the Sftdhaka pleasing to all (Vishvaranjani) gives him prosperity (Shrik-tri) and granting all Siddhis leads the Sadhaka to the Shiva-state (Shivatnvaptiknriet).

Chapter X/V. This deals with Tvarit'i or Total-t Devi, the ninth Nityn, so called because (v, 12) She is quick (Tvarita) to grant fruit to the Sftdhaka and whose Dhyana is given as follows (vv. 6-10) :-

She is of auspicious form in the first flush of youth and dark of colour. She has three eyes and four hands and Her beautiful lotus-like face smiles gently. She is clad in new leaves She is adorned with eight fierce and great serpents, of four kinds, and with waist chain and anklets. They are the four castes Vipra, Kshatriya, Vit (Vaishya) and Shudra. (The Manoramfi says that there are two of each castes and the ornaments should be understood as following the origination of each caste) On Her head is a crystal crown with a crest of peacock's feather. Her arms are adorned with bangles made of beautiful peacock's tail feathers. These are also made up into an umbrella and banner. Strings of gunja berries are round and on Her throat and breasts which are smeared with red (sandal). Smiling gently She holds in Her four hands noose and goad and makes the gesture (Mudra) of granting boon ancl dispelling fear,

v v. 13- I 6 give the names of Her attendants who are as follows :-

Her Shaktis are H ungk~ri, Khecharl, Chantii, Chhedini, Kshepalll, Strik:lri, H ungkiLrl, (?), Kshemak'td. These which are like the Lokaprlas and are the Shaktis of the Mantra-letters, should be worshipped in the eight petals. I n front of the Devi

t:\TIWIlUCT[O:\ .


is a black servitor carrying a. mace who should be worshipped for the attainment of the desired fruit. On either side should be worshipped the Shaktis J a),,\ and VijayiL who are like H cr and who carry and swing canes of gold.

The rest of the Chapter gi\'es rules of Plij.\. directions for the drawing of Yantra, lists of Pllj:i articles and the benefits to be gained by these various acts of worship. Ch. I I r. v. 47 says that the Siddha in this Vidyd gains prosperity, beauty, fame. lcarning. wealth, health, long life and what he desires. I I e is affected neither by poverty nor poison.

Chaflo' .Y V. This deals with the tenth 0:itY:l called Kulasundari, whose Sadhaka (I I 1. 52) becomes all-knowing (Sarvajna and \\'hose Dhyfina is gi veri (vv. 3- I I) as follows :-

She is propitious, supremely kind, and blissful with twelve arms and six lotus-like faces which smile sweetly and three eyes in each face. She is red, seated on a red 10tHs and is smeared with blood. Her raiment and ornaments arc red and is surrounded by Shaktis who are also red. Her crown is bright with gems beyond all price and rubies. earrings. neck-chains, armlets, waist chains and anklets highten Hcr own brightness. On Her beautious breasts are clusters of red gems. In Her are all the words of the Vedas. In Her right hands She carries a rosary of coral beads, a lotus, a Kallrikft (Kamaw.ralu) made of gems a drinking cup (Chaslzaka) made of gems, full of wealth, a citron or lemon (l\Irltulungga) and with one hand She makes the gesture of explanation (VY;lkhyanamudnt). In the left hands are a book, red lotus, a golden pen, a garland of gems, a conch shell. She makes the gesture of granting boons (Varamudrft) She is surrounded by Devas, Candharvas, Kinnaras who sing Her praises as also by Yakr/ias, R:'tkshasas and the like. So should She be meditated upon for the attainment of learning wealth and beauty. \Vhen worshipped for the attainment of learning She is thought of as white. and when wealth is sought of Her, She is meditated upon as being of a golden colour.

Her eleven Parivara Shaktis are (vv. 17-20 as follows :-

Bhaslz\ Sarasvati, Vanl, ~Sang-skrit,t Pr;lkrit:l, Parfr, Khadgarllp\ Vittarupr, Ramyft, Anandi, Kautuka who should be worshipped in the Navayonis, In the eight petals of the outer lotus should be worshipped i the eight ~Itttrlk\s) Br:i.hmi and others. In the square the Lokapalas and their Shaktis (or in their Shakti form) should be worshipped.

IN I I{OOl'C1"iOt\.

The four following verses give directions for drawing Her Nityapnja Chakra and as to the scents to be used in the worship of this Devi (17-24).

The Tantra then deals with the three Kn/as or parts of or divisions of the Mantra "Aing, Kl1ng, Hsau!z." The Vidya of Kulasundari is Trayimayi or Vedarnayi and is when its vowels are united with the consonants, the cause of the Prapancha which is both Shabdamaya and Artharnaya (Vachya-Vachakarnpa] Sarnaveda is Akaradi and so is Rigveda. Yajurveda is Ikaradi. By the union of these Aikara is produced (a + i =e and a + e = ai). Aikara or Shu chi is therefore Trayimaya (vv, 33-38). This is the meaning of Aing the first Ku/a, The meaning of the second Ki\!a "Kling" is given in vv. 39 & 40. This Mantra denotes Her as cause of the Vachya-vachakarfipa Prapancha. The consonants between Ka and Ha signify the five Bhutas and as such they are Jneya, just as vowels are jnana (Veda). Hsau/r the last KClta is Jnatrin'tpa Iv. 41~. The first Kllta is Vak-svarupa ; the second is Vahni that is the union of Shiva and Shakti for in it is the fourth vowel (1) and Bindu and Visarjaniya, the origin of all the Matrik{\s. By the last Bija She is Vishvatrnarupa whether united with Hindu (= Kha) or Visarga (= Maya). This is Tripurakanrla which is the unitedstate of Jnatri, j nana, Jneya, Vata, Pitta, Shles srnft, Agni, Suryya, Soma. Therefore She pervades the whole Universe.

Vv. 45-55 speak of the effects of the Mantra according as it is united with other Bljas. V. 68 speaks of the making of Vishllu Ghrita which gives powers of speech.

Chapter X VI. This Chapter speaks of the Eleventh Nitya called Nitya Nitya. All moving bodies are controlled by Her and by Her all jivas dwell in their respective bodies. According to Her Dhyana (vv. 6-10) She is beneficient and pervades all beings (Sarvatrnika) for She is the Chaitanya in all. According to the Manorarna She is the presiding Devata over Dakin! and others who are the Shaktis of the bodily Dhatus. Coloured like the rising sun She bears on Her head a luminous crown. Her face is lit by a soft smile. She is dressed in red raiment and adornod with rubies. She has three eyes and twelve hands. With her right hands She carries the noose. tile white lotus, sugar-cane bow, shield and trident and makes the gesture of granting favours (Varamudra}; and in the left hands She carries the goad, book, flowery arrows, sword, skull and makes the gesture of dispelling fear (Abhayarnudra). Her Shaktis are countless and form a complete circle. Chapter XXV speaks of

1:-> mUlJL'C IIU;\.


them and includes alllong~t t he principal fJ{tkini and others (vv. 11-15). Then the Tautrn describes three different kinds uf Pllja in three different Chakras (vv. 16-21) the Yant ra (vv. Zj-35) six Yantrns shaped like \'ajra (vv. Jj--I.S) the ~lalldapa and Ved i and so forth under and on whir-l: the sa me ;~re kept and the fruit to be gained (vv 46-58); and the six Adharas or Chakras (vv. 59-7 I). It is to be noted that the Shakt is Dakinl and others are not placed in the same order as in the S itatchakraninlpalJa and the Dhvana differs. They are described as bciru; like unto l'\itya ;\,it va. Then follows an account of the external Chakra and 'P(tja -thereof (vv. 72-75), the same subject being continued ill the following verses (vv, j(l-8,) and in verses 88-9+ In Y. 91 it is said that seven youthful women should be placed in the seven Chakras and worshipped with presents of food, clothes, scents and jewels. By worship of the fifty couples who preside over the divisions of Time the desired end is gained vv, 95-100). In praise of this ~itya it is said (I I I. 55) the Sad haka becomes Khechara (i.e. Shiva ) and blissful.By his mere ",ish he can favour or punish.

Chapter .Y FII. This Chapter deals with the t welft h Nitya called .\'ilapataka. After describing the ;\'yasa of Her Mantra (vv, 5-,) Her Dhyana is gi\"en (vv. 8-12) as follows. She is sapphire-blue in colour with fiVe faces and three eyes in each, and ten hands. Her face is sweet and smiling. She is clad in red raiment and lIer hand is adorned with lustrous gems. She is decked mostly with pearls. Clusters of gems are on various parts of Her body. In her left hands She carries a noose, banner, shield, ;t bow made of horn and makes the gesture of granting gifts. In Her right hands She carries the goad, the Shakti weapon, sword, arrows, and makes the gesture of dispelling fear. She is seated on a lotus and surrounded by a number of Shaktis resembling Herself. Vv. 13-1 i describe the ~Ialldala of Her daily worship. In the three corners of the Yantra are worshipped I chchha. J nana, Kriya and round about the triangle the 11\'e .\.\'rittis and ill the six corners of the Sha/koJla, lJakinl and others should be worshipped, and in the corners of the Ashtakolla the Shaktis Brahm! and the rest. The verses which follow up to v. 49 gi\'e details of the ritual and the fruit gained thereby. They speak of V etala, Pishacha, Yakshinl and other similar Sidd his. The YakshiJlls are described as young and beautiful women Spirits ill fine raiment who gi\'e to the Sadhaka all worldly good he lIIay desire. Then follow the names of thirty-six Yakslzillls (vv 50-53) and of sixty-four Che/akas (vv. 60-67) After some verses dealing with Mantras of Che/akas and with Yantras the Tantra speaks

. 34


(vv. 96-100) of the fruit which is gained by one who is Siddha in the worship of the sixteen Nityas. He is ever honoured and worshipped by the Pitris, Devars/zis, Raks/zasasJ Pishachas, Uragas, Siddhas, Kinnaras, Apsaras,' Vayus, Vasus, Seven Rislzis, Yakslzas, Danavas, Eleven Rudras, Sadhyas, nine Grahas, twelve Suns, the Lokapalas, ten Prajapati Devatas, Kings, Women, Men and Wild Animals. He becomes the abode of all desired Siddhis and happiness. He is cheerful of mind, charitable, merciful and pleasing of mien, forgiving and contented, ever happy and free from all anxiety (Nirapekslzaphalanvita) wealthy, enjoying his possessions and averse to injuring others. Such an one is "the abode of Our Love" that is the love of Shiva and Shakti. Ch. II 1. vv. 59, 60, speak of various Siddhis obtained by worship of this Vidya such as Khadga Siddhi, Paduka Siddhi, Anjana Siddhi, Nidhi Siddhi, Bila Siddhi and control over Vetalas, Yakshi1l1s, Chetakas Pishachas and so forth. Similarly in the same Chapter (vv. 62, 63, 7 I, 72) it is said that Siddhi in the Nitya Vijaya Vidya gives victory in battle and success in trade and in the Sarvamangala Nitya makes the Sadhaka Khechara Siddha, in the J valarnalini VidylL gives the Siddhis Vedha, Akarslzana, Santapa, Vashya and Avesha ;;nd by Siddhi in the Chitra Vidya, wealth and selfknowledge (Atmalabha) is attained.

Clzapter XVIII. The last Chapter in this volume deals with the thirteen Nitya called VijaytL Nitya whose Dhyana (vv. 5-10) is given as follows :-Her body is lustrous red like that of the rising sun. She has five smiling faces in each of which are three eyes and She has ten hands Her raiment is yellow. She bears a brilliant crown and on Her forehead a crescent moon She is decked with all kinds of ornaments. In Her left hands She carries conch, noose, shield, bow, and white lily \ Kahlara] and in Her right hands discus (Chakra), goad (Angkusha), arrows (Sayaka) and a citron (Matulunga ) fruit. According to the Prayoga when She is invoked for the purpose of victory in war and the like She is of terrific aspect but in daily worship Her aspect is benignant. In Samaraprayoga She is meditated upon as seated on a lion and surrounded by Shaktis who are mounted on Tigers. In other kinds of Prayoga She is to be meditated upon as seated at her ease (Sukhasana) surrounded by Shaktis similarly seated. Her Shaktis all resemble this Nitya and carry the same weapons. Vv. 11-25 describe the Yantra of Her daily worship and name the Shaktis who are in the different angles of Her Chakra. The self-controlled (Vashi] man who daily worships the Devi in the Chakra in manner enjoined becomes happy in every way. Then are


described (vv. ~6'~7) the rules of Purnshcharnua and the following verses .gi\·e d~tails of the worship.: then in vv. 55-58 is described the ritual with a Mantrn of eighty letters. The fifteen verses which follow describe the drawing of a Yantra of nine chambers and the mode 01 worship therein. Verses i-+ to the end of the Chapter gi\'e an account of Vajra Yantra with Mantra of eight yone letters and of its worship.

The author of the :\Ianoram'\ whilst commenting- on the passage in the Tamrnruja .. Concerning the sixteen 1\ ity:l.s there are nine complete Tantras," counts lhe)'\\"Cl Tantra (published as \' olurne 56 of the Anandnshrama Series, Poona.) the Sundarihriclaya (the name gi\"en by some to the Second Part of the 1\'ity:l.shodashikflrna\'a) and \':"tmakesh\'ara Tantras, separately. Bhaskararftya contests this view citing a passage from the Yoginihridaya itself t. In this VfLmakeshvara Taritra are many matters the meaning of which is unknown" (\' amakesh\'aratantr(;'sminnajnfltflrthflst\'anekashah) and the Rlju.villlarshini which says .. The Shastra named Shri Vftrnakesh vara Tantra is revealed. In it is the X ity.lshodashi va and in this latter are two parts of 400 verses each."

He also discusses the question whether the Vfuuakcsbvara Tantra with its parts or the Tantrarfija is the 65th independent (Svatantra) Tantra referred to in the 3 J st verse of the Anandalahari (See ,. Wave of Bliss" by Arthur Avalon). .. Pashupati \\'ho knows all things in the universe. promulgated by means of the 6-+ Tantras the special Siddhis mentioned therein. Thereafter at Thy entreaty He brought clown to this world Thy Svatantra (Tantra indedendent of others) which contains the means of accomplishment of all the Purusharthas." Those, who support the claim of the Tantraraja to be the Svatantra here referred to, say that it docs show in fact independence. They cite the passage (I. 3) in the Tantraraja :-" the interdependence (Anyonyasnpekxeya) of the Tantras produces confusion. Therefore Oh Lore! speak to me that Tantra relating to the sixteen i\ityas which is independent (1\' irapeksha = Svarantra) of all other Tantras. According to the Commentator Gaurlka.nta, by Svatantra in the verse cited is meant the ]n,'tnflrJlaVa Tantra (Vol. 69 Anandashrama series). Bhuskararaya supports the claim of the Vhmakeshvara Tantra. He says that the Sundar! Tantras such as Kularrzava, ] n.'tntLr1l'Wa Svachchhanda, I'arananda, Bhairav i, Dakshill{lm(lrti and other Tantras are full of rites and contain but litte of }\I1tarytlga, whilst the reverse is the case as regards the Varnakcsh vara. I J e c1ai rns that it is the most excellent of Tantras since its characteristic is inner


worship (Antaropasti). I t is he says U pftsakamurdhni. The Devi in the N"ityftshodashiktLrua\'a (I. 13-22) enumerates 64 Tantras by name, and therefore. he says, it must be the 65th. I t is true he says that the Tantraraja takes no notice of other Tantras as regards external rites (13ahiry:lga) for the attainment of ~Ioksha yet he says that it is the Kitytl.l'hodashildruava (part of Vamakeslwara) which has independence as regards Antaryaga

Bhaskararftya also relies on the statement in the Tantraraja that Nitynhvzdaya is another name for Yoginihridaya and this latter is the second part of the i\ityas!zodashiktlrlla\'a which is a portion of the Vamakeshvara Tantra. As regards this contention however it is to be noted that when the Tantraraja says that N i tyh hr/daya is another name for Y oginihridaya, it is not referring to any Tantra at all but gi\'ing an equivalent name for Yoginihridaya. Bhaskararaya admits that there is not much said as to Btthyayaga in the Nity:1slzodashikttrlta\'a. He meets this however by quoting the precept" He has done all things who has done according to the true intention of the Shastra that which he is enjoined to do by his own Grihya, be it much or little." As a matter of fact the Tantraraja contains both Bahyayftga and Antaryftga rites whereas the t\ityflslzodashikfmla\'a is for the most part a selection of Antaryaga ritual. Moreover it is to be noted that Bhaskararava himself, when commenting on the Bhftvanopanicziad of th~ Kadirnata. cites more largely from the Tantrarftja and he commences the commentary by saying that the Bhavanopaniread deals with Antaryaga. To the statement of the Tantrarilja . that all other Tantras are interdependent' he replies that the texts which speaks of interdependence (SfIpekslzyavacbana) merely say thc t those who are initiated according to some other Tantra will, by doing to the best of their ability the rites prescribed in such Tantras, attain great fruit, whereas those who are initiated according to the Dikslz~t prescribed in Tantranija will by such Dikshft alone, that is without reference to rites prescribed in other Tantras, gain abundant fruit. Xl oreover if indispensable rites are lacking in this or any other Tantra they ought to be sought in Kalpaslrtras-it being a settled fact that the Kalpasutras were composed with the sole object of supplying what was wanting in any particular case, (Tattachchhi\kMpekshithrtha sarnarpan'trthatvcna}: Therefore he says the objection against the independence (S\'fttantrya) of these two parts constituting the T'-:ityi1.shodashika 011 the ground that there is nothing said therein about Dikslz:\ Purashcharava, and the like is not maintainahle. His argument however touching the Kalpasutra


would, if sound, be applicnhlo to estahli~h the' independence of any Tantra. Ill' procl:eds to say that as ;1 f;tct l)lksl!t\ and the like arc alluded to ill the :\it\:ts!lodashik:l. l l owevcr this question of pre-eminence may be Zlccitkcl, there is no doubt as til the authority and importance (If the Tantrar:"ja lu-re published. This is show 11 intrinsicnll , In' its contents as ai-.() Il\' the claim made Oil its behalf that it'is the (l:;lh Tumrn :Ind Bh;\skarar:'l\,a's

arg'JmelllS on such con tent ion. ' ,

I t is hoped to publish the second anrl last volume of the Tantrnruja text, no\\' in preparation. dllrin~ the course of the vears 1919, 19:!o.

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