# Shear and Moment in Beams

Definition of a Beam
A beam is a bar subject to forces or couples that lie in a plane containing the longitudinal section of the bar. According to determinacy, a beam may be determinate or indeterminate.

Statically Determinate Beams
Statically determinate beams are those beams in which the reactions of the supports may be determined by the use of the equations of static equilibrium. The beams shown below are examples of statically determinate beams.

Loads applied to the beam may consist of a concentrated load (load applied at a point), uniform load, uniformly varying load, or an applied couple or moment. These loads are shown in the following figures.

Statically Indeterminate Beams
If the number of reactions exerted upon a beam exceeds the number of equations in static equilibrium, the beam is said to be statically indeterminate. In order to solve the reactions of the beam, the static equations must be supplemented by equations based upon the elastic deformations of the beam.

The degree of indeterminacy is taken as the difference between the umber of reactions to the number of equations in static equilibrium that can be applied. In the case of the propped beam shown, there are three reactions R1, R2, and M and only two equations (ΣM = 0 and ΣFv = 0) can be applied, thus the beam is indeterminate to the first degree (3 – 2 = 1).

Problem 403
Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-403. See the instruction.

To draw the Moment Diagram:
1. 2. The equation MAB = –30x is linear, at x = 0, MAB = 0 and at x = 1 m, MAB = –30 kN·m. MBC = 26x – 56 is also linear. At x = 1 m, MBC = –30 kN·m; at x = 4 m, MBC = 48 kN·m. When MBC = 0, x = 2.154 m, thus the moment is zero at 1.154 m from B. MCD = –24x + 144 is again linear. At x = 4 m, MCD = 48 kN·m; at x = 6 m, MCD = 0.

3.

Problem 404
Beam loaded as shown in Fig. P-404. See the instruction.

Problem 410
Cantilever beam carrying the uniformly varying load shown in Fig. P-410. See the instruction.

To draw the Shear Diagram:
1. 2. At segment AB, the shear is uniformly distributed at 1900 lb. A shear of –100 lb is uniformly distributed over segments BC and CD.

To draw the Moment Diagram:
1. 2. 3. MAB = 1900x is linear; at x = 0, MAB = 0; at x = 3 ft, MAB = 5700 lb·ft. For segment BC, MBC = –100x + 6000 is linear; at x = 3 ft, MBC = 5700 lb·ft; at x = 9 ft, MBC = 5100 lb·ft. MCD = –100x + 1200 is again linear; at x = 9 ft, MCD = 300 lb·ft; at x = 12 ft, MCD = 0.

Problem 411 Cantilever beam carrying a distributed load with intensity varying from wo at the free end to zero at the wall. as shown in Fig. See the instruction. See the instruction. P-414. P-411. . Problem 413 Beam loaded as shown in Fig. See the instruction. Problem 414 Cantilever beam carrying the load shown in Fig. P-413.

For θ that is less than 90° Problem 422 Write the shear and moment equations for the semicircular arch as shown in Fig. P-422 if (a) the load P is vertical as shown.Problem 418 Cantilever beam loaded as shown in Fig. See the instruction. and (b) the load is applied horizontally to the left at the top of the arch. . P-418.

Problem 441 A beam ABCD is supported by a roller at A and a hinge at D. (Draw shear and moment diagrams for each of the three parts of the frame. It is subjected to the loads shown in Fig.) See theinstruction. P-441. with rigid corners at B and C.Problem 440 A frame ABCD. which act at the ends of the vertical members BE and CF. P-440. supports the concentrated load as shown in Fig. These vertical members are rigidly attached to the beam at B and C. (Draw shear and moment diagrams for the beam ABCD only.) See the instruction. .

. Shear in segments AB and BC is zero. Moment in segment AB is zero MB = –28 kN·m MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = –28 + 0 = –28 kN·m MC2 = MC + 12 = –28 + 12 MC2 = –16 kN·m MD = MC2 + Area in shear diagram MD = –16 + 8(2) MD = 0 4. VC = 8 VD = VC + Area in load diagram VD = 8 + 0 = 8 kN VD2 = VD – RDV VD2 = 8 – 8 = 0 To draw the Moment Diagram 1.To draw the Shear Diagram 1. 3. 2. 3. 2.

MA = 0.077. No load in segment CD.000 lb·ft 12.077.300 + 3700(3) = –1200 lb·ft 12.33 lb·ft MF = MH + Area in shear diagram MF = 8.000 – ½ (80/77)(4000) MG = –14.077. Another point force acting downward with 3700 – 1700 = 1200 lb at D and no load in segment DE. Solution 449 To draw the Load Diagram 1.92 + ½ (74/77)(3700) 14. 3. 5. The locations of zero shear (points G and H) can be ar easily determined by ratio and proportion of triangle.008.To draw the Moment Diagram 1. See the instruction instruction. thus a uniform upward force is acting at a magnitude of (3700 + 4000)/2 = 3850 lb/ft. Upward force of 3100 lb is concentrated at end of span F. The shear in EF is uniformly decreasing. P-449. 6. The shear in BC is uniformly increasing. MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 – 4000(3) = –12. 3.300 ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = –1200 + 1700(4) = 5600 lb·ft 1200 MH = ME + Area in shear diagram MH = 5600 + ½ (17/6)(1700) )(1700) MH = 8. 2. 4.000 MG = MB + Area in shear diagram MG = –12. . 8.008. Downward 4000 lb force is concentrated at A and no load in segment AB. 5.300 lb·ft MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = –12. 7. thus a uniform downward force is acting with magnitude of (1700 + 3100)/8 = 600 lb/ft.92 lb·ft MC = MG + Area in shear diagram MC = –14.92 MC = –12. Problem 449 Shear diagram as shown in Fig. 2.33 – ½ (31/6)(3100) = 0 4.

No load in segment CD. Solution 450 To draw the Load Diagram 1. 2. No load in segment BC. it is zero at A to 2(10 + 2)/3 = 8 kN at B. 7. 4. 480/4 = 120 lb/ft is distributed uniformly over the span EF. 4. MA = 0 MB = MA + Area in shear diagram MB = 0 + ½ (4)(900) = 1800 lb·ft MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 1800 + 900(2) = 3600 lb·ft MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 3600 + 0 = 3600 lb·ft ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 3600 – ½ (900 + 1380)(4) ME = –960 lb·ft MF = ME + Area in shear diagram MF = –960 + ½ (480)(4) = 0 The shape of moment diagram in AB is upward parabola with vertex at A. Upward concentrated load at A is 10 kN. 3. thus the ard. The moment diagram in EF is a downward parabola with vertex at F. 5. G is the point where the extended shear in DE intersects the line of zero shear. 6. 2. the diagram is downward par parabola with vertex at G. Problem 451 Shear diagram as shown in Fig. thus the load in degree AB is uniformly varying. To draw the Moment Diagram 1. 2. A downward point force acts at point C with magnitude of 900 lb. 6. See the instruction instruction. For segment DE. while linear in BC and horizontal in CD. P-451 See the instruction. An upward load is concentrated at E with magnitude of 480 + 1380 = 1860 lb. The shear in AB is a 2nd-degree curve. 3. 5. 451. In this case. 3. To draw the Load Diagram 1.Problem 450 Shear diagram as shown in Fig. P-450. 8. load is uniformly distributed upward at a magnitude of 900/4 = 225 lb/ft. A downward point force is acting at C in a magnitude of 8 – 2 = 6 kN. . Another concentrated force is acting downward at D with a magnitude of 900 lb. No load in segment BC. The shear diagram in AB is uniformly upward. The load in DE is uniformly distributed downward at a magnitude of (1380 – 900)/4 = 120 lb/ft.

7. 2.4.74)(10) = 18. 150 carries a load that varies uniformly from zero at the free end to 1000 N/m at the wall. To find the location of zero shear. 8. 50 mm wide by 1 mm high and 6 m long. 4. This load is spread over DE at a magnitude of 8/2 = 4 kN/m. (a) Compute the magnitude and location of the maximum flexural stress. I is the centroidal moment of inertia in mm4 (in4). thus the load in DE is uniformly distributed and upward.74)(10) – 10(3 – 2. the moment diagram is parabola open upward with vertex at E. The beam curvature is: where is the radius of curvature of the beam in mm (in). . Problem 503 A cantilever beam.26 kN·m MB = MF + Area in shear diagram MB = 18. fb is the flexural stress in MPa (psi).74)] MB = 18 kN·m MC = MB + Area in shear diagram MC = 18 – 2(1) = 16 kN·m MD = MC + Area in shear diagram MD = 16 – 8(1) = 8 kN·m ME = MD + Area in shear diagram ME = 8 – ½ (2)(8) = 0 The moment diagram in AB is a second degree curve. For segment DE. The shear in DE is uniformly increasing. 3. M is the bending moment in N·mm (lb·in). 6. F: x2/10 = 32/(10 + 2) x = 2. at BC and CD are linear and downward. (b) Determine the type and magnitude of the stress in a fiber 20 mm from the top of the beam at a section 2 m from the free end. Flexure Formula To draw the Moment Diagram 1. The bending stress due to beams curvature is 5.74 m MA = 0 MF = MA + Area in shear diagram MF = 0 + 2/3 (2.26 – [1/3 (10 + 2)(3) – 1/3 (2. and c is the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost fiber in mm (in).

(b) At a section 2 m from the free end or at x = 2 m at fiber 20 mm from the top of the beam: Problem 504 A simply supported beam. Determine the maximum fiber stress and the stress in a fiber located 0.(a) The maximum moment occurs at the support (the wall) or at x = 6 m. . 2 in wide by 4 in high and 12 ft long is subjected to a concentrated load of 2000 lb at a point 3 ft from one of the supports.5 in from the top of the beam at midspan.

P508 if the flexural stress is not to exceed 20 MPa. . Problem 505 A high strength steel band saw.0 inch. 1 inch wide by ¼ inch thick and 40 inches long. What maximum flexural stress is developed? What minimum diameter pulleys can be used without exceeding a flexural stress of 400 MPa? Assume E = 200 GPa. runs over pulleys 600 mm in diameter. 20 mm wide by 0. Problem 508 Determine the minimum height h of the beam shown in Fig.5 in from the top of the beam at midspan: Problem 506 A flat steel bar. Use E = 29 × 106 psi. Compute the stress in the bar and the magnitude of the couples.80 mm thick.Stress in a fiber located 0. is bent by couples applied at the ends so that the midpoint deflection is 1.

2 in wide by 4 in deep. Determine the largest uniformly distributed load that can be applied over the right two-thirds of the beam if the flexural stress is limited to 50 MPa. What is the maximum length of the beam if the flexural stress is limited to 3000 psi? . carries a uniformly distributed load of 80 lb/ft over its entire length.Problem 510 A 50-mm diameter bar is used as a simply supported beam 3 m long. Problem 511 A simply supported rectangular beam.

. Determine the magnitude and the location of . compute the maximum flexural stress developed in section a a-a.Solution 512 MB=0 4RA=2(400sin60 )+2(200sin30 ) 30 RA=223 2lb Problem 513 A rectangular steel beam. is loaded as shown in Fig. 2 in wide by 3 in deep. If P = 400 lb and F = 200 lb. the maximum flexural stress. P-513. Neglect the deformation of the bar. Problem 512 The circular bar 1 inch in diameter shown in Fig. P-512 is bent into 512 a semicircle with a mean radius of 2 ft.

Repeat Prob.Solution 514 By symmetry RA=500N RB=500N Problem 515 Problem 514 The right-angled frame shown in Fig. P-514 carries a uniformly distributed loading equivalent to 200 N for each horizontal projected meter of the frame. the total load is 1000 N. 524 to find the maximum flexural stress at section bb. that is. Compute the maximum flexural stress at section a-a if the crosssection is 50 mm square. Solution 515 .

P-516. The beam carries a load. If the density of steel is 7850 kg/m3. is supported by a guy wire AC in the position shown in Fig. At midspan: . of 500 lb for each foot of its length.Problem 516 A timber beam AB. including its own weight. Problem 517 A rectangular steel bar. determine the maximum bending stress caused by the weight of the bar. 6 in wide by 10 in deep and 10 ft long. the maximum moment will occur at the midspan. Compute the maximum flexural stress at the middle of the beam. 15 mm wide by 30 mm high and 6 m long. For simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load. is simply supported at its ends.

Table B-4 Properties of Channel Sections: SI Units.Problem 518 A cantilever beam 4 m long is composed of two C200 × 28 channels riveted back to back. Find the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be applied over the entire length of the beam. if the flexural stress is not to exceed 120 MPa. What uniformly distributed load can be carried. Solution 520 Relevant data from Appendix B. Table B-4 Properties of I-Beam Sections (S-Shapes): SI Units. Solution 518 Relevant data from Appendix B. . of text book. without exceeding a flexural stress of 120 MPa if (a) the webs are vertical and (b) the webs are horizontal? Refer to Appendix B of text bookfor channel properties. in addition to the weight of the beam. Problem 520 A beam with an S310 × 74 section (see Appendix B of textbook) is used as a simply supported beam 6 m long. in addition to the weight of the beam. of text book.

Compute the maximum length of the beam if the flexural stress is not to exceed 20 ksi. If wo = 300 lb/ft. Solution 521 Relevant data from Appendix B.3 in4. The beam supports a central concentrated load of 12 kips and a uniformly distributed load of 1200 lb/ft. .Problem 522 A box beam is composed of four planks. Table B-9 Properties of Channel Sections: US Customary Units. find P to cause a maximum flexural stress of 1400 psi. of text book. Problem 521 A beam made by bolting two C10 × 30 channels back to back. including the weight of the beam. Show that INA = 981. is simply supported at its ends. P-522. each 2 inches by 8 inches. securely spiked together to form the section shown in Fig.

Problem 526 A wood beam 6 in wide by 12 in deep is loaded as shown in Fig. P-526. find the maximum values of wo and P which can be applied simultaneously? . If the maximum flexural stress is 1200 psi. P-525. Determine the size of the section if the maximum stress is limited to 8 MPa.Problem 525 A square timber beam used as a railroad tie is supported by a uniformly distributed loads and carries two uniformly distributed loads each totaling 48 kN as shown in Fig.

870 × 103 mm3. 529 if the distributed load is 12 kN/m and the length of the beam is 8 m. Problem 530 Repeat Prob. the chosen section is sufficient to resist the combined dead-load and live-load. of text book: Use the lightest section W460 × 60 answer .46 × 103 mm3. From Appendix B.The resisting S of W610 × 82 is 1. the S due to live-load and dead-load is only 1. Table B-2 Properties of Wide-Flange Sections (W Shapes): SI Units. therefore.750.

Select the lightest S section that can be used if the allowable stress is 20 ksi.Problem 532 A beam simply supported at the ends of a 25-ft span carries a uniformly distributed load of 1000 lb/ft over its entire length. Using an allowable stress of 20 ksi. What is the actual maximum stress in the selected beam? . What is the actual maximum stress in the beam selected? Problem 533 A beam simply supported on a 36-ft span carries a uniformly distributed load of 2000 lb/ft over the middle 18 ft. determine the lightest suitable W shape beam.

1 kg/m while W690 × 125 has a theoretical mass of 125. test From Appendix B. Thus.6 kg/m. Answer Checking: Sresisting Slive−load+Sdead−load . If the allowable stress is 120 MPa. of text book: W610 × 125 has a theoretical mass of 125. use W610 × 125 with S = 3 220 × 103 mm3. Table B-7 Properties of Wide-Flange Sections Flange (W Shapes): US Customary Units.Problem 536 A simply supported beam 10 m long carries a uniformly distributed load of 20 kN/m over its entire length and a concentrated load of 40 kN at midspan. determine the lightest W shape beam that can be used.

so compression governs in selecting the maximum moment. The beam carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity wo over its entire length. P-551. Determine wo if fbt ≤ 40 MPa and fbc ≤ 80 MPa. P-548. . UNSYMMETRYCAL BEAMS Problem 548 The inverted T section of a 4-m simply supported beam has the properties shown in Fig. Problem 551 Find the maximum tensile and compressive flexure stresses for the cantilever beam shown in Fig.The section is stronger in tension and weaker in compression.

P552.Problem 552 A cantilever beam carries the force and couple shown in Fig. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses developed in the beam. .

Problem 555 A beam carries a concentrated load W and a total uniformly distributed load of 4W as shown in Fig. What safe value of W can be applied if fbc ≤ 100 MPa and fbt ≤ 60 MPa? Can a greater load be applied if the section is inverted? Explain. . P-553.Problem 553 Determine the maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses developed in the beam as shown inFig. P-555.

P557 carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity wo (including its own weight).5wo x2 + 0. This is the same even if the section is inverted.5wo(5 − x)2 N·m when x = 1 m .5wo N·m . Determine the maximum safe value of wo if x = 1. Therefore.0 m. no load can be applied greater than W = 9600 N. The allowable stresses are fbt ≤ 20 MPa and fbc ≤ 80 MPa. use W = 9600 N answer Discussion: At W = 9600 N. M = 7.For safe load W. Problem 557 A cast-iron beam 10 m long and supported as shown in Fig. the allowable fb in tension and compression are reached simultaneously when M = −2W. At M = −0.

Neglect the weakening effect of the bolt holes. (b) What would be the ratio if the built-up beam consisted of a 12 planks each 100 mm wide by 10 mm thick? Problem 560 The wide-flange beam shown in Fig. piled loosely on each other to an overall dimension of 100 mm wide by 120 mm high. If the maximum flexure stress is 140 MPa. P-560 is strengthened by bolting two cover plates 160 mm by 20 mm to the top and bottom flanges. (a) Compare the strength of such a beam with that of a solid beam of equal overall dimensions. compute the total force (a) in each cover plate and (b) in each flange. each 100 mm wide and 20 mm thick. M / EI = constant Problem 559 A beam is composed of 6 planks.Superimposed or Built-up Beams Neglecting friction between any two adjacent layers. the following relationships may be used: M=M1+M2+M3 I=I1+I2+I3 Curvature. .

Hint: Use the results of Prob. pieces screwed together as shown in Fig.Solution 560. compute the force acting on the shaded portion and the moment of this force about the NA. P-563. we obtain a quantity q. 562. by 6-in. known as the shear flow. If the maximum flexure stress is 1200 psi. Superimposed or Built-up Beams Unsymmetrical Beams Problem 563 A box beam is made from 2-in. . which represents the longitudinal force per unit length transmitted across a section at a level y1 from the neutral axis. Horizontal Shearing Stress Shear Flow If the shearing stress fv is multiplied by the width b.

Determine the shearing stress developed at layers 20 mm apart from the top to bottom of the section.Application of Flexural and Shearing Stresses to Rectangular Section Problem 567 A timber beam 80 mm wide by 160 mm high is subjected to a vertical shear V = 40 kN. Problem 568 Show that the shearing stress developed at the neutral axis of a beam with circular cross section is τ = (4/3)(V / π r2). Assume that the shearing stress is uniformly distributed across the neutral axis. .

Problem 571 For a beam with the same cross section as that in Prob. compute the percentage of vertical shear carried only by the web of the beam. . Also. Problem 575 Determine the maximum and minimum shearing stress in the web of the wide flange section in Fig. 570. plot the shearing stress distribution across the section at a section where the shearing force is V = 1800 lb. The plot of the shear stress distribution is as shown in the above figure. P-575if V = 100 kN.

Determine the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be carried by the beam on a 6-ft simple span. glued together to form a section 6 in. high. and the allowable flexural stress in the wood is 1200 psi. while flexure is usually the governing stress for long beams. by 2 in. Recall that the average height of parabolic segment is 2/3 of its altitude measured from its base. Thus. . The allowable shear stress in the glue is 90 psi. the allowable shear stress in the wood is 120 psi. In material comparison. wide by 10 in.Design for Flexure and Shear To determine the load capacity or the size of beam section. Shearing stress usually governs in the design of short beams that are heavily loaded. For any cross-sectional shape.. Where fb = flexure stress fv = bending stress M = maximum moment applied to the beam V = maximum shear applied to the beam I = moment of inertia about the neutral axis Q = moment of area b = breadth d = depth Problem 581 A laminated beam is composed of five planks. it must satisfy the allowable stresses in both flexure (bending) and shear. flexure and shear are given in the following formulas: Flexure Formula Horizontal Shear Stress For rectangular beam. each 6 in. the following defines for flexure and shear: Flexure formula for rectangular beam Horizontal shear stress for rectangular beam The horizontal shearing stresses vary parabolically from the top to the bottom of the web. timber is low in shear strength than that of steel.

Answer Problem 582 Find the cross-sectional dimensions of the smallest square beam that can be loaded as shown in Fig. P-582 if fv ≤ 1.0 MPa and fb ≤ 8 MPa. Use 145 mm × 145 mm square beam answer .Use wo = 1250 lb/ft for safe value of uniformly distributed load.

. Determine the safe value of P if fb ≤ 1200 psi and fv≤ 200 psi.Problem 585 A simply supported beam of length L carries a uniformly distributed load of 6000 N/m and has the cross section shown in Fig. P-585. The beam section is the same as that in Fig. P-577 on this page. Find L to cause a maximum flexural stress of 16 MPa. P-587. What maximum shearing stress is then developed? Problem 587 A beam carries two concentrated loads P and triangular load of 3P as shown in Fig.

or in shear of 8.000 psi. Verify that the NA is 2. above the bottom and that INA = 62 in4. in compression of 10.Problem 589 A channel section carries a concentrated loads W and a total distributed load of 4W as shown in Fig.000 psi. Use these values to determine the maximum value of W that will not exceed allowable stresses in tension of 6.17 in. .000 psi. P-589.

arranged as shown in Fig. .4 MPa. If each bolt can withstand a shearing force of 8 kN. each 80 mm by 200 mm.Spacing of Rivets or Bolts in Built-Up Beams Problem 592 A wide flange section is formed by bolting together three planks. determine the pitch if the beam is loaded so as to cause a maximum shearing stress of 1. P-592.

built up as shown in Fig. is secured by screws spaced 5 in. apart. What is the maximum flexural stress in the beam? . The beam supports a concentrated load P at the third point of a simply supported span 12 ft long. P-593. Determine the maximum value of P that will not exceed fv = 120 psi in the beam or a shearing force of 300 lb in the screws.Problem 593 A box beam.

and the screws have a shear strength of 200 lb and a pitch of 2 in. fv ≤ 120 psi. The beam section is that in Prob. but used here so that the 8-in dimension is vertical.Problem 594 A distributed load of wo lb/ft is applied over a middle 6 ft of a simply supported span 12 ft long. . 593. Determine the maximum value of wo if fb ≤ 1200 psi.

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