lj;o-;"rL

clewƙdfltsĕkflń
1= wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ

ltsdfltsĕ
b'sdfltsĕ

x]t'±uëfŞs+þ
r"ńƃ/b's+þ
cf;j±uëfŞs+þ
;ţáhg±uëfŞs+þ
uƅ±uëfŞs+þ
cá#±uëfŞs+þ
oáu±uëfŞs+þ
gLj/)±uëfŞs+þ
k/fdf;±uëfŞs+þ
dxƃ/b's+þ
pkfbfg±uëfŞs+þ
lsn];±uëfŞs+þ
lklŪb's+þ
;'ųlƃsb'sdfltsĕ

2= ljeśdfltsĕ

vƈljeśá
cfotgljeśá
wft'ljeśá
;ŝljeśá
OlƇoljeśá
klŝ;d'ƍfbljeśá
;ltkŪfgljeśá
;ƙƍwfgljeśá
Olźkfbljeśá
aáŢśljeśá
dƮśljeśá
´fgljeśá
cƍdţfljeśá
l;ŋĕkbljeśá
kl;lƘbfljeśá
`f)ljeśá
v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśá
Pss+þ
b's+þ
lts+þ
rt'Ŋ+þ
kťs+þ
%Ŋ+þ
;ųs+þ
cŪs+þ
gjs+þ
b;s+þ
wƙxboljeśá

3= wft'syfdfltsĕ
godfltsĕ
cưƃ/dfltsĕ
god'vdfltsĕ
nŋ)dfltsĕ
aflx/dfltsĕ

4= k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ
5= syfjŴ'dfltsĕ

4

k'Ʈnsyf

4
4

;'ź;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
;'ź;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+
cásĕ;;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
sĕn;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
cjoj;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
cásĕ;;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+
sĕn;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+
cjoj;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+

4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6

6= odsdfltsĕ

d"nods+þ

s';nkbgort'Ŋ+þ
cs';nkbgort'Ŋ+þ
cƓfstkbgort'Ŋ+þ
gfdkbgort'Ŋ+þ

vƈods+þ
kŰlųjf/á

6

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źvƈjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źvƈd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13

cfotgods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źfotgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źfotgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

wft'ods+þ
kŰlųjf/á

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źwft'jf/á

13
13
13
13
13
14

1

14
14
14

14
15
16
16
17
17
17
17

18
18

18
18
19
19

20
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
22
22

23
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25
25

25
25

25
25
26
26
26
26
26

cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źwft'd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

;ŝods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'ź;ŝjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'ź;ŝd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

;řf/ods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'ź;řf/jf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

cg';oods+þ
lrųods+þ
;'źlrų;fdţ+

k'Ʈnjf/á

1= pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á
2= pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á
3= lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
4= pƍfbjf/á
5= lg/áwjf/á
6= pƍfblg/áwjf/á
7= pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á
8= pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á
9= lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á
10= pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á
11= ctLtfgfutjf/á
12= pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á
13= lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á
14= cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á
;'źlrų;fdţ+

wƙjf/á

1= pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á
2= pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á
3= lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
4= pƍfbjf/á
5= lg/áwjf/á
6= pƍfblg/áwjf/á
7= pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á
8= pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á
9= lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á

26
26
26
26
27

10= pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á
11= ctLtfgfutjf/á
12= pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á
13= lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á
14= cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á
;'źlrų;fdţ+

27
27

k'Ʈnwƙjf/á

34

wƙods+þ
kŰlųjf/á

37
37

1= pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á
2= pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á
3= lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
4= pƍfbjf/á
5= lg/áwjf/á
6= pƍfblg/áwjf/á
7= pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á
8= pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á
9= lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á
10= pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á
11= ctLtfgfutjf/á
12= pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á
13= lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á
14= cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á
;'ųƃlrųldƧslj;];á
clewƙlrųldƧslj;];á

27
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
28
29

29
29
29
29
29
29
29
30
30
30
30

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źwƙjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'źwƙd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

30
30
30

30

30
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

OlƇoods+þ
kŰlųjf/á

32
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33

7= kŪfgdfltsĕ

2

38
39
39
39
40
41
42
42
42
43
43
44
45

dáxljŞ]bgL

1= wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ

ltskbŴjŰgf
s';nlųsjŰgf

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
38

44

lgudg+

uƅf/Ƙsyf

34
34
35
35
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36

38
38

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'lźlƇojf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ
;'lźlƇod"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
kŝgLs+þ

32

34
34
34
34
34
34

45

46
46
47

s';nkbŴá
cs';nkbŴá
náed"njŰgf
bá;d"njŰgf
dáxd"njŰgf
cƓfstkbŴá
cx]t'ss';nljkfsjŰgf
;x]t'ss';nljkfsjŰgf
¿kfjr/ljkfsjŰgf
c¿kfjr/ljkfsjŰgf
nás'ų/ljkfsjŰgf
cx]t'slsl/ofjŰgf
;x]t'ssĕdfjr/lsl/ofjŰgf
¿kfjr/lsl/ofjŰgf
c¿kfjr/lsl/ofjŰgf
klsŰssyfjŰgf
lgƑfgfƓfstjŰgf

48
58
58
59
60
60
60
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
71

j]bgflųsĕlbjŰgf
clewƙb'sdfltsŴjŰgf
;'ųlƃsb'sdfltsŴjŰgf

71
77
83

2= ljeśdfltsĕ

86

vƈljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
cfotgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
wft'ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
;ŝljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
OlƇoljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
kŝofsĕ/ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
;ltkŪfgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
;ƙƍwfgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
OlźkfbljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
aáŢśljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
dƮśljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
´fgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
cƍdţfljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
l;ŋĕkbljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
kl;lƘbfljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
`f)ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf

wƙxboljeśdfltsŴjŰgf

126

4= k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ

131

5= syfjŴ'dfltsĕ

135

6= odsdfltsĕ

141

7= kŪfgdfltsŴjŰgf

155

lgudgsyf

166

;śxf;śxkbŴjŰgf
;ślxt]gc;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
c;ślxt]g;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
;ślxt]g;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
c;ślxt]gc;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
;ƕoáuljƍoáukbŴjŰgf
;ƕo'ų]gljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
ljƍo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkbŴjŰgf
;ƕo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkbŴjŰgf
ljƍo'ų]gljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
;ƕo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
c;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
ljƍo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
PssdfltsŴjŰgf
b'sĕlbdfltsŴjŰgf

k'ƮnsyfjŰgf
kl/xflgsyflbjŰgf

86
89
90
91
94
95
99
100
101
102
103
104
108
109
110
110
118

d"nodsdfltsŴjŰgf
vƈodsdfltsŴjŰgf
cfotgodsdfltsŴjŰgf
wft'odsdfltsŴjŰgf
;ŝodsdfltsŴjŰgf
;řf/odsdfltsŴjŰgf
cg';oodsdfltsŴjŰgf
lrųodsdfltsŴjŰgf
wƙodsdfltsŴjŰgf
OlƇoodsdfltsŴjŰgf
klsŰsljlgŞoá

3

123

3= wft'syfdfltsĕ

126
127
128
128
128
129
129
129
129
130
130
130
130
131
131
133

135
139

141
143
146
146
146
147
148
152
154
155
158

25 dáxljŞ]bgL ‘clewƙdfltsĕkflń’M
136
Ķ gdá tƧ eujtá c/xtá ;ƙf;Ɨ'źƧĶ

clewƙdfltsĕkflń
Ps+þ ;do+ eujf b]j];' ljx/lt tfjƸt;ejg] kfl/Şųsd"n] ků'sƗnl;nfo+. tŶ ±vëf eujf b]jfg+ tfjƸt;fg+
clewƙsy+ s±yël;.

1= wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ
ltsdfltsĕ
s';nf wƙf ‘w0;0ltsdfltsĕ 1-22’, cs';nf wƙf, cƓfstf wƙf. ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf wƙf, b'ŋĕo
j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf wƙf, cb'ŋd;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf wƙf. ljkfsĕ wƙf, ljkfswƙwƙf, g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf.
pkflbŰ'kfbflgof wƙf, cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof wƙf, cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof
wƙf. ;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ wƙf,
c;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ wƙf, c;+lslnŪc;+lsn]l;sĕ wƙf. ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f wƙf, cljtŊþljrf/dųf wƙf, cljtŊþcljrf/f
wƙf. kLlt;xutf wƙf, ;'v;xutf wƙf, pk]ŋĕ;xutf wƙf. bƧg]g kxftƑf wƙf, efjgfo kxftƑf wƙf, g]j
bƧg]g g efjgfo kxftƑf wƙf. bƧg]g kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf, efjgfo kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf, g]j bƧg]g g efjgfo
kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf cfroufldgá wƙf, ckroufldgá wƙf, g]jfroufldgfkroufldgá wƙf. ;]ŋĕ wƙf, c;]ŋĕ wƙf,
g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ wƙf. kl/ųf wƙf, dxƮtf wƙf, cƍdf)f wƙf. kl/ųf/ƙ)f wƙf, dxƮtf/ƙ)f wƙf, cƍdf)f/ƙ)f
wƙf. xLgf wƙf, dlŢdf wƙf, k)Ltf wƙf. ldŞųlgotf wƙf, ;ƙųlgotf wƙf, clgotf wƙf. dƮf/ƙ)f wƙf,
dƮx]t'sĕ wƙf, dƮflwkltgá wƙf. pƍƉf wƙf, cg'ƍƉf wƙf, pƍflbgá wƙf. ctLtf wƙf, cgfutf wƙf, kŝ'ƍƉf
wƙf. ctLtf/ƙ)f wƙf, cgfutf/ƙ)f wƙf, kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)f wƙf. cŢųf wƙf, alxźf wƙf, cŢųalxźf wƙf.
cŢųf/ƙ)f wƙf, alxźf/ƙ)f wƙf, cŢųalxźf/ƙ)f wƙf. ;lgbƧg;ƍl#f wƙf, clgbƧg;ƍl#f wƙf,
clgbƧgcƍl#f wƙf ‘w0;0ltsdfltsĕ 1-22’.
ƀfjL;ltlts+þ.

b'sdfltsĕ
x]t'±uëfŞs+þ
x]t" wƙf, g x]t" wƙf. ;x]t'sĕ wƙf, cx]t'sĕ wƙf. x]t';ƕo'ųf wƙf, x]t'ljƍo'ųf wƙf. x]t" r]j wƙf
;x]t'sĕ r, ;x]t'sĕ r]j wƙf g r x]t". x]t" r]j wƙf x]t';ƕo'ųf r, x]t';ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf g r x]t". g x]t" ±vëf kg
wƙf ;x]t'sĕlk, cx]t'sĕlk. x]t'±uëfŞs+þ.

r"ńƃ/b's+þ
;ƍŝof wƙf, cƍŝof wƙf. ;řtf wƙf, c;řtf wƙf. ;lgbƧgf wƙf, clgbƧgf wƙf. ;ƍl#f wƙf,
cƍl#f wƙf. ¿lkgá wƙf, c¿lkgá wƙf. nálsof wƙf, nás'ų/f wƙf. s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf wƙf, s]þglr g ljţ]Ɯf
wƙf. r"ńƃ/b's+þ.

cf;j±uëfŞs+þ

4

cf;jf wƙf, gá cf;jf wƙf. ;f;jf wƙf, cgf;jf wƙf. cf;j;ƕo'ųf wƙf, cf;jljƍo'ųf wƙf.
cf;jf r]j wƙf ;f;jf r, ;f;jf r]j wƙf gá r cf;jf. cf;jf r]j wƙf cf;j;ƕo'ųf r, cf;j;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf
gá r cf;jf. cf;jljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf ;f;jflk, cgf;jflk. cf;j±uëfŞs+þ.

;ţáhg±uëfŞs+þ
;ţáhgf wƙf, gá ;ţáhgf wƙf. ;ţáhlgof wƙf, c;ţáhlgof wƙf. ;ţáhg;ƕo'ųf wƙf, ;ţáhgljƍo'ųf
wƙf. ;ţáhgf r]j wƙf ;ţáhlgof r, ;ţáhlgof r]j wƙf gá r ;ţáhgf. ;ţáhgf r]j wƙf ;ţáhg;ƕo'ųf r,
;ţáhg;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá r ;ţáhgf. ;ţáhgljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf ;ţáhlgoflk, c;ţáhlgoflk. ;ţáhg±uëfŞs+þ.

uƅ±uëfŞs+þ
uƅf wƙf, gá uƅf wƙf. uƅlgof wƙf, cuƅlgof wƙf. uƅ;ƕo'ųf wƙf, uƅljƍo'ųf wƙf. uƅf r]j
wƙf uƅlgof r, uƅlgof r]j wƙf gá r uƅf uƅf r]j wƙf uƅ;ƕo'ųf r, uƅ;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá r uƅf.
uƅljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf uƅlgoflk, cuƅlgoflk. uƅ±uëfŞs+þ.

cá#±uëfŞs+þ
cá#f wƙf, gá cá#f wƙf. cá#lgof wƙf, cgá#lgof wƙf. cá#;ƕo'ųf wƙf, cá#ljƍo'ųf wƙf. cá#f
r]j wƙf cá#lgof r, cá#lgof r]j wƙf gá r cá#f. cá#f r]j wƙf cá#;ƕo'ųf r, cá#;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá r
cá#f. cá#ljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf cá#lgoflk, cgá#lgoflk. cá#±uëfŞs+þ.

oáu±uëfŞs+þ
oáuf wƙf, gá oáuf wƙf. oáulgof wƙf, coáulgof wƙf. oáu;ƕo'ųf wƙf, oáuljƍo'ųf wƙf. oáuf
r]j wƙf oáulgof r, oáulgof r]j wƙf gá r oáuf. oáuf r]j wƙf oáu;ƕo'ųf r, oáu;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá r
oáuf. oáuljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf oáulgoflk, coáulgoflk. oáu±uëfŞs+þ.

gLj/)±uëfŞs+þ
gLj/)f wƙf, gá gLj/)f wƙf. gLj/l)of wƙf, cgLj/l)of wƙf. gLj/);ƕo'ųf wƙf,
gLj/)ljƍo'ųf wƙf. gLj/)f r]j wƙf gLj/l)of r, gLj/l)of r]j wƙf gá r gLj/)f. gLj/)f r]j wƙf
gLj/);ƕo'ųf r, gLj/);ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá r gLj/)f. gLj/)ljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf gLj/l)oflk,
cgLj/l)oflk. gLj/)±uëfŞs+þ.

k/fdf;±uëfŞs+þ
k/fdf;f wƙf, gá k/fdf;f wƙf. k/fdŪf wƙf, ck/fdŪf wƙf. k/fdf;;ƕo'ųf wƙf, k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf
wƙf. k/fdf;f r]j wƙf k/fdŪf r, k/fdŪfr]j wƙf gá r k/fdf;f. k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf k/fdŪflk,
ck/fdŪflk. k/fdf;±uëfŞs+þ.

dxƃ/b's+þ
;f/ƙ)f wƙf, cgf/ƙ)f wƙf. lrųf wƙf, gá lrųf wƙf. r]tl;sĕ wƙf, cr]tl;sĕ wƙf. lrų;ƕo'ųf
wƙf, lrųljƍo'ųf wƙf. lrų;+;Ūf wƙf, lrųlj;+;Ūf wƙf. lrų;d'Ūfgf wƙf, gá lrų;d'Ūfgf wƙf. lrų;xe'gá
wƙf, gá lrų;xe'gá wƙf. lrųfg'kl/jlųgá wƙf, gá lrųfg'kl/jlųgá wƙf. lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgf wƙf, gá
lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgf wƙf. lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfg;xe'gá wƙf, gá lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfg;xe'gá wƙf. lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgfg'kl/jlųgá
wƙf, gá lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgfg'kl/jlųgá wƙf. cŢlųsĕ wƙf, aflx/f wƙf. pkfbf wƙf, gá pkfbf wƙf. pkflbŰf
wƙf, cg'kflbŰf wƙf. dxƃ/b's+þ.

5

pkfbfg±uëfŞs+þ
pkfbfgf wƙf, gá pkfbfgf wƙf. pkfbflgof wƙf, cg'kfbflgof wƙf. pkfbfg;ƕo'ųf wƙf,
pkfbfgljƍo'ųf wƙf. pkfbfgf r]j wƙf pkfbflgof r, pkfbflgof r]j wƙf gá r pkfbfgf. pkfbfgf r]j wƙf
pkfbfg;ƕo'ųf r, pkfbfg;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá r pkfbfgf. pkfbfgljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf pkfbflgoflk,
cg'kfbflgoflk. pkfbfg±uëfŞs+þ.

lsn];±uëfŞs+þ
lsn];f wƙf, gá lsn];f wƙf. ;+lsn]l;sĕ wƙf, c;+lsn]l;sĕ wƙf. ;+lslnŪf wƙf, c;+lslnŪf wƙf.
lsn];;ƕo'ųf wƙf, lsn];ljƍo'ųf wƙf. lsn];f r]j wƙf ;+lsn]l;sĕ r, ;+lsn]l;sĕ r]j wƙf gá r lsn];f. lsn];f
r]j wƙf ;+lslnŪf r, ;+lslnŪf r]j wƙf gá r lsn];f. lsn];f r]j wƙf lsn];;ƕo'ųf r, lsn];;ƕo'ųf r]j wƙf gá
r lsn];f. lsn];ljƍo'ųf ±vëf kg wƙf ;+lsn]l;sĕlk, c;+lsn]l;sĕlk. lsn];±uëfŞs+þ.

lklŪb's+þ
bƧg]g kxftƑf wƙf, g bƧg]g kxftƑf wƙf. efjgfo kxftƑf wƙf, g efjgfo kxftƑf wƙf.
bƧg]g kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf, g bƧg]g kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf. efjgfo kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf, g efjgfo kxftƑx]t'sĕ wƙf.
;ljtŊĕ wƙf, cljtŊĕ wƙf. ;ljrf/f wƙf, cljrf/f wƙf. ;ƍLltsĕ wƙf, cƍLltsĕ wƙf. kLlt;xutf wƙf, g
kLlt;xutf wƙf. ;'v;xutf wƙf, g ;'v;xutf wƙf. pk]ŋĕ;xutf wƙf, g pk]ŋĕ;xutf wƙf. sĕdfjr/f wƙf,
g sĕdfjr/f wƙf. ¿kfjr/f wƙf, g ¿kfjr/f wƙf. c¿kfjr/f wƙf, g c¿kfjr/f wƙf. kl/ofkƉf wƙf,
ckl/ofkƉf wƙf. lgƜflgsĕ wƙf, clgƜflgsĕ wƙf. lgotf wƙf, clgotf wƙf. ;pų/f wƙf, cg'ų/f wƙf.
;/)f wƙf, c/)f wƙf. lklŪb's+þ.
clewƙb'sdfltsĕ.

;'ųlƃsb'sdfltsĕ
ljşĕeflugá wƙf, cljşĕeflugá wƙf. ljş"kdf wƙf, jlh¿kdf wƙf. afnf wƙf, klůtf wƙf. sŲf
wƙf ;'Ŋĕ wƙf. tkgLof wƙf, ctkgLof wƙf. clwjrgf wƙf, clwjrgkyf wƙf. lg?lų wƙf, lg?lųkyf
wƙf. kţlų wƙf, kţlųkyf wƙf. gfdť, ¿kť. cljşĕ r, ejtŲf r. ejlblŪ r, ljejlblŪ r. ;ƧtlblŪ
r, pŞ]blblŪ r. cƃjf lblŪ r, cgƃjf lblŪ r. k'Ƒƃfg'lblŪ r, ck/ƃfg'lblŪ r. clxl/sť, cgáųƍť. lx/L
r, cáųƍť. bájrƧtf r, kfkldųtf r. ;ájrƧtf r, sƠf)ldųtf r. cfklųs';ntf r, cfklųj'Ūfgs';ntf
r. ;dfklųs';ntf r, ;dfklųj'Ūfgs';ntf r. wft's';ntf r, dgl;sĕ/s';ntf r. cfotgs';ntf r,
klŝ;d'ƍfbs';ntf r. &fgs';ntf r, cŪfgs';ntf r. cşjá r, dŹjá r. vlƃ r, ;á/ŝť. ;fvƠť,
kl;ƅf/á r. OlƇo];' cu'ųƀf/tf r, eáhg] cdųţ'tf r. OlƇo];' u'ųƀf/tf r, eáhg] dųţ'tf r. d'ŪƧŝť,
c;ƕhţť. ;lt r, ;ƕhţť. kl;řfganť, efjgfanť. ;d±yëf r, ljkƧgf r. ;dylgldųť,
kƮfxlgldųť. kƮfxá r, cljŋ]ká r. ;Lnljklų r, lblŪljklų r. ;Ln;ƕbf r, lblŪ;ƕbf r. ;Lnlj;'lź r,
lblŪlj;'lź r. lblŪlj;'lź ±vëf kg, oyflblŪƧ r kwfg+. ;+j]±uëf r ;+j]hlgo];' &fg];', ;+ljƮƧ r oálg;á kwfg+.
c;ƃ'lŪtf r s';n];' wƙ];', cƍljflgtf r kwfgƸƨ. ljşĕ r, ljd'lų r. vo] `f)+, cg'ƍfb] `f)lƃ.
;'ųlƃsb'sdfltsĕ.

wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ lglŪtf.

2= ljeśdfltsĕ

6

vƈljeśá
kťŋƈf _ ‘lje01’ ¿kŋƈá j]bgfŋƈá ;ţfŋƈá ;řf/ŋƈá ljţf)ŋƈált. vƈljeś+.

cfotgljeśá
ƀfb;fotgflg ‘lje0154’ _ rŋĕotg+ ¿kfotg+ ;átfotg+ ;Źfotg+ #fgfotg+
/;fotg+ sĕofotg+ mþáŪƑfotg+ dgfotg+ wƙfotglƃ. cfotgljeś+.

uƈfotg+ lhƢfotg+

wft'ljeśá
cŪf/; wft'oá ‘lje0183’ _ rŋ'wft' ¿kwft' rŋ'ljţf)wft', ;átwft' ;Źwft' ;átljţf)wft', #fgwft'
uƈwft' #fgljţf)wft', lhƢfwft' /;wft' lhƢfljţf)wft', sĕowft' mþáŪƑwft' sĕoljţf)wft', dgáwft' wƙwft'
dgáljţf)wft"lt. wft'ljeś+.

;ŝljeśá
rųfl/ cl/o;ŝflg ‘lje0189’ _ b'ŋ+ cl/o;ŝ+, b'ŋ;d'bo+ cl/o;ŝ+,
b'ŋlg/áwufldgL klkbf cl/o;ŝlƃ. ;ŝljeś+.

b'ŋlg/áw+ cl/o;ŝ+,

OlƇoljeśá
afjL;ltlƇoflg ‘lje0219’ _ rŋ'lƇo+ ;áltlƇo+ #flglƇo+ lhlƢlƇo+ sĕlolƇo+ dlglƇo+ OlŴlƇo+ k'l/l;lƇo+
hËljltlƇo+ ;'lvlƇo+ b'lŋlƇo+ ;ádglƧlƇo+ bádglƧlƇo+ pk]lŋlƇo+ ;lźlƇo+ jLl/lolƇo+ ;ltlƇo+ ;dflwlƇo+ klţlƇo+
cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+ clţlƇo+ cţftfljlƇolƃ. OlƇoljeś+.

klŝ;d'ƍfbljeśá
cljşĕkŝof ;řf/f ‘lje0225’, ;řf/kŝof ljţf)+, ljţf)kŝof gfd¿k+, gfd¿kkŝof ;ńfotg+,
;ńfotgkŝof mþƧá, mþƧkŝof j]bgf, j]bgfkŝof tŲf, tŲfkŝof pkfbfg+, pkfbfgkŝof ejá, ejkŝof hĕlt,
hĕltkŝof
h/fd/)+ ;áskl/b]jb'ŋbádgƧ'kfof;f ;Ƙjlƃ, Pjd]tƧ s]þjnƧ b'ŋŋƈƧ
;d'boá xált.
klŝ;d'ƍfbljeś+.

;ltkŪfgljeśá
rųf/á ;ltkŪfgf ‘lje0355’ _ Ow leŋ' cŢų+ sĕo] sĕofg'kƧL ljx/lt, alxźf sĕo] sĕofg'kƧL ljx/lt,
cŢųalxźf sĕo] sĕofg'kƧL ljx/lt cftfkL ;ƕhĕgá ;ltdf ljg]Ɯ nás]þ cleŢĕbádgƧ+.
cŢų+ j]bgf;' j]bgfg'kƧL ljx/lt, alxźf j]bgf;' j]bgfg'kƧL ljx/lt, cŢųalxźf j]bgf;' j]bgfg'kƧL
ljx/lt cftfkL ;ƕhĕgá ;ltdf ljg]Ɯ nás]þ cleŢĕbádgƧ+.
cŢų+ lrų] lrųfg'kƧL ljx/lt, alxźf lrų] lrųfg'kƧL ljx/lt, cŢųalxźf lrų] lrųfg'kƧL ljx/lt cftfkL
;ƕhĕgá ;ltdf ljg]Ɯ nás]þ cleŢĕbádgƧ+.
cŢų+ wƙ];' wƙfg'kƧL ljx/lt, alxźf wƙ];' wƙfg'kƧL ljx/lt, cŢųalxźf wƙ];' wƙfg'kƧL ljx/lt
cftfkL ;ƕhĕgá ;ltdf ljg]Ɯ nás]þ cleŢĕbádgƧ+. ;ltkŪfgljeś+.

;ƙƍwfgljeśá
rųf/á ;ƙƍwfgf ‘lje0390’ _ Ow leŋ' cg'ƍƉfg+ kfksĕg+ cs';nfg+ wƙfg+ cg'ƍfbfo %Ɔ+ hg]lt jfodlt
jLl/o+ cf/elt lrų+ kƮŲflt kbxlt.
pƍƉfg+ kfksĕg+ cs';nfg+ wƙfg+ kxfgfo %Ɔ+ hg]lt jfodlt jLl/o+ cf/elt lrų+ kƮŲflt kbxlt.
cg'ƍƉfg+ s';nfg+ wƙfg+ pƍfbfo %Ɔ+ hg]lt jfodlt jLl/o+ cf/elt lrų+ kƮŲflt kbxlt.

7

pƍƉfg+ s';nfg+ wƙfg+ l&ltof c;ƙá;fo leƜáefjfo j]k'Ɵfo efjgfo kfl/k"l/of %Ɔ+ hg]lt jfodlt jLl/o+
cf/elt lrų+ kƮŲflt kbxlt. ;ƙƍwfgljeś+.

Olźkfbljeśá
rųf/á Olźkfbf ‘lje0430’ _ Ow leŋ' %Ɔ;dflwkwfg;řf/;dƉfut+
jLl/o;dflwkwfg;řf/;dƉfut+ Olźkfb+ efj]lt, lrų;dflwkwfg;řf/;dƉfut+
jLd+;f;dflwkwfg;řf/;dƉfut+ Olźkfb+ efj]lt. Olźkfbljeś+.

Olźkfb+
Olźkfb+

efj]lt,
efj]lt,

aáŢśljeśá
;ų aáŢśf ‘lje0466’ _ ;lt;ƗáŢśá wƙljro;ƗáŢśá jLl/o;ƗáŢśá
;dflw;ƗáŢśá pk]ŋĕ;ƗáŢśá. aáŢśljeś+.

kLlt;ƗáŢśá kƧlź;ƗáŢśá

dƮśljeśá
cl/oá cŪlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf ‘lje0486’. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ ;ƙflblŪ ;ƙf;Řƍá
;ƙfjfofdá ;ƙf;lt ;ƙf;dflw. dƮśljeś+.

;ƙfjfrf ;ƙfsƙƃá ;ƙfcfhËjá

´fgljeśá
Ow leŋ' kfltdáŋ;+j/;+j'tá ljx/lt ‘lje0508’ cfrf/±uëfr/;ƕƉá c)'dų];' jş];' eobƧfjL ;dfbfo
l;ŋlt l;ŋĕkb];' OlƇo];' u'ųƀf/á eáhg] dųţ" k'Ƒ/ųfk//ų+ hĕul/ofg'oáudg'o'ųá ;ftŝ+ g]kŊ+þ aálwklŋsĕg+ wƙfg+
efjgfg'oáudg'o'ųá.
;á cleŊþƃ] klŊþƃ] ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L xált, cfnálst] ljnálst] ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L xált, ;ldlŧt] k;fl/t] ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L
xált, ;ŜflkųrLj/wf/±)ë ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L xált, cl;t] kLt] vflot] ;flot] ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L xált, pŝf/kƧfjsƙ] ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L
xált, ut] l&t] lgl;Ɖ] ;'ų] hĕul/t] efl;t] t'ŲLefj] ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L xált.
;á ljljų+ ;]gf;g+ ehlt c/ţ+ ?ŋd"n+ kƑt+ sƆ/+ lul/u'x+ ;';fg+ jgkŴ+ cưásĕ;+ knfnk'ŧ+ cƍ;Ź+
cƍlgŔá;+ ljhgjft+ dg'Ƨ/fxƧ]Ɯs+þ kl;Ɵfg;f?ƍ+.
;á c/ţutá jf ?ŋd"nutá jf ;'ţfuf/utá jf lg;Lblt kƟŘ+ cfe'lhŷf ph'+ sĕo+ kl)wfo kl/d'v+ ;Ƹt
pkŪk]ŷf, ;á cleŢ+ nás]þ kxfo ljutfleŢ]g r]t;f ljx/lt, cleŢĕo lrų+ kl/;á±wëlt, Ɠfkfbkbá;+ kxfo cƓfkƉlrųá
ljx/lt ;Ƒkf)e"tlxtfg'sƕL, Ɠfkfbkbá;f lrų+ kl/;á±wëlt, lygldź+ kxfo ljutlygldźá ljx/lt cfnás;ţL ;tá
;ƕhĕgá, lygldźf lrų+ kl/;á±wëlt, pźŝs'Ŋ'þŝ+ kxfo cg'źtá ljx/lt cŢų+ j"k;ƃlrųá, pźŝs'Ŋ'þŝf lrų+ kl/;á±wëlt,
ljlrlsŞ+ kxfo ltŰljlrlsŞá ljx/lt csy+syL s';n];' wƙ];', ljlrlsŞfo lrų+ kl/;á±wëlt.
;á Od] kť gLj/±)ë kxfo r]t;á pklŊþn];] kţfo b'ƑnLs/±)ë ljljŝ]j sĕd]lx ljljŝ cs';n]lx wƙ]lx ;ljtŊ+þ
;ljrf/+ ljj]sh+ kLlt;'v+ k&d+ ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt, ljtŊþljrf/fg+ j"k;df cŢų+ ;ƕ;fbg+ r]t;á Ps]ĕlbefj+
cljtŊ+þ cljrf/+ ;dflwh+ kLlt;'v+ b'lto+ ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt, kLltof r lj/fuf pk]ŋs]ĕ r ljx/lt ;tá r ;ƕhĕgá
;'vť sĕo]g kl;+j]b]lt, o+ t+ cl/of cflrŋlƃ æpk]ŋs]ĕ ;ltdf ;'vljxf/LÆlt, tlto+ ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt, ;'vƧ r
kxfgf b'ŋƧ r kxfgf k'Ƒ]j ;ádgƧbádgƧfg+ cŴśdf cb'ŋd;'v+ pk]ŋĕ;ltkfl/;'Ƹź rt'Ŵ+ ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt.
;Ƒ;á ¿k;ţfg+ ;dltŊþdf kl#;ţfg+ cŴśdf gfgų;ţfg+ cdgl;sĕ/f æcgƃá cfsĕ;áÆlt cfsĕ;fgťfotg+
pk;ƕş ljx/lt, ;Ƒ;á cfsĕ;fgťfotg+ ;dltŊþƙ æcgƃ+ ljţf)Ælƃ ljţf)ťfotg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt, ;Ƒ;á
ljţf)ťfotg+ ;dltŊþƙ æglŴ lsťLÆlt
cflsťţfotg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt, ;Ƒ;á cflsťţfotg+ ;dltŊþƙ
g]j;ţfgf;ţfotg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt. ´fgljeś+.

cƍdţfljeśá
rtƧá cƍdţfoá ‘lje0642’ _ Ow leŋ' d]ųf;xut]g r]t;f Ps+þ lb;+ mþl/ŷf ljx/lt, tyf b'lto+, tyf
tlto+, tyf rt'Ŵ+. Olt pźd±wëf ltl/o+ ;Ƒlw ;Ƒųtfo ;Ƒfjƃ+ nás+þ d]ųf;xut]g r]t;f ljk'n]g dxƮt]g cƍdf±)ëg
cj]/]g cƓfkş]g mþl/ŷf ljx/lt.
s?)f;xut]g r]t;f Ps+þ lb;+ mþl/ŷf ljx/lt, tyf b'lto+, tyf tlto+, tyf rt'Ŵ+. Olt pźd±wëf ltl/o+
;Ƒlw;Ƒųtfo ;Ƒfjƃ+ nás+þ s?)f;xut]g r]t;f ljk'n]g dxƮt]g cƍdf±)ëg cj]/]g cƓfkş]g mþl/ŷf ljx/lt.
d'lbtf;xut]g r]t;f Ps+þ lb;+ mþl/ŷf ljx/lt, tyf b'lto+, tyf tlto+, tyf rt'Ŵ+. Olt pźd±wëf ltl/o+
8

;Ƒlw ;Ƒųtfo ;Ƒfjƃ+ nás+þ d'lbtf;xut]g r]t;f ljk'n]g dxƮt]g cƍdf±)ëg cj]/]g cƓfkş]g mþl/ŷf ljx/lt.
pk]ŋĕ;xut]g r]t;f Ps+þ lb;+ mþl/ŷf ljx/lt, tyf b'lto+, tyf tlto+, tyf rt'Ŵ+. Olt pźd±wëf ltl/o+
;Ƒlw ;Ƒųtfo ;Ƒfjƃ+ nás+þ pk]ŋĕ;xut]g r]t;f ljk'n]g dxƮt]g cƍdf±)ëg cj]/]g cƓfkş]g mþl/ŷf ljx/lt.
cƍdţfljeś+.

l;ŋĕkbljeśá
kť l;ŋĕkbflg ‘lje0703’ _ kf)fltkftf j]/d)L l;ŋĕkb+, clbƉfbfgf j]/d)L l;ŋĕkb+, sĕd];'ldŞfrf/f
j]/d)L l;ŋĕkb+, d';fjfbf j]/d)L l;ŋĕkb+, ;'/fd]/odşkdfbŪfgf j]/d)L l;ŋĕkb+. l;ŋĕkbljeś+.

kl;lƘbfljeśá
rtƧá kl;lƘbf ‘lje0718’ _ cŴkl;lƘbf wƙkl;lƘbf lg?lųkl;lƘbf
kl;lƘbfljeś+.

klefgkl;lƘbf.

`f)ljeśá
Pslj±wëg `f)jŴ' ‘lje0751’ _ kť ljţf)f g x]t", cx]t'sĕ, x]t'ljƍo'ųf, ;ƍŝof, ;řtf, c¿kf,
nálsof, ;f;jf, ;+oáhlgof, uƅlgof, cá#lgof, oáulgof, gLj/l)of, k/fdŪf, pkfbflgof, ;+lsn]l;sĕ, cƓfstf,
;f/ƙ)f, cr]tl;sĕ, ljkfsĕ, pkflbŰ'kfbflgof, c;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ, g ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f, g cljtŊþljrf/dųf,
cljtŊþcljrf/f, g kLlt;xutf, g]j bƧg]g g efjgfo kxftƑf, g]j bƧg]g g efjgfo kxftƑx]t'sĕ,
g]jfroufldgfkroufldgá, g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ, kl/ųf, sĕdfjr/f, g ¿kfjr/f, g c¿kfjr/f, kl/ofkƉf, gá
ckl/ofkƉf, clgotf, clgƜflgsĕ.
pƍƉjŴ'sĕ, pƍƉf/ƙ)f, k'/]hĕtjŴ'sĕ, k'/]hĕtf/ƙ)f, cŢlųsjŴ'sĕ,
aflx/f/ƙ)f, c;lƘƉjŴ'sĕ,
c;lƘƉf/ƙ)f, gfgfjŴ'sĕ, gfgf/ƙ)f, g cţdţƧ ±uëfr/lj;o+ kŝg'eálƃ, g c;dƉfxf/f pƍşlƃ, g cdgl;sĕ/f
pƍşlƃ, g cƑálsŰf pƍşlƃ, g ck'Ƒ+ crl/d+ pƍşlƃ, g cţdţƧ ;dgƃ/f pƍşlƃ.
kť ljţf)f cgfeáuf, kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g slť wƙ+ klljhĕgflt, cţŶ clelgkftdųf, kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+
;dgƃ/flk g slť wƙ+ klljhĕgflt, kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g slť Ol/ofky+ sƍ]lt, kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/flk g slť
Ol/ofky+ sƍ]lt, kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g sĕosƙ+ g jrLsƙ+ kŪk]lt, kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/flk g sĕosƙ+ g jrLsƙ+
kŪk]lt, kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g s';nfs';n+ wƙ+ ;dflbolt, kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/flk g s';nfs';n+ wƙ+ ;dflbolt,
kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g ;dfkşlt g j'Ūflt, kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/flk g ;dfkşlt g j'Ūflt, kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g rjlt
g pƍşlt, kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/flk g rjlt g pƍşlt, kťlx ljţf±)ëlx g ;'klt g kla'Ţlt g ;'lkg+ kƧlt,
kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/flk g ;'klt g kla'Ţlt g ;'lkg+ kƧlt, ofyfjsjŴ'ljefjgf kţf. Pj+ Pslj±wëg
`f)jŴ'.
b'lj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ nálsof kţf, nás'ų/f kţf. s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf kţf, s]þglr g ljţ]Ɯf kţf. ;f;jf kţf,
cgf;jf kţf. cf;jljƍo'ųf ;f;jf kţf, cf;jljƍo'ųf cgf;jf kţf. ;+oáhlgof kţf, c;+oáhlgof kţf.
;+oáhgljƍo'ųf ;+oáhlgof kţf, ;+oáhgljƍo'ųf c;+oáhlgof kţf. uƅlgof kţf, cuƅlgof kţf. uƅljƍo'ųf
uƅlgof kţf, uƅljƍo'ųf cuƅlgof kţf.
cá#lgof kţf, cgá#lgof kţf. cá#ljƍo'ųf cá#lgof kţf, cá#ljƍo'ųf cgá#lgof kţf. oáulgof
kţf, coáulgof kţf. oáuljƍo'ųf oáulgof kţf, oáuljƍo'ųf coáulgof kţf. gLj/l)of kţf, cgLj/l)of
kţf. gLj/)ljƍo'ųf gLj/l)of kţf, gLj/)ljƍo'ųf cgLj/l)of kţf. k/fdŪf kţf, ck/fdŪf kţf.
k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf k/fdŪf kţf, k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf ck/fdŪf kţf. pkflbŰf kţf, cg'kflbŰf kţf. pkfbflgof kţf,
cg'kfbflgof kţf. pkfbfgljƍo'ųf pkfbflgof kţf, pkfbfgljƍo'ųf cg'kfbflgof kţf.
;+lsn]l;sĕ kţf, c;+lsn]l;sĕ kţf. lsn];ljƍo'ųf ;+lsn]l;sĕ kţf, lsn];ljƍo'ųf c;+lsn]l;sĕ kţf.
;ljtŊĕ kţf, cljtŊĕ kţf. ;ljrf/f kţf, cljrf/f kţf. ;ƍLltsĕ kţf, cƍLltsĕ kţf. kLlt;xutf kţf, g
kLlt;xutf kţf. ;'v;xutf kţf, g ;'v;xutf kţf. pk]ŋĕ;xutf kţf, g pk]ŋĕ;xutf kţf sĕdfjr/f kţf,
g sĕdfjr/f kţf. ¿kfjr/f kţf, g ¿kfjr/f kţf. c¿kfjr/f kţf, g c¿kfjr/f kţf. kl/ofkƉf kţf,
ckl/ofkƉf kţf. lgƜflgsĕ kţf, clgƜflgsĕ kţf. lgotf kţf, clgotf kţf. ;pų/f kţf, cg'ų/f kţf.
cŴhĕlksĕ kţf, hĕlktŴf kţf. Pj+ b'lj±wëg `f)jŴ'.
ltlj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ lrƃfdof kţf, ;'tdof kţf, efjgfdof kţf. bfgdof kţf, ;Lndof kţf,
efjgfdof kţf. clw;Ln] kţf, clwlrų] kţf, clwkţfo kţf. cfos]ĕ;Ɵ+, ckfos]ĕ;Ɵ+, pkfos]ĕ;Ɵ+.
ljkfsĕ kţf, ljkfswƙwƙf kţf, g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf kţf.
pkflbŰ'kfbflgof kţf,
cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof kţf, cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof kţf. ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f kţf, cljtŊþljrf/dųf kţf, cljtŊþcljrf/f
9

kţf. kLlt;xutf kţf, ;'v;xutf kţf, pk]ŋĕ;xutf kţf. cfroufldgL
kţf, ckroufldgL kţf,
g]jfroufldgfkroufldgL kţf. ;]ŋĕ kţf, c;]ŋĕ kţf, g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ kţf. kl/ųf kţf, dxƮtf kţf, cƍdf)f
kţf. kl/ųf/ƙ)f kţf, dxƮtf/ƙ)f kţf, cƍdf)f/ƙ)f kţf. dƮf/ƙ)f kţf, dƮx]t'sĕ kţf, dƮflwkltgL kţf.
pƍƉf kţf, cg'ƍƉf kţf, pƍflbgL kţf. ctLtf kţf, cgfutf kţf, kŝ'ƍƉf kţf. ctLtf/ƙ)f kţf,
cgfutf/ƙ)f kţf, kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)f kţf. cŢųf kţf, alxźf kţf, cŢųalxźf kţf. cŢųf/ƙ)f kţf, alxźf/ƙ)f
kţf, cŢųalxźf/ƙ)f kţf.
;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f kţf clŴ ljkfsĕ, clŴ ljkfswƙwƙf, clŴ g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf. clŴ
pkflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof clŴ kLlt;xutf, clŴ ;'v;xutf, clŴ
pk]ŋĕ;xutf. clŴ cfroufldgL, clŴ ckroufldgL, clŴ g]jfroufldgfkroufldgL. clŴ ;]ŋĕ, clŴ c;]ŋĕ, clŴ
g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ. clŴ kl/ųf, clŴ dxƮtf, clŴ cƍdf)f. clŴ kl/ųf/ƙ)f, clŴ dxƮtf/ƙ)f, clŴ
cƍdf)f/ƙ)f. clŴ dƮf/ƙ)f, clŴ dƮx]t'sĕ, clŴ dƮflwkltgL. clŴ pƍƉf, clŴ cg'ƍƉf, clŴ pƍflbgL. clŴ
ctLtf, clŴ cgfutf, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf. clŴ ctLtf/ƙ)f, clŴ cgfutf/ƙ)f, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)f. clŴ cŢųf, clŴ
alxźf, clŴ cŢųalxźf. clŴ cŢųf/ƙ)f, clŴ alxźf/ƙ)f, clŴ cŢųalxźf/ƙ)f.
cljtŊþljrf/dųf kţf clŴ ljkfsĕ, clŴ ljkfswƙwƙf, clŴ
g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf. clŴ
pkflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof. clŴ cfroufldgL, clŴ ckroufldgL, clŴ
g]jfroufldgfkroufldgL. clŴ ;]ŋĕ, clŴ c;]ŋĕ, clŴ g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ. clŴ pƍƉf, clŴ cg'ƍƉf, clŴ pƍflbgL.
clŴ ctLtf, clŴ cgfutf, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf. clŴ cŢųf, clŴ alxźf, clŴ cŢųalxźf.
cljtŊþcljrf/f kţf clŴ ljkfsĕ, clŴ ljkfswƙwƙf, clŴ
g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf. clŴ
pkflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof. clŴ kLlt;xutf, clŴ ;'v;xutf, clŴ
pk]ŋĕ;xutf. clŴ cfroufldgL, clŴ ckroufldgL, clŴ g]jfroufldgfkroufldgL. clŴ ;]ŋĕ, clŴ c;]ŋĕ, clŴ
g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ. clŴ kl/ųf/ƙ)f, clŴ dxƮtf/ƙ)f, clŴ cƍdf)f/ƙ)f. clŴ dƮf/ƙ)f, clŴ dƮx]t'sĕ, clŴ
dƮflwkltgL. clŴ pƍƉf, clŴ cg'ƍƉf, clŴ pƍflbgL. clŴ ctLtf, clŴ cgfutf, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf. clŴ
ctLtf/ƙ)f, clŴ cgfutf/ƙ)f, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)f. clŴ cŢųf, clŴ alxźf, clŴ cŢųalxźf. clŴ cŢųf/ƙ)f,
clŴ alxźf/ƙ)f, clŴ cŢųalxźf/ƙ)f.
kLlt;xutf kţf, ;'v;xutf kţf clŴ ljkfsĕ, clŴ ljkfswƙwƙf, clŴ g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf clŴ
pkflbŰ'kfbflgof, clŴ cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof,
clŴ cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof. clŴ ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f, clŴ
cljtŊþljrf/dųf, clŴ cljtŊþcljrf/f. clŴ cfroufldgL, clŴ ckroufldgL, clŴ g]jfroufldgfkroufldgL.
clŴ ;]ŋĕ, clŴ c;]ŋĕ, clŴ g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ. clŴ kl/ųf, clŴ dxƮtf, clŴ cƍdf)f. clŴ kl/ųf/ƙ)f, clŴ
dxƮtf/ƙ)f, clŴ cƍdf)f/ƙ)f. clŴ dƮf/ƙ)f, clŴ dƮx]t'sĕ, clŴ dƮflwkltgL. clŴ pƍƉf, clŴ cg'ƍƉf,
clŴ pƍflbgL. clŴ ctLtf, clŴ cgfutf, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf. clŴ ctLtf/ƙ)f, clŴ cgfutf/ƙ)f, clŴ
kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)f. clŴ cŢųf, clŴ alxźf, clŴ cŢųalxźf. clŴ cŢųf/ƙ)f, clŴ alxźf/ƙ)f, clŴ
cŢųalxźf/ƙ)f.
pk]ŋĕ;xutf kţf clŴ ljkfsĕ, clŴ ljkfswƙwƙf, clŴ g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf. clŴ pkflbŰ'kfbflgof
clŴ cg'kflbŰ'kfbflgof,
clŴ cg'kflbŰcg'kfbflgof. clŴ cfroufldgL, clŴ ckroufldgL, clŴ
g]jfroufldgfkroufldgL. clŴ ;]ŋĕ, clŴ c;]ŋĕ, clŴ g]j;]ŋgf;]ŋĕ. clŴ kl/ųf, clŴ dxƮtf, clŴ cƍdf)f.
clŴ kl/ųf/ƙ)f, clŴ dxƮtf/ƙ)f, clŴ cƍdf)f/ƙ)f. clŴ dƮf/ƙ)f, clŴ dƮx]t'sĕ, clŴ dƮflwkltgL. clŴ
pƍƉf, clŴ cg'ƍƉf, clŴ pƍflbgL. clŴ ctLtf, clŴ cgfutf, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf. clŴ ctLtf/ƙ)f, clŴ
cgfutf/ƙ)f, clŴ kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)f. clŴ cŢųf, clŴ alxźf, clŴ cŢųalxźf. clŴ cŢųf/ƙ)f, clŴ alxźf/ƙ)f,
clŴ cŢųalxźf/ƙ)f. Pj+ ltlj±wëg `f)jŴ'.
rt'lƑ±wëg `f)jŴ' _ sƙƧst`f)+, ;ŝfg'nálds+þ `f)+, dƮ;dlśƧ `f)+, mþn;dlśƧ `f)+. b'ŋ] `f)+,
b'ŋ;d'bo] `f)+, b'ŋlg/á±wë `f)+, b'ŋlg/áwufldlgof klkbfo `f)+. sĕdfjr/f kţf, ¿kfjr/f kţf, c¿kfjr/f
kţf, ckl/ofkƉf kţf. wƙ] `f)+, cƋo] `f)+, kl/ŝ] `f)+, ;ƙ'lt `f)+. clŴ kţf cfrofo, gá ckrofo, clŴ
kţf ckrofo, gá cfrofo, clŴ kţf cfrofo r]j, ckrofo r, clŴ kţf g]jfrofo, gá ckrofo. clŴ kţf
lglƑbfo, gá klj]wfo, clŴ kţf klj]wfo, gá lglƑbfo clŴ kţf lglƑbfo r]j, klj]wfo r, clŴ kţf g]j
lglƑbfo, gá klj]wfo. xfgeflugL kţf, l&lteflugL kţf, lj;];eflugL kţf, lgƑ]weflugL kţf.
rtƧá kl;lƘbf. rtƧá klkbf. rųfl/ cf/ƙ)flg. h/fd/±)ë `f)+, h/fd/);d'bo] `f)+,
h/fd/)lg/á±wë `f)+, h/fd/)lg/áwufldlgof klkbfo `f)+. hĕltof `f)+»k]0 ej] `f)+»k]0 pkfbfg] `f)+»k]0
tŲfo `f)+»k]0 j]bgfo `f)+»k]0 mþƧ] `f)+»k]0 ;ńfotg] `f)+»k]0 gfd¿k] `f)+»k]0 ljţf±)ë `f)+»k]0 ;řf/];'
`f)+, ;řf/;d'bo] `f)+, ;řf/lg/á±wë `f)+, ;řf/lg/áwufldlgof klkbfo `f)+. Pj+ rt'lƑ±wëg `f)jŴ'.
kťlj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ kťlśs]ĕ ;ƙf;dflw, kť`fl)s]ĕ ;ƙf;dflw. Pj+ kťlj±wëg `f)jŴ'.
%lƑ±wëg `f)jŴ' _ %;' cleţf;' kţf. Pj+ %lƑ±wëg `f)jŴ'.
;ųlj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ ;ų;ųlt `f)jŴ"lg. Pj+ ;ųlj±wëg `f)jŴ'.
cŪlj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ rt";' d±Ʈë;', rt";' mþn];' kţf. Pj+ cŪlj±wëg `f)jŴ'.
gjlj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ gj;' cg'k'Ƒljxf/;dfkųL;' kţf. Pj+ gjlj±wëg `f)jŴ'.

10

b;lj±wëg `f)jŴ' _ b; tyfutƧ tyfutanflg, o]lx an]lx ;dƉfutá tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt,
kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt. stdflg b;Ġ Ow tyfutá &fgť &fgtá cŪfgť cŪfgtá oyfe"t+ khĕgflt,
olƕ tyfutá &fgť &fgtá cŪfgť cŪfgtá oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ
tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉfg+ sƙ;dfbfgfg+ &fg;á x]t';á ljkfs+þ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt. olƕ
tyfutá ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉfg+ sƙ;dfbfgfg+ &fg;á x]t';á ljkfs+þ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált.
o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá ;ƑŴufldƸg klkb+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá ;ƑŴufldƸg klkb+ oyfe"t+
khĕgflt, Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt,
ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá cg]swft'gfgfwft'nás+þ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá cg]swft'gfgfwft'nás+þ oyfe"t+
khĕgflt, Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt,
ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá ;ųfg+ gfgflwd'lųst+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá ;ųfg+ gfgflwd'lųst+ oyfe"t+
khĕgflt, Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt,
ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá k/;ųfg+ k/k'Ʈnfg+ OlƇok/ákl/oų+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá k/;ųfg+
k/k'Ʈnfg+ OlƇok/ákl/oų+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+
klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá ´fgljdáŋ;dflw;dfkųLg+ ;+lsn];+ jábfg+ j'Ūfg+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá
´fgljdáŋ;dflw;dfkųLg+ ;+lsn];+ jábfg+ j'Ūfg+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ
tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá k'Ƒ]lgjf;fg'ƧƸt oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá k'Ƒ]lgjf;fg'ƧƸt oyfe"t+ khĕgflt,
Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ
kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá ;ųfg+ r't"kkft+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá ;ųfg+ r't"kkft+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt,
Oblƕ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ
kjų]lt.
k'g rk/+ tyfutá cf;jfg+ vo+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, olƕ tyfutá cf;jfg+ vo+ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, Oblƕ
tyfutƧ tyfutan+ xált. o+ an+ cfuƙ tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;' ;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt.
Odflg b; tyfutƧ tyfutanflg. o]lx an]lx ;dƉfutá tyfutá cf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgflt, kl/;f;'
;Lxgfb+ gblt, ƔƪrŊ+þ kjų]lt. Pj+ b;lj±wëg `f)jŴ'.
`f)ljeś+.

v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśá
Pss+þ
hĕltdbá ‘lje0832’, ±uëfųdbá, cf/áŕdbá, oáƑgdbá, hËljtdbá, nfedbá, ;Ŋĕ/dbá, u?sĕ/dbá,
k'/]ŋĕ/dbá, kl/jf/dbá, eáudbá, jŰdbá, ;'tdbá
klefgdbá, /ųţ'dbá, lkůkfltsdbá, cgjţftdbá,
Ol/ofkydbá, Olźdbá, o;dbá, ;Lndbá, ´fgdbá, l;ƍdbá, cf/áxdbá, kl/)fxdbá, ;Ůfgdbá, kfl/k"l/dbá,
dbá, kdfbá, yƘá, ;f/Ƙá, clŶŞtf, dlxŞtf, kflkŞtf, l;ś+, ltlƃ)+, rfkƠ+, c;efuj'lų, c/lt, tƆL, ljhlƘtf,
eų;ƙbá, r]t;á r nLgų+, s'xgf, nkgf, g]ldlųstf, lgƍ]l;stf, nfe]g nfe+ lglhuL;gtf, æ;]ƜáxdƨLÆlt dfgá,
æ;lb;áxdƨLÆlt dfgá, æxLgáxdƨLÆlt dfgá. ;]ƜƧ æ;]ƜáxdƨLÆlt dfgá, ;]ƜƧ æ;lb;áxdƨLÆlt dfgá, ;]ƜƧ
æxLgáxdƨLÆlt dfgá, ;lb;Ƨ æ;]ƜáxdƨLÆlt dfgá, ;lb;Ƨ æ;lb;áxdƨLÆlt dfgá, ;lb;Ƨ æxLgáxdƨLÆlt dfgá,
xLgƧ æ;]ƜáxdƨLÆlt dfgá, xLgƧ æ;lb;áxdƨLÆlt dfgá, xLgƧ æxLgáxdƨLÆlt dfgá, dfgá, cltdfgá,
dfgfltdfgá, cádfgá, clwdfgá, clƨdfgá, ldŞfdfgá, `fltljtŊþá, hgkbljtŊþá, cd/ljtŊþá, k/fg'Źotfkl;+o'ųá
ljtŊþá, nfe;Ŋĕ/l;náskl;+o'ųá ljtŊþá, cgjţlųkl;+o'ųá ljtŊþá ‘lje0832’. Pss+þ.

11

b's+þ
s]ĕ±wëf r pkgfxá r, dŋ]ĕ r kńf;á r, OƧf r dŞl/oť, dfof r ;f±&ëƜť, cljşĕ r ejtŲf r, ejlblŪ r
ljejlblŪ r, ;ƧtlblŪ r pŞ]blblŪ r, cƃjflblŪ r cgƃjflblŪ r, k'Ƒƃfg'lblŪ r ck/ƃfg'lblŪ r, clxl/sť
cgáųƍť, bájrƧtf r kfkldųtf r, cgşjá r cdŹjá r, cŋlƃ r c;á/ŝť, c;fvƠť cƍl;ƅf/á r, OlƇo];'
cu'ųƀf/tf r eáhg] cdųţ'tf r, d'ŪƧŝť c;ƕhţť, ;Lnljklų r lblŪljklų r, cŢų;+oáhgť alxźf;+oáhgť.
b's+þ.

lts+þ
tLl) cs';nd"nflg, toá cs';nljtŊĕ, ltƧá cs';n;ţf, ltƧá cs';nwft'oá, tLl) b'ŝl/tflg, toá cf;jf,
tLl) ;+oáhgflg, ltƧá tŲf, ck/flk ltƧá tŲf, ck/flk ltƧá tŲf, ltƧá P;gf, ltƧá ljwf, tLl) eoflg tLl)
tdflg, tLl) ltŴfotgflg, toá lsťgf, tLl) cś)flg, tLl) dnflg, tLl) lj;dflg, ck/flglk tLl) lj;dflg, toá
cƮL, toá s;fjf, ck/]lk toá s;fjf.
cƧfblblŪ cųfg'lblŪ ldŞflblŪ, c/lt ljx];f cwƙrl/of, bájrƧtf kfkldųtf gfgų;ţf, pźŝ+ s]ĕ;ş+
kdfbá, c;ƃ'lŪtf c;ƕhţtf dlxŞtf, clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ kdfbá, cgfbl/o+ bájrƧtf kfkldųtf, cƧlźo+ cjbţ'tf
s]ĕ;ş+, pźŝ+ c;+j/á b'ƧLƠ+, cl/ofg+ cbƧgsƚtf ;źƙ+ c;át'sƚtf pkf/Ƙlrųtf, d'ŪƧŝ+ c;ƕhţ+ r]t;á ljŋ]ká,
coálg;á dgl;sĕ/á s'ƙƮ;]jgf r]t;á r nLgų+. lts+þ.

rt'Ŋ+þ
rųf/á cf;jf, rųf/á uƅf, rųf/á cá#f, rųf/á oáuf, rųfl/ pkfbfgflg, rųf/á tŲ'ƍfbf, rųfl/
cultudgflg, rųf/á ljkl/of;f, rųf/á cgl/ojáxf/f, ck/]lk rųf/á cgl/ojáxf/f, rųfl/ b'ŝl/tflg, ck/flk
rųfl/ b'ŝl/tflg, rųfl/ eoflg, ‘ck/flglk rųfl/ eoflg,’ rtƧá lblŪoá. rt'Ŋ+þ.

kťs+þ
kťá/Ƙfluoflg ;+oáhgflg, kť'źƘfluoflg ;+oáhgflg, kť dŞl/oflg, kť ;śf, kť ;Ɵf, kť r]tálvnf,
kť r]t;áljlgaƈf, kť gLj/)flg, kť sƙflg cfgƃl/sĕlg, kť lblŪoá, kť j]/f, kť Ɠ;gf, kť cŋlƃof
cfbLgjf, kť eoflg, kť lbŪwƙlgƑfgjfbf. kťs+þ.

%Ŋ+þ
% ljjfbd"nflg, % %Ɔ/fuf wƙf, % lj/áwjŴ"lg, % tŲfsĕof, % cuf/jf, % kl/xflgof wƙf, ck/]lk %
kl/xflgof wƙf, % ;ádgƧ'kljrf/f, % bádgƧ'kljrf/f, % pk]ŋ'kljrf/f, % ±uëxl;tflg ;ádgƧflg, % ±uëxl;tflg
bádgƧflg, % ±uëxl;tf pk]ŋĕ, % lblŪoá. %Ŋ+þ.

;ųs+þ
;ų cg';of, ;ų ;+oáhgflg, ;ų kl/o'Ūfgflg, ;ų c;źƙf, ;ų b'ŝl/tflg, ;ų dfgf, ;ų lblŪoá.
;ųs+þ.

cŪs+þ
cŪ lsn];jŴ"lg, cŪ s';LtjŴ"lg, cŪ;' náswƙ];' lrųƧ kl#ftá, cŪ cgl/ojáxf/f, cŪ ldŞųf, cŪ
k'l/;bá;f, cŪ c;lţjfbf, cŪ g]j;lţgf;lţjfbf. cŪs+þ.

gjs+þ
gj cf#ftjŴ"lg, gj k'l/;dnflg, gjljwf dfgf, gj tŲfd"nsĕ wƙf, gj Olŧtflg, gj dlţtflg, gj

12

mþlƆtflg, gj kklťtflg, gj ;řtflg. gjs+þ.

b;s+þ
b; lsn];jŴ"lg, b; cf#ftjŴ"lg, b; cs';nsƙkyf, b; ;+oáhgflg, b; ldŞųf, b;jŴ'sĕ ldŞflblŪ,
b;jŴ'sĕ cƃƮflxsĕ lblŪ. b;s+þ.
cŪf/; tŲfljrl/tflg cŢlųsƧ pkfbfo, cŪf/; tŲfljrl/tflg aflx/Ƨ pkfbfo, tb]sŢ+ cle;ţ'lxŷf
cle;lřlkŷf %Ƹų; tŲfljrl/tflg xálƃ
Olt ctLtflg %Ƹų; tŲfljrl/tflg, cgfutflg %Ƹų; tŲfljrl/tflg,
kŝ'ƍƉflg %Ƹų; tŲfljrl/tflg, tb]sŢ+ cle;ţ'lxŷf cle;lřlkŷf cŪ tŲfljrl/t;t+ xált, oflg r ƀf;lŪ
lblŪutflg Ɣƪhĕn] j]Ɯfs/±)ë j'ųflg eujtf.
v'ŹsjŴ'ljeś+.

wƙxboljeśá
slt vƈf, slt cfotgflg, slt wft'oá, slt ;ŝflg, slt OlƇoflg, slt x]t", slt cfxf/f, slt mþƧf,
slt j]bgf, slt ;ţf, slt r]tgf, slt lrųflg ‘lje0978’Ġ
kťŋƈf, ƀfb;fotgflg, cŪf/; wft'oá, rųfl/ ;ŝflg, afjL;ltlƇoflg, gj x]t", rųf/á cfxf/f, ;ų
mþƧf, ;ų j]bgf, ;ų ;ţf, ;ų r]tgf, ;ų lrųflg ‘lje0978’.
wƙxboljeś+.

ljeśdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

3= wft'syfdfltsĕ
godfltsĕ
;śxá c;śxá ‘wft'01’. ;ślxt]g c;ślxt+. c;ślxt]g ;ślxt+. ;ślxt]g ;ślxt+. c;ślxt]g
c;ślxt+. ;ƕoá±uëf ljƍoá±uëf. ;ƕo'ų]g ljƍo'ų+. ljƍo'ų]g ;ƕo'ų+. ;ƕo'ų]g ;ƕo'ų+. ljƍo'ų]g ljƍo'ų+.
;ślxt]g ;ƕo'ų+ ljƍo'ų+. ;ƕo'ų]g ;ślxt+ c;ślxt+. c;ślxt]g ;ƕo'ų+ ljƍo'ų+. ljƍo'ų]g ;ślxt+ c;ślxt+.

cưƃ/dfltsĕ
kťŋƈf. ƀfb;fotgflg. cŪf/; wft'oá. rųfl/ ;ŝflg. afjL;ltlƇoflg. klŝ;d'ƍfbá. rųf/á
;ltkŪfgf. rųf/á ;ƙƍwfgf. rųf/á Olźkfbf rųfl/ ´fgflg. rtƧá cƍdţfoá. klťlƇoflg. kť anflg.
;ų aáŢśf. cl/oá cŪlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf. mþƧá j]bgf ;ţf r]tgf lrų+ clwdáŋ]ĕ dgl;sĕ/á.

god'vdfltsĕ
tLlx ;śxá. tLlx c;śxá. rt"lx ;ƕoá±uëf. rt"lx ljƍoá±uëf.

nŋ)dfltsĕ
;ef±uëf. lj;ef±uëf.

13

aflx/dfltsĕ
;Ƒflk wƙ;ś)L wft'syfo dfltsĕlt.
wft'syfdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

4= k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ
% kţlųoá ‘k'0k0dfltsĕ 1’ _ vƈkţlų cfotgkţlų wft'kţlų ;ŝkţlų OlƇokţlų k'ƮnkţųLlt.
k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

5= syfjŴ'dfltsĕ
k'Ʈnsyf
;'ź;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gflt ‘syf01’, cfdƃf. oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
cg'nádkťs+þ.
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá
;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx klsƙ+ _ xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
klsƙrt'Ŋ+þ.
ŷ+ r] kg dţl; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt. t]g tj tŴ x]tfo klţfo x]j+ klhĕgƃ+ x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ], cy t+ lgƮŲfd,
;'lgƮlxtá r xál; _
xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá,
ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá

14

;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, Ob+ t] ldŞf.
lgƮxrt'Ŋ+þ.
P;] r] b'lƉƮlxt] x]jd]j+ tŴ bŋ, æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá
k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, gá r do+ tof tŴ x]tfo klţfo x]j+ klhĕgƃf x]j+
lgƮx]tƑf, cy d+ lgƮŲfl;, b'lƉƮlxtf r xád _
xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá,
ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, Ob+ t] ldŞf.
pkgogrt'Ŋ+þ.
g x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ], t]g lx o+ lgƮŲfl; _ xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt Ob+ t] ldŞf. t]g lx o] st] lgƮx], ;] lgƮx]
b'Ŋþ]. ;'st] klsƙ]. ;'stf klkfbgflt.
lgƮdgrt'Ŋ+þ.

k&dá lgƮxá.

;'ź;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá
;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
kŝgLskťs+þ.
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá
;á k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx klsƙ+ _ xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
klsƙrt'Ŋ+þ.
ŷ+ r] kg dţl; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á

15

k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt. t]g tj tŴ x]tfo klţfo x]j+ klhĕgƃ+ x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ], cy t+ lgƮŲfd,
;'lgƮlxtá r xál; _
xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá,
ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, Ob+ t] ldŞf.
lgƮxrt'Ŋ+þ.
P;] r] b'lƉƮlxt] x]jd]j+ tŴ bŋ, æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá
k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, gá r do+ tof tŴ x]tfo klţfo x]j+ klhĕgƃf x]j+
lgƮx]tƑf, cy d+ lgƮŲfl;, b'lƉƮlxtf r xád _
xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá,
ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, Ob+ t] ldŞf.
pkgogrt'Ŋ+þ.
g x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ], t]g lx o+ lgƮŲfl; _ xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æoá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æoá ;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ]
æk'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚oá
;lŝsŪá k/dŴá, ttá ;á k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt Ob+ t] ldŞf, t]g lx o] st] lgƮx] ;] lgƮx]
b'Ŋþ]. ;'st] klsƙ], ;'stf klkfbgflt.
lgƮdgrt'Ŋ+þ.

b'ltoá lgƮxá.

cásĕ;;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. ;ƑŴ k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æ;ƑŴ k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;ƑŴ k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æ;ƑŴ k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ] æk'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;ƑŴ k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf»k]0.
tltoá lgƮxá.

sĕn;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. ;Ƒbf k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].

16

cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ]
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æ;Ƒbf k'Ʈná
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ]
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf»k]0.

pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æ;Ƒbf k'Ʈná pknưlt
±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒbf k'Ʈná pknưlt
pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ] æk'Ʈná pknưlt
±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒbf k'Ʈná pknưlt
rt'Ŵá lgƮxá.

cjoj;lŝsŪcg'nádkŝgLs+þ
k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. ;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æ;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆltĠ ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æ;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ] æk'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf»k]0.
kťdá lgƮxá.

cásĕ;;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. ;ƑŴ k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æ;ƑŴ k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;ƑŴ k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æ;ƑŴ k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ] æk'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;ƑŴ k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf»k]0.
%Ūá lgƮxá.

sĕn;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+
k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. ;Ƒbf k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æ;Ƒbf k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒbf k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æ;Ƒbf k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ] æk'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒbf k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf»k]0.
;ųdá lgƮxá.

cjoj;lŝsŪkŝgLsĕg'nád+

17

k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ cfdƃf. ;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfltĠ g x]j+ jųƑ].
cfhĕgflx lgƮx+ _ xlť k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt /] jųƑ] æ;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf.
gá r] kg jųƑ] æ;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt, gá r jt /] jųƑ] æk'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt. o+ tŴ jb]l; æjųƑ] ±vëf ‚k'Ʈná g'knưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gƒ, gá r jųƑ] ‚;Ƒ];' k'Ʈná g'knưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfƒÆlt, ldŞf»k]0.
cŪdá lgƮxá.

syfjŴ'dfltsĕ lglŪtf.

6= odsdfltsĕ
d"nods+þ
s';nkbgort'Ŋ+þ
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf ‘od01=d"nods=1cfboá’, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf
s';nf.

o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g Psd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g Psd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nd"n]g Psd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nf, ;Ƒ] t]
wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nf,
;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg s';nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g Psd"nsĕ. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g Psd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nd"n]g Psd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t]
wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg s';nd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.
o] s]þlr s';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g
cţdţd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nf.

cs';nkbgort'Ŋ+þ
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"nf. o] jf kg cs';nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g Psd"nf. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g Psd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nd"n]g Psd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g cţdţd"nf. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g cţdţd"nf, ;Ƒ]
t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"nd"nf. o] jf kg cs';nd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nf. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf
cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nf. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g
cţdţd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cs';nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
18

o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g Psd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g

Psd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf

cs';nf.

o] s]þlr cs';nd"n]g Psd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ,
;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cs';nd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf
cs';nf.
o] s]þlr cs';nd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cs';nd"n]g
cţdţd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cs';nf.

cƓfstkbgort'Ŋ+þ

cƓfstf.

o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"nf. o] jf kg cƓfstd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nf. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf

o] s]þlr cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g cţdţd"nf. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g cţdţd"nf, ;Ƒ]
t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"nd"nf. o] jf kg cƓfstd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd"nf. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf
cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nf. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g
cţdţd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cƓfstd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf
cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ,
;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cƓfstd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf
cƓfstf.
o] s]þlr cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg cƓfstd"n]g
cţdţd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf cƓfstf.

gfdkbgort'Ŋ+þ

gfdf.

o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"nf. o] jf kg gfdd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g Psd"nf. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g Psd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdd"n]g Psd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nf. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf

o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"nd"nf. o] jf kg gfdd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g Psd"nd"nf. o] jf kg gfdd"ng] Psd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdd"n]g Psd"nd"nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nf. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nf, ;Ƒ]
t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"nsĕ. o] jf kg gfdd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g Psd"nsĕ. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g Psd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdd"n]g Psd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t]
wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg gfdd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr gfdd"n]g Psd"nd"nsĕ wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nsĕ. o] jf kg gfdd"n]g cţdţd"nd"nsĕ,
;Ƒ] t] wƙf gfdf.
o] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nx]t"»k]0 s';nlgbfgf»k]0 s';n;Ƙjf»k]0 s';nƍejf»k]0
s';n;d'Ūfgf»k]0 s';nfxf/f»k]0 s';nf/ƙ)f»k]0 s';nkŝof»k]0 s';n;d'bof»k]0.

19

d"n+ x]t' lgbfgť, ;Ƙjá kej]g r.
;d'Ūfgfxf/f/ƙ)f, kŝoá ;d'bo]g rfltĶ
d"nodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

vƈods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
kťŋƈf ‘od01=vƈods=1cfboá’ _ ¿kŋƈá j]bgfŋƈá ;ţfŋƈá ;řf/ŋƈá ljţf)ŋƈá.

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, ¿kŋƈá ¿k+.
j]bgf j]bgfŋƈá, j]bgfŋƈá j]bgf.
;ţf ;ţfŋƈá, ;ţfŋƈá ;ţf.
;řf/f ;řf/ŋƈá, ;řf/ŋƈá ;řf/f.
ljţf)+ ljţf)ŋƈá, ljţf)ŋƈá ljţf)+.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g

¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g ¿kŋƈá g ¿k+.
j]bgf g j]bgfŋƈá, g j]bgfŋƈá g j]bgf.
;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, g ;ţfŋƈá g ;ţf.
;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈá, g ;řf/ŋƈá g ;řf/f.
ljţf)+ g ljţf)ŋƈá, g ljţf)ŋƈá g ljţf)+.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, vƈf j]bgfŋƈá.
¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, vƈf ;ţfŋƈá.
¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, vƈf ;řf/ŋƈá.
¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, vƈf ljţf)ŋƈá.
j]bgf j]bgfŋƈá, vƈf ¿kŋƈá.
j]bgf j]bgfŋƈá, vƈf ;ţfŋƈá.
j]bgf j]bgfŋƈá, vƈf ;řf/ŋƈá.
j]bgf j]bgfŋƈá, vƈf ljţf)ŋƈá.
;ţf ;ţfŋƈá, vƈf ¿kŋƈá.
;ţf ;ţfŋƈá, vƈf j]bgfŋƈá.
;ţf ;ţfŋƈá, vƈf ;řf/ŋƈá.
;ţf ;ţfŋƈá, vƈf ljţf)ŋƈá.
;řf/f ;řf/ŋƈá, vƈf ¿kŋƈá.
20

;řf/f
;řf/f
;řf/f
ljţf)+
ljţf)+
ljţf)+
ljţf)+

;řf/ŋƈá, vƈf j]bgfŋƈá.
;řf/ŋƈá, vƈf ;ţfŋƈá.
;řf/ŋƈá, vƈf ljţf)ŋƈá.
ljţf)ŋƈá, vƈf ¿kŋƈá.
ljţf)ŋƈá, vƈf j]bgfŋƈá.
ljţf)ŋƈá, vƈf ;ţfŋƈá.
ljţf)ŋƈá, vƈf ;řf/ŋƈá.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g vƈf g j]bgfŋƈá.
¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g vƈf g ;ţfŋƈá.
¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/ŋƈá.
¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)ŋƈá.
j]bgf g j]bgfŋƈá, g vƈf g ¿kŋƈá.
j]bgf g j]bgfŋƈá, g vƈf g ;ţfŋƈá.
j]bgf g j]bgfŋƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/ŋƈá.
j]bgf g j]bgfŋƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)ŋƈá.
;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, g vƈf g ¿kŋƈá.
;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, g vƈf g j]bgfŋƈá.
;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/ŋƈá.
;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)ŋƈá.
;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈá, g vƈf g ¿kŋƈá.
;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈá, g vƈf g j]bgfŋƈá.
;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈá, g vƈf g ;ţfŋƈá.
;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)ŋƈá.
ljţf)+ g ljţf)ŋƈá, g vƈf g ¿kŋƈá.
ljţf)+ g ljţf)ŋƈá, g vƈf g j]bgfŋƈá.
ljţf)+ g ljţf)ŋƈá, g vƈf g ;ţfŋƈá.
ljţf)+ g ljţf)ŋƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/ŋƈá.

;'źvƈjf/á
cg'nád+
¿k+ vƈá, vƈf ¿k+.
j]bgf vƈá, vƈf j]bgf.
;ţf vƈá, vƈf ;ţf.
;řf/f vƈá, vƈf ;řf/f.
ljţf)+ vƈá, vƈf ljţf)+.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g

¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ¿k+.
j]bgf g vƈá, g vƈf g j]bgf.
;ţf g vƈá, g vƈf g ;ţf.
;řf/f g vƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/f.
ljţf)+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)+.

;'źvƈd"nrŊþjf/á

21

cg'nád+
¿k+ vƈá, vƈf j]bgf.
¿k+ vƈá, vƈf ;ţf.
¿k+ vƈá, vƈf ;řf/f.
¿k+ vƈá, vƈf ljţf)+.
j]bgf vƈá, vƈf ¿k+.
j]bgf vƈá, vƈf ;ţf.
j]bgf vƈá, vƈf ;řf/f.
j]bgf vƈá, vƈf ljţf)+.
;ţf vƈá, vƈf ¿k+.
;ţf vƈá, vƈf j]bgf.
;ţf vƈá, vƈf ;řf/f.
;ţf vƈá, vƈf ljţf)+.
;řf/f vƈá, vƈf ¿k+.
;řf/f vƈá, vƈf j]bgf.
;řf/f vƈá, vƈf ;ţf.
;řf/f vƈá, vƈf ljţf)+.
ljţf)+ vƈá, vƈf ¿k+.
ljţf)+ vƈá, vƈf j]bgf.
ljţf)+ vƈá, vƈf ;ţf.
ljţf)+ vƈá, vƈf ;řf/f.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g j]bgf.
¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ;ţf.
¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/f.
¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)+.
j]bgf g vƈá, g vƈf g ¿k+.
j]bgf g vƈá, g vƈf g ;ţf.
j]bgf g vƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/f.
j]bgf g vƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)+.
;ţf g vƈá, g vƈf g ¿k+.
;ţf g vƈá, g vƈf g j]bgf.
;ţf g vƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/f.
;ţf g vƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)+.
;řf/f g vƈá, g vƈf g ¿k+.
;řf/f g vƈá, g vƈf g j]bgf.
;řf/f g vƈá, g vƈf g ;ţf.
;řf/f g vƈá, g vƈf g ljţf)+.
ljţf)+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ¿k+.
ljţf)+ g vƈá, g vƈf g j]bgf.
ljţf)+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ;ţf.
ljţf)+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ;řf/f.
vƈodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

22

cfotgods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
ƀfb;fotgflg ‘od01=cfotgods=1cfboá’ _ rŋĕotg+ ;átfotg+ #fgfotg+ lhƢfotg+ sĕofotg+ ¿kfotg+
;Źfotg+ uƈfotg+ /;fotg+ mþáŪƑfotg+ dgfotg+ wƙfotg+.

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' rŋĕotg+, rŋĕotg+ rŋ'.
;át+ ;átfotg+, ;átfotg+ ;át+.
#fg+ #fgfotg+, #fgfotg+ #fg+.
lhƢf lhƢfotg+, lhƢfotg+ lhƢf.
sĕoá sĕofotg+, sĕofotg+ sĕoá.
¿k+ ¿kfotg+, ¿kfotg+ ¿k+.
;Źá ;Źfotg+, ;Źfotg+ ;Źá.
uƈá uƈfotg+, uƈfotg+ uƈá.
/;á /;fotg+, /;fotg+ /;á.
mþáŪƑá mþáŪƑfotg+, mþáŪƑfotg+ mþáŪƑá.
dgá dgfotg+, dgfotg+ dgá.
wƙá wƙfotg+, wƙfotg+ wƙá.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g rŋĕotg+, g rŋĕotg+ g rŋ'.
;át+ g ;átfotg+, g ;átfotg+ g ;át+.
#fg+ g #fgfotg+, g #fgfotg+ g #fg+.
lhƢf g lhƢfotg+, g lhƢfotg+ g lhƢf.
sĕoá g sĕofotg+, g sĕofotg+ g sĕoá.
¿k+ g ¿kfotg+, g ¿kfotg+ g ¿k+.
;Źá g ;Źfotg+, g ;Źfotg+ g ;Źá.
uƈá g uƈfotg+, g uƈfotg+ g uƈá.
/;á g /;fotg+, g /;fotg+ g /;á.
mþáŪƑá g mþáŪƑfotg+, g mþáŪƑfotg+ g mþáŪƑá.
dgá g dgfotg+, g dgfotg+ g dgá.
wƙá g wƙfotg+, g wƙfotg+ g wƙá.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' rŋĕotg+, cfotgf ;átfotg+.
rŋ' rŋĕotg+, cfotgf #fgfotg+.
rŋ' rŋĕotg+, cfotgf lhƢfotg+»k]0.
rŋ' rŋĕotg+, cfotgf wƙfotg+.
;át+ ;átfotg+, cfotgf rŋĕotg+.
23

;át+
;át+
#fg+
#fg+
wƙá
wƙá
wƙá

;átfotg+, cfotgf #fgfotg+»k]0.
;átfotg+, cfotgf wƙfotg+.
#fgfotg+, cfotgf rŋĕotg+»k]0.
#fgfotg+, cfotgf wƙfotg+»k]0.
wƙfotg+, cfotgf rŋĕotg+.
wƙfotg+, cfotgf ;átfotg+»k]0.
wƙfotg+, cfotgf dgfotg+. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g rŋĕotg+, gfotgf g ;átfotg+.
rŋ' g rŋĕotg+, gfotgf g #fgfotg+»k]0.
rŋ' g rŋĕotg+, gfotgf g wƙfotg+.
;át+ g ;átfotg+, gfotgf g rŋĕotg+»k]0.
;át+ g ;átfotg+, gfotgf g wƙfotg+.
#fg+ g #fgfotg+, gfotgf g rŋĕotg+»k]0.
#fg+ g #fgfotg+, gfotgf g wƙfotg+»k]0.
wƙá g wƙfotg+, gfotgf g rŋĕotg+.
wƙá g wƙfotg+, gfotgf g ;átfotg+»k]0.
wƙá g wƙfotg+, gfotgf g dgfotg+. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’

;'źfotgjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' cfotg+, cfotgf rŋ'.
;át+ cfotg+, cfotgf ;át+.
#fg+ cfotg+, cfotgf #fg+.
lhƢf cfotg+, cfotgf lhƢf.
sĕoá cfotg+, cfotgf sĕoá.
¿k+ cfotg+, cfotgf ¿k+.
;Źá cfotg+, cfotgf ;Źá.
uƈá cfotg+, cfotgf uƈá.
/;á cfotg+, cfotgf /;á.
mþáŪƑá cfotg+, cfotgf mþáŪƑá.
dgá cfotg+, cfotgf dgá.
wƙá cfotg+, cfotgf wƙá.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' gfotg+, gfotgf g rŋ'.
;át+ gfotg+, gfotgf g ;át+.
#fg+ gfotg+, gfotgf g #fg+.
lhƢf gfotg+, gfotgf g lhƢf.
sĕoá gfotg+, gfotgf g sĕoá.
¿k+ gfotg+, gfotgf g ¿k+.
;Źá gfotg+, gfotgf g ;Źá.
uƈá gfotg+, gfotgf g uƈá.
/;á gfotg+, gfotgf g /;á.
mþáŪƑá gfotg+, gfotgf g mþáŪƑá.
dgá gfotg+, gfotgf g dgá.

24

g wƙá gfotg+, gfotgf g wƙá.

;'źfotgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' cfotg+, cfotgf ;át+»k]0.
rŋ' cfotg+, cfotgf wƙá.
;át+ cfotg+, cfotgf rŋ'»k]0.
;át+ cfotg+, cfotgf wƙá.
#fg+ cfotg+, cfotgf rŋ'»k]0.
#fg+ cfotg+, cfotgf wƙá»k]0.
wƙá cfotg+, cfotgf rŋ'.
wƙá cfotg+, cfotgf ;át+»k]0.
wƙá cfotg+, cfotgf dgá. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' gfotg+, gfotgf g ;át+»k]0.
rŋ' gfotg+, gfotgf g wƙá.
;át+ gfotg+, gfotgf g rŋ'»k]0.
;át+ gfotg+, gfotgf g wƙá.
#fg+ gfotg+, gfotgf g rŋ'»k]0.
#fg+ gfotg+, gfotgf g wƙá»k]0.
wƙá gfotg+, gfotgf g rŋ'.
wƙá gfotg+, gfotgf g ;át+»k]0.
wƙá gfotg+, gfotgf g dgá. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’
cfotgodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

wft'ods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
cŪf/; wft'oá ‘od01=wft'/ds=1cfboá’ _ rŋ'wft' ;átwft' #fgwft' lhƢfwft' sĕowft' ¿kwft' ;Źwft'
uƈwft' /;wft' mþáŪƑwft' rŋ'ljţf)wft' ;átljţf)wft' #fgljţf)wft' lhƢfljţf)wft' sĕoljţf)wft' dgáwft'
dgáljţf)wft' wƙwft'.

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' rŋ'wft', rŋ'wft' rŋ'.
;át+ ;átwft', ;átwft' ;át+»k]0.
rŋ'ljţf)+ rŋ'ljţf)wft', rŋ'ljţf)wft' rŋ'ljţf)+»k]0.
dgá dgáwft', dgáwft' dgá.
dgáljţf)+ dgáljţf)wft', dgáljţf)wft' dgáljţf)+.
25

wƙá wƙwft', wƙwft' wƙá.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g rŋ'wft', g rŋ'wft' g rŋ'.
;át+ g ;átwft', g ;átwft' g ;át+»k]0.
rŋ'ljţf)+ g rŋ'ljţf)wft', g rŋ'ljţf)wft' g rŋ'ljţf)+»k]0.
dgá g dgáwft', g dgáwft' g dgá.
dgáljţf)+ g dgáljţf)wft', g dgáljţf)wft' g dgáljţf)+.
wƙá g wƙwft', g wƙwft' g wƙá.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' rŋ'wft', wft" ;átwft'»k]0.
rŋ' rŋ'wft', wft" wƙwft'. ‘oyf cfotgods]þ rŊ+þ alƈt+, Pjldw rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g rŋ'wft', g wft" g ;átwft'.
rŋ' g rŋ'wft', g wft" g #fgwft'»k]0.
rŋ' g rŋ'wft', g wft" g wƙwft'»k]0.
wƙá g wƙwft', g wft" g rŋ'wft'»k]0.
wƙá g wƙwft', g wft" g dgáljţf)wft'. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’

;'źwft'jf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' wft', wft" rŋ'»k]0.
rŋ'ljţf)+ wft', wft" rŋ'ljţf)+»k]0.
dgáljţf)+ wft', wft" dgáljţf)+.
wƙá wft', wft" wƙá.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g wft', g wft" g rŋ'»k]0.
rŋ'ljţf)+ g wft', g wft" g rŋ'ljţf)+»k]0.
dgáljţf)+ g wft', g wft" g dgáljţf)+.
wƙá g wft', g wft" g wƙá.

;'źwft'd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' wft', wft" ;át+»k]0.
26

rŋ' wft', wft" wƙá»k]0.
wƙá wft', wft" rŋ'»k]0.
wƙá wft', wft" dgáljţf)+. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+.’

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g wft', g wft" g ;át+»k]0.
rŋ' g wft', g wft" g wƙá»k]0.
wƙá g wft', g wft" g rŋ'»k]0.
wƙá g wft', g wft" g dgáljţf)+. ‘rŊ+þ alƈtƑ+. ’
wft'odsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

;ŝods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
rųfl/ ;ŝflg ‘od01=;ŝods=1cfboá’ _ b'ŋ;ŝ+ ;d'bo;ŝ+ lg/áw;ŝ+ dƮ;ŝ+.

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
b'ŋ+ b'ŋ;ŝ+, b'ŋ;ŝ+ b'ŋ+.
;d'boá ;d'bo;ŝ+, ;d'bo;ŝ+ ;d'boá.
lg/á±wëf lg/áw;ŝ+, lg/áw;ŝ+ lg/á±wëf.
d±Ʈëf dƮ;ŝ+, dƮ;ŝ+ d±Ʈëf.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g

b'ŋ+ g b'ŋ;ŝ+, g b'ŋ;ŝ+ g b'ŋ+.
;d'boá g ;d'bo;ŝ+, g ;d'bo;ŝ+ g ;d'boá.
lg/á±wëf g lg/áw;ŝ+, g lg/áw;ŝ+ g lg/á±wëf.
d±Ʈëf g dƮ;ŝ+, g dƮ;ŝ+ g d±Ʈëf.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
b'ŋ+ b'ŋ;ŝ+, ;ŝf ;d'bo;ŝ+.
b'ŋ+ b'ŋ;ŝ+, ;ŝf lg/áw;ŝ+.
b'ŋ+ b'ŋ;ŝ+, ;ŝf dƮ;ŝ+.
;d'boá ;d'bo;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ;ŝ+.
;d'boá ;d'bo;ŝ+, ;ŝf lg/áw;ŝ+.
;d'boá ;d'bo;ŝ+, ;ŝf dƮ;ŝ+.
lg/á±wëf lg/áw;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ;ŝ+.
27

lg/á±wëf lg/áw;ŝ+, ;ŝf ;d'bo;ŝ+.
lg/á±wëf lg/áw;ŝ+, ;ŝf dƮ;ŝ+.
d±Ʈëf dƮ;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ;ŝ+.
d±Ʈëf dƮ;ŝ+, ;ŝf ;d'bo;ŝ+.
d±Ʈëf dƮ;ŝ+, ;ŝf lg/áw;ŝ+.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

b'ŋ+ g b'ŋ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g ;d'bo;ŝ+.
b'ŋ+ g b'ŋ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g lg/áw;ŝ+.
b'ŋ+ g b'ŋ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g dƮ;ŝ+.
;d'boá g ;d'bo;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ;ŝ+.
;d'boá g ;d'bo;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g lg/áw;ŝ+.
;d'boá g ;d'bo;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g dƮ;ŝ+.
lg/á±wëf g lg/áw;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ;ŝ+.
lg/á±wëf g lg/áw;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g ;d'bo;ŝ+.
lg/á±wëf g lg/áw;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g dƮ;ŝ+.
d±Ʈëf g dƮ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ;ŝ+.
d±Ʈëf g dƮ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g ;d'bo;ŝ+.
d±Ʈëf g dƮ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g lg/áw;ŝ+.

;'ź;ŝjf/á
cg'nád+
b'ŋ+ ;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ+.
;d'boá ;ŝ+, ;ŝf ;d'boá.
lg/á±wëf ;ŝ+, ;ŝf lg/á±wëf.
d±Ʈëf ;ŝ+, ;ŝf d±Ʈëf.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g

b'ŋ+ g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ+.
;d'boá g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g ;d'boá.
lg/á±wëf g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g lg/á±wëf.
d±Ʈëf g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g d±Ʈëf.

;'ź;ŝd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
b'ŋ+ ;ŝ+, ;ŝf ;d'boá.
b'ŋ+ ;ŝ+, ;ŝf lg/á±wëf.
b'ŋ+ ;ŝ+, ;ŝf d±Ʈëf.
;d'boá ;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ+»k]0 ;ŝf d±Ʈëf.
lg/á±wëf ;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ+»k]0 ;ŝf d±Ʈëf.
d±Ʈëf ;ŝ+, ;ŝf b'ŋ+.
d±Ʈëf ;ŝ+, ;ŝf ;d'boá.
d±Ʈëf ;ŝ+, ;ŝf lg/á±wëf.

28

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

b'ŋ+ g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g ;d'boá.
b'ŋ+ g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g lg/á±wëf.
b'ŋ+ g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g d±Ʈëf.
;d'boá g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ+»k]0 g ;ŝf g d±Ʈëf.
lg/á±wëf g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ+»k]0 g ;ŝf g d±Ʈëf.
d±Ʈëf g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g b'ŋ+.
d±Ʈëf g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g ;d'boá.
d±Ʈëf g ;ŝ+, g ;ŝf g lg/á±wëf.
;ŝodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

;řf/ods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
toá ;řf/f ‘od02=;řf/ods=1cfboá’ _ sĕo;řf/á jrL;řf/á lrų;řf/á. cƧf;kƧf;f sĕo;řf/á,
ljtŊþljrf/f jrL;řf/á, ;ţf r j]bgf r lrų;řf/á, &k]ŷf ljtŊþljrf/] ;Ƒ]lk lrų;ƕo'ųsĕ wƙf lrų;řf/á.

kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
sĕoá sĕo;řf/á, sĕo;řf/á sĕoá.
jrL jrL;řf/á, jrL;řf/á jrL.
lrų+ lrų;řf/á, lrų;řf/á lrų+.

kŝgLs+þ
g sĕoá g sĕo;řf/á, g sĕo;řf/á g sĕoá.
g jrL g jrL;řf/á, g jrL;řf/á g jrL.
g lrų+ g lrų;řf/á, g lrų;řf/á g lrų+.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
sĕoá
sĕoá
jrL
jrL
lrų+
lrų+

sĕo;řf/á, ;řf/f jrL;řf/á.
sĕo;řf/á, ;řf/f lrų;řf/á.
jrL;řf/á, ;řf/f sĕo;řf/á.
jrL;řf/á, ;řf/f lrų;řf/á.
lrų;řf/á, ;řf/f sĕo;řf/á.
lrų;řf/á, ;řf/f jrL;řf/á.

29

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g

sĕoá
sĕoá
jrL
jrL
lrų+
lrų+

g
g
g
g
g
g

sĕo;řf/á, g ;řf/f g jrL;řf/á.
sĕo;řf/á, g ;řf/f g lrų;řf/á.
jrL;řf/á, g ;řf/f g sĕo;řf/á.
jrL;řf/á, g ;řf/f g lrų;řf/á.
lrų;řf/á, g ;řf/f g sĕo;řf/á.
lrų;řf/á, g ;řf/f g jrL;řf/á.

;'ź;řf/jf/á
cg'nád+
sĕo;řf/á jrL;řf/á, jrL;řf/á sĕo;řf/á.
sĕo;řf/á lrų;řf/á, lrų;řf/á sĕo;řf/á.
jrL;řf/á lrų;řf/á, lrų;řf/á jrL;řf/á.

kŝgLs+þ
g sĕo;řf/á g jrL;řf/á, g jrL;řf/á g sĕo;řf/á.
g sĕo;řf/á g lrų;řf/á, g lrų;řf/á g sĕo;řf/á.
g jrL;řf/á g lrų;řf/á, g lrų;řf/á g jrL;řf/á.
;řf/odsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

cg';oods+þ
;ųfg';of ‘od02=cg';oods=1’ _ sĕd/fufg';oá kl#fg';oá
ej/fufg';oá cljşĕg';oá.

dfgfg';oá lbŪfg';oá ljlrlsŞfg';oá

cg';oodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

lrųods+þ
;'źlrų;fdţ+
k'Ʈnjf/á
1= pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt ‘od02=lrųods=1cfboá’, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg
lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt.
oƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt
30

pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt lg?Ţlt.

2= pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt.
oƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt.

3= lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
oƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.

4= pƍfbjf/á





lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+

pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt.
g pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt.
g pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
g pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

5= lg/áwjf/á





lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.
lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.
lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ.
lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ.

6= pƍfblg/áwjf/á





lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+

pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt.
g pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt.
g pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
g pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

7= pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt.
oƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşlt.

8= pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ lrų+ pƍşdfg+, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍşdfg+.
oƧ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+.

31

9= lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+.
oƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+.

10= pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á



lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+

pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+.
g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+.
pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+.
g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+.

11= ctLtfgfutjf/á
oƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, gá r tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, gá r tƧ lrų+
pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
oƧ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, gá r tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, gá
r tƧ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

12= pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á
pƍƉ+ pƍşdfg+, pƍşdfg+ pƍƉ+.
g pƍƉ+ g pƍşdfg+, g pƍşdfg+ g pƍƉ+.

13= lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á
lg?ź+ lg?Ţdfg+, lg?Ţdfg+ lg?ź+.
g lg?ź+ g lg?Ţdfg+, g lg?Ţdfg+ g lg?ź+.

14= cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á
oƧ lrų+ pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ lrų+. oƧ jf
kg lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ lrų+.
oƧ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, g lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ lrų+.
oƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, g pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ lrų+.

;'źlrų;fdţ+
wƙjf/á
1= pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt, t+
lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt, t+
lrų+ g pƍşlt lg?Ţlt.

32

2= pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.

3= lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
o+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.

4= pƍfbjf/á
o+
o+
o+
o+
o+
o+

lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
lrų+ g pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
lrų+ g pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
lrų+ pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

5= lg/áwjf/á
o+
o+
o+
o+
o+
o+

lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+

lg?Ţlt, t+
g lg?Ţlt,
lg?Ţlt, t+
g lg?Ţlt,
lg?lŢŴ, t+
g lg?lŢŴ,

lrų+ lg?lŢŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.
lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.
lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ.
t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ.

6= pƍfblg/áwjf/á
o+
o+
o+
o+
o+
o+

lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
lrų+ g pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
lrų+ g pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
lrų+ pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

7= pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.

8= pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á
o+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+, t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+, t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+.

9= lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á
o+ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+, t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+.

33

o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+, t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+.

10= pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á
o+
o+
o+
o+

lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+.
lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+.
lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+.
lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+.

11= ctLtfgfutjf/á
o+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, gá r t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, gá r t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+,
t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
o+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, gá r t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. o+ jf kg lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, gá r t+
lrų+ g pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

12= pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á
pƍƉ+ pƍşdfg+, pƍşdfg+ pƍƉ+.
g pƍƉ+ g pƍşdfg+, g pƍşdfg+ g pƍƉ+.

13= lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á
lg?ź+ lg?Ţdfg+, lg?Ţdfg+ lg?ź+.
g lg?ź+ g lg?Ţdfg+, g lg?Ţdfg+ g lg?ź+.

14= cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á
o+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ t+ lrų+. o+ jf kg
lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ t+ lrų+.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, g lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ t+ lrų+. o+ jf
kg lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, g pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ t+ lrų+.

;'źlrų;fdţ+
k'Ʈnwƙjf/á
1= pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g
pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt
pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt lg?Ţlt.

2= pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
34

3= lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt.

4= pƍfbjf/á




pƍşlt.

o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g

oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g

pƍlşŴ.

5= lg/áwjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g
lg?Ţlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g
lg?Ţlt.

oƧ o+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g

lg?lŢŴ.

6= pƍfblg/áwjf/á

pƍşlt.




o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g

oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g
pƍlşŴ.

7= pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍşlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍşlt.

8= pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+.

35

9= lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+.

10= pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á



o+
o+
o+
o+

lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+

pƍƉ+, tƧ t+
g pƍƉ+, tƧ
pƍƉ+, tƧ t+
g pƍƉ+, tƧ

lrų+ pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+.
t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+.
lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+.
t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+.

11= ctLtfgfutjf/á
oƧ o+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, gá r tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ pƍlşƧlt, gá
r tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ.
oƧ o+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ, gá r tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg o+ lrų+ g
pƍlşƧlt, gá r tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍƉ+, tƧ t+ lrų+ g pƍlşŴ.

12= pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á
pƍƉ+ pƍşdfg+, pƍşdfg+ pƍƉ+.
g pƍƉ+ g pƍşdfg+, g pƍşdfg+ g pƍƉ+.

13= lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á
lg?ź+ lg?Ţdfg+, lg?Ţdfg+ lg?ź+.
g lg?ź+ g lg?Ţdfg+, g lg?Ţdfg+ g lg?ź+.

14= cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á

oƧ jf kg o+

lrų+. oƧ jf
t+ lrų+.

o+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ t+ lrų+.
lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ t+ lrų+.
o+ lrų+ g pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, g lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ t+
kg o+ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, g pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+ tƧ

;'ųƃlrųldƧslj;];á
oƧ ;/fu+ lrų+ pƍşlt»k]0 oƧ jLt/fu+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ ;bá;+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ jLtbá;+
pƍşlt. oƧ ;dáx+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ jLtdáx+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ ;+lvų+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ ljlŋų+
pƍşlt. oƧ dxƮt+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ cdxƮt+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ ;pų/+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ cg'ų/+
pƍşlt. oƧ ;dflxt+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ c;dflxt+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ ljd'ų+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ cljd'ų+
pƍşlt.

lrų+
lrų+
lrų+
lrų+

clewƙlrųldƧslj;];á
oƧ s';n+ lrų+ pƍşlt»k]0 oƧ cs';n+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ cƓfst+ lrų+ pƍşlt. oƧ ;'vfo j]bgfo
;ƕo'ų+ lrų+ pƍşlt.
‘Pt]g pkfo]g ofj ;/)c/)f pźl/tƑf.’

36

oƧ c/)+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt, tƧ c/)+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg c/)+ lrų+
lg?lŢƧlt g pƍlşƧlt, tƧ c/)+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt.
lrųodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

wƙods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
kb;áwgjf/á
cg'nád+
s';nf s';nf wƙf ‘od03=wƙods=1cfboá’. s';nf wƙf s';nf.
cs';nf cs';nf wƙf. cs';nf wƙf cs';nf.
cƓfstf cƓfstf wƙf. cƓfstf wƙf cƓfstf.

kŝgLs+þ
g s';nf g s';nf wƙf. g s';nf wƙf g s';nf.
g cs';nf g cs';nf wƙf. g cs';nf wƙf g cs';nf.
g cƓfstf g cƓfstf wƙf. g cƓfstf wƙf g cƓfstf.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
s';nf s';nf wƙf. wƙf cs';nf wƙf.
s';nf s';nf wƙf. wƙf cƓfstf wƙf.
cs';nf cs';nf wƙf. wƙf s';nf wƙf.
cs';nf cs';nf wƙf. wƙf cƓfstf wƙf.
cƓfstf cƓfstf wƙf. wƙf s';nf wƙf.
cƓfstf cƓfstf wƙf. wƙf cs';nf wƙf.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g

s';nf g s';nf wƙf. g wƙf g cs';nf wƙf.
s';nf g s';nf wƙf. g wƙf g cƓfstf wƙf.
cs';nf g cs';nf wƙf. g wƙf g s';nf wƙf.
cs';nf g cs';nf wƙf. g wƙf g cƓfstf wƙf.
cƓfstf g cƓfstf wƙf. g wƙf g s';nf wƙf.
cƓfstf g cƓfstf wƙf. g wƙf g cs';nf wƙf.

;'źwƙjf/á

37

cg'nád+
s';nf wƙf. wƙf s';nf.
cs';nf wƙf. wƙf cs';nf.
cƓfstf wƙf. wƙf cƓfstf.

kŝgLs+þ
g s';nf g wƙf. g wƙf g s';nf.
g cs';nf g wƙf. g wƙf g cs';nf.
g cƓfstf g wƙf. g wƙf g cƓfstf.

;'źwƙd"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
s';nf wƙf. wƙf cs';nf.
s';nf wƙf. wƙf cƓfstf.
cs';nf wƙf. wƙf s';nf.
cs';nf wƙf. wƙf cƓfstf.
cƓfstf wƙf. wƙf s';nf.
cƓfstf wƙf. wƙf cs';nf.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g

s';nf g wƙf. g wƙf g cs';nf.
s';nf g wƙf. g wƙf g cƓfstf.
cs';nf g wƙf. g wƙf g s';nf.
cs';nf g wƙf. g wƙf g cƓfstf.
cƓfstf g wƙf. g wƙf g s';nf.
cƓfstf g wƙf. g wƙf g cs';nf.
wƙodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

OlƇoods+þ
kŰlųjf/á
afjL;ltlƇoflg ‘od03=OlƇoods=1cfboá’ _ rŋ'lƇo+ ;áltlƇo+ #flglƇo+ lhlƢlƇo+ sĕlolƇo+ dlglƇo+
OlŴlƇo+ k'l/l;lƇo+ hËljltlƇo+ ;'lvlƇo+ b'lŋlƇo+ ;ádglƧlƇo+ bádglƧlƇo+ pk]lŋlƇo+ ;lźlƇo+ jLl/lolƇo+ ;ltlƇo+
;dflwlƇo+ klţlƇo+ cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+ clţlƇo+ cţftfljlƇo+.

kb;áwgjf/á

38

cg'nád+
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, rŋ'lƇo+ rŋ'.
;át+ ;áltlƇo+, ;áltlƇo+ ;át+.
#fg+ #flglƇo+, #flglƇo+ #fg+.
lhƢf lhlƢlƇo+, lhlƢlƇo+ lhƢf.
sĕoá sĕlolƇo+, sĕlolƇo+ sĕoá.
dgá dlglƇo+, dlglƇo+ dgá.
OŴL OlŴlƇo+, OlŴlƇo+ OŴL.
k'l/;á k'l/l;lƇo+, k'l/l;lƇo+ k'l/;á.
hËljt+ hËljltlƇo+, hËljltlƇo+ hËljt+.
;'v+ ;'lvlƇo+, ;'lvlƇo+ ;'v+.
b'ŋ+ b'lŋlƇo+, b'lŋlƇo+ b'ŋ+.
;ádgƧ+ ;ádglƧlƇo+, ;ádglƧlƇo+ ;ádgƧ+.
bádgƧ+ bádglƧlƇo+, bádglƧlƇo+ bádgƧ+.
pk]ŋĕ pk]lŋlƇo+, pk]lŋlƇo+ pk]ŋĕ.
;źf ;lźlƇo+, ;lźlƇo+ ;źf.
jLl/o+ jLl/lolƇo+, jLl/lolƇo+ jLl/o+.
;lt ;ltlƇo+, ;ltlƇo+ ;lt.
;dflw ;dflwlƇo+, ;dflwlƇo+ ;dflw.
kţf klţlƇo+, klţlƇo+ kţf.
cgţftţƧfdLlt cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+, cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+ cgţftţƧfdLlt.
cţ+ clţlƇo+, clţlƇo+ cţ+.
cţftfjL cţftfljlƇo+, cţftfljlƇo+ cţftfjL.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g rŋ'lƇo+ g rŋ'.
;át+ g ;áltlƇo+, g ;áltlƇo+ g ;át+.
#fg+ g #flglƇo+, g #flglƇo+ g #fg+.
lhƢf g lhlƢlƇo+, g lhlƢlƇo+ g lhƢf.
sĕoá g sĕlolƇo+, g sĕlolƇo+ g sĕoá.
dgá g dlglƇo+, g dlglƇo+ g dgá.
OŴL g OlŴlƇo+, g OlŴlƇo+ g OŴL.
k'l/;á g k'l/l;lƇo+, g k'l/l;lƇo+ g k'l/;á.
hËljt+ g hËljltlƇo+, g hËljltlƇo+ g hËljt+.
;'v+ g ;'lvlƇo+, g ;'lvlƇo+ g ;'v+.
b'ŋ+ g b'lŋlƇo+, g b'lŋlƇo+ g b'ŋ+.
;ádgƧ+ g ;ádglƧlƇo+, g ;ádglƧlƇo+ g ;ádgƧ+.
bádgƧ+ g bádglƧlƇo+, g bádglƧlƇo+ g bádgƧ+.
pk]ŋĕ g pk]lŋlƇo+, g pk]lŋlƇo+ g pk]ŋĕ.
;źf g ;lźlƇo+, g ;lźlƇo+ g ;źf.
jLl/o+ g jLl/lolƇo+, g jLl/lolƇo+ g jLl/o+.
;lt g ;ltlƇo+, g ;ltlƇo+ g ;lt.
;dflw g ;dflwlƇo+, g ;dflwlƇo+ g ;dflw.
kţf g klţlƇo+, g klţlƇo+ g kţf.
cgţftţƧfdLlt g cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+, g cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+ g cgţftţƧfdLlt.
cţ+ g clţlƇo+, g clţlƇo+ g cţ+.
cţftfjL g cţftfljlƇo+, g cţftfljlƇo+ g cţftfjL.

kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á

39

cg'nád+
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof ;áltlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof #flglƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof lhlƢlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof sĕlolƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof dlglƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof OlŴlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof k'l/l;lƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof hËljltlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof ;'lvlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof b'lŋlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof ;ádglƧlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof bádglƧlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof pk]lŋlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof ;lźlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof jLl/lolƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof ;ltlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof ;dflwlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof klţlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof clţlƇo+.
rŋ' rŋ'lƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
;át+ ;áltlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
;át+ ;áltlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
#fg+ #flglƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
#fg+ #flglƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
lhƢf lhlƢlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
lhƢf lhlƢlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
sĕoá sĕlolƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
sĕoá sĕlolƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
dgá dlglƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
dgá dlglƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
OŴL OlŴlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
OŴL OlŴlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
k'l/;á k'l/l;lƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
k'l/;á k'l/l;lƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
hËljt+ hËljltlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
hËljt+ hËljltlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
;'v+ ;'lvlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
;'v+ ;'lvlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
b'ŋ+ b'lŋlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
b'ŋ+ b'lŋlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
;ádgƧ+ ;ádglƧlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
;ádgƧ+ ;ádglƧlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
bádgƧ+ bádglƧlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
bádgƧ+ bádglƧlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
pk]ŋĕ pk]lŋlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
pk]ŋĕ pk]lŋlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
;źf ;lźlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
;źf ;lźlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
jLl/o+ jLl/lolƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
jLl/o+ jLl/lolƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
40

;lt ;ltlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
;lt ;ltlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
;dflw ;dflwlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
;dflw ;dflwlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
kţf klţlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
kţf klţlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
cgţftţƧfdLlt cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
cgţftţƧfdLlt cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
cţ+ clţlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
cţ+ clţlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfljlƇo+.
cţftfjL cţftfljlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'lƇo+»k]0.
cţftfjL cţftfljlƇo+, OlƇof clţlƇo+.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g ;áltlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g #flglƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g lhlƢlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g sĕlolƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g dlglƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g OlŴlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g k'l/l;lƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g hËljltlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g ;'lvlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g b'lŋlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g ;ádglƧlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g bádglƧlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g pk]lŋlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g ;lźlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g jLl/lolƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g ;ltlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g ;dflwlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g klţlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g clţlƇo+.
rŋ' g rŋ'lƇo+, g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
;át+ g ;áltlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
#fg+ g #flglƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
lhƢf g lhlƢlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
sĕoá g sĕlolƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
dgá g dlglƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
OŴL g OlŴlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
k'l/;á g k'l/l;lƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
hËljt+ g hËljltlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
;'v+ g ;'lvlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
b'ŋ+ g b'lŋlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
;ádgƧ+ g ;ádglƧlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
bádgƧ+ g bádglƧlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
pk]ŋĕ g pk]lŋlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
;źf g ;lźlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
jLl/o+ g jLl/lolƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
;lt g ;ltlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
;dflw g ;dflwlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
kţf g klţlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
41

g cgţftţƧfdLlt g cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
g cţ+ g clţlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfljlƇo+.
g cţftfjL g cţftfljlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'lƇo+»k]0 g OlƇof g clţlƇo+.

;'lźlƇojf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'.
;át+ OlƇo+, OlƇof ;át+.
#fg+ OlƇo+, OlƇof #fg+.
lhƢf OlƇo+, OlƇof lhƢf.
sĕoá OlƇo+, OlƇof sĕoá.
dgá OlƇo+, OlƇof dgá.
OŴL OlƇo+, OlƇof OŴL.
k'l/;á OlƇo+, OlƇof k'l/;á.
hËljt+ OlƇo+, OlƇof hËljt+.
;'v+ OlƇo+, OlƇof ;'v+.
b'ŋ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof b'ŋ+.
;ádgƧ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof ;ádgƧ+.
bádgƧ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof bádgƧ+.
pk]ŋĕ OlƇo+, OlƇof pk]ŋĕ.
;źf OlƇo+, OlƇof ;źf.
jLl/o+ OlƇo+, OlƇof jLl/o+.
;lt OlƇo+, OlƇof ;lt.
;dflw OlƇo+, OlƇof ;dflw.
kţf OlƇo+, OlƇof kţf.
cgţftţƧfdLlt OlƇo+, OlƇof cgţftţƧfdLlt.
cţ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof cţ+.
cţftfjL OlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfjL.

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'.
;át+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;át+.
#fg+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g #fg+.
lhƢf g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g lhƢf.
sĕoá g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g sĕoá.
dgá g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g dgá.
OŴL g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g OŴL.
k'l/;á g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g k'l/;á.
hËljt+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g hËljt+.
;'v+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;'v+.
b'ŋ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g b'ŋ+.
;ádgƧ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;ádgƧ+.
bádgƧ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g bádgƧ+.
pk]ŋĕ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g pk]ŋĕ.
;źf g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;źf.
jLl/o+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g jLl/o+.
;lt g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;lt.
;dflw g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;dflw.
kţf g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g kţf.
42

g cgţftţƧfdLlt g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g cgţftţƧfdLlt.
g cţ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g cţ+.
g cţftfjL g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g cţftfjL.

;'lźlƇod"nrŊþjf/á
cg'nád+
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof ;át+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof #fg+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof lhƢf.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof sĕoá.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof dgá.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof OŴL.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof k'l/;á.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof hËljt+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof ;'v+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof b'ŋ+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof ;ádgƧ+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof bádgƧ+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof pk]ŋĕ.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof ;źf.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof jLl/o+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof ;lt.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof ;dflw.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof kţf.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof cgţftţƧfdLlt.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof cţ+.
rŋ' OlƇo+, OlƇof cţftfjL.
;át+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
#fg+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
lhƢf OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
sĕoá OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
dgá OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
OŴL OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
k'l/;á OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
hËljt+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
;'v+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
b'ŋ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
;ádgƧ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
bádgƧ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
pk]ŋĕ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
;źf OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
jLl/o+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
;lt OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
;dflw OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
kţf OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
cgţftţƧfdLlt OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
cţ+ OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţftfjL.
cţftfjL OlƇo+, OlƇof rŋ'»k]0 OlƇof cţ+.

43

kŝgLs+þ
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g

rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;át+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g #fg+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g lhƢf.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g sĕoá.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g dgá.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g OŴL.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g k'l/;á.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g hËljt+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;'v+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g b'ŋ+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;ádgƧ+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g bádgƧ+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g pk]ŋĕ.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;źf.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g jLl/o+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;lt.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g ;dflw.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g kţf.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g cgţftţƧfdLlt.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g cţ+.
rŋ' g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
;át+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
#fg+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
lhƢf g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
sĕoá g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
dgá g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
OŴL g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
k'l/;á g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
hËljt+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
;'v+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
b'ŋ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
;ádgƧ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
bádgƧ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
pk]ŋĕ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
;źf g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
jLl/o+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
;lt g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
;dflw g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
kţf g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
cgţftţƧfdLlt g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
cţ+ g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţftfjL.
cţftfjL g OlƇo+, g OlƇof g rŋ'»k]0 g OlƇof g cţ+.
OlƇoodsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

odsdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

7= kŪfgdfltsĕ

44

x]t'kŝoá cf/ƙ)kŝoá clwkltkŝoá cgƃ/kŝoá ;dgƃ/kŝoá ;xhĕtkŝoá cţdţkŝoá lgƧokŝoá
pklgƧokŝoá k'/]hĕtkŝoá kŞfhĕtkŝoá cf;]jgkŝoá sƙkŝoá ljkfskŝoá cfxf/kŝoá OlƇokŝoá ´fgkŝoá
dƮkŝoá ;ƕo'ųkŝoá ljƍo'ųkŝoá clŴkŝoá glŴkŝoá ljutkŝoá cljutkŝoált ‘kŪf01=1=kŝo'Ź];’.
kŪfgdfltsĕ lglŪtf.

lgudg+
;ųƍs/)gfdtá clewƙdb];lo.
b]jfltb]já b]jfg+, b]jnáslƛ t+ k'/]Ķ
tƧfo+ dfltsĕ ;Ƒf, ;snƧflk pź/f.
lr/lŪtŴ+ wƙƧ, t+ kƮŲƃ' ;fwjáĶ
ƀfjL;lt ltsĕ r]j, t±yëj x]t'±uëfŞs+þ.
r"ńƃ/b'sĕ ;ų, ±uëfŞsĕ r ttá k/+Ķ
dxƃ/b'sĕ rflk, ttá r'Ź; lglŹ;].
±uëfŞsĕlg b'j] lklŪ-b'sĕlgŪf/;]lb;fĶ
ƀfrųfnL; ;'ųƃ-b'sĕ t]jlƃ kťwf.
;ųƍs/l)sĕ leƉf, wƙ;śl)dfltsĕĶ
clewƙdfltsĕkflń lglŪtf.
Ķ gdá tƧ eujtá c/xtá ;ƙf;Ɨ'źƧĶ

dáxljŞ]bgL
uƅf/Ƙsyf
1= sĕ?ţefljt+ oƧ, `f)rŋ' dxábo+.
cƈe"tƧ násƧ, hĕt+ ;fdţnárg+Ķ
2= t+ a'ź+ ;'ut+ wL/+, ;;źƙ+ ;;fjs+þ.
jlƆŷfg'Ƨl/ŷf r, ±yëfd]ŷf r ljgfos+þĶ
3= ±yë/] r ly/;Lnflb-u')fnŘf/;álet].
;f;g'şáts]þ wL/], k'Ƒs]þ j+;kfns]þĶ
4= lj;'lźb]jb]já o+, b]jfg+ ltb;fno].
kţfo b];oL tƧ, clewƙƧ dfltsĕĶ
5= of tƧf ljk'nŴfo, wƙ;śl)cflblx.
cg]s]þlx ksĕ/]lx, kflńcŪsyflx rĶ
6= cŴá ljlgŞoá r]j, ljeųá ;fu¿kdá.
cgƃgojálsŰá, b'ŋ]ĕufxá otá ttáĶ
7= ;df;]gflewƙŴ+, dfltsĕd'vtálvn+.
`ft'sĕd]lx ;'ź]lx, cƃ]jf;Llx oflrtáĶ
8= ;ŘlŬŷfg gotá, kflńcŪsyfut+.
cŴ+ ljlgŞoť]j, ;df;]g lg/fs'n+Ķ

45

9= ;fdlŴout+ cŴ+, lgsĕoƃ/lgƧ+.
dxfljxf/jf;Lg+, sdfetgofg'u+Ķ
10= bLkoƃá goţ"g+, ;bf ;ƙábsĕl/Ƹg.
dáxljŞ]bƸg gfd, sl/ƧfdŴjŰglƃĶ
uƅf/Ƙsyf lglŪtf.

1= wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ
ltskbŴjŰgf
tŴ clewƙƧ dfltsĕlt PŴ s]þgŪ]g clewƙáĠ wƙflt/]swƙlj;];Ū]g. clt/]slj;];ŴbLks]ĕ lx PŴ cle-;Źá
æafŃÜf d] b'ŋĕ j]bgf cleŊþdlƃ, gá klŊþdlƃ ‘;+0lg0 4=87 5=195 1022 d0lg03=384 389’, cleŊþƃjŰfÆltcfbL;'
‘;+0lg0 1=1 v'0kf05=1 ;'0lg0dśn;'ų¶ lj0j0857’ ljo, tƨf oyf ;d'lƧt];' ax";' %ų];' r]j wh];' r o+
clt/]sƍdf)+, lj;];jŰ;Ůfgť %ų+, t+ cltŞų+, oá clt/]sƍdf±)ëf, lj;];jŰ;Ůfgá r wh]ĕ, ;á cltźh]ĕlt r j'ŝlt,
Pjd]j colƕ wƙá wƙflt/]swƙlj;];Ū]g æclewƙáÆlt j'ŝlt.
eujtf lx ;'ųƃ+ kŷf
vƈfotgwft';ŝOlƇokŝofsĕ/fboá wƙf Psb];]g ljeųf, g lgƍb];]g, clewƙ+ kŷf kg cg]s]þlx golj;];l] x
lgƍb];táj ljeųf. Pj+ wƙflt/]swƙlj;];Ū]g æclewƙáÆlt j]lbtƑá.
s]þgŪ]g dfltsĕĠ dft';dŪ]g. dftf ljoflt lx dfltsĕ oyf kb'lds+þ d'vlƃ. oyf lx dftf gfgflj±wë k'ų]
k;jlt, t] kfn]lt, ká;]lt r, Pjdolƕ gfgflj±wë wƙ], cŴ] r k;jlt, t] r cljgƧdfg] kfn]lt, ká;]lt r, tƨf
ædfltsĕÆlt j'ŝlt. dflts+þ lx lgƧfo wƙ;ś)Lcflb;ųƍs/)j;]g ljŴfl/odfgf cgƃfkl/df)f wƙf, cŴf r tfo
k;'tf, kflntf, kál;tf ljo r xálƃ. tyf lx wƙ;śl)ƍs/±)ë rtƧá ljelųoá lrųljelų ¿kljelų lgŋ]k/fl;
cŴ'źf/ált tŴ gfgfgo]lx Ps"þggj'ltlrųljefljgL lrųljelų ljŴfl/odfgf cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/f xált, tbgƃ/+
Psljwflbgf ¿kljefljgL ¿kljelų ljŴfl/odfgf cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/f xált, tbgƃ/+ d"nvƈƀf/fbLlg lglŋlkŷf
b]l;tá lgŋ]k/fl; ljŴfl/odfgá cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/á xált, tbgƃ/+ t]lksƧ a'źjrgƧ cŪsyfe"tá cŴ'źf/á
ljŴfl/odfgá cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/á xált. Pjldb+ wƙ;śl)ƍs/)+ jfrgfdƮtá clt/]st]/;dųef)jf/lƕ ;dfg+
ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált.
tyf
ljeśƍs/±)ë
vƈljeśá
cfotgwft';ŝOlƇokŝofsĕ/;ltkŪfg;ƙƍwfgOlźkfbaáŢśdƮś´fgcƍdţfl;ŋĕkbkl;lƘbf`f)v'ŹsjŴ'wƙxboljeśflt
cŪf/; ljeśf ljeųf, t] ;'ųƃefhgLoclewƙefhgLoflbgfgfgo]lx ljŴfl/odfgf kŝ]s+þ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/f xálƃ.
Pjldb+ ljeśƍs/)+ jfrgfdƮtá kťƸt;dųef)jf/lƕ ;dfg+ ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált.
tyf wft'syfks/)+ æ;śxá c;śxáÆltcflbgf r'Ź;lj±wëg ljeų+ jfrgfdƮtá clt/]s%ef)jf/dųlƕ ;dfg+
ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált.
tyf k'Ʈnkţlųƍs/)+ vƈkţlų cfotgwft';ŝOlƇok'ƮnkţųLlt
%lƑ±wëg ljeų+ jfrgfdƮtá
clt/]skťef)jf/dųlƕ ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált.
tyf syfjŴ'ƍs/)+ ;sjfb] kť ;'ų;tflg, k/jfb] kť ;'ų;tfgLlt ;'ų;xƧ+ ;dáwfg]ŷf ljeų+
jfrgfdƮtá ;śLltcf/álktgo]g bL#lgsĕoƍdf)lƕ ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált.
tyf odsƍs/)+ d"nods+þ vƈfotgwft';ŝ;řf/cg';olrųwƙOlƇoodslƃ b;lj±wëg ljeų+ jfrgfdƮtá
jL;ef)jf/;tlƕ ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált.
kŪfgƍs/)+ x]t'kŝocf/ƙ)kŝoflbrt'jL;ltkŝo] ux]ŷf ltskŪfgflbrt'jL;ltlj±wëg
ljeų+ kŝ]s+þ
sltkoef)jf/lƕ ljŴfl/odfg+ cgƃfkl/df)ef)jf/+ xált. Pj+ cgƃfkl/df)fg+ wƙfg+, cŴfgť k;jgtá, kfngtá,
ká;gtá r ædftf ljoflt dfltsĕÆlt j'ŝlt. kfngká;gť]Ŵ ;ƙ'Ūfg+, lj/źfgť kflńcŴfg+ dfltsĕg';f/]g ;Ɵŋ]ŷf
;dfgogtá, /ŋ)tá r j]lbtƑ+. ;f kgfo+ kl/Ş]btá wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ ljeśdfltsĕ wft'syfdfltsĕ k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ
syfjŴ'dfltsĕ odsdfltsĕ kŪfgdfltsĕlt ;ųƉ+ ks/)fg+ cflblƛ &lktf ;ųljwf xált.
tŴ wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕ cflb, ;flk ltsdfltsĕ b'sdfltsĕlt b'ljwf. tŴ ƀfjL;lt ltsĕ ltsdfltsĕ gfd.
ƀ]rųfnL;;tb'sĕ b'sdfltsĕ gfd, ;f k'g cfxŝefl;tf ;fjsefl;tflt b'ljwf. tŴ ƀfjL;lt ltsĕ r]j, æx]t" wƙf g
x]t" wƙf»k]0 ;/)f wƙf c/)f wƙfÆlt Od] r ;t+ b'sĕlt co+ cfxŝefl;tf ;ƙf;Ɨ'źb]l;tf ;ųƉ+ ks/)fg+ dfltsĕ
gfd, tbgƃ/f æljşĕeflugá wƙf cljşĕeflugá wƙf»k]0 vo]`f)+ cg'ƍfb]`f)Ælƃ Od] ƀfrųfnL; ;'ųlƃsb'sĕ

46

wƙ;]gfklt;fl/k'ųŴ]/]g &lktųf ;fjsefl;tf gfd. Od] &k]ƃá kg ±yë/á g ;fd'Ŋ+þl;s]þg cųgá `f±)ëg &k]l;,
Ps'ųl/o+ kg Psslgkftb'slgkft;śLlt;'ųb;'ų/;'ų]lx ;dáwfg]ŷf cflewlƙsŴ]/fg+ ;'ųƃ+ kŷf clsndgŴ+ &k]l;.
;f k'g ;ƍb];lgƍb];j;]g ƀ] s]ĕŪf;f xálƃ. PŴ lx gj ltsĕ, Ps;ųlt r b'sĕ ;ƍb];fg+ ;fj;];fg+
gfd¿kfg+ kl/Ʈlxtųf ;ƍb];f gfd, cj;];f t]/; ltsĕ, Ps;ųlt r b'sĕ lgƍb];fg+ lg/j;];fg+ gfd¿kfg+ ulxtųf
lgƍb];f gfd. t];+ ljef±uëf tŴ tŴ]j cflj eljƧlt. tyf gfdnfej;]g lƀwf. ;Ƒ]j lx Pt] ltsb'sĕ cflbkbj;]g,
;Ƒkbj;]g rflt lƀwf gfd+ nelƃ. tŴ æs';nf wƙf, cs';nf wƙf, cƓfstf wƙfÆlt co+ tfj cflbkbj;]g
nźgfdá s';nlųs]ĕ gfd. æ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf wƙf»k]0 wƙfÆlt co+ ;Ƒkbj;]g nźgfdá j]bgflųs]ĕ gfd. Pj+
;Ƒ];lƕ ltsb'sĕg+ gfd+ j]lbtƑ+.
;f kg];f kťb;lx kl/Ş]b]lx jjlŴtf. ltsĕg+ lx Ps]ĕ kl/Ş]bá, b'sĕg+ r'Ź; æx]t" wƙf gx]t"
wƙfÆltcfboá lx % b'sĕ uƅtá r cŴtá r cţdţ;Ɨƈ]g slŰsĕ ljo, #f ljo r x'ŷf l&tųf æx]t'±uëfŞs]ĕÆlt
j'ŝlt. ttá ck/] æ;ƍŝof wƙfÆltcfboá ;ų b'sĕ cţdţ+ c;Ɨƈf s]þjn+ b's;fdţ]g plŝlgŷf ±uëfŞsƃ/] &lktųf,
cţ]lx r cƃ/b's]þlx r"ńsųf ær"ńƃ/b'sĕÆlt j]lbtƑf. ttá k/+ cf;jb'sĕbLg+ %Ɖ+ b'sĕg+ j;]g cf;j±uëfŞs]ĕ gfd.
ttá ;+oáhgb'sĕbLg+ %Ɖ+ j;]g ;+oáhg±uëfŞs]ĕ
gfd. tyf uƅcá#oáugLj/)b'sĕbLg+ %Ɖ+ %Ɖ+ j;]g
uƅcá#oáugLj/)±uëfŞsĕ gfd. k/fdf;b'sĕbLg+ kťƉ+ j;]g k/fdf;±uëfŞs]ĕ gfd. ttá k/+ ;f/ƙ)b'sĕboá rt'Ź; b'sĕ
dxƃ/b'sĕ gfd. ttá k/+ pkfbfgb'sĕboá % b'sĕ pkfbfg±uëfŞs]ĕ gfd. ttá lsn];b'sĕboá cŪb'sĕ lsn];±uëfŞs]ĕ gfd.
ttá k/+ bƧg]gkxftƑb'sĕboá cŪf/; b'sĕ clewƙdfltsĕo kl/oá;fg] &lktųf lklŪb'sĕ gfd. ljşĕefluob'sĕboá kg
ƀfrųfnL; b'sĕ ;'ųlƃsb'sĕ gfd. Pjd]ltƧf kťb;lx kl/Ş]b]lx jjlŴtfo tfj co+ cŴjŰgf eljƧlt.

s';nlųsjŰgf
oƨf kg]Ŵ ltsdfltsĕ cflb, tŴflk s';nlųs]ĕ cflb, tƨf s';nlųsƧ tfj _
cŴtá e"lde]bf r, kŝ]s+þ ;ƕoáutá.
pŹ];tá r wƙfg+, nŋ)flbljefutáĶ
;śxf ;'ţtá r]j, lj;oflbƍe]btá.
oyfg'¿k+ ;ƑŴ, j]lbtƑá ljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ cŴtá tfj s';nf wƙflt PŴ s';n;Źá cf/áŕfgjş%]s;'vljkfs]þ;' lbƧlt. co+ lx æslŝ g' eátá
s';n+, slŝ eátá cgfdoÆlƃcfbL;' ‘hĕ01=15=246 2=20=129’ cf/áŕ] lbƧlt. æstdá kg, eƃ], sĕo;dfrf/á
s';ná
oá ±vëf, dxf/fh, sĕo;dfrf/á cgjşáÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg02=361’
cgjş]. æs';ná ŷ+ /yƧ
cśkŝśfgÆlƃcfbL;' ‘d0lg02=87’ %]s]þ. æs';nƧ sƙƧ stųf pklrtųfÆltcfbL;' ‘w0;0431’ ;'vljkfs]þ. Ʃfoldw
cf/áŕ]lk cgjş]lk ;'vljkfs]þlk jųlt. o±yëj lx ¿ksĕo] lgƓflwtfo cf/áŕŪ]g s';n+ j'ų+, Pj+ c¿kwƙ]lk
lsn];Ɠflwgá cefj]g cf/áŕŪ]g s';n+ j]lbtƑ+. lsn];jşƧ kg cefjf cgjşŪ]g s';n+.
wƙ-;Źá kgfo+ kl/olųx]t'u')lgƧųlgşËjtfbL;' lbƧlt. co+ lx æwƙ+ kl/ofk')flt ;'ų+ ±uëƜÆlƃcfbL;'
‘c0lg0 4=102’ kl/olųo+ lbƧlt. æx]t'lƛ `f)+ wƙkl;lƘbfÆltcfbL;' ‘lje0720’ x]t'lƛ. æg lx wƙá cwƙá
r, peá ;dljkflsgáÆltcfbL;' ‘±yë/uf0304’ u'±)ë. æwƙ];' wƙfg'kƧL ljx/tLÆltcfbL;' ‘bL0lg02=373’
lgƧųlgşËjtfo+, Ʃfoldwflk lgƧųlgşËjtfod]j jũlt.
jrgŴá kg]Ŵ _ s'lŞt] kfkwƙ] ;nolƃ rnolƃ sƕ]lƃ ljź+;]ƃLlt s';nf. s'lŞt]g jf cfsĕ/]g ;oƃLlt s';f,
t] s';] n'glƃ l%ƆƃLlt s';nf. s'lŞtfg+ jf ;fgtá tg's/)tá `f)+ s';+ gfd, t]g s';]g nftƑf kl/jų]tƑflt s';nf.
cy jf s]ĕ;Ɵ+ j'ŝlt kţf, ttá s]ĕ;Ɵtá ;Ƙ"tųf s';nf. Ob+ kg cgƃ/] j'ųťflt lgƑrgƀo+ lsťflk lgƍl/ofotá
`f);ƕo'ųfgd]j o'şlt, ?ŃÜLj;]g kg t+;lb;tfo `f)ljƍo'ųfgƕLlt ux]tƑ+. oyf jf s';f peoefuut+ xŴƍb];+
n'glƃ, Pjldd]lk pƍƉfg'ƍƉefj]g peoefuut+ ;+lsn];kŋ+ n'glƃ, tƨf s';f ljo n'gƃLlt s';nf. cųgá kg ;efj+
wf/]ƃLlt wƙf, wf/Lolƃ jf kŝo]lx, wf/Lolƃ jf oyf;efjtá cfwf/LoƃLltlk wƙf. g s';nf cs';nf, ldųklkŋĕ
cldųf ljo s';nklkŋĕlt cŴá. g Ɠfstflt cƓfstf, s';nfs';nefj]g cslytflt cŴá. t];' cgjş;'vljkfsnŋ)f
s';nf, ;fjşb'ŋljkfsnŋ)f cs';nf, cljkfsnŋ)f cƓfstf.
Ƹs kg]tflg s';nflt jf wƙflt jfltcfbLlg PsŴflg, pbfx' gfgŴfgLltĠ lsť]Ŵ olb tfj PsŴflg, æs';nf
wƙfÆlt Ob+ æs';nf s';nfÆlt j'ų;lb;+ xált. cy gfgŴflg, ltsb'sĕg+ %Ŋþrt'Ŋþefjá cfkşlt, kbfgť c;Ɨƈá
æs';nf ¿k+ rŋ'dfÆltcfbLg+ ljo. cyflk olb Ptflg PsŴflg, s';nfs';nfƓfstkbfg+ ltŰlƕ wƙfg+ wƙ;efj]g Psųf
s';nfbLglƕ Psų+ cfkşlt. cy æs';nkbtá cs';nflbkbƧ cţų+ l;ofÆlt jby, g Ptflg PsŴflg. tbf wƙá
gfd efjá. efjtá r cţá cefjált. Pj+ cţáţfk]ŋĕo cefjųdfkƉ]lx wƙ]lx cgţ] s';nfboálk cefjf Pj l;o'lƃĠ
;Ƒd]t+ csĕ/)+, sƨfĠ oyfg'dltjáxf/l;lźtá, g lx æs';nf wƙfÆltcfbLlg kbflg oyf s';nf s';nflt, Pj+
cŴlj;];fefj]g klůt]lx cg'dtflg, gflk s';nf ¿k+ rŋ'df-;Źf ljo cţdţ+ cgánálstŴefj]g, cy ±vëf
cgjşOŪljkfsųflb;řftƧ cŴlj;];Ƨ, ;efj;fwf/)flbcŴ;fdţƧ r h]ĕtsų]g oyfŊþd+ cg'dtflg. s';n-;Źá lx
wƙ-;ŹƧ k'/tá j'ŝdfgá s';nfs';nflb;Ƒ;fwf/);fdţŴbLks+þ
wƙ-;Ź+ cs';nflbtá lgjų]ŷf cųgá cųgá
cŴlj;];ljl;ŪŴbLks+þ s/ált. Pj+ kŝ]s+þ leƉlj;ofglƕ g];+ lj;];glj;]l;tƑefj]g kjlųo+ PsŴtfo klůtfg'dttfo
47

oyfj'ųbá;f/ákg] sĕ/)+ j'ų+, ;Ƒd]t+ csĕ/)+. Pj+
ljlgŞoá.

ttá k/];'lk ;ƑŴ oyfg'¿ktá `ftƑ+. co+ tfj kbŴtá

s';nkbŴá
e"lde]bflt t];' s';nfs';nfƓfst];' wƙ];' s';nf tfj wƙf e"lde]btá rt'lƑwf xálƃ _ sĕdfjr/f ¿kfjr/f
c¿kfjr/f nás'ų/flt. co+ e"lde]btá ljlgŞoá.
;ƕoáutált Pj+ e"lde]btá rt'lƑwfglƕ g];+ kŝ]s+þ ;ƕoáutá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. tŴ sĕdfjr/f tfj
;ƕoáutá cŪljwf xálƃ. ;]Ɯlyb+Ġ ;ádgƧ;xut+ `f);ƕo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+. pk]ŋĕ;xut+ `f);ƕo'ų+
c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+. ;ádgƧ;xut+ `f)ljƍo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+. pk]ŋĕ;xut+ `f)ljƍo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf
;;řf/lƃ. tŴ OŪf/ƙ)tf, ;źfafx'Ɵtf, lj;'źlblŪtf, cflg;+;bƧfljtf r Psĕb; kLlt;ƗáŢśsĕ/)flg rflt Od]lx
tfj sĕ/±)ëlx ;ádgƧ;xutefjá j]lbtƑá. `f);ƕƸų kg kŴ]ŷf stsƙtá, Ɣƪflbpkklųtá, kţfb;sj;]g
OlƇokl/kfstá, ljŋƘg]g lsn];b"l/efjtá r ;ųljwwƙljro;ƗáŢśsĕ/)tá r `f);ƕo'ųtf j]lbtƑf. cųgá jf
k/];+ jf j;]g kjųá k'Ƒkoá±uëf ;řf/á gfd.
t]g pƍƉ+ ;;řf/+, tbefjf c;řf/ť j]lbtƑ+. Pt];' lx oyfj'ų;ádgƧ`f)x]t'+ cfuƙ kxŪá æclŴ
lbƉÆlƃ cflbgoƍjų+ ;ƙflbƸŪ k'/ŋŷf c;+;Lbƃá, k/]lx r cg'Ƨflxtá bfgfbLlg k'ţflg s/ált, tbfƧ ;ádgƧ;xut+
`f);ƕo'ų+ k&d+ s';n+ pƍşlt. obf kg j'ųgo]g xŪt'Ūá ;ƙflbƸŪ k'/ŋŷf cd'ųrflutflbj;]g ;+;Lbdfgá, cųgá
kl;řf/]g jf k/]lx jf pƧflxtá s/ált, tbfƧ tb]j ;;řf/+ b'lto+ s';n+ xált. obf kg `flthgflbklklųbƧg]g
hĕtkl/rof afnbf/sĕboá leŋ'cflbbƧg]g ;ádgƧhĕtf ;x;f bfgjƆgfbLlg s/álƃ, tbf `f)ljƍo'ų+ tlto+ s';n+
pƍşlt. obf kg `fltcfbLlx pƧflxtf Pj+ klkşlƃ, tbf tb]j rt'Ŵ+ ;;řf/lrų+ xált. obf kg ;ádgƧx]t'gá
cefj]g lj;'+ rt";'lk ljsƍ];' ;ádgƧ/lxtf xálƃ, tbf ;];flg rųfl/ pk]ŋĕ;xutflg s';nflg pƍşlƃ. Pj+ kŝ]s+þ
;ƕoáutá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
pŹ];tá r wƙfglƃ Pj+ ;ƕoáutá cŪlj±wë;' s';n];' kŝ]s+þ wƙfg+ pŹ];tálk ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. tŴ
k&ds';n] tfj kflńof ;¿k]g cfutf Ƹt; wƙf, o]jfkgsĕ gjflt Ps"þgrųfnL; wƙf xálƃ. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ mþƧá j]bgf
;ţf r]tgf lrų+ ljtŊþá ljrf/á kLlt jLl/o+ lrų]sƮtf hËljt+ ;źf ;lt lx/L cáųƍ+ cnáeá cbá;á cdáxá sĕokƧlź
lrųkƧlź sĕonx'tf lrųnx'tf sĕod'b'tf lrųd'b'tf sĕosƙţtf lrųsƙţtf sĕokfu'ţtf lrųkfu'ţtf sĕo'h'stf
lrų'h'stflt Od] ;¿k]g cfutf Ƹt;wƙf. %Ɔá clwdáŋ]ĕ dgl;sĕ/á tŶdŢųtf s?)f d'lbtf sĕob'ŝl/tlj/lt
jrLb'ŝl/tlj/lt ldŞfhËjlj/tLlt Od] o]jfkgsĕ gjflt.
kbefhgLo] kg _
æoƸƨ ;do] sĕdfjr/+ s';n+ lrų+ pƍƉ+ xált»k]0 tƸƨ ;do] mþƧá xált, j]bgf»k]0 ;ţf
r]tgf lrų+ ljtŊþá ljrf/á kLlt ;'v+ lrųƧ]sƮtf ;lźlƇo+ jLl/lolƇo+ ;ltlƇo+ ;dflwlƇo+ klţlƇo+ dlglƇo+
;ádglƧlƇo+ hËljltlƇo+ ;ƙflblŪ ;ƙf;Řƍá ;ƙfjfofdá ;ƙf;lt ;ƙf;dflw ;źfan+ jLl/oan+ ;ltan+
;dflwan+ kţfan+ lxl/an+ cáųƍan+ cnáeá cbá;á cdáxá cgleŢĕ cƓfkfbá ;ƙflblŪ lx/L cáųƍ+ sĕokƧlź
lrųkƧlź sĕonx'tf lrųnx'tf sĕod'b'tf lrųd'b'tf sĕosƙţtf lrųsƙţtf sĕokfu'ţtf lrųkfu'ţtf sĕo'hs' tf
lrų'h'stf ;lt ;ƕhţ+ ;d±yëf ljkƧgf kƮfxá cljŋ]ká xátLÆlt ‘w0;01’ _
Pj+ ;¿ktá plŹŪf %kţf; wƙf æo] jf kg tƸƨ ;do] cţ]lk clŴ klŝ;d'ƍƉf c¿lkgá wƙfÆlt ‘w0;01’ Pj+
o]jfkgsj;]g ;fdţtá plŹŪf, cŪsyfo+ rƧf t];' t];' ;'ųƍb];];' cfut] ux]ŷf ;¿ktá lglŹŪf %Ɔfboá gjflt kť;lŪ
wƙf cfutf. oƨf kg t];' ;¿k]g cfutf ´fgśOlƇodƮśand"nfbLg+ j;]g PsƧ]j ax'lsŝtfbƧgŴ+ k'gƍ'g+ ux]ŷf
kl/ofo]g %kţf;lj±wëg b]l;tflk culxtƮx±)ëg oyfj'ųf ;dƸt;]j wƙf xálƃ, t] kg ;ljelųsĕ cljelųsĕlt b'ljwf.
tŴ mþƧfboá cŪf/; Pssųf cljelųsĕ. j]bgfboá ƀfb; wƙf cŪƸt;ƍe]b]g oyfoáu+ ljeųųf ;ljelųsĕ, o]jfkgsĕ
kg cljelųsĕ Pj. tƨf t] ;Ƒ]lk lgƍl/ofo]g Ps"þgrųfnL; wƙfj xálƃ. xálƃ r]Ŵ _
mþƧflbkťs+þ kť´fgśflglƇoŪs+þ.
dƮśkťs+þ ;ųan+ d"nlųslƕ rĶ
sƙkylųsť]j náskfnb's+þ tyf.
kƧlźcfbL % b'sĕ, tLl) lklŪb'sĕlgltĶ
;ų/;lx /f;Llx, %kţf;]j kflńo+.
j'ųf ;efjtá Ƹt;, wƙf culxtƮx]Ķ
mþƧá hËljt;ţf r, r]tgf rf/kLltoá.
% b'sĕ sĕokƧlź-kd'vfŪf/;]ssĕĶ
lrų+ ljtŊþá ;źf r, lxl/cáųlƍolƕ r.
cnáeá r cbá;á r, ;ų lƀwf ljefljtfĶ
j]bgf ltljwf jLl/o+, ;lt r rt'wf dtf.
48

%źf PsƮtf kţf, ;ųwfj ljefljtfĶ
lj/tL cƍdţfoá, dgŊĕ/á %ƆdŢųf.
lwdáŋ]ĕ o]jfkgsĕ, gj]t] k&d] dg]Ķ
kť;lŪlj±wëg]j, kl/ofo]g b]l;tf.
gjflwsĕ r t]Ƹų;, wƙfj k/dŴtáltĶ
PŴ r ;¿k]g cfutf Ƹt; wƙf, o]jfkgs]þ;' rųf/á rflt rt'Ƹų; wƙf Psŋ±)ë lgotf nưlƃ, ;];f kg
s?)fboá kť s?)fk'Ƒefud'lbtfk'Ƒefuj;]g, sĕob'ŝl/tjrLb'ŝl/tldŞfhËj]lx lj/d)j;]g r lrųƧ kjlųsĕn];' Pj
pƍlşŷf cţyfg'ƍşgtá clgotf. t] r oƨf b'lŋt;'lvt;ųj;]g, sĕob'ŝl/tflbųoj;]g r kŝ]s+þ leƉlj;oųf Pstá g
pƍşlƃ, tƨf s?)fk'Ƒefuflbj;]g kjų];' kť;' lrųŋ±)ë;' lgotf rt'Ƹų;, s?)fbL;' Pslƃ kťƸt; wƙf pƍşlƃ,
s]þjn+ kg bfgflbj;]g kjlųo+ lgotf rt'Ƹų;]j pƍşƃLlt j]lbtƑ+. co+ wƙ'Ź];tá ljlgŞoá.
nŋ)flbljefutált Pj+ plŹŪfg+ wƙfg+ nŋ)/;flbtá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. m'þ;tLlt mþƧá. Ʃfo+ m'þ;gnŋ±)ëf,
;Ŝũg/;á, ;lƉkftkŝ'kŪfgá, cfkfyutlj;okbŪfgá. co+ lx c¿kwƙálk ;dfgá cf/ƙ±)ë m'þ;gfsĕ/]g kjųtLlt
m'þ;gnŋ±)ëf, ;f rƧ m'þ;gfsĕ/ƍjlų clƗnflbbƧg] ±vëń'ƍfbflbgf `ftƑf. Psb];]g kg cgƟLodfgálk ¿k+ ljo rŋ'+,
;Źá ljo r ;át+ lrųdf/ƙ)ť ;Ŝũ]tLlt ;Ŝũg/;á. lts;lƉkft;řftƧ kg cųgá sĕ/)Ƨ j;]g kj]lbtųf
;lƉkftkŝ'kŪfgá, mþnŪ]g kŝ'kŪfg]g kg]; j]bgfkŝ'kŪfgá gfd xált. tşĕ;dƉfxf/]g r]j OlƇo]g r kl/ŋt]
lj;o] cgƃ/fo]g pƍşgtá cfkfyutlj;okbŪfgált j'ŝlt. j]bgflwŪfgefjtá kg]; lgŝƙf ufjL ljo bŪƑá.
nŋ)fbL;' r t];+ t];+ wƙfg+ ;efjá jf ;fdţ+ jf nŋ)+ gfd, lsŝ+ jf ;ƕlų jf /;á gfd, pkŪfgfsĕ/á jf mþn+ jf
kŝ'kŪfg+ gfd, cf;Ɖsĕ/)+ kbŪfg+ gfd. Pj+ pkl/lk ;ƑŴ nŋ)fbLg+ gfgų+ j]lbtƑ+.
j]botLlt j]bgf, ;f j]blotnŋ)f, ;efje]btá kg];f kťljwf xált _ ;'v+ b'ŋ+ ;ádgƧ+ bádgƧ+ pk]ŋĕlt.
tŴ OŪmþáŪƑfg'ejgnŋ)+ ;'v+, ;ƕo'ųfg+ pkƔ"xg/;+, sĕloscƧfbkŝ'kŪfg+, sĕlolƇokbŪfg+. clgŪmþáŪƑfg'ejgnŋ)+
b'ŋ+, ;ƕo'ųfg+ ldnfkg/;+, sĕlosĕafwkŝ'kŪfg+, sĕlolƇokbŪfg+. OŪf/ƙ)fg'ejgnŋ)+ ;ádgƧ+, oyf tyf jf
OŪfsĕ/;Ƙáu/;+, ;ƕo'ųfg+ pkƔ"xg/;+ jf, r]tl;scƧfbkŝ'kŪfg+, OŪfsĕ/bƧgkbŪfg+. clgŪf/ƙ)fg'ejgnŋ)+
bádgƧ+, oyf tyf jf clgŪfsĕ/;Ƙáu/;+, ;ƕo'ųfg+ ldnfkg/;+ jf, r]tl;sĕafwkŝ'kŪfg+, Psƃ]g xbojŴ'kbŪfg+.
dŢųj]blotnŋ)f pk]ŋĕ, ;ƕo'ųfg+ gfltpkƔ"xgldnfkg/;f, ;ƃefjkŝ'kŪfgf, lgƍLltslrųkbŪfgf. PŴ r ;'v+,
b'ŋť PsƃdƓfst+, bádgƧd]sƃds';n+, ;ádgƧ'k]ŋĕ kg l;of s';nf, l;of cs';nf, l;of cƓfstf. Ow kg s';nf
;ádgƧj]bgf clwƍ]tf.
gLnflbe]b+ cf/ƙ)+ ;ŧfgftLlt ;ţf. ;f ;ŧfggnŋ)f, kŝfleţf)/;f, k'g;ŧfggkŝolgldųs/)/;f jf
bf?cfbL;' tŞsĕboá ljo, oyfulxtlgldųj;]g clelgj];s/)kŝ'kŪfgf xlŴbƧscƈf ljo, cf/ƙ±)ë cgáufŃÜj'lųtfo
clr/Ūfgkŝ'kŪfgf jf ljş' ljo, oyfpklŪtlj;okbŪfgf lt)k'l/;];' ldukátsĕg+ k'l/;flt pƍƉ;ţf ljo.
r]t]tLlt r]tgf, ;Ƹź cųgf ;ƕo'ųwƙ] cf/ƙ±)ë cle;ƆxtLlt cŴá. ;f r]tgfefjnŋ)f, cfo"xg/;f, ;f
r s';nfs';n];' Pj xált. Ot/];' kg t+;lb;tfo ;+ljbxgkŝ'kŪfgf ;lsŝk/lsŝ;fwsĕ h]Ūl;ƧdxfjŬlscfboá
ljo. cŝflossƙfg'Ƨ/)fbL;' kgfo+ ;ƕo'ų];' pƧfxgefj]g kjųdfgf kfsf xált.
cf/ƙ)+ lrƃ]tLlt lrų+, ljţf)+. ljŴf/tá kgƧ jrgŴá lrųb's]þ cflj eljƧlt. tb]t+ ljhĕggnŋ)+ lrų+,
k'Ƒśd/;+, lg/ƃ/ƍjlųtá ;ƈfgkŝ'kŪfg+, gfd¿kkbŪfg+.
ljtŊ]þlt öx]lt, ljtŊþgdųd]j jf ;ált ljtŊþá. Ʃfodf/ƙ±)ë lrųƧ
cle/ákgnŋ±)ëf,
cfxggkl/ofxgg/;á, cf/ƙ±)ë lrųƧ cfgogkŝ'kŪfgá.
cf/ƙ±)ë t]g lrų+ ljr/lt, ljr/)dųd]j jf ;ált ljrf/á. Ʃfodf/ƙ)fg'dşgnŋ±)ëf,

;xhĕtfg'oáhg/;á, lrųƧ cg'ƍaƈgkŝ'kŪfgá. clelg/ákgfg'dşgj;]g kg];+ oyfŊþd+ cáńfl/s;'v'dtfo #ŭfle#ftá
ljo r]t;á k&dflelgkftá ljtŊþá, #ŭfg'/já ljo cg'ƍaƈá ljrf/á. ljƎþf/jf r]Ŵ ljtŊþá cfsĕ;] pƍltt'sĕdklŋgá
kŋljŋ]ká ljo, ;ƃj'lų ljrf/á cfsĕ;]
pƍlttƧ klŋgá kŋk;f/)+ ljo. ;á kg g];+ lj;];á k&db'ltoŢĕg];'
kfsá xált. peálk kg]t] ;ƕo'ųwƙkbŪfgf.
lk)otLlt kLlt. ;f ;lƕofognŋ)f, sĕolrųkL)g/;f, mþ/)/;f jf, cábŕkŝ'kŪfgf,
;ádgƧ;xutlrųkbŪfgf.
jL/fg+ efjá, sƙ+ jf jLl/o+, ljlj±wëg jf pkfo]g ó/lotƑ+ kjųlotƑlƃ jLl/o+. tť pƧfxnŋ)+,
;xhĕtfg+ pkŴƘg/;+, c;+;Lbgefjkŝ'kŪfg+, æ;+lj±Ʈëf oálg;á kbxtLÆlt ‘c0lg0 4=113’ jrgtá ;+j]ukbŪfg+,
jLl/of/ƘjŴ'kbŪfg+
jf. Ob+ kg s';nkŋ] kbŪfg+, cs';nflbkŋ] kg ;fwf/)j;]g oyf tyf
jf
b'ŋljgábgsĕdtfkbŪfg+, ;ƕo'ųwƙkbŪfg+ jf. t+ ;df/ź+ ;Ƒf;+ ;ƕųLg+ d"n+ xátLlt bŪƑ+.
Ps]ĕ c±Ʈëf lj;oá cƧflt PsƮ+, lrų+, tƧ efjá PsƮtf, lrųƧ PsƮtf lrų]sƮtf, ;dflwƧ]t+ gfd+. ;f
clj;f/)nŋ)f, ;xhĕtfg+ ;lƕůg/;f gxfgLor'Űfg+ pbs+þ ljo, pk;dkŝ'kŪfgf, `f)kŝ'kŪfgf jf, ;'vkbŪfgf,
cs';nflb;fwf/)j;]g kg]Ŵflk kŝ'kŪfgkbŪfgflg j'ųgo]g oáh]ŷf `ftƑflg. lgjft] bLkŝLg+ l&lt ljo r]t;á l&tLlt
bŪƑf.
PŴ r lsťflk cf/ƙ)+ lelƆŷf cg'klj;ƃf ljo s';nkŋ] rųf/á wƙf cf/ƙ)+ cáufxlƃ ;źf ;lt PsƮtf
kţflt, t]g]j ;źf æcásƍgfÆlt j'ųf, ;lt r æclknfkgfÆlt, PsƮtf æcjlŪtLÆlt, kţf ækl/oáufxgfÆlt r
49

j'ųf. cs';nkŋ] r toá tŲf lblŪ cljşĕlt. t]g t] Pj æcá#fÆlt j'ųf. tyflk g];+ nŋ)flbtá gfgųlƕ l;źd]j.
cs';nkŋ] kg PsƮtf pźŝ;dfutųf æcáufxgfÆlt g j'ųf. cs';nwƙf lx Pslj;o] ;lƕůglsŝ]g ;dflwgf o'ųflk
pbsl;ų/h'Ūfg+ ljo tř)ţ]j ljls/);efjf xálƃ. t]g]j x]Ŵ pkrf/ƍgfƍlų g xált, s';nwƙf kg oƨf pbs+þ
cfl;lťŷf cfl;lťŷf cfs]ĕgdşgfbLlg sŷf pklnųŪfg+ ljo ;snlƕ lbj;+ lgŝnkjųg;dŴflt pkrf/ƍgfƍųflk xált,
tƨf tŴ cáufxgflt j'ųflt ux]tƑ+.
hËjlƃ t]g, hËjgdų+ jf tlƃ hËljt+, t+ ;xhĕtfg'kfngnŋ)+, t];+ kjųg/;+, t];ţ]j &kgkŝ'kŪfg+,
ofklotƑwƙkbŪfg+. cųgá l&ltŋ±)ë Pj r]t+ t] wƙ] cg'kfn]lt pbs+þ ljo pƍnfbLlg, g eśŋ±)ë. ;o+ leşdfgųf
;o+ kjlųtwƙ;Ɨƈ]g]j kjųlt lgofds]ĕ ljoflt bŪƑ+.
;Źxlƃ Ptfo, ;o+ jf ;Źxlt, ;Źxgdų+ jf P;flt ;źf. ;f ;Źxgnŋ)f, cásƍgnŋ)f jf,
k;fbg/;f pbsƍ;fbsdl) ljo, kŋƆg/;f jf cá#'ųf/sjL/k'l/;á ljo, csĕn'l;okŝ'kŪfgf, clwd'lųkŝ'kŪfgf jf,
;ź]ƜjŴ'kbŪfgf, ;źƙ;jgflb;átfklųośkbŪfgf jf, xŴljųaLhĕlg ljo bŪƑf.
;/lƃ tfo, ;o+ jf ;/lt, ;/)dųd]j jf P;flt ;lt. ;f clknfkgnŋ)f, c;ƙá;g/;f,
cf/ŋkŝ'kŪfgf, lj;ofled'vefjkŝ'kŪfgf jf, ly/;ţfkbŪfgf, sĕoflb;ltkŪfgkbŪfgf jf. cf/ƙ±)ë bŃÜkltlŪtųf
kg Pl;sĕ ljo, rŋ'ƀf/flb/ŋ)tá bájfl/s]ĕ ljo r bŪƑf.
sĕob'ŝl/tfbLlx lx/LotLlt lx/L, nşĕo]t+ clwjrg+. t]lxo]j cáųƍtLlt cáųƍ+, kfktá pƑ]uƧ]t+
clwjrg+. tŴ kfktá lhu'Şgnŋ)f lx/L, pųf;nŋ)+ cáųƍ+. nşgfsĕ/]g kfksĕg+ cs/)/;f lx/L, pųf;fsĕ/]g
cáųƍ+. c;'lrdlŋtƧ, clƮ;ƃųƧ r coáu'ńƧ ux]t'+ clj;xg+ ljo Pt];+ oyfŊþd+ lhu'Şg;ƃf;fsĕ/]lx kfkfs/)+
j]lbtƑ+. j'ųfsĕ/]g]j r kfktá ;+s]ĕrgkŝ'kŪfgflg Ptflg, cųk/uf/jkbŪfgflg s'njw"j]l;of efjá ljo,
náskfnsĕlg rflt bŪƑflg. pleƉlƕ kg];+ ;d'Ūfg+ clwklt ;efjá nŋ±)ëg rflt dflts+þ &k]ŷf oyfŊþd+
cŢųalxźf;d'Ūfgtf, cųnásĕlwklttf, nşĕeo;efj;lŮttf, ;ƍltƧjjşeobƧfljtfnŋ)tf r cŪ;flnlgo+ ‘w0
;0cŪ01an/fl;jŰgf’ ljŴf/tá ljeųf, clŴs]þlx t+ tŴ]j ux]tƑ+.
g n'ưlt Pt]g, ;o+ jf g n'ưlt, cn'ưgdųd]j jf tlƃ cnáeá. cbá;fdáx];'lk P;]j goá. t];' cnáeá
cf/ƙ±)ë lrųƧ c±uëwnŋ±)ëf, cnƮefjnŋ±)ëf jf sdnbn] hnlaƆ' ljo, ckl/Ʈx/;á d'ųleŋ' ljo, cgƟLgefjkŝ'kŪfgá
c;'lrlƛ klttk'l/;á ljo.
cbá;á crlůŊþnŋ±)ëf, clj/áwnŋ±)ëf jf cg's"þnldųá ljo, cf#ftljgog/;á, kl/ńfxljgog/;á jf rƆg+
ljo, ;áƙefjkŝ'kŪfgá k'ŰrƆá ljo.
cdáxá oyf;efjƍlj]wnŋ±)ëf, cŋlntƍlj]wnŋ±)ëf jf s';lnƧf;lŋųp;'ƍlj]±wëf ljo, lj;oáef;g/;á
cg'źá kbLká ljo, c;ƙáxkŝ'kŪfgá c/ţut;'b];s]ĕ ljo. toálk r]t] ;Ƒs';nfg+ d"ne"tflt bŪƑf.
clkr cnáeá r]Ŵ bfgx]t', cbá;á ;Lnx]t', cdáxá efjgfx]t'. tLlxlk r]t]lx oyfklkflof g]ŋƙ;ţf
cƓfkfb;ţf cljƸx;f;ţf xálƃ, tyf clwsögljk/LtƮx)fg+ cefjá, tyf lkoljƍoáuclƍo;ƕoáuOlŞtfnfeb'ŋĕg+,
hĕlth/fd/)b'ŋĕg+,
k]tlg/olt/Şfgultb'ŋĕgť
cefjá,
tyf
eáuldųcų;ƕlųkŝoefjá,
tyf
sĕd;'vkl/ŝfucųlsndykl/ŝfudlŢdklkųLg+ ;Ƙjá, tyf c;'ecƍdf)wft';ţfg+,
clgŝb'ŋcgų;ţfg+,
lbƑƔƪcl/oljxf/fgť ;Ƙjá xátLlt PjdfbLlx go]lx t];+ ljŴf/á j]lbtƑá.
PŴ r cdáxá gfd kţf, ;f khĕggnŋ)f. ljţf)+ ljhĕggnŋ)+. ;ţf ;ŧfggnŋ)f. Ƹs kg]tf;+
;ţfljţf)kţfg+ gfgųlƃĠ ;ŧfggljhĕggkhĕggd]j. Ptf;+ lx ;dfg]lk hĕggefj] ;ţfo ægLn+ kLtÆlƃcflbgf k'g
;ţ'ƍfbsdų]g cfsĕ/]g ;ŧfggdųd]j xált, chĕta'lźbf/sƧ ljo lrųjũflbefjdųfsĕ/]g sxfk)flbbƧg+, g ttá
pź+. ljţf)Ƨ kg oyfj'ų]g r ttá ljl;Ū]g r clgŝflbgf cfsĕ/]g hĕgg+ xált, ufldsk'l/;Ƨ ljo oyfj'ų]g r]j
pkeáuf/xtflbgf r cfsĕ/]g sxfk)flbbƧg+, g ttá pź+. kţfo kg t]lx r oyfj'ų]lx gfgƍsĕ/]lx r
dƮkft'efjflbx]t"lx ;Ƒ]lx cfsĕ/]lx khĕgg+ xált, x]/lţsƧ ljo oyfj'ų]lx r]j %]ss"þcź;f/flb;Ƒ]lx cfsĕ/]lx r
sxfk)flbbƧg+. kţfo lx chĕlgtƑ+ gfd glŴ. Pj+ ;ŧfggljhĕggkhĕggfsĕ/]lx Ptf;+ gfgų+ j]lbtƑ+. PŴ r
rŋ'ljţf)fbLlg ljtŊþjLl/oflb;xhĕtkŝolj/xtá ¿kfbL;' ;ţflsŝtá clwsljhĕgglsŝ+ sĕt'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ, ankl/)fosĕlg
ljo ;]gśflg kţfg'jųsĕg]j xáƃLlt j]lbtƑflg. t]gfx eujf ækťlx ljţf±)ëlx g slť wƙ+ klljhĕgflt cţŶ
clelgkftdųfÆltcflb ‘lje0766’.
sĕokƧƘg+ sĕokƧlź. lrųkƧƘg+ lrųkƧlź. sĕoált kg]Ŵ j]bgfboá toá vƈf. peálk kg]tf
sĕolrųb/yj"k;dnŋ)f, sĕolrųb/ylgƙŹg/;f, sĕolrųfg+ ckl/ƎþƆ;Lltefjkŝ'kŪfgf, sĕolrųkbŪfgf. sĕolrųfgť
cj"k;ds/pźŝflblsn];klkŋe"tflt bŪƑf.
sĕonx'efjá sĕonx'tf. lrųnx'efjá lrųnx'tf. Pj+ pkl/lk kbŴá
bŪƑá. sĕolrųfg+
u?efjj"k;dnŋ)f sĕonx'tf, lrųnx'tf r, t];+
u?efjlgƙŹg/;f, t];+ cbƈtfkŝ'kŪfgf, t];+
u?efjs/lygldźflblsn];klkŋe"tflt bŪƑf.
sĕolrųfg+ yźefjj"k;dnŋ)f sĕod'b'tf, lrųd'b'tf r, t];+ yźefjlgƙŹg/;f, cƍl#ftkŝ'kŪfgf,
sĕolrųkbŪfgf, t];+ yźefjs/lblŪdfgflblsn];klkŋe"tflt bŪƑf.
sĕolrųfg+ csƙţefjj"k;dnŋ)f sĕosƙţtf, lrųsƙţtf r, t];+ csƙţefjlgƙŹg/;f, sĕolrųfg+
cf/ƙ)s/);ƕlųkŝ'kŪfgf,
t];+ csƙţefjs/fj;];gLj/)klkŋe"tflt bŪƑf. k;fbgLojŴ";' k;fbfjxf,
lxtlsl/of;' ljlgoáuŋdefjfjxf ;'jŰlj;'lź ljoflt bŪƑf.

50

sĕolrųfg+ c±uënţefjnŋ)f sĕokfu'ţtf, lrųkfu'ţtf r, t];+ ±uënţlgƙŹg/;f, lg/fbLgjkŝ'kŪfgf, t];+
±uënţs/cƧlźoflblsn];klkŋe"tflt
bŪƑf. sĕolrųfg+ cşjnŋ)f sĕo'h'stf, lrų'h'stf r, t];+
s'lnefjlgƙŹg/;f, clhƛtfkŝ'kŪfgf, t];+ s'lnefjs/dfof;f±&ëƜflbklkŋe"tflt bŪƑf. ;Ƒ]k]t] kƧlźcfboá wƙf
sĕolrųkbŪfgflt j]lbtƑf.
Ƹs kg]Ŵ kƧźfboá wƙf pźŝfƸb ljgáb]t'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ, o]g Od] kƧźfboá wƙf g lj;'+ ljeųfltĠ gá g
;Ŋþálƃ, Od] kg ;lxtf Pj ;Ŋþálƃ, Ot/yf t];+ pƍlųof Pj c;Ƙjtá. oyf jf kƧźfbL;' ljşdfg];' dáxflxl/sĕbLg+
ph'klkŋefj]g cdáxlxl/cfboá xálƃ, Pjd]t]lk pźŝflbph'klkŋefj]g OlŞtƑflt ux]tƑf. oƨf r]Ŵ ƀLlx ƀLlx
Pj oyf;s+þ klkŋĕ xl/tƑf, tƨf t] Pt] Pj lƀwf ljeųf, g cdáxfboált `ftƑf.
o]jfkgs]þ;' %Ɔált sų'sĕdtfo]t+ clwjrg+, tƨf ;á sų'sĕdtfnŋ±)ëf, cf/ƙ)kl/o];g/;á, cf/ƙ±)ëg
clŴstfkŝ'kŪfgá, tb]jƧ kbŪfg+. cf/ƙ)Ʈx±)ë rfo+ r]t;á xŴƍ;f/)+ ljo bŪƑá. coť oƨf lj/lştƑfbL;'lk
g]ŋƙflbgf ;x náelj;lb;]g sų'sĕdtfsĕ/]g kjųlt, tƨf c;]vfglƕ pƍşlt. náeá kg ;'e;'vflbljkƟf;k'Ƒs]þg
cle;śfsĕ/]g]j kjųtLlt cod]t];+ lj;];á. Pj+ d]ųfs?)fbLglƕ náefbLlx lj;];á oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑá.
clwd'ŝg+ clwdáŋ]ĕ. ;á ;lƉŪfgnŋ±)ëf, c;+;ƍg/;á, lgŞokŝ'kŪfgá, ;lƉŪftƑwƙkbŪfgá, cf/ƙ±)ë
lgŝnefj]g OƆvLná ljo bŪƑá. gg' r ;źflk clwdáŋ]ĕlt j'ŝlt. tyf lx clwdáŋnŋ±)ë OƆŪ+ sĕ/]tLlt ;lźlƇolƃ
j'ŝtLltĠ ;ŝ+, ;f r ±vëf ;ƕ;fbgefj]g clwdáŋ]ĕ, co+ kg oyf tyf jf lgŞoefj]gflt g s]ĕlr lj/á±wëf.
lsl/of sĕ/á, dgƸƨ sĕ/á dgl;sĕ/á, k'l/ddgtá lj;lb;+ dg+ s/átLltlk dgl;sĕ/á, Ʃfo+ cf/ƙ)klkfbs]ĕ
jLlyklkfbs]ĕ hjgklkfbs]ĕlt ltƍsĕ/á, tŴ cf/ƙ)klkfbs]ĕ Ow dgl;sĕ/á. ;á ;f/)nŋ±)ëf, ;ƕo'ųfg+ cf/ƙ±)ë;'
koáhg/;á, cf/ƙ)fled'vefjkŝ'kŪfgá, cf/ƙ)kbŪfgá, ;řf/ŋƈkl/ofkƉá. cf/ƙ)klkfbsų]g ;ƕo'ųfg+ ;f/ly
ljo bŪƑá. jLlyklkfbs]ĕlt kg kťƀf/fjşgƧ]t+ clwjrg+. hjgklkfbs]ĕlt dgáƀf/fjşgƧ, g t] Ow
clwƍ]tf. PŴ rfo+ dgl;sĕ/á ;dƉfxf/dųfsĕ/]g cf/ƙ±)ë ;ƕo'ųfg+ koáhs]ĕ, r]tgf r]tálsl/ofefj]g, ljtŊþá kg
;Řƍfsĕ/]g, pklgŢĕogfsĕ/]g r clelg/áks]ĕ. t]g]j x]Ŵ kbefhgLo] ætŊþá ;Řƍált r, ´fgśÆlƃ r j'ŝtLlt
cod]t];+ lj;];á.
t];' t];' wƙ];' dŢųtf tŶdŢųtf. ;f lrųr]tl;sĕg+ ;djflxtnŋ)f,
ögflwstflgjf/)/;f,
kŋkft'kŞ]bg/;f jf, dŢųefjkŝ'kŪfgf, ;dƍjų;ƕo'ųwƙkbŪfgf. ;ƕo'ųwƙfg+ cŢ'k]ŋ±)ëg ;dƍjųfg+ cfhĕgLofg+
cŢ'k]ŋs;f/ly ljo bŪƑf.
k/b'ŋ] ;lt ;fw"g+ xbosƕg+ s/átLlt s?)f, ls/lt jf k/b'ŋ+ Ƹx;lt r, ls/Lolt jf b'lŋt];'
k;f/LotLlt s?)f. ;f k/b'ŋĕkgogfsĕ/ƍjlųnŋ)f,
k/b'ŋĕ;xg/;f, cljƸx;fkŝ'kŪfgf, b'ŋĕlee"tfg+
cgfyefjbƧgkbŪfgf. dáblƃ tfo t+;dlśgá, ;o+ jf dáblt, dábgdųd]j jf tlƃ d'lbtf. ;f kdábnŋ)f,
clgƧfog/;f, c/ltlj#ftkŝ'kŪfgf, ;ųfg+ ;ƕlųbƧgkbŪfgf.
sƨf kg]Ŵ d]ų'k]ŋĕ g j'ųfltĠ k'Ƒ] ulxtųf. cbá;á Pj lx ;ų];' lxtmþ/)j;]g kjlųo+ d]ųf. tŶdŢųtf
Pj r OŪflgŪ;ų];' dŢųfsĕ/]g kjlųo+ pk]ŋĕ. t] r wƙf lgotf, s]þjn+ kg g];+ ;ų];' d]ų'k]ŋĕefj]g kjlų
clgotflt. sĕob'ŝl/ttá lj/lt sĕob'ŝl/tlj/lt. ;];kbƀo]lk
P;]j goá. nŋ)flbtá kg]tf ltƧálk
sĕob'ŝl/tflbjŴ"g+ cjLltŊþdnŋ)f, ttá ;+s]ĕrg/;f, t];+ clsl/okŝ'kŪfgf, ;źflx/áųƍclƍŞtflbu')kbŪfgf,
kfklsl/otá lrųƧ ljd'vefje"tflt bŪƑf. Pj+ nŋ)flbtá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
;śxflt Pj+ o] Od] OdƸƨ sĕdfjr/k&ds';n] ljeųf Ps"þgrųfnL; wƙf, ;Ƒ]t] vƈtá rt'lƑwf xálƃ _
j]bgfŋƈá ;ţfŋƈá ;řf/ŋƈá ljţf)ŋƈált. tŴ /f;Ū]g ;ádgƧj]bgf j]bgfŋƈá, tyf ;ţf ;ţfŋƈá, lrų+
ljţf)ŋƈá, cj;];f mþƧfboá %Ƹų; wƙf ;řf/ŋƈált j]lbtƑf.
gg' r olb /f;Ū]g vƈá, mþƧfbLg+ tfj cg]sųf ;řf/ŋƈtf o'ųf, sy+ kg j]bgfbLg+ ltŰ+ vƈtfltĠ
pkrf/tá. kŝ]s+þ lx ctLtflbe]bleƉ];' j]bgf;ţfljţf±)ë;'
lg?ŃÜálk vƈ-;Źá tb]sb];];' Ps]þsj]bgfbL;'lk
;d'bfoákrf/]g jáx/LotLlt tb]sb];]lk tƑáxf/á, oyf ?ŋƧ ;fvfo l%şdfgfo æ?ŋ]ĕ l%ştLÆltcfbL;' ljoflt. Pj+
vƈtá rt'lƑwf xálƃ.
t] k'g cfotgtá b'ljwf xálƃ _ dgfotg+ wƙfotglƃ. ;ŧflt;dá;/)ŪfgŪ]g x]Ŵ lrų+ dgfotg+, ;];f
kg cŪƸt; wƙf wƙfotglƃ. Pj+ cfotgtá b'ljwf xálƃ. t] k'g wft'j;]g b'ljwf dgáljţf)wft' wƙwft"lt.
lgƧųlgşËjŪ]g x]Ŵ lrų+ dgáljţf)wft', ;];f wƙwft"lt. Pj+ wft'j;]g b'ljwf.
tyf cfxf/fgfxf/j;]g. tŴ mþƧá r]tgf lrųlƃ Od] toá wƙf lj;];kŝoų]g oyfŊþd+ æmþƧfxf/á
dgá;ť]tgfxf/á ljţf)fxf/áÆlt j'ŝlƃ, cj;];f g cfxf/flt. Ƹs kg]t] kŝof g xálƃ, o] g cfxf/flt j'ŝ]Ɯ'lƃĠ gá
g xálƃ, lj;];kŝof kg g xálƃ, mþƧfboá kg t];+ wƙfg+ lj;];kŝof xálƃ, lj;];tá j]bgfboá r cfx/lƃ.
mþƧfxf/á lx ltƧá j]bgfoá cfx/lt, dgá;ť]tgfxf/á toá ej], ljţf)fxf/á kl;lƈgfd¿k+. gg' r ;á ljkfs]ĕ, Ob+
kg s';nljţf)lƃĠ lsťflk Pj+, t+;l/ŋtfo kg ljţf)fxf/áŷ]j j'ų+. oƨf jf Od] æc¿lkgá cfxf/f ;ƕo'ųsĕg+
wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ cfxf/kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt ‘kŪf01=1=15’ jrgtá sańLsĕ/fxf/á ljo ¿ksĕoƧ pkŴƘsŪ]g
gfdsĕoƧ cfxf/kŝof xálƃ, tƨf Od]j æcfxf/fÆlt j'ųflt j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ cfxf/fgfxf/j;]g b'ljwf.
tyf OlƇoflglƇotá. tŴ ;źf jLl/o+ ;lt PsƮtf cdáxá lrų+ ;ádgƧj]bgf hËljtlƃ Od] cŪ wƙf
clwkltoŪ]g oyfŊþd+ æ;lźlƇo+ jLl/lolƇo+ ;ltlƇo+ ;dflwlƇo+ klţlƇo+ dlglƇo+ ;ádglƧlƇo+ hËljltlƇoÆlƃ j'ŝlƃ,
cj;];f g æOlƇofgLÆlt. Pj+ OlƇoflglƇotá b'ljwf.

51

tyf ´fgśf´fgśj;]g. tŴ ljtŊþá ljrf/á kLlt ;ádgƧ+ PsƮtflt Od] kť wƙf pklgŢĕogŪ]g
æ´fgśfgLÆlt j'ŝlƃ, Ot/] æc´fgśfgLÆlt. Pj+ ´fgśf´fgśj;]g b'ljwf.
tyf dƮśfdƮśj;]g. tŴ cdáxá ljtŊþá lj/ltųo+ jLl/o+ ;lt PsƮtflt Od] cŪ wƙf lgƜfgŪ]g,
ljdáŋŪ]g r oyfŊþd+ æ;ƙflblŪ ;ƙf;Řƍá ;ƙfjfrf ;ƙfsƙƃá ;ƙfcfhËjá ;ƙfjfofdá ;ƙf;lt ;ƙf;dfwLÆlt gfd]g
ædƮśfgLÆlt j'ŝlƃ, Ot/] æcdƮśfgLÆlt. kflńo+ kg nálsolrų] lj/tLg+ clgotųf, o]jfkgsųf r tf jş]ŷf
ækťlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf xátLÆlt ‘w0;058 121’ j'ŝlt. Pj+ dƮśfdƮśj;]g b'ljwf.
tyf anfanj;]g. tŴ ;źfjLl/o+ ;lt ;dflw kţf lx/L cáųƍlƃ Od] ;ų wƙf cslƕoŪ]g anfgLlt
j'ŝlƃ, Ot/] canfgLlt. Pj+ anfanj;]g b'ljwf.
tyf x]t'gx]t'j;]g. tŴ cnáeá cbá;á cdáxált Od] toá wƙf d"nŪ]g x]t"lt j'ŝlƃ, Ot/] gx]t"lt. Pj+
x]t'gx]t'j;]g b'ljwf. Pj+ mþƧfmþƧj]bgfj]bgf ;ţf;ţflrųflrųflbj;]glk j'ųgofg';f/]g oyfoáu+ ;śxljef±uëf
j]lbtƑá. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg kbefhgLo;śxjf/] ‘w0;0103cfboá’, tbŪsyfoť ‘w0;0cŪ058-120’
ux]tƑá. Pj+ ;śxtá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
;'ţtá r]jflt Pj+ vƈfbLlx ;ślxt];' t];' wƙ];' tlƑlgd'ųá sĕ/sj]bsĕlb;efjá cųf jf ;Ƨtá jf efjá g
pknưlt. ;'ţf t] wƙf cų]g jf cųlgo]g jf, s]þjn+ klŝ;d'ƍƉf, ;nŋ)wf/)tá wƙdųf, lgŝ;'vflb;f/lj/xtá
c;f/f, kjųslgofdsĕefjtá ckl/)fosĕ clgŝf, b'ŋĕ, cgųf, cgųlgof r x'ŷf kjųƃLlt cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg
kbefhgLo;'ţtjf/], tbŪsyfoť ux]tƑált. Pj+ ;'ţtá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
lglŪtf k&ds';nƧ cŴjŰgf.
b'ltofbL;'lk k&ds';n] j'ųgo]g wƙ'Ź];flbgf ;Ƒá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. g s]þjnť PŴ]j, Otá k/];'lk
;ƑŴ x]Ūf j'ų;lb;fg+ kbfg+, wƙfgť cŴá, ;Ƒá r ljlgŞoá PŴ j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑá. Otá k/+ kg ck'Ƒd]j
jŰloƧfd. b'ltolrų] tfj ;;řf/efjdųd]j k&dlrųtá lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j. b'ltos';n+.
tlto]lk wƙ'Ź];] cdáxfefjf OlƇodƮśand"n;śx];' klţlƇo;ƙflblŪdƮśkţfancdáxd"nfg+ kl/xflgof
;lźlƇofbLg+ efjáj lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j. tyf rt'Ŵ] ;;řf/efjdųd]j lj;];á. tltort'Ŵflg.
kťd%Ū;ųdŪd];' kg ;'v;ádgƧŪfg];' pk]ŋĕefjá, kLltof r cefjá. t]g]j ´fgś;śxjf/] rt'/śŢĕgtfj
lj;];á, ;];+ k&db'ltotltort'Ŵlrų;lb;d]j. pk]ŋĕ;xut];' r]Ŵ rt";' s?)fd'lbtf g pƍşƃLlt s]þlr jblƃ,
kl/sƙe"tfg+ kg]Ŵ tf;+ pƍlųof dxfcŪsyfo+ cg'ţftųf pkrf/ƍųf kg pƍşlƃ, g Ot/flt ux]tƑ+.
kťd%Ū;ųdŪdflg.
lj;oflbƍe]btált Pj+ wƙ'Ź];flbgf ljeųflg cŪ sĕdfjr/s';nflg cf/ƙ)ljefutá kŝ]s+þ %lƑwflg xálƃ
¿kf/ƙ)+»k]0 wƙf/ƙ)lƃ. tŴ gLnflbe]bleƉf, ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉcŢlųsaflx/cáńfl/s;'v'dflbe]bleƉf r jŰwft'
¿kf/ƙ)+ gfd. Pj+ ;Źf/ƙ)fbL;'lk oyfg'¿k+ e]bá j]lbtƑá.
PŴ r mþáŪƑlƃ cfkáwft'jlşte"tųo+, wƙf/ƙ)lƃ kťf/ƙ)flg jş]ŷf cj;];f ¿kf¿kkţlųoá j]lbtƑf,
;];+ tflb;d]j. s]þlr kg]Ŵ ærŋ'ljţf)fbLgdfkfyutflg Ptfgf/ƙ)flg ¿kf/ƙ)flbjáxf/+ nelƃ, cgfkfyutflg kg
ctLtfgfutb"/;'v'dflbe]bleƉflg wƙf/ƙ)fg]jfÆlt jblƃ, t+ g o'ų+ lbƑrŋĕbLg+ ¿kf/ƙ)tflbjrgtá.
cgfkfyutf Pj lx tflg lbƑrŋ'cfbLg+ cf/ƙ)+, g r tflg wƙf/ƙ)flg. ¿kfboá lx kť kŝ]s+þ ƀL;' ƀL;'
ƀf/];' PsƸƨ v±)ë cfkfydfuƄf t+t+ƀfl/shjgfg+, tbgƃ/] dgáƀfl/sĕgť ck/ef±uë r lbŪ;'tflbj;]gfg'Ƨ/ƃƧ
;'źdgáƀfl/sĕgť cf/ƙ)flg xálƃ. tyf lx gfgfjŰljlrųr]ltoflbbƧg+ s/áƃƧ, wƙ+ ;')ƃƧ, e]l/;ŹfbLlx jf k"hĕƸb
s/áƃƧ r uƈdfnfbLlg #floŷf, vfbgLoeáhgLoflbť ;floŷf, ;'v;ƖþƧflg cŴ/)kfj'/)fbLlg r m'þl;ŷf dgfkefj+
`ŷf t]lx r]ltok"h+ s/áƃƧ, tŴ tŴ cs';n+ jf pƍfb]ƃƧ, tƸƨ tƸƨ v±)ë uƞdfgflg ¿kflbkťf/ƙ)flg ;fvfo cŊþdg+,
kyljo+ %fofmþ/)ť Psŋ±)ë s'?dfg+ ?ŋ±Ʈë lgnLodfg+ klŋgá ;/L/+ ljo oyf;s+þ k;fbť #ũ]ŷf tƸƨo]j v±)ë
ejśrngkŝoefj]g dgáƀf/]lk cfkfydfuƄf ttá ejś+ ljlŞlƆŷf pƍƉfg+ cfjşgflbjáŪƑgkl/oá;fgfg+, jLlylrųfg+,
tbgƃ/fgť s';nfs';nflbhjgfg+ cf/ƙ)+ x'ŷf tbgƃ/f;' dgáƀf/jLyL;' r ck/ef±uë tyf¿k+ kŝo+ cfuƙ cųgf
k"hĕlbs/)sĕn];', lbŪ;'t#flot;flotm'þŪj;]gfg'Ƨ/ƃƧ, kŝŋtá cg'e'Ɯdfgflg ljo dgáƀf/] r cf/ƙ)flg xálƃ.
cyflk kťlx ƀf/]lx culxtk'Ƒflg a'ź¿kfbLlg, lbƑ¿kfbLlg r kťf/ƙ)flg ;jgj;]g ;Ɵŋ]ŷf hjgŋ±)ë
jf ck/ef±uë ;'tj;]g]j cg'Ƨl/ŷf jf k;fb+, sƙmþn;źfƸb, náeflbť pƍfb]ƃƧflk dgáƀf/] cfkfydfuŞlƃ. cleţfg+
kg ;'źdgáƀf/] Pj, tƨf Pj+ kťƀf/], dgáƀf/], ;'źdgáƀf/] r cfkfyutflg ctLtflbe]bleƉflg ;Ƒflglk kťf/ƙ)flg
sbflrlk wƙf/ƙ)+ g xálƃ, tlbt/f gfd¿kkţlųoá wƙf/ƙ)lƃ ux]tƑ+. gg' r]tflg OŪsƃdgfkflg cf/ƙ)flg
náeƧ jŴ', syd]Ŵ s';n+ pƍştLltĠ lgodflbsĕ/)tá. lrų+ lx æs';nd]j dof sųƑÆlƃ k'Ƒ] lgoldtj;]g ;ƑŴ
cs';nƍjƸų lgjų]ŷf s';n] kl/)fdgj;]g r cleŲ+ cf;]ljts';n;d'bfrf/j;]g r ;ƍ'l/;"klgƧoflbpklgƧoj;]g r
oálg;ácfe'lhtj;]g rflt Od]lx sĕ/±)ëlx s';n+ x'ŷf pƍştLlt j]lbtƑ+. Pjldd];' %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' pƍşgtá kŝ]s+þ
%lƑwflg xálƃ. cf/ƙ)jjŴfgsyf.
Pj+ cf/ƙ)e]bleƉ];' ¿kf/ƙ)+ tfj s';n+ b;k'ţlsl/ojŴ'j;]g b;ljw+ xált. tŴ Ps]þs+þ kg sĕosƙ+
jrLsƙ+ dgásƙlƃ ltljw+. tŴ sĕoƀf/] kjų+ sĕosƙ+, jrLƀf/] kjų+ jrLsƙ+, dgáƀf/] kjų+ dgásƙ+. tŴ
sĕoƀf/lƃ sĕoljţlų. jrLƀf/lƃ jrLljţlų. tf;+ ljef±uëf ¿kljelųo+ cflj eljƧlt. dgáƀf/lƃ ;Ƒ+ r]tgf;ƕo'ų+
52

lrų+ j'ŝlt, lj;];tá s';nfs';n+. t+ lx ;xhĕtfg+ r]tgfg+, sĕośjfrśrákg+ c;ƕfk'l)ŷf kjųfg+ ;'źdgásƙfg+
kjlųcásĕ;bfgtá ƀf/lƃ j'ŝlt, Od];' kg tL;' ƀf/];' kjųf r]tgf sĕosƙfboá gfd. clkr kf)fltkftfboá,
kf)fltkftfj]/dl)cfboá r sĕosƙ+ gfd, d';fjfbfboá, d';fjfbfj]/dl)cfboá r jrLsƙ+ gfd, cleŢĕboá, cgleŢĕboá
r dgásƙ+ gfd.
s';nkŋ] kg bfgflbb;k'ţlsl/ojŴ"lg r oyf/x+ sĕojrLdgásƙflg xálƃ. Pj+ o]e'Ɯj'lųtá r];
sĕosƙflbefjá j'ųá kf)fltkftfbLglƕ jrLƀf/fbL;' kjlųtá s]þ;lť k'l/;fg+ jgr/sĕlbefjá ljo, ƀf/fgť
sĕosƙƀf/flbefjá s]þ;lť ufdfg+ Ɣfƪ)ufdflbefjá ljo. cs';n] tfj PŴ kf)fltkftflbsĕosƙ+ sĕoƀf/], jrLƀf/] r
oyf/x+ ;d'Ūflt, gá dgáƀf/]. tyf d';fjfbflbjrLsƙ+. kf)fltkftflblgƎþfbgŴ+ lx dgáƀf/] Pj lrƃ]ƃƧ
r]tgfƓfkfbfbL;' sƙkyƍų];' jf sƙky+ cƍų];' jf dgásƙ];' Pj klj;gtá sĕosƙflbefj+ g kfk')flt. gg'
ljşĕdo]gflk s]þjn+ dgásƙ]g kf)fltkftfƸb s/áƃLltĠ g cná)eáhgbư;ogdƃkl/hƍgflbsĕojrLkoáu+ ljgf
tƧfl;Ţgtá. cleŢĕlbdgásƙ+ kg tL;'lk ƀf/];' ;d'Ūflt. cleŢĕo
lx sĕo]g k/eůƮfxfbLg+, Ɠfkfb]g
bůk/fd;gfbLg+, ldŞflblŪof ltlŴojƆgfbLg+ s/)sĕn], jfrfo k/;ƕlųkŴgfo æxţƃ' aŢƃ"Ælt cgŴkŴgfo r
ltlŴoŴ'lttbŴbLkgfbLgť oyfŊþd+ kjlųsĕn] r tƧ dgásƙƧ sĕojfrf;' kjlų j]lbtƑf.
sĕdfjr/s';n+ kg kf)fltkftfj]/dl)cflbs+þ sĕojrLdgásƙ+ kŝ]s+þ ƀf/ųo]lk kjųlt. tŴ kf)fltkftfbLlx
;Ɩþƍnfkkl/oá;fg]lx ;ųlx lj/dƃƧ tfj xŴd'Źfo, jrLe]b]g r ;dflbogsĕn], dg;f lj/d)sĕn] r t];+ sĕojrLsƙfg+
tL;' ƀf/];' kjlų j]lbtƑf. cgleŢĕbLlx ;xut]g r]t;f tşƧ sĕokoáuƧ, æk/ljų'ks/)+ lr/lŪlts+þ xát', ;Ƒ] ;ųf
cj]/f xáƃ', ;á eujf c/x+ ;ƙf;Ɨ'źáÆltcflbgf jrLkoáuƧ, s]þjn+ dgákoáuƧ r s/)sĕn] dgásƙƧ tL;'lk ƀf/];'
kjlų j]lbtƑf. PŴ r kťƀf/] pƍƉflg hjgflg sĕojrLsƙflg g xálƃ, dgásƙflg Pj. tflg r g sƙkyƍųflg,
s]þjn+ s';nfbLlg xálƃ. dgáƀf/] k't/ƍjųflg Pj lx sƙkyƍųflg dgásƙflg xálƃ, ¿kf¿khjgflg kg Psƃ+
efjgfdo+ dgásƙd]j dgáƀf/] Pj r kjųlƃ.
lsťflk cleţf`f)flg ljţlųƀohgsĕlg, tyflk sĕojrLsƙjáxf/+ g nelƃ, nás'ų/s';n+ kg sĕojrLƀf/];'
cg'ƍşdfglƕ ldŞfjfrfsƙƃfhËjfg+ ;d'Ş]bƍxfgsĕ/Lg+ lj/tLg+ j;]g sĕojrLsƙlƕ xált, tlbt/dƮśj;]g dgásƙƕLlt
Psŋ±)ë tLl)lk sƙflg xálƃ, tť efjgfdo+, ƀf/+ kgƧ dgáƀf/d]j. oyf r kf)fltkftfj]/dl)ofbLg+ j;]g s';nƧ
ƀf/ųo] kjlų j'ųf, Pj+ b;k'ţlsl/ojŴ"glƕ j;]g jųƑf. cŪsyf;' kg g ljrfl/tf, tyflk gotá Pj+ j]lbtƑf.
t];' bfg+ sĕosƙd]j, jrLsƙlƕ jf. kųfg'ƍbfg+, cưg'dábg+, b];gf jrLsƙd]j. ;Ln+ cklrlt;xut+,
j]Ɯfjŝ;xutť sĕosƙlƕ clŴ, jrLsƙlƕ clŴ. tŴ ;LnƧ sĕojrLsƙefjá l;źá Pj. cklrltof kg k'Ǝþk"hĕlbgf,
jƆgflbgf jf kjlųsĕn] sĕosƙefjá, y'ltdok"hĕlbgf kjlųsĕn] jrLsƙefjá r j]lbtƑá. j]ƜfjŝƧflk ;xŴf s/)sĕn]
sĕosƙefjá, lunfgfbLg+ rt'kŝo;dfbfkgflbj;]g, u¿lx cf)ų;Ź]g cf/árgkŊþá;gflbj;]g jrLsƙefjá r
j]lbtƑá. efjgf, ;jg+, lblŪh'sƙť dgásƙd]j, cưg'dábgƕLlt s]þlr. ;jglƕ lx ;átƀf/fg';f/]g dgáƀf/] Pj
wƙŴ;Ɵŋ)j;]g kjlųsĕn] dgásƙd]j.
tŴ bfg+ cklrlt j]Ɯfjŝ+ kųfg'ƍbfg+ b];gflt Odflg kť sĕojrLƀf/];' Pj kjųlƃ, g dgáƀf/]. PŴ r
kųfg'ƍbfgb];gfg+ sĕoljsĕ/]g kƸų b]ƃƧ, wƙ+ b];]ƃƧ r sĕoƀf/]lk kjlų j]lbtƑf. ;Ln+ efjgf cưg'dábg+ ;jg+
lblŪh'sƙlƃ Odflg kg kť tL;'lk ƀf/];' kjųlƃ, æg k'g]j+ sl/ƧfdLÆlt r]Ŵ dg;fj b'ŝl/ttá lj/dƃƧ,
cưg'dábƃƧ r j;]g ;Lnưg'dábgfg+ dgáƀf/]lk kjlų j]lbtƑf. o+ kg cŪ;flnlgo+ æbfgdo+ sĕojrLdgásƙj;]g
ltljw+ xátLÆltcflb j'ų+, t+ k'Ƒr]tgfj;]g dgáƀf/] kjų+ ux]ŷf kl/ofotá j'ų+, lgƍl/ofotá sĕojrLƀf/ƍjųf
;lƉŪfgr]tgfj. t]g]j lx tŴ]j j'ų+ æljgokl/ofo+ kŷf lx ‚bƧfld sl/ƧfdLƒlt jfrf leƉf xátLlt. Oldgf nŋ±)ëg
bfg+ gfd xált, clewƙkl/ofo+ kŷf kg ljşdfgsjŴ'+ cf/ư dg;f lrlƃtsĕntá kŪfo s';n+ xált. ck/ef±uë sĕo]g
jf jfrfo jf sųƑ+ sl/ƧtLÆlt ‘w0;0cŪ01’. Ot/yf æbƧfdLÆlt lrlƃtdų]gflk bfg+ gfd ej]Ɯ, tyf r
tflb;+ jŴ'+ oyflrlƃtlgofd]g cb]ƃƧ w'/lgŋ]k] clbƉfbfglƕ l;of. Pj+ dg;f kf)fltkftfboálk l;o'+, tť g o'ų+,
tƨf j'ųgo]g]j ux]tƑ+. cy jf æ;Ƒ+ ;fkt]Ɯ+ lbƉţ]j x/t"Ælt kl/ŝhg;Ƙjtá bfgƧ dgáƀf/]lk kjlų j]lbtƑf.
PŴ r bfg;Lnflbsĕosƙfg+ sĕoƀf/] kjlųo+ sƙ+ sĕosƙd]j, ƀf/lƕ sĕoƀf/d]j. jrLƀf/] kjlųo+ sƙ+
sĕosƙd]j, ƀf/+ kg jrLƀf/+. dgáƀf/] kjlųolƕ sƙ+ sĕosƙ+, ƀf/+ kg dgáƀf/+. b];gfưg'dábgfbLg+ jrLsƙfg+
jrLƀf/] kjlųo+ sƙlƕ jrLsƙ+, ƀf/lƕ jrLƀf/d]j. sĕoƀf/] kjlųolƕ sƙ+ jrLsƙd]j, ƀf/+ kg sĕoƀf/+. dgáƀf/]
kjlųolƕ sƙ+ jrLsƙ+, ƀf/+ kg dgáƀf/+. efjgflbdgásƙfg+ dgáƀf/] kjlųo+ sƙlƕ dgásƙ+, ƀf/lƕ dgáƀf/d]j.
sĕoƀf/] kjlųolƕ sƙ+ dgásƙd]j, ƀf/+ kg sĕoƀf/+. jrLƀf/] kjlųolƕ sƙ+ dgásƙd]j, ƀf/+ kg jrLƀf/+. Pj+
kf)fltkftfbLg+, kf)fltkftfj]/dl)cfbLgť j'ųfg';f/]g sƙjjŴfg+, ƀf/jjŴfgť oyfg'¿k+ oáh]ŷf c;Ř/tá `ftƑ+.
ƀf/sƙjjŴfgsyf lglŪtf.
Obflg oƨf b;ljwflg r]tflg k'ţlsl/ojŴ"lg tL;' Pj+ ;śƞlƃ bfgdo] ;Lndo] efjgfdo]lt. kųfg'ƍbfg+
lx bfgdo] ;śƞlt, æcưg'dábgƕLÆlt ‘w0;0cŪ0156-159k'ţlsl/ojŴflbsyf’ cŪsyfo+. cklrltj]Ɯfjŝflg
;Lndo]. b];gf;jglblŪh'sƙflg efjgfdo], tƨf ¿kf/ƙ)Ƨ s';nƧ
bfg;Lnefjgfj;]g ƀf/ųoƍjƸų oáh]ŷf
bƧ]Ƨfd. tbg';f/]g]j Ot/];+ j;]gflk ;Ŋĕ `ft'lƃ. s';n+ lx jŰf/ƙ)+ x'ŷf pƍşdfg+ bfg;Lnefjgfj;]g]j tL;'
ƀf/];' kjųlt. sy+Ġ obf lx gLnkLtflbjŰljlrų+ k'ƎþjŴflbb]Ɯwƙ+ nleŷf æjŰbfg+ d] eljƧtLÆlt jŰj;]g cfe'lhŷf
r]ltofbL;' ;xŴ]g k"h]lt, tbf ¿kf/ƙ)+ bfgdo+ sĕoƀf/] kjųlt, tť k'Ƒr]tgf ;lƉŪfgr]tgf ck/r]tgflt ltljw+
53

xált. Pj+ pkl/lk ;Ƒjf/];' ltljwtf j]lbtƑf. obf kg tb]j oyfj'ųjŴ'+ jfrfo cf)fk]ŷf k'ųbf/fbLlx bfk]lt,
tbf¿kf/ƙ)+ bfgdo+ jrLƀf/] kjųlt. obf kg tb]j ljşdfgsjŴ'+ æbƧfdLÆlt lrƃ]lt, kŝf;L;lt, oyflwƍfo+
lgƎþfb]Ƨlt, tbf k'Ƒr]tgfj;]g kl/ofotá bfgdo+ dgáƀf/] kjųlt gfd. Pj+ ¿kf/ƙ)+ bfgdo+ ƀf/j;]g ltljw+
xált.
obf kg j'ųƍsĕ/jŰ+ b]Ɯwƙ+ nleŷf æPj+ dgfkjŰfg+ kl/ŝhg+ gfd dƞ+ s'nj+;futjųd]tÆlƃ ;xŴf k"h]lt,
tflb;jŰjƃ+ jf k/kl/Ʈlxtflbeáu;ƕƸų kl/ŝlhŷf ;Ln+ /ŋlt, tbf ¿kf/ƙ)+ ;Ln+ sĕoƀf/] r kjųlt. obf kg
j'ųƍsĕ/jŰ+ b]Ɯwƙ+ s'nj+;flbj;]g jfrfo cf)fk]ŷf k/]lx bfk]lt, tflb;+ jf k/kl/ƮlxtfƸb jfrfo ckg]ŷf ;Ln+
/ŋlt, tbf ¿kf/ƙ)+ ;Ln+ jrLƀf/] kjųlt. obf kg tflb;+ ljşdfgsjŴ'+ s'nj+;flbj;]g æbƧfdLÆlt, tflb;+
k/kl/Ʈlxtflbs+þ cgfdl;ŷf æ;Ln+ /lŋƧfdLÆlt jf lrƃ]lt, tbf ¿kf/ƙ)+ ;Ln+ dgáƀf/] kjųlt. Pj+ ¿kf/ƙ)+
;Lndo+ ƀf/j;]g ltljw+ xált.
obf kg j'ųƍsĕ/+ jŰjƃ+ bŷf tb]j jŰ+, ;Ƒ+ jf ¿kfotg+ rŘdƃá clgŝflbtá ljkƧlt, tbf ¿kf/ƙ)+
efjgfdo+ sĕoƀf/] kjųlt. tb]j jrLe]b+ sŷf ;ƙ;ƃƧ ¿kf/ƙ)+ efjgfdo+ jrLƀf/] kjųlt. tb]j sĕośjfrś+
crák]ŷf ;ƙ;ƃƧ ¿kf/ƙ)+ efjgfdo+ dgáƀf/] kjųlt. Pj+ ¿kf/ƙ)+ efjgfdo+ ƀf/j;]g ltljw+ xált. Olt
¿kf/ƙ)Ƨ s';nƧ ltljwk'ţlsl/ojŴ'j;]g gj;' sƙƀf/];' kjlųljef±uëf j]lbtƑá. Oldgfj go]g ¿kf/ƙ)Ƨ s';nƧ
b;k'ţlsl/ojŴ'j;]gflk Ƹt;fo sƙƀf/];' kjlųljef±uëf oáh]ŷf `ftƑá. oyf r ¿kf/ƙ)Ƨ, Pj+ ;Źf/ƙ)fbLglƕ kťƉ+
s';nfg+ k'ţlsl/ojŴ'ƀf/]lx ljef±uëf, oáhgfgoá r oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑá.
clkr ;Ź+ gfd sƆd"n+ ljo xŴ]g ux]ŷf bft'+ g ;Ŋĕ. obf kg æ;Źbfg+ d]Ælt cfe'lhŷf e]l/cflbt"l/o]
ltŰ+ /tgfg+ b]lt, t]lx pkxf/+ jf s/ált, wƙslysĕbLg+ ;/e];şĕƸb b]lt, wƙƧjg+ #á;]lt, ;/eţwƙsyfƸb jf
s/ált, tbf s';n+ ;Źf/ƙ)+ xált. Pj+ uƈflbjŴ'kl/ŝf±uëlk uƈflbcf/ƙ)+. wƙf/ƙ)+ kg cáhĕhËljltlƇotbfoųfg+
j;]g `ftƑ+. obf lx cáhjƃflg cƉkfg;lƍgjgLtfbLlg æcáhbfg+ d] eljƧtLÆlt b]lt, lunfgfg+ e];ş+ jf j]ş+ jf
pkg]ŷf, kf±)ëfk/áws+þ cfj'whĕns'ldgfƸb ljgf;]ŷf jf, jŢƍų] kfl)gá dár]ŷf jf æhËljtbfg+ d] eljƧlt
hËljtfoųj'lųtfo, kťk;fb;áń;;'v'd¿klrųr]tl;sĕg+ j;]g k;fbflbbfg+ d] eljƧtLÆlt r dgl; s/ált, tbf s';n+
wƙf/ƙ)+ xált. ;];+ tflb;d]j.
co+ gfgfjŴ";' l&tf/ƙ)fg+ oáhgf. PsjŴ'lƨlƕ %f/ƙ)+ nưt]j. lkůkftƸƨ lx dgfká jŰá, vfbgsĕn]
d'?d'/fog;Źá, uƈá, /;á, mþáŪƑ+, cáhĕ, tbfoųf jf hËljtk;fbfboá, tlƑ;oflg r ljţf)fbLgLlt %f/ƙ)lƕ
j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ rLj/fbL;' r]j jŴfbL;' r oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+. PŴlk bfg;Lnefjgfdotf, sĕojrLdgásƙefjá r
j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑá. oyf r s';nfg+, Pj+ cs';nfglƕ cf/ƙ)sƙƀf/jjŴfg+, ck'ţlsl/ojŴ";' oáhgfgoá r
j'ųfg';f/]g oyfoáu+ `ftƑá.
Pj+ cf/ƙ)tá, k'ţlsl/ojŴ'tá, sƙtá, ƀf/tá r cg]s;xƧƍe]b];' r]t];' s';n];' pkŬflg kg `f);ƕo'ųflg
rt'Ɖ+ clwktLg+ j;]g kŝ]s+þ rt'lƑwflg, `f)ljƍo'ųflg kg pkŬflg jLd+;flwkltjlştflwkltųoj;]g kŝ]s+þ ltljwflg,
tb'eoflg k'g xLglųsj;]g kŝ]s+þ ltljwflg, tflg k'g ckl/df±)ë;' kg rŊþjfń];' kŝ]s+þ ckl/df±)ë;' ;ų];' Ps]þsƸƨ
ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉcáńfl/s;'v'dtfbLlx cgƃ]lx ksĕ/]lx pƍşgtá cgƃfkl/df)flg xálƃ. tflg ;Ƒflg ;Ɨ'źá cgƃ]g
a'ź`f±)ëg dxft'nfo t'nodfgá ljo, dxft'Ɨ] klŋlkŷf ldgodfgá ljo ;Ƒfsĕ/tá kl/lŞlƆŷf dxfs?)fo sĕdfjr/Ū]g
;l/ŋtfo Psų+ pkg]ŷf, k'g ;ádgƧ'k]ŋĕ;xutŪ]g, `f);ƕo'ųljƍo'ųŪ]g, c;řfl/s;;řfl/sŪ]g r s]ĕŪf;] sŷf
b];]l;, oyf t+ násljb" ;Ŵf b]jdg'Ƨfglƃ. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg cflbtá kŪfo wƙ;śl)of ‘w0;01’,
tbŪsyfo r cŪ;flnlgof ‘w0;0cŪ01’ ;Ƒfsĕ/tá `ftƑált. Pj+ lj;oflbƍe]btá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
sĕdfjr/s';nwƙf lglŪtf.
¿kfjr/wƙf kg s';nf ´fgś;ƕoáue]btá kťljwf xálƃ. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ ljtŊþljrf/kLlt;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+
k&dŢĕlgs+þ, ttá j"k;ƃ+ cltŊþƃljtŊ+þ ljrf/kLlt;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+
b'ltoŢĕlgs+þ, ttá j"k;ƃ+ cltŊþƃljrf/+
kLlt;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+ tltoŢĕlgs+þ, ttá j"k;ƃ+ lj/ųkLlts+þ ;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+ rt'ŴŢĕlgs+þ, ttá j"k;ƃ+ cŴśt;'v+
pk]ŋ]sƮtf;ƕo'ų+ kťdŢĕlgslƃ. Pj+ ;ƕoáue]btá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
wƙ'Ź];flbtá kg k&dŢĕg] tfj sĕdfjr/k&ds';n] j'ų];' &k]ŷf lj/ltųo+ ;];f %Ƹų; wƙf xálƃ. tŴ
%Ɔfboá rųf/á, s?)f, d'lbtf rflt % o]jfkgsĕ. ;];+ ;'ţtjf/kl/oá;fg+ ;Ƒ+ sĕdfjr/k&ds';n] j'ų;lb;d]j.
s]þjn+ lx lj/tLg+ cefjá, ;śxjf/] kťdƮśefjá, e"dƃ/j;]g ¿kfjr/efjá r lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j. k&dŢĕg+.
tyf b'ltoŢĕg]lk s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] ljtŊĕefjá, ;śxjf/] rt'ŊþŢĕgśdƮśefjá r lj;];á, ;];+ k&d;lb;d]j.
b'lto+.
tyf tltoŢĕg]lk s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] ljrf/fefjá, ;śxjf/] ltjlśsŢĕgtf r lj;];á, ;];+ b'lto;lb;d]j.
tlto+.
tyf rt'Ŵ] s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] kLltof cefjá, s]ĕŪf;jf/] b'jlśsŢĕgefjá r lj;];á, ;];+ tlto;lb;d]j. rt'Ŵ+.
tyf kťd] s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] s?)fd'lbtfbLg+ cefjá, ;ádgƧŪfg] pk]ŋĕefjá,
s]ĕŪf;jf/] ´flglƇo];'
pk]ŋĕ´fgśefjá, pk]lŋlƇoefjá r lj;];á, ;];+ rt'Ŵ;dd]j. kťd+.
kbefhgLo] kg ljtŊþljrf/fg+ j"k;df b'lto+, kLltof r lj/fuf tlto+, ;ádgƧƧ r cŴśdf rt'Ŵlƃ
rt'Ŋþgoálk cfutá, ;á ltŋkţfg+ Psƍxf/]g]j ljtŊþljrf/;dltŊþd;Ƙjtá j'ųá. tŴ b'ltofbLg+ ;Ƒ;á kťsgo]
54

tltoflb;dųf tŴ j'ųgo]g]j ;Ƒá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá tŴ]j cƃáuwefjá rflt. rt'Ŋþgoá.
lj;oflbƍe]btá kg ljlgŞo+ kťsgo]g]j jŋĕd, tbg';f/tá Pj rt'Ŋþgoj;]gflk ;Ŋĕ `ft'lƃ. Pj+ pkl/
nás'ų/]lk. kťljwflk r]t] ¿kfjr/s';nwƙf
sl;)f/ƙ)e]btá kŝ]s+þ cŪljwf xálƃ kyjLsl;)+
cfkát]h]ĕjfoágLnkLtnálxtábftsl;)ťflt, cfnásĕsĕ;sl;±)ëlx ;Ƹź b;ljwf xálƃ. kbefhgLo] ‘w0;0202’ kg
cfnássl;)Ƨ cábftsl;±)ëg ;ślxtųf cƮx)+ bŪƑ+, cfsĕ;sl;)Ƨ kg pŔfgf;Ƙjtá cgf?ƍŢĕlgsųf. t+ lx k'gƍ'g+
pŔflodfglƕ cfsĕ;d]j xált, tƨf tŴ'ƍƉ+ ¿kfjr/kťdŢĕg+ ejlj;];fo, lbŪwƙ;'vljxf/fo r ;+jųlt, cleţfo,
ljkƧgfo r kfbslƕ xált, cgf?ƍųf kg lg/áwkfbs+þ g xált. ;];flg kg gj sl;)flg lg/áwkfbsĕlgkLlt
cod]t];+ lj;];á. cfgfkfgŢĕgƧflk kg]Ŵ jfoásl;±)ë ;śxá bŪƑált. sl;)syf.
Pj+ sl;)j;]g cŪljwf r]t] cleefotgj;]g kg kŝ]s+þ cŪljwf xálƃ. eujtf lx _
æcŢų+ c¿k;ţL alxźf ¿kflg kƧlt kl/ųflg, tflg clee'Ɯ»k]0 cƍdf)flg. tflg
clee'Ɯ »k]0 kl/ųflg ;'jŰb'ƑŰflg»k]0 cƍdf)flg ;'jŰb'ƑŰflg ;'lj;'ź+ gLn+ kLt+ nálxt+ cábftÆlƃ
‘w0;0211cfboá’ _
cŪ cleefotgflg b]l;tflg, tflg r sl;±)ëƩ]j cleeljŷf ;dfkşgj;]g ´fg'ƍlųlj;];tá, cgf/ƙ)lj;];tá. tŴ lx
cŢų+ c¿k;ţLlt cnfletfo jf cglŴstfo jf cŢų¿k] sl;)j;]g kl/sƙ;ţflj/lxtáj. alxźf ¿kflg kƧtLlt
alxźf cŪ sl;)¿kflg kl/sƙj;]g r]j cƍgfj;]g r kƧlt. kl/ųfgLlt v'Źskl/df)flg, tflg clee'Ɯ kƧƃá r
;ƕƉuxl)s]ĕ sŞ'dų+ eų+ nleŷf æƸs PŴ e'lŧtƑ+ cŴLÆlt ;ŘlŬŷf ;Ƒ+ Pssańd]j s/ált, Pjd]j `f)'ųl/s]ĕ
ælsd]Ŵ kl/ųs]þ cf/ƙ±)ë ;dfklştƑ+ clŴ, gfo+ dd ef/áÆlt tflg cleeljŷf ;x lgldų'ƍfb]g]j cƍg+ lgƑų]lt, tƨf
t+ ´fg+ æcleefotgÆlƃ j'ŝlt. cƍdf)fgLlt dxƃflg. tflg clee'Ɯflt dxŔ;á Ps+þ eųkfƸt nleŷf ljo `f)'ų/á
cƍdf)+ nleŷf æPt+ jf xát' cţ+ jf, lsd]Ŵ ;dfklştƑÆlƃ cƍg+ lgƑų]lt. ;'jŰb'ƑŰfgLlt kl/;'źfkl/;'źjŰflg
kl/;'źflg lx gLnfbLlg, ckl/;'źflg r ;'jŰb'ƑŰfgLlt Ow clwƍ]tflg, Ptflglk æ;'jŰflg jf xáƃ' b'ƑŰflg jf,
kl/ųcƍdf)j;]g]j cleefotgfgLÆlt cfudŪsyf;' ‘bL0lg0cũ02=173 d0lg0cŪ02=249 c0lg0cŪ03=8=65’
jlŰtflg. jŰfeáuƧ lx clŴtfo k'l/dflg cleefotgflg jŰfeáu/lxt;lxttfo PŴ s]þjntá lj;];;ưfjf rt'wf
j'ųflg, gLnfbLlg
kg rųfl/ ;'lj;'źjŰj;]g ;'vf/áxtfo `f)'ųl/s]ĕ cleeljŷf cƍg+ lgƑų]lt,
tƨf
cf/ƙ)lj;];fefj]lk ´fg'ƍlųlj;];tá Od];+ cŪƉ+ cleefotgfg+ j;]g
kŝ]s+þ cŪljwf xáƃLlt j]lbtƑf.
cleefotgsyf.
tflg k'g oyf r cleefotgj;]g, Pj+ ljdáŋj;]gflk kŝ]s+þ ltljwf xálƃ. eujtf lx æ¿kL ¿kflg kƧlt,
cŢų+ c¿k;ţL alxźf ¿kflg kƧlt, ;'eƄ]j clwd'ųá xátLÆlt ‘w0;0240cfboᶠbL0lg03=339 358 c0lg0 8=66’
toá ljdáŋĕ b]l;tf. t] r sl;±)ëƩ]j clwd'ŝgj;]g ´fg'ƍlųlj;];tá, efjgf/ƙ)lj;];tá lsldb+ clwd'ŝg+ gfdĠ
kŝgLswƙ]lx ;'Ū' ljd'ŝg+, cf/ƙ±)ë;' r ;'Ū' cle/lt, lkt' dft' cŘ] ljƧŪśkŝśƧ bf/sƧ ;og+ ljo clgƮlxtefj]g
lg/f;Řtfo cf/ƙ±)ë kjųLlt j'ų+ xált. tŴ ¿kLlt cŢų+ s]þ;fbL;' pƍflbt+ ¿kŢĕg+ ¿k+ gfd, tbƧ cŴLlt ¿kL.
cŢųlƕ lx s]þ;fbL;' gLn+, d]bfbL;' kLt+, d+;fbL;' nálxt+, bƃfbL;' cábftť jŰsl;)j;]g cfe'lhŷf kl/sƙ+ s/áƃƧ
¿kŢĕgflg, sl;)+ pŔf]ŷf r c¿kŢĕgflg pƍşƃ]j ¿kflg kƧtLlt alxźflk gLnsl;)flb¿kflg ´fgrŋ'gf kƧlt,
Oldgf cŢųalxźjŴ's]þ;' sl;±)ë;' ´fgƍlnfeá blƧtá. cŢų+ c¿k;ţLlt cųgá s]þ;fbL;' cg'ƍflbt¿kfjr/Ţĕgá,
Oldgf alxźf klnźŢĕgtf blƧtf. ;'eƄ]j clwd'ųá xátLlt Oldgf ;'lj;'ź;] ' gLnflbjŰsl;±)ë;' æ;'eÆlƃ
clwd'lųj;]g klnźŢĕgtf blƧtf. Pj+ cf/ƙ)lj;];fefj]lk clwd'lųj;]g ´fg'ƍlųlj;];tá Od];+ ltŰ+ ljdáŋĕg+ j;]g
kŝ]s+þ ltljwf xáƃLlt j]lbtƑf. ljdáŋsyf.
oyf r ljdáŋtá, Pj+ klkbfe]btá kŝ]s+þ rt'lƑwf xálƃ b'ŋklkb+ bƈfleţ+, b'ŋklkb+ lvƍfleţ+,
;'vklkb+ bƈfleţ+, ;'vklkb+ lvƍfleţlƃ. tŴ k&d;dƉfxf/tá kŪfo ofj pkrf/+ pƍşlt, tfj kjųf
´fgefjgf æklkbfÆlt j'ŝlt. ;f PsŝƧ b'ŋĕ gLj/)flbkŝgLswƙ;d'bfrf/uxgtfo c;'v;]jgf xált, PsŝƧ
tbefjtá ;'vf. pkrf/tá kg kŪfo ofj cƍgf, tfj kjųf kţf æcleţfÆlt j'ŝlt. ;f PsŝƧ bƈf
c;L#ƍjlųgL, PsŝƧ lvƍf. c;ƍfo;]ljgá b'ŋĕ klkbf xált bƈf r cleţf, ;ƍfo;]ljgá ;'vf klkbf xált lvƍf
r cleţf. k'Ƒfk/sĕn];' ;ƍfof;ƍfo;]jgj;]g jáldƧtf r j]lbtƑf. tyf klnaáw'kŞ]bflbs+þ k'Ƒlsŝ+ c;ƕfb]ƃƧ
klkbf b'ŋĕ, ;ƕfb]ƃƧ ;'vf klkbf. cƍgfs]ĕ;Ɵ+ c;ƕfb]ƃƧ bƈfleţf, ;ƕfb]ƃƧ lvƍf. lsn]l;lƇofg+ jf
ltŋd'b'tfo k&df, ljkl/ofo]g rt'Ŵf, jáldƧtfo dlŢdf ƀ]lt j]lbtƑf. tŲfljşĕleejgfgleejgj;]g jf
;dyljkƧgf;' stflwsĕ/fstflwsĕ/tfj;]g jflk Ptf;+ ke]bá j]lbtƑá. k&dŢĕgflbcfudgj;]gflk b'ltofbLg+
klkbfleţfe]bá xálto]jflt bŪƑ+. Pj+ klkbfj;]g kŝ]s+þ rt'lƑwf xáƃLlt j]lbtƑf. klkbfsyf.
oyf r klkbflx, Pj+ cf/ƙ)e]btálk kŝ]s+þ rt'lƑwf xálƃ kl/ų+ kl/ųf/ƙ)+, kl/ų+ cƍdf)f/ƙ)+, cƍdf)+
kl/ųf/ƙ)+, cƍdf)+ cƍdf)f/ƙ)lƃ. tŴ o+ cƍu')+, pkl/ŢĕgƧ kŝoá eljt'+ g ;Ŋþált, Ob+ kl/ų+. o+ kg
cjlŬt] cf/ƙ±)ë kjų+, t+ kl/ų+ cf/ƙ)+ cƧflt kl/ųf/ƙ)+. ljkl/ofotá cƍdf)+ cƍdf)f/ƙ)+. tb'eojáldƧtfo
dŢ] Ot/ƀo+ j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ cf/ƙ)e]btá rt'lƑwf xáƃLlt j]lbtƑf. cf/ƙ)syf.
oyf r klkbf/ƙ±)ëlx, Pj+ clwktLg+ j;]g kŝ]s+þ rt'lƑwtf, xLglųsj;]g k'g ltljwtf r oáh]ŷf
j]lbtƑf.
b;sl;)d"nljefusyf lglŪtf.

55

oyf sl;)d"n];', Pj+ Ɣƪljxf/d"n];'lk oyfoáu+ ljef±uëf j]lbtƑá _ d]ųfs?)fd'lbtfj;]g lx cflbtá rųfl/
´fgflg kŝ]s+þ ltljwf xálƃ d]ųf;xut+, s?)f;xut+, d'lbtf;xutlƃ. kťdŢĕg+ kg pk]ŋĕƔƪljxf/j;]g Psljw+
pk]ŋĕ;xutlƃ. k'l/d];' lx tL;' kťdŢĕg+ g'ƍşlt. sƨfĠ ;ádgƧfljƍoáutá, ;ádgƧ;d'lŪtfg+ ƓfkfbljƸx;f/tLg+
oyfŊþd+ lgƧ/)ųf, klŞd] r ltsrt'ŊþŢĕg+ g'ƍşlt. sƨfĠ pk]ŋĕj]bgf;ƕoáutá, tƧf r kl#fg'golgƧ/)tá
dŢųfsĕ/]g kjlųtá, tflg k'g klkbf/ƙ)flwkltxLglųse]b]lx k'Ƒ] j'ųgo]g oáh]ŷf j]lbtƑflg. PŴ r
cƍ;ųf/ƙ)j;]g kl/ųf/ƙ)tf, ax';ųf/ƙ)j;]g cƍdf)f/ƙ)tf
r PsƸƨ ;ų] cƍg+ kfk]ŷf cg'Ŋþd]g
Psĕjf;PsjLlyufdflbut;ų];' kfkgj;]g jŬgf r j]lbtƑf. wƙ'Ź];] kg]Ŵ s?)f;xut] d'lbtflj/lxtf kťƸt; wƙf,
t];' %Ɔfboá rųf/á, s?)f rflt kť]j o]jfkgsĕ, s?)f r lgotflt j]lbtƑf. Pj+ d'lbtf;xut]lk. s]þjn+
s?)flj/lxtf d'lbtf lgotf kjųflt cod]Ŵ lj;];á. cj;];Ɣƪljxf/ƀo], kg sl;)f;'efbL;' r ;ƑŴ
s?)fd'lbtflj/lxtf r rt'Ƹų; wƙf, tŴ r %Ɔfboá rųf/áj o]jfkgsĕ j]lbtƑflt. Ɣƪljxf/d"nljefusyf.
c;'ee]btá
kg
k&dŢĕgd]j]s+þ
b;ljw+
xált
pź'dfts;ţf;xut+
ljgLnsljk'ƑsljlŞŹsljŋĕlotsljlŋųsxtljlŋųsnálxtsk'ńjsclŪs;ţf;xutlƃ, b;lj±wëlk r]tƸƨ c;'e] kls"þnųf,
b'Ƒnųf r ljtŊþan]g]j ´fg+ ltŪlt, g ljgf ljtŊ]þg ;L#;átfo glbof cl/ųan]g]j gfjf ljo, tƨf k&dŢĕgd]j]Ŵ
pƍşlt, ;dyljkƧgflbcflg;+;bƧfljtfo, kg]Ŵ gLj/)ƍxfg]g r kLlt;ádgƧ+ pƍşlt ax'j]tgnfebƧg]g k'Ǝþ%ūsƧ
u"y/fl;lƛ ljo, pk;ƃƓflwb'ŋƧ r /álugá jdglj/]rgƍjlųo+ ljoflt bŪƑ+. t+ kg b;ljwlƕ k&dŢĕg+
klkbf/ƙ)flwkltxLglųsj;]g kŝ]s+þ oáh]ŷf j]lbtƑ+. PŴ r c;'ef/ƙ)Ƨ cjŬgLotfo v'Źs]þ pź'dftsĕlbŪfg] pƍƉ+
lgldų+ kl/ųf/ƙ)+, dxƃ] cƍdf)f/ƙ)+ j]lbtƑ+. Pt];' kg
b;;' c;'e];' ;fdţtá ƀƸų;fsĕ/j;]g,
gjl;jlyskƑj;]g r kjųf
sĕoutf;lt ;ślxtf, jŰsl;±)ë;' r s]þ;fbLg+ s]ĕŪf;fg+ gLnflbjŰf/ƙ)f,
rt'ŊþkťsŢĕgj;]g pƍƉf sĕoutf;lt r ;ślxtf. kbefhgLo] lj;'+ g j'ųf, tƨf t];+ j;]gflk ljef±uëf j]lbtƑá.
c;'ed"nljefusyf.
Pj+ cf/ƙ)flbe]btá r leƉfg+ ¿kfjr/s';nwƙfg+ sĕnb];flbe]b]g cgƃtf, eujtf r Psų+ pkg]ŷf
b]l;tefjá, ljŴf/gofltb];á r sĕdfjr/s';n] j'ųfg';f/]g oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑá. Otá k/+ c¿kfjr/fbL;'lk lj;];dųd]j
jŋĕd. Pj+ lj;oflbƍe]btá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
¿kfjr/s';nwƙf lglŪtf.
c¿kfjr/f kg s';nwƙf ;ƕoáutá g leƉf, ;Ƒ]lk pk]ŋ]sƮtf;ƕo'ųfj, wƙ'Ź];flbtálk ;Ƒ;á
¿kfjr/kťdŢĕg;lb;f. c¿kfjr/efjá Pj x]Ŵ lj;];á. lj;oflbƍe]btált PŴ kg cf/ƙ)tá t] rt'lƑwf xálƃ.
;]Ɯlyb+ _ cfsĕ;fgťfotg+ ljţf)ťfotg+ cflsťţfotg+ g]j;ţfgf;ţfotglƃ. tŴ lx sl;)'Ŕfldfsĕ;] æcgƃá
cfsĕ;áÆlt kjų+ k&d+, tƸƨ k&df?ƍljţf±)ë æcgƃ+ ljţf)Ælƃ kjų+ b'lto+, tƧ k&df?ƍljţf)Ƨ cefj] æglŴ
lsťLÆlt kjų+ tlto+, tƸƨ tlto] æ;ƃd]t+ k)Ltd]tÆlƃ kjų+ rt'Ŵ+. k'l/dk'l/d]lx klŞdklŞd+ ;ƃ;ƃt/;ƃtdlƃ r
j]lbtƑ+.
gg' ¿kfjr/];' ljtŊĕlbcś;dltŊþdtá pk¿kl/´fgfg+ ;ƃt/flbefjá j'ųá, cśfltŊþd/lxt];' kg cf?ƍ];'
sylƃĠ cf/ƙ)fltŊþdtá. Pt];'
lx sl;)¿k;dltŊþdtá k&d+ ´fg+ ¿kfjr/kťdŢĕgtá ;ƃ+, ttálk
sl;)'Ŕfldfsĕ;fltŊþdtá b'lto+, ttálk cfsĕ;] kjųljţf)fltŊþdtá tlto+, ttálk cfsĕ;] kjųljţf)Ƨ ;dltŊþdtá
rt'Ŵlƃ. Pj+ cś;dų]lk y"ny"nfltŊþd]g ;'v'd;'v'df/ƙ)tfo pk¿kl/Ţĕgfg+ ;ƃt/flbefjá j]lbtƑá ;dfofdljŴf/fglƕ
jŴfg+ ;'ų;'v'dt/flbefjá ljo. gg' cefjf/ƙ)tfo tltof?ƍ+ ;ƃk)Lttá dgl; s/áƃƧ rt'Ŵf?ƍƧ sy+ tŴ
lgslƃkl/ofbfg+, sy+ r ;dltŊþdá jf xátLltĠ c;dfklşt'sĕdtfo, ;f r cųgá ;ƃk)Lttfo. oyf lx /fhĕ
bƃsĕ/flbl;lƍsĕg+ clt;'v'ddgfkl;ƍ+ lbƩf æ%]sĕ jltd] cfrl/ofÆlt t];+ %]stfo t'Ƨƃálk g t+ l;lƍsefj+ kŴ]lt, t+
;dltŊþƙ /fhefj] Pj ltŪlt, Pj+;ƕbldb+ bŪƑ+. Pj+ cf/ƙ)e]btá
rt'lƑwfgƕ]t];+ k'g
klkbf/ƙ)flwkltxLglųse]b]lx k'Ƒ] j'ųgo]g]j kŝ]s+þ e]bá j]lbtƑá.
PŴ r ¿kfjr/rt'ŴŢĕglgslƃ kl/ofbfgb'ŋtfo k&df?ƍƧ, k&df?ƍflblgslƃkl/ofbfgb'ŋtfo
b'ltof?ƍfbLgť b'ŋklkbtf, kl/oflbŰlgslƃsƧ tbƍgfkl/jf;bƈtfo bƈfleţtf, ljkl/ofo]g Ot/f r j]lbtƑf.
kl/ųsl;)'Ŕfldfsĕ;d"nsĕg+ kg rt'Ɖ+ kl/ųf/ƙ)tf, ljkl/ofofg+ cƍdf)f/ƙ)tf j]lbtƑf. ¿kf¿kfjr/f kg]Ŵ
clwklt;lxtfj pƍşlƃ, g ljgf clwktLlx. sĕdfjr/f t' clwklt/lxtflk pƍşlƃ
t] r cf/ƙ)flwklt
;xhĕtflwktLlt ƀ]lk nưlƃ. ¿kf¿kfjr/f kg ;xhĕtflwkltd]j, g]t/+. tŴ r %Ɔflwkltgf ;xhĕtf wƙf
%Ɔflwkt]Ɯf, %Ɔá kg clwklt Pj, g %Ɔflwkt]Ɯá. Ot/] kg clwkt]Ɯfj, gflwktoá cţƧ cųgf ;xhĕtƧ %ƆƧ,
Ot/];ť clwkltoŴƧ cefjf. PsƸƨ lx lrų'ƍfb] %ƆfbL;' rt";'lk ljşdfg];' oyfkŝo+ ;xhĕtflwklt Ps]ĕj nưlt.
Pj+ jLl/oflwkltofbL;'lk oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+. Pj+ lj;oflbƍe]btá ljlgŞoá `ftƑá.
c¿kfjr/s';nwƙf lglŪtf.
nás'ų/f kg s';nf dƮ;ƕoáue]btá rt'lƑwf. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ ;átfklųdƮ;ƕo'ų+ ;sbfuflddƮ;ƕo'ų+
cgfuflddƮ;ƕo'ų+ c/xųdƮ;ƕo'ųlƃ. gg' rt";'lk r]t];' dƮ;ƕoá±uëf ;dfgá cŪƉlƕ dƮśfg+ ;ƑŴ pƍlųtá sy+ tŴ
e]báltĠ cg';oƍxfg;řftƧ dƮlsŝƧ e]btá. cg';o] df/]ƃá uŞtLlt lx d±Ʈëf. dƮf lx oyf;s+þ cg';o] khxlƃ
56

Pj, lgldųf j'Ūxlƃ, kjųť l%Ɔlƃ gfdflt j'ŝlƃ. lgldųlƃ r kťŋƈf, kjųlƃlk t] Pj. t+ b'ljw+ pkflbƉs+þ,
cg'kflbƉsť.
tŴlk ;átfklųd±Ʈëf lbŪfg';o+, ljlrlsŞfg';o+, tb]sŪ] r lsn];], t+;xhĕtflg
lblŪ;ƕo'ųflg,
ljlrlsŞf;ƕo'ųťflt kťfs';nlrųflg r pƍşdfgáj ;d'Ŕft]lt, ;d'Ŕft]ƃá r ckfoejtá r]j ;'ultejtá r &k]ŷf ;ų
ej] tbj;];tá j'Ūflt tŴ ob]t+ k&ddƮfg'ƍlųo+ pƍşdfgf/x+ lblŪljlrlsŞf;ƕo'ųkťlrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+, t+ ¿kŋƈá,
tflg kť lrųflg ljţf)ŋƈá, t+;ƕo'ųf j]bgfboá Ot/] toá vƈf. Od] cg'kflbƉkťŋƈf cg'kflbƉlgldų+,
cg'kflbƉƍjų+ gfd. ttá k&dd±Ʈëf j'Ūflt, t+ l%Ɔlt gfd. ob]t+ ckfoej], ;'ultoť &k]ŷf ;ų ej] tbj;];] r
k&ddƮfg'ƍlųo+ cfoƸt pƍşdfgf/x+ sƙhŋƈkťs+þ, t+ pkflbƉlgldų+, pkflbƉƍjų+ gfd. ttá k&dd±Ʈëf j'Ūflt,
tť l%Ɔlt gfd. ttáj k&dd±Ʈëf cg';o+ khxƃáj lgldųf j'Ūxlt, kjųť l%Ɔlt gfdflt j]lbtƑ+. Pj+
Ot/d±Ʈë;'lk pkflbƉfg'kflbƉlgldųƍjų+ j'Ūfg+ l%Ɔg+ oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+.
;sbfufldd±Ʈëf kg cáńfl/ssĕd/fufg';o+, kl#fg';o+, tb]sŪ] r lsn];], t+;xhĕtflg r tyf kjųflg rųfl/
lblŪljƍo'ųflg, ƀ] r bádgƧ;xutfgLlt % cs';nlrųflg r pƍşdfgáj ;d'Ŕft]lt, ;d'Ŕft]ƃá r sĕd;'ulttá &k]ŷf
Psej+ tbj;];tá j'Ūflt, ktg'e"tfj t+;dlśgá sĕd/fuƓfkfbf clwdųf, t] r sbflr lj/ńfj pƍşƃLlt j]lbtƑf.
cgfufldd±Ʈëflk tfg]j tg';xutsĕd/fuƍl#fg';oj;]g pƍƉflg % lrųflg pƍşdfgáj ;d'Ŕft]lt, ;d'Ŕft]ƃá
r sĕdejtá j'Ūflt. c/xųd±Ʈëf kg ¿k/fuc¿k/fudfgfljşĕg';o], pźŝ+, tb]sŪ] ;Ƒ] lsn];] r t+;xhĕtflg rųfl/
lblŪljƍo'ųflg, pźŝ;xutťflt kťfs';nlrųflg r pƍşdfgáj ;d'Ŕft]lt, ;d'Ŕft]ƃá r ¿kf¿ktá, ;Ƒejtálk
j'Ūflt. ;];+ k&dd±Ʈë j'ųfg';f/tá j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ cg';oƍxfg;řftlsŝe]btá rt'Ɖ+ dƮfg+ e]bá j]lbtƑá.
tb]j+ dƮ;ƕoáue]btá rt'lƑw+, k'g ´fgś;ƕoáue]btá kŝ]s+þ kťljwf xálƃ. sy+Ġ k&ddƮ;ƕo'ų+ tfj
ljtŊþljrf/kLlt;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+ k&dŢĕlgs+þ, ljrf/kLlt;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+ b'ltoŢĕlgs+þ, kLlt;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+ tltoŢĕlgs+þ,
;'±vësƮtf;ƕo'ų+ rt'ŴŢĕlgs+þ, pk]ŋ]sƮtf;ƕo'ų+ kťdŢĕlgsťflt kťljw+ xált. Pj+ b'ltodƮflb;ƕo'ųf rflt jL;ltljwf
xálƃ, PŴ r rt'Ŋþgoj;]g ;áń;ljwtflk oáh]tƑf. Ƹs kg]Ŵ Pj+ ´fgśoáue]bƧ lgofds+þ sĕ/)lƃĠ ;řf?k]ŋĕ`f)+.
tƸƨ lx j'ŪfgufldlgljkƧgfe"t] ;ádgƧ;xut] cl/odƮf kťdŢĕlgsĕ g pƍşlƃ, ;ádgƧ;xutf rt'ŊþŢĕlgsĕj pƍşlƃ,
pk]ŋĕ;xut] r rt'ŊþŢĕlgsĕ g pƍşlƃ, pk]ŋĕ;xutf kťdŢĕlgsĕj pƍşlƃ.
gg' r]Ŵ ;řf?k]ŋĕ`f)+ ;ádgƧ'k]ŋĕ;xutųf rt'ŊþkťdŢĕlgsĕg+ ;ádgƧ'k]ŋĕ;xutefjƧ
lgofdsx]t',
ljtŊĕlbcś;dltŊþdtá kg g];+ b'ltoflbŢĕgefjƧ lgofds]þg cţ]g eljtƑ+. g lx ;řf?k]ŋĕ`f)+ ljtŊĕlbljsn+
pƍşlt. o]g t+ lgofds+þ ej]Ɯ, Ƹs t+ lgofdssĕ/)lƃĠ kfbsŢĕg+, ;ƙl;tŢĕg+ jf. ¿kf¿kfjr/];' lx o+ o+ ´fg+
;dfklşŷf tt'Ūfo o] s]þlr klsŰs;řf/] ;ƙl;ŷf o] d±Ʈë pƍfb]lt, t] ;Ƒ] t+t+´fg;lb;fj xálƃ. o+ o+ jf kg ´fg+,
t+;ƕo'ų] r clgŝflbtá ljklƧŷf o] o] d±Ʈë pƍfb]lt, t] r t+t+´fg;lb;fj xálƃ e"ldjŰ;lb;jŰf ±uëfwf ljo. tŴ r
;'ŋljkƧsƧ pƍƉdƮflk, ;dfklųnflegf ´fg+ kfbs+þ csŷf c;ƙl;ŷfj pƍflbtdƮflk k&dŢĕg+ kfbs+þ sŷf t+ t+ jf
;ƙl;ŷf pƍflbtdƮflk ;Ƒ] Ps;lb;f k&dŢĕlgsĕj xálƃ. g lx nás'ų/d±Ʈëf cƍg+ cƍųá gfd clŴ.
b'ltotltort'ŴŢĕgflg kfbsĕlg sŷf jf tŴ ut] wƙ] ;ƙl;ŷf jf pƍflbtdƮf oyfŊþd+ rt'/lśsĕ, ltjlśsĕ, b'jlśsĕ r
xálƃ. kťdŢĕg+, kg cf?ƍŢĕgflg r kfbs+þ sŷf jf tŴ ut] wƙ] ;ƙl;ŷf jf pƍflbtdƮf pk]ŋ]sƮtfj;]g b'jlśsĕj
xálƃ. Pt];ť kťƉ+ ´flgsĕglƕ k'Ƒef±uë ljkƧgf ;ádgƧ;xutflk xált pk]ŋĕ;xutflk, j'ŪfgufldgL kg ljkƧgf
rt'ŊþŢĕlgsĕg+ ;ádgƧ;xutf xált. kťdŢĕlgsĕg+ kg pk]ŋĕ;xutfjflt tb]j kfbsŢĕg+, ;ƙl;tŢĕg+ jf lgofdssĕ/)lƃ
j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ ;ƕoáutá ljlgŞoá.
wƙ'Ź];flbtá kg k&dŢĕlgs]þ;' tfj rt";' sĕdfjr/k&ds';n] j'ųwƙ];' &k]ŷf s?)fd'lbtf ;ųƸt; wƙf
xálƃ. lj/ltoá kg]Ŵ lgotf, kflńoť ‘w0;0277’ ¿k]g lglŹŪf, %Ɔfboá r rųf/á o]jfkgsĕlt j]lbtƑf.
;śxjf/] kg aálwklŋowƙ];' k'Ƒ] ;ślxtfj;];fg+ ;ltkŪfg;ƙƍwfgOlźkfbaáŢśfg+ j;]g clt/]sĕ rųf/á
;śxf j]lbtƑf. k&dŢĕlgsdƮ;ƕo'ų];' lx wƙ];' ;lt pkŪfgŪ]g ;ltkŪfg+, ;f lj;oe]b]g rt'lƑwf, Ot/]
cƧltkŪfgflt ;Ƒ]j t] lƀwf xálƃ. tyf jLl/o+ kbxgŪ]g ;ƙƍwfg+, t+ lsŝe]b]g rt'lƑw+, Ot/] c;ƙƍwfgflt.
tyf %Ɔá jLl/o+ lrų+ cdáxált rųf/á wƙf OŢgsŪ]g oyfŊþd+ æ%lƆlźkfbá jLl/olrųjLd+l;lźkfbáÆlt gfd]g
æOlźkfbfÆlt j'ŝlƃ, Ot/] æclglźkfbfÆlt. tyf ;lt cdáxá jLl/o+ kLlt kƧlź ;dflw tŶdŢųtflt Od] ;ų wƙf
a'ŢgŪ]g oyfŊþd+ æ;lt;ƗáŢśá wƙljro;ƗáŢśá jLl/okLltkƧlź;dflwpk]ŋĕ;ƗáŢśáÆlt j'ŝlƃ, Ot/] caáŢśflt Pj+
rųf/á ;śxf.
;];+ ;Ƒ+ nŋ)flbtá kŪfo ;'ţtjf/kl/oá;fg+ sĕdfjr/k&ds';n] j'ų;lb;d]j s]þjn+ kg dƮś;śx]
æcŪlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf xátLÆlt ‘w0;0337’ kbefhgLo]
;¿k]g]j lglŹŪ+, OlƇo;śx] klţlƇoŪfg] k&ddƮƧ
cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+ ux]ŷf Ot/dƮfg+ clţlƇo+ ux]ŷfj clŪlƇolƃ clŪlƇotf, ;ƑŴ nás'ų/tf r lj;];á, ;];+
tflb;d]j. k&dŢĕlgsĕ rųf/á dƮf.
tyf b'ltoŢĕlgs]þ;'lk s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] ljtŊĕefjá, ;śxjf/] rt'/śŢĕgtf, ;ųśdƮtf r lj;];á, ;];+
k&dŢĕlgs;lb;d]j. b'ltoŢĕlgsdƮf.
tyf tltoŢĕlgs]þ;'lk s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] ljrf/fefjá, ;śxjf/] ltjlśsŢĕgtf
r lj;];á, ;];+
b'ltoŢĕlgs;lb;d]j. tltoŢĕlgsdƮf.
tyf rt'ŴŢĕlgs]þ;'lk s]þjn+ wƙ'Ź];] kLltof cefjá, s]ĕŪf;jf/] b'jlśsŢĕgtf, %ńlśsaáŢśtf r lj;];á, ;];+
tltoŢĕlgs;lb;d]j. rt'ŴŢĕlgsdƮf.

57

tyf kťdŢĕlgs]þ;'lk s]þjn+ ;ƑŴ j]bgfkl/jųgd]j lj;];á, ;];+ rt'ŴŢĕlgs;lb;d]j. kťdŢĕlgsdƮf. Pj+
wƙ'Ź];flbtá ljlgŞoá.
lj;oflbƍe]btá kg ;Ƒ]lk nás'ų/s';nf cf/ƙ)tá lgƑfgf/ƙ)fj, tƨf g ttá g];+ e]bá, klkbflbe]btá
kg k'Ƒ] j'ųgo]g kŝ]s+þ e]bá j]lbtƑá. PŴ r oá gfd¿kkl/Ʈxtá kŪfo lsndƃá ljkƧg+ cf/leŷf b'ŋ]g sl;/]g
lsn];] ljŋƘ]lt, tƧ b'ŋĕ klkbf xált. oá kg ljŋlƘtlsn];á, ;á ljkƧgfkl/jf;+ jf;]ƃá lr/]g dƮkft'efj+
kfk')flt, tƧ bƈfleţf xált. Oldgf go]g Ot/f ltƧálk klkbfleţfoá j]lbtƑf. oyf r klkbflbe]btá, Pj+
ljdáŋe]btálk kŝ]s+þ lƀwf xálƃ _ ;'ţtljdáŋ]ĕ cƍl)lxtljdáŋ]ĕlt.
tŴ ;'ţtlƃ, cƍl)lxtlƃ r nás'ų/dƮƧ gfd+. ;á lx cfudgtá ;u')tá cf/ƙ)tált tLlx sĕ/±)ëlx gfd+
nelt. sy+Ġ Ow leŋ' ljkƧgfsƙŪflgs]ĕ cflbtá kŪfo æclgŝ+ b'ŋdgųfÆlt ltljw+ cg'kƧg+ cf/ák]ŷf ;ƙ;ƃá
ljr/lt, ;rƧ j'ŪfgufldlgljkƧgf t]e"ds]þ ;řf/] cgųtá ljkƧlt, co+ cų;'ţtfbƧgŪ]g ;'ţtf gfd xált. ;r]
b'ŋtá ljkƧlt, co+ tŲfkl)lw/lxtŪ]g cƍl)lxtf gfd xált, tf peálk cfudgLoŪfg] &ŷf cųgá cųgá dƮƧ oyfŊþd+
;'ţtd±Ʈëf cƍl)lxtd±Ʈëflt gfd+ b]lƃ. Pj+ cfudgtá gfdnfeá j]lbtƑá. gg' ;'ųƃ];' ;r] j'ŪfgufldlgljkƧgf
clgŝtá kƧlt, tƧf j;]g d±Ʈëf clgldųljdáŋ]ĕ xátLlt sŷf toá ljdáŋĕ slytfltĠ ;ŝ+, clk r ±vëf kl/ofotá
slytf, lgƍl/ofotá kg ;olƕ ;lgldųf cųgá dƮƧ clgldųgfd+ bft'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜtfo ƀ] Pj ljdáŋĕ xáƃLlt. ltƧálk
lx ljkƧgf lgŝlgldų+, ;'vlgldųť pŔfg]g clgldųjáxf/+ nelƃ, ltƧálk lgldųe"t];' vƈ];' r/)tá ;lgldųfj,
tƨf ;o+ cfudgLoŪfg] &ŷf cųgá dƮƧ lgƍl/ofotá clgldųgfd+ bft'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ. oƨf kg d±Ʈëf ;o+ /fufbLlx ;'ţá,
/fuflblgldųkl)lw/lxtá r, tƨf ;u'±)ëg]j ;'ţtgfd+, cƍl)lxtgfdť nelt. PjdƧ ;u')tá gfdnfeá j]lbtƑá.
oƨf kg lgƑfg+ /fufbLlx, ;řf/]lx r ;'ţųf, /fuflblgldųkl)lw/lxtųf r æ;'ţt+, clgldų+, cƍl)lxtÆlƃ r
j'ŝlt, tƨf t+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf pƍƉd±Ʈëflk æ;'ţtá, clgldųá, cƍl)lxtáÆlt r gfd+ nelt. Pj+ cf/ƙ)tá gfdnfeá
j]lbtƑá.
t];' Ow cfudgtáj d±Ʈëf gfd+ nelt, g ;u')tá, gflk cf/ƙ)tá, ;u')f/ƙ)tá gfdnfeƧ ;'ųƃ];'
kl/ofob]l;tųf. t]gj] x]Ŵ dƮfg+ ;u')f/ƙ)tálk clgldųljdáŋt+ cƮx]ŷf ;'ţtcƍl)lxtljdáŋtfj cfudgtá j'ųf,
tťfudg+ b'ljw+ ljkƧgfudg+, dƮfudgť. tŴ ljkƧgfudgtá d±Ʈëf r ;'ţtflbgfd+ nelt, dƮfudgtá r net]j,
Ow kg dƮƧ clwƍ]tųf ljkƧgfudgtáj j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ ljdáŋe]btá kŝ]s+þ lƀwf xálƃ. Pj+ lj;oflbƍe]btá
ljlgŞoá.
nás'ų/s';nwƙf lglŪtf.

lglŪtf r dáxljŞ]blgof gfd

clewƙdfltsŴ;+jŰgfo

æs';nf wƙfÆlt kbƧ cŴjŰgf.

cs';nkbŴá
náed"njŰgf
cs';nf kg wƙf e"ldtá Psljwf sĕdfjr/fj, ;ƕoáutá kg d"nj;]g ltljwf xálƃ náed"nf bá;d"nf
dáxd"nflt. tŴ náed"nf cŪljwf ;ádgƧ;xut+ lblŪut;ƕo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+, ;ádgƧ;xut+ lblŪutljƍo'ų+
c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+, pk]ŋĕ;xut+ lblŪut;ƕo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+, pk]ŋĕ;xut+ lblŪutljƍo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf
;;řf/lƃ.
tŴ OŪf/ƙ±)ë náeax'ntfbLlx sĕ/±)ëlx ;ádgƧ;xuttf, c;źƙ;jgcsƠf)ldųtfbLlx lblŪ;ƕo'ųtf r
j]lbtƑf. obf lx æglŴ sĕd];' cfbLgjáÆltcflbgf go]g ldŞflbƸŪ k'/ŋŷf xŪt'Ūá sĕd] jf kl/e'ŧlt, lbŪdśnfbLlg
jf ;f/tá kŝ]lt ;efjltŋ]g]j cg'Ƨflxt]g lrų]g, tbf k&d+ cs';nlrų+ pƍşlt. obf dƆ]g ;d'Ƨflxt]g, tbf
b'lto+. obf ldŞflbƸŪ ck'/ŋŷf s]þjn+ xŪt'Ūá d]y'g+ jf ;]jlt, k/;ƕƸų jf cleŢĕolt, k/eů+ jf x/lt
;efjltŋ]gfg'Ƨflxt]g, tbf tlto+. obf ;d'Ƨflxt]g, tbf rt'Ŵ+. obf kg sĕdfg+ jf c;ƕƸų cfuƙ, cţ];+ jf
58

;ádgƧx]t"g+ cefj]g rt";'lk ljsƍ];' ;ádgƧ/lxttf xált, tbf ;];flg rųfl/ pk]ŋĕ;xutflg pƍşƃLlt co+
;ƕoáutá ljlgŞoá.
wƙ'Ź];tá kg k&dfs';n] tfj lgotf kflńo+ ;¿k]gfutf ;áń;, o]jfkgsj;]g rųf/ált jL;lt wƙf xálƃ.
sy+Ġ mþƧá j]bgf ;ţf r]tgf lrų+ ljtŊþá ljrf/á kLlt jLl/o+ PsƮtf hËljt+ clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ náeá dáxá ldŞflbŪLlt
Od] ;¿k]gfutf ;áń; wƙf, %Ɔá clwdáŋ]ĕ dgl;sĕ/á pźŝlƃ Od] o]jfkgsĕ rųf/ált. kbefhgLo] kg k'Ƒ] j'ųgo]g]j
æmþƧkťs+þ ´fgśkťs+þ jLl/o;dflwdgá;ádgƧhËljtj;]g OlƇoflg kť, ldŞflblŪ;Řƍjfofd;dflwj;]g dƮśflg
rųfl/, jLl/o;dflwclxl/sĕgáųƍj;]g anflg rųfl/, náeá dáxált ƀ] d"nflg, cleŢĕ ldŞflbŪLlt ƀ] sƙkyflg,
clxl/s+þ cgáųƍlƃ násgf;b's+þ, ;d±yëf kƮfxá cljŋ]ká rflt Pj+ ;¿k]gfutfg+ ƀƸų;wƙfg+ ;áń;;' Pj ;dj/á±wëf,
;ljelųsĕljelųse]bá r sĕdfjr/k&ds';n] j'ųfg';f/tá `ftƑá. co+ wƙ'Ź];tá ljlgŞoá.
nŋ)flbljefutá kg g lx/LotLlt clxl/s]ĕ, clxl/sƧ efjá clxl/Ŋ+þ, g cáųƍ+ cgáųƍ+. t];' clxl/Ŋ+þ
sĕob'ŝl/tfbLlx clhu'Şgnŋ)+, cnşĕnŋ)+ jf, cgáųƍ+ t]x]j c;f/şgnŋ)+, cg'ųf;nŋ)+ jf, ;];+ lxl/cáųƍfg+
j'ųƍlkŋj;]g j]lbtƑ+.
n'ưlt t]g, ;o+ jf n'ưlt, n'ưgdųd]j jf tlƃ náeá. ;á cf/ƙ)ux)nŋ±)ëf dŊþfn]ká ljo, cle;ś/;á
tųskfn] lvųd+;k]l; ljo, ckl/ŝfukŝ'kŪfgá t]nŧg/f±uëf ljo, ;ţáhgLowƙ];' cƧfbbƧgkbŪfgá. tŲfglbefj]g
jŬdfgá ;L#;átf gbL ljo dxf;d'Ź+ ckfod]j ux]ŷf uŞtLlt bŪƑá.
d'ƞlƃ t]g, ;o+ jf d'ƞlt, d'ƞgdųd]j jf tlƃ dáxá. ;á lrųƧ cƈsĕ/nŋ±)ëf, cţf)nŋ±)ëf jf,
c;ƕlj]w/;á, cf/ƙ);efjŞfbg/;á jf, c;ƙfklklųkŝ'kŪfgá, cƈsĕ/kŝ'kŪfgá jf, coálg;ádgl;sĕ/kbŪfgá,
;Ƒfs';nfg+ d"nlƃ bŪƑá.
ldŞf kƧlƃ tfo, ;o+ jf ldŞf kƧlt, ldŞfbƧgdųd]j jf P;flt ldŞflblŪ. ;f coálg;á clelgj];nŋ)f,
k/fdf;/;f, ldŞflelgj];kŝ'kŪfgf, cl/ofg+ cbƧgsĕdtflbkbŪfgf, k/d+ jşlƃ bŪƑf.
pźtefjá pźŝ+. t+ cj"k;dnŋ)+, cgjŪfg/;+, eƃtfkŝ'kŪfg+, coálg;ádgl;sĕ/kbŪfg+, lrųljŋ]kált
bŪƑá. ;];á kg]Ŵ ;'ţtjf/kl/oá;fgá ;Ƒálk ljlgŞoá s';nflwsĕ/] j'ųfg';f/tá j]lbtƑá. s]þjn+ ;śxjf/] kflńo+
cfutj;]g klťlƇotf, rt'/śdƮtf, rt'lƑwantf, ƀ]x]t'tf, ;ƑŴ cs';nefjá r lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j.
k&dfs';n+ lglŪt+.
oyf r k&d], Pj+ b'lto]lk ;;řf/tf, o]jfkgs]þ;' lygldźfg+ ;Ƙjá, lgottf r lj;];á. tŴ lyggtf
lyg+, ldźgtf ldź+, cg'Ƨfxg;+;Lbgtf, ;lųlj#ftá rflt cŴá. tŴ lyg+ cg'Ƨfxnŋ)+, jLl/oljgábg/;+,
;+;Lbgkŝ'kŪfg+.
ldź+ csƙţtfnŋ)+, cágxg/;+, nLgtfkŝ'kŪfg+, krnflosĕlgŹfkŝ'kŪfg+
jf, peolƕ
c/lttlƆljhlƘsĕbL;' coálg;ádgl;sĕ/kbŪfg+. b'lto+.
tlto] ;Ƒálk ljlgŞoá k&dfs';n] j'ųgoáj. s]þjn+ lblŪof cefjá, o]jfkgs]þ;' dfgƧ ;Ƙjá, clgottf
r, ;śxjf/] ltjlśsdƮtf r lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j. tŴ dţtLlt dfgá. ;á pŰltnŋ±)ëf, ;ƕƮx/;á,
s]þt'sƚtfkŝ'kŪfgá, lblŪljƍo'ųnáekbŪfgá, pƙfbá ljo bŪƑá. tlto+.
oyf r tlto], Pj+ rt'Ŵ]lk. lygldźť]Ŵ ;;řf/tf r clwsĕ, ;];+ tflb;d]j. rt'Ŵ+.
kťd%Ū;ųdŪd];' ;ádgƧŪfg] pk]ŋĕ;Ƙjá, kLltof r cefjá, ttá Pj ;śxjf/] rt'/śŢĕgtf r lj;];á,
;];+ ;Ƒ+ k&db'ltotltort'Ŵlrų;lb;d]j.
náed"nf lglŪtf.

bá;d"njŰgf
bá;d"nf kg lƀwf bádgƧ;xut+ kl#;ƕo'ų+ c;řf/+, tyf ;;řf/+. Pj+ ;ƕoáutá. wƙ'Ź];flbtá kg
k&d] tfj k&dfs';n] j'ų];' kLltnáelblŪoá jş]ŷf bá;+ o]jfkgs]þ;' clgotflg OƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝflg, ;ádgƧŪfg]
bádgƧť klŋlkŷf PsjL;lt wƙf xálƃ. o]jfkgsĕ r]Ŵ ;ų. tŴ b'Ƨlƃ t]g, ;o+ jf b'Ƨlt, b'Ƨgdųd]j jf tlƃ
bá;á. ;á rlůŊþnŋ±)ëf kxf;Llj;á ljo, lj;ƍg/;á lj;lgkftá ljo, cųgá lgƧobxg/;á jf bfjlƮ ljo,
b'Ƨgkŝ'kŪfgá nźásĕ;á ljo ;kųá, cf#ftjŴ'kbŪfgá, lj;;+;Ūk"ltd'ų+ ljo bŪƑá. OƧfogf OƧf. ;f k/;ƕųLg+
p;"ognŋ)f, tŴ]j cgle/lt/;f, ttá ljd'vefjkŝ'kŪfgf, k/;ƕlųkbŪfgf, ;ţáhglƃ bŪƑf. dŞ]/efjá
dŞl/o+. t+ nźfg+ jf nletƑfg+ jf cųgá ;ƕųLg+ lgu"xgnŋ)+, tf;ţ]j k/]lx ;fwf/)efjcŋdg/;+,
;Řárgkŝ'kŪfg+, s'sť'stfkŝ'kŪfg+ jf, cų;ƕlųkbŪfg+, r]t;á lj¿kefjált bŪƑ+. s'lŞt+ st+ s'st+, tƧ efjá
s'Ŋ'þŝ+. t+ kŞfg'tfknŋ)+, stfstfg';árg/;+, ljƍl;f/kŝ'kŪfg+, stfstkbŪfg+, bf;Ɠldj bŪƑ+. ;śxjf/] b'ŋ]g
;Ƹź rt'/śŢĕgtf, bádgƧ]g klťlƇotf, ltjlśsdƮtf, bá;dáxj;]g lƀx]t'stf r j]lbtƑf. ;];á kg ;Ƒá ljlgŞoá
k&dfs';n] j'ų;lb;á Pj. oyf r k&d], Pj+ b'lto]lk, ;;řf/tf kg lygldź]lx ;Ƹź gjo]jfkgstf r lj;];á, ;];+
tflb;d]j.
bá;d"nf lglŪtf.
59

dáxd"njŰgf
dáxd"nflk lƀwf pk]ŋĕ;xut+ ljlrlsŞf;ƕo'ų+, tyf pźŝ;ƕo'ųlƃ. tŴ k&d] wƙ'Ź];tá tfj mþƧkťs+þ
ljtŊþá ljrf/á jLl/o+ PsƮtf hËljt+ clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ dáxá ljlrlsŞflt ;¿k]gfutf r'Ź;
pźŝ+ dgl;sĕ/ált
o]jfkgsĕ ƀ] rflt ;áń; wƙf xálƃ, PsƮtf r]Ŵ lrųlŪltdųf, OlƇodƮanefj+ g ;ƕfk')flt. ttá Pj ;śxjf/]
;dfƸw jş]ŷf pk]ŋĕo ;Ƹź rųfl/ OlƇoflg, ƀ] dƮśflg, tLl) anflg xálƃ. dáxá kg]Ŵ Ps]ĕj x]t'. ;];á kg]Ŵ ;Ƒá
ljlgŞoá j'ųgoá Pj.
tŴ ljutf lrlsŞf PltƧflt ljlrlsŞf. ;f ;+;onŋ)f, sƕg/;f, clgŞokŝ'kŪfgf, cg]s+þ;efjkŝ'kŪfgf
jf, coálg;ádgl;sĕ/kbŪfgf, klklųcƃ/fos/flt bŪƑf. oyf r ljlrlsŞf;ƕo'ų], Pj+ pźŝ;ƕo'ų]lk. s]þjn+
ljlrlsŞfo cefjá, clwdáŋƧ r efjá, ttá Pj anjt/;dflwtf, t]g]j ;śxjf/] ;dflwgf ;Ƹź klťlƇotf,
ltjlśsdƮtf, rt'Ƒntf r xált. pźŝť]Ŵ ;¿k]g]j lglŹŪ+, clwdáŋdgl;sĕ/f ƀ] o]jfkgsj;]gflt co+ lj;];á, ;];+
tflb;d]j. Odflg kg ƀ] lrųflg gfgflj;o], Pslj;o] r c;Ůxgtá kjũgsĕlg. pźŝ;xut+ lx nźflwdáŋtfo
nźkltŪ+ Psĕ/ƙ±)ëo]j kltŪfo kltŪfo kjũlt rt'/Ƨdl) ljo, Ot/+ gfgf/ƙ±)ë;' jũdl) ljoflt bŪƑ+.
pźŝ;xutť &k]ŷf ;];f Psĕb; kl;Ƹƈ hg]ƃLlt j]lbtƑ+.
lj;oflbƍe]btá kg]t] ƀfb;lk jŴf/ƙ)j;]g tfj %lƑwf xálƃ. t];' náedáxd"nf kg b; kťƀf/]
xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo]j, dgáƀf/] lgƧfo jf clgƧfo jf hjglsŝ+ ;fwodfgf %lƑwf. tyf bá;d"nf lgƧfo]j kg kjųlƃ.
náed"nf kg clbƉfbfgsĕdldŞfrf/d';fjfbk];'ţ;ƖþƍnfkfleŢĕ;řftfg+ %Ɖ+ sƙkyfg+ j;]g %lƑwf. lblŪ;ƕo'ųf kg]Ŵ
ldŞflblŪj;]gfkLlt ;ųljwf xálƃ. bá;d"nf kg kf)flekftflbƉfbfgd';fjfbk];'ţmþ?;;ƖþƍnfkƓfkfbj;]g ;ųljwf
xálƃ. b;Ɖlƕ kg];+ ƀf/sƙj;]g r]j jLd+;fjlştflwkltųoj;]g r s';n] j'ųgo]g ljef±uëf j]lbtƑá. PsƃxLgųf
xLglųse]bá glŴ. cf/ƙ)flwklt kg]Ŵ náed"n];' Pj, g Ot/];', dáxd"n];' kg ;xhĕtflwkltlk glŴ, tyf
sƙkye]bálk. g lx kjũdfg+ slť clwkƸt s/ált. bá;á jf ;lj;o+, ljlrlsŞflrųť klklųdƃ/fos/ų]g
b'ŝl/tx]t'e"tlƕ kf)fltkftfbLg+ bá;náed"nlrų]x]j ;lƉŪfklgotá sƙkye]b+ g uŞlt, k'Ƒef±uë Pj kg x]t' xált.
t]gj] Ƨ ckfox]t'tf k&ddƮjŢtflt bŪƑ+. ctLtflbe]btá kg ƀfb;Ɖ+ kŝ]sdgƃtf, ;];á r ljlgŞoá s';nflwsĕ/]
j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑált.
cs';nf wƙf lglŪtf.

cƓfstkbŴá
cx]t'ss';nljkfsjŰgf
cƓfstf kg wƙf hĕlttá rt'lƑwf ljkfslsl/o¿klgƑfgj;]g. tŴ ljkfsĕƓfstf wƙf hĕlttá r lƀwf xálƃ
s';nfs';nljkfsj;]g. tŴ s';nljkfsĕ e"ldtá rt'lƑwf sĕd¿kf¿kfjr/nás'ų/ljkfsj;]g. tŴ sĕdfjr/ljkfsĕ
cx]t'sĕ ;x]t'sĕlt b'ljwf. tŴ cnáeflb;xhĕtx]t'lj/lxtf cx]t'sĕ. t] ;ƕoáujŴf/ƙ)flbe]btá cŪljwf. ;]Ɯlyb+ _
pk]ŋĕ;xut+ rŋ'ljţf)+, tyf ;át#fglhƢfljţf)+, ;'v;xut+ sĕoljţf)+, pk]ŋĕ;xutf dgáwft', ;ádgƧ;xutf
dgáljţf)wft', tyf pk]ŋĕ;xutf rflt. rŋ'ljţf)fbLlg lx rųfl/ rŋ'k;fbfbL;' rt";' pkfbfo¿k];' pkfbfo¿kfg+
#ũgflg#+;Ƨ lkr'lků]
lkr'lkůƧ]jfltb'Ƒntfo pk]ŋĕj]bgf;ƕo'ųfg]j xálƃ. sĕoljţf)+ kg
sĕlolƇo]
mþáŪƑe"tųo#ũgflg#+;Ƨ clws/l)dŴs]þ &lktlkr'lků] s"þkxf/Ƨ]j anjtfo k;fblgƧo];'lk e"t];' kl#ft;Ƙjtá
;'v;xut+ xált, dgáwft' cųgá ux)b'Ƒntfo cltOŪ]lk pk]ŋĕ;xutfj, dgáljţf)wft' kg cltOŪ] ;ádgƧ;xutf,
OŪdŢų] pk]ŋĕ;xutflt co+ ;ƕoáutá ljlgŞoá.
wƙ'Ź];flbtá kg rŋ'ljţf±)ë tfj mþƧkťs+þ, PsƮtf, hËljtlƃ ;¿k]gfutf ;ų, o]jfkgsj;]g dgl;sĕ/á Ps]ĕ
rflt cŪ wƙf xálƃ. ;śxtá kg]Ŵ vƈfotgwft'cfxfl/lƇoj;]g kť]j;śxf. tŴ rŋ'ljţf)wft'wƙwft'j;]g
wft';śxá, dgá pk]ŋĕhËljltlƇoj;]g OlƇo;śxá r j]lbtƑá. ;];+ j'ųgod]j. PŴ r ljşdfgflk j]bgf ´fgśt+ g
uŞlt, OlƇo+ kg xált. PsƮtf OlƇodƮśanefjlƕ g uŞlt cltb'Ƒnųf. ljtŊþklŞds+þ lx ´fg+, x]t'klŞds]ĕ d±Ʈëf,
anť. oyf r]Ŵ, Pj+ ;át#fglhƢfsĕoljţf±)ë;'lk. s]þjn+ kg ;śxjf/] ;átljţf)wft'cflbj;]g wft';śxá, sĕoljţf±)ë
j]bgfkl/jųgť lj;];á. oyf r]Ŵ, Pj+ dgáwft'oflk. s]þjn+ kg ljtŊþljrf/f ƀ] o]jfkgsĕ r clwdáŋ]ĕlt toá wƙf
clwsĕ. ;śxjf/] dgáwft'wƙwft'j;]g wft';śxá, ljtŊþljrf?k]ŋ]sƮtflx rt"lx ´fgś;śxá r lj;];á. kflńo+ kg]Ŵ
lsťflk
´fgś;śxá g pźá, tyflk ;ljtŊ]þ;' lgod]g ´fgśtf;Ƙjtá ux]tƑáj. oyf
r]Ŵ, Pj+
dgáljţf)wft'ƀo]lk. ;ádgƧ;xuttfo kg]Ŵ kLlt clwsĕ, ;śxjf/] r kťśŢĕgtf, j]bgfkl/jųg+, peoŴflk
60

dgáljţf)wft'wƙwft'j;]g wft';śxá r lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j.
lj;oflbƍe]btá kg rŋ'ljţf)fbLlg kť oyfŊþd+ rŋĕlbPs]þsd]j jŴ'+ lgƧfo kŝ'ƍƉ], OŪ] r ¿kflbPs]þsĕ/ƙ±)ë
Pj lsl/odgáwft'cgƃ/+ cfnásĕsĕ;jfo'hnkyjL;xsĕ/Llg k;fbsĕbLlg bƧg;jg#fog;fogm'þ;glsŝflg ;fwodfgflg
rŋ'ƀf/fbL;' Ps]þsƸƨ Pj ljkŝlƃ. Pjd]t];+ jŴ'ƀf/f/ƙ)lsŝflg lj;'+ lgotflg. &fg+ kg t];+ kťƉlƕ Psd]j, t]g
g];+ g e]bá. dgáwft' kg xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo]j kŝ'ƍƉ];' ¿kfbL;' kť;'lk cf/ƙ±)ë;' kťljţf)fgƃ/+ ;ƕlŞglsŝ+
;fwodfgf kť;'lk ƀf/];' kjųlt, ;ádgƧ;xutf dgáljţf)wft' kg xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo]j cltOŪ] kŝ'ƍƉ] kťf/ƙ±)ë
ljkfsdgáwft'cgƃ/+ ;ƃL/)lsŝ+, %;'lk ƀf/];' %;' anjsĕdfjr/f/ƙ±)ë;' ctLtfbL;' hjgfgƃ/+ tbf/ƙ)lsŝť
;fwodfgf ljkŝlt. Pjd]ltƧf ƀf/f/ƙ)lsŝŪfgflg clgaźflg, ttá t]lx e]bá xált, jŴ' kg tŴ]j lgaź+, ttá g
e]bá, Pjd'k]ŋĕ;xutfolk. s]þjn+ kg];f ƀf/ljlgd'ųflk x'ŷf ;'ulto+ hŝƈalw/hŝ'ƙųsĕbLg+ kl;lƈsĕn]
k'l/dr'ltlrųfgƃ/+ sƙan]gáklŪt+ sƙsƙlgldųultlgldų];'
cţt/+ ctLtflbe]b+ %lƑwlƕ sĕdfjr/f/ƙ)df/ư
kl;lƈlsŝ+, tbgƃ/tá kŪfo ofjtfo's+þ ejślsŝ+, cƃ] r'ltlsŝť, j'ųgo]g ;ƃL/)tbf/ƙ)lsŝflg r ;fwodfgf
Od];' kť;' &fg];' ljkŝtLlt co+ lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j.
PŴ r jwaƈflbj;ƍjų] clgŪf/ƙ±)ë vlƃkl;řfgflbj;]g s';n'ƍlųtá tlƉƑųfg+ kl;lƈcflbljţf)fg+
sƙlgldųť] cf/ƙ)+ xált, clgŪ]g]j t]g eljtƑ+. Pj+ OŪlj;o] pƍƉfg+ s';nljkfsĕg+ clgŪf/ƙ±)ë;' cg'ƍlųtá
sƙultlgldųd]j t];+ cf/ƙ)+ xátLlt ljţfolt. ljrf/]ŷf oyf clj/á±wëf xált, tyf ux]tƑ+. Pj+ OŪlj;o]
pƍƉs';ntá lgƑųfglƕ kl;lƈcflbljţf)fg+ sƙlgldųf/ƙ)tfo clj/á±wëf `ftƑá. ctLtflbe]btá kg cŪƉlƕ
kŝ]sdgƃ/tf x]Ūf j'ųgo]g ux]tƑf.
cx]t'ss';nljkfsĕ lglŪtf.

;x]t'ss';nljkfsjŰgf
cnáeflbljkfsx]t';ƕo'ųf kg ;x]t'sĕ, t] ;ƕoáutá sĕdfjr/s';nf ljo cŪljwf. ;ádgƧ`f)flb;ƕoá±uëf
kg]Ŵ cfudgflbtá j]lbtƑá. ltx]t's+þ lx sĕdfjr/s';n+ ltx]t'slƀx]t'skl;lƈoá bŷf kjų] %;' ƀf/];' ;áń; ljkfsĕlg
b]lt, b'x]t's+þ kg s';n+ b'x]t'sĕx]t'skl;lƈoá bŷf kjų] %;' ƀf/];' ltx]t's/lxtflg ƀfb; ljkfsĕlg b]lt.
c;řfl/s;;řfl/sefjá kg]Ŵ kŝolj;];tálk xált. anjkŝo]gflk lx pƍƉ+ c;řfl/s+þ xált, b'Ƒn]gflk Ot/+. s]þlr
kg c;řfl/s]þg ;;řf/ljkfsĕg+, ;;řfl/s]þg r c;řfl/sĕg+ pƍƸų g OŞlƃ. oƨf kg]tflg kl;lƈbfostá cţ]gflk
sƙ]g kjų] cs';nljkfsĕlg kjųlƃ, kŪfg] r æ;x]t's+þ ejś+ cx]t'sƧ ejśƧ cgƃ/kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt ‘kŪf03=1=102’
j'ų+, tƨf cx]t'skl;lƈsƧ k'ƮnƧ ;'ulto+ kjų] ;x]t'sĕlglk ljkfsĕlg kjųlƃ. b'Ʈlto+, kg ¿kfjr/e"ldoť
cx]t'sĕg]j kjųlƃ. t];'lk cltOŪ] cf/ƙ±)ë ;ádgƧ;xutflg, OŪdŢų] pk]ŋĕ;xutfgLlt Pj+ cfudgflbtá ;ƕoáue]bá
j]lbtƑá.
wƙ'Ź];flbtá kg ofj ;'ţtjf/kl/oá;fgf sĕdfjr/s';n;lb;áj ;Ƒá ljlgŞoá, s]þjnť]Ŵ o]jfkgs]þ;'
s?)fd'lbtf g ;lƃ ;ųf/ƙ)ųf. Psƃkl/ųf/ƙ)f lx sĕdfjr/ljkfsĕ. lj/ltoák]Ŵ nálso];' Psƃs';n;efjųf g
;lƃ. ækťl;ŋĕkbf s';nf PjfÆlt ‘lje0715cfboá’ lx j'ų+. mþƧfboá r]Ŵ ljkfsųf cfbf;] d'vlgldų+ ljo
lg?Ƨfx;ƃf, s';nf kg d'v+ ljo ;pƧfxf. ;śxjf/] r kťlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf xált, co+ lj;];á. ;];+ tflb;d]j.
lj;oflbƍe]btá kg ø−fo+ s';n];' sƙƀf/k'ţlsl/oflwktLlx e]bá j'ųá, ;á Ow glŴ cljţlųhgstá,
cljkfswƙtá, tyf cƍjlųtá r. xLglųse]bá kg clŴ xLgdlŢdƍ)Ltfg+ s';nfg+ ljkfsųf tyf ƀf/f/ƙ)flbe]bá.
Pt] lx xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo ƀf/ljlgd'ųf x'ŷf b]jdg'Ƨ];' lƀx]t'sltx]t'sĕg+ x]Ūf j'ųgo]g kl;lƈejśr'ltlsŝflg, %ƀf/] %;'
cf/ƙ±)ë;' tbf/ƙ)lsŝť ;fwodfgf Pj+ rt";' &fg];' ljkŝlƃ. Pjd]t];+ ƀf/f/ƙ)lsŝŪfgflg clgaźflg, ttá t]lx
e]bá xált. jŴ' kg tŴ]j lgaź+, ttá g e]bá. ctLtflbe]btá kg]Ŵflk cgƃtf j'ųgof Pjflt.
sĕdfjr/;x]t'ss';nljkfsĕ lglŪtf.

¿kfjr/ljkfsjŰgf
¿kfjr/ljkfsĕlk ;ƕoáue]btá cųgá s';nf ljo kťljwf xálƃ. ;Ƒá r]Ŵ ljlgŞoe]bá s';n] j'ųgoá Pj.
ljkfsefjtá kg]Ŵ oyf xlŴcfbLg+ %fof t+;lb;f, Pj+ s';nfudgtá r ´fgśflb;ƕo'ųwƙ;dfoá±uëf, klkbflbe]bá r
xált. clkr]Ŵ ltljwfo k&dŢĕge"ldof k&dŢĕgljkfsĕ, tyf b'ltoŢĕge"ldof b'ltoŢĕgljkfsĕ tltoŢĕgljkfsĕ r,
tltoŢĕge"ldof rt'ŴŢĕgljkfsĕ,
j]xƎþnkť;'źfjf;j;]g %lƑwfo rt'ŴŢĕge"ldof kťdŢĕgljkfsĕ r j'ųgo]g
kl;lƈejśr'ltlsŝflg ;fwodfgf xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo ƀf/ljlgd'ųfj sƙlgldų;řftkţųf/ƙ)f x'ŷf ljkŝƃLlt co+
lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j.
61

¿kfjr/ljkfsĕ lglŪtf.

c¿kfjr/ljkfsjŰgf
Pj+ c¿kfjr/ljkfsĕlk cf/ƙ)e]btá cųgá s';nf ljo rt'lƑwf xálƃ. ljlgŞoá r ;Ƒá s';n] j'ųgoáj.
s';ntá r]Ŵ lj;];á ¿kfjr/ljkfs]þ j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑá. s]þjn+ kg]Ŵ sƙlgldųe"tkţųf/ƙ±)ëf cfsĕ;fgťfotgljkfs]ĕ
k&df?ƍe"ldo+, tyf dxƮtf/ƙ±)ëf ljţf)ťfotgljkfs]ĕ b'ltof?ƍe"ldo+, sƙlgldųe"tkţųf/ƙ±)ëf cflsťţfotgljkfs]ĕ
tltof?ƍe"lvo+, dxƮtf/ƙ±)ëf g]j;ţfgf;ţfotgljkfs]ĕ rt'Ŵf?ƍe"ldoť cjŴ'sĕ j'ųgo]g kl;lƈejśr'ltlsŝflg
;fwodfgfj kjųƃLlt cod]j lj;];á.
c¿kfjr/ljkfsĕ lglŪtf.

nás'ų/ljkfsjŰgf
tyf nás'ų/ljkfsĕlk cųgá s';nf ljo t+t+dƮmþnųf rt'lƑwf, ´fgśoáue]btá kŝ]s+þ kť kť sŷf
jL;ltljwfj xálƃ. ljlgŞoá r]Ŵ s';n] j'ųgoáj. s]þjn+ ;śxjf/] ;átfklųdƮmþn+ ;sbfuflddƮmþn+ cgfuflddƮmþnlƃ
Od];+ ltŰ+ clţlƇo+, c/xųmþnƧ r cţftfljlƇo+ klţlƇoŪfg] ux]ŷf clŪlƇotf, aáŢśdƮśflbaálwklŋowƙf,
klkbflbe]bá r dƮfudgj;]g]j xátLlt j]lbtƑá. clwklte]bák]Ŵ nưlt. nás'ų/s';nf lx cųgá mþnfg+
cgƃ?ƍlųtá, hjgj'lųtá r clwkƸt ljwft'+ ;Ŋþálƃ, nálsof kg ljk/Lttá g ;Ŋþálƃ. t]gfx' ká/f)f æljkfs]þ
clwktL glŴ &k]ŷf nás'ų/Ælƃ
‘w0;0cŪ0505’. ljdáŋe]btá kg]t] dƮfudgtá ltljwf xálƃ
;'ţtclgldųcƍl)lxtljdáŋj;]g. dƮf lx ljkƧgfudgtá æ;'ţtá cƍl)lxtáÆlt ƀ] gfdflg nleŷf ;u')f/ƙ)tá
kl/ofo]g clgldųfltlk j'ŝlƃ, tƨf ;o+ cfudgLoŪfg] &ŷf cųgá cųgá cgƃ/mþnfg+ lgƍl/ofotá tLl)lk gfdflg
b]lƃ. ck/ef±uë kg mþn;dfklųe"tfg+ g b]lƃ. tŴ ljkƧgfudgtáj d±Ʈë j'ųgo]g b'lj±wëf gfdnfeá j]lbtƑá. t] r
g dƮf ljo Pslrųŋl)sĕ, dƮjLlyo+ kg ƀlųŋų'+, mþn;dfklųjLlyo+ ;snlƕ lbj;+ cƍgfhjgj;]g]j lg/ƃ/+
dxƮthjgflg ljo kjųƃLlt co+ lj;];á.
nás'ų/ljkfsĕ lglŪtf.
cs';nljkfsĕ kg sĕdfjr/fj, náeflb;ƕo'ųx]t' cefjtá cx]t'sĕ Pj r xálƃ. t] ;ƕoáutá pk]ŋĕ;xut+
rŋ'ljţf)+, tyf ;át#fglhƢfljţf)flg, tyf b'ŋ;xut+ sĕoljţf)+, pk]ŋĕ;xutf dgáwft', tyf dgáljţf)wft"lt
;ųljwf. ljlgŞoá kg]; ;ƑŴ tflb;fx]t'ss';nljkfs]þ;' j'ųgoá Pj. s]þjn+ kgflgŪf/ƙ)tf, sĕoljţf)Ƨ
b'ŋ;xuttf, pk]ŋĕ;xutdgáljţf)wft'of pźŝjlştfs';nkŝof rt";' ckfo];' kl;lƈejśr'ltlsŝflg, ;'ultoť
;ƃL/)tbf/ƙ)lsŝflg r ;fwgj;]g kjlų r lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j.
cs';nljkfsĕ lglŪtf.

lglŪtf r ljkfsĕƓfstf.

cx]t'slsl/ofjŰgf
lsl/ofƓfstf kg sĕd¿kf¿kfjr/j;]g ltljwf. tŴ sĕdfjr/lsl/of cx]t'sĕ ;x]t'sĕlt b'ljwf. tŴ
;xhĕtx]t'lj/lxtf cx]t'sĕ. tf ;ƕoáuflbtá ltljwf pk]ŋĕ;xutf dgáwft', ;ádgƧ;xutf dgáljţf)wft', tyf
pk]ŋĕ;xutflt. lsl/oflt s/)dų+, lsŝdųlƃ cŴá. ;Ƒ];'o]j lx lsl/olrų];' o+ cfjşglsŝƀo+, t+ chjgj'lųtá
dá#k'Ǝ+þ ljo. o+ hjgj'lųs+þ, t+
lg/fg';o;ƃfgƍjlųtá l%Ɖd"n?ŋk'Ǝ+þ ljo cmþn+ xált.
t+t+cfjşghjglsŝ;fwgj;]g kjųųf kg lsŝdųt+ pkfbfo ælsl/ofÆlt j'ų+. tŴ dgáwft'of ljkfsdgáwft'o+
j'ųgo]g ;Ƒá ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. s]þjn+ kg kťƀf/] OŪ];' jf clgŪ];' jf kťf/ƙ±)ë;' kťk;fb] #lũt];'
pƍƉejś'kŞ]bfgƃ/+ td]j kťf/ƙ)df/ư xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo]jfjşglsŝ+ ;fwodfgf kť;'lk ƀf/];' kjųtLlt co+
62

lj;];á.
dgáljţf)wft'ƀolƕ oyfŊþd+ s';nljkfsĕx]t'sdgáljţf)wft'ƀo;lb;+, jLl/o+ kg]Ŵ clws+þ, jLl/o"kŴƘáj
;dflw anjf xált. ttá Pj]Ŵ ;śxjf/] jLl/o;dflwdgá;ádgƧhËljltlƇofg+ kťƉ+ j;]g OlƇo;śxá xált, Owflk
an;śxá gŴ]j. o+ kg]Ŵ kbefhgLo] ;dflwjLl/ofg+ lgŹ];] æ;dflwan+ jLl/oanÆlƃ ‘w0;0570-572’ anj]jrg+
j'ų+, t+ Ot/fx]t'slrų;ƕo'ų]lx Od];+ anjt/tfbƧgŴ+ kl/ofotá j'ų+. ttá Pj lx ;śxjf/] æƀ] anflg xáƃLÆlt g
j'ų+, tƨf cx]t's]þ;' lgƍl/ofotá an+ glŴ Pjflt ux]tƑ+.
lj;oflbƍe]btá kg]Ŵ ;ádgƧ;xutf tfj xbojŴ'ţ]j lgƧfo kťƀf/] jáŪƑglsŝfo r, dgáƀf/] cg'ńf/];'
%;' sĕdfjr/f/ƙ±)ë;' cfjşglsŝfo r dgáljţf)wft'of cgƃ/+ hjglsŝ+ ;fwodfgf vL)f;jfgţ]j xl;t+ pƍfb]ƃL
kjųlt. xl;t+ lx ;ádgƧ;xutsĕdfjr/]x]j hjg]lx, t];' c;]vfg+ kťlx lsl/ofhjg]lx, ;]vfg+ kg s';n]lx r]j
lblŪljƍo'ųnáed"n]lx rflt %lx, k'y'şgfg+ lblŪ;ƕo'ų]lx rflt cŪxLlt t]/;lx lrų]lx pƍşlt. pk]ŋĕ;xutf kg
kťƀf/] xbojŴ'ţ]j lgƧfo ;ƃL/)lsŝfo ljkfsdgáljţf)wft'of cgƃ/+ jáŪƑglsŝ+, dgáƀf/] ;Ƒ];' %;'lk cf/ƙ±)ë;'
;jŴ'sĕ, cjŴ'sĕ jf ejśrngfgƃ/+ cfjşglsŝ+ ;fwodfgf kjųlt. co+ lx tL;' ej];' sƧlr ;lrųsk'ƮnƧ g
lslƨlť lj;o] g pƍşlt, ;Ƒţ'tţf);lb;+ dxfudg+ gfd]t+ lrųlƃ co+ lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]j.
cx]t'slsl/of lglŪtf.

;x]t'ssĕdfjr/lsl/ofjŰgf
cnáeflblsl/ofx]t';ƕo'ųf kg ;x]t'sĕ, t] ;ƕoáutá s';nf ljo cŪljwf. ;Ƒák]Ŵ ljlgŞoá s';n];' j'ųgoá
Pj. s]þjn+ kg]Ŵ lj/ltoá g ;lƃ, s';nf r ;]vk'y'şgfg+ j'ųgo]g %;' ƀf/];' jŴ'+ lgƧfo jf clgƧfo jf hjglsŝ+
;fwodfgf kjųlƃ, Od] kg c;]vfglƃ co+ lj;];á. sĕdfjr/lsl/of.

¿kfjr/lsl/ofjŰgf
¿kfjr/lsl/of r s';nf ljo kťljwf. ljlgŞoá r tŴ j'ųgoá Pj. s]þjn+ lx s';nf ;]vk'y'şgfg+
kţųf/ƙ)f cleţfj;]g kjų+ kťdŢĕg+ ;Ƒf/ƙ)ť x'ŷf dgáƀf/] xbojŴ'ţ]j lgƧfo hjglsŝ+ ;fwodfgf kjųlƃ,
Od] kg c;]vfglƃ cod]j lj;];á. ¿kfjr/lsl/of.

c¿kfjr/lsl/ofjŰgf
c¿kfjr/lsl/of r s';nf ljo rt'lƑwf. ljlgŞoá r tŴ j'ųgoá Pj. s]þjn+ lx s';nf ;]vk'y'şgfg+
;jŴ'sĕ, cjŴ'sĕ jf x]Ūf j'ųgo]g oyfoáu+ kţlųdxƮtf/ƙ)f dgáƀf/] hjglsŝ+ ;fo]dfgf kjųlƃ, Od] kg c;]vfglƃ
co+ lj;];á. c¿kfjr/lsl/of.
lsl/ofƓfstf lglŪtf.

klsŰssyfjŰgf
PŴ &ŷf ;Ƒ] lrųr]tl;swƙ] hĕlt;śxflbtá ;dáwfg]ŷf klsŰssyf jųƑf. oyfj'ųflg lx lrųflg s';nflg
PsjL;lt, cs';nflg ƀfb;, ljkfsĕlg %Ƹų;, lsl/oflg jL;lt rflt ;Ƒflglk Ps"þggj'ltljwflg, nás'ų/fg+
´fgśoáue]btá rųfnL;ljwųf PsjL;;t+ jf xálƃ. t];' sĕdfjr/flg rt'kţf;, ¿kfjr/flg kƉ/;, c¿kfjr/flg
ƀfb;, nás'ų/flg cŪ, rųfnL;+ jf. sĕdfjr/];' r s';nflg cŪ, ljkfsĕlg t]jL;lt, lsl/oflg Psĕb;, cx]t'sĕlg
cŪf/;. ;];flg kg rt'e"dsĕlglk ;x]t'sĕlg. t];' r hĕlttá lrųu)gf k'Ƒ] j'ųfj r]tl;sĕ kg ;źf ;lt lx/Lcáųƍ+
cnáeá cbá;á sĕokƧźfboá ƀfb;, tŶdŢųtf cdáxá cƍdţfƀo+, lj/ltųoť dáxá clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ pźŝť náeá
lblŪ bá;á ljlrlsŞf r dfgá OƧf dŞl/o+ s'Ŋ'þŝ+ lyg+ ldźť mþƧá j]bgf ;ţf r]tgf PsƮtf hËljltlƇoť dgl;sĕ/á r
ljtŊþá ljrf/á kLlt jLl/o+ %Ɔá clwdáŋ]ĕ rflt ƀ]kţf; xálƃ.
tŴ tŶdŢųtf, cƍdţfƀo+, dfgfbLlg %, dgl;sĕ/á %Ɔá clwdáŋ]ĕ rflt ƀfb; wƙf oyf&fg] o]jfkgsĕ Pj,
lj/ltųo+, pźŝť sŴlr o]jfkgsĕ. t];' r tŶdŢųtf dgl;sĕ/á %Ɔá clwdáŋ]ĕ pźŝ+ lj/ltoált Od] &k]ŷf ;];f cŪ
oyf&fg] clgotf Pj, lj/ltoá kg sŴlr clgotf, Od] kg Psĕb; &k]ŷf ;];f PsrųfnL; wƙf lgotf Pj. tŴ
;źfboá kťjL;lt wƙf s';nfƓfstfo]j, dáxfboá r'Ź; cs';nf Pj, mþƧfboá t]/; s';nfs';nfƓfstf lthĕltsĕ.
63

Psƃtá lx s';nf jf cƓfstf jf wƙf glŴ, s';nlrų;ƕo'ų;do] kg s';nf, cƓfstlrų;ƕo'ų;do] cƓfstf r
xálƃ. dáxfboá kg ;¿k]g]j cs';nf, Ot/] r t+;ƕoá±uëg ;Ƒ]lk r]t] cŴgf ;ƕo'ųlrųe]b]g e]bjƃáj xáƃLlt
j]lbtƑf.
t];' lx ;źfboá Ps"þgjL;lt ;Ƒ];' s';n];' r]j ;x]t'sĕƓfst];' rflt Ps"þg;lŪlrų];' pƍşlƃ, ttá kŝ]s+þ
Ps"þg;lŪƍe]bf r xálƃ. Pjdţ]lk `ftƑf cdáxá t];' `f)ljƍo'ųflg ƀfb; &k]ŷf ;];];', cƍdţf kg sĕdfjr/];'
;x]t'slsl/os';n];' r]j kťdŢĕgjlşt¿kfjr/];' rflt cŪjL;ltlrų];', lj/ltoá kg sĕdfjr/s';n];', nás'ų/];' rflt
;áń;;'. Pjd]t] kťjL;lt wƙf s';nfƓfst];' pƍşgtá s';nfƓfstf gfd hĕtf. cs';n];' kg dáxfboá rųf/á
ƀfb;;'lk cs';nlrų];' pƍşlƃ, náeá cŪ;' náed"n];', lblŪ tŴ lblŪ;ƕo'ų];', dfgá lblŪljƍo'ų];', bá;á OƧf
dŞl/o+ s'Ŋ'þŝ+ kl#;ƕo'ų];', lygldź+ kť;' ;;řfl/s]þ;', ljlrlsŞf ljlrlsŞf;ƕo'ų] Pjflt. Pjd]t] r'Ź;lk ;o+
cs';nųf, cs';n]Ʃ]j pƍşgtá r cs';nf gfd.
Ot/];' r mþƧfboá ;ų wƙf ;Ƒlrų];', g lx t+ lrųdlŴ, o+ Od];' Ps]þgflk ljgf pƍşlt. ;ƑŴsĕ lx
Pt]. ljtŊĕboá kg oyfoálusĕ. t];' lx
ljtŊþá tfj lƀkťljţf)jlştsĕdfjr/];' r]j Psĕb;;'
k&dŢĕlgs¿kfjr/nás'ų/];' rflt kťkţf;lrų];' pƍşlt. ljrf/á kg t];' r]j tyf b'ltoŢĕlgslrų];' rflt
%;lŪlrų];'. kLlt rt'ŴŢĕlgsjlşt;ádgƧ;xut];'. jLl/o+ lƀkťljţf)dgáwft';ƃL/)lųsjlşt];'.
%Ɔá
cx]t'sdád"xjlşt];'. clwdáŋ]ĕ lƀkťljţf)ljlrlsŞfo'ųjlşt];.
'
Pjd]t] t]/; s';nfs';nfƓfst];' pƍşgtá lthĕltsĕ
gfd hĕtf. ;ƕo'ųlrųe]b]g r];+ kŝ]s+þ u)gfe]bálk j]lbtƑá. oyf lx lrų+ ;nŋ)tá Psljwlƕ ;ƕoáufjŴflbe]b]g]j
leƉ+, tyf r]tl;sĕlk kŝ]slƃ `ftƑf, lj;];+ kg g];+ jŋĕd.
jŴ';śx] kg g];+ lrų];' tfj sĕdfjr/ljkfsdgáwft'xl;tflg, bá;;ƕo'ųkl#¿kfjr/k&ddƮflg rflt
t]rųfnL; lrųflg x]Ūf j'ųgo]g oyf;s+þ jŴ"lg lgƧfo]j pƍşlƃ, c¿kfjr/ljkfsĕlg kg clgƧfo]j, ;];flg ƀ]rųfnL;
lgƧfolk, cf?ƍ];'lk pƍşgtá clgƧfolk. c¿kLg+ lx %lk jŴ"lg g ;lƃ, ¿kLg+ kg #fgfbLlg tLl), ;ƑŴ r
t+t+jŴ'/lxtfg+ ;ƑŴ lgotljţf)flglk, c;ţLg+ kg ;Ƒflglk jŴ'ljţf)flg g ;lƃ. t];+ lx hËljtgjsd]j ¿k+
kl;lƈ, kjlųo+ ejś+, d/)sĕn] r'lt r x'ŷf kjųlt. oyf r]Ŵ lrųfg+, Pj+ t+;ƕo'ųr]tl;sĕglƕ jŴ'tá ;śxe]bá
j]lbtƑá. co+ kg lj;];á _ t];' lx bá;á OƧf dŞl/o+ s'Ŋ'þŝť xbojŴ'+ lgƧfo sĕdnás]þ Pj pƍşlt. s?)fd'lbtf
kg ¿knás]þlk, g c¿k]. tŴ lx ¿kfjr/k'Ƒefuflglk g pƍşlƃ, ;];f kg ;Ƒ] lgƧfolk clgƧfolk tL;'lk ej];'
pƍşlƃ. tŴ lx mþƧfboá ;ų %lk jŴ"lg, Ot/] kg xbod]jflt, ;];+ lrų;d+.
lsŝƀf/;śx] kg g];+ lrų+ oyf r r'Ź;lx lsŝ]lx %ƀfl/sƀf/ljlgd'ųefj]g, Pj+ kjlųŊþdá j]lbtƑá. obf
lx s';nfs';nan]g tL;' e"dL;' ;ųf lgƑųlƃ, tbf t];+ d/)sĕn] o]e'Ɯ]g %Ɖ+ ƀf/fgdţt/Ƹƨ kŝ'klŪt+
sƙsƙlgldųultlgldųfgdţt/+
ux]ŷf pk]ŋĕ;xutljkfsĕx]t'sdgáljţf)wft'ƀoť]j cŪ dxfljkfsĕlg,
gj
¿kf¿kljkfsĕlg r]lt Ps"þgjL;lt lrųflg x]Ūf j'ųgo]g oyf;se"dL;' kl;lƈ x'ŷf pƍşlƃ, tfg]j ejśr'ltj;]g
ƀf/ljlgd'ųflg gfd xálƃ. d/)sĕn] lx ;ųfg+ c;lţ;ųlj/lxtfg+ ejƃ/] kl;lƈhgs+þ ctLt+ sƙ+ jf t+sƙs/)sĕn]
lj;oáks/)flbe"t+ ¿kflb%lƑwlƕ ctLtflbe]b+
sĕnljlgd'ųť sƙlgldų+ jf pkkşdfgejfg'¿k+
sƍ?ŋdft's'lŞlg/olƮhĕnflbultlgldų+ jf sƙan]g oyf/x+ %Ɖ+ ƀf/fgdţt/Ƹƨ ;foƌ] kƑtŞfof kyljo+ ljo
lrų;ƃfg] cƟLodfg+ pkŪflt. Pj+ pklŪt] r tƸƨ cf/ƙ±)ë sƙan]g
lg/ƃ/+ kjųdfglrų;ƃfgƧ
cfo'ŋosƙŋopeoŋopkŞ]bssƙfgdţt/]g kŝf;Ɖd/)Ƨ tƧ tƧ jLlylrųejśfgƃ/+ r'ltlrų+ xált, tbgƃ/+
sƙsƙlgldųfbL;' oyfulxt+ cf/ư oyf/x+ tL;' ej];' o+ lslť kl;lƈlrų+ ejƃ/] k&dlrų+ x'ŷf pƍşlt.
tŴ r b'x]t'sĕx]t'sr'ltofgƃ/+ b; sĕdfjr/kl;lƈoáj xálƃ, g Ot/f, sĕdfjr/ltx]t'sĕo r'ltof ;Ƒflk
xálƃ, ¿kfjr/fo kg r'ltoflk cx]t'skl;lƈ/lxtf,
c¿kfjr/fo r'ltof x]lŪdjlştf?ƍkl;lƈoá r]j
sĕdfjr/ltx]t'skl;lƈoá
r, c;ţLg+ kg ¿kr'lttá ejƃ/] ulxtk'Ƒ+ sƙflbd]jf/ư cx]t's/lxtf
sĕdfjr/kl;lƈoáj xálƃ, g Ot/f. k'y'şgfg+, kg ;átfkƉ;sbfufdLgť r'ltof ;'źfjf;];' kl;lƈ g xált, ;]vfg+
lƀx]t'sĕx]t'sĕ;lţkl;lƈoá,
c;]vfg+ kg ;Ƒflk kl;lƈoá g xálƃ. t] lx r'lttá lg?klw;];lgƑfg]g
cg'kfbfkl/lgƑfgƍųf gfd xálƃ. Pj+ ulxtkl;lƈlg/áwtá k/+ tb]j lrų+ tlƨţ]jf/ƙ±)ë ejś+ x'ŷf r'ltkl/oá;fg+
c;lt jLlylrų'ƍfb] ;'lkglƕ clbƩf lgŹáŊþdgsĕnfbL;' ckl/df);řlƕ gbL;át+ ljo lg/ƃ/+ kjųlt. Pj+
Ps"þgjL;ltljţf)fg+ kl;lƈejśr'ltj;]g kjlųŊþdá j]lbtƑá.
Pj+ kg jųdfg] ejś;ƃfg] obf OlƇokl/kfsdfuƙ ;efukŝoƃ/;lxt+ cltdxƃ+ ¿kf/ƙ)+ rŋ'ƀf/] #ũ]lt,
tbf #ũgfg'efj]g lƀŋų'+ tŴ ejśrng+ xált, tbgƃ/+ ejś+ jálŞlƆŷf tƸƨ ¿kf/ƙ±)ë lsl/odgáwft' cfjşglsŝ+
;fwodfgf pƍlşŷf lg?Ţlt, tyf tbgƃ/+ rŋ'ljţf)ƀo] oyf/xd]s+þ bƧglsŝ+, tbgƃ/+ ljkfsdgáwft'ƀof cţt/+
;ƕlŞglsŝ+, tbgƃ/+ ljkfsdgáljţf)wft'ųof cţt/+ ;ƃL/)lsŝ+, tbgƃ/+ pk]ŋĕ;xutlsl/ofx]t'sdgáljţf)wft'
jáŪƑglsŝ+, tbgƃ/+ Ps"þgƸt;sĕdfjr/hjg];' o+ lslť oyf/x+ ;ųŋų'+, %ŋų'+, d/)sĕnfbL;' kťŋų'd]j jf hjglsŝ+
;fwodfg+, tbgƃ/+ Psĕb;;' tbf/ƙ)lsŝ];' dxfljkfs;ƃL/±)ë;' oyf/xd]s+þ ;Ƹs, lƀŋų'+ jf tbf/ƙ)lsŝ+ ;fwodfg+
pƍlşŷf lg?Ţlt, tbgƃ/+ ejś;ƃlt Pj kjųlt. Pj+ rŋ'ƀf/] ;ųlsŝflg %rųfnL; lrųflg ;Ƙjlƃ.
obf kg j'ųgo]g ;Źf/ƙ)fbLlg ;átƀf/fbL;' #ũ]lƃ, tbflk rŋ'ƀf/] ljo kŝ]sť %rųfnL;]j ejlƃ. s]þjn+
x]Ŵ cfjşgfgƃ/+ rŋ'ljţf)Ūfg] ;átljţf)flbƀoflg oyfŊþd+ ;jgflblsŝflg ;fwodfgflg pƍşƃLlt. Pj+ kťƀf/]
cltdxƃ] kťf/ƙ±)ë rt'kţf; sĕdfjr/lrųfg]j ;Ƙjlƃ. s]þlr kg]Ŵ æ;;řfl/shjgflg kťƀf/] g pƍşlƃ
k'Ƒƍoáuf;Ƙjf, dgáƀf/]o]j]tflg pƍşƃLÆlt jblƃ.

64

dxƃ] kg tbf/ƙ)jlştflg. lj;oƧ hjg;dsĕnd]j ctLtųf hjgfj;fg] ejś+ xált. kl/ų] kg
hjglƕ glŴ. jáŪƑg+ x]Ŵ hjgŪfg] &ŷf ƀlųŋų'+ kjlųŷf lg?Ţlt, ttá k/+ ejś+ xált. co+ kg jf/á ælbŪ+ ljo
d] ;'t+ ljo d]Æltcflbsygsĕn] nưlt. cltkl/ų] kg jáŪƑgƍfbf c;Ůxgtá ejśrngdųd]j, g cfjşgfbLlg.
cfjşg]g lx ejś] cfjlũt] jáŪƑg+ cƍŷf cƃ/f rŋ'ljţf)fgƃ/+ lrų+ ejś+ cátl/ƧtLlt g]t+ &fg+ ljşlt, gflk
cƍjųdfg] lj;o] kťƀfl/sjLlylrųflg kjųƃLlt. co+ kťƀf/] lj;oƍjlųe]b]g lrųƍjlųlgodá.
dgáƀf/]
kg
%;'
cf/ƙ±)ë;'
cfkfyut];'
j'ųgo]g
ejśrngdgáƀf/fjşgfgƃ/+
s';nfs';nmþngfjşglsl/olrų];' kťkţf;hjglsŝ];' o+ lslť sĕdfjr/f/ƙ)df/ư kjųlt, ttá ke'lt sĕdfjr/f/ƙ±)ë
tbf/ƙ)+ xált. cƍgfhjg] co+ kjlųŊþdá _ ;dyljkƧgfsƙŪflgsĕg+ lx oyf;slj;o] pƍflbtk'Ƒefuefjgfg+
æObflg cƍgf pƍlşƧtLÆlt ejśrngfjşgfj;fg]
`f);ƕo'ųsĕdfjr/hjg];' cţt/Ƹƨ oyf/x+
kl/sƙákrf/fg'nád±uëfŶe'gfd]g rt'ŋų'+, ltŋų'd]j jf pƍlşŷf lg?ź] rt'Ŵ+, kťd+ jf dxƮthjg];' o+ lslť
k&dsƍgfleţfe"t+ Psjf/d]j, ´fg;dfklųe"t+ cgƃjf/lƕ hjlt. nás'ų/hjg];' kg s';nflg Ps;ƃfg] Psjf/d]j
hjlƃ, tbgƃ/+ oyf;s+þ mþnlrųť ƀlųjf/+, mþn;dfklųjLlyo+ mþnd]j cgƃjf/lƕ hjlt, lg/áw;dfklųo+ kg
cg'k'Ƒlg/áwj;]g k&dŢĕgtá ofjflsťţfotgf oyfŊþd+ cfjşgkl/sƙflbj;]g]j ;dfklşŷf j'lŪtƧ ±uëfŶe'tá cgƃ/+
rt'Ŵf?ƍhjg] lƀŋų'+ hljŷf lg?ź] oyfkl/lŞƉsĕnť lrų+ g pƍşlt, j'Ūfgsĕn] r cfjşgkl/sƙlrųlgofd]g
cgfufldmþn+, c/xųmþn+ jf oyf/xd]sjf/d]j pƍşlt. tŴ r s';n±uëfŶe'tá cgƃ/+ s';nť]j cflbtá mþnųoť
cƍ]lt, lsl/of±uëfŶe'tá lsl/o+, c/xųmþnť. tŴflk ;ádgƧ;xuttá
;ádgƧ;xutd]j, pk]ŋĕ;xuttá r
pk]ŋĕ;xutd]j cƍ]lt. c;]vfgd]j r]Ŵ c/xųmþnlsl/ofhjgflg, oyf;s+þ ;]vfgd]j ;];nás'ų/flg, ;]vk'y'şgfgd]j
s';nfs';nflg, ltx]t'sĕgd]j cƍgf xálƃ, co+ hjglgodá.
cƍgfhjgtá k/+ kg tbf/ƙ)+ glŴ. hjgf/ƙ±)ë;' lx sĕdfjr/e"t]Ʃ]j sĕdfjr/kl;lƈsĕgd]j cltdxƃ],
lje"t] r lj;o] tbf/ƙ)d'ƍşlt. cltOŪ] kgf/ƙ±)ë ;ƃL/)lsl/ofhjgtbf/ƙ)flg ;ádgƧ;xutflg, OŪdŢų],
clgŪ] r pk]ŋĕ;xutflg xálƃ. obf kg bádgƧfgƃ/+ ;ádgƧƧ kŪfg] kllŋųųf ;ádgƧkl;lƈsƧ cltOŪfbL;'
kl#] hljt] tbf/ƙ)ejśflg g pƍşlƃ, tbf cţ+ kl/lrtk'Ƒ+ kl/ųf/ƙ)df/ư cgfjşglƕ lg/áwtá j'ŪxƃƧ
;fdţmþn+ ljo cƃ/f pk]ŋĕ;xut;ƃL/)+ pƍşlt, tdgƃl/ŷf ejś+ xátLlt co+ tbf/ƙ)lgodá.
Pj+ kg ejśfgƃ/+ %ƀf/] cfjşgfbLlg jLlylrųflg. Olt ofjtfo's+þ Oldgfj sd]g lrųlgofdtá ljţf)flg
kjųlƃ. jLlylrųfgƃ/+, kg ejśfgƃ/+ jf ;ƑklŞd+ t+ Ps"þgjL;ltljw+ ejśd]j tlƨţ]jf/ƙ±)ë r'ltlsŝť ;fwodfg+
kjųlt, tƸƨ lg?ź] ;ųá r'tá gfd xált. ttálk r'lttá k'g kl;lƈejśjLlyr'ltoált Pj+ k'gƍ'g+ lrų;ƃfg+
oƃo'ų±uëf±)ëf ljo ejfbL;' ofjfg'kfbfo cf;j]lx g ljd'ŝlt, tfjfljlŞƉ+ kjųlt Pj. Pj+ kjųdfg] r lrų;ƃfg]
æŷ+ ejś+ gfd xált, ŷ+ tbgƃ/+ cfjşg+»k]0 ŷ+ tbgƃ/+ tbf/ƙ)+ gfd xált, ŷ+ kg ejśÆlƃcflbgf lgofds]ĕ sųf
gfd glŴ, lrųlgofd]g]j]t+ kjųlt.
kťlj±wëf lx lgofdá _ aLhlgofdá pt'lgofdá sƙlgofdá wƙlgofdá lrųlgofdált,

cŘ'/kŰbůk'ƎþmþnflbŊþd]g t];+ t];+ aLhĕg+ cţáţlj;lb;?ŋlt)uŞntflb;ƃfg] cųgf ;lb;mþnbfg+ aLhlgofdá gfd.
tƸƨ tƸƨ ;do] t];+ t];+ ?ŋĕg+ Psƍxf/]g k'ƎþmþnkƟjfg+ ux)+ pt'lgofdá gfd. tƧ tƧ jf s';nfs';nsƙƧ
t+t+;lb;f;lb;¿kf¿kljkfsbfg+, sƙ;l/ŋsljkfsbfgť sƙlgofdá gfd. aálw;ųfg+ kl;lƈƮx±)ë, dft's'lŞtá
clelgŋdg], cle;ƗálwwƙrŊþƍjųgfbL;' r ƀƸų; k'Ƒlgldųflg wƙlgofdá gfd. oyfj'ų]g ejśfjşgflblsŝŊþd]g]j
lrųƍjlų lrųlgofdá gfd. Oldgf kg lrųlgofd]g oyfŊþd+ lsŝjƃ];' r]t];' lrų];' lƀkťljţf)dgáwft'hjgflg
oyf;Ƙj+ PslsŝŪfgflg, ;];flg kg lƀltrt'kťlsŝŪfgflg, tflg r k'Ƒ] j'ųflg, ;'ljţ]Ɯflg r. Pj+ Psƀfl/sĕbLlg
r. oyf r lrųfg+, Pj+ t+;ƕo'ųr]tl;sĕglƕ lsŝƀf/j;]g ;śxá j]lbtƑá. co+ kg lj;];á _ lsŝtá lx ;ƑŴsĕ tfj
;ų lrų+ ljo r'Ź; lsŝflg s/álƃ. ljtŊþljrf/flwdáŋĕ kg toá bƧgflbkťlsŝflg jş]ŷf gj, jLl/o+ ttá
;ƕlŞg;ƃL/)flg jş]ŷf ;ų, kLlt jáŪƑgfjşgflglk jş]ŷf ;ƃL/±)ëg ;Ƹź %, lj/ltcƍdţfjlştf kg jL;lt
s';nfƓfstf r]j %Ɔá r ;ƃL/)lƕ jş]ŷf kť, ttá cƍdţf tbf/ƙ)lƕ jş]ŷf rųfl/, lj/ltoá kg s';nf
hjglsŝd]j s/álƃ. ƀf/tá r lj/ltoá dgáƀfl/sĕ Pj, tyf s?)fd'lbtf, ƀf/ljlgd'ųf r kg xálƃ. dgáƀf/] Pj
lx b'ŝl/tlj/d)+ ;ųkţlųƮx)ť xált. cs';nf kg %ƀfl/sĕ, tŴflk dfgOƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝflg dgáƀfl/sĕg]jflt
s]þlr. cj;];f %ƀfl/sĕ r]j ƀf/ljlgd'ųf r. ;];+ lrų;lb;d]j. cf/ƙ);śxá kg g];+ kl/ųf/ƙ)lųs]þ cflj
eljƧtLlt. co+ klsŰssyf.
lrų'ƍfbsůjŰgf lglŪtf.
cƓfstkb+ kg g]j tfj lglŪt+. cƓfst];' lx ljkfsĕƓfst+, lsl/ofƓfstť ljeų+, ¿kfƓfst+, kg
lgƑfgfƓfstť cjl;Ū+. tŴ ¿kfƓfst+ tfj e"ldtá sĕdfjr/d]j, g leƉ+, tyf ;ƕoáutálk c;Ƙjá Pj.
;f/ƙ)wƙfgd]j, lx cţdţ;ƕoá±uëf, g Ot/];lƃ. wƙ'Ź];tá kg]t+ cŪjL;ltljw+ xált. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ kyjLwft'
cfkáwft' t]h]ĕwft' jfoáwft' rŋ' ;át+ #fg+ lhƢf sĕoá ¿k+ ;Źá uƈá /;á OlŴlƇo+ k'l/l;lƇo+ hËljltlƇo+ xbojŴ'
sĕoljţlų jrLljţlų cfsĕ;á ¿kƧ nx'tf d'b'tf sƙţtf ¿kƧ pkroá ;ƃlt h/tf clgŝtf sańLsĕ/á cfxf/ált.
kbefhgLo] kg]Ŵ lsťflk xbojŴ' g cfut+, pkl/ kg kŪfgkflńo+ æo+ ¿k+ lgƧfo dgáwft' r dgáljţf)wft' r
jųƃLÆltcflbgf ‘kŪf01=1=8’ ;¿k]g]j cfuldƧtLlt t+ Ow ulxt+. s]þlr kg ldź¿k+ an¿k+ ;Ƙj¿k+ hĕlt¿k+
/áu¿klƃ Odflglk kť ux]ŷf æt]Ƹų; ¿kflg xáƃLÆlt jblƃ, t] t];+ cefj+, cƃáuwefjť jŷf kllŋlktƑf. Od];'
65

lx ldź+ ¿kd]j g xált c¿kwƙųf gLj/)fg+. ldź]g]j lx krnflosĕsĕ/]g ¿kƍjlų xált, an¿k+ kg jfoáwft'of
cƃáuw+
t+;efjųf, ;Ƙj¿k+ cfkáwft'of, hĕlt¿k+ pkro;ƃtL;', /áu¿kť h/tfclgŝtf;'
klj;lt
;ƍŝo;d'lŪt¿kljsĕ/e]b];' /áuƓkb];tált ;Ƒ+ ¿k+ cŪjL;ltljwd]j xált. co+ wƙ'Ź];tá ljlgŞoá.
nŋ)flbtá kg]Ŵ sŋńųnŋ)f kyjLwft', kltŪfg/;f, ;ƕlŞgkŝ'kŪfgf. kŔ/)nŋ)f cfkáwft',
Ɣ"xg/;f, ;śxkŝ'kŪfgf. pŲųnŋ)f t]h]ĕwft', kl/kfrg/;f, dŹjfg'ƍbfgkŝ'kŪfgf. ljŴƘgnŋ)f jfoáwft',
;d'bL/)/;f,
clegLxf/kŝ'kŪfgf. rtƧálk r]tf ;];e"tųokbŪfgf. ¿kfle#ftf/xe"tƍ;fbnŋ)+,
bŪ'sĕdtflgbfgsƙ;d'Ūfge"tƍ;fbnŋ)+ jf rŋ', ¿k];' cfljŦg/;+,
rŋ'ljţf)Ƨ cfwf/efjkŝ'kŪfg+,
bŪ'sĕdtflgbfgsƙhe"tkbŪfg+. Ob+ kg ob]t+ clŋs"þks]þ kltlŪt+ gxf?;'ųs]þg dŴn'ś]g cfaźd+;o'ų+, oŴ ;]tlƕ clŴ
sŲlƕ nálxtlƕ rųfl/lk dxfe"tflg, oť ;]ƛ'Ƨbųf ;]t+, lkų'Ƨbųf sŲ+, ?lx?Ƨbųf nálxts+þ, kyj'Ƨbųf klŴŰ+ xált,
cfk'Ƨbųf kŔ/lt, t]h'Ƨbųf kl/bƞlt, jfo'Ƨbųf kl/ưdlt, oť nás]þ gLnkv'd;dflsŰ+ sŲ;'Ŋþdůnljlrų+
gLn'ƍnbn;lƉe+ bL#+ k'y'n+ rŋ"lt j'ŝlt, tƧ ;;Ƙf/rŋ'gá ;]tdůnkl/lŋųƧ sŲdůnƧ dŢ] cled'±vë l&tfg+
;/L/;Ůfg'ƍlųb];] ;ų;' lkr'kn];' cfl;ųt]n+ lkr'knflg ljo ;ų clŋknflg Ɠfk]ŷf wf/)gxfkgdůgaLhglsŝflx
rt"lx wftLlx vlųos'df/á ljo ;ƈf/)faƈgkl/kfrg;d'bL/)lsŝflx rt"lx wft"lx st"ksĕ/+ cfo'gf cg'kflnodfg+
jŰuƈ/;fbLlx kl/j't+ pt'lrųfxf/]lx pkŴlƘodfg+ kdf)tá ösĕl;/dų+ rŋ'ljţf)fbLg+ oyf/x+ jŴ'ƀf/efj+ ;fwodfg+
ltŪlt. j'ųlƕ r]t+ wƙ;]gfkltgf _
æo]g rŋ'k;fb]g, ¿kflg dg'kƧlt.
kl/ų+ ;'v'd+ Pt+, ösĕl;/;d"kdÆlƃĶ
;Źfle#ftf/xe"tƍ;fbnŋ)+, ;át'sĕdtflgbfgsƙ;d'Ūfge"tƍ;fbnŋ)+ jf ;át+,
;Ź];' cfljŦg/;+,
;átljţf)Ƨ cfwf/efjkŝ'kŪfg+, ;át'sĕdtflgbfgsƙhe"tkbŪfg+
Ob+ kg ;;Ƙf/;átlanƧ cƃá tg'tƗnádflrt]
cś'lnj]ws;Ůfg] kb];] j'ųƍsĕ/flx wft'cfbLlx st"ksĕ/fg'kfngkl/jf/ákŴƘ+ ;átljţf)fbLg+ oyf/x+ jŴ'ƀf/efj+
;fwodfg+ ltŪlt.
uƈfle#ftf/xe"tƍ;fbnŋ)+, #flot'sĕdtflgbfgsƙ;d'Ūfge"tƍ;fbnŋ)+ jf
#fg+, uƈ];' cfljŦg/;+,
#fgljţf)Ƨ cfwf/efjkŝ'kŪfg+, #flot'sĕdtflgbfgsƙhe"tkbŪfg+
Obť ;;Ƙf/#fglanƧ cƃá chkb;Ůfg] kb];]
j'ųƍsĕ/áksĕ/fg'kfngkl/jf/ákŴƘ+ #fgljţf)fbLg+ oyf/x+ jŴ'ƀf/efj+ ;fwodfg+ ltŪlt.
/;fle#ftf/xe"tƍ;fbnŋ)f, ;flot'sĕdtflgbfgsƙ;d'Ūfge"tƍ;fbnŋ)f jf lhƢf, /;];' cfljŦg/;f,
lhƢfljţf)Ƨ cfwf/efjkŝ'kŪfgf, ;flot'sĕdtflgbfgsƙhe"tkbŪfgf. P;f r ;;Ƙf/lhƢfdŢƧ pkl/ pƍnbnƮ;Ůfg]
kb];] j'ųƍsĕ/áksĕ/fg'kfngkl/jf/ákŴƘf lhƢfljţf)fbLg+ oyf/x+ jŴ'ƀf/efj+ ;fwodfgf ltŪlt.
mþáŪƑfle#ftf/xe"tƍ;fbnŋ±)ëf, m'þl;t'sĕdtflgbfgsƙ;d'Ūfge"tƍ;fbnŋ±)ëf jf sĕoá, mþáŪƑ];' cfljŦg/;á,
sĕoljţf)Ƨ cfwf/efjkŝ'kŪfgá,
m'þl;t'sĕdtflgbfgsƙhe"tkbŪfgá. co+ kg OdƸƨ sĕo] ofjtf pkflbƉf
kyjLcfkás]ĕŪf;f xálƃ, tŴ ;ƑŴ sƍf;kn] ƥ]xá ljo cg'utá j'ųƍsĕ/áksĕ/fg'kfngkl/jf/ákŴƘá sĕoljţf)fbLg+
oyf/x+ jŴ'ƀf/efj+ ;fwodfgá ltŪlt. s]þlr ‘w0;0cŪ0 600’ kg æt]hĕlwsĕg+ e"tfg+ k;fbá rŋ',
ljj/jfo'cfkkyljclwsĕg+ ;át#fglhƢfsĕofÆlt
jblƃ. ck/] ‘w0;0c0600’ æt]h]ĕ;efj+ rŋ',
cfsĕ;kyljcfkjfo';efjf ;át#fglhƢfsĕofÆlt jblƃ. æt]hĕlb;xsĕl/ųf, t]hĕlbu')¿kflblj;oųf rfÆlt sĕ/)ť
oyfŊþd+ jblƃ. t] r jųƑf _ s]ĕ kg]jdfx æ;xsĕl/;efj]x]j OlƇo]lx eljtƑÆlƃ, æ¿kfboá jf t]hĕbLg+ u')fÆlt.
cljlgưá±uë;' lx e"t];' æco+ OdƧ u'±)ëf, co+ OdƧ u'±)ëfÆlt g nưf jų'lƃ. cyflk jb]Ɯ'+ æt]hĕlbclws]þ;' ;Ƙf/];'
¿kfbLg+ clwsefjbƧgtá OlŞtƑd]t+ ‚¿kfboá t]hĕbLg+ u')fƒÆlt, t] jųƑf OŞ]Ɯfd, olb cfkflwsƧ cf;jƧ uƈtá
kyljclws]þ sƍf;] uƈá clwst/á l;of, t]hĕlwsƧ r pŲábsƧ jŰtálk ;Lt"bsƧ jŰá kl/xfo]y. oƨf kg]t+ peolƕ
glŴ, tƨf kxfo]y td]t];+ lgƧoe"tfg+ lj;];sƍg+. oyf clj;];]lk Pssnfk] e"tfg+ ¿k/;fboá cţdţ+ lj;lb;f
xálƃ, Pj+ rŋ'k;fbfboákLlt ux]tƑd]t+. Ƹs kg];+ lj;];sĕ/)+ gŴLltĠ gá glŴ. Ƹs kg tlƃĠ sƙd]j g];+ c;fwf/)+
sĕ/)+ hgstŲfhlgtfg+ e"tfg+ lj;];tá. e"tlj;];] lx ;lt k;fbáj g'ƍşlt. ;dfgfg+ lx e"tfg+ k;fbá, g
lj;dfgfglƃ ká/f)f. Pj+ sƙlj;];tá lj;];jƃ];' r]t];' rŋ';átflg c;ƕųlj;oƮfxsĕlg cųgá lgƧo+ cgƟLglgƧo]j
lj;o] ljţf)x]t'ųf. #fglhƢfsĕof kg ;ƕųlj;oƮfxsĕ lgƧoj;]g r]j ;oť cųgá lgƧo+ cƟLg] Pj lj;o]
ljţf)x]t'ųf.
s]þlr kg ærŋ';átflglk ;ƕųlj;oƮfxsĕg]j, b"/] l&t];'lk rƆ¿kfbL;' ;L#oflogog/+l;;ţá±uëg, ;Źfgť
k/ƕ/fofuƄf ;átlan] #ũg]g ljţf)'ƍlųtá. t]g]j lx s'ũflbcƃl/t];', ljlŞŹkƑtn])flbut];' r ¿k;Ź];' ljţf)+ g
pƍştLÆlt jblƃ. t];lƕ lx rŋ'gá b"/f;Ɖ];' rƆ?ŋĕbL;' cg'knlŋtsĕne]b]g /+l;;dfoáhg;fdlŴo+, ;Źfglƕ
b"/f;Ɖfg+ cljlbttfe]b+ cfuƄf ;átlan#ũg;fdlŴo+ ljţf)'ƍlųx]t'e"t+ pkuƃƑ+. ttá k/+ tŴ]j l&tfgţ]j
ljţf)'ƍfbg;fdlŴoákudg+. s'ũn])flbcƃl/tfgť ¿k;Źfg+ ;xsĕl/kŝolj/xtá cgfkfyudg+. Ot/yf t];lƕ
tflb;];' OlƇo;ţáu+ g wfljtƑ+. udglgjf/)lƕ pƍlųlgjf/)d]j, t±yëj ;xsĕl/kŝolj/xtá oflb;]j t];+
OlƇo;ţá±uëf xált, tflb;] ljţf)'ƍlų xátLlt ux]tƑ+.
rŋ' tfj b"/] l&tfg+ rƆfbLglƕ ux)tá c;ƕųƮfxs+þ xát', ;át+ kg b"/] ?ŋ+ l%Ɔƃfg+, jŴ+ ±wëfjƃfgť
b"/táj kţfodfgsĕoljsĕ/flbgf ;Ƹź ;Ź+ ux]t'+ c;dŴtfo sy+ ;l)s+þ jjŴfkodfg+ t+ c;ƕųƮfxs+þ xátLltĠ tŴflk r
s'&fl/jŴfbLg+ k&dlgkft;Źfg+ dƆtfo oyf xŴl%şdfg;fvfknf;rngflb;d'lŪtdƆ;Źfg+ k/ƕ/fofudg+ glŴ, tyf
cgfkfyudglƕ, kŞf kg #ũgflg#+;Ƨ anjtfo pƍƉdxf;Źfg+ cfudg+ ljo tŴ]j l&tfgţ]j cfkfyudg+ xált,
66

Ot/yf b"/f;ƉflbjjŴfgflg g l;o'+ uƈfbLg+ ljo, tƨf c;ƕų±uëfr/fg]j]tflg, #fgfbLlg r ;ƕų±uëfr/fgLlt
j]lbtƑflg.
clx;'+;'df/klŋs'Ŋ'þ/l;śfn;lb;flg r]tflg. oyf lx clx gfd alxl;ų;ƙŪŪfg] gfle/dlt, t+ ljxfo
lt)kŰuxgjlƙsĕlblj;dŢĕ;oáj xált, Pj+ rŋ'lk ;ƙŪlelųcfƸb ljxfo OlŴk'l/;k'Ǝþntflrųflblj;dŢĕ;o+ xált.
oyf r ;'+;'df/álk alx r/)+ ljxfo pbs]þ lanŢĕ;oá xált, Pj+ ;átlƕ jftkfglŞŹflblanŢĕ;o+ xált. oyf lx
luŢĕlbkŋËlk e"ld?ŋĕƸb ljxfo cfsĕ;] kŋƆgŢĕ;oá xált, Pj+ #fglƕ pźƮ+ x'ŷf uƈkj];sjftfsŬgŴ+ cfsĕ;Ţĕ;o+
xált. oyf s'Ŋ'þ/á alxufdrf/+ ljxfo cfld;uj];L ufdŢĕ;oá dxfg;flblgƉlrųá xált, Pj+ lhƢflk cfkŢĕ;of xált.
oyf r l;śfná alx;';fgrf/+ ljxfo d+;uj];L ;';fgŢĕ;oá xált, Pj+ sĕoálk cg'kflbƉ+ ;'v;ƖþƧ;ogfƸb nleŷflk
pkflbƉŢĕ;oá xált. cţ+ lx pkflbƉs+þ cnedfgf ;ųf cųgá hŰ'sĕlg p/ƃ/+ kj];]ŷf xŴtn] ;L;+ sŷflk lgkşlƃ.
cfnásljj/jfo'hnkyljkŝoflg
r]tflg
ljţf)'ƍfbsĕlg.
Pjd]t;] +
kťƉ+
k;fbfg+
nŋ)/;kŝ'kŪfgkb];lgƧo±uëfr/Ţĕ;oƍŝoe]b]g jjŴfg+ j]lbtƑ+.
rŋ'klxggnŋ)+ ¿k+, rŋ'ljţf)Ƨ lj;oefj/;+, tƧ]j ±uëfr/efjkŝ'kŪfg+, rt'dxfe"tkbŪfg+, oyf
r]tƧ, Pj+ ;Ƒ];lƕ pkfbf¿kfg+ kbŪfg+ j]lbtƑ+,
lj;];+ kg jŋĕd. tlob+ ¿k+
gLnkLtnálxtábftsĕńdlŧŪ;fd%foftkcfnásƈsĕ/flbj;]g cg]sljw+. s]þlr kg æcƈsĕ/á gfd cfnásĕefjdųá Pj, ttá
Pj tŴ ut¿kflg g lbƧƃLÆlt jblƃ, t+ g o'ų+. oyf lx gLnd]#dl)cfbLg+ %fof cfnáslj;lb;f jŰfotge"tf
xált, Pj+ lelųŞbge"ldkƑtflbŞfof r #gLe"tf #¿kflbŞfbgtá
cfnáslj;lb;á cƈsĕ/ált
bŪƑá,
;átklxggnŋ±)ëf ;Źá, ;átljţf)Ƨ lj;oefj/;á, tƧ]j ±uëfr/efjkŝ'kŪfgá. ;á uLte]l/;Źflbj;]g cg]slj±wëf.
#fgklxggnŋ±)ëf uƈá, #fgljţf)Ƨ lj;oefj/;á, tƧ]j ±uëfr/efjkŝ'kŪfgá. ;á d"nuƈ;f/uƈflbj;]g cg]slj±wëf
lhƢfklxggnŋ±)ëf /;á, lhƢfljţf)Ƨ lj;oefj/;á, tƧ]j ±uëfr/efjkŝ'kŪfgá. ;á d"n/;tr/;fbLg+ j;]g
cg]slj±wëf.
OlŴefjnŋ)+ OlŴlƇo+, OŴLlt ksĕ;g/;+, OlŴlnślgldųs'ųfsƍfg+ sĕ/)efjkŝ'kŪfg+. k'l/;efjnŋ)+
k'l/l;lƇo+, k'l/;ált ksĕ;g/;+, k'l/;lnślgldųs'ųfsƍfg+ sĕ/)efjkŝ'kŪfg+. pleƉƕ];+ OlŴk'l/;lnśfbLg+ sĕ/)efjá
g ;/;tá clŴ s]þglr kŝo]g g];+ kŝoefjƧ kŪfg] cgfutųf, cųgá kg hgskŝoe"tcfudgtáj. OlŴk'l/;fg+
kllgotlnślgldųs'ųfsƍefjfg'u')¿kfglƕ lgod]g pƍşgtá, lnślgldųflbjáxf/fgť tƍwfgtá kŝoefjá, OlƇoefjá
r kl/ofotá j'ųá. t]g]j lx OlŴpetáƓŧgsƧ k'l/l;lƇofefj]lk k'l/;lnślgldųflbƓŧg+, k'l/;petáƓŧgsƧ
OlŴlƇofefj]lk OlŴlnślgldųflbƓŧgť k'l/dsƙtá Pj pƍşlt. olb lx g];+ t+t+OlƇo]g]j kllgotƓŧgflg pƍş]Ɯ'+,
b'ltoƓŧgƧ cefjá cfkşlt. g lx t];+ efjƀo+ clŴ. olb l;of, ;Ƒbflk ƓŧgƀoƧ efjƍ;śá l;of.
OlŴpetáƓŧgsƧ lx OlŴlƇod]j ljşlt, g Ot/+. tƧ kg obf OlŴo+ /fulrų+ pƍşlt, tbf k'l/;Ɠŧg+ kft'ejlt,
OlŴƓŧg+ klŞƉ+ xált. tyf Ot/Ƨ Ot/+. oƨf kg];+ Psd]j OlƇo+ lgot+
tƨf OlŴpetáƓŧgs]ĕ ;olƕ uư+
uŲflt, k/lƕ uŲfk]lt. k'l/;petáƓŧgs]ĕ k/+ uŲfk]lt, ;o+ kg g uŲflt. oyf t];+ petáƓŧgsĕg+ sƙ;xfo+
/fulrųd]j Ɠŧgsĕ/)+, g efjá, Pj+ ksltlŴk'l/;fglƕ efjƀohgssƙflbkŝoá Pj t+t+lnślgldųflbsĕ/)lƃ ux]tƑ+.
peolƕ r]t+ k&dslƍsĕg+ kjų] ;d'Ūflt, ttá ck/ef±uë kl;lƈod]j, ;Ƒ];+ kg kjų] Pj kl/jųlt. Od];' r
k'l/;lnś+ pųd+, OlŴlnś+ xLg+, tƨf k'l/;lnś+ anjcs';n]g cƃ/wfolt, OlŴlnś+ b'Ƒns';n]g kltŪflt. OlŴlnś+
kg cƃ/wfoƃ+ b'Ƒnfs';n]g cƃ/wfolt, Ot/+ anjs';n]g kltŪflt. Pj+ peolƕ ;'ulto+ cs';n]g]j cƃ/wfolt,
s';n]g]j kltŪflt. sĕoƍ;fbá ljo r ;sn;/L/Ɠfksd]j, g r sĕoƍ;fbfbLg+ l&tásĕ;] ltŪlt.
olb Pj+ g ;ƑŴ sĕoefljlƇofgLltĠ g]j+ k/dŴtá ;ƑŴ, ljlgư'lhŷf kg];+ cásĕ;e]b+ kţfk]t'+ g ;Ŋĕ
¿k/;fbLg+ ljo. g lx k/dŴtá ¿k] /;á clŴ. olb l;of, ¿kƮx±)ëg]j ux)+ uŞ]Ɯ. Pj+ sĕoefljlƇoflg
k/dŴtá g ;ƑŴ, g r ;ƑŴ glŴ ljj]r]t'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜtfo x]Ūf j'ųnŋ)flbjjŴfgtálk r];+ c;lƙƧtf b];tá g
ljj]sĕefj]lk. g s]þjnť Odfg]j, ;Ƒflglk ¿kflg c;lƙƧfg]j xálƃ. oyf lx kťjŰ]g sƍf;]g jƸũ sŷf bLk] hlnt]
lsťflk hĕnf Psĕaźf ljo xálƃ, tƧ tƧ kg c+;'gá kflo]Ŋ+þ hĕnf cţdţ+ c;lƙƧfj. Pj+ sĕoefljlƇofbLlg PsƸƨ &fg]
;dá;flglk leƉŪfg];' x]Ū'kl/oflbj;]g glŴ, tflglk c;lƙƧfg]j xálƃ.
;xh¿kfg+ cg'kfngnŋ)+ hËljltlƇo+, t];+ kjųg/;+, t];+o]j &kgkŝ'kŪfg+, ofklotƑwƙkbŪfg+.
clŴŋ±)ë Pj r]t+ ;xh¿kflg cg'kfn]lt pbs+þ ljo pƍnfbLlg, g eśŋ±)ë ;o+ leşdfgųf, oyf;s+þ kŝo'ƍƉ]lk r wƙ]
kfn]lt wftL ljo s'df/+, ;o+kjlųtwƙ;Ɨƈ]g]j r kjųlt lgofds]ĕ ljoflt bŪƑ+.
dgáwft'dgáljţf)wft"g+ lgƧonŋ)+ xbojŴ', tf;ţ]j wft"g+ wf/)/;+, pƑxgkŝ'kŪfg+. Ob+ kg xbojŴ'
ob]t+ cƃá;/L/] lƀƉ+ ygfg+ dŢ] aflx/kųflg ckg]ŷf c±wëfd'vŪlkt/ųkb'dds'n;Ůfg+ alx dŪ+, cƃá s]ĕ;ftsËmþnƧ
cưƃ/;lb;+, kţjƃfg+ ±yëfs+þ ljsl;t+, dƆkţfg+ ds'lńt+, xbod+;ods+þ kl/lŋlkŷf jŊþosglsnádslkxsĕboá
ltŪlƃ. tƧ ;;Ƙf/xbod+;Ƨ cƃá k'ƉfulŪkltŪfgdų] cfjfs]þ ;lŮt+ cźk;tdųnálxt+ ;Ůflt. tť /furl/tƧ
/ų+, bá;rl/tƧ sĕńs+þ, dáxrl/tƧ d+;±wëfjgpbs;lb;+, ljtŊþrl/tƧ s'nŴo";jŰ+, ;źfrl/tƧ sl)sĕ/k'ƎþjŰ+,
a'lźrl/tƧ cŞ+ ljƍ;Ɖ+ cgfljn+ ků/+ kl/;'ź+ lgźáthĕltdl) ljo h'ltdƃ+ xált, Ɠfk]ŷf ;ƈf/)flblsŝ]lx e"t]lx
st"ksĕ/+ cfo'gf cg'kflnodfg+ jŰflbkl/j't+ pt'lrųfxf/]lx pkŴlƘodfg+ dgáwft'dgáljţf)wft"gť]j t+;ƕo'ųfgť
jŴ'efj+ ;fwodfg+ ltŪlt.
cleŊþdflbƍjųslrų;d'Ūfgjfoáwft'of ;xh¿ksĕo;ƅƘg;ƈf/)rngƧ kŝofsĕ/ljsĕ/nŋ)f sĕoljţlų,
clwƍfoƍsĕ;g/;f, sĕoljƎþƆgx]t'efjkŝ'kŪfgf lrų;d'Ūfgjfoáwft'kbŪfgf. jrLe]bƍjųslrų;d'ŪfgkyjLwft'of

67

pkflbƉ#ũgƧ
kŝofsĕ/ljsĕ/nŋ)f
jrLljţlų, clwƍfoƍsĕ;g/;f, jrL#á;Ƨ x]t'efjkŝ'kŪfgf,
lrų;d'ŪfgkyjLwft'kbŪfgf. peák]tf sĕoljƎþƆgjrL#á;]lx ;o+ ljţ]Ɯųf, clwƍfoljţfkgtá r æsĕojrLljţlųoáÆlt
j'ŝlƃ. rŋ';átkyƸƨ lx &ŷf s]þglr xŴljsĕ/;L;'lŋkgflbsĕoljsĕ/],
;Ź] jf st] tyfkjų¿k;Źfotgflg
rŋ';átljţ]Ɯflg, g tflg ljţlųoá, lrų;d'lŪtsnfkutfo kg jfoáwft'of ;xhĕt¿ksĕo;ƈf/)rngfbLg+ kŝoe"tá
ljsĕ/á sĕoljţlų, tyf lrų;d'lŪtkyjLwft'of pkflbƉ#ũgƧ kŝoe"tá cfsĕ/ljsĕ/á jrLljţlų. g r tf
rŋ';átljţ]Ɯf, tf kg dgáƀfl/shjg]lx tfnkŰflb;ţfo pbkfgfbLlg ljo oyfulxtsĕoljsĕ/jrL#á;fg';f/]g
lt/Şfgfglƕ ljţ]Ɯf, tbg';f/]g]j æOblťbť P; sĕ/]lt, jblt rfÆlt clwƍfoá r ljţ]Ɯá xált, tƨf ;o+ ljţ]Ɯtá,
clwƍfoljţfkgtá r æljţlųoáÆlt j'ŝlƃ.
tŴ r dgáƀfl/shjgjLlyo+ ;ų;' sĕdfjr/hjg];' sĕoljţlųhgs]þ;' k'l/d]lx %lx hjg]lx ;d'lŪtjfoáwft'oá
pkŴƘg;ƈf/)lsŝd]j sĕt'+ ;Ŋþálƃ, cleŊþdfƸb kg lgƎþfb]t'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ. ;ųdhjg;d'lŪtf kg x]Ūf %lx hjg]lx
;d'lŪtjfoáwft'oákŴƘ+ nleŷf ;ųlx o'±uëlx cfslŬtƑef/+ ;s+ ;ųdo'uo'ų±uëf±)ëf ljo Ot/%o'uo'ų±uëf±)ëfkŴƘ+ nleŷf
¿ksĕoƧ cleŊþdklŊþdfƸb sĕ/]t'+ ;Ŋþált, Pj+ jrLljţlųhgs]þlk ;ųdhjg]lx ;d'lŪtfo kyjLwft'oflk pkflbƉ#ũgƧ
kŝoefjá j]lbtƑá. Ow kg k'l/dhjg;d'lŪtfo pkŴƘsų+, ;ųdhjg;d'lŪtfo rngkŝoųť glŴ t];+
jfoáwft'lsŝųf, k'l/d;xutf kg klŞdf kyjLwft' pkflbƉ#ũg;dŴf xált, ;];+ tflb;d]j. lrų;d'lŪtsĕo] kg
jfoáwft'of rnƃ] tb'kŴlƘtt];d'Ūflgsĕglƕ rngtá ;snsĕoƧ cleŊþdfboá xálƃ pbs]þ uŞƃ] tŴ klttlt)kŰflg
ljoflt bŪƑ+.
¿kkl/Ş]bnŋ)f cfsĕ;wft', ¿kkl/oƃƍsĕ;g/;f, ¿kdl/ofbkŝ'kŪfgf,
c;Ɩ'þŪefjkŝ'kŪfgf,
l%Źljj/efjkŝ'kŪfgf jf, kl/lŞƉ¿kkbŪfgf, ofo kl/lŞƉ];' ¿k];' æObldtá pź+, c±wëf, ltl/oÆlƃ r xált.
cbƈtfnŋ)f ¿kƧnx'tf, ¿kfg+ u?efjljgábg/;f, nx'kl/jlųtfkŝ'kŪfgf,
nx'¿kkbŪfgf.
cyźtfnŋ)f ¿kƧd'b'tf, ¿kfg+ yźefjljgábg/;f, ;Ƒlsl/of;'
clj/álwtfkŝ'kŪfgf, d'b'¿kkbŪfgf.
;/L/lsl/ofg's"þnsƙţefjnŋ)f ¿kƧsƙţtf, csƙţtfljgábg/;f, cb'Ƒnefjkŝ'kŪfgf, sƙţtf¿kkbŪfgf. Ptf
kg ltƧálk cţdţ+ g ljhxlƃ, u?yźcsƙţ¿kklkŋefj]g r ;d'lŪtfg+ pt'lrųfxf/hĕg+ nx'd'b'sƙţe"tfg+ ¿kfg+
ljsĕ/tfo r kl/ofotá u?yźfsƙţefjljgábglsŝf j'ųf, g kg ;efjtá ;o+ cljşdfgųf.
cfronŋ±)ëf ¿kƧpkroá, k'Ƒƃtá ¿kfg+ pƙ'şĕkg/;á, lgƜftgkŝ'kŪfgá, kl/k'Űefjkŝ'kŪfgá jf,
pklrt¿kkbŪfgá. kjlųnŋ)f ¿kƧ;ƃlt, cg'ƍaƈg/;f, cg'kŞ]bkŝ'kŪfgf, cg'ƍaƈs¿kkbŪfgf
peoƕ]t+
hĕlt¿kƧ]jflwjrg+. ;lƕlůtfg+ lx rt';d'Ūflgs¿kfg+ k&d'ƍlų pkroá gfd, pk¿k?ƍlų ;ƃlt gfd. t]g]j tf;+
kbefhgLo] æoá ¿kƧ pkroá, ;f ¿kƧ ;ƃtLÆlt ‘w0 ;0642’ j'ų+, cfsĕ/gfgųtá kg lj;'+ plŹŪf.
¿kkl/kfsnŋ)f ¿kƧh/tf, pkgog/;f, ;efjfgkud]lk gjefjfkudkŝ'kŪfgf jLlxk'/f)efjá ljo,
kl/kŝdfg¿kkbŪfgf. v±)ë v±)ë leşdfgflk r];f pkflbƉ];' vůbƃflbtá, cg'kflbƉ];' ?ŋntfbL;' jŰljsĕ/flbtá r
cƃ/ƃ/f r ;'ljţ]Ɯljsĕ/ųf ækfsh/f, ;jLlrh/fÆlt r j'ŝlt, dl)sgsrƆ;"l/ofbL;' b'ljţ]Ɯųf, lg/ƃ/ųf r
æckfsh/f, cjLlrh/fÆlt j'ŝlt. ólb;];' lx sƍljgf;flbsĕn]
ljsĕ/tá h/f kţfo]Ɯ. ;Ƒbflk kg
ckţfodfgljsĕ/ųf c¿kwƙ];' h/f klŞƉh/f gfd. g r tŴ jŰljsĕ/fboá h/f t];+ rŋ'ljţ]Ɯtá. g lx h/f
rŋ'ljţ]Ɯf, dgáljţ]Ɯf kg xált. oyf cá#]g kl/leƉe"ldcflbbƧg]g clbŪálk cá#á ;'ljţ]Ɯá xált, Pj+ ljsĕ/bƧg]g
h/flt ux]tƑ+.
kl/e]bnŋ)f ¿kƧclgŝtf, ;+;Lbg/;f, vojokŝ'kŪfgf, kl/leşdfg¿kkbŪfgf. g s]þjnť]tflg
pkroflbrt"lx ulxtflg hĕlth/fd/)flg ¿kwƙfgd]j c¿kwƙfglƕ xálƃo]j. Ptflg r Od];+ ;ųfg+
c/ţƍj];skljŪkl/kftskltt#ftsrá/]lx oyfŊþd+ ;lb;fgLlt bŪƑflg.
cáhĕnŋ±)ëf sańLsĕ/á cfxf/á, ¿kfx/)/;á, pkŴƘgkŝ'kŪfgá, sań+ sŷf cfxl/tƑjŴ'kbŪfgá. co+
nŋ)flbtá ljlgŞoá.
;śxtá kg ;Ƒƕ]t+ ¿k+ vƈtá Psljw+ ¿kŋƈáj xált, tyf cx]t's+þ ;ƍŝo+ ;řt+ nálso+ ;f;j+ ;ţáhgLo+
cá#gLo+ oáugLo+ gLj/)Lo+ k/fdŪ+ ;+lsn]l;s+þ cgf/ƙ)+ cƍxftƑlƃcflbgf r Psljw+, t+ k'g e"tákfbfoj;]g b'ljw+,
tyf lgƎþƉflgƎþƉflbj;]g r. tŴ kyjLcfbLlg rųfl/ dxfe"tflg e"t¿k+ gfd, ;];+ pkfbf¿k+ gfd. kyjLcfboá
;ų/;, sańLsĕ/á cfxf/á r]lt cŪf/;ljwlƕ k/dŴtá ljşdfgųf lgƎþƉ¿k+ gfd, Ot/+ clgƎþƉ¿k+ gfd. rŋĕboá
kť k;fbf, efjƀo+, hËljltlƇolƃ cŪljwlƕ OlƇo¿k+ gfd, Ot/+ clglƇo+. tflg OlƇoflg r]j xboťflt gjljwlƕ
pkflbƉ+, Ot/+ cg'kflbƉ+, kť k;fbf, rųf/á ¿k;Źuƈ/;f, cfkáwft'ljjlşte"tųoťflt ƀfb;ljwlƕ cáńfl/s¿k+,
;lƃs]þ¿k+, ;ƍl#¿kť, ;];+ ;'v'd¿k+, b"/]¿k+, cƍl#¿kť. k;fbf, xboť jŴ'¿k+, Ot/+ cjŴ'¿k+. k;fbf,
ljţlųƀoť ƀf/¿k+, Ot/+ cƀf/+. k;fbf cŢlųs¿k+, ±uëfr/Ʈflxs¿kť, Ot/+ aflx/+, c±uëfr/Ʈflxs¿kť. rųfl/
e"t¿kflg, ¿kuƈ/;cáhĕ rflt Ob+ ;'źŪs+þ cljlgưáu¿k+ gfd, Ot/+ ljlgưáu¿k+.
rŋ' grŋ"lt Pjdflbj;]g r b'ljw+ xált. k'g t+ ;lgbƧglųsj;]g ltljw+ xált. tŴ ¿kfotg+
;lgbƧg;ƍl#+, ;];dáńfl/s¿k+ clgbƧg;ƍl#+, ;Ƒlƕ ;'v'd¿k+ clgbƧgcƍl#+. tyf sƙhĕlblųsj;]g. tŴ
gjljw+ pkflbƉ¿k+, ;'źŪs+þ, cfsĕ;á r sƙh+ gfd, ljţlųƀo+, nx'tflbųoť ;Źá r csƙh+ gfd, pkroflbrt'lƑw+
nŋ)¿k+ ch+ gfd. ;'źŪs+þ, cfsĕ;á, ljţlųƀo+, nx'tflbųo+, ;Źá r lrųh+ gfd, tbj;];+ nŋ)¿klj/lxt+ clrųh+
gfd, nŋ)¿k+ ch+ gfd. ;'źŪs+þ, cfsĕ;á, nx'tflbųoť cfxf/h+ gfd, ;];+ nŋ)jlşt+ cgfxf/h+ gfd, nŋ)+ ch+
gfd. ;'źŪs+þ, cfsĕ;á, nx'tflbųo+, ;Źá r pt'h+ gfd, ;];+ nŋ)lj/lxt+ cg't'h+ gfd, nŋ)+ ch+ gfd. nŋ)flg lx

68

hĕodfghËodfgkl/leşdfgwƙfg+ ;efjtfo s'tálr hĕltjáxf/+ g nelƃ e];lƕ hĕltcflbƍ;śtá. g lx æhĕlt hĕolt,
h/f hË/lt, d/)+ dLotLÆlt jáxl/t'+ o'ų+ cgjŪfgtá. tbj;];fg+ kg cfsĕ;ljţųflbclgƎþƉfg+ olblk k/dŴtá
cljşdfgtfo g s'tálr pƍlų clŴ, tyflk tyf tyf kjų¿k+ pkfbfo g];+ ljşdfgjáxf/Ƨ]j x]t';d'ƍƉjáxf/Ƨflk
lj/áwfefjtá ;x]t'stf j'ųf. o+ kg kflńo+ æ¿kfotg+»k]0 ¿kƧ pkroá ¿kƧ ;ƃlt sańLsĕ/á cfxf/á. Od] wƙf
lrų;d'ŪfgfÆltcfbL;' ‘w0;01202’ hĕltoflk s'tálr hĕtų+ j'ų+, t+ ¿khgskŝofg+ lsŝfg'efjnŋ±)ë lbŪųf ¿k'ƍlųŋ±)ë
ljşdfgt+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, h/fd/)fg+ kg ¿k'ƍlųŋ±)ë cefjtá g j'ų+. æh/fd/)+, leŋj], clgŝ+ ;řt+ klŝ;d'ƍƉÆlƃ
‘;+0lg0 2=20’ Ob+ kg h/fd/);L;]g tyfkjųljţf)gfd¿kfbLgd]j ulxtųf j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+. o+ t+ ¿k+ cŢlųs+þ, t+
pkfbf, o+ t+ ¿k+ aflx/+, t+ clŴ pkfbf, clŴ gá pkfbflt Pjdflbgf go]gflk ltljw+ xált.
k'g t+ ;Ƒ+ lbŪ;'td'tljţftj;]g rt'lƑw+ xált. tŴ ¿kfotg+ lbŪ+ gfd, ;Źá ;'t+ gfd, uƈ/;mþáŪƑflg
kŷfj ux]tƑtá d't+ gfd, ;];+ dg;f ljţftƑtá ljţft+ gfd. tyf ¿k¿krt'Ŋĕlbj;]g rt'lƑw+, tŴ cŪf/;ljw+
lgƎþƉ+ ¿k¿k+ gfd, cfsĕ;á kl/Ş]b¿k+ gfd, ljţlųƀo+, nx'tflbųoť ljsĕ/¿k+ gfd, pkroflbrt'lƑw+ nŋ)¿k+
gfd. tyf xbojŴ' jŴ', g ƀf/+ gfd, ljţlųƀo+ ƀf/+, g jŴ' gfd, rŋĕboá kť k;fbf jŴ' r]j ƀf/ť gfd, ;];+
g]j jŴ' g ƀf/+ gfdflt Pjdflbgf go]g rt'lƑw+.
t+ k'g Pshĕlbj;]g kťljw+. gjljw+ lx pkflbƉ¿k+ sƙ]g]j, ljţlųƀoť lrų]g]j pƍşgtá Psh+ gfd,
;Źá pt'lrų]lx pƍşgtá lƀh+ gfd, nx'tflbųo+ pt'lrųfxf/]lx pƍşgtá lth+ gfd, ;'źŪs+þ, cfsĕ;á r rt"lxlk
pƍşgtá rt'ş+ gfd, nŋ)flg ch+ gfd. Pjdflbgf kťljw+ xált.
t+ k'g rŋ';át#fglhƢfsĕodgOlƇoljţ]Ɯj;]g %lƑw+. ;ųljţf)wft'ljţ]Ɯj;]g ;ųljw+. tb]j
dgáljţf)wft'ljţ]Ɯ+ e"tákfbfoj;]g lƀwf sŷf cŪljw+ xált. tŴ lx cfkáwft' dgáljţf±)ëg]j ljţ]Ɯ+ e"t¿k+ gfd,
Ot/+ k;fb;lxt;'v'd¿k+ dgáljţf)ljţ]Ɯákfbfo¿k+ gfd. tb]j k'g dgáljţf)ljţ]Ɯákfbfo¿k+ OlƇoflglƇoj;]g
lƀwf sŷf gjljw+ xált. t+ k'g k;fblj;ocfkáwft'efjxbohËljtkl/Ş]bljsĕ/nŋ)cfxf/j;]g b;ljw+ xált.
tb]j k'g rŋĕotg+ ;átfotg+ #fgfotg+ lhƢfotg+ sĕofotg+ ¿kfotg+ ;Źfotg+ uƈfotg+ /;fotg+
mþáŪƑfotg+ wƙfotglƃ Pj+ cfotgtá Psĕb;ljw+ xált, tyf wft'j;]g. tŴ cfkáwft'ljjlşte"tųo+ mþáŪƑfotg+
mþáŪƑwft' æsĕoljţ]Ɯ+, sĕoljţf)ljţ]ƜÆlƃ r j'ŝlt, ;'v'd¿k+ wƙfotg+ wƙwft"lt, tb]j k;fb;lxt+ ædgáljţ]Ɯ+,
dgáljţf)ljţ]ƜÆlƃ r j'ų+. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
sƨf kg]Ŵ cfkáwft'ljjlştfgţ]j e"tfg+ mþáŪƑtf j'ųf, gg' cfkáwft'lk ;Ltj;]g m'þl;ŷf j]lbtƑfltĠ g
;LtƧflk t]h]ĕwft'ųf. pŲd]j lx ;Ltlƃ ƓklbƧlt. sl&gfsl&gt+ pkfbfo ?ŋĕlblj/ńŞfof ljo, t+ jf pkfbfo
;ƆŞfoflb, cţyf sƧ]t+ ;Ltų+ ;efj+ l;of. æcfkáwft'ofÆ Olt r]. olb Pj+ pŲábsĕbL;' cfkų+ g l;of cfkát]hĕgť
;xkjųfg+ lj?źnŋ)ųf, g r ;f t]h]ĕ;lƉwfg] ;Ltų+ ljxfo ltŪlt. g lx ;efjf s]þglr ;xefj]g t+;efj+ hxlƃ
cefjfklųtá, gflkƧf ;Ltefj+ d'lťŷf ck/;efjá clŴ, o]g ;xefjá o'ş]Ɯ. olb l;of æcfká ;LtųÆlƃ, efjƀo+
l;of cţáţljnŋ);efjųf efjƧ, cyflk g ;Ltų+, cfkáwft'of ;¿k+ ;Ltu'±)ëf, ;á r pŲ;lƉwfg] ljuŞlt, u')L¿kd]j
ltŪtLlt r]Ġ tbf tƸx ;o+ cmþáŪƑfj cfkáwft', g lgotmþƧjtLlt r l;of, oá r ;LtmþƧá u'±)ëflt ;'j'ųá, ;á cƛ]lx
t]h]ĕwft'lj;];ált.
cod]j lj;];ált r], gg' ;Ltų+, pŲųť cţáţlj?ź+, sy+ t]h]ĕwft'of ;efj+ l;ofltĠ gfo+ bá;á Pssnfk]
t];+ ;Ƙjfefjtá, leƉsnfk];' kg kjlųo+ cfnásƈsĕ/gLnkLtfbLg+ jŰfotgtf ljo t]h]ĕwft'ų+ g lj?ŢtLlt. olb
cfkáwft'of g ;Ltų+ ;¿k+, Ƹs kgƧf ;¿klƃĠ ſjtf. olb Pj+ ſjtflk m'þl;ŷf `ftƑtá mþáŪƑ+ l;ofltĠ g ;LtfƸb
m'þl;ŷf dg;fj jŰ+ lbƩf `ftƑtá. cƈsĕ/] ;oƃf lx clt;Ltntfo kųfƸb m'þl;ŷf æpbs+þ PŴfÆlt cf;lŘtf xálƃ,
pbs+þ jf m'þl;ŷf ;ƍflb;lţgá, tƨf cmþáŪƑd]j cfkáwft', Ot/e"tųod]j mþáŪƑlƃ ux]tƑ+.
Ƹs kg]t+ e"tųo+ Pstá cf/ƙ)+ sŷf sĕoljţf)+ pƍlşt'+ ;Ŋþált, g ;ŊþátLltĠ g ;Ŋþált. sƨfĠ
cfe'lhtj;]g jf pƧbj;]g jf t];' Psd]jf/ƙ)+ sŷf pƍşgtá. cfe'lhtj;]g lx cábgyflno+ l;Ŵ+ ux]ŷf yźd'b'efj+
jLd+;ƃƧ, pŲábsefhg] jf xŴ+ cátf/]ŷf pŲefj+ jLd+;ƃƧ, pŲ;do] jf jftkfg+ ljjl/ŷf jft]g ;/L/+ kx/fk]ƃƧ r
tŴ tŴ lsťflk Ot/+ e"tųolƕ clŴ, oyfe'lht+ kg t+t+kyjLt]h]ĕjfoáwft'd]j oyfŊþd+ cf/ư sĕoljţf)+ pƍşlt. Pj+
cfe'lhtj;]g cf/ƙ)+ s/ált gfd. pƧbj;]g kg e'ŧg;do] ;ŋ/+ *+;ƃƧ, d±Ʈë jf cƸƮ cŊþdƃƧ, anjjft]g jf
sŰ;ŋlnolƕ kx/ƃƧ r tŴ tŴ lsťflk Ot/e"tųolƕ clŴ, oyfpƧb+ kg t+t+kyjLt]h]ĕjfoáwft'd]jf/ư oyfŊþd+
sĕoljţf)+ pƍşlt. clƮlƛ jf lgd'Ʈ;sn;/L/Ƨ olblk Psƍxf/]g clƮgf sĕoá #ũLolt, oƸƨ oƸƨ kg &fg]
sĕoƍ;fbá pƧƉá xált, oŴ oŴ jf kg lj;o#ũgflg#+;á anjf xált, tŴ tŴ]j k&d+ sĕoljţf)+ pƍşlt, kŞf
Ot/Ūfg];'. v)kl/ųtfo kg ;x;f kl/jlųŷf pƍşgj;]g Psƍxf/]g ;sn;/L/+ *ƞdfg+ ljo vfolt. g lx
PsƸƨ v±)ë ax"lg ljţf)flg pƍşlƃ, Ɠfk]ŷf jf Ps+þ. Ps]þsƸƨ kg cljlgưá±uë sĕob;s]þ Psd]j sĕoljţf)+ pƧbj;]g
pƍşlt, Pj+ Ot/jŴ";'lk ljţf)fg+ cljlgưá±uë kb];] Ps]þsĕgd]j pƍlų j]lbtƑf. Pj+ pƧbj;]g cf/ƙ)+ s/ált
gfd.
s]þg kg lrųƧ cf/ƙ);Řlƃ xátLltĠ cŢĕ;otá, lj;oflwdųtá jf. gfgf&fg];' lx lrųkldfbLlg
klƧt'sĕdƧ k&d+ PsŪfg] lbƩf ttá Ot/Ūfg];' r ¿kflg klƧt'+ ;/;]gfjşg+ pƍşlt. Pj+ cŢĕ;otá ;Řlƃ xált.
¿kf/ƙ)+ kg dxƃlƕ kƧƃƧ ;Ƒt"l/olgŔá;] plŪt] t+ jf ;')ƃƧ dg'ţfdg'ţ] clwdųuƈ/;mþáŪƑ] OlƇo];' #lũt]
Otl/t/] lrų+ ;Řdlt, Pj+ lj;oflwdųtá ;Řlƃ xátLlt cod]Ŵ ;śxtá ljlgŞoá. ;'ţtá, kg ctLtflbj;]g kŝ]s+þ
cgƃƍe]btá r ljlgŞoá lrųljelųo+ j'ųgofg';f/]g oyfg'¿k+ j]lbtƑá.

69

;d'Ūfgtá, kg]Ŵ ejoágL;' kjlųŊþdtá r klsŰssyf j]lbtƑf _ rt';d'Ūflgsĕlg lx ¿kflg pƍşdfgflg
ƀL;' ej];' rt";' oágL;' b;sĕlbsnfkj;]g]j kl;lƈƍjųL;' oyf;Ƙj+ ;d'ƍşlƃ. tŴ sƙh];' tfj jL;ltof
sĕdfjr/s';nfs';n]lx sĕdnás]þo]j ;+;]bhĕg+, cákkfltsĕgť % jŴ"lg, efjƀo] cţt/+, hËljtťflt cŪ ¿kflg oyf;Ƙj+
kl;lƈtá kŪfo kft'ejlƃ. tflg r ;'źŪs+þ, hËljtť hËljtgjs+þ, tb]j gjs+þ rŋ'gf ;x rŋ'b;s+þ, ;át]g ;átb;s+þ,
#fg]g #fgb;s+þ, lhƢfo lhƢfb;s+þ, sĕo]g sĕob;s+þ, xbojŴ'gf jŴ'b;s+þ, efjţt/]g efjb;sťflt gj snfkf x'ŷf
pƍşlƃ. gk'+;sĕg+ kg]Ŵ efjb;s+þ glŴ, tyf hŝƈfbLg+ rŋ';át#fgb;sĕlg. Pj+ cůhhnfa'hĕglƕ, t];+ kg
kl;lƈlrų]g ;x sĕojŴ'efjb;sĕg]j pƍşlƃ, ttá kjlųsĕn] hËljtgjsrŋ'b;sĕbLlg oyfg'¿k+ pƍşlƃ. ¿kej] kg
#fgb;sĕlbųo+, efjb;sƀo+, pb/lƮgjsť glŴ, ;];flg kťlx ¿kfjr/s';nsƙ]lx kl;lƈtá ke'lt pƍşlƃ.
cţţLg+ kg kťdŢĕgs';n]g hËljtgjsd]j. Pj+ sĕd¿kfjr/sƙ;d'lŪtf gj ¿ksnfkf ƀL;' ej];' rt";' oágL;'
oyf;Ƙj+ kl;lƈtá kŪfo ofj r'ltlrųákl/;ų/;dlrųƧ l&lt, tfj lrųƧ pƍfbl&lteś;řft];' tL;' v±)ë;' lg/ƃ/+
cŢų;ƃfg] Pj pƍşlƃ, ttá ke'lt cg'ƍlşŷf r'ltlrų]g ;x lg?Ţlƃ.
lrųhĕlg kg kťjásĕ/ej] lƀkťljţf)cf?ƍljkfsjlştkť;ųltlrų]lx cųgá cųgá pƍlųŋ±)ë Pj
;d'Ūflktflg k&dejśd'kfbfo r'ltlrųkl/oá;fg+ cŢų;ƃfg] Pj ;'źŪs+þ, tb]j sĕoljţlųof ;x sĕoljţlųgjs+þ,
jrLljţlų;Ź]lx jrLljţlųb;s+þ, nx'tflbųo]g nx'tfb]sĕb;s+þ, sĕoljţlųnx'tfbLlx ƀfb;s+þ, jrLljţlų;Źnx'tfbLlx
t]/;sťflt % snfkf x'ŷf oyfoáu+ kjųlƃ.
¿khgslrų];' r]Ŵ ;ádgƧ;xutsĕdfjr/hjgflg
Ol/ofkyljţlųx;g;lxt+ ;Ƒ+ lrųh¿k+ ;d'Ūfk]lƃ, ;];sĕdfjr/hjgfleţfjáŪƑgflg x;gjş+, cƍgfhjgflg r
Ol/ofkyflblj/lxtd]j, oyfkjų+ kg Ol/ofky+
cljgƧdfg+ pkŴƘ]lƃ.
;];flg kg
¿kfjr/ljkfsdgáwft'tbf/ƙ)flg Ps"þgjL;lt tlƕ g s/álƃ, ;'źŪs+þ,
;Źgjs+þ, nx'tfb]sĕb;s+þ,
;Źnx'tflbƀfb;sťflt rųf/á snfk] pƍfb]lƃ, tŴflk ;Ƒ];lƕ kl;lƈlrųflg, c/xƃfg+ r'ltlrųflg, c¿kej"kkƉflg
r g lslť ¿k+ ;d'Ūfk]lƃ, cf?ƍljkfslƀkťljţf)flg ;Ƒyf g pƍfb]ƃLlt.
cfxf/hĕlg kg sĕdej] Pj cŢáxfxf/] l&t]g l&ltƍų]g cáhĕ;řft]g cfxf/]g ;d'lŪtflg cŢų;ƃfg] Pj
;'źŪs+þ, nx'tfb]sĕb;sťflt ƀ] snfkf x'ŷf ofjtfo's+þ kjųlƃ, g ¿ke"ldo+. pt'hĕlg cŢlųsaflx/]g t]h]ĕwft';řft]g
l&ltƍų]g pt'gf cŢų;ƃfg] ;d'lŪtflg ;'źŪs+þ, ;Źgjs+þ, nx'tfb]sĕb;s+þ, ;Źnx'tfb]sĕb;s+þ, ;Źnx'tflbƀfb;sťflt
rųf/á snfkf x'ŷf ofjtfo's+þ, alxźf kg kyjLkƑtb]jƔƪljdfgfbL;' ;'źŪs+þ, ;d'Ź#á;flb;Źgjsťflt ƀ] snfkfj
x'ŷf kjųlƃ. cfsĕ;nŋ)flg r]Ŵ ;Ƒsnfk];' ljşdfgflglk snfk;śx] jáxf/fefjf g u)Lolƃ. kl;lƈŋ±)ë r]Ŵ
pt'lrųfxf/hĕlg g xálƃ, g ;ƑŴflk pƍlųŋ±)ë h/fd/)fgLlt Pj+ rt';d'Ūflgs¿kƧ ejoágL;', kl;lƈƍjųL;' r
kjlųŊþdá j]lbtƑá.
clkr ƀfrųfnL;fo s]ĕŪf;fg+ j;]gflk r]Ŵ tƧ cŢų+, dxfe"tflbj;]g alxźf r kjlų Pj+ j]lbtƑf _
cŢlųsĕ lx s]þ;f nádf»k]0 s/L;+ dŴn'ślƃ Od] jL;lt kyjflwss]ĕŪf;f, lkų+»k]0 d'ųlƃ Od] ƀfb; cfkflwss]ĕŪf;f,
o]g r ;ƃƍlt, o]g r hË/lt, o]g r kl/*ƞlt, o]g r cl;tkLtvflot;flot+ ;ƙfkl/)fd+ uŞtLlt Od] rųf/á
t]hĕlwss]ĕŪf;f, pź+udá c±wëfudá s'lŞ;oá s]ĕŪf;oá cśdśfg';f/L cƧf;kƧf;á rflt Od] % jfo'clwss]ĕŪf;flt ƀ]rųfnL;
s]ĕŪf;f xálƃ. t];' pbl/o+ s/L;+ k'Ƒá d'ųlƃ Od] rųf/á s]ĕŪf;f pt'hĕ. Pjd]t];' Ps]þs+þ pt'hŪsd]j xált, ;]bá cƧ'
±vëńá l;Ŝfl)sĕlt Od] rųf/á pt'lrųhĕ, t];' Ps]þsƸƨ ƀ] ƀ] cŪsĕ xálƃ. cl;tflbkl/kfrs]ĕ t]h]ĕ sƙh]ĕj, tŴ
hËljtgjsd]j. cƧf;kƧf;á kg lrųh]ĕj, tŴ lrųh;Źgjsd]j. Od] b; s]ĕŪf;] &k]ŷf ;];f ƀƸų; rt'hĕ.
tŴ cŪ;' t]h]ĕjfoás]ĕŪf;];' Ps]þsƸƨ hËljtgjsť]j tLl) r pt'lrųfxf/hŪsĕlg xálƃ, jfoás]ĕŪf;];' r]Ŵ
pt'lrųh;Źgjslƕ xált, ;];];' rt'jL;ltof s]ĕŪf;];' s]þ;nádgvbƃfg+ d+;ljlgd'ųŪfg+ &k]ŷf ;ƑŴ ƀ] sĕoefjb;sĕlg,
tLl) r cŪsĕlg, d+;d'ų];' kg s]þ;fbL;' pt'hŪsd]j xált. tflg r oyfj'ųb;sgjsŪsĕlg ;sn;/L/ƓfkL;'
trd+;?lx/fbL;', cƓfkL;' r s]þ;fbL;' s]ĕŪf;];' cljlgưá±uë
PsƸƨ c)'kb];] xáƃLlt kŝ]s+þ cgƃfkl/df)f,
cgƃwft'kŝoųf t];+ ;/L/Ƹƨ lx k/df)'e]b;ť'Űflg cgƃflg rųfl/ dxfe"tflg r]j ;pkfbf¿kflg r cţáţkŝoe"tflg
cŢų+ ƀfrųfnL;s]ĕŪf;;/L/f/áxkl/)fx;Ůfgflbgf, alxźf r kyjLkƑtflbgf r cfsĕ/]g oyfkŝo+ ;d'ƍƉflg.
dfofsĕ/fboá ljo g afnhgƍaáwsĕlg xálƃ.
kyjLwft' r]Ŵ ;'v'd;ť'Űf /he"tf Pj cfkáwft'of ;ślxtf, t]h]ĕwft'of cg'kflntf, jfoáwft'of ljŴlƘtf,
jŰfbLlx kl/jfl/tf g ljlsl/odfgf
cŢų+ OlŴk'l/;lduklŋb]jƔƪflb;/L/efj+, alxźf r
kyjLkƑt?ŋb]jƔƪnásrƆ;"l/ogŋųdl)sgsĕlbefjť pkuŞlt, o";utf aƈge"tf kg]Ŵ cfkáwft' kyjLkltlŪtf.
cj;];fg'kfngljŴƘgkl/kfrgkl/jfl/tf
g kŔ/lt, ckŔ/dfgf kLl)tefj+ bƧ]lt, p;'dųutf t]h]ĕwft'
;];wft'kltŪfg;śxljŴƘgkl/jfl/tf
Od+ sĕo+ kl/kfr]lt, jŰ;ƕlųťƧ ck"ltefjť ;f±wëlt, jfoáwft'
ljŴƘg;d'bL/);efjf
;];wft'kltŪfg;śxfg'kfngkl/jfl/tf
ljŴƘ]lt
rfn]lt,
;/L/ljdfgfbLg+
udgflbkbjLltx/)fbLg+ l&ltť ;ƕfb]lt. rtƧálk r]tf ;Ƙ"o kyjLclwstfo s]þ;flbefj+, kyjLkƑtflbefjť,
cfkflwstfo lkųflbefj+, ;d'Źhnflbefjť, jfo'clwstfo pźśdjftflbefj+, kyjL;ƈf/sjftflbefjť, t]hĕlwstfo
kl/kfrslƮcflbefj+, g/slƮcflbefjť ;f±wëlƃ, of;+ ks]ĕk]g /áuh/fd/)ť]j sƍljgf;fboá r xálƃ. Pjd]tf;+
r'Űljr'Űfg+ wft"g+ ;ťoųf kŝ]s+þ cgƃfkl/df)f snfkf Pj cŢlųss]ĕŪf;f xálƃ, tyf aflx/flg ¿kflg. tflg r t]g
t]g kŝo]g tyftyfsĕ/]g ;d'lbtfj pƍşlƃ r]j pƍlşƧlƃ r.
olb k&d+ wft'oá c)'¿k]g &ŷf kŞf ;+o'şlƃ, tyf &fg] ljlgoáufefjtá ck/]gflk kl/ofo]g r]Ŵ sƙh+
sƙkŝo+ sƙkŝopt';d'Ūfg+, cfxf/h+ cfxf/kŝo+ cfxf/kŝopt';d'Ūfg+, pt'h+ pt'kŝo+ pt'kŝopt';d'Ūfg+, lrųh+

70

lrųkŝo+ lrųkŝopt';d'Ūfglƃ Pj+ ;d'Ūfge]bá j]lbtƑá. tŴ pkflbƉ¿k+ sƙh+ gfd, d+;d'ųs]þ;nádbƃl;Ŝfl)sĕlb
sƙkŝo+ gfd, ;ƕlųs/dxfd]#kyjLkƑtflb, rŊþ/tgb]jljdfgflb r sƙkŝopt';d'Ūfg+ gfd. cfxf/tá ;d'lŪt+
;'źŪs+þ cfxf/h+ gfd, sańLsĕ/á cfxf/á cfxf/hƧ hgs]ĕ x'ŷf sƙhƧ cg'kfns]ĕ xátLlt tbg'kflnt+ sƙh¿k+ cfxf/kŝo+
gfd, lj;efufxf/+ ;]ljŷf cftk] uŞƃƧ sĕńs'ŪfbLlg pƍşlƃ, Ob+ cfxf/kŝopt';d'Ūfg+ gfd. sƙhpt'tá ;d'lŪt+
;'źŪs+þ pt'h+ gfd, tƸƨ pt' cţ+ cŪs+þ ;d'Ūfk]lt, Ob+ pt'kŝo+ gfd, tlƨlƕ pt' cţ+ cŪs+þ ;d'Ūfk]lt, Ob+
pt'kŝopt';d'Ūfg+ gfd. Pj+ pkflbƉs]þ ltƧá Pj ;ƃltoá #ũ]t'+ ;Ŋþálƃ, cg'kflbƉs]þ kg jnfxs]ĕ pt'h+ gfd,
j'lŪwf/f pt'kŝo+ gfd, b]j] kg j'Ū] kyjL uƈ+ d'ťlt, aLhĕlg lj?xƃLlt Pj+ o+ cgƃ+ ;ƃltj;]g kjų+, Pt+
pt'kŝopt';d'Ūfg+ gfd. lrųtá ;d'lŪt+ ;'źŪsĕlb lrųh+ gfd, lrų]g kŞfhĕtkŝoefj]g pkŴlƘtá sĕoá lrųkŝo+
gfd, cleţflrų]g alxźf ;d'ŪflktxlŴcƧflbs+þ lrųkŝopt';d'Ūfg+ gfd. klsŰssyf.
¿kfƓfst+ lglŪt+.

lgƑfgfƓfstjŰgf
lgƑfgfƓfst+ kg e"ldtá nás'ų/d]j, wƙtálk r Psd]j, e]bá glŴ, nŋ)flbtá kg ;lƃnŋ)+ lgƑfg+,
lgjlųnŋ)+, c;řtnŋ)+ jf, cŝ'lt/;+
clgldųkŝ'kŪfg+, c;řttfo kgƧ sĕ/sx]t'lj/xtá kbŪfg+ glŴ,
kfksx]t'j;]g kg]t+ æb'ŋlg/áwufldlgklkbfÆltcflbjrgtá ‘lje0206’ æcl/odƮkbŪfgÆlƃ jų'+ jũlt. ;śxtá
kg e]bfefjf vƈ];' ;śx+ g uŞlt, cfotgfbL;' wƙfotgwƙwft";' ;śx+ uŞlt. ;'ţtá kg cų;'ţ+, ;nŋ)wf/)tá
cgųs+þ wƙdų+, c;řttfo jf cŝƃųf r clgŝtf;'ţ+, b'ŋtf;'ţ+, /fuflb;'ţ+, lgldų;'ţlƃ kjų+ ;'ţlƃ ux]tƑ+.
e]btá kg ;lƃnŋ)flb;efjtá Psljwlƕ sĕ/)kl/ofotá ;pkflb;];lgƑfgwft', cg'kflb;];lgƑfgwft' r]lt
b'ljw+ xált. ;/;j;]g kg kl/slƍtfsĕ/e]btá ;'ţt+ clgldų+ cƍl)lxtlƃ ltljw+ xált. ;řtwƙe]bd'kfbfo
kllŋlktƑfsĕ/tá g lrų+, g r]tl;s+þ, g ¿k+, g ctLt+, g cgfut+, g kŝ'ƍƉ+, g d±Ʈëf, g mþnlƃcflbgf cgƃƍsĕ/+
xált.
lgƑfgfƓfst+ lglŪt+.
Pj+ OdƸƨ s';nlųs]þ cj'ųá ;efjwƙá gfd glŴ. c;efjwƙ];' kg]Ŵ lsťflk ¿kwƙfg+ kl/Ş]bfsĕ;nŋ)flg
Pj j'ųflg, sl;)flbklefulgldųflg
kg sl;)'Ŕfldfsĕ;á, ljţf)fefjá, lg/áw;dfklų, ltƧá
gfdk'Ʈnpkfbfkţlųoá, c¿kwƙfg+ clgŝtflbnŋ)fboá r g j'ųf, tyflk t];lƕ ;efjwƙƓlt/]sĕefjtá ux)+ xált,
tƨf co+ lts]ĕ lgƍb];lųs]ĕlt j]lbtƑá oyf r]Ŵ, Pj+ Otá k/];'lk ltsb's]þ;' kţlųƮx)fefj]lk lg/j;];k/dŴƮx±)ëg]j
lgƍb];tf, ljkl/ofotá ;ƍb];tf r j]lbtƑf. oŴ kg ;ƙ'ltƮx)+ clŴ, tŴ jŋĕd.
¿klgƑfgsůá lglŪtá.

Olt dáxljŞ]blgof

clewƙdfltsŴ;+jŰgfo

s';nlųs;+jŰgf lglŪtf.

j]bgflųsĕlbjŰgf
Obflg s';nlųsĕgƃ/+ j]bgflųsĕbLg+ cŴjŰgf cg'ƍųf, oƨf kg ø−fo+ s';nlųsƧ _
æcŴtá e"lde]bf r, kŝ]s+þ ;ƕoáutá.
pŹ];tá r wƙfg+, nŋ)flbljefutáÆltĶ _

71

cflbgf dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf æs';nf tfj wƙf e"ldtá rt'lƑwf xálƃ sĕdfjr/f»k]0 nás'ų/fÆltPjdflbgf ljlgŞogoá
j'ųá, ;á Pj ;];lųsb'sĕglƕ oyfoáu+ xált. oyf lx PŴ, Pj+ æ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf tfj wƙf e"ldtá ltljwf xálƃ
sĕdfjr/f ¿kfjr/f nás'ų/fÆltcflbgf cg'Ŋþd]g ;Ƒlųsb'sĕglƕ klůt]lx ;Ŋĕ ljlgŞogo+ ;Ɵŋ]t'+, tƨf t+ ljŴf/go+
jş]ŷf lgŋ]ksů], cŴ'źf/sů] r j'ųfg';f/tá gflt;ř]kljŴf/go]g j]bgflųsĕbLg+ ltsb'sĕg+ _
kbŴf t+;¿kf r, gjųƑljefutá.
ljlgŞoá ljhĕgLoá, tŴ tŴ oyf/x+Ķ

j]bgflųs]þ
kbŴtá
tfj
æ;'vfo
j]bgfofÆltcfbL;'
;'v-;Źá
;'vj]bgf;'vd"n;'vf/ƙ);'vx]t';'vkŝoŪfgcƓfaŢlgƑfgfbL;' lbƧlt.
co+ lx æ;'vƧ r kxfgfÆltcfbL;'
‘bL0lg01=232 w0;0165 lje0594’ ;'vj]bgfo lbƧlt. æ;'±vëf a'źfgd'ƍfbáÆltcfbL;' ‘w0k0194’ ;'vd"n.
]
æoƨf r ±vëf, dxfln, ¿k+ ;'v+ ;'vfg'kltt+ ;'vfjŊþƃÆlƃcfbL;' ‘;+0 lg0 3=60’ ;'vf/ƙ±)ë. æ;'vƧ]t+, leŋj],
clwjrg+, olbb+ k'ţfgLÆltcfbL;' ‘c0lg0 7=62 Oltj'022’ ;'vx]t'lƛ. æofjlťb+, leŋj], g ;'s/+ cŋĕg]g kfk'l)t'+,
ofj ;'vf ;Ʈf ‘d0lg03=255’. g t] ;'v+ khĕglƃ, o] g kƧlƃ gƆgÆlƃ ‘;+0lg0 1=11’ cfbL;' ;'vkŝoŪfg].
ælbŪwƙ;'vljxf/f Pt] wƙfÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg01=82’ cƓfaŢ]. ælgƑfg+ k/d+ ;'vÆlƃcfbL;' ‘w0k0203-204
d0lg0215 217’ lgƑfg]. Ow kgfo+ ;'vj]bgfod]j bŪƑá.
j]bgf-;Źá æljlbtf j]bgf pƍşƃLÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg03=208’ j]blotƸƨ
o]j jųlt. b'ŋ-;Źá
b'ŋj]bgfb'ŋjŴ'b'ŋĕ/ƙ)b'ŋkŝob'ŋkŝoŪfgfbL;' lbƧlt. co+ lx æb'ŋƧ r kxfgfÆltcfbL;' ‘bL0lg01=232 w0;0165
lje0594’ b'ŋj]bgfo+ lbƧlt. æhĕltlk b'ŋĕÆltcfbL;' ‘bL0lg02=387 lje0190’ b'ŋjŴ'Ƹƨ. æoƨf r ±vëf, dxfln,
¿k+ b'ŋ+ b'ŋĕg'kltt+ b'ŋĕjŊþƃÆlƃcfbL;' ‘;+0lg0 3=60’ b'ŋĕ/ƙ±)ë. æb'ŋ]ĕ kfkƧ pŝoáÆltcfbL;' ‘w0k0117’
b'ŋkŝo]. æofjlťb+, leŋj], g ;'s/+ cŋĕg]g kfk'l)t'+, ofj b'ŋĕ lg/ofÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg03=250’ b'ŋkŝoŪfg].
Ow kgfo+ b'ŋj]bgfod]j bŪƑá.
jrgŴá kg]Ŵ _ ;'volt ;ų+, ;'Ū' jf vfblt, vglt r sĕolrųfafwlƃ ;'vf, sĕlosr]tl;sĕg+
;'v;ádgƧfgd]t+ clwjrg+. b'ŋotLlt b'ŋĕ, sĕlosr]tl;sĕg+ b'ŋbádgƧfgd]t+ clwjrg+. g b'ŋĕ g ;'vflt cb'ŋd;'vf,
pk]ŋĕo]t+ clwjrg+. d-sĕ/á kb;lƈs/á. Pj+ tLlx kb]lx kťljwflk j]bgf ulxtf. ;Ƒflk cf/ƙ)/;+ j]lbolƃ
cg'ejƃLlt j]bgf. oá kgfo+ tL;'lk kb];' ;ƕo'ų-;Źá, tƧŴá _ ;d+ ksĕ/]lx o'ųflt ;ƕo'ųf, st/]lx ksĕ/]xLltĠ
æclŴ s]þlr wƙf s]þlxlr wƙ]lx ;xutf ;xhĕtf ;+;Ūf Ps'ƍfbf Pslg/áwf PsjŴ'sĕ Psĕ/ƙ)fÆlt ‘syf0473’ Pj+ j'ų]lx
Od]lx Ps'ƍfbtfbLlx rt"lx ksĕ/]lx. pŊþŪlgŹ];á r];. cf?ƍ] lx ljgflk PsjŴ'sefj+ ;ƕoá±uëf nưtLlt. ;];+
j'ųŴd]j. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴtá ljlgŞoá.
t+;¿kflt tƧ kbŴƧ ;¿kdųbƧgtá. tŴ ;'v;xut+ sĕoljţf)+, ;ádgƧ;xutflg
cŪf/;
sĕdfjr/lrųflg, k&db'ltotltort'ŴŢĕlgsĕlg rt'rųfnL; ¿kfjr/nás'ų/lrųflg rflt t];lŪ lrųflg ;'vfo j]bgfo
;ƕo'ųf gfd tyf b'ŋ;xut+ sĕoljţf)+, ƀ] bádgƧ;xutflg rflt tLl) lrųflg b'ŋĕo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf gfd. ;];flg
pk]ŋĕ;xutflg kťkţf; lrųflg cb'ŋd;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf gfd. oyf r lrųfg+ ;'vflb;ƕoá±uëf, Pj+ t+lrų;ƕo'ųfg+
r]tl;sĕglƕ. g s]þjnť PŴ]j, Otá k/];'lk ltsb's]þ;' lrųj;]g]j t+;ƕo'ųr]tl;sĕglƕ ;śxá j]lbtƑá oŴ kg
lj;];á xált, tŴ jŋĕd. Ow kg r]tl;s]þ;' ;ƍLltsĕlg j]bgfjlştflg % r]tl;sĕlg Pj kťlxlk j]bgflx ;ƕo'ųflg,
Ot/flg kg sĕlos;'vb'ŋjlştflx tLx]j. t];' r kLltjlştf kť oyfoálusĕ r]j dáxá clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ pźŝ+ lyg+
ldźťflt Od] Psĕb; oyfoáu+ tLlxlk. tŴflk ljtŊþljrf/f dxƮtnás'ų/e"tfo ;'vfo Pj, kLlt kg ;ƑŴ ;'vfo
Pj, bá;OƧfdŞ]/s'Ŋ'þŝflg b'ŋĕo Pj, ljlrlsŞf pk]ŋĕo Pj, ;];flg cŪjL;lt;ádgƧ'k]ŋĕlx Pj j]bgflx ;ƕo'ųflg,
tŴflk s?)fd'lbtf dxƮte"tfo ;'vfo Pjflt co+ lj;];á. ;];+ lrų;ƕoáu;lb;+. co+ ;¿ktá ljlgŞoá.
gjųƑljefutált OdƸƨ lts]þ ;Ƒf j]bgf ;Ƒ+ ¿k+ lgƑfg+ ;ƙ'ltoált Od] wƙf æ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųfÆlt
jf æb'ŋĕo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųfÆlt jf æcb'ŋd;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųfÆlt jf g jųƑf. g lx j]bgf j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf xált
¿kfboá jf, tƨf Od] OdƸƨ lts]þ g nưlƃ. coť ;ƍb];lųs]ĕ xált. oyf r]Ŵ, Pj+ Otá k/];'lk ltsb's]þ;'
gjųƑoáhgf. o+ olƨť g j'ų+ clŴ, tƧ ;ƍb];tf j]lbtƑf. Otá k/+ kg oŴ c;ślxtf wƙf xálƃ, tŴ t];+
ljefu+ bƧ]ŷf æOd] gjųƑfÆlt Pųsd]j jŋĕd, t]gƧ ;ƍb];tflk `ftƑf. oŴ kg c;ślxtf glŴ, t+ lgƍb];lƃ
jŋĕd. t]g tŴ gjųƑfefjálk ljţftƑá. ;ƑŴ kg dflts+þ cg'źl/ŷfj kbŴ+, t+;¿kljefuť jŋĕd. co+
gjųƑljefutá ljlgŞoá.
j]bgflųs+þ lglŪt+.
ljkfslųs]þ cţdţljl;Ūfg+ s';nfs';nfg+ kfsĕlt ljkfsĕ, ljkŊþefjdfkƉfg+ c¿kwƙfgd]t+ clwjrg+. lsťflk
c¿kwƙf ljo ¿kwƙflk sƙ;d'Ūfgf clŴ, cgf/ƙ)ųf kg t] sƙ;l/ŋsĕ g xáƃLlt ;f/ƙ)f c¿kwƙfj sƙ;l/ŋųf
ljkfsĕlt j'ųf aLh;l/ŋs+þ mþn+ ljo. oyf lx ;flnaLhtá lgŋƃ;L;d]j ;flnmþnlƃ j'ŝlt, g cŘ'/fbLlg, tflg kg
æ;flnhĕtflg, ;flnlgƑųflg rfÆlt j'ŝlƃ, Pj+ sƙ;lb;f c¿kwƙfj æljkfsĕÆlt j'ŝlƃ, ¿kwƙf kg sƙhĕ
æpkflbƉfÆlt j'ŝlƃ. ljkfswƙwƙflt ljkfs;efjf wƙf. oyf lx hĕlth/f;efjf ;ųf æhĕltwƙf h/fwƙfÆlt
j'ŝlƃ, Pj+ ljkfshgsŪ]g ljkfs;efjf ljkfsksltsĕ wƙflt cŴá. tltokb+ peo;efjklŋ]kj;]g j'ų+, co+
kbŴá.
tŴ rt";' e"dL;' %Ƹų; ljkfslrųflg ljkfsĕ gfd, tyf PsjL;lt s';nflg, ƀfb; cs';nflg rflt t]Ƹų;
72

ljkfswƙwƙf gfd, tL;' e"dL;' jL;lt lsl/olrųflg, ;Ƒť ¿k+, lgƑfgťflt Od] g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf gfd.
r]tl;s]þ;' kg r'Ź; cs';nf ljkfswƙwƙf Pj, lj/ltoá l;of ljkfsĕ, l;of ljkfswƙwƙf, tbj;];f kg l;of
ljkfsĕ, l;of ljkfswƙwƙf, l;of g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙflt lrų+ ljo ltljwf xáƃLlt co+ lj;];á, ;];+ lrų;d+, Obť
lgƍb];lųslƃ j]lbtƑ+.
ljkfslųs+þ lglŪt+.
cf/ƙ)s/)j;]g tŲflbŪLlx pk]t]g sƙ'gf cflbƉf mþnefj]g ulxtflt pkflbƉf, cf/ƙ)efj+ pkuƄf
pkfbfg;Ɨƈ]g pkfbfgfg+ lxtflt pkfbflgof, pkfbfgƧ cf/ƙ)kŝoe"tfgd]t+ clwjrg+. pkflbƉf r t] pkfbflgof
rflt pkflbƉ'kfbflgof, ;f;jsƙlgƑųfg+ ¿kf¿kwƙfgd]t+ clwjrg+. Oldgf go]g ;];kbƀo]lk kl;]w;lxtá cŴá
j]lbtƑá.
tŴ ƀƸų; nálsoljkfslrųflg, gj sƙhsnfkf r pkflbƉ'kfbflgof gfd. cj;];nálsolrųflg r]j
csƙh¿ksnfkf r cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgof gfd. nás'ų/lrųlgƑfgflg cg'kflbƉcg'kfbflgof gfd. lsťflk vL)f;jfg+
pkfbfgŋƈf æcƛfs+þ dft'nŴ]/áÆltcflbgf jbƃfg+ k/];+ pkfbfgƧ cf/ƙ)kŝof xálƃ, dƮmþnlgƑfgflg kg lbj;+
;ƃųcoáu'ńá ljo dlŋsĕlx t]h'Ƨbųf pkfbfg]lx cg'kflbƉfg]j. c;+lslnŪc;+lsn]l;s]þ;'lk P;]j goá. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
s';nf cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgof Pj, s?)fd'lbtf l;of pkflbƉ'kfbflgof, l;of cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgof lj/ltoá kg l;of
cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgof, l;of cg'kflbƉcg'kfbflgof, ;];f lrų+ ljo ltljwf xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųslƃ j]lbtƑ+.
pkflbƉ'kfbflgolųs+þ.
;+lsn];]tLlt ;+lsn];á, ljafwlt pktfk]tLlt cŴá. ;+lsn];]g ;ƕo'ųf ;+lslnŪf, ;+lsn];;xutflt cŴá.
cųfg+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kjųg]g ;+lsn];+ c/xlƃ, ;+lsn];] jf lgo'ųf tƧ cf/ƙ)efj+ cgltŊþdgtált ;+lsn]l;sĕ, ;+lsn];Ƨ
cf/ƙ)kŝoe"tfgd]t+ clwjrg+. ;+lslnŪf r t] ;+lsn]l;sĕ rflt ;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ. ;];kbƀo+ k'l/dlųs]þ j'ųgo]g]j
j]lbtƑ+.
tŴ ƀfb; cs';nlrų'ƍfbf ;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ gfd. ;];nálsolrųflg r]j ;Ƒ+ ¿kť c;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ
gfd. nás'ų/lrųflg, lgƑfgť c;+lslnŪc;+lsn]l;sĕ gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf ;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕj, s?)fd'lbtf
c;+lslnŪc;+lsn]l;sĕj, ;];s';nfƓfstf l;of ;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ, l;of c;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;sĕ, l;of c;+lslnŪc;+lsn]l;sĕlt
ltwflk xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ. ;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;slųs+þ.
;ƕoáuj;]g jųdfg]g ;x ljtŊ]þg ;ljtŊĕ, tyf ;x ljrf/]g ;ljrf/f, ;ljtŊĕ r t] ;ljrf/f rflt
;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f. peo/lxtf cljtŊþcljrf/f. ljtŊþljrf/];' ljrf/áj dųf kdf)d]t];lƃ ljrf/dųf, ljrf/tá pųƸ/
ljtŊ]þg ;Ƹź ;ƕoáu+ g uŞƃLlt cŴá. cljtŊĕ r t] ljrf/dųf rflt cljtŊþljrf/dųf.
tŴ lƀkťljţf)jlştsĕdfjr/lrųflg r]j Psĕb; dxƮtnás'ų/k&dŢĕlgslrųflg r t+;ƕo'ų];' ljtŊþljrf/]
&k]ŷf ;];f r ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/f gfd. t];' ljtŊþá Psĕb; b'ltoŢĕlgsdxƮtnás'ų/flg r t+;ƕo'ų];' ljrf/+ &k]ŷf ;];f
r cljtŊþljrf/dųf gfd. b'ltoŢĕlgs]þ;' ljrf/á, ;];f kťrųfnL; dxƮtnás'ų/lrųflg, lƀkťljţf)flg, t+;ƕo'ųf r
;Ƒť ¿k+, lgƑfgť cljtŊþcljrf/f gfd. clkr s';nr]tl;sĕ ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/fj, ljtŊþá cljtŊþljrf/dųáj, ljrf/á
kg b'ltoŢĕlgs]þ;' l;of cljtŊþcljrf/á, ;ljtŊþlrų];' l;of g jųƑá, cj;];f kg ;Ƒ] r]tl;sĕ wƙf ltwflk xálƃ.
OdƸƨ kg lts]þ ljtŊþ;xhĕtá ljrf/áj g jųƑá. ljtŊþlųs+þ.
kLltof ;x Ps'ƍfbflbefj+ utflt kLlt;xutf, kLlt;ƕo'ųflt cŴá. ;];kbƀo]lk P;]j goá. pk]ŋĕlt
r]Ŵ cb'ŋd;'vf j]bgf j'ųf. ;f lx ;'vb'ŋĕsĕ/ƍjƸų pk]ŋlt dŢųfsĕ/;lŮtųf t]gfsĕ/]g kjųtLlt pk]ŋĕ. Olt
j]bgflųstá kbƀod]j ux]ŷf lgƍLlts;'vƧ ;ƍLlts;'vtá lj;];bƧgj;]g co+ lts]ĕ j'ųá.
tŴ kLlt kťljwf v'lŹsĕ vl)sĕ cáŊþlƃsĕ pƑ]uf mþ/)flt. tŴ v'lŹsĕ kLlt ;/L/] nádx+;gdųd]j sĕt'+
;Ŋþált. vl)sĕ kLlt v±)ë v±)ë ljş'ƍfb;lb;f xált. cáŊþlƃsĕ kLlt ;d'ŹtL/+ jLlr ljo sĕo+ cáŊþldŷf cáŊþldŷf
leşlt. pƑ]uf kLlt anjtL xált sĕo+ pźƮ+ sŷf cfsĕ;] nŜfkgƍdf)ƍųf. mþ/)fo kLltof kg pƍƉfo ;sn;/L/+
wldŷf k"l/tjlŴ ljo, dxtf pbs]ĕ#]g kŋƆkƑts'lŞ ljo r cg'kl/Ǝ'þ+ xált. tŴ mþ/)f ¿kfjr/nás'ų/fj, ;];f
sĕdfjr/fj.
;'v+ kg sĕlos+þ, r]tl;sť]lt b'ljw+ xált. ;ltlk r g];+ sŴlr cljƍoá±uë OŪf/ƙ)klnfet'lŪ kLlt,
klnź/;fg'ejg+ ;'v+. oŴ kLlt, tŴ ;'v+. oŴ ;'v+, tŴ g lgodtá kLlt. ;řf/ŋƈ;ślxtf kLlt,
j]bgfŋƈ;ślxt+ ;'v+. sƃf/lvƉƧ jgƃábsbƧg;jg];' ljo kLlt, jgŞfofkj];gpbskl/eá±uë;' ljo ;'v+. tƸƨ
tƸƨ ;do] kfsefjtá r]t+ j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
tŴ ;'v;xutf, pk]ŋĕ;xutf r j]bgflųs]þ j'ųfj, ;'v;xut+ kg sĕoljţf)+, dxƮtnás'ų/rt'ŴŢĕlgslrų] r
jş]ŷf ;];f kLlt;xutf gfd, tŴ kLlt g kLlt;xutf, ;'v;xutfj xált ;'v+ kg kLlt;xut+ gfd l;of g
kLlt;'v;xutf. OdƸƨ lts]þ ƀ] bádgƧ;xutlrų'ƍfbf, b'ŋ;xut+ sĕoljţf)+, ¿k+, lgƑfgť gjųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
kLlt ;'v;xutfj, ljlrlsŞf pk]ŋĕ;xutfj, náelblŪdfgf, kťjL;lt s';nfƓfstf r ltwflk xálƃ, r]tl;s;'v+ l;of
kLlt;xut+, k&db'ltotltoŢĕlgs]þ;' rt'ŴŢĕlgs]þ;' l;of gjųƑ+, sĕlos+þ kg ;'v+ b'ŋ+ bádgƧ+ ;Ƒf r pk]ŋĕ bá;á OƧf
dŞl/o+ s'Ŋ'þŝť gjųƑfj, ;];f ;ų/; wƙf l;of ltwflk xálƃ gjųƑflk. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kLltlųs+þ.
bƧg]gflt ;átfklųd±Ʈëg. ;á lx k&d+ lgƑfgbƧgtá æbƧgÆlƃ j'ųá. ±uëfŶe' kg lsťflk k&dt/+ kƧlt,
oyf kg /ţá ;lƃs+þ s]þglrb]j s/)Lo]g cfutá k'l/;á b"/táj /lysĕo r/ƃ+ xlŴŋƈut+ /fhĕg+ lbƩflk ælbŪá t]
73

/fhĕÆlt k'Ūá lbƩflk sĕtƑlsŝƧ cstųf æg kƧfdLÆlt jblt, Pjd]j lgƑfg+ lbƩf sųƑƧ lsn];ƍxfgƧ cefjf
æbƧgÆlƃ g j'ŝlt. t+ lx `f)+ dƮƧ cfjşgŪfg] ltŪlt. efjgfoflt ;];dƮųo]g. ;];dƮųo+ lx k&dd±Ʈëg
lbŪƸƨo]j wƙ] efjgfj;]g pƍşlt, clbŪk'Ƒ+ slť g kƧlt, tƨf æefjgfÆlt j'ŝlt. tltokb+ peoklŋ]kj;]g
j'ų+.
tŴ rųf/á lblŪut;ƕo'ųlrų'ƍfbf, ljlrlsŞf;xutá rflt kť bƧg]g kxftƑfj, pźŝ;xutá efjgfo Pj
kxftƑá, cj;];f % cs';nlrų'ƍfbf ckfox]t'efj]g kjlųtá, cƍjlųtá r l;of bƧg]gkxftƑf, l;of efjgfokxftƑf,
cs';njlştf kg ;Ƒ] lrų'ƍfbf, ¿k+, lgƑfgť g]jbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg lblŪ ljlrlsŞf OƧf
dŞl/o+ s'Ŋ'þŝ+ bƧg]gkxftƑfj, ;];f cs';nf l;of bƧg]gkxftƑf, l;of efjgfokxftƑflt lthĕltsĕ t]/;ljwf xálƃ,
j'ųfj;];f g]jbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑfj. o+ kg æ;átfklųdƮ`f±)ëg cle;řf/ljţf)Ƨ lg/á±wëg ;ų ej] &k]ŷf
cgdt±Ʈë ;+;f/] o] pƍş]Ɯ'+ gfdť ¿kť, PŴ]t] lg?ŢƃLÆltcflbgf ‘r"ńlg0clhtdf)jk'ŞflgŹ]; 6’ go]g
s';nfƓfstfglƕ kxfg+ cg'ţft+, t+ t];+ dƮfg+ cefljtųf o] pƍş]Ɯ'+, t] pklgƧokŝofg+ lsn];fg+ kxLgųf kxLgflt Od+
kl/ofo+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ. bƧg]gkxftƑlųs+þ.
bƧg]g kxftƑá x]t' Pt];lƃ bƧg]gkxftƑx]t'sĕ. b'ltokb]lk P;]j
goá. tltokb] kg
g]jbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑá x]t' Pt];lƃ PjdŴ+ cƮx]ŷf g]jbƧg]ggefjgfo kxftƑá x]t' Pt];+ cŴLlt PjdŴá
ux]tƑá. Ot/yf lx cx]t'sĕg+ cƮx)+ ej]Ɯ. x]t' Pj lx t];+ glŴ, oá bƧgefjgflx kxftƑá l;of. ;x]t's]þ;'lk
x]t'jşĕg+ kxfg+ cfkşlt, g x]t"g+. x]t'o]j lx Pt];+ g]jbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑált j'ųá, g t] wƙf. peolƕ r]t+
cglwƍ]t+, tƨf j'ųgo]g cŴá ux]tƑá. Otá k/+ ;Ƒá ljlgŞoá cgƃ/lųs;lb;áj. s]þjn+ r]tl;s]þ;'
ljlrlsŞ'źŝ;ƕo'ųá dáxá bƧgefjgflx kxftƑx]t's]þ;'
g klj;lt ;xhĕtƧ cţƧ x]t'gá cefjf,
g]jbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑx]t's]þ;' kg klj;lt. náebá;d"nlrų];' kg x]t";' dáxá náe]g r]j bá;]g r ;x]t's]ĕ,
náebá;f r dáx]g]jflt Od] kxftƑx]t'skb] kljŪflt co+ lj;];á, ;];+ tflb;d]jflt. bƧg]gkxftƑx]t'slųs+þ.
sƙlsn];]lx cfrLotLlt cfroá, kl;lƈr'ltultkjlų;řftfg+ pkflbƉŋƈfgd]t+ clwjrg+. tƧ sĕ/)+ x'ŷf
lgƎþfbgefj]g t+ cfro+ uŞlƃ, oƧ jf kjųlƃ, t+ k'Ʈn+ oyfj'ųd]j cfro+ ud]ƃLlt cfroufldgá. ttá Pj
cfro;řftf rof ck]tųf lgƑfg+ ck]t+ roflt ckroá, t+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kjųgtá ckro+ uŞƃLlt ckroufldgá.
clkr kfsĕ/+ OŪsjŬsË ljo kjų+ cflrgƃf uŞƃLlt cfroufldgá. t]g]j jŬlsgf lrt+ lrt+ ljź+;odfgá k'l/;á ljo
tb]j kjų+ cklrgƃf uŞƃLlt ckroufldgá. tltokb+ peoklŋ]k]g j'ų+.
tŴ nálsos';nfs';nflg cfroufldgá gfd, rųfl/ dƮflg ckroufldgá gfd ;Ƒflg ljkfsmþnlsl/oflg,
¿k+, lgƑfgť g]jcfroufldgá g ckroufldgá gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf cfroufldgá Pj, s?)f d'lbtf l;of
cfroufldgá, l;of g]jfroufldgá g ckroufldgá gfd, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ. cfroufldlųs+þ.
tL;' l;ŋĕ;' hĕtf, ;ųƉ+ jf ;]vfg+ Pt]ltlk ;]vf, ckl/oál;tl;ŋųf ;od]j l;ŋƃLltlk ;]vf. pkl/
l;lŋtƑfefjtá g ;]vflt c;]vf, j'lźƍųf jf ;]vfltlk c;]vf. tltokb+ peoklŋ]k]g j'ų+.
tŴ rųfl/ nás'ų/s';nflg, x]lŪdflg r tLl) ;fdţmþnfgLlt ;ų ;]vf gfd, c/xųmþn+ c;]vf gfd,
nálsolrųflg, ¿k+, lgƑfgť g]j;]vf gf;]vf gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf r cƍdţf r g]j;]vf gf;]vf Pj, ;];f
ltwflk xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ. ;]vlųs+þ.
;dƃtá vlůtųf cƍdųs+þ kl/ųlƃ j'ŝlt ækl/ų+ ±uëfdolkůÆlƃ ‘;+0 lg0 3=96’ cfbL;' ljo.
sĕdfjr/wƙf lx cƍfg'efjtfo kl/ųf ljoflt kl/ųf. lsn];ljŋƘg;dŴtfo, dxƃljk'nmþntfo, bL#;ƃfgtfo r
dxƃefj+ utf, dxƃ]lx jf pńf/ŞƆjLl/olrųkţ]lx utf klkƉfltlk dxƮtf. kdf)s/f wƙf /fufboá kdf)+ gfd,
cf/ƙ)tá jf ;ƕoáutá jf glŴ Pt];+ kdf)+, kdf)Ƨ r klkŋĕlt cƍdf)f.
tŴ rt'kţf; sĕdfjr/lrųflg, ¿kť kl/ųf gfd, ;ųjL;lt ¿kf¿kfjr/lrųflg dxƮtf gfd,
nás'ų/lrųflg, lgƑfgť cƍdf)f gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf kl/ųf Pj, cƍdţf kl/ųdxƮtf Pj, lj/ltoá
kl/ųcƍdf)f Pj, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ. kl/ųlųs+þ.
kl/ų+ cf/ƙ)+ Pt];lƃ kl/ųf/ƙ)f. ;];kbƀo]lk P;]j goá. ;o+ kl/ųf jf xáƃ' dxƮtf jf,
kl/ųflbwƙ] cf/ư kjųf tbf/ƙ)flt j'ŝlƃ.

t]jL;lt
sĕdfjr/ljkfsĕ,
lsl/ofdgáwft'cx]t'shjgť
kl/ųf/ƙ)fj,
ljţf)ťfotgg]j;ţfgf;ţfotgs';nljkfslsl/oflg dxƮtf/ƙ)fj, cŪ nás'ų/lrųflg cƍdf)f/ƙ)fj, cs';nlrųflg
r cŪ `f)ljƍo'ųhjgflg r l;of kl/ųf/ƙ)f, l;of dxƮtf/ƙ)f, l;of gjųƑf/ƙ)tfo g jųƑf, g sbflr
cƍdf)f/ƙ)f, cŪ `f);ƕo'ųsĕdfjr/hjgflg, cleţf, dgáƀf/fjşgťflt Psĕb; ltwflk xálƃ gjųƑflk. t];' r
s';nflg kť c/xųdƮmþnjlşt;Ƒf/ƙ)flg. tŴflk t+t+;]vfgd]j oyf;s+þ dƮmþnflg cf/ƙ)flg xálƃ, lsl/oflg %
;Ƒyflk ;Ƒf/ƙ)flg, cleţfjlşt¿kfjr/flg r]j % cfsĕ;fgťfotgcflsťţfotglrųflg r lgod]g kţųf/ƙ)tfo,
¿klgƑfgfgť cgf/ƙ)tfo ;Ƒyf gjųƑflt. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf cs';nlrų;lb;fj, lj/ltoá l;of kl/ųf/ƙ)f,
l;of cƍdf)f/ƙ)f, s?)fd'lbtf gjųƑfj, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ l;of gjųƑflt. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kl/ųf/ƙ)lųs+þ.
xLgflt nfdsĕ, cs';nf wƙf. xLgk)Ltfg+ dŢ] ejflt dlŢdf, cj;];f t]e"dsĕ ¿kf¿kwƙfj. pųdŪ]g,
ctƍsŪ]g r k)Ltf, nás'ų/lrųlgƑfgflg. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf xLgfj, s?)fd'lbtf dlŢdfj, ;];s';nfƓfstf
dlŢdk)Ltfj, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. xLglųs+þ.
ælxt;'vfjxf d] eljƧƃLÆlt Pj+ cf;Ll;tflk tyf cefjtá, c;'efbL;'o]j ;'elƃcflbljk/Ltƍjlųtá r

74

ldŞf ;efjflt ldŞųf, ljkfsbfg] ;lt vƈe]bfgƃ/d]j ljkfsbfgtá lgotf, ldŞųf r t] lgotf rflt ldŞųlgotf.
j'ųljk/Lt]g cŴ]g ;ƙf ;efjflt ;ƙųf, ;ƙųf r t] lgotf rflt ;ƙųlgotf. peoyflk g lgotflt clgotf.
cfgƃl/sefj]g kjlųo+ l;of ldŞųlgotf, cţyf kjlųo+ l;of clgotf. cx]t'sclsl/oglŴslbŪL;' lx
cţt/f lblŪ oƧ lgotf, t+ a'ź;tlƕ ljaá±wët'+ g ;Ŋþált. o]g r cgƃ/] Pj cųefj] mþnbfgtá cfgƃl/s]þ;'
dft'#ftslkt'#ftsc/xƃ#fts;Ŝe]bsnálxt'ƍfbs;řft];' kť;' sƙ];'
Pslƕ sƙ+ kl#lrų]g st+ xált, ;á
l;g]?ƍdf±)ëlk ;'jŰy"k] sŷf ;snrŊþjfń+ k"/]ŷf lgl;Ɖ;Ɨ'źƍd'v+ ;Ŝ+ ofjhËj+ rt"lx kŝo]lx pkŪlxŷflk t]g s';n]g
cfgƃl/sƧ ljkfs+þ klaflxt'+ g ;Ŋþált, cfgƃl/s]þg kg clws]þg cfgƃl/s+þ klafxlt, tƨf lgotldŞflblŪ cfgƃl/sĕ
r dƮmþnfg+, dxƮtfgť klafxstfo cgƃ/d]j lg/o] ljkfsbfgtá ldŞųlgotf r hĕtf, rųf/á kg dƮf
;ƙųlgotf gfd, ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg clgotf gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg dáxá clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ pźŝ+ náeá lblŪ bá;á lyg+
ldźlƃ Od] gj l;of ldŞųlgotf, l;of clgotf, ;];cs';nf, s?)f, d'lbtf r clgotf Pj, ;];s';nfƓfstf l;of
;ƙųlgotf, l;of clgotf, lthĕltsĕ kg ltwflk xálƃ, Obť lgƍb];lųslƃ. ldŞųlųs+þ.
lgƑfg+ dƮlt, lsn];] jf df/]ƃá uŞtLlt d±Ʈëf, cl/od±Ʈëf, ;á cf/ƙ)d]t];lƃ dƮf/ƙ)f. nálsoá
cŪlśs]ĕlk d±Ʈëf kŝoŪ]g Pt];+ x]t"lt dƮx]t'sĕ, dƮ;ƕo'ųf wƙf. d±Ʈë jf x]t"lt dƮx]t", cnáefboá. t] Pt];+ x]t"lt
dƮx]t'sĕ. ;ƙflblŪ ;o+ d±Ʈëf r]j x]t' r, Olt dƮe"tá x]t' Pt];lƃ dƮx]t'sĕ, nás'ų/fj cleeljŷf kjųgŪ]g d±Ʈëf
clwklt cf/ƙ)e"tá, ;xhĕtá jf Pt];lƃ dƮflwkltgá, tb'eo+.
tŴ ¿kfjr/rt'ŴŢĕgs';nlsl/of r cleţfe"tf, dgáƀf/fjşgť l;of dƮf/ƙ)f, l;of gjųƑf, cl/ofg+
lx r]tákl/ocgfut+;`f)flg k/];ţ]j dƮlrųƧ hĕggsĕn] dƮf/ƙ)flg, k'Ƒ]lgjf;`f)dgáƀf/fjşgflg kg cųgá,
k/];ťflk tbţf/ƙ)sĕn] kg gjųƑflg, r]tákl/o`f)Ƨ kg lgod]g k/lrųlj;oųf t]g cųgf clwutdƮ+ cl/of
cfnlƗt'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ, cgfut+;`f±)ëg kg cųgá cgfut] pƍşgsƧ pkl/dƮƧ clj;oųf g ;Ŋþálƃ. cl/of lx oyf;s+þ,
x]lŪdť dƮmþn+ hĕlgt'+ ;Ŋþálƃ, g pkl/d+. tflg kg cleţfhjgflg d±Ʈëg c;xhĕtųf g dƮx]t'sĕlg. dƮ+ u?+sŷf
cƍjųgtá g dƮflwktLlg. g lx tflg lslť cf/ƙ)+ clwkƸt s/álƃ, cƃd;á nás'ų/dlk. sƨfĠ cųgá dxƮttfo
/fhĕg+ lbƩf tƧ dftflkt/á ljo, dgáƀf/fjşg+ kg cųgá cx]t'stfo /fhĕg+ lbƩf v'şr]sĕboá ljo. rųfl/
dƮŪlrųflg ;Ƒbf dƮx]t'sĕ Pj, tfg]j r jLd+;fjLl/ofg+ clwkltefj]g kjlųo+ l;of dƮflwkltgá, Ot/];+ %Ɔlrųfg+
clwkltefj]g kjlųo+ l;of gjųƑf, cŪ `f);ƕo'ųsĕdfjr/hjgflg l;of dƮf/ƙ)f, l;of dƮflwkltgá, l;of
gjųƑf. tflg lx cųgf, k/]lx r klljźdƮkŝj]ŋ)sĕn] dƮf/ƙ)f, cųgá dƮ+ u?+sŷf kŝj]ŋ)sĕn] dƮflwkltgá r
tyfcƍjlųo+ gjųƑf r xálƃ. cl/of lx k/];+ dƮmþnflg kŝj]ŋƃf u?+ s/áƃflk cųgá dƮmþnflg ljo u?+ g
s/álƃ, clk ;ƙf;Ɨ'źfg+. t];' ;átfkƉá ;átfkƉfgd]j dƮmþnflg hĕlgt'+ ;Ŋþált, gfţ];+, ;sbfufdL kg
;sbfufdLglƕ, g cgfufldc/xƃfg+, cgfufdL kg cgfufdLglƕ, g c/xƃfg+, c/xf kg ;Ƒ];lƕ dƮmþnflg hĕgflt,
;áegnálsolrų¿klgƑfgflg gjųƑfg]j. r]tl;s]þ;' kg lj/ltoá nás'ų/s';n] dƮ;lb;fj, cţŴ gjųƑf, s?)f,
d'lbtf, cs';nf r gjųƑf, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ gjųƑf r. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt. dƮf/ƙ)lųs+þ.
pƍƉflt PŴ jųdfge"tfkutcásĕ;ste"ldnźj;]g pƍƉf cg]sƍe]bf xálƃ.
tŴ ;Ƒlƕ
pƍfbh/feś;dśL;řft+ ;řt+ jųdfg'ƍƉ+ gfd, cf/ƙ)/;+ cg'eljŷf lg?ź+ cg'e"tfkut;řft+ s';nfs';nť
pƍfbflbųo+ cg'ƍŷf lg?ź+ e"tfkut;řft+, ;];;řtť e"tfkut'ƍƉ+ gfd, æoflgƧ tflg k'Ƒ]stflg sƙfgLÆlt
Pjdflbgf go]g j'ų+ sƙ+ ctLtlƕ ;dfg+ cţ+ ljkfs+þ klaflxŷf cųgá ljkfsƧásĕ;+ sŷf l&tųf, tyfstásĕ;ť ljkfs+þ
cg'ƍƉlƕ Ps+þ;]g pƍşgstá cásĕ;st'ƍƉ+ gfd, tf;' tf;' e"dL;' c;d"xt+ cs';n+ e"ldnź'ƍƉ+ gfd. PŴ r ljkƧgfo
cf/ƙ)e"tf t]e"dsĕ kťŋƈf e"ld gfd, t];' vƈ];' pƍųf/xlsn];hĕtf e"ldnź+ gfd, t]lx lsn];]lx ;f e"ld nźf xátLlt
Pjd]t];' pƍƉ];' Ow jųdfg'ƍƉf clwƍ]tf.
tŶfo+ jrgŴá _ k'Ƒƃtá pƍfbtá kŪfo ofj eśf kƉf utf kjųflt pƍƉf, kŝ'ƍƉflt cŴá g pƍƉflt
cg'ƍƉf. kl/lglŪtsĕ/±)ësb];ųf cjƧ+ pƍlşƧƃLlt pƍflbgá, peo]gflk cgfutfj blƧtf. co+ lx lts]ĕ lƀƉ+ cźfg+
j;]g k"/]ŷf blƧtá. nźásĕ;Ƨ lx sƙƧ ljkfs]ĕ pƍfbL gfd. olb kg cfo"lxts';nfs';n+ sƙ+ ;Ƒ+ ljkfs+þ bb]Ɯ, cƧ
cásĕ;á g ej]Ɯ. t+ kg b'ljw+ xált w'jljkfs+þ, cź'jljkfsť. tŴ kťfgƃl/scŪ;dfklųrt'ŴdƮflb w'jljkfs+þ
gfd. t+ kg sƙ+ v)ƍųlƕ clŴ cƍųlƕ. tŴ v)ƍų+ pƍƉ+ gfd, cƍų+ cg'ƍƉ+ gfd. tƧ b'ljwƧ r ljkfs]ĕ b'lj±wëf
xált v)ƍųá r cƍųá r. tŴ v)ƍųá pƍƉá gfd, cƍųá lrųfgƃ/] jf pƍşt', sƍ;t;xƧfltŊþd] jf w'jkŝoŪ]g
pƍfbL gfd xált. d]ų]ƜƧ aálw;ųƧ d±Ʈëf cg'ƍƉá gfd xált, mþn+ pƍfbL gfd. tŴ rt";' e"dL;' ljkfs]ĕ, sƙh¿kť
jųdfg'ƍƉf gfd, pƍşgf/xf pƍflbgá gfd, g kg jųƑf æcg'ƍƉfÆlt. s';nfs';nlsl/of, sƙh¿kť l;of pƍƉf,
l;of cg'ƍƉf, g kg jųƑf æpƍflbgáÆlt. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf cs';nlrų;lb;fj, ;];f b'ljwflk xálƃ, ctLtf,
kg]Ŵ lgƑfgť gjųƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt. pƍƉlųs+þ.
cųgá ;efj+, pƍfbflbŋ)+ jf kŷf t+ cltŊþldŷf Otf utf kųflt ctLtf. tb'eolƕ g cfutflt
cgfutf. t+ t+ sĕ/)+ klŝ pƍƉflt kŝ'ƍƉf, ;Ƒ] ;řtf gfd¿kwƙf. g ;řtwƙ];' t]sĕlnsefj+ cƍųá gfd clŴ,
;Ƒ]lk t] ltwf xálƃ. lgƑfg+ kg]Ŵ gjųƑlƃ. ctLtlųs+þ.
ctLt+ cf/ƙ)+ Pt];lƃ ctLtf/ƙ)f. ;];kbƀo]lk P;]j goá.
tŴ s';nljkfslsl/ofj;]g %lƑwflg ljţf)ťfotgg]j;ţfgf;ţfotgflg x]Ūf ctLt;dfkƸų cf/ư kjlųtá
ctLtf/ƙ)flg, lƀkťljţf)dgáwft'oá kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)fj, ;];f Psĕb; sĕdfjr/ljkfsĕ, cx]t'sx;glrųť ltwflk xálƃ,
;];sĕdfjr/lsl/os';nfs';nf r cleţfe"t¿kfjr/rt'ŴŢĕgs';nlsl/of r ltwflk xálƃ gjųƑf r. t];' sĕdfjr/fg+

75

ctLtfbL;' %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' kjlųljef±uëf x]Ūf j'ųáj. gjųƑtf kg t];' `f)ljƍo'ųhjgs';nfg+ kţųf/ƙ)j;]g]j, g
lgƑfgf/ƙ)j;]g,
t];'lk ltx]t'shjgfjşgfg+ dƮmþn¿kf¿kŢĕgfg+, k'/]rfl/sefj]gflk lgƑfgrt'ŊþŢĕglj;ofgť
kŝj]ŋ)efj]gflk gjųƑtf j]lbtƑf, cleţfg+ kg Olźljw`f)Ƨ tfj sĕoj;]g lrų+ kl/)fd]ŷf sĕo;lƉlƧt+ sŷf
lbƧdfg]g sĕo]g uŞƃƧ ctLt+ kfbsŢĕglrų+ cf/ư kjųgtá ctLtf/ƙ)+, æcgfut];' ¿kflg Pj+ xáƃ"Ælt clwŪxƃƧ
cgfutf/ƙ)+, sĕo+ kg lrų;lƉlƧt+ sŷf clbƧdfg]g sĕo]g udgsĕn], cŢų+ s'df/jŰfbLg+, alxźfkf;fbs"þfuf/fbLgť
kŝ'ƍƉfg+ lgƙfgsĕn] r kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)ť tfj xátLlt Pj+ OlźljwƧ %lƑwlƕ cŢlųs+þ, aflx/ť t]sĕlns+þ cf/ƙ)+ xátLlt
j]lbtƑ+.
lbƑ;átƧ s'lŞut+ cŢlųs+þ, aflx/ť kŝ'ƍƉ+ ;Źfotgd]jf/ƙ)+. r]tákl/o`f)Ƨ ctLt] ;ųlbj;ưƃ/],
cgfut] ;ųlbj;ưƃ/] r k/];ţ]j lrų+ ctLtť cgfutťf/ƙ)+ xált. ;ųlbj;fltŊþd] kg]t+ k/lrų+ hĕlgt'+ g ;Ŋþált.
ctLt+;cgfut+;`f)fg+ lx P; lj;oá, g PtƧ. kŝ'ƍƉlrųhĕggsĕn] kgƧ kŝ'ƍƉdf/ƙ)+ xált.
kŝ'ƍƉť gfd]t+ ltljw+ v)kŝ'ƍƉ+ ;ƃltkŝ'ƍƉ+ cźfkŝ'ƍƉťflt. tŴ pƍfblŪlteśƍų+ v)kŝ'ƍƉ+ gfd.
;ƃltkŝ'ƍƉ+ kg b'ljw+ ¿kf¿kj;]g. tŴ cftkŪfgf cfuƄf uư+ kljŪƧ ofj cƈsĕ/efjá g ljuŞlt, cƃáuư] jf
jl;ŷf lbjf cftkŪfg+ cánás]þƃƧ ofj cŋËg+ mþƆgefjá g j"k;ƙlt, co+ ¿k;ƃlt gfd. ƀ] toá hjgjf/f c¿k;ƃlt
gfd, tb'eo+ ;ƃltkŝ'ƍƉlƃ j]lbtƑ+. Psejkl/lŞƉ+ cźfkŝ'ƍƉ+ gfd. OdƸƨ kg r]tákl/o`f)lj;o]
sltkohjgjf/f cźfkŝ'ƍƉ+ gfd. tŴ v)kŝ'ƍƉ+ lrų+ r]tákl/o`f)Ƨ cf/ƙ)+ g xált cfjşg]g ;Ƹź lg?Ţgtá. g
lx cfjşghjgfg+ PŴ leƉf/ƙ)tf o'ųf. ¿k;ƃltkŝ'ƍƉ+ kg sltkohjgjf/kl/lŞƉ+ cźfkŝ'ƍƉ+ cƧ cf/ƙ)+
xált. Olźdf lx k/Ƨ lrų+ hĕlgt'sĕdá cfjş]lt, t+ cfjlştŋ±)ë kŝ'ƍƉlrųdf/ƙ)+ sŷf t]g]j ;x lg?Ţlt. ttá
tb]j lg?ź+ lrųdfnlƗŷf rųfl/, kť jf hjgflg pƍşlƃ, t];+ klŞd+ Olźlrų+, ;];flg sĕdfjr/hjgflg t];ť
Psĕ/ƙ)ų]lk Olźlrųd]j k/Ƨ lrų+ hĕgflt, g Ot/flg. oyf rŋ'ƀf/jLlyo+ rŋ'ljţf)d]j ¿k+ kƧlt, g Ot/flg,
t];' r cfjşgd]j lgƍl/ofotá kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)+, Ot/flg kg cźf;ƃltj;]g kl/ofotált ux]tƑ+, Pjd]tƧ
ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉ+ lrųd]jf/ƙ)+ xált, tť ±vëf k/Ƨ]j, g cųgá.
k'Ƒ]lgjf;`f)+ kg gfd±uëfųsl;)kţųflbcg'Ƨ/±)ë, lgƑfgfg'Ƨ/±)ë r gjųƑf/ƙ)+, ;řtwƙfg'Ƨ/±)ë
ctLtf/ƙ)d]j. tƧ lx ctLt];' ;f;jfgf;j];',
cŢlųsaflx/];' r wƙ];' cgf/ƙ)+ gfd glŴ, a'źfg+
;Ƒţ'tţf);dults+þ xált. oyfsƙ"ku`f)Ƨ cŢlųs+þ, aflx/ť ctLt+ s';nfs';nr]tgfdųd]j. ær]tákl/o`f)Ƨ
lrųd]jf/ƙ)+ xált, g t+;ƕo'ųwƙfÆlt cŪsyf;' j'ų+, kŪfg] kg æs';nf vƈf Olźljw`f)Ƨ r]tákl/o`f)Ƨ
k'Ƒ]lgjf;fg'Ƨlt`f)Ƨ
oyfsƙ"ku`f)Ƨ cgfut+;`f)Ƨ cf/ƙ)kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt ‘kŪf01=1=404’
j'ųųf
r]tákl/o`f)oyfsƙ"ku`f)fg+ lrų;ƕo'ųflk r]tgf;ƕo'ųflk rųf/á vƈf cf/ƙ)+ xálƃ Pjflt bŪƑ+.
lbƑrŋ'`f)Ƨ kg cŢlųs+þ, aflx/ť kŝ'ƍƉ+ jŰfotgd]jf/ƙ)+. cgfut+;`f)Ƨ %lƑwlƕ cgfutd]j cŢųť
aflx/ťf/ƙ)+, Oblƕ k'Ƒ]lgjf;`f)+ ljo cgfut] ;Ƒţ'tţf);lb;lƃ. Pj+ cleţfg+ ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉ];', gjųƑ];' r
cŢlųsaflx/];' %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' oyfoáu+ kjlų j]lbtƑf. ;];flg kƉ/;
¿kfjr/lrųflg,
cfsĕ;fgťfotgcflsťţfotgs';nljkfslsl/oflg, cŪ nás'ų/lrųflg, ¿klgƑfgflg r gjųƑflg. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
cƍdţf gjųƑfj. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. ctLtf/ƙ)lųs+þ.
æPj+ kjųdfgf do+ cųflt ux)+ uldƧfdfÆlt Oldgf ljo clwƍfo]g cųfg+ clwsĕ/+ sŷf kjųflt cŢųf.
cŢų-;Źá kgfo+ ±uëfr/Ţų] lgosŢų] cŢųŢų] lj;oŢų]lt rt";' cŴ];' lbƧlt. æcŢų/tá ;dflxtáÆltcfbL;'
‘w0k0362’ lx co+ ±uëfr/Ţų] lbƧlt. æcŢų+ jf wƙ];' wƙfg'kƧL ljx/tLÆltcfbL;' ‘bL0lg02=373’ lgosŢų]. æ%
cŢlųsĕlg cfotgfgLÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg03=304’ cŢųŢų]. æcŢų+ ;'ţt+ pk;ƕş ljx/tLÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg03=187’
lj;oŢų], OƧl/oŪfg]lt cŴá. mþn;dfklų lx a'źfg+ OƧl/oŪfg+ gfd. Ow kgfo+ lgosŢų] jųlt, tƨf cųgá ;ƃfg]
kjųf kflk'Ʈlnsĕ ¿kf¿kwƙf Ow cŢųflt j]lbtƑf. ttá alxe"tf OlƇoaźf jf clglƇoaźf jf ¿kf¿kkţlųoá
alxźf gfd, tltokb+ tb'eoj;]g j'ų+.
tŴ ;Ƒflg lrųr]tl;sĕlg OlƇoaź¿k+ ltwf xálƃ, clglƇoaź¿k+, lgƑfgkţlųoá r alxźfj. OdƸƨ lx
lts]þ s';nlųs]þ cnưdfgf kţlųoálk nưlƃ &k]ŷf cflsťţfotgf/ƙ)+, tb]j Ow gjųƑ+. t]g]j lx eujtf cgƃ/lųs]þ
æsl;)flbkţųf/ƙ)flg sĕd¿kfjr/flblrųflg alxźf/ƙ)flg, cflsťţfotgť gjųƑÆlƃ j'ų+, Obť lgƍb];lųs+þ.
cŢųlųs+þ.
oyfj'ų] cŢųflbs]þ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kjųfg+ j;]g co+ lts]ĕ j'ųá. tŴ
%lƑwflg
ljţf)ťfotgg]j;ţfgf;ţfotglrųflg cŢųf/ƙ)fg]j, cfsĕ;fgťfotgųo+, ¿kfjr/nás'ų/lrųflg r alxźf/ƙ)fg]j,
jáŪƑgjlştf cx]t'sdxfljkfsĕ ltwflk xálƃ, cj;];f kg cflsťţfotgjlştflg cfjşghjgflg, cleţf r l;of
ltwflk xálƃ, cflsťţfotgf/ƙ)Ƨ cfjşgkl/sƙkŝj]ŋ)flbefjƍjlųo+ l;of gjųƑflt. t];+ cŢųflbcf/ƙ)tf
cgƃ/lųs]þ, x]Ūf r j'ųgofg';f/]g `ftƑf, cflsťţfotgųo+, kg ¿klgƑfgflg r gjųƑfj. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
cƍdţflj/tL alxźf/ƙ)fj, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ gjųƑf r. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. cŢųf/ƙ)lųs+þ.
bŪƑefj;řft]g ;x lgbƧg]gflt ;lgbƧgf, klxggefj;řft]g ;x kl#]gflt ;ƍl#f, ;lgbƧgf r t]
;ƍl#f rflt ;lgbƧg;ƍl#f, ¿kfotgd]j. gLnflbe]bd'kfbfo kg ax'jrglgŹ];á. glŴ Pt];+ bŪƑefj;řft+
lgbƧglƃ clgbƧgf, clgbƧgf r t] j'ųgo]g ;ƍl#f rflt clgbƧg;ƍl#f, ;];flg cáńfl/s¿kflg. tltokb+
peoklŋ]k]g j'ų+, ;'v'd¿klrųr]tl;slgƑfgflg clgbƧgcƍl#f gfd, Obť lgƍb];lųslƃ j]lbtƑ+. ;lgbƧglųs+þ.

76

ltsdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

clewƙb'sdfltsŴjŰgf
b'sdfltsĕo kg x]Ūf cgfutkbŴjŰg+o]j sl/Ƨfd. x]t'±uëfŞs]þ tfj x]t" wƙflt PŴ x]t'x]t' kŝox]t'
pųdx]t' ;fwf/)x]t"lt rt'lƑwf x]t". tŴ cnáefboá % wƙf x]t'x]t" gfd, pkfbf¿kfbLg+ dxfe"tfboá kŝox]t" gfd,
ljkfs'ƍlųo+ s';nfs';n+, OŪflgŪf/ƙ)ť pųdx]t" gfd, ;řf/fbLg+ cljşĕboá ;fwf/)x]t" gfd. Ow kg x]t'x]t'
clwƍ]tá. x]t" wƙflt d"nŪ]g x]t';řftf wƙf, æx]t'wƙfÆltlk kf±&ëf, ;áo]jŴá. g x]t"lt t];ţ]j klŋ]kjrg+.
tŴ cnáeá cbá;á cdáxált s';nfƓfstf toá, náeá bá;á dáxált cs';nf toá rflt Od] % wƙf x]t" gfd.
Od] &k]ŷf cj;];f r]tl;sĕ, ;Ƒflg r lrųflg, ¿klgƑfgflg rflt Od] wƙf g x]t" gfd, Obť lgƍb];b'slƃ j]lbtƑ+.
x]t'b's+þ k&d+.
;ƕoáutá kjų]g ;x x]t'gflt ;x]t'sĕ. t±yëj kjųá glŴ Pt];+ x]t"lt cx]t's.
ĕ
tŴ cx]t'slrųjlştflg Ps;ųlt lrųflg ;x]t'sĕ gfd. t];' ƀ] dáxd"nflg dáx]g]j ;x]t'sĕlg, cŪ
náed"nflg náedáx]lx ƀLlx, ƀ] bá;d"nflg bá;dáx]lx, ƀfb; `f)ljƍo'ųs';nfƓfstflg cnáefbá;]lx, ;];flg ;ųrųfnL;
cnáefbLlx tLlxlk ;x]t'sĕgLlt, dáxd"n];' kg dáxá, lƀkťljţf)+, dgáwft', ;ƃL/)ųo+, jáŪƑg+, xl;t'ƍfbsĕlg
cŪf/; lrųflg, ¿klgƑfgflg rflt Od] wƙf cx]t'sĕ gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg náebá;f, ljlrlsŞf r dáx]gj] ;x]t'sĕ,
lblŪdfgá náedáx]lx ƀLlx, OƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝflg bá;dáx]lx, dáxá kg l;of náe]g, l;of bá;]gflt ƀLlx ;x]t's]ĕlk
dáxd"n];' cx]t's]ĕlk, lygldźflg l;of náedáx]lx, l;of bá;dáx]xLlt tLlxlk ;x]t'sĕlg, clxl/sĕgáųƍpźŝflg tyf r
s]þjndáx]g r, cdáxá kg cnáefbá;]x]j ƀLlx, cnáeá l;of cbá;fdáx]lx, l;of cbá;]gflt ƀLlx, cbá;á l;of
cnáefdáx]lx, l;of cnáe]gflt ƀLlx, ;];f kg ƀfjL;lt s';nfƓfstf l;of tLlx, l;of ƀLlxlk x]t"lx ;x]t'sĕ, %Ɔá kg
oyfoáu+ tLlx, kLltbá;jlşt]lx kťlx l;of ;x]t'sĕlk cx]t'sĕlk, ;];f Psĕb; lthĕltsĕ %lx x]t"lx ;x]t'sĕlk cx]t'sĕlk,
j]bgf r]Ŵ bádgƧe"tf lƀx]t'sĕj, ;ádgƧpk]ŋĕ oyfoáu+ bá;jlşt]lx kťlx ;x]t'sĕlk cx]t'sĕlk, ;'vb'ŋe"tf cx]t'sĕj,
Obť lgƍb];b'slƃ. b'lto+.
Ps'ƍfbflbtfo x]t'gf ;ƕo'ųflt x]t';ƕo'ųf. x]t'gf ljƍo'ųflt x]t'ljƍo'ųf. co+ x]t';ƕo'ųb's]ĕ cgƃ/]
j'ų;x]t'sb's]þg cŴtá lgƉfgfs/±)ëf. ;x]t'sb's]ĕ Pj lx eujtf b];gfljnf;]g, tyf a'Ţgsk'Ʈnfg+ jf cŢĕ;oj;]g
x]t';ƕo'ųb'sefj]gflk j'ųá. Pj+ pkl/lk ;dfgŴb'sĕg+ jrg] sĕ/)+ j]lbtƑ+. tlto+.
rt'Ŵfboá kg oƨf k&db'sb'ltotltob's]þ;' k&dkb]g oáh]ŷf ƀ] b'sĕ, k&db's]þ r klŞdkb+ b'ltob's]þg
oáh]ŷf Ps+þ b'slƃ toá b'sĕ b]l;tf, tƨf t];+ kbŴá j'ųgoáj.
tŴ r o±yëj æx]t" r]j wƙf ;x]t'sĕ r, ;x]t'sĕ r]j wƙf g r x]t"Ælt co+ b's]ĕ ;Ƙjlt, tyf æx]t" r]j
wƙf cx]t'sĕ r, cx]t'sĕ r]j wƙf g r x]t"Ælt colƕ ;Ƙjlt. Oldgf go]g x]t';ƕo'ųb's]þg oáhgfolk Ps]ĕ nưlt.
oyf r æg x]t" ±vëf kg wƙf ;x]t'sĕlk, cx]t'sĕkLÆlt co+ nưlt, tyf æx]t" ±vëf kg wƙf ;x]t'sĕlk, cx]t'sĕkLÆlt
colƕ. oyf r]Ŵ ;x]t'sb's]þ ƀ] b'sĕ, Pj+ x]t';ƕo'ųb's]þlk æg x]t" ±vëf kg wƙf x]t';ƕo'ųflk, x]tl' jƍo'ųfkLÆlt r
æx]t" ±vëf kg wƙf x]t';ƕo'ųflk, x]t'ljƍo'ųfkLÆlt r ƀ] b'sĕ nưƃLlt ck/]lk kť b'sĕ x]t'±uëfŞs]þ oáh]t'+ ;Ŋĕ. t] kg
eujtf j'ųfg';f/]g]j ;Ŋĕ `ft'lƃ %;' Pj ;ślxtflt j]lbtƑf. tŴ o] tfj PsƸƨ lrų] ƀ] toá x]t" Pstá pƍşlƃ, t]
x]t" r]j cţáţfk]ŋĕo ;x]t'sĕ r gfd. ;x]t'slrų];' kg x]t'+ &k]ŷf ;];f lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf ;x]t'sĕ r]j g r x]t" gfd.
OdƸƨ b's]þ ;Ƒ] cx]t'swƙf g jųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg x]t'jlştf cs';nf r]j s';nfƓfstf r, %Ɔá r ;x]t's]ĕ r]j g x]t'
Pj, ;];f lthĕltsĕ, tyf gjųƑf r, dáxá kg x]t' r]j ;x]t's]ĕ r gjųƑá r. rt'Ŵ+.
cgƃ/b's]ĕlk Oldgf b's]þg ;Ƒyflk ;lb;ájflt. kťd+.
;x]t'slrų];' x]t'jlştf lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf gx]t" ;x]t" gfd, cx]t'slrų¿klgƑfgflg gx]t" cx]t'sĕ gfd.
OdƸƨ kg b's]þ % x]t" g jųƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt. %Ū+.
x]t'±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
;ų;' r"ńƃ/b's]þ;' cųgá lgƎþfbs]þg ;x kŝo]gflt ;ƍŝof, lrųr]tl;s¿kflg. glŴ Pt];+ pƍfb] jf l&lto+
jf kŝoá cx'ŷf ejgƧ]jfefjflt cƍŝof, lgƑfgd]j. b];gfo kg]Ŵ k/dtfo ;átklttj;]g ax'jrglgŹ];á stá.
Pj+ ;lgbƧgfbL;'lk. Obť Otá k/flg % r lgƍb];b'sĕgLlt j]lbtƑflg. ttá k/ť oŴ æOd] g jųƑfÆlt g jŋĕd,
t+ lgƍb];lƃ ux]tƑ+. ;ƍŝob's+þ.
kŝo]lx ;dfuƄf stflt ;řtf. g ;řtflt c;řtf. Obť ;Ƒyf ;ƍŝob's;lb;d]j.
;ƍŝo;řtpeob's+þ ;Ƒyf ;lb;d]j. ;řtb's+þ.
¿kfotg+ ;lgbƧg+ gfd. ;];¿klrųr]tl;slgƑfgflg clgbƧgf gfd. ;lgbƧgb's+þ.
k;fblj;o¿kflg ƀfb; ;ƍl#f gfd. ;];¿klrųr]tl;slgƑfgflg cƍl#f gfd. ;ƍl#b's+þ.
cljlgưáuj;]g ¿k+ Pt];+ cŴLlt ¿lkgá, ?ƍgnŋ)+ jf ¿k+, t+ Pt];+ cŴLlt ¿lkgá, e"tákfbfo¿kd]j. g
¿lkgá c¿lkgá, lrųr]tl;slgƑfgflg. ¿lkb's+þ.
77

nás]ĕ j'ŝlt n'şgkn'şgŪ]g jũ+, tƸƨ kl/ofkƉefj]g nás]þ lgo'ųflt nálsof, kť'kfbfgŋƈf. ttá nástá
tŴ ckl/ofkƉefj]g plųŰflt nás'ų/f, cl/odƮmþnlgƑfgflg. r]tl;s]þ;' kg]Ŵ o+ jųƑ+, t+ c;]vlųs]þ j'ųgo]g
j]lbtƑ+. nálsob's+þ.
s]þglr ljţ]Ɯflt rŋ'ljţf)fbL;' s]þglr Ps]þg rŋ'ljţf±)ëg jf ;átljţf)flbgf jf ljhĕlgtƑf. s]þglr g
ljţ]Ɯflt t]gj] rŋ'ljţf±)ëg jf ;átljţf)flbgf jf g s]þglr ljhĕlgtƑflg. Pj+ lx ;lt lƀƉlƕ kbfg+ cŴgfgųtá b's]ĕ
xált. kbefhgLolƨlƕ æo] t] wƙf rŋ'ljţ]Ɯf, g t] wƙf ;átljţ]ƜfÆlt ‘w0;01101’ Pųs+þ Psb'slƃ cƮx]ŷf æo]
t] wƙf rŋ'ljţ]Ɯf, g t] wƙf ;átljţ]Ɯf, o] jf kg t] wƙf ;átljţ]Ɯf, g t] wƙf rŋ'ljţ]ƜfÆlt ‘w0;01101’ cod]s]ĕ
b's]ĕlt j]lbtƑá. tƧ kg ¿k+ rŋ'ljţ]Ɯ+, ;Źá g rŋ'ljţ]Ɯált codŴá. Pj+ ;];];'lk b'skl/Ş]bá `ftƑá. tŴ
¿kfotg+ rŋ'gf jf rŋ'ljţf±)ëg jf ljţ]Ɯ+ gfd. ;];¿kf¿kwƙf t]g]j rŋ'gf jf rŋ'ljţf±)ëg jf s]þglr gljţ]Ɯf. Pj+
;át#fglhƢfsĕotlƑţf)d"lnsĕ;'lk rt";' oáhgf;' ljef±uëf oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑá. ¿kfboá kg kťlj;of dgáwft'ųo]g s]þglr
ljţ]Ɯf. ;];¿kf¿kwƙf t]g]j dgáwft'ųo]g s]þglr gljţ]Ɯf. lsťflk ;fdţtá dgáljţf±)ëg cljţ]ƜƧ cefjtá kflńo+
dgáljţf)ljţ]Ɯj;]g b's]ĕ g j'ųá, tyflk lj;];tá jųƑáj. tyf lx %lƑwflk sĕdfjr/wƙf sĕdfjr/ljkfsĕlbgf
dgáljţf±)ëg s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf, ¿kf¿kfjr/nás'ų/kţlųoá t]g]j s]þglr gljţ]Ɯf. tyf sĕd¿kf¿kfjr/kţlųoá
cs';nflbgf s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf, nás'ų/f t]g]j s]þglr gljţ]Ɯf. tyf lgƑfg+ nás'ų/]g s]þglr ljţ]Ɯ+
;];nálsonás'ų/f
t]g]j s]þglr gljţ]Ɯflt Oldgf go]g ¿kf¿kfjr/flbe]b]g dgáljţf±)ëg s]þglr ljţ]Ɯfljţ]Ɯwƙf oyfoáu+ oáh]tƑf. Pj+
;Ƒ] wƙf s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf, s]þglr g ljţ]Ɯf gfd. Odlƨť b's]þ kţlųoálk nưƃLlt j]lbtƑflt. s]þglrljţ]Ɯb's+þ.
r"ńƃ/b'sĕ lglŪtf.
cf;j±uëfŞs]þ cf;dƃtá ;jƃLlt cf;jf, rŋ'tálk»k]0 dgtálk ;jlƃ, kjųƃLlt j'ų+ xált. wƙtá
ofj±uëfŶe'+, cásĕ;tá ofjejƮf ;jƃLlt jf cf;jf, Pt] wƙ], Ptť cásĕ;+ cƃásl/ŷf kjųƃLlt cŴá. cƃás/)Ŵá lx
co+ cf-sĕ/á. lr/kfl/jfl;oŪ]g dlb/flbcf;jf ljofltlk cf;jf. olb r lr/kfl/jfl;oŪ]g cf;jf, Pt] Pj eljt'+
c/xlƃ. cgflbųf cfot+ jf ;+;f/b'ŋ+ ;jlƃ k;jƃLltlk cf;jf. ttá cţ] gá cf;jf gfd.
tŴ sĕdf;já ejf;já lbŪf;já cljşĕ;jált Od] rųf/á cf;jf gfd. tŴ cŪ;' náe;xutlrų];' pƍƉá
;Ƒálk náeá sĕdf;já gfd. cŪ;flnlgo+ kg ækťsĕdu'l)s]ĕ /f±uëf sĕdf;jáÆlt ‘w0;0cŪ01102’ r, ælblŪ;xhĕtá
/f±uëf sĕdf;já g xált, lblŪ/f±uëf gfd xátLÆlt ‘w0;0cŪ01105’ r, æoá Ɣƪfg+ ljdfgsƍ?ŋĕe/±)ë;' %Ɔ/f±uëf
pƍşlt, ;á sĕdf;já g xált kťsĕdu'l)sƧ /fuƧ O±wëj kxLgųfÆlt r j'ų+. kflńo+ kg æsĕdf;já cŪ;'
náe;xut];' lrų'ƍfb];' pƍştLÆlt ‘w0;01465’ r, æsĕdf;j+ klŝ lbŪf;já cljşĕ;jáÆlt ‘kŪf03=3=1’ r
j'ųųf ejf;j+ &k]ŷf cj;];á ;Ƒálk náeá sĕdf;jált kţfolt lblŪ;ƕo'ų/fuƧ, Ɣƪfg+ jŴfe/)fbL;' /fuƧ r
ejf;jųfefjf. lblŪljƍo'ų/f±uëf Pj lx ¿kf¿kejkŴgfj;]g kjlųo+ ejf;já xált æ¿kwft'of c¿kwft'of PŴ
ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLÆltcflbjrgtá ‘od02=cg';oods=2’, g r sĕdf;jejf;jljlgd'ųá náeá clŴ. olb l;of,
ænáeá l;of cf;já, l;of gá cf;jáÆlt kflńo+ jųƑá ej]Ɯ, ælblŪljƍo'ųnáe]g ;ƕo'ųá cljşĕ;já l;of
cf;j;ƕo'ųá, l;of cf;jljƍo'ųáÆlt r jųƑá l;of. kbefhgLo] r sĕdf;jlgŹ];] cfutƧ æsĕd];' sĕdŞƆáÆlt
‘w0;01103’ OdƧ kbƧ cŪ;flnlgo+ ækťsĕdu'±)ë;' sĕdŞƆáÆlt ‘w0;0c01103’ cŴá j'ųá, tƧ kg kbƧ
jŴ'sĕd];' lsn];sĕdáltlk cŴoáhgf ;Ŋĕ sĕt'+ t]e'dsƧ wƙƧ jŴ'sĕdųf, tŴ ;ƑŴ /fuƧ r lsn];sĕdųf. j'ų+ x]t+
wƙ;]gfkltgf dxflgŹ];] _
æstd] jŴ'sĕdfĠ dgflksĕ ¿kf»k]0 ;Ƒ]lk sĕdfjr/f wƙf, ;Ƒ]lk ¿kfjr/f wƙf, ;Ƒ]lk
c¿kfjr/f wƙf»k]0 Od] j'ŝlƃ jŴ'sĕdf.
æstd] lsn];sĕdfĠ %Ɔá sĕdá /f±uëf sĕdá»k]0 oá sĕd];' sĕdŞƆá sĕd/f±uëf sĕdgƆL sĕdtŲf
sĕdƥ]xá sĕdkl/ńfxá sĕdd'Şf sĕdŢá;fg+ sĕdá#á sĕdoá±uëf sĕd'kfbfg+ sĕdŞƆgLj/)+»k]0 Od] j'ŝlƃ
lsn];sĕdfÆlt ‘dxflg01’.
clkr]Ŵ æsĕdá#á sĕdoá±uëfÆltcflbgf lsn];sĕdƧ sĕdá#flbefj+ jbtf
wƙ;]gfkltgf
jŴ'sĕdųlj;oƧ /fuƧ cf;jflbefjá cg'ţftá, g kťscfdu'l)sƧ]j /fuƧ. g r cá#f;j];' s]ĕlr lj;];á
clŴ. cŪ;flnlgolƕ lx pkfbfg±uëfŞsƧ kbefhgLo] æsĕd];' sĕdŞƆáÆlt ‘w0;01220’ OdƧ æjŴ'sĕd];'
sĕdŞƆáÆlt ‘w0;0c01220’ cod]jŴá j'ųá. ttá cţ];' x]t'uƅlsn];±uëfŞs]þ;' náeƧ]j cgj;];kl/ofbfg+
j'ų+, g Ot/±uëfŞs]þ;'. t];' r náeƧ kflńcg';f/tá cánálsodfg] lsn];sĕddųs]ĕ. cgj;];náekl/ofbfg+
kţfolt. jLd+l;ŷf ux]tƑ+.
rt";' kg lblŪutljƍo'ųlrų];' pƍƉá ¿kf¿kej];' %Ɔ/fuefj]g, sĕdŢá;fglgslƃefj]g r
kjųá náeá ejf;já gfd. cŪ;flnlgo+ kg æ;ƧtlblŪ;xhĕtá /f±uëf ejf;jáÆlt ‘w0;0cŪ01102’
j'ų+. kflńo+ kg æejf;já rt";' lblŪutljƍo'ųnáe;xut];"Ælt ‘w0;01465’ lgoldtųf g ;Ŋĕ ux]t'+,
clwƍfoá kg uj]l;tƑá. ƀf;lŪke]bf ;Ƒflk lblŪ lbŪf;já gfd. cŪjŴ's]ĕ ;Ƒálk dáxá cljşĕ;já gfd.
t];' lbŪf;já k&d]g d±Ʈëg kxLolt, sĕdf;já rt"lxkLlt jų'+ o'ų+, ætlto]gfÆlt kg j'ų+. ejf;já,
cljşĕ;já r rt'Ŵ]g kxLolt. Od];ť sĕdf;jejf;jfg+ náe;efjųf ;efjtá toá wƙf ljefutá rųf/á
cf;jf gfd hĕtf. Od] &k]ŷf ;];f nálsonás'ų/f ;Ƒ] wƙf gá cf;jf gfd. cf;jb's+þ k&d+.
cųfg+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kjų]lx ;x cf;j]xLlt ;f;jf, ;Ƒ] nálsowƙf. Pj+ kjųdfgf glŴ Pt];+
78

cf;jflt cgf;jf, gj nás'ų/wƙfj. r]tl;sĕ kg]Ŵ nálsob's]þ j'ų;lb;fj. ;f;jb's+þ b'lto+.
tltofbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ b'sĕg+ kbŴá j'ųgoáj. ;];d]Ŵ x]t'±uëfŞs]þ j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑ+. co+ kg lj;];á _ oyf tŴ
æg x]t" ±vëf kg wƙf ;x]t'sĕlk, cx]t'sĕkLÆlt co+ cá;fgb's]ĕ k&db's]þ b'ltokb+ b'ltob's]þg oáh]ŷf j'ųá, Pjldw ægá
cf;jf ±vëf kg wƙf ;f;jflk, cgf;jfkLÆlt g j'ųá. coť tŴ tŴ j'ųgo]g Ox ;ślxtált j]lbtƑá. oyf r]Ŵ,
Pj+ ;ţáhg±uëfŞsĕbL;'lk oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+.
tŴ ƀfb; cs';nlrų'ƍfbf cf;j;ƕo'ųf gfd. bá;dáxd"nlrų];' dáxá, s';nfƓfstlrų¿klgƑfgflg r
cf;jljƍo'ųf gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg dáx+ &k]ŷf ;];f cs';nf cf;j;ƕo'ųfj, dáxá kg lthĕlts]ĕ r lƀwflk xált, ;];f
cf;jljƍo'ųf Pjflt. tlto+.
rųf/á cf;jf cf;jf r]j ;f;jf r gfd. tbj;];f nálsowƙf ;f;jf r]j gá r cf;jf gfd. Ow kg
nás'ų/f g jųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cf;jflt j'ų]lx ;];f cs';nf, s?)fd'lbtf r ;f;jf r]j gá r cf;jf Pj, ;];f
tyf r g jųƑf r. rt'Ŵ+.
o] kg náed"n];' náedáxf, náelblŪdáxá rflt ƀ] toá Pstá sŷf pƍşlƃ, t] cf;jf r]j cf;j;ƕo'ųf r
gfd. ƀfb; cs';nlrųflg r]j cf;jjlştf t+;ƕo'ųf r cf;j;ƕo'ųf r]j gá r cf;jf gfd. Ow kg cf;jljƍo'ųf
g jųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cf;jjlştf cs';nf cf;j;ƕo'ųf r]j gá r cf;jf Pj, dáxá l;of cf;já r]j cf;j;ƕo'ųá
r, l;of g jųƑá, lthĕltsĕ l;of cf;j;ƕo'ųf r]j gá r cf;jf, l;of g jųƑf, s';nfƓfstf g jųƑfj. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kťd+.
nás'ų/jlştf cf;jljƍo'ųf ;f;jf gfd. nás'ų/f cf;jljƍo'ųf cgf;jf gfd. Ow kg cf;j;ƕo'ųf g
jųƑfj. r]tl;s]þ;' kg s?)fd'lbtf cf;jljƍo'ųf ;f;jf Pj, dáxá tyf r g jųƑá r, ;];s';nfƓfstf lƀwflk
xálƃ, lthĕltsĕ lƀwflk g jųƑfj, dáxjlştf kg cs';nf g jųƑfj. %Ū+.
cf;j±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
;+oáhg±uëfŞs]þ oƧ ;+ljşlƃ, t+ k'Ʈn+ jũƸƨ ;+oáh]lƃ aƈƃLlt ;+oáhgf. ttá cţ] gá ;+oáhgf.
tŴ sĕd/fu;+oáhg+ ej/fukl#dfglblŪljlrlsŞf;LnƑtk/fdf;OƧfdŞl/ocljşĕ;+oáhglƃ Od] b; wƙf
;+oáhgf gfd. t];' sĕdejlblŪcljşĕ;+oáhgflg cf;j±uëfŞs]þ j'ųgofg]j. æcgŴ+ d] crl/, r/lt, rl/Ƨlt, lkoƧ d]
cgŴ+ crl/, r/lt, rl/Ƨlt, clƍoƧ d] cŴ+ crl/, r/lt, rl/ƧtLÆlt ‘w0;01066’ Pj+ j'ų]lx gjlx cfsĕ/]lx
;ų];', cŪfgs]ĕkj;]g ;řf/];' r pƍşdfgá ;Ƒálk bá;á kl#;+oáhg+ gfd.
æ;]Ɯáxdlƨ ;lb;áxdlƨ, xLgáxdƨLÆlt Pj+ tLlx cfsĕ/]lx kjųá ;Ƒá dfgá dfg;+oáhg+ gfd. tŴ ;]ƜƧ]j
;tá k'ƮnƧ æ;]Ɯáxdlƨ, ;lb;á, xLgáÆlt r ltwf dfgá pƍşlt, tyf ;lb;xLgfglƕ. tŴ ;]ƜƧ ;]Ɯdfgáj
ofyfjdfgá. tyf ;lb;Ƨ ;lb;dfgá, xLgƧ xLgdfgá r. ltŰlƕ Ot/] ƀ] ƀ] dfgf cofyfjdfgflt `ftƑf.
;Ŵ'wƙ;Ŝl;ŋĕ;', k'Ƒƃfk/ƃtb'eoklŝ;d'ƍƉ];' r sřtfj;]g kjųf ;Ƒflk ljlrlsŞf ljlrlsŞf;+oáhg+
gfd.
±uëf;Ln±uëfjtfbLlx ;'źLlt ux)fsĕ/ƍjųf lblŪ Pj ;LnƑtk/fdf;;+oáhg+ gfd.
tbj;];f lblŪ lblŪ;+oáhglƃ ux]tƑ+.
k/nfe;Ŋĕ/u?sĕ/dfggjƆgk"hgfbL;' c;xgfsĕ/]g kjųf OƧf OƧf;+oáhg+ gfd. cfjf;dŞl/o+
s'nnfejŰwƙdŞl/olƃ kťljw+ dŞl/o+ dŞl/o;+oáhg+ gfd. ;snf/fd]lk lx kl/j]±)ëfj/sĕbL;' jf j;ƃá tŴ cţƧ
jų;ƕƉƧ k];nƧ leŋ'gá cfudg+ g OŞlt, cfutƧflk lvƍ+ udgţ]j OŞlt, Ob+ cfjf;dŞl/o+ gfd. eůgsĕ/sĕbLg+
kg tŴ jf;+ clgŞtá cfjf;dŞl/o+ gfd g xált.
cųgá kg pkŪfss'n] jf `flts'n] jf cţƧ k];nƧ pk;Řdg+ clgŞtá s'ndŞl/o+ xált, kfkk'ƮnƧ clgŞtá
kg g xált. ;á lx t];+ k;fbe]bfo klkştLlt.
cųgf negŪfg] rt'kŝo+ neƃ] ;Lnjƃ] lbƩf ædf neƃ"Ælt lrƃ]ƃƧ nfedŞl/o+ xált. oá kg ;źfb]Ɯ+
ljlgkft]lt, k"ltefjlƕ uŞƃ+ cţƧ g b]lt t+ neƃ+ lbƩf æ;r] Od+ cţá ;Lnjf ne]Ɯ, kl/eáu+ uŞ]ƜfÆlt lrƃ]ƃƧ
dŞl/o+ gfd glŴ.
jŰá gfd cųgf ;lb;á ;/L/jŰálk u')jŰálk. tŴ æ¿kjf kf;flbs]ĕÆlt k/Ƨ ;/L/jŰ+, æ;Lnjf,
w'tjfÆltcflbgf u')jŰť cųgá jŰe)gŪfg] j'ŝdfg+ c;xƃƧ b'ljw+ jŰdŞl/o+ gfd xált, ck];n+ kg ljkƉ+ k;+l;ŷf
kl/;f;' pkŴƘ]ƃ+ lbƩf kfku/lxtfo c;xƃƧ g xált.
wƙált kl/olųo]j, g klj]±wëf cl/ofg+ tŴ dŞl/ofefjf. kl/oƸų kg u'ŃÜuƅ+ cţ];+ cs±yët'sĕdƧ
wƙdŞl/o+ gfd xált, wƙfg'Ʈx]g kg nánƧ
sĕn]g ;d±)ëf, sĕn]g lguŮflb r x'ŷf ljr/ƃƧ kj]l)cfut+ tƸƃ
æ;Ų;'v'd+ wƙƃ/+ lelƆŷf cfn'lńƧlt, cƛfs+þ ;do+ lelƆƧtLÆlt r g b]ƃƧ, k'Ʈnfg'Ʈx]g jf ksltof ;&Ƨ dfofljgá
æ;Ų;'v'dwƙ+ pƮlŲŷf cţ+ Ɠfsl/ŷf glƧƧtLÆlt g b]ƃƧ r wƙdŞl/o+ g xált. oyf r leŋ"g+, Pj+ uxŪfglƕ
kťljw+ dŞl/o+ oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+. ;ř]ktá kg uxŪkƑlhtfg+ cų;ƕlųlgu"xgnŋ)+ dŞl/o+ gfdflt ux]tƑ+.
Od];' r ;+oáhg];' lblŪljlrlsŞf;LnƑtk/fdf;OƧfdŞl/oflg ;átfklųd±Ʈëg kxLolƃ, kl#á cgfufldd±Ʈëg,
sĕd/f±uëf rt"lxkLlt jųƑ+, ætlto]gfÆlt kg j'ų+. dfgej/fucljşĕ c/xųd±Ʈëg. tŴ r cofyfjdfgá k&dd±Ʈëg
kxLotLlt bŪƑá, Od];+ sĕd/fuej/fufg+ náe;efjųf lblŪ;LnƑtk/fdf;fg+ ldŞflblŪ;efjųf ;efjtá cŪ]j wƙf b;
;+oáhgf gfd hĕtf. Od] b; &k]ŷf ;];f nálsonás'ų/wƙf gá ;+oáhgf gfd. ;];+ cf;jb's;lb;+. ;+oáhgb's+þ
79

k&d+.
cf/ƙ)efj+ pkuƄf ;+oáhg;+jŬg]g ;+oáhgfg+ lxtflt ;+oáhlgof, ;f;jwƙf Pj. tyf gLj/l)oflt
PŴflk. g ;+oáhlgof c;+oáhlgof, cgf;jf. ;];+ ;f;jb's;lb;d]j. b'lto+.
tltofboálk cf;j±uëfŞs]þ tltoflb;lb;f Pj, lj;];dųd]j]Ŵ jŋĕd. tŴ lx
ƀfb;fs';nlrųflg
;+oáhg;ƕo'ųf gfd, pźŝ;xutá dáxá, ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg ;+oáhgljƍo'ųf gfd. ;];+ ;dd]j. tlto+.
b; ;+oáhgflg ;+oáhgf r]j ;+oáhlgof r gfd. tbj;];nálsowƙf ;+oáhlgof r]j gá r ;+oáhgf gfd.
;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. rt'Ŵ+.
o] kg pźŝlj/lxt];' Psĕb;;' cs';nlrų];' ljlrlsŞfdáxf bá;dáxf bá;OƧfdáxf bá;dŞl/odáxf
náedfgdáxf náelblŪdáxf rflt ƀ] toá Pstá pƍşlƃ, t] ;+oáhgf r]j ;+oáhg;ƕo'ųf r gfd. ƀfb;fs';nlrųflg
r]j ;+oáhgjlştt+;ƕo'ųf r ;+oáhg;ƕo'ųf r]j gá r ;+oáhgf gfd. ;];ldw cgƃ/b'sť cf;j±uëfŞs]þ
kťd%Ūb's;lb;d]j. s]þjn+ cf;jkbŪfg] ;+oáhgkbd]j lj;];á. kťd%Ūb'sĕlg.
;+oáhg±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
uƅ±uëfŞs]þ oƧ ;+ljşlƃ, t+ r'ltkl;lƈj;]g jũƸƨ uƅ]lƃ #]ƃLlt uƅf. ttá cţ] gá uƅf.
tŴ cleŢĕsĕouƅá, Ɠfkfbá, ;LnƑtk/fdf;á, Ob+;ŝflelgj];á sĕouƅált Od] rųf/á wƙf uƅf gfd. tŴ
cleŢĕ Pj gfdsĕo+ j'ųgo]g uƅ]tLlt cleŢĕsĕouƅá. Pj+ ;];];'lk. ;Ƒţ'efl;tlƕ kllŋlkŷf æ;Ƨtá nás]ĕ, Obd]j
;ŝ+, dá#dţÆlƃ Oldgf cfsĕ/]g clelglj;gtá ;LnƑtk/fdf;lj/lxtf ;Ƒflk lblŪ Ob+;ŝflelgj];á gfd. ;];f
j'ųŴfj. Od];' r klŞdf ƀ] uƅf k&d]g d±Ʈëg kxLolƃ, Ɠfkfbá tlto]g, cleŢĕ rt"lxlk. Od] r ;efjtá toá wƙf
rųf/á uƅf gfd hĕtf. Od] kg &k]ŷf ;];f ;Ƒ] wƙf gá uƅf gfd. uƅb's+þ k&d+.
cf/ƙ)s/)j;]g uƅ]lx ulƅtƑflt uƅlgof. g uƅlgof cuƅlgof. ;];+ ;f;jb's;lb;d]j. b'lto+.
dáxd"njlştflg b; cs';nlrųflg, lblŪljƍo'ųlrų];' náe+, bá;d"n];' r bá;+ &k]ŷf t+;ƕo'ųf r uƅ;ƕo'ųf
gfd. oyfj'ųá náeá, bá;á, dáxd"nflg, s';nfƓfstflg lrųflg, ¿klgƑfgflg r uƅljƍo'ųf gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
lblŪdfgOƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝlygldźflg uƅ;ƕo'ųf Pj. bá;ljlrlsŞf, s';nfƓfstf r uƅljƍo'ųf Pj, ;];f lƀwflk
xálƃ. tlto+.
rųf/á uƅf uƅf r]j uƅlgof r gfd. tbj;];f nálsof uƅlgof r]j gá r uƅf gfd. tyf r]tl;s]þ;'
uƅjlştf cs';nf, cƍdţf r, ;];f r]tl;sĕ kg tyf r g jųƑf r, Ow kg nás'ų/f g jųƑf. rt'Ŵ+.
lblŪ uƅfr]j uƅ;ƕo'ųf r gfd. náeá tyf r g jųƑá r, uƅ;ƕo'ų];' uƅ] &k]ŷf ;];f uƅ;ƕo'ųf r]j gá
r uƅf gfd. Ow kg uƅljƍo'ųf g jųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg dfgOƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝlygldźflg uƅ;ƕo'ųf r]j gá r
uƅf Pj, dáxflxl/sĕgáųƍpźŝflg lthĕltsĕ r l;of, tyf gjųƑf r, ;];f g jųƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kťd+.
nás'ų/jlştf uƅljƍo'ųf uƅlgof gfd. nás'ų/f kg uƅljƍo'ųf cuƅlgof gfd. Ow kg uƅ;ƕo'ųf g
jųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg bá;á ljlrlsŞf s?)f d'lbtf uƅljƍo'ųf uƅlgof Pj, dáxflxl/sĕgáųƍpźŝnáef tyf g
jųƑf r, ;];f s';nfƓfstf lƀwflk xálƃ, lthĕltsĕ kg lƀwflk g jųƑf r, ;];f cs';nflk g jųƑf r. %Ū+.
uƅ±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
cá#oáu±uëfŞsĕlg ;Ƒyf cf;j±uëfŞs;lb;flg. kbŴdųd]j, x]Ŵ gfddųť lj;];á tŴ oƧ ;+ljşlƃ, t+
jũƸƨ cáxglƃ cá;Lbfk]ƃLlt cá#f. cf/ƙ)+ sŷf cltŊþdgLotá cá#]lx cltŊþldtƑflt cá#lgof. tyf oáulgoflt
PŴflk. jũƸƨ oáh]ƃLlt oáuf. ;];+ tflb;d]j.
cá#oáu±uëfŞsĕlg lglŪtflg.
gLj/)±uëfŞs]þ lrų+ gLj/lƃ kl/oágƈƃLlt gLj/)f. tŴ sĕdŞƆgLj/)+ ƓfkfbgLj/)+ lygldźgLj/)+
pźŝs'Ŋ'þŝgLj/)+ ljlrlsŞfgLj/)+ cljşĕgLj/)lƃ Od] % gLj/)f gfd. tŴ lyglƃ ;lƍlkůá ljo cljƎþfl/stfo
lrųƧ #gefjá, yźtflt cŴá. d]wtLlt ldź+, csƙţefjá, krnflosefjs/ált cŴá. Obť ;]vk'y'şgfg+ lgŹfo
k'Ƒef±uë, ck/ef±uë r krnfogx]t's+þ pƍşlt, g lgŹáŊþdgsĕn]. vL)f;jfglƕ lx s/hsĕoƧ b'Ƒnefj]g
c;lƙƧejś;ƃltj;]g lgŹáŊþdg+ xált, t+ kg t];+ lygldźx]t's+þ g xált, Ot/];d]j xált.
s]þlr kg ¿kd]j ældźÆlƃ jblƃ, t+ g o'ų+, ælygldźgLj/)+ cljşĕgLj/±)ëg gLj/)ť]j
gLj/);ƕo'ųťfÆlt c¿kwƙ]lx ;ƕoáujrgtá c¿kd]j. cs';nť ælygldźgLj/)Ƨ kxLgųfÆltcflbkxfgjrgtá.
cs';nf Pj lx kxftƑf, tƨf cf?ƍ]lk r]t+ pƍşlt. ægLj/)+ wƙ+ klŝ gLj/±)ëf wƙá pƍşlt g k'/]hĕtkŝofÆlt
‘kŪf03=8=8’ PtƧ ljeś] æcf?ƍ] sĕdŞƆgLj/)+ klŝ lygldźpźŝcljşĕgLj/)Ælƃ ‘kŪf03=8=8’ ;Ƒ+ ljŴf/]tƑ+.
æ;áƍ+ krnflosĕÆlt ‘w0;01163’ kbefhgLo] kgƧ mþn"krf/]g j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+. lyg+ ldźťflt Ob+ ƀo+ gLj/)Ūfg]
PsgLj/)+ j'ų+, tyf pźŝs'Ŋ'þŝťflt Ob+ ƀo+. tŴ s'Ŋ'þŝlƃ æcst+ jt d] sƠf)+, st+ kfkÆlƃcflbgf pƍşdfgá
ljƍl;f/á. t]g]jƧ kbefhgLo] ær]t;á ljƍl;f/á dgáljn]±vëfÆlt r j'ų+. æcslƍo] slƍo;lţtfÆltcflb kg
s'Ŋ'þŝd"nbƧgŴ+. Pj+;lţtfo lx st] jLltŊþd] kŞf æb'Ū' dof stÆlƃ ;'lbƉfbLg+ ljo ljƍl;f/á pƍşlt. o+ kg
80

ljgo] æcy ±vëf cfoƨf ;fl/k'ųá»k]0 s'Ŋ'þŝfoƃá g klƮx];LÆlt ‘kflr0204’ s'Ŋ'þŝ+ cfut+, t+ gLj/)s'Ŋ'þŝ+ g lx
c/xtá gLj/)+ clŴ, gLj/)jlt¿ks+þ kg æsƍlt, g sƍtLÆlt jLd+;g;řft+ ljgos'Ŋ'þŝ+ gfd]tlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
;];gLj/)flg j'ųŴflg Pj. Od];' r s'Ŋ'þŝljlrlsŞf k&d]g d±Ʈëg kxLolƃ, Ɠfkfbá tlto]g, lygldź'źŝfljşĕ rt'Ŵ]g,
sĕdŞƆá rt"lxkLlt jųƑ+, ætlto]gfÆlt kg j'ų+. Od] r ;efjtá cŪ wƙf % gLj/)f gfd hĕtf, Od] kg &k]ŷf
;];f gá gLj/)f gfd. gLj/)b's+þ k&d+.
b'lto+ ;f;jb's;lb;d]j. ƀfb; cs';nlrųflg gLj/);ƕo'ųf gfd. ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg gLj/)ljƍo'ųf
gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' cs';nf gLj/);ƕo'ųfj, s';nfƓfstf gLj/)ljƍo'ųfj, ;];f lƀwflk xálƃ. tlto+.
% gLj/)f gLj/)f r]j gLj/l)of r gfd. ;];f nálsof gLj/l)of r]j gá r gLj/)f gfd. nás'ų/f g
jųƑf. ;];+ cf;j±uëfŞs]þ rt'Ŵ;lb;d]j. rt'Ŵ+.
% gLj/)f gLj/)f r]j gLj/);ƕo'ųf r gfd. tbţ] gLj/);ƕo'ųf kg gLj/);ƕo'ųf r]j gá r
gLj/)f gfd. tyf r]tl;s]þ;' gLj/)lj/lxtf cs';nf, lthĕltsĕ kg tyf r g jųƑf r, s';nfƓfstf g jųƑfj.
Ow kg gLj/)ljƍo'ųf ;Ƒ] g jųƑf. kťd+.
nás'ų/jlştf gLj/)ljƍo'ųf gLj/l)of gfd. nás'ų/f gLj/)ljƍo'ųf cgLj/l)of gfd. Ow kg
gLj/);ƕo'ųf g jųƑf. r]tl;s]þ;' kg s?)fd'lbtf gLj/)ljƍo'ųf gLj/l)ofj, s';nfƓfstf lƀwflk xálƃ,
lthĕltsĕ tyf r g jųƑf r, cs';nf kg g jųƑfj. %Ū+.
gLj/)±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
k/fdf;±uëfŞs]þ wƙfg+ oyfe"t+ clgŝflbcfsĕ/+ cltŊþldŷf ælgŝÆlƃcflbj;]g kjųdfgf k/tá cfd;ƃLlt
k/fdf;f. ldŞflblŪ. ax'jrglgŹ];] sĕ/)+ j'ųd]j. tbţ] ;Ƒ] wƙf gá k/fdf;f gfd. k/fdf;b's+þ k&d+.
k/fdf;]lx cf/ƙ)s/)j;]g k/fdŪųf k/fdŪf. ;];+ cf;jb's;lb;d]j. b'lto+.
lblŪ;ƕo'ųlrų];' lblŪlj/lxtf wƙf k/fdf;;ƕo'ųf gfd. ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf gfd. Ow
kg lblŪ g jųƑf, ;];r]tl;s]þ;' kg dfgbá;OƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝljlrlsŞf, s';nfƓfstf r k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf Pj, ;];f
lƀwflk xálƃ. tlto+.
lblŪ Pj k/fdf;f r]j k/fdŪf r gfd. ;];nálsof k/fdŪf r]j gá r k/fdf;f gfd. Ow kg nás'ų/f
g jųƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. rt'Ŵ+.
OdƸƨ kg ±uëfŞs]þ æk/fdf;f r]j wƙf k/fdf;;ƕo'ųf rfÆlt co+ b's]ĕ g nưlt. g lx lblŪ lblŪof
;ƕo'şlt. klŞdb's]þ nás'ų/jlştf k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf k/fdŪf gfd. nás'ų/f k/fdf;ljƍo'ųf ck/fdŪf gfd. Ow
kg k/fdf;á, t+;ƕo'ųf r g jųƑf. ;];+ j'ųgod]j.
k/fdf;±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
dxƃ/b's]þ;' cf/ƙ)+ cƮx]ŷf cƍjlųtá ;x cf/ƙ±)ëgflt ;f/ƙ)f, lrųr]tl;sĕ. glŴ cf/ƙ)d]t];lƃ
cgf/ƙ)f, ¿klgƑfgflg. ;f/ƙ)b's+þ.
lrƃgŪ]g lrų+, lrųtfo jf lrų+. t+ lx jŴ'ƀf/f/ƙ)lsŝflbe]btá, ctLtflbe]btá r cųgá ljlrųtfo
lrųlƃ j'ŝlt lrųs/)tfo jf. násƸƨ lx lrųsƙtá pųl/t/+ lrų+ gfd glŴ, tlƨlƕ r/)+ gfd lrų+ cltlrų+
xált. o+ jf kgţlƕ nás]þ l;ƍhĕt+, ;Ƒ+ t+ lrų]g]j s/Lolt. Pj+ tƧ tƧ lrųƧ lgƎþfbs+þ lrųlƕ t±yëj lrų+ xált.
oyf lrlƃtƧ jf cgj;];Ƨ clgƎþşgtá ttálk lrųd]j lrųt/+, tyf ob]t+ b]jdg'Ƨlg/olt/Şfge]bf;' utL;'
s';nfs';nsƙgfgų+, t]g tf;' utL;'
ckblƀkbflbpŝųgLrųflbgfgų+, tƸƨ tƸƨ cųefj]
bL#/Ƨy"nfy"n;'jŰb'ƑŰflbnfefnfeflb
rflt
Pjdflb
cŢų+
lrų+,
alxźf
r
kyjLkƑtlt)?ŋntflbb]jƔƪljdfgsƍ?ŋĕlbe"t+ sƙkŝo+ lrų+, tlƕ lrų]g]j st+, ttá lrųd]j lrųt/+ lrlƃtlgofd]g
;Ƒfsĕ/Ƨ c;Ƙjtá. Pj+ lrƃgŪ]g, lrųljlrųŪ]g, lrųs/)Ū]g r ælrųÆlƃ ljţf)+ j]lbtƑ+, tb]j ljţf)+ lrų+
gfd. r]tl;s¿klgƑfgflg gá lrųf gfd. lrųb's+þ.
cljƍoáuj;]g r]tl; lgo'ųf r]tl;sĕ, mþƧfboá lƀkţf; wƙf. lrų¿klgƑfgflg cr]tl;sĕ gfd.
r]tl;sb's+þ.
r]tl;sĕ Pj lrų;ƕo'ųf gfd. ¿klgƑfgflg lrųljƍo'ųf gfd, Ow kg lrų+ g jųƑ+. lrų;ƕo'ųb's+þ.
lg/ƃ/efj"kudgtfo pƍfbtá ofj eśflrų]g ;+;Ūflt lrų;+;Ūf. Pstá jųdfgflk lg/ƃ/efj+
cg'kudgtfo lrų]g lj;+;Ūflt lrųlj;+;Ūf. ;];+ cgƃ/b's;lb;d]j. lrų;+;Ūb's+þ.
;d'Ūxlƃ Pt]gflt ;d'Ūfg+, lrų+ ;d'Ūfg+ Pt];lƃ lrų;d'Ūfgf, r]tl;sĕlg r]j lrųh¿ksnfkf r lrų+,
kg clrųh¿ksnfkf, lgƑfgť gá lrų;d'Ūfgf gfd. lrų;d'Ūfgb's+þ.
;x ejƃLlt ;xe'gá, lrų]g ;xe'gá lrų;xe'gá, r]tl;sĕlg r]j sĕojrLljţlųoá r. lrų+, kg
ljţlųjlşt¿klgƑfgflg r gá lrų;xe'gá gfd. lrų;xe'b's+þ.
cg'kl/jųƃLlt cg'kl/jlųgá, Ƹs cg'kl/jųlƃĠ lrų+, lrųƧ cg'kl/jlųgá lrųfg'kl/jlųgá. ;];+
cgƃ/b's;lb;d]j. lrųfg'kl/jlųb's+þ.
Otá k/] kg toá b'sĕ r]tl;sb's;lb;fj, s]þjn+ kbŴdųd]j lj;];á. tŴ lrų;+;Ūf r t] lrų;d'Ūfgf
81

Pj rflt lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgf. lrų;+;Ūf r t] lrų;d'Ūfgf r lrų;xe'gá Pj rflt lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfg;xe'gá, lrų;+;Ūf
r t] lrų;d'Ūfgf r lrųfg'kl/jlųgá Pj rflt lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgfg'kl/jlųgá. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
tbgƃ/] kg cŢlųsb's]þ cŢųŢų+ cŢųlųs]þ j'ųj;]g cŢųfj cŢlųsĕ. k;fb¿klrų;řftflg % cŢlųsĕlg
cfotgflg. ttá alxe"tf aflx/f. ;];¿kr]tl;slgƑfgkţlų;řftflg % aflx/fotgflg, Ow kg kţlųoálk nưlƃ.
cŢlųsb's+þ.
pkflboƃ]j e"tflg, g e"tf ljo pkflboƃLlt pkfbf, rt'jL;lt pkfbf¿kflg Pj. g pkflboƃLlt gá
pkfbf, rt'dxfe"tlrųr]tl;slgƑfgflg. pkfbfb's+þ.
ƀƸų; nálsoljkfslrųflg, sƙh¿kť pkflbƉf gfd. ;];nálsonás'ų/flg, lgƑfgť cg'kflbƉf gfd ;];+
pkflbƉ'kfbflgolųs]þ j'ųfg';f/]g `ftƑ+. pkflbƉb'sþ.
+
dxƃ/b'sĕ lglŪtf.
pkfbfg±uëfŞs]þe';+ cflboƃLlt pkfbfgf, bŃÜƮfx+ uŲƃLlt cŴá. bŃÜŴá lx PŴ pk-;Źá æpkfof;áÆltcfbL;'
ljo. ttá cţ] gá pkfbfgf. tŴ sĕd'kfbfg+ lbŪ'kfbfg+ ;LnƑt'kfbfg+ cųjfb'kfbfglƃ Od] pkfbfgf gfd. tŴ
jŴ'sĕd];' pƍƉá lsn];sĕdáj j'ųgo]g pkfbfglƃ sĕd'kfbfg+. Pj+ ;];];'lk. tŴ jL;ltjŴ'sĕ ;ŊĕolblŪ cųjfb'kfbfg+
gfd. ;];flg k'Ƒ] j'ųfg]j. klŞdflg kg]Ŵ tLl) pkfbfgflg tyfkjųlblŪ Pj. tflg r k&d]g d±Ʈëg kxLolƃ,
sĕd'kfbfg+ rt"lxlk Od] r ;efjtá ƀ] wƙf ljefutá rt'?kfbfgf gfd hĕtf. Od] kg &k]ŷf ;];f ;Ƒ] wƙf gá
pkfbfgf gfd. pkfbfgb's+þ k&d+.
pkfbflgob's]ĕ ;+oáhlgob's;lb;áj. b'lto+.
cŪnáe;xutlrųflg, t+;ƕo'ų];' lblŪljƍo'ųnáe+ &k]ŷf ;];f r pkfbfg;ƕo'ųf
gfd.
lblŪljƍo'ųnáebá;dáxd"nflg, s';nfƓfstflg r lrųflg, ¿klgƑfgflg r pkfbfgljƍo'ųf gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
lblŪdfgf pkfbfg;ƕo'ųfj, bá;OƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝljlrlsŞf, s';nfƓfstf r pkfbfgljƍo'ųf Pj. ;];f b'ljwflk
xálƃ. tlto+.
rųfl/ pkfbfgflg pkfbfgf r]j pkfbflgof r gfd. tbj;];f nálsof pkfbflgof r]j gá r pkfbfgf
gfd. Ow kg nás'ų/f g jųƑf. ;];+ j'ųgod]j. rt'Ŵ+.
kťd%Ūb'sĕ kf&tá uƅ±uëfŞs]þ kťd%Ūb's;lb;fj, s]þjn+ kťdb's]þ ær]tl;s]þ;' dfgá pkfbfg;ƕo'ųá r]j gá r
pkfbfgá Pj, dáxflxl/sĕgáųƍpźŝlygldźflg lthĕltsĕlg tyf r g jųƑf rfÆlt Obť, %Ūb's]þ ær]tl;s]þ;'
bá;OƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝljlrlsŞf cƍdţf pkfbfgljƍo'ųf pkfbflgof Pj, dáxflxl/sĕgáųƍpźŝnáelygldźflg tyf r g
jųƑflg rfÆlt Pųsd]j kf&tá lj;];á, cŴtá kg gfddųs]ĕj lj;];á. ;];á ;'ljţ]Ɯáj. kťd%Ūflg.
pkfbfg±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
lsn];±uëfŞs]þ ;+lslnŪlųs]þ j'ųgo]g kbŴá j]lbtƑá. náeá bá;á dáxá dfgá lblŪ ljlrlsŞf lyg+ pźŝ+ clxl/s+þ
cgáųƍlƃ Od] b; wƙf lsn];f gfd. Od] r j'ųŴf Pj, Ow kg náeá, x]t'uƅgLj/)pkfbfg±uëfŞs]þ;' náeá r
lgƍb];tá rt'dƮjŢálk Ps]þg]j s]ĕŪf;]g l&tá, ;];±uëfŞs]þ;' ;á ;Ƒálk náeá æsĕdf;já ejf;jáÆltcflbgf ƀ] ƀ] s]ĕŪf;f
x'ŷf l&tá, Oldgf kg cŪsyfjrg]gflk ejf;jflbƓltl/ųá ;Ƒá rt'dƮjŢálk /f±uëf sĕdf;jfbL;' ;ślxtá.
sĕdŞƆgLj/)+ kg ej/f±uëflk g kťsĕdu'l)s/fudųájflt kţfolt,
æcf?ƍ] sĕdŞƆgLj/)+ klŝ
lygldźgLj/)Ælƃcflbkflńtá ‘kŪf03=8=8’ r]t+ bŪƑ+ kťsĕdu'l)s/fuƧ ¿kf¿ke"dL;' cg'ƍşgtá. Od];'
r
lsn];];' lblŪljlrlsŞf k&d]g d±Ʈëg kxLolƃ, bá;á tlto]g, náefboá rt"lxlk. Od] kg b; wƙ] &k]ŷf ;];f gá
lsn];f gfd. lsn];b's+þ k&d+.
;+lsn]l;sb's]ĕ ;f;jb's;lb;áj. b'lto+.
;+lslnŪb's]ĕ, lsn];;ƕo'ųb's]ĕ rflt ƀ]lk ;dfgŴfj. t] r gLj/)±uëfŞs]þ tltob's;lb;fj. tltort'Ŵflg.
b; lsn];f lsn];f r]j ;+lsn]l;sĕ r gfd. ;];f nálsowƙf ;+lsn]l;sĕ r]j gá r lsn];f gfd. Ow kg
nás'ų/f g jųƑf. ;];+ gLj/)±uëfŞs]þ rt'Ŵb's;lb;d]j. kťd+.
%Ū;ųdb'sĕlglk cţdţ+ ;dfgŴfg]j. tflg %Ū;ųdflg gLj/)±uëfŞs]þ oyfŊþd+ kf&tá kťd%Ūb's;lb;flg,
cŴtá kg gfddųs]ĕj lj;];á. ;];á ;'ljţ]Ɯá. %Ū;ųdcŪdflg.
lsn];±uëfŞs+þ lglŪt+.
lklŪb's]þ;' cflbtá rųf/á b'sĕ bƧg]gkxftƑlųs]þ, bƧg]gkxftƑx]t's]þ r j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑf. s]þjn+ kg tŴ
k&dlųs]þ j'ų];' bƧg]gkxftƑ] wƙ] &k]ŷf ;];f Ow k&db'sƧ b'ltokb] bƧg]gkxftƑ];' klj;lƃ, efjgfokxftƑ]
&k]ŷf ;];f Ow b'ltob's]þ gefjgfokxftƑ];' klj;lƃ. tŴ r b'ltolųs]þ j'ų];' bƧg]gkxftƑx]t's]þ &k]ŷf ;];f Ow
tltob's]þ gbƧg]gkxftƑx]t's]þ, efjgfokxftƑx]t's]þ r &k]ŷf ;];f Ow rt'Ŵb's]þ gefjgfokxftƑx]t's]þ;' klj;lƃ.
kbŴá r bƧg]g kxftƑá x]t' Pt];+ cŴLlt bƧg]gkxftƑx]t'sĕ. Pj+ efjgfokxftƑx]t'sĕlt PŴflk cŴá
j]lbtƑá. Pj+ lx ;lt cx]t'sĕg+ cƮx)+ l;oflt Pųsd]j lj;];á. ltsƀod]j lx eujf b];gfljnf;]g rųf/á b's]þ sŷf
82

b];]l;. ;];+ tflb;d]j. rųf/á b'sĕ lglŪtf.
kťkţf;;ljtŊþlrų];' ljtŊþlj/lxtf lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf ;ljtŊĕ gfd. ljtŊþá, kg ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg r
cljtŊĕ gfd. kťd+.
%;lŪof ;ljrf/lrų];' ljrf/lj/lxtf wƙf ;ljrf/f gfd. ljrf/á, kg ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg r cljrf/f
gfd. ;];+ Ow, cgƃ/] j'ųb's]þ r ljtŊþlųs]þ j'ųfg';f/]g `ftƑ+. %Ū+.
Otá k/];' ;ƍLltsb's]ĕ, kLlt;xutb's]ĕ r ;dfgŴfj, t] r ;'v;xutpk]ŋĕ;xutb'sĕ rflt rųf/álk b'sĕ
kLltlųs]þ j'ųgofj. s]þjn+ kg]t];+ b'sĕg+ k&d+ kb+ tŴ klj;lt, kLltlųs]þ Ot/Lt/kbƀo;ślxtf, c;ślxtf r ;Ƒ]
cŴf x]Ūf j'ųgo]g]Ŵ b'sĕg+ b'ltokb];' cŴtá ;ślxtf, Od] r lgƍb];b'sĕlt cod]j lj;];á. ;ųdcŪdgjdb;df.
tbgƃ/];' sĕdfjr/flt PŴ æx]Ūtá cjLlrlg/o+ kl/oƃ+ sl/ŷf pkl/tá k/lglƙtj;jųL b]j] cƃá sl/ŷf
o+ tƸƨ cƃ/] PŴfjr/f PŴ kl/ofkƉfÆlt Pj+ ‘w0;01287’ kflńo+ kl/lŞƉfg+ rt'Ɖ+ ckfofg+, dg'Ƨfg+, %Ɖ+
b]jnásĕgť j;]g cásĕ;tá Psĕb;lj±wëf sĕdejá æsĕdáÆlt j'ŝlt pų/kbnák]g oyf æ¿k"kklųofÆltcfbL;' ¿kejá
æ¿kÆlƃ. tƸƨ sĕd] cjr/lƃ kjųƃLlt sĕdfjr/f. o]e'Ɯtá r]t+ j'ų+ ¿kf¿k];' r]t];ť Ow kjlųtá
æynr/fÆltcfbL;' ljo. sĕdej;řft] jf sĕd] kl;Ƹƈ cjrf/]ƃLltlk sĕdfjr/f, s';nfs';nflg pźŝ;xutlrų+ kg
cƓfstlrų;lb;+. tbfoųtfo, cf/ƙ)s/)j;]g jf lsn];sĕdá PŴ cjr/tLltlk
sĕdfjr/+. sĕdť];
¿kf¿kfjr/wƙ];'lk cjr/lt, ?lŃÜtá kg æjbtLlt jŞáÆltcfbL;' ljo Od] Pj æsĕdfjr/fÆlt j'ŝlƃ. clkr
sĕdtŲf ¿ktŲf c¿ktŲflt PŴ j'ųsĕdtŲf;řftá sĕdá PŴ cjr/tLltlk sĕdfjr/f. Pj+ Ɣƪfg+ ljdfgfe/)fbL;'
%Ɔ/fuƧflk sĕdtŲfefjá l;źá, ¿ktŲflj;ofglƕ r Ɣƪfg+ sƙh¿kfbLg+ sĕdtŲfolk lj;otfo sĕdfjr/tf l;źf
xált. g ¿kf¿kfjr/fg+ tbefjtá tbţ] g sĕdfjr/f. Oldgf go]g ¿kfjr/flbb'sĕglƕ kbŴá oyf/x+ `ftƑá.
tŴ rt'kţf; sĕdfjr/lrųflg, ;Ƒť ¿k+ sĕdfjr/f gfd. ;];lrųlgƑfgflg g sĕdfjr/f gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' jųƑ+
kl/ofkƉb's]þ Pj cflj eljƧlt. Psĕb;d+.
kƉ/; ¿kfjr/lrųflg ¿kfjr/f gfd. ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg g ¿kfjr/f gfd. ƀfb;d+.
ƀfb; c¿kfjr/lrųflg c¿kfjr/f gfd. ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg g c¿kfjr/f gfd. t]/;d+.
t]e"dsjũ] kl/ofkƉf cƃáuwflt kl/ofkƉf, nálsowƙfj. tŴ g kl/ofkƉflt ckl/ofkƉf, nás'ų/f.
r]tl;s]þ;' kg sĕdfjr/flbb'sĕg+ rt'Ɖlƕ ;fwf/±)ëf ljlgŞoá Pj+ j]lbtƑá _ cs';nr]tl;sĕ sĕdfjr/fj, cƍdţf
sĕd¿kfjr/f, lj/ltoá kg sĕdfjr/kl/ofkƉf, ljtŊþljrf/kLltoá kg sĕd¿kfjr/kl/ofkƉf, ;];f rt'e"dsĕlt.
r'Ź;d+.
jũd"n+ l%Ɔƃf lgƑfg+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf jũtá gLoƃLlt lgƜflgsĕ, rųfl/ nás'ų/dƮlrųflg. Oldgf nŋ±)ëg g
lgƜƃLlt clgƜflgsĕ, ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kťb;d+.
r'ltof jf cųgá jf kjlųof cgƃ/+ mþnbfg] lgotųf lgotf, ldŞųlgotf, ;ƙųlgotf r. tyf
clgotųf clgotf, ;];wƙf. ;];+ j'ųgod]j. ;áń;d+.
cţ] wƙ] pų/lƃ cltŊþdƃLlt pų/f, cųfg+ pųl/t'+ ;dŴ]lx ;x pų/]xLlt ;pų/f, nálsofj. glŴ Pt];+
pų/flt cg'ų/f, nás'ų/f. ;ų/;d+.
/)lƃ sƆlƃ Pt]xLlt /)f, o]lx clee"tf ;ųf gfgƍsĕ/tá kl/b]jlƃ, t];+ cs';nd"nfg+ Pt+ clwjrg+, t]lx
;ƕoáuj;]g, kxfg]sŪtfj;]g r ;x /±)ëxLlt ;/)f. Pt]gfsĕ/]g glŴ Pt];+ /)flt c/)f.
tŴ ƀfb; cs';nlrųflg ;/)f gfd. ;/)wƙ];' r]Ŵ náebá;dáxf /)f r]j ;/)f r, t];' náebá;f
dáx]g]j ;ƕoáutá ;/)f, tyf ljlrlsŞ'źŝ;xutlrų+, t+;ƕo'ųf r. dáxá kg t];' ;ƕoáutá ;/±)ëf,
lblŪ;ƕo'ų/f±uëg, kg ej/f±uëg r /)e"t]g kxfg]sŪtfj;]g]j ;/±)ëf náebá;dáxd"n;ƕo'ų];' kg dáxá náe]g r]j
bá;]g r, ;];f náedáx]g r]j bá;dáx]g r ;ƕoáutá ;/)flt j]lbtƑf. ;Ƒflg s';nfƓfstlrųflg, ¿klgƑfgflg r
c/)f gfd. r]tl;s]þ;' kg cs';nf ;/)fj, s';nfƓfstf c/)fj, lthĕltsĕ kg lƀwflk xáƃLlt. cŪf/;d+.
lklŪb'sĕ lglŪtf.

clewƙb'sdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

;'ųlƃsb'sdfltsŴjŰgf
;'ųlƃsb's]þ;' j]b]lt, ljlj±wëg jf cfsĕ/]g hĕgftLlt ljşĕ, ljkƧgf`f)dgádlolź%cleţfj;ƍjųf kţf, tƸƨ
ljşĕef±uë ljşĕs]ĕŪf;] ljşĕ;efj] jųƃLlt ljşĕeflugá. tf Pj ljşĕ, t+ jf ljş+ ;ƕoáuj;]g ehƃLltlk ljşĕeflugá,
cŪljwljşĕ;ƕo'ųwƙf. tf;' of sĕlr Psĕ ljşĕ ljşĕ, ;];f ljşĕeflugált Pj+ ljşĕlk ljşĕ;ƕo'ųwƙflk ljşĕeflugáŷ]j
j]lbtƑf, Ow kg ljşĕ;ƕo'ųf wƙfj clwƍ]tf. g ljhĕgftLlt cljşĕ, rt';ŝŞfbsj;]g rt'lƑ±wëf dáxá, tƸƨ
cljşĕef±uë cljşĕs]ĕŪf;] cljşĕ;efj] jųƃLlt cljşĕeflugá. tf Pj cljşĕ, t+ jf cljş+ ;ƕoáuj;]g ehƃLltlk
83

cljşĕeflugá, cljşĕ;ƕo'ųwƙf. Pj+ cljşĕlk
cljşĕ;ƕo'ųwƙflk cljşĕeflugáŷ]j j]lbtƑf, Ow kg
cljşĕ;ƕo'ųwƙfj clwƍ]tf.
tŴ c/xųdƮlrų+, kţflj/lxtt+;ƕo'ųf r ljşĕeflugá r `f);ƕo'ųsĕdfjr/hjgflg, `f)lj/lxtt+;ƕo'ųf
r ljkƧgfefj]g kjlųo+ ljşĕeflugá, cţbf g jųƑf. ¿kfjr/rt'ŴŢĕlgshjglrųflg, kţflj/lxtt+;ƕo'ųf r
dgádlolźefj]g r kťfleţfefj]g r kjlųo+ ljşĕeflugá, cţbf g jųƑf.
tŴ ƀfb;fs';nlrųflg,
cljşĕlj/lxtt+;ƕo'ųf r cljşĕeflugáj, Ow kg cljşĕ, ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg r g jųƑfj. r]tl;s]þ;' kg
dáxcƍdţf g jųƑfj, ;];f s';nfƓfstf l;of ljşĕeflugá, l;of g jųƑf, lthĕltsĕ lƀwflk g jųƑf r. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. k&d+.
k'g cgŢáŴ/)j;]g lsn];ƈsĕ/+ ljź+;]t'+ c;dŴtfo ljş' pkdf Pt];lƃ ljş"kdf, cflbtá tL;' d±Ʈë;'
`f)+j. lgƧ];+ ljź+;g;dŴtfo jlh/+ pkdf Pt];lƃ jlh¿kdf, c/xųd±Ʈë `f)+. oyf lx d]#ƈsĕ/] dƮklkƉƧ
klŞfbgcƈsĕ/+ ljwldŷf ljş'of pƍƉŋ±)ë rft'lb;f dƮf kfsf xálƃ, ljş'of lg?źfo k'g cƈsĕ/á cáŴl/ŷf dƮ+
klŞfb]lt, Pj+ ljkƧgfoflgsƧ oyf;s+þ ;ŝŞfbslsn];ƈsĕ/+ ljwldŷf tL;' d±Ʈë;' oyfŊþd+ pƍƉ];' rųfl/ ;ŝflg
kfsflg xálƃ, t];' lg?ź];' k'g cjl;Ūlsn];ƈsĕ/á rt';ŝ+ klŞfb]lt, tƨf tL;' d±Ʈë;' kţf ljş"kdf j'ųf. oyf kg
jlh/Ƨ ce]şá kf;f±)ëf gfd glŴ, tť lgƧ];tá jlh/+ ±vëk]lt, jlh/]g r utd±Ʈë kf;f)Ƨ k'g kfsltsefjá glŴ, Pj+
c/xųdƮ`f)Ƨ cjŢlsn];á gfd glŴ, tť lgƧ];tá c/xųdƮ`f)+ ±vëk]lt, t]g r ±vëlkt] lsn];] cjl;Ūlsn];fefjtá
tƧ k'g kŝ'bfjųg+ gfd glŴ, tƨf rt'Ŵd±Ʈë kţf jlh¿kdf j'ųf. kţf Pj x]Ŵ l;of ljş"kdf, l;of g jųƑf r
xált. ;];r]tl;slrų¿klgƑfgflg kg ;Ƒflg g jųƑfg]j. b'lto+.
afn];' l&tųf, oŴ l&tf tb'krf/]g afnf, afns/ųf jf afnf, ƀfb;fs';nlrųflg. Ow kg clxl/sť
cgáųƍť afnf gfd. klůt];' l&tųf klůtf, klůts/ųf jf klůtf, PsjL;lt s';nlrųflg. Ow kg lx/L r
cáųƍť klůtf gfd. ;];lrų¿klgƑfgflg g jųƑflg. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. tlto+.
sŲflt sĕńsĕ, lrųƧ ckeƧ/efjs/)f. ;'Ŋĕlt cábftf, keƧ/efjs/)f. ;];+ ;Ƒ+ afnb's;lb;d]j.
rt'Ŵ+.
Ow r]j ;ƕ/fo] r tk]ƃLlt tkgLof. g tkgLof ctkgLof. ;];+ afnb's;lb;d]j. kťd+.
æl;l/jŬs]ĕ wgjŬs]ĕÆltcfboá ljo jrgdųd]j clwsĕ/+ sŷf kjųf clwjrgf gfd. gfd±wëƜlƃ t];+ t];+
wƙfg+ gfdflg. tflg rt'lƑwflg ;fdţgfd+ u')gfd+ lslųdgfd+ cákkfltsgfdlƃ. tŴ k&dslƍs]þ;' dxfhg]g ;ƙlƉŷf
&lktųf ædxf;ƙtáÆlt /ţá gfdlƃ Pj¿k+ ;fdţgfd+ gfd. æwƙslys]ĕ k+;'s"þlns]ĕ sĕńá /ƧáÆlt Pj¿k+ u')tá cfut+,
æeujf c/x+ ;ƙf;Ɨ'źáÆltcfbLlglk tyfutƧ cg]sĕlg gfd;tflg u')gfd+ gfd. o+ kg hĕtƧ s'df/Ƨ `ftsĕ sƍ]ŷf
ksƍ]ŷf æco+ c;'s]ĕ gfdfÆlt gfd+ s/álƃ, Ob+ lslųdgfd+ gfd. of kg k'l/dkţlų ck/kţlųo+ lgktlt, ;]Ɯlyb+
_ k'l/dsƍ]lk rƆá rƆá Pj, Pt/lxlk cgfut]lk rƆá Pj. tyf æ;"l/oá ;d'Źá kyjL ¿k+ j]bgf ;ţf ;řf/f ljţf)+
lgƑfgÆlƃPjdflb cákkfltsgfd+ gfd. tflg k'g ljşdfgkţlų cljşdfgkţlų ljşdfg]gcljşdfgkţlų
cljşdfg]gljşdfgkţlų ljşdfg]gljşdfgkţlų cljşdfg]gcljşdfgkţųLlt Pj+ gfdkţlųj;]g %lƑwflg xálƃ.
tŴ k/dŴtá pknưdfgf oyfj'ųƀf;ųltljwf gfd¿kwƙf ljşdfgf gfd, t];+ ksĕ/]lx `fkgtá kţlų
ljşdfgkţlų gfd, ælrų+ mþƧá kyjL ¿k+ lgƑfgÆlƃcfboá k/dŴjfrsĕ ;Źf. pkflbƉgfd¿kwƙ] kg pkfbfo kţųf
;ųk'ƮnOlŴk'l/;b]jdg'Ƨlt/Şfgflbe]bf,
cg'kflbƉ¿kwƙ]
pkfbfo
kţųf
e"ldkƑt?ŋ;srƆ;"l/ogŋųlb;fsĕnsl;)flbe]bf r k/dŴtá cg'knưdfgf
cljşdfgf gfd, t];+ kţlų
cljşdfgkţlų gfd. tyf æcųf e"dLÆltcfboá cŴkţlųjfrsĕ ;Źf r lrų;ƃltjŰ'kulƃcflb ljşdfgŴjfrsĕ ;Źf
ljşdfg]gcljşdfgkţlų gfd. æk'l/;Ƨ lrų+, d]#jŰáÆltcfbL;' cljşdfg]gljşdfgkţlų gfd. ælrųnx'tf
kyjLuƈáÆltcflb ljşdfg]gljşdfgkţlų gfd. ædg'Ƨ;/L/+ ?ŋ;fvfÆltcflb cljşdfg]gcljşdfgkţlų gfd.
Pj+ %lƑwflk r]tf clwƍfo+ ljţfk]t'sĕdtflrų;d'Ūflkt;ljţlų;Źfg';f/]g `ft;Ř]tƧ ;átljţf)jLlycgƃ/+ pƍƉ]lx
dgáƀfl/sljţf±)ëlx æOdƧ]b+ gfdÆlƃ cg]s;Ź];' Psųdf/ák]ŷf jjŴflktf cŴfled'v+ gdgtá ksĕ/]lx cŴƧ `fkgtá
ægfdkţųLÆlt j'ŝlƃ, t];+ clwjrgfg+ kyf cŴf clwjrgkyf, ;ƙ'ltk/dŴe]bf ;Ƒ] wƙf ;ŹjrgLo;efjf. %Ū+.
Otá k/+ ƀ] b'sĕ clwjrgb's;lb;fj, s]þjn+ kbŴdųd]j lj;];á. tŴ cle;ř/áƃLlt ;řf/flt Pj+
lgźf/]ŷf ;x]t's+þ sŷf j'ŝdfgf lg?lų gfd, ætŊþá ljtŊþá ;ŘƍáÆlt Pj+ t]g t]g ksĕ/]g `fkgtá kţlų gfd,
oyfj'ųgfdkţlųoáj. g lx clwjrglg?lųkţųL;' cŴtá s]ĕlrlk e]bá clŴ, lgƑlųlgldųe]bbƧgŴ+ kg g];+ ljef±uëg
kbŴá blƧtá. Od];' r tL;' b's]þ;' kţlų;lxtf ;Ƒ] wƙf nưlƃ, cgƃ/] gfd¿kb's]þ kţlų/lxtflt Od] rųf/á b'sĕ
Od];' ;'ųlƃsb's]þ;' lgƍb];f, ;];f kg cŪƸt;flk ;ƍb];flt j]lbtƑf. ;ųdŪdflg.
gfds/)Ū]g, gdgŪ]g, gfdgŪ]g r gfd+, c¿kŋƈlgƑfgflg. tflg lx ;Ƒbflk j]bgf ;ţf ;řf/f ljţf)+
lgƑfglƃ cákkfltsgfdj;]g cųgá gfd+ s/áƃfj kjųlƃ rƆ;"l/ofboá ljo. g lx t];+ ;fdţu')lslųdj;]g
gfds/)lsŝ+ cŴLlt. Pj+ gfds/)Ū]g gfd+ j]lbtƑ+. cf/ƙ)fled'v+ kg gdgŪ]g, cţdţ+ tŴ gfdgŪ]g r rųf/á
c¿kŋƈfj gfd+. lgƑfg+ kg cf/ƙ)flwkltkŝotfo cųlg cgjşwƙfg+ gfdgŪ]g]j gfd+ j]lbtƑ+. ?ƍgŪ]g ¿k+,
¿kŋƈá. gjd+.
cljşĕlt b'ŋĕlbklŞfbs]ĕ ;Ƒá dáxá. ejtŲflt ejkŴgfj;]g kjųá náeá. tyf cƍjųá kg]Ŵ náeá,
;];r]tl;slrų¿klgƑfgflg r g jųƑflg. Otá k/+ kg Pj+ gjųƑljefu+ cbƧ]ŷf kbŴ;¿kdųd]j bƧloƧfd,
blƧtfj;];f g jųƑflt ux]tƑf. b;d+.

84

ejá j'ŝlt ;Ƨt+. æeljƧlt cųf r nás]ĕ rfÆlt ;Ƨtj;]g pƍşgslblŪ ejlblŪ gfd. ljejá j'ŝlt
pŞ]bá. æg eljƧlt cųf r nás]ĕ rfÆlt pŞ]bj;]g pƍşgslblŪ ljejlblŪ gfd. peo]gflk ldŞflblŪ ulxtf.
tyf cgƃ/];'lk tL;' b's]þ;'. Psĕb;d+.
vƈkťs+þ æcųf r nás]ĕ rfÆlt ux]ŷf æ;Ƨtá cųf r nás]ĕ rfÆlt kjųf lblŪ ;ƧtlblŪ gfd. tyf
æplŞlşƧtLÆlt kjųf lblŪ pŞ]blblŪ gfd. æcƃjfÆlt kjųf cƃjflblŪ gfd. æcgƃjfÆlt kjųf cgƃjflblŪ
gfd. k'Ƒƃ+ cg'utf Ɣƪhĕn] j'ųgo]g ctLts]ĕŪf;+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kjųf cŪf/;ljwf k'Ƒƃfg'lblŪ gfd. ck/ƃ+ cg'utf
tŴ]j cfutgo]g cgfuts]ĕŪf;+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kjųf rt'rųfnL;ljwf ck/ƃfg'lblŪ gfd. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg
Ɣƪhĕn] ‘bL0lg01=28’, tbŪsyfo ‘bL0lg0cŪ01=28’ r j]lbtƑá. ƀfb;dt]/;dr'Ź;dflg.
clxl/sb's+þ, lxl/b'sť ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kťb;d;áń;dflg.
b'ŋ+ jrá PtƸƨ ljƍls"þnuflxlƛ ljkŝgLs;ft] cgfb/] k'Ʈn]lt b'Ƒrá, ;xwlƙs+þ bƧ]ŷf cájlbodfg]
cgfb/sĕ/s]ĕ k'Ʈná, tƧ sƙ+ bájrƧ+, tƧ efjá bájrƧtf, cgfb/j;]g kjųf ƀ] kl#lrųf, t+;ƕo'ųf r. kfkf
cƧźfboá k'Ʈnf PtƧ ldųflt kfkldųá, tƧ efjá kfkldųtf, kfkk'Ʈn];' bŃÜelųj;]g, sĕolrų]lx t+;]jgftlƉƉtfj;]g
r kjųflg cŪ náelrųflg. ;ų/;d+.
;ájrƧtf
sƠf)ldųtf r j'ųklkŋj;]g j]lbtƑf.
cŴtá kg tyfkjųflg
;x]t'ssĕdfjr/s';nlsl/olrųflg. cŪf/;d+.
kť;', ;ų;' jf cfkųL;' s';nefjá cfklųs';ntf, ;x jŴ'gf tf;+ cfkųLg+ cfkşgkl/Ş]bhĕggj;]g kjųf
sĕdfjr/hjgkţf. cfkųLlx j'Ūfg] s';nefjá cfklųj'Ūfgs';ntf, j'Ūfgljwfg]g ;Ƹź cfklųj'Ūfgkl/Ş]bhĕggj;]g
kjųf oyfj'ųlrų;ƕo'ųkţfj. Ps"þgjL;ltd+.
;dfklştƑtá ;dfklų, tf;' nálsonás'ų/f;' ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/fbL;' ;dfkųL;' s';ntf ;dfklųs';ntf, ;x
kl/sƙ]g cƍgfkl/Ş]bhĕggj;]g kjųf kţf. ;dfkųLlx j'Ūfg] s';nefjá ;dfklųj'Ūfgs';ntf, oyfkl/lŞƉsĕn]o]j
tflx j'Ūfgskţf sĕdfjr/hjgkţfj. jL;ltd+.
cŪf/;;' wft";' s';nefjá wft's';ntf, ;jgwf/)klj]wkŝj]ŋ)kţf. tf;ţ]j wft"g+ dgl;sĕ/] s';nefjá
dgl;sĕ/s';ntf, tf;+ ;ƙ;gklj]wkŝj]ŋ)kţf. P; goá cfotgs';ntfolk. tŴ lx ;jgwf/)kŝj]ŋ)f
sĕdfjr/fj, klj]±wëf nás'ų/áj, ;ƙ;g+ sĕdfjr/nás'ų/+. cţdţ+ klŝ ;lxt+ mþn+ pƍfb]tLlt klŝ;d'ƍfbá,
cljşĕbLlx lglŹŪá kŝo;d"xá, tƸƨ ƀfb;ś] cg'nádklŝ;d'ƍfb] s';nefjá klŝ;d'ƍfbs';ntf, æOldgf kŝo]g Ob+
xátLÆlt hĕggj;]g kjųf nálsohjgkţfj. PsjL;ltdƀfjL;ltdflg.
ltŪlt PŴ mþn+ tbfoųj'lųtfoflt &fg+, sĕ/)+, tƸƨ &fg] s';ntf &fgs';ntf. g &fg] s';ntf
cŪfgs';ntf. t]jL;ltd+.
ph'efjá cşjá. d'b'efjá dŹjá. sĕolrų'h'stfd'b'stfƀo+. rt'jL;ltd+.
clwjf;g;řftf vdg+ vlƃ, tyfkjųsĕdfjr/hjgflg. kfktá ;'Ū' cá/tá lj/tált ;á/tá, tƧ efjá
;á/ŝ+. sĕojrLdgá;+j/;Ln;řftflg nálsonás'ų/hjgflg. kťjL;ltd+.
;ƙábslkojflbtf;řftá ;lvnefjá ;fvƠ+, oyf k/]lx ;Ƹź cųgá l%Ź+ ljj/+ g xált, Pj+ wƙfld;]lx
kl;ƅ/)+ klŞfbg+ kl;ƅf/á. cfuƃ'sƧ lx kŝ'ƮdgkųrLj/klƮx)cf;gbfgaLhgkfb±wëfjgdŋgflbgf, kfgLo]g
cfk'Şg]g,
sĕn]
cfutƧ
ofu'cfbLg+,
ljsĕn]
kfgsĕbLgť
bfg]g,
k'glbj;]
lkůfo
r/)ŪfgbƧgkj];glgŋdgsĕnf/árgflbgf r kƑlhtf, uxŪfgť ljgo] cfutgo]g oyfg'¿k+ cfld;kl;ƅf/á sĕtƑá.
cfuƃ'sþ+ kg pk;Řldŷf æt'ƛ] st/ef)sĕÆlt ck'lŞŷf æcfrl/o'kŢĕof já st/+ uƅ+ jńŧ]ƃLÆlt k'lŞŷf tƧ lj;o]
kŤk'Şg]g ;r] g ;Ŋþált,
;o+ s±yëŷf bfg]g, wƙsygkŤljƧşgsƙŪfgsygs'Ŋ'þŝlblŪljgábgflbgf,
kl/jf;flbljgosƙs/±)ëg, kƑfhgpk;ƕbflbgf r wƙkl;ƅf/á sĕtƑá. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/tá kgfo+ ;Ƹź
cflg;+;bLksjŴ"lx cŪ;flnlgo+ ‘w0 ;0cŪ01351’ `ftƑá. PtƸƨ b'lj±wë kl;ƅf/] s';nefjá kl;ƅf/s';ntf,
tyfkjųsĕdfjr/hjgflg Pj. %ƑL;ltd+.
OlƇo];' dgŞŪ];' cfkfyut¿kfbL;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' lgldųux)flbgf OlƇo;+j/e]b;řftá cu'ųƀf/efjá OlƇo];'
cu'ųƀf/tf. klƮx)kl/eáuj;]g eáhg] dų+ chĕggefjá eáhg] cdųţ'tf, tyfkjųcs';nlrųflg. ;ųjL;ltd+.
cgƃ/b's]þlk j'ųklkŋj;]g sĕdfjr/;x]t'ss';nlsl/olrųflg j]lbtƑflg. cŪjL;ltd+.
;ltljƍjf;;řftá d'Ū;ltefjá d'ŪƧŝ+, ;Ƒ] cs';nf wƙf, c;ƕhĕggefjá
c;ƕhţ+, dáxá.
Ps"þgƸt;ltd+.
cgƃ/b's]þ rt'e"ldsĕ ;ltkţfj j'ųf. Ƹt;ltd+.
cƍl;řfg] cƍljfg;řft] cslƕoŪ]g oálg;ábƧg;řft+ kl;řfgd]j anlƃ
kl;řfgan+,
sĕdfjr/kţfj. ;ųaáŢśflbefjgfj;]g kjųf rt'e"dswƙf efjgfan+. PsƸt;ltd+.
kŝgLswƙ] ;d]tLlt ;d±yëf, ;á ltlj±wëf lrų;d±yëf clws/);d±yëf ;Ƒ;řf/;d±yëflt. tŴ r k'Ƒefuf;'
cŪ;dfkųL;' PsƮtf lrų;d±yëf gfd, ;ƙ'vfljgoflb ;ųlj±wëf clws/);d±yëf gfd, lgƑfg+ ;Ƒ;řf/;d±yëf gfd. Ow
kg rt'e"ds]ĕ ;dflw clwƍ]tá. clgŝflbj;]g ljlj±wëgfsĕ/]g kƧtLlt ljkƧgf, nálsonás'ų/f ljkƧgfkţfj.
afƸų;ltd+.
;d±yëfj t+ cfsĕ/+ ux]ŷf k'g kjų]tƑƧ ;dyƧ lgldųlƃ ;dylgldų+. kƮfxlgldų]lk P;]j goá.
rt'e"ds;dflwjLl/oflg Pj. t]Ƹų;ltd+.

85

cgƃ/b's]þlk jLl/o;dfwL Pj j'ųf. rt'Ƹų;ltd+.
;Lnljgfl;sĕ c;+j/;řftf ;LnƧ ljkųLlt ;Lnljklų, tyfkjųf cs';nwƙf. ;ƙflblŪof ljklų
lblŪljklų, ldŞflblŪ Pj. kťƸt;ltd+.
;á/ŝd]j ;LnƧ ;ƕfbgtá ;Lnkl/k"/)tá ;LnƧ ;ƕbflt ;Ln;ƕbf. lblŪkfl/k"l/e"t+ `f)d]j lblŪof
;ƕbflt lblŪ;ƕbf. rt'e"dsĕ ;Lnkţfj. tyf cgƃ/b's]þlk. %Ƹų;ltd+.
lj;'lźefj+ ;ƕųf ;Ln;řftf ;LnƧ lj;'lź ;Lnlj;'lź. lgƑfg;řft+ lj;'Ƹź kfk]t'+ ;dŴf bƧg;řftf lblŪof
lj;'lź lblŪlj;'lź. ;ųƸų;ltd+.
sƙƧstf;ŝfg'náldsdƮmþn;ƕo'ųkţf lblŪ lj;'lź gfd. oyflblŪƧ tbg'¿k+ kwfg+ oyflblŪƧ r kwfg+
gfd. cŪƸt;ltd+.
;+j]uhgsĕlg hĕlth/fƓflwd/);řftflg sĕ/)flg ;+j]hgLoŪfgflg gfd, t];' hĕltcflbklŝ;d'ƍƉeo;řft+
;+ljhg+ ;+j]±uëf gfd, tyfkjųs';nflb Pj. Pj+ ;+j]uhĕtƧ oálg;á pkfo]g kwfg+ ;+ljƮƧ oálg;á kwfg+,
nálsonás'ų/jLl/od]j. Ps"þgrųfnL;ltd+.
s';nwƙk"/±)ë c;ƃ'lŪefjá c;ƃ'lŪtf. oá kg bfg+ bŷf ttá t]g c;ƃ'Ūá x'ŷf ;/)udg+ cfsřlt, ttá
kť;LnfƸb, kƑş+, a'źjrgfg+ pƮŲg+, ;dyljkƧg+, ttá t]gflk c;ƃ'Ūá cg'Ŋþd]g c/xų+ uŲflt, co+ c;ƃ'lŪtf
s';n];' wƙ];'. clws';nwƙfg+ efjgfo pŊþŮdfgá kwfg+ kljfk]lt lgjųfk]tLlt kljflg, g kljflg cƍljflg,
tƧ ejá cƍljflgtf. c/xų+ cƍŷf kwfgƸƨ clgjųgtf cgá;Ŋþgtf, tyfkjųnálsonás'ų/s';nf wƙf.
rųfnL;ltd+.
ljhĕggtá ljşĕ, k'Ƒ]lgjf;r't"kkftcf;jŋo`f)flg. ljd'ŝgtá ljd'lų, cŪ ;dfklųoá, lgƑfgť. cŪ
;dfklųoá lx cf/ƙ±)ë clwd'ŝgtá, ;o+ ljŋlƘtlsn];]lx ljd'ŝgŪ]g r ljd'ųLlt j'ųf, lgƑfg+ kg ;Ƒlsn];]lx
cŝƃljd'ŝgŪ]g. PsrųfnL;ltd+.
lsn];ŋos/];' rt";' cl/od±Ʈë;' `f)+ vo] `f)+ gfd. kl;lƈj;]g cg'ƍfbe"t] t+t+dƮjŢlsn];fg+
cg'ƍfbkl/oá;fg] pƍƉcl/omþn] `f)+ cg'ƍfb] `f)+ gfd. ;];+ ;ƑŴ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. ƀfrųfnL;ltd+.
;'ųlƃsb'sdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

wƙ;ś)LdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

2= ljeśdfltsĕ
Obflg wƙ;ś)Ldfltsĕgƃ/+ ljeśdfltsĕo cŴjŰgf cg'ƍųf. tƧf kg _
cŴtá wƙe]b]g, ljeśgobƧgf.
kflńd'ųgof rflk, xált ;+jŰgfgoáĶ
;f kg];f cŪf/;Ɖ+ ljeśfg+ cflblƛ &lktf cŪf/;ljwf xált _ vƈljeśdfltsĕ-cfotg-wft'-;ŝ-OlƇokŝofsĕ/-;ltkŪfg-;ƙƍwfg-OlźkfbaáŢś-dƮś´fg-cƍdţf-l;ŋĕkb-kl;lƘbf-`f)-v'ŹsjŴ'-wƙxboljeśdflt

vƈljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
tŴ cflbe"tfo vƈljeśdfltsĕo cŴtá tfj _ kťŋƈflt PŴ kťflt u)gkl/Ş]bá, t]g g ttá x]Ūf, g
pźlƃ bƧ]lt. vƈflt kl/lŞƉwƙlgbƧg+. tŶfo+ vƈ-;Źá ;Ɨx'n];' &fg];' lgktlt /fl;lƛ u'±)ë kŰlųo+ ?lŃÜolƃ.
tŴ ædxfpbsŋƈáÆltcfbL;' ‘;+0lg0 5=1037 c0lg0 4=51 5=45 6=37’ lx /fl;tá vƈá gfd. æ;Lnŋƈá
;dflwŋƈáÆltcfbL;' ‘bL0lg0 3=355’ u')tá. æcŹ;f ±vëf eujf dxƃ+ bf?ŋƈÆlƃcfbL;' ‘;+0lg0 4=241’
kŰlųtá. æljţf)+ ljţf)ŋƈáÆltcfbL;' ‘w0;063’ Pslƕ lrų+ ?lŃÜtá vƈá gfd, Ʃfoldw /fl;tá clwƍ]tá. /f;Ūá
lx vƈ-;Źá, s]ĕŪf;Ūáltlk jų'+ jũlt. násƸƨ lx O)+ ux]ŷf rálbodfgf æƀLlx vƈ]lx bƧfd tLlx vƈ]lx bƧfdfÆlt
jblƃ, tƨf vƈált s]ĕŪf;ált j'ų+ xált. ¿kŋƈált PŴ ?ƍtLlt ¿k+, ;Lt'ŲfbLlx kl;źfsĕ/]g ?ƍlt #ũLolt,
kLlńotLlt cŴá. j'ų+ x]t+ eujtf _
æ?ƍtLlt ±vëf, leŋj], tƨf ¿klƃ j'ŝlt. s]þg ?ƍltĠ ;Lt]glk ?ƍlt, pŲ]glk ?ƍlt,
lh#Şfolk ?ƍlt, lkkf;folk ?ƍtLÆltcflb ‘;+0lg0 3=79’.
¿kť t+ vƈá rflt ¿kŋƈá, ¿k/fl; ¿ks]ĕŪf;ált cŴá. j]bgfŋƈfbL;'lk P;]j goált co+
tfj]Ŵ cŴtá ;+jŰgfgoá.
86

wƙe]btá kg]Ŵ x]Ūf s';nlųs]þ ljeųf ctLtflbe]bleƉf ;Ƒ] ¿kwƙf ¿kŋƈá gfd. tyf
rt'e"dsĕ j]bgf;ţfoá j]bgfŋƈá gfd, ;ţfŋƈá gfd. j]bgf;ţf kg &k]ŷf ;];f mþƧfboá kţf; r]tl;sĕ
;řf/ŋƈá gfd. kť;' vƈ];' lgƑfgd]j c;ślxt+, pkfbfgŋƈ];' kg ;Ƒ] nás'ų/wƙf. cod]j lx vƈ]lx
pkfbfgŋƈfg+ lj;];á. vƈf clj;];tá j'ųf, pkfbfgŋƈf ;f;jákfbflgoefj]g lj;];]ŷf. Ow kg clj;];]g
j'ųųf lgƑfg+ &k]ŷf cj;];f ;Ƒ] wƙf ;śx+ uŞƃLlt co+ wƙe]btá ;+jŰgfgoá.
ljeśgobƧgflt ljeśkflńof cfutcŴgobƧgtá. ljeśkflńo+ lx ;'ųƃefhgLo+
clewƙefhgLo+ kŤfk'Şslƃ tLlx go]lx vƈljeśá ljeųá. tyf cfotgljeśfboá. s]þjn+ lx OlƇoljeś],
l;ŋĕkbljeś] r ;'ųƃefhgLo+ glŴ. kŝofsĕ/ljeś] kŤfk'Şs+þ glŴ. `f)ljeśfbL;' kg tL;' toálk gof
g ;lƃ. t];' lx `f)ljeśá Psljwtá kŪfo ofj b;ljwf ljeųá, v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśá Psljwtá kŪfo ofj
ƀf;lŪke]bf ljeųá, wƙxboljeśá kg ;Ƒ;śxfbLlx b;lx jf/]lx ljeųá, tƨf t];+ t];+ gofg+
d'vdųbƧgj;]g tŴ tŴ ;+jŰgf eljƧlƃ. tlŶb+ vƈljeś] ltŰ+ gofg+ d'vdųbƧg+. ;]Ɯlyb+ _
;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj ¿kŋƈá _
ætŴ stdá ¿kŋƈáĠ o+ lslť ¿k+ ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉ+ cŢų+ jf alxźf jf cáńfl/s+þ jf ;'v'd+
jf xLg+ jf k)Lt+ jf o+ b"/] ;lƃs]þ jf, tb]sŢ+ cle;ţ"lxŷf cle;lřlkŷf co+ j'ŝlt ¿kŋƈáÆlt ‘lje02’ _
Pj+ plŹl;ŷf ljŴf/tá ljeųá, tyf j]bgfŋƈfboálk. tŴ lgosŢų+ gfd cŢų¿k+ cŢų+ gfd, ttá cţ+ k/k'Ʈnut+,
cljţf)ť alxźf gfd, tyf j]bgfboálk. k;fblj;o¿k+ kg cáńfl/s+þ gfd, ;];+ ;'v'd+ gfd. clgŪ¿k+ xLg+ gfd,
OŪ¿k+ k)Lt+ gfd.
gg' OŪflgŪ+ gfd kf]Ŋ+þ klljeų+ gfd glŴ, Ps+þ PsŝƧ OŪ+ xált dgfk+, tb]j cţƧ r clgŪ+ xált.
jŴfbLlg lx ;"s/fbLg+ glƍoflg xálƃ, g dg'ƧfbLg+, t];ť jŴfe/)fbLlg lkoflg, g ;"s/fbLglƃ, tƨf ?lrj;]g]j
OŪflgŪtf ux]tƑfĠ g, OŪflgŪfg+ kf]Ŋ+þ ljeųųf. s';nsƙh+ lx s';nljkfslj;oáj OŪ+ gfd, cs';nsƙh+
cs';nljkfslj;oáj clgŪ+ gfd, ;ţfljkƟf;]g kg s]ĕlr OŪd]j a'ź¿kfƸb hjgŋ±)ë clgŪtá dgl; s/ált, clgŪť
lg/olƮ;Ŵlj;fƸb OŪtá dgl; s/ált. hjg]lx Pj ljkƟf;efjá, g ljkfs]þxLlt ljkfsj;]g OŪflgŪ+ lgot+ j]lbtƑ+.
;ƙáxljgáblgof kg ljeśŪsyfo _
æ;'v;ƖþƧ+ lx u"ysnn+ rŋ'ƀf/#fgƀf/];' clgŪ+, sĕoƀf/] OŪ+ xált. rŊþjlųgá dl)/tg]g
kályodfgƧ, ;'jŰ;"n] pųfl;odfgƧ r dl)/tg;'jŰ;"nflg rŋ'ƀf/] OŪflg xálƃ, sĕoƀf/] clgŪfgLÆlt
‘lje0cŪ06’ _
Pj+ ƀf/j;]g PsƧ]j jŴ'gá OŪtf, clgŪtf r j'ųf. ;f r Psŋ±)ë g o'ųf Pssnfkute"tákfbfo¿kfg+
Ps;fdlƮod'ƍlųtá. g lx e"t];' cs';nj;]g clgŪ];' pƍşƃ];' tb'kfbfo¿kflbs';n]g OŪflg pƍşlƃ, leƉŋ±)ë kg
OŪflg dl)/tgfbLlg t]lx kályodfgƧ cs';nkŝo]g pt'gf clgŪflg ljkl/)dlƃ, s';nkŝo]g clgŪflg u"ysnnfbLlg
OŪfgLlt, co+ gá cųgádlt. Pj+ ljeų];' r OŪflgŪ];' t+ t+ ¿k+ pkfbfo'kfbfo xLg+, k)Ltť bŪƑ+. ;'v'd+ kg ¿k+
b"/]¿k+ gfd, cáńfl/s+þ ;lƃs]þ¿k+ gfd. t+ t+ jf kg ¿k+ pkfbfo'kfbfo ¿k+ b"/] ;lƃs]þ bŪƑ+. ;];+ j'ųgod]j.
j]bgfbL;' kg cs';nf j]bgf cáńfl/sĕ, Ot/f ;'v'df. s';nfs';nf cáńfl/sĕ, cƓfstf ;'v'df. b'ŋĕ j]bgf
cáńfl/sĕ, Ot/f ;'v'df. ;'vb'ŋĕ jf cáńfl/sĕ, Ot/f ;'v'df. c;dfkƉƧ jf j]bgf cáńfl/sĕ, ;dfkƉƧ ;'v'df.
;f;jf cáńfl/sĕ cgf;jf ;'v'df. t+ t+ jf kg j]bg+ pkfbfo'kfbfo cáńfl/s;'v'dtf bŪƑf. cs';nf j]bgf
s';nfƓfstflx b"/], tf r tfo b"/]lt Pj+ hĕlt;efjk'Ʈne"lde]btá j'ųgo]g b"/]j]bgf bŪƑf, s';nf j]bgf s';nfo
;lƃs]þlt Pj+ hĕltcflb;fdţtá ;lƃs]þj]bgf bŪƑf. t+ t+ jf kg j]bg+ pkfbfo'kfbfo j]bgf b"/];lƃs]þ bŪƑf. Pj+
;ţfŋƈfbL;'lk oyfg'¿k+ cáńfl/s;'v'dtfboá j]lbtƑflt. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká,
ljŴf/á kg ljeśkflńcŪsyf;'
‘lje08cfboᶠlje0cŪ08cfboá’ ux]tƑált co+ ;'ųƃefhgLogoá.
clewƙefhgLogo] ¿kŋƈƧ tfj Psljwflbtá ofj Psĕb;ljwf ¿ksů] j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑf. j]bgfŋƈá kg
Pslj±wëf mþƧ;ƕo'ųá, b'lj±wëf ;x]t'sb'sj;]g, ltlj±wëf s';nlųsj;]g, rt'lƑ±wëf rt'e"dsj;]g, kťlj±wëf ;efje]b]g,
%lƑ±wëf %ƀfl/sj;]g, ;ųlj±wëf ;ųljţf);ƕoáuj;]g, cŪlj±wëf t];' sĕoljţf);ƕo'ų+ ;'vb'ŋj;]g lƀwf lelƆŷf,
gjlj±wëf t];' dgáljţf);ƕo'ų+ s';nlųsj;]g ltwf lelƆŷf, b;lj±wëf t];' sĕoljţf);ƕo'ų+ b'ljwf, dgáljţf);ƕo'ųť
ltwf lelƆŷflt Pj+ ;x]t'sb'sd"n+ k&djf/+ jŷf k'g s';nlųsŪfg] j]bgflųskLltlųs;lgbƧglųsjlşt] ;Ƒlųs]þ oáh]ŷf
ofj b;ljwf, ck/]lk cŪf/; jf/f j'ųf. oyf r]Ŵ ;x]t'sb'sd"lnsĕ ;Ƒlųsoáhgf, Pj+ x]t';ƕo'ųb'sĕbL;'
cg'¿kb'sd"lnsĕlk ;/)b'skl/oá;fgf kŝ]s+þ ;Ƒlųsoáhgflk j]lbtƑflt co+ b'sd"ns]ĕ oáhgfgoá. oyf r Ps]þsb's]þg
;Ƒlųsoáhgfj;]g b'sd"ns]ĕ goá j'ųá, Pj+ Ps]þslųs]þg oyfg'¿k+ ;Ƒb'soáhgfj;]g ltsd"ns]ĕ, tb'eoldƧsj;]g
petájŬgs]ĕ r goá j]lbtƑá. oyf r]Ŵ j]bgfŋƈ], Pj+ ;ţfŋƈfbL;'lk oyf/x+ b'sd"nsĕlbgof j]lbtƑflt co+
clewƙefhgLogoá.
kŤfk'Şsgo] kg kťƉ+ vƈfg+ slt s';nf, slt cs';nf, slt cƓfstf, slt ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf»k]0
slt ;/)f, slt c/)fltĠ ¿kŋƈá cƓfstá, rųf/á vƈf l;of s';nf, l;of cs';nf, l;of cƓfstf, ¿k+, j]bgf r
j]bgflųs]þ g jųƑf, ;];f ltwflk xálƃ, ¿k+ g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙ+, l;of pkflbƉ'kfbflgo+, l;of cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgo+,
c;+lslnŪ;+lsn]l;s+þ, ;];f rųf/á vƈf tLlx lts]þlx ltwflk xálƃ. ¿k+ cljtŊþcljrf/+, toá vƈf ltwflk xálƃ,
;řf/ŋƈá ltwf r g jųƑá r. ¿k+ g jųƑ+, j]bgf l;of kLlt;xutf, g jųƑf, toá ltwf r g jųƑf r. ¿k+
g]jbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑ+, gbƧg]ggefjgfokxftƑx]t's+þ, g]jfroufldgckroufld, g]j;]v+gf;]v+, kl/ų+, ;];f

87

ltwflk xálƃ. kl/ųf/ƙ)lųs]þ ¿k+ cgf/ƙ)+, ;];f ltwf r g jųƑf r. ¿k+ dlŢd+, clgot+, ;];f ltwflk.
dƮf/ƙ)lųs]þ r ¿k+ cgf/ƙ)+, ;];f ltwflk jf g jųƑf. pƍƉftLtlųs]þ;' kťlk ltwf xálƃ. ctLtf/ƙ)lųs]þ ¿k+
cgf/ƙ)+, ;];f ltwf r g jųƑf r. cŢųlųs]þ kťlk ltwf xálƃ. cŢųf/ƙ)lųs]þ ¿k+ cgf/ƙ)+, ;];f ltwflk g
jųƑf r. rųf/á vƈf clgbƧgcƍl#f, ¿kŋƈá ltwflk xált.
rųf/á vƈf gx]t", ;řf/ŋƈá l;of x]t', l;of g x]t'. ¿k+ cx]t's+þ, x]t'ljƍo'ų+, ;];f lƀwflk. toá vƈf
l;of ;x]t'sĕ r]j g r x]t", l;of g jųƑf r, ;řf/ŋƈá lƀwf r g jųƑá r, ¿k+ g jųƑd]j. tyf cgƃ/b's]þlk.
¿k+ gx]t'cx]t's+þ, toá lƀwflk, ;řf/ŋƈá lƀwf r g jųƑá r. kťlk ;ƍŝof, ;řtf, rųf/á clgbƧgf, cƍl#f,
¿k+ lƀwflk. ¿k+ ¿kL, ;];f c¿lkgá. ¿k+ nálso+, ;];f lƀwflk. kťlk s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf, g r s]þglr ljţ]Ɯf r.
rųf/á gá cf;jf, ;řf/f lƀwflk, g jųƑf r. ¿k+ ;f;já, cf;jljƍo'ųá ;];f lƀwflk. ¿k+ ;f;jf r]j gá r
cf;jf, toá tyf r g jųƑf r. ;řf/á lƀwf r g jųƑá r. ¿k+ g jųƑd]j, toá l;of cf;j;ƕo'ųf r]j gá r
cf;jf, l;of g jųƑf, ;řf/á lƀwf r g jųƑá r. ¿k+ cf;jljƍo'ų+ ;f;jť, ;];f lƀwf r g jųƑf r. Oldgf
go]g ;+oáhg±uëfŞsĕbL;'lk oáhgf j]lbtƑf. s]þjn+ lx k/fdf;;ƕo'ųb's]þ ¿k+ k/fdf;ljƍo'ų+, toá lƀwflk, ;řf/á
lƀwflk, lblŪj;]g g jųƑá r. tlto] Pųsd]j lj;];á. ¿k+ cgf/ƙ)+, ;];f ;f/ƙ)f. ljţf)+ lrų+, ;];f gá
lrųf. toá r]tl;sĕ, ƀ] cr]tl;sĕ. toá lrų;ƕo'ųf, ¿k+ lrųljƍo'ų+. ljţf)+ g jųƑ+. tyf lrų;+;Ūb's]þlk.
toá lrų;d'Ūfgf, ljţf)+ gá lrų;d'Ūfg+. ¿k+ lƀwflk. tyf cgƃ/b'sƀo]lk. toá lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgf, ƀ] gá
lrų;+;Ū;d'Ūfgf. tyf cgƃ/b'sƀo]lk. ljţf)+ cŢlųs+þ, toá aflx/f, ¿k+ lƀwflk. rųf/á gá pkfbf. ¿k+
lƀwflk. kťlk l;of pkflbƉf, l;of cg'kflbƉf, gá pkfbfgf.
lsn];±uëfŞs]ĕ j'ųgoáj. ¿k+ g]jbƧg]ggefjgfo kxftƑ+, ;];f lƀwflk. Pj+ ofjkLltb'sĕ oáhgf
j]lbtƑf.
¿k+ g j]bgf, g ;'vf, g ;'v;xutf, ;];f lƀwflk. tyf cgƃ/b's]þlk. ¿k+ sĕdfjr/+, ;];f lƀwflk.
Pj+ ofj ;/)b'sĕ oáhgf j]lbtƑf. co+ kŤfk'Şsgoá.
Od] kg gof ljŴf/tá kflńcŪsyflx `ftƑf. cŴljlgŞoá r g];+ wƙ;ś)LdfltsŴ;+jŰgfo j'ųfg';f/]g
`ftƑá. Otá k/+ clt/]s+þ cjŷf ck'Ƒd]j jŰloƧfdflt co+ ljeśgobƧgtá ;+jŰgfgoá.
Obflg kg]Ŵ _
sdtág"gflwstá, bŪƑ;de]btá.
kflńd'ųgoá `]Ɯá, vƈs]ĕ;ƟldŞtfĶ
tŴ sdtált PŴ pƍlųŊþdá kxfgŊþdá klklųŊþdá e"ldŊþdá b];gfŊþdált ax'lj±wë;' sd];' vƈfg+ b];gfŊþdáj
o'şlt, g Ot/], c;Ƙjf. ce]b]g lx kť;' vƈ];' cųƮfxkltt+ j]g]Ɯhg+ ;d"x#gljlgưáubƧg]g cųƮfxtá dár]t'sĕdá
eujf lxtsĕdá tƧ tƧ hgƧ ;'vƮx)Ŵ+ rŋ'cfbLg+ lj;oe"t+ cáńfl/s+þ k&d+ ¿kŋƈ+ b];]l;, ttá OŪflgŪlj;o;+j]bs+þ
cáńfl/s+þ j]bg+, o+ j]b]lt, t+ ;ŧfgftLlt Pj+ j]bgflj;oƧ cfsĕ/Ʈflxs+þ ;ţ+, ;ţfj;]gfle;řf/s]þ ;řf/], t];+
j]bgfbLg+ lgƧoflwklte"t+ ljţf)lƃ co+ tfj]Ŵ sdá.
cg"gflwstált
sƨf kg eujtf kť]j vƈf j'ųf cg"gf cglwsĕltĠ
;Ƒ;řt;ef±uës;śxtá,
cųųlgoƮfxjŴ'Ƨ Ptƍ/dtá, cţ];ť tbj/áwtá. cg]sƍe]b];' lx ;řtwƙ];' ;efuj;]g ;śƞdfg];' ¿k+
¿k;ef±uës;śxj;]g Ps]ĕ vƈá xált, j]bgf j]bgf;ef±uës;śxj;]g Ps]ĕ vƈá xált. P; goá ;ţfbL;'lk, tƨf
;Ƒ;řt;ef±uës;śxtá kť]j j'ųf. Ptk/dť]t+ cųųlgoƮfxjŴ', olbb+ ¿kfboá kť, tƨf cųųlgoƮfxjŴ'Ƨ
Ptk/dtálk kť]j j'ųf. o]lk rţ] ;Lnfboá kť wƙŋƈf j'ųf, t]lk ;řf/ŋƈkl/ofkƉųf PŴ]j cj/áw+ uŞlƃ, tƨf
cţ];+ tbj/áwtálk kť]j j'ųflt co+ cg"gflwstá.
bŪƑ;de]btált bŪƑe]btá, pkdfe]btá r. tŴ bŪƑe]btá tfj kť'kfbfgŋƈf
;fdţtá
plŋųfl;skŝlŴstá, ef/tá, vfbstá, clgŝb'ŋcgų;řftjwstá r bŪƑf. lj;];tá kg m]þ)lků+ ljo ¿k+ bŪƑ+,
pbsa'Ƒ'ńd/Llrssblnŋƈdfof ljo oyfŊþd+ j]bgfboá bŪƑf. oyf lx m]þ)lkůá ljdŹf;xá, ;á r kųyfnsĕlbcŴ+
ulxtálk tdŴ+ g ;f±wëlt, leşlt, Pj+ ¿klƕ ljdŹf;x+, tť ;'eflbj;]g ulxtlƕ g tyf ltŪlt, c;'eflbo]j xált.
oyf jf m]þ)lkůá cg]s;lƈ#ltá ax'Ɖ+ pbs;ƍflbkf)sĕg+ cfjf;á, cflbtá r]; ab/kŊþdųá x'ŷf
cg'k'ƑjŬgs]ĕ plŪtdųálk r]; leşlt, ±yëfs+þ uƄflk, ;d'Ź+ kŷf kg cjƧd]j leşlt Pj+ ¿klƕ l%Źfjl%Ź+
cg]s;lƈ#lt+ c;Lltlslds'njálsŰ+, cflbtá r]t+ snndų+ x'ŷf cg'k'ƑjŬgs+þ, snndų]lk r]t+ leşlt, cƑ'bflbefj]lk
cfo'ŋo+ kŷf cjƧd]j leşlt. Pj+ m]þ)lků;lb;+ bŪƑ+.
oyf kg a'Ƒ'ńá d'x'ų/d)Loá cuƞ'k±uëf g lr/lŪlts]ĕj, Pj+ j]bgflk. oyf r a'Ƒ'ńá pbstn+, pbslaƆ'+,
pbshƟs+þ ;ŘlŬŷf k'+ sŷf ux)jftťflt rųfl/ sĕ/)flg klŝ pƍşlt, Pj+ j]bgflk jŴ'+, cf/ƙ)+, lsn];hƟ+,
mþƧ;Ŝũgťflt rųfl/ sĕ/)flg klŝ pƍştLlt ;f a'Ƒ'ń;lb;f bŪƑf.
oyf kg d/Llrsĕ hnf;oflbefj]g ljƍnlƘsĕ, Pj+ ;ţflk lgŝflbefj]gflt d/Llr;lb;f bŪƑf. oyf kg
sblnŋƈá cuƞ'k±uëf ax'jlũ;dáwfgá, Pj+ ;řf/ŋƈálk cuƞ'k±uëflgŝflb;f/lj/lxtá, mþƧflbax'wƙ;dáwfgá r xátLlt
;á sblnŋƈ;lb;á bŪƑá. oyf kg dfof c;'jŰ/htflb¿kflglk tyf ufxfk]ŷf dxfhg+ jť]lt, Pj+ ljţf)lƕ
clgŝflb¿k+ t]g]j lrų]g cfuŞƃ+ ljo lgŝflbtá r ufxfk]ŷf jť]tLlt t+ dfof;lb;+ bŪƑ+. j'ųť _
æm]þ)lků"kd+ ¿k+, j]bgf a'Ƒ'ń"kdf.
d/Llrs"þkdf ;ţf, ;řf/f sbn"kdf.
88

dfo"kdť ljţf)+, b]l;tflbŝaƈ'gfÆltĶ ‘;+0lg0 3=95’.
cod]Ŵ bŪƑe]bá.
pkdfe]btá r kg lunfg;fn"kdá ¿k'kfbfgŋƈá, ±uënţ"kdá j]bg'kfbfgŋƈá,
±uënţ;d'Ūfg"kdá
;ţ'kfbfgŋƈá, c;ƍfo;]jg"kdá ;řf?kfbfgŋƈá
lunfg"kdá ljţf)'kfbfgŋƈá. clkr
rf/ssĕ/)ck/fwsĕ/)sĕ/sck/flws"þkdf
Pt] efhgeáhgƓŧgkl/j];se'ŧs"þkdf rflt cod]Ŵ pkdfe]bá. Pj+
kflńd'ųsljlgŞogoá `]Ɯá.
vƈljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

cfotgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
cfotgljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ ƀfb;fotgfgLlt PŴ cfotgtá, cfofg+ tggtá, cfotƧ r gogtá
cfotgflg. rŋ'¿kfbL;' lx t+t+ƀf/f/ƙ)f lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf ;]g ;]g cg'ejgflbgf lsŝ]g cfotlƃ pkŪxlƃ #]lƃ
jfodlƃ, t] r kg cfoe"t] wƙ] Ptflg tgálƃ ljŴf/]lƃ, Obť ctLj cfot+ ;+;f/b'ŋ+ goƃ]j, kjųoƃLlt j'ų+ xált,
tƨf æcfotgfgLÆlt j'ŝlƃ.
clkr lgjf;ŪfgŪ]g, cfs/Ū]g, ;dá;/)ŪfgŪ]g, ;ŧfleb];Ū]g, sĕ/)Ū]g r ;f;g], nás]þ r æcfotgÆlƃ
j'ŝlƃ. rŋ'cfbL;' lx t] t] lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf tbfoųj'lųtfo lgj;lƃ, t];' r cfs/e"t];' cflsŰf jŴf/ƙ)j;]g r
;dá;/lƃ, rŋĕboáj g];+ ;ŧfltb];á, sĕ/)ť, tƨf lgjf;Ūfgflbgf cŴ]g rŋĕbLlg cfotgfgLlt j]lbtƑflg.
rŋĕotglƃcfbL;' rŋtLlt rŋ', ¿k+ cƧfb]lt, ljefj]lt rflt cŴá. ¿kotLlt ¿k+. jŰljsĕ/+ cfkşdfg+
xbośtefj+ ksĕ;]tLlt cŴá. ;')ftLlt ;át+. ;ƍtLlt ;Źá, pbfx/LotLlt cŴá. #fotLlt #fg+. uƈotLlt uƈá,
cųgá jŴ'+ ;"rotLlt cŴá. hËljt+ cƢfotLlt lhƢf. /;lƃ t+ ;ųflt /;á, cƧfb]ƃLlt cŴá. s'lŞtfg+ ;f;jwƙfg+
cfoált sĕoá, pƍlųb];á. m'þ;LotLlt mþáŪƑ+. dgtLlt dgá. cųgá nŋ)+ wf/]ƃLlt wƙf. rŋ' r t+ oyfj'ų]gŴ]g
cfotgťflt rŋĕotg+»k]0 wƙf r t] cfotgťflt wƙfotglƃ co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]btá kg]Ŵ ;Ƒlƕ ljţf)+ dgfotg+ gfd. r]tl;s;'v'd¿klgƑfgflg wƙfotg+ gfd. ;];flg ;'ljţ]Ɯflg.
Od];' r cfotg];' ctLtflbe]bleƉf, sĕnljlgd'ųf r nálsonás'ų/f ;Ƒ] gfd¿kwƙf, kţlųoá r ;ślxtflt j]lbtƑf.
æhĕlt ƀLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of ;ślxtfÆltcflbjrgtá ‘wft'071’ lx ¿kf¿knŋ)fg+ hĕlth/feśfg+
;řf/ŋƈwƙfotgwƙwft";' ;ślxtųf Ot/f;lƕ kţųLg+ oyf/x+ tŴ ;ślxtefjá j]lbtƑált cod]Ŵ wƙe]bá.
ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj ærŋ'+ clgŝ+ b'ŋ+ cgųf ljkl/)fdwƙ+. ¿kf clgŝf b'ŋĕ cgųf
ljkl/)fdwƙf»k]0 wƙf clgŝf b'ŋĕ cgųf ljkl/)fdwƙfÆlt ‘lje0154’ Pj+ lj;lolj;ofotgj;]g cfotgflg
j'ųfgLlt co+ ;'ųƃefhgLogoá.
clewƙefhgLo] kg k;fblj;ofotgflg tfj ætŴ std+ rŋĕotg+Ġ o+ rŋ' rt'Ɖ+ dxfe"tfg+ pkfbfo
k;fbáÆltcflbgf ‘lje0156’ ¿ksů] ‘w0;0597’ j'ųgo]g ljeųflg. dgfotg+ kg Psljwtá kŪfo ofjb;ljwf
j]bgfŋƈ] j'ųgo]g ljeų+. wƙfotg+ kg ætŴ std+ wƙfotg+Ġ j]bgfŋƈá ;ţfŋƈá ;řf/ŋƈá, oť ¿k+
clgbƧgcƍl#+ wƙfotgkl/ofkƉ+ c;řtf r wft"Ælt ‘lje0167’ plŹl;ŷf ætŴ stdá j]bgfŋƈáÆltcflbgf ‘lje0
167’ j]bgfŋƈfbL;' j'ųgo]g ljeų+. ;'v'd¿klgƑfgflg ¿ksů] j'ųgofg]jflt co+ clewƙefhgLogoá.
kŤfk'Şsgo+ kg Otá k/+ ljŴf/tá cbƧ]ŷf ltsb'sĕg+ cflbcƃ]lx r]j lj;];ŴbLks]þlx r ltsb's]þlx oáh]ŷf
bƧloƧfd, ;];]lxlk ltsb's]þlx oáhgfgoá vƈ] j'ųgo]g ;Ŋĕ `ft'lƃ. sy+ ƀfb;Ɖ+ cfotgfg+ slt s';nf»k]0 slt
c/)fltĠ b;fotgf cƓfstf, ƀfotgf l;of s';nf, l;of cs';nf, l;of cƓfstf. j]bgflųs]þ b;fotgflg g jųƑflg,
dgfotg+ ltwflk, wƙfotg+ ltwf g jųƑť»k]0 ¿kfotg+ ;lgbƧg;ƍl#+, gjfotgflg clgbƧg;ƍl#flg,
dgfotgwƙfotgflg clgbƧgcƍl#flg, Psĕb;fotgflg g x]t", wƙfotg+ l;of x]t', l;of g x]t'»k]0
Psĕb;fotgflg ;ƍŝoflg, wƙfotg+ l;of ;ƍŝo+, l;of cƍŝo+»k]0 b;fotgflg ¿k+, dgfotg+ c¿k+, wƙfotg+
lƀwflk»k]0 b;fotgflg c/)flg, ƀfotgflg l;of ;/)flg, l;of c/)fgLlt co+ kŤfk'Şsgoá.
Obflg kg _
sdtá tfjųtá r, t];+ bŪƑe]btá.
kflńd'ųgo]g]Ŵ, ljţftƑá ljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ sdtált Owflk b];gfŊþdáj o'şlt. cŢlųs]þ;' lx cfotg];' ;lgbƧg;ƍl#lj;oųf rŋĕotg+ kfslƃ
k&d+ b]l;t+, ttá clgbƧg;ƍl#lj;oflg ;átfotgfbLlg. cy jf bƧgfg'ųl/o;jgfg'ųl/ox]t'efjtá ax"ksĕ/ųf
rŋ';átfotgflg k&d+ b]l;tflg, ttá #fgfotgfbLlg tLl), kťƉlƕ kg ±uëfr/lj;oųf cƃ] dgfotg+, rŋĕotgfbLg+
±uëfr/ųf t];+ cgƃ/+ ¿kfotgfbLlg. clkr ljţf)'ƍlųsĕ/)jjŴfgtálk cod]t];+ sdá j]lbtƑá. j'ų+ x]t+ ærŋ'ť klŝ
¿k] r pƍşlt rŋ'ljţf)+»k]0 dgť klŝ wƙ] r pƍşlt dgáljţf)Ælƃ ‘d0 lg03=421 ;+0lg0 4=60 113
dxflg0107’ co+ tfj]Ŵ sdá.
tfjųtált tfjefjtá. Ob+ j'ų+ xált _ rŋĕboálk lx wƙf Pj, Pj+ ;lt wƙfotgldŝ]j cjŷf sƨf
89

ƀfb;fotgflg j'ųfgLlt r]Ġ %ljţf)sĕo'ƍlųof
ƀf/f/ƙ)jjŴfgtá cod]t];+ e]bá xátLlt ƀfb; j'ųflg.
rŋ'ljţf)jLlykl/ofkƉƧ lx ljţf)sĕoƧ rŋĕotgd]j pƍlųƀf/+, ¿kfotgd]jf/ƙ)+. tyf Ot/flg Ot/];+. %ŪƧ
kg ejśdg;řftá dgfotg]sb];áj pƍlųƀf/+, c;fwf/)ť wƙfotg+
cf/ƙ)lƃ. Olt %Ɖ+ ljţf)sĕofg+
pƍlųƀf/f/ƙ)jjŴfgtá ƀfb; j'ųfgLlt cod]Ŵ tfjųtf.
bŪƑe]btált PŴ kg ;Ƒflg r]tflg cfotgflg cgfudgtá, clgƮdgtá r bŪƑflg. g lx tflg k'Ƒ] pbof
s'tálr cfuŞlƃ, glk pź+ jof s'lxlť uŞlƃ
cy ±vëf k'Ƒ] pbof cƍlnź;efjflg pź+ jof kl/leƉ;efjflg,
k'Ƒƃfk/ƃj]dŢ] kŝofoųj'lųtfo cj;flg kjųlƃ, tƨf cgfudgtá, clgƮdgtá r bŪƑflg. tyf lg/Lxtá,
cƓfkf/tá r. g lx rŋ'¿kfbLg+ Pj+ xált æcxá jt cƛfs+þ ;fdlƮo+ ljţf)+ gfd pƍş]ƜfÆlt, g r tflg
ljţf)'ƍfbgŴ+ ƀf/efj]g, jŴ'efj]g, cf/ƙ)efj]g jf Ɠfkf/dfkşlƃ, cy ±vëf wƙtfj];f o+ rŋ'¿kflb;fdlƮo+
rŋ'ljţf)fbLlg ;Ƙjlƃ, tƨf lg/Lxtá, cƓfkf/tá r bŪƑflg. clkr cŢlųsĕlg ;'ţá ufdá ljo bŪƑflg
w'j;'e;'vųefjlj/lxtųf, aflx/flg ufd#ftsrá/f ljo. tyf cŢlųsĕlg %kf)sĕ ljo bŪƑflg, aflx/flg t];+
±uëfr/f ljoflt cod]Ŵ bŪƑe]bá. Pj+ kflńd'ųgo]g]Ŵ ljţftƑá ljlgŞoá.
cfotgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

wft'ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
wft'ljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ cŪf/; wft'oált PŴ ljbxlt, wLot], ljwfg+, ljwLot] Ptfo, PŴ jf
wLotLlt wft'. nálsof lx wft'oá sĕ/)efj]g jjlŴtf. cg]sƍsĕ/+ ;+;f/b'ŋ+ ljbxlƃ lgƎþfb]lƃ, ;ų]lx r wLoƃ]
wf/Lolƃ, b'ŋljwfgdųd]j r]tf, Ptflx r sĕ/)e"tflx ;+;f/b'ŋ+ ;ų]lx cg'ljwLolt, oyfljlxtť b'ŋ+ PtfƩ]j wLolt
&kLotLlt Pt]lx cŴ]lx oyf;Ƙj+ æwft'oáÆlt j'ŝlƃ.
oyf jf ;/L/;řftƧ ;d'bfoƧ cjoje"t];' /;;ál)tfbL;' cţdţ+ lj;efunŋ)kl/lŞƉ];' wft';dţf,
Pjd]t];'lk kťŋƈ;řftƧ cųefjƧ rŋĕbL;' wft';dţf j]lbtƑf. nálsonás'ų/;fwf/)Ŵj;]g kg cųgá ;efj+
wf/]ƃLlt wft'oá. lgşËjdųfgd]t+ clwjrg+, tƨf oyfj'ų]gŴ]g rŋ' r t+ wft' rflt rŋ'wft'. Pj+ ;];];'kLlt co+
tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]btá kg]Ŵ cfotg];' j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑá. clkr kťƀf/fjşg;ƕlŞgƀoljţf)+ dgáwft' gfd.
kťljţf)dgáwft'jlşt+ kg ;Ƒlƕ ljţf)+ dgáljţf)wft' gfd. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj _ ækyjLwft' cfká t]h]ĕ jfoá cfsĕ;ljţf)wft"Ælt % wft'oá plŹl;ŷf
cflbtá kť cŢlųsaflx/j;]g, klŞdf r % ljţf)j;]g ljeųf, ck/flk æ;'vwft' b'ŋ;ádgƧbádgƧ'k]ŋĕcljşĕwft"Ælt
% wft'oá plŹl;ŷf tyf tyf ljeųf, k'g ck/flk æsĕdwft' ƓfkfbljƸx;fg]ŋƙcƓfkfbcljƸx;fwft"Ælt % wft'oá
plŹl;ŷf, Pj+ tLlx %Ŋ]þlx kŝ]s+þ t]e"dsĕ cŪf/; wft'oá ;¿ktá, nŋ)fxf/tá, lgƧolj;okoáuljgfefjflbtá r j'ųflt
j]lbtƑflt co+ ;'ųƃefhgLogoá.
clewƙefhgLo] kg ;¿k]g]j cŪf/; wft'oá plŹl;ŷf k;fblj;owft'oá cfotg] j'ųgo]g ljeųf, ;ų
ljţf)wft'oá kg _
ætŴ stdf rŋ'ljţf)wft'Ġ rŋ'ť klŝ ¿k] r pƍşlt lrų+»k]0 rŋ'ljţf)wft'. co+ j'ŝlt
rŋ'ljţf)wft'»k]0 sĕoljţf)wft'.
ætŴ stdf dgáwft'Ġ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of»k]0 sĕoljţf)wft'of»k]0 lg?ź;dgƃ/f pƍşlt
lrų+»k]0 ;Ƒwƙ];' jf kg k&d;dƉfxf/á pƍşlt lrų+»k]0 co+ j'ŝlt dgáwft'.
ætŴ stdf wƙwft'Ġ j]bgfŋƈá ;ţfŋƈá ;řf/ŋƈá, oť ¿k+ clgbƧg+
cƍl#+
wƙfotgkl/ofkƉ+, c;řtf r wft'»k]0 co+ j'ŝlt wƙwft'.
ætŴ stdf dgáljţf)wft'»k]0 dgáwft'oflk pƍlşŷf lg?ź;dgƃ/f pƍşlt lrų+»k]0
dgť klŝ wƙ] r pƍşlt lrų+»k]0 co+ j'ŝlt dgáljţf)wft"Ælt ‘lje0184’ _
Pj+ ljeųf. tŴ ;Ƒwƙ];' jf kg k&d;dƉfxf/ált PŴ kťljţf)lj;o];' ;Ƒwƙ];"lt Pj+ cŴá ux]tƑá. dgáwft'oflk
pƍlşŷf lg?ź;dgƃ/flt PŴ kg lk-sĕ/á ;lƕůgŴá, tƨf dgáwft'oflk ;ƃL/)jáŪƑgflbdgáljţf)wft'ofkLlt
PjdŴá ux]tƑá. dgť klŝfltcfbL;' dgáƀf/] ejśdgť]j rt'e"dswƙf/ƙ)ť klŝ ;xfjşgshjg+ lgƑųtLlt
cŴá. co+ clewƙefhgLogoá.
kŤfk'Şsgo] kg cŪf/;Ɖ+ wft"g+ slt s';nf»k]0 slt c/)fltĠ ;áń; wft'oá cƓfstf, ƀ] wft'oá ltwflk
xálƃ»k]0 b; wft'oá g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf,
kť wft'oá ljkfsĕ, dgáwft' l;of ljkfsĕ, l;of
g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf, ƀ] wft'oá ltwflk xálƃ. b; wft'oá pkflbƉ'kfbflgof, ;Źwft'oá cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgof, kť
wft'oá l;of pkflbƉ'kfbflgof, l;of cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgof, ƀ] wft'oá ltwflk»k]0 b; wft'oá l;of pƍƉf, l;of
pƍflbgá, ;Źwft' l;of pƍƉf, l;of cg'ƍƉf, l;of g jųƑf pƍflbgált, % wft'oá ltwflk. wƙwft' ltwfj»k]0
¿kwft' ;lgbƧg;ƍl#f, gj wft'oá clgbƧg;ƍl#f, cŪ wft'oá clgbƧgcƍl#f. ;ų/; wft'oá g x]t", wƙwft'
lƀwfj»k]0 ;áń; wft'oá c/)f, ƀ] wft'oá lƀwfkLlt co+ kŤfk'Şsgoá.
90

Obflg kg]tf;+ _
sdtfjųtá bŪƑf, kŝofg+ ljefutá.
wft"gldw ljţ]Ɯá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ sdtá tfj Owflk b];gfŊþdáj o'şlt. ;á r kgfo+ x]t'mþnfg'k'ƑjjŴfgj;]g j'ųá. rŋ'wft' ¿kwft"lt
Ob+ lx ƀo+ x]t', rŋ'ljţf)wft"lt Ob+ mþn+. Pj+ ;ƑŴ. co+ tfj]Ŵ sdá.
tfjųtá kg of Ow ;'ųƃefhgLo] tLlx %Ŋ]þlx j'ųf wft'oá r]j, t];' t];' ;'ųflewƙkb];];' æcfefwft'»k]0
cg]swft'gfgfwft'nás]ĕÆltcflbgf cfutf rflt cţflk ax'wft'oá lbƧlƃ, tf;lƕ j;]g kl/Ş]b+ cjŷf sƨf cŪf/;]j
j'ųfltĠ tf;lƕ tbƃáuwųf.
clkr ljhĕgg;efj] ljţf±)ë hËj;ţLg+ tƧf rŋ'ljţf)flbe]b]g cg]st+, rŋ'¿kflbkŝofoųj'lųtfo clgŝtť
ksĕ;]ŷf tƸƨ bL#/ųfg';lothËj;ţf;d"xggŴť cŪf/;]j j'ųf. lsť leƜá _ j]g]ƜŢĕ;oj;]g r. j]g]Ɯf lx c¿kd"ŃÜá
¿kd"ŃÜá peod"ŃÜált ltljwf xálƃ. t];+ ltŰlƕ oyfŊþd+ gflt;ř]kljŴf/tá c¿ke]bljefljgL vƈb];gf, ¿ke]bljefljgL
cfotgb];gf, tb'eoe]bljefljgL wft'b];gf ;ƍfoflt j]g]ƜŢĕ;oj;]g cŪf/;]j j'ųflt. j'ųť _
æ;ř]kljŴf/go]g tyf tyf lx, wƙ+ ksĕ;olt P; oyf oyfƧ.
;źƙt]hljxt+ ljno+ v±)ëg, j]g]Ɯ;ųxbo];' tdá koftLÆltĶ ‘lje0cŪ0183’.
cod]Ŵ tfjųtf.
bŪƑtá kg]tf ;Ƒflk ;řtf wft'oá k'Ƒƃfk/ƃljljųtá, w'j;'e;'vųefj;'ţtá, kŝofoųj'lųtá r bŪƑf.
lj;];tá kg]Ŵ e]l/tn+ ljo rŋ'wft' bŪƑf, bůá ljo ¿kwft', ;Źá ljo rŋ'ljţf)wft'. tyf ltƧálk r]tf oyfŊþd+
cfbf;tnd'vd'vlgldųflg ljo. tyf ltnoƃrŊþt]nflg ljo, cw/f/)Lpų/f/)LcƮL ljo r bŪƑf. P; goá
;átwft'cfbL;'lk. dgáwft' kg oyf;Ƙjtá rŋ'ljţf)wft'cfbLg+ k'/]r/fg'r/f ljo bŪƑf. wƙwft'o+ kg j]bgf
;Ɵ;"nldj ;ţf l/ųd'lŪ ljo, ;řf/f lj;?ŋldj, ;'v'd¿k+ v'/rŊ+þ ljo, c;řtf wft' ±vëdƃe"ld ljo r bŪƑf,
dgáljţf)wft' kg dŊþá ljo, cƧvń'Řá ljo, oŴsĕdlgkflttá j]xf;lŋųbůá ljo, /śgá ljo r bŪƑf. cod]Ŵ
bŪƑtf.
kŝofg+ ljefutá kg]Ŵ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of rŋ' lgƧokŝoá, ¿k+ cf/ƙ)kŝoá, lsl/ofdgáwft' cgƃ/kŝoá,
toá c¿lkgá vƈf ;xhĕtkŝoá. Pj+ ;átljţf)fbL;'lk. dgáljţf)wft'of kg dgáwft' cgƃ/kŝoá, wƙwft'
cf/ƙ)kŝoá, ;ƕo'ųlgƧo;xhĕtflbkŝoált co+ kŝoljef±uëf. Pj+ ljţ]Ɯá kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
wft'ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

;ŝljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
;ŝljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ rųfl/ cl/o;ŝfgLlt PŴfo+ ;ŝ-;Źá cg]s]þ;' cŴ];' lbƧlt. ;]Ɯlyb+ _
æ;ŝ+ e±)ë g s'Ţ]ƜfÆltcfbL;' ‘w0k0224’ jfrf;ŝ]. æ;ŝ] l&tf ;d)Ɣfƪ)fÆltcfbL;' ‘hĕ02=21=433’ lj/lt;ŝ].
æsƨf g' ;ŝflg jblƃ gfgf, kjflbof;] s';nfjbfgfÆltcfbL;' ‘;'0lg0891’ lblŪ;ŝ]. æPs+þ lx ;ŝ+, g
b'ltodŴLÆltcfbL;' ‘;'0 lg0890’ k/dŴ;ŝ], lgƑfg] r]j d±Ʈë r. ært'Ɖ+ cl/o;ŝfg+ slt s';nfÆltcfbL;'
‘lje0216’ cl/o;ŝ]. Ʃfoldwflk cl/o;ŝ] jųlt. s]þgŪ]g ;ŝflgĠ tyŪ]g. s]ĕo+ tyŪá gfdĠ oá kţfrŋ'gf
pkkl/ŋdfgfg+ dfofj ljk/Ltá, d/LrLj lj;+jfbs]ĕ, ltlŴofg+ cŴf ljo cg'knưdfg;efjá r g xált, cy ±vëf
afwgƍej;lƃlgƜfge"t]g tŞfljk/Lte"tefj]g cl/o`f)Ƨ ±uëfr/á xált. co+ tyŪá ;ŝŪált j]lbtƑá. j'ųť _
æOlt tŞfljkƟf;e"tefj+ rt";'lk.
b'ŋĕbLƩlj;];]g, ;ŝŪ+ cfx' klůtfÆlt ‘lje0cŪ0189 ;f/Ŵ0L0 dxfjƮ 3=14’Ķ
cl/oflg r tflg ;ŝflg rflt cl/o;ŝflg. cl/ofgLlt pųdflg, clj;+jfbsĕgLlt cŴá. cl/o]lx a'źfbLlx
klljlŢtƑflg ;ŝflg, cl/oƧ jf ;ƙf;Ɨ'źƧ ;ƃsĕlg ;ŝflg t]g pƍflbtųf, ksĕl;tųf r, cl/oefjs/flg jf ;ŝflg
t];+ cle;Ɨ'źųf cl/oefjl;lźtált cl/o;ŝflg. æb'ŋ+ cl/o;ŝÆlƃcfbL;' kg b'-Olt co+ ;Źá s'lŞt] lbƧlt. s'lŞt+
lx k'ų+ æb'k'ųáÆlt jblƃ. v+-;Źá kg t'Ş]. t'Ş+ lx cfsĕ;+ ævÆlƃ j'ŝlt. Obť k&d;ŝ+ s'lŞt+
cg]s]ĕkŹjflwŪfgtá, t'Ş+ afnhgkl/slƍtw'j;'e;'vųefjlj/lxttá, tƨf s'lŞtųf, t'Şųf r æb'ŋÆlƃ j'ŝlt. ;+-Olt
r co+ ;Źá æ;dfudá, ;d]tÆlƃcfbL;' ;+oáu+ bLk]lt. p-Olt co+ ;Źá æpƍƉ+ plbtÆlƃcfbL;' pƍƸų. co-;Źá kg
sĕ/)+ bLk]lt. Obť b'lto;ŝ+ cj;];kŝo;dfoá±uë ;lt b'ŋƧ'ƍlųsĕ/)lƃ æb'ŋ;d'boáÆlt j'ŝlt.
tlto;ŝ+ kg oƨf lg-;Źá cefj+, /áw-;Źá rf/s+þ bLk]lt, tƨf cefjá PŴ, PtƸƨ jf clwut]
;+;f/rf/s;řftƧ b'ŋlg/áwƧ ;Ƒult;'ţųf, tƍlkŋųf rflt æb'ŋlg/áwÆlƃ j'ŝlt, b'ŋƧ jf cg'ƍfblg/áwkŝoųf.
rt'Ŵ+ kg oƨf Pt+ b'ŋlg/áw+ uŞlt, ;ų+ jf t+ udolt cf/ƙ)j;]g tbled'vųf, klkbf r xált b'ŋlg/áwƍlųof,
tƨf æb'ŋlg/áwufldgL klkbfÆlt j'ŝlt.
clkr b'ŋĕbLg+ rųf/á rųf/á cŴf ljeųf tyf cljtyf cgţyf, o] b'ŋĕbLlg cle;d]ƃ]lx cle;d]tƑf.
91

oyfx _
æb'ŋƧ kLńgŪá ;řtŪá ;ƃfkŪá ljkl/)fdŪá, Od] rųf/á b'ŋƧ b'ŋŪf tyf cljtyf
cgţyf. ;d'boƧ cfo"xgŪá lgbfgŪá ;+oáuŪá klnaáwŪá »k]0 lg/áwƧ lgƧ/)Ūá ljj]sŪá c;řtŪá
cdtŪá»k]0 dƮƧ lgƜfgŪá x]ŷŪá bƧgŪá cflwkt]ƜŪá»k]0 cgţyfÆlt ‘kl0d02=8’.
Pj+ ljeųfg+ rt'Ɖ+ rt'Ɖ+ cŴfg+ j;]g b'ŋĕbLlg j]lbtƑflg. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]btá kg tŲfjlştf ;Ƒnálsowƙf, ;+lsn]l;sjlştf jf b'ŋ;ŝ+ gfd, tŲf kg ;Ƒf
cs';nf jf nálsos';nf jf wƙf ;d'bo;ŝ+ gfd, lgƑfg+ lg/áw;ŝ+ gfd, nás'ų/s';nlrų;ƕo'ųflg
cŪdƮśflg b'ŋlg/áwufldgL klkbf cl/o;ŝ+ gfd. Od]lx kg dƮś]lx ;ƕo'ųf lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf r]j
;fdţmþnflg r]Ŵ c;ślxtfgLlt j]lbtƑflg. tflg lx æoblgŝ+ t+ b'ŋÆlƃ ‘;+0lg0 3=15’ jrgtá
;řf/b'ŋ;ślxtflglk. ofo kl/ţfo eujlt Ɣƪrl/o+ j'Ƨlt tyų]g g xálƃ, b'ŋ+ cl/o;ŝlƃ g j'ŝlƃ,
tflg &k]ŷf ;Ƒ] nálsonás'ų/wƙf ;ślxtflt bŪƑf. co+ wƙe]bá.
ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo] b'ŋ;ŝ+ tfj _
ætŴ
std+ b'ŋ+ cl/o;ŝ+Ġ hĕltlk b'ŋĕ, h/flk b'ŋĕ,
d/)lƕ b'ŋ+,
;áskl/b]jb'ŋbádgƧ'kfof;flk b'ŋĕ, clƍo]lx ;ƕoá±uëf b'ŋ]ĕ, lko]lx ljƍoá±uëf b'ŋ]ĕ, olƕŞ+ g nelt, tlƕ
b'ŋ+, ;+lvų]g kť'kfbfgŋƈf b'ŋĕÆlt ‘lje0190’ _
plŹl;ŷf ljeų+. tŴ b'ŋ+ ltljw+ xált b'ŋb'ŋ+ ljkl/)fdb'ŋ+ ;řf/b'ŋlƃ. tŴ b'ŋb'ŋ+ b'ljw+ kl/ofob'ŋ+
lgƍl/ofob'ŋlƃ. tŴ sĕlosr]tl;sb'ŋbádgƧj]bgf lgƍl/ofob'ŋ+ gfd, tbj;];f kg b'ŋb'ŋƧ jŴ'e"tf kť'kfbfgŋƈf
kl/ofob'ŋ+ gfd. ;'v;ádgƧj]bgf ljkl/)fdb'ŋ+ gfd. ;Ƒ] kg kť'kfbfgŋƈf, ;Ƒ;řtf jf ;řf/b'ŋ+ gfd. Od];+
ltŰ+ b'ŋĕg+ j;]g oyfoáu+ tL;' ej];' hĕltcfbLg+ b'ŋb'ŋtf j]lbtƑf. sĕdejƸƨ lx hĕlt tfj ;o+ g b'ŋĕ,
ckfoultdg'ƧultcfbL;' kg lg/olƮ;ƃfkflbd"ns+þ, uưáŊþlƃsĕlbd"ns+þ,
lh#Şflkkf;flbd"nsť b'ŋ+ tƧ ;ƑƧ
sĕlosr]tl;sb'ŋƧ jŴ'efj]g
kl/ofotá b'ŋlƃ. tyf h/fd/)fboálk. s]þjn+ h/f sĕob'Ƒntfd"nƧ,
k'ųbf/flbkl/ejd"nƧ r, d/)+ kg df/)lƃsj]bgfe"tƧ, lg/oflbultlgldųbƧgd"nƧ r b'ŋƧ jŴ'efjtá, ;ásĕboá
;ásĕlbd"nƧ sĕlosr]tl;sb'ŋƧ jŴ'efjųf r]j ;o+ b'ŋųf r b'ŋĕlt j]lbtƑf. ljkl/)fdb'ŋ;řf/b'ŋtf r];+ kl;źfo]j.
Pj+ sĕdej] hĕltcfbLg+ tLlxlk b'ŋ]lx b'ŋtf j]lbtƑf. ¿kf¿kej];' kg oƨf ;áskl/b]jb'ŋbádgƧ'kfof;f g ;lƃ, tƨf
tŴ hĕltcfbLg+ ljkl/)fdb'ŋ;řf/b'ŋj;]g r b'ŋtf j]lbtƑf, g b'ŋb'ŋj;]gflt co+ b'ŋ;ŝ] goá.
;d'bo;ŝ+ kg æsĕdtŲf ejtŲf ljejtŲfÆlt ‘lje0203’ tųsd]j plŹl;ŷf æ;f ±vëf kg];f tŲf sŴ
pƍşdfgf pƍştLÆlt ‘lje0203’ k'lŞŷf %Ɖ+ %Ɖ+ OlƇolj;oljţf)mþƧj]bgf;ţfr]tgftŲfljtŊþljrf/fg+ lj;oe"tfg+
j;]g tŲfo æPŴ];f tŲf pƍşdfgf pƍştLÆlt Pj+ pƍƸų ksĕ;]ŷf ljŴf/tá ljeų+.
lg/áw;ŝ+ kg ætƧf Pj tŲfo c;];lj/fulg/á±wëf rf±uëf kllgƧ±Ʈëf d'lų cgfnoáÆlt ‘lje0204’ jŷf k'g
æ;f ±vëf kg];f tŲf sŴ lg?Ţdfgf lg?ŢtLÆlt ‘lje0204’ k'lŞŷf ;d'bo;ŝ] j'ųOlƇofbLg+ j;]g klnádtá tŲfo
lg/áw+ ksĕ;]ŷf ljŴf/tá ljeų+. tŴ c;];lj/fulg/á±wëfltcfbLlg kbflg lgƑfgj]jrgflg. lgƑfg+ lx cfuƙ tŲf
c;];f lj/şlt, lg?Ţlt, rhËolt, kllgƧşËolt, d'ŝlt, g cƟLolt, tƨf æc;];lj/fulg/á±wëf rf±uëf kllgƧ±Ʈëf
d'lų cgfnoáÆlt j'ŝlt. Psd]j lx lgƑfg+, gfdflg kgƧ ;Ƒ;řtfg+ gfdklkŋj;]g cg]sĕlg xálƃ.
gg' kf]Ŋ+þ lgƑfg+ gfd glŴ, lsn];ŋodųd]j lgƑfg+, t]g]j r tf;' tf;' ;'ųflewƙb];gf;' æ/fuŋoá
bá;ŋoáÆltcflbgf ‘;+0lg0 4=314’ j'ųlƃ r]Ġ g, c/xųlgƑfgfg+ Pstfkşgtá. c/xųlƕ lx æoá ±vëf, cfj';á,
/fuŋoá bá;ŋoá dáxŋoá, Ob+ j'ŝlt c/xųÆlƃ ‘;+0lg0 4=314’ /fufbLg+ kl/ŋoƃ] pƍƉųf pkrf/]g c/xų+
/fuŋoflbefj]g j'ŝlt, tyf /fufbLg+ vox]t'ųf lgƑfglƕ /fuŋoflbefj]g j'ųlƃ ux]tƑ+. Ot/yf lgƑfgƧ ax'ų+
cfkşlt /fufbLg+ ax'Ɖ+ voƧflk ax'ųf. ;Ƒlsn];fglƕ voƧ Psų]g k&dd±Ʈëg lblŪcfbLg+ vo] ;Ƒlsn];ŋoá
cfkşlt, cáńfl/sųťƧ l;of lt/Şfgfglƕ pƍƉ/fuŋoƧ kfsų]g lgƑfgƍlųtá, ±uëfŶe"ŋ±)ëlk r /fuflbŋoá xált
±uëfŶe'gá lgƑfglj;oųf, dƮƧ kg lgƑfgf/ƙ)tfcƍ;śá. g lx cųgf ±vëlkodfglsn];ŋodf/ư d±Ʈëf pƍşlt, cefjá
rƧ cfkşlt /fuflbŋoe"tƧ kg cefjƧ kŋj;]g t'Ş¿kųf, tƧflk efjųfefjfj ljj]snŋ)+ g l;of, ;řttf rƧ
l;of. g lx sbflr pknưdfg+ c;řt+ eljt'd/xlt ;Ƒ];lƕ cx]t'sųfklųtá, ;řtų]lk rƧ g lgƑfgų+
pƍlųh/feś;dlśtfo b'ŋųf, tyf r cefjƧflk cefjá, cgjŪfgť vL)fglƕ /fufbLg+ k'g pƍşg+ o];+ t];d]j cefjá
cefjƧ ljgŪųf.
clkr sĕ/)ƃ/]g jf efj] pƍƉ] /fufbLg+ g sĕlr xflg xált. g lx cţƧ'ƍlųo+ cţ+ ljuŞlt. cefjá efjƧ
lj/álw, lj/álw;lƉwfg] r Ot/+ ljuŞtLlt r]Ġ lsldb+ ljudg+ gfd. olb tlƕ efj¿k+, ;dfgbá;tf rƧ l;of
cgjŪfgť, g r cŴl;lź. olb t'Ş¿k+, Ƹs k&dd]jƧ t'Ş¿ktfo pkutfo b"/lƕ uƄf pkuƃƑflt l;źf,
/fuflbŋoe"tƧ lgƑfgƧ t'Ş¿ktfo cefjá, g r cefjá Pj lgƑfg+. ctLtfgfutbá;fgdefj] lgƑfgƍlųof cefjtá
jųdfgfgť
cefjá gfd. cefjá gfd g lsn];ljuddųá, clk t' cg'ƍlųefj]g. cŝƃljudá lgƑfg]gflk
;ƕfbLotLlt r]Ġ g, tƧ sĕ/)efjf. ljkƧgf
sĕ/)ldlt r]Ġ g, cųflbljsƍhgs;řtwƙbƧg]g ljgf
cgųflbljsƍe"tfo ljkƧgfo cg'ƍlųtá. olb lx pƍş]Ɯ, tfo ;Ƒ]lk ;ųf ljd'ųf Pj l;o'+, gá r sbflr g k'Ş]Ɯ
lj?źwƙbƧgfefjf. g lx bƧg+ ljgf ljsƍá ;Ƙjlt, g r cųflt ljsƍhgs¿kflbbƧgd]j tlƑ?źljsƍhgs+þ
xált.
a'źfgť k/ƕ/ákb];]g ¿kfbL;' ljkƧgfljsƍá pƍştLlt r]Ġ g, t];lƕ
lj?źbƧgfefj]g
ljkƧgfljsƍfg'ƍlųtá. g lx oflb;fo sĕ/);fdlƮof oflb;+ sĕl/o+ pƍşlt, tflb;fo Pj tlƑ?ź+ pƍşlt

92

cx]t'sųƍ;śtá. g r lj?źbƧgfefj]g PsƧ ljkƧgfljsƍhgs;fdlŴofefjtá tflb;fg+ k/ƕ/folk tưfjá,
tb'kb];á r ;Ƙjlt. ltnŋ)"kb];gfgƃl/stfo kg a'źfg+ lgƑfg;lŞlsl/of l;lź, t]g]jƧ lsn];fgdŝƃƍxfgƧ,
ljkƧgákb];;fdlŴoƧ r l;źLlt lgƑfgd]j tb'eosĕ/)+, gfţlƃ ux]tƑ+.
sƨf kg lgƑfgbƧg]g /fufbLg+ cŝƃƍxfg+, ltnŋ)ť xált. g lx cţƧ bƧg]g Ot//fuƍxfg+,
ltnŋ)`f)ť o'ųlƃĠ g, c;řtbƧg]g ;řtƧ jf bá;Ƨ jf kfsųf. lbŪcŝƃ;'vfg+ lx jũ;'±vë, tlƉƧof/ƙ)fbL;' r
;'vfledfgá, jũfle/lt r kxLolt lbŪk/tL/Ƨ gfljsƧ gfjfo]sb];] ;'vfledfgfle/ltoá ljo. clkr ;řtwƙ];'
clƟgf /fufboá c;řtwƙ] ;Ůft'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ clƮŋƈ] ljo dlŋsĕ, yn] ljo r hnr/f, lgƑfgbƧg]g kxLgbá;Ƨ lrųƧ
ofyfjtá t];' ;řt];' ltnŋ)bƧg+ ;Ƙjlt e];şĕn]k]g ljxtsĕrltld/flbbá;Ƨ rŋ'gá #flb¿kbƧg+ ljo, lbŪbá;];' rƧ
;řf/];' g k'g /fufbLgd'ƍlų `ftf ;'lrefj] ljo jŝs"þk]lt j]lbtƑ+.
sƨf kg s]þ;lť ;ųfg+ Pj lgƑfg;lŞlsl/of;Ƙjá, g ;Ƒ];lƃĠ cgflba'źk/ƕ/ákb];;fk]ŋųf, t];ť
pkb];sĕg+ ;ƑŴ ;Ƒbf cefjtá, ;át"gť v);ƕlųof cŝƃb'Ɵeųf, rŊþjfńfgť cgƃųf, tƨf s]þlr Pj a'ź'ƍfbsĕn]
ltnŋ±)ëfkb];nfe]g lgƑfg+ ;lŞs/álƃ, g ;Ƒ]lt ux]tƑ+.
sy+ kg]Ŵ /fufbLg+ cŝƃljudá lgƑfg]g ;fwLotLltĠ g tfj ;á, ctLtfgfutfg+ t];ldbflg cefjf, k'Ƒ] r
tƧ ljşdfgųf, jųdfgfg+ ;/;lg/áwtá. syťƧ t'Ş¿kƧ lgƑfgƧ x]t'ų] oyfj'ųbá;fgdj;/ált r]Ġ g, tƧ
efj¿kųf. k'Ƒefuklklųof lx lgƑfgdf/ư cg';ofhggefj]g pƍƉdƮf Pj lsn];fgdg'ƍfblg/á±wëf tb'ƍlųof
cfoƸt pƍşgf/xfg+ cg'ƍlųtá clƮ;lƉwfg] cŘ'/fhgsefj]g pƍƉ;flnŋƈƧ aLhtfefj¿ktf ljo. g lx cefjá gfd
s]ĕlr k/dŴtá clŴ, oá sĕ/±)ëg hgLolt tlƑ?źŋ)'ƍfbgefjáj'ƍfbg+ cg]sŋ)'ƍfbg]g vƈsĕ/fefj'ƍfbg+ ljo, tƨf
lsn];fg+ cg'ƍlųlg/áw;řftƧ cl/odƮƧ pklgƧoųf pklgƧoákrf/]g lgƑfg+ æc;];lj/fulg/á±wëfÆltcflbgf j'ų+.
;¿k]g]j sƨf g j'ųlƃ r]Ġ cle;'v'dųf, cg'knźk'Ƒųf r, ;'v'dtf rƧ eujtá cƍáƧ'Ŋþtfjrgtá, cl/o]g rŋ'gf
klƧtƑtá r j]lbtƑf.
PŴ kg k/jfbL cfx _ ægŴ]j lgƑfg+ cg'knưgLotáÆlt. g cg'knưgLo+ tƧ l;źųf. pknưlt lx t+
tbg'¿kklklųof cl/o]lx. clkr lgƑfg+ gŴLlt g jųƑ+ ;Ƒ;ųfg+ lj?źwƙfg+ efj]g ckjƮfefjƍ;śtá. g r t+
o'ų+ pŲflbklkŋƧ ;Ltflbgá ljo ejklkŋƧ lgƑfgƧlk cjƧ+efjf. j'ųť _
æoyflk pŲ] ljşƃ], ck/+ ljşlt ;Ltn+.
Pj+ ltljwlƮ ljşƃ], lgƑfg+ OlŞtƑsÆlƃĶ ‘a'0j+02=11’ _
cflb. cŝƃlg/áwx]t'gá ljkƧgákb];Ƨ bƧgtá r cŴ]j lgƑfg+ t+ ljgf tƧf;Ƙjtált j'ųájfodŴá. tb]t+ k'l/dfo
s]ĕlof cefjtá cƍej+, ttáj ch/fd/)+, lgŝť xátLlt c)'cfbLglƕ lgŝefjklų lgƑfgƧ]j lgŝųflt r]Ġ g,
leƉflws/)ų]g x]t'nŋ)Ƨfg'kklųtá. c)'cfbLglƕ c;řttf Olt r]Ġ g, c;řttfl;lźtá c;řtfgťfg]sųfg'kklųtá.
olb lx c;řt+ gfd ej]Ɯ, Ps]þg]j eljtƑ+ b];sĕn;efje]bƧ sĕ/)e]bsųf, leƉ;efjfglƕ cx]t'sų] cltƍ;śtá.
;řt]lx ;efjleƉƧ lgƑfgƧ sy+ cx]t'stflt r]Ġ c;řt;efj]g ;řt;efj]lx leƉƧ sĕ/)fgk]ŋųf. c;řtų]
lx ;dfg] ej;efje]bá sĕ/)e]b+ ;"rolt tƨf Psd]j lgŝ+ eljt'd/xlt, tť oyfj'ųo'lųtá, ;Ƒţ'jrgtá r
k/dŴtá ljşdfg+ lgƑfgd]j. j'ų+ x]t+ eujtf æclŴ, leŋj], chĕt+ ce"t+ cst+ c;řtÆlƃ ‘Oltj'043’. co+
b'ŋlg/áw;ŝ] goá.
Ot/+ kg æ;ƙflblŪ»k]0 ;ƙf;dfwLÆlt plŹl;ŷf ljŴf/tá ljeų+. ljlgŞoá kg]Ŵ dƮśljeś] cflj
eljƧtLlt co+ ;'ųƃefhgLogoá.
clewƙefhgLo] kg _
ærųfl/ ;ŝflg b'ŋ+ b'ŋ;d'boá b'ŋlg/á±wëf b'ŋlg/áwufldgL klkbf. tŴ tŲf b'ŋ;d'boá.
cj;];f ;f;jwƙf»k]0 b'ŋ+. tŲfo kxfg+ b'ŋlg/á±wëf. cŪlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf b'ŋlg/áwufldgL klkbfÆlt
‘lje0206’ _
jŷf cŪ dƮśflg ljŴf/tá lglŹl;ŷf æcj;];f wƙf b'ŋlg/áwufldlgof klkbfo ;ƕo'ųfÆlt ‘lje0206cfboá’ Pj+
k&djf/] rųfl/ ;ŝflg ljeųflg. tflg k'g ck/]lxlk ætŲf, cj;];f r lsn];f ;d'boá, tyf tŲf, cj;];f r
lsn];f, cj;];f r cs';nf ;d'boá, tyf tŲf, cj;];f r lsn];f, cj;];f r cs';nf, tLl) r s';nd"nflg, ;f;jflg
;d'boá, tyf tŲf, cj;];f r lsn];f, cj;];f r cs';nf, tLl) r s';nd"nflg, ;f;jflg, cj;];f r ;f;js';nwƙf
;d'boá. cj;];f ;f;jwƙf b'ŋ+, tƧ tƧ ;d'boƧ kxfg+ lg/á±wëf, cŪlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëf klkbfÆlt Od]lx jf/]lx
ljeųflg. tŴ æcl/o;ŝfgLÆlt cjŷf lgƍb];tá kŝo;řft+ ;d'bo+ bƧ]t'+ æ;ŝfgLÆlt j'ų+. cl/o;ŝ];' lx tŲfj
;d'boá, g Ot/]. g r s]þjn+ tŲfj b'ŋ+ ;d'bfg]lt, cj;];f s';nfs';nflk kŝo+ ;d'bfg]lƃo]jflt t]lk ;d'botá
bƧ]t'+ æ;ŝflgÆŷ]j j'ų+. ttá k/+ oƨf cŪlśs]ĕ d±Ʈëfj klkbflt. ;ƕo'ųf kg mþƧfboá ;Ƒ]lk wƙf klkbf Pj,
tƨf t+ go+ bƧ]t'+ ;Ƒ;śflxsjf/]lk ;Ƒflg ljeųflg PŴ lx cl/owgfg]j ;ślxtflg. ;];+ ;lb;d]jflt co+
clewƙefhgLogoá.
kŤfk'Şsgo] kg rt'Ɖ+ cl/o;ŝfg+ slt s';nf»k]0 slt c/)fĠ ;d'bo;ŝ+ cs';n+, lg/áw;ŝ+ cƓfst+,
b'ŋ;ŝ+ ltwflk. ;d'boá ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/á, lg/á±wëf cljtŊþcljrf/á, d±Ʈëf ltwflk, b'ŋ+ ltwflk, g jųƑ+ r. tLl)
;ŝflg clgbƧgcƍl#flg, b'ŋ+ ltwflk. ;d'boá x]t', lg/á±wëf g x]t', ;];f lƀwflk. ƀ] ;ŝflg nálsoflg, dƮlg/áwf
nás'ų/f. ;d'bo;ŝ+ ;/)+, ƀ] ;ŝflg c/)flg, b'ŋ+ b'ljwflk. co+ kŤfk'Şsgoá. Obflg kg]Ŵ _
sdtág"gflwstá, nŋ)fbLlx ;'ţtá.
93

`f)lsŝákdf `]Ɯá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ sdtá tfj Owflk b];gfŊþdáj o'şlt. PŴ cáńfl/sųf, ;Ƒ;ų;fwf/)ųf r ;'ljţ]Ɯlƃ b'ŋ;ŝ+ k&d+
j'ų+, ttá tƧ]j x]t'bƧgŴ+ ;d'bo;ŝ+, ttá æx]t'lg/áwf ejlg/á±wëfÆlt `fkgŴ+ lg/áw;ŝ+, tblwud'kfobƧgŴ+ cƃ]
dƮ;ŝ+. ej;'vƧfbulwtfg+ ;+j]uhggŴ+ k&d+ b'ŋdfx, ttá æej+ g]j cx]t's+þ cfuŞlt, g OƧ/lgƙfgflbgf xált,
Otá kg xátLÆlt `fkgŴ+ ;d'bo;ŝ+, ttá ;x]t's]þg b'ŋ]g clee"tųf ;+ljƮdfg;fg+ tlƉƧ/)bƧg]g cƧf;hggŴ+
lg/áw+, ttá lg/áw;ƕfks+þ dƮlƃ cod]Ŵ sdá.
cg"gflwstá kg sƨf rųfl/ Pj ;ŝfgLlt r]Ġ ttá cţƧ c;Ƙjtá, cţt/Ƨ r cgkg]Ɯtá. clkr
kjlųdflrŋƃá eujf ;x]t's+þ cflrŋlt, lgjlųť ;pkfo+. Olt kjlųlgjlųtb'eox]t"g+ Ptk/dtá rųfl/ Pj j'ųfgLlt
cod]Ŵfg"gflwstá.
nŋ)fbLlx kg]Ŵ nŋ)tá afwgnŋ)+ b'ŋ;ŝ+, ;ƃfkg/;+, kjlųkŝ'kŪfg+. kejnŋ)+ ;d'bo;ŝ+,
cg'kŞ]bs/)/;+, klnaáwkŝ'kŪfg+. ;lƃnŋ)+ lg/áw;ŝ+, cŝ'lt/;+, clgldųkŝ'kŪfg+. lgƜfgnŋ)+ dƮ;ŝ+,
lsn];kxfgs/)/;+,
j'Ūfgkŝ'kŪfg+. clkr kjlųkjųslgjlųlgjųsnŋ)flg klkflof, tyf
;řttŲfc;řtbƧgnŋ)flg rflt Odfg]Ŵ nŋ)flg.
;'ţtá kg]tflg oyfŊþd+ j]bssĕ/slgƑ'tudsĕefjtá ;'ţflg. j'ųť _
æb'ŋd]j lx, g s]ĕlr b'lŋtá, sĕ/s]ĕ g, lsl/ofj ljşlt.
clŴ lgƑ'lt, g lgƑ'tá k'df, dƮdlŴ, uds]ĕ g ljştLÆltĶ ‘lje0cŪ0189’.
cy jf _
w'j;'e;'vų;'ţ+, k'l/dƀodų;'ţddtkb+.
w'j;'e;'vcųlj/lxtá, d±Ʈëf Olt ;'ţtá t];'Ķ ‘lje0cŪ0189’.
lg/áw;'ţflg jf tLl). lg/á±wëf r ;];ųo;'ţá. mþn;'ţá jf x]Ŵ x]t' ;d'bod±Ʈë;' b'ŋlg/áwfg+ cefjf
ksltjfbLg+ kslt ljo. x]t';'ţť mþn+
b'ŋ;d'bofg+, lg/áwdƮfgť c;djfof, g x]t';dj]t+ x]t'mþn+.
x]t'mþn;djfojfbLg+ lƀc)'sĕbLlg ljoflt cod]Ŵ ;'ţtf.
`f)lsŝtált PŴ b'ljw+ ;ŝ`f)+ cg'aáw`f)+, klj]w`f)ť. tŴ cg'aáw`f)+ nálso+, t+ cg'Ƨjflbj;]g
lg/á±wë, d±Ʈë r kjųlt. klj]w`f)+ nás'ų/+, t+ ;ŝfjaáwklkŋlsn];] ±vëk]ƃ+ lg/áwdf/ƙ)+ sŷf lsŝtá rųfl/lk
;ŝflg klljŢlt. o+ kg]t+ nálso+, tŴ b'ŋ`f)+ kl/o'Ūfgfleejgj;]g kjųdfg+ ;ŊĕolbƸŪ lgjų]lt, ;d'bo`f)+
pŞ]blbƸŪ, lg/áw`f)+ ;ƧtlbƸŪ,
dƮ`f)+ clsl/olbƸŪ. b'ŋ`f)+ jf t];' w'j;'e;'vųefj/lxt];' vƈ];'
w'j;'e;'vųefj;ţf;řft+ mþn] ljƍlkƸų, ;d'bo`f)+ æOƧ/kwfgsĕn;efjfbLlx
nás]ĕ kjųtLÆlt csĕ/±)ë
sĕ/)fledfgƍjų+ x]t'lƛ ljƍlkƸų, lg/áw`f)+
c¿knásĕbL;' ckjƮƮfxe"t+ lg/á±wë ljƍlkƸų, dƮ`f)+
sĕd;'vlƟscųlsndyfg'oáuƍe]b] clj;'lźd±Ʈë lj;'lźdƮƮfxj;]g kjų+ pkfo] ljƍlkƸų lgjų]lt. Obd]Ŵ `f)lsŝ+.
pkdftá kg]Ŵ ef/á ljo lx b'ŋ;ŝ+ bŪƑ+, ef/fbfgldj ;d'bo;ŝ+, ef/lgŋ]kgldj lg/áw;ŝ+,
ef/lgŋ]kg'kfoá ljo dƮ;ŝ+. clkr /áutlƉbfgtb'k;de];ş]lx, cál/dtL/dxá#kfl/dtL/t+;ƕfks]ĕkfo]lx rflt
PjdfbLlx oyfŊþd+ oáh]ŷflk Ptflg pkdftá j]lbtƑflg. cod]Ŵ pkdf. Pj+ `]Ɯá kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
;ŝljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

OlƇoljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
OlƇoljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ ƀfjL;lt OlƇofgLlt PŴ OlƇoŪ;Ƙjtá OlƇoflg. s]ĕ kg]; OlƇoŪá
gfdfltĠ OƆlnśŪá, OƆb]l;tŪá, OƆlbŪŪá, OƆl;ŪŪá, OƆh'ŪŪá r, ;á ;Ƒálk Ow oyfoáu+ o'şlt. s';nfs';n+ sƙ+
OƆá gfd sƙ];' sƧlr OƧl/ofefjtá, t]g]j]Ŵ sƙ;ŧlgtflg tfj OlƇoflg cųgá hgssƙ+ plƟś]lƃ, t]g r l;ŪfgLlt
OƆlnśŪ]g, OƆl;ŪŪ]g r OlƇoflg. ;ƙf;Ɨ'źá kg k/ldƧl/oefjtá OƆá, ttá ;Ƒflgk]tflg OlƇoflg eujtf
oyfe"ttá ksĕl;tflg, cle;Ɨ'źflg rflt OƆb]l;tŪ]g, OƆlbŪŪ]g r OlƇoflg. t]g]j eujtf sĕlglr ±uëfr/f;]jgfo,
sĕlglr efjgf;]jgfo ;]ljtfgLlt OƆh'ŪŪ]glk OlƇoflg. clkr cflwkŝ;řft]g OƧl/oŪ]gflk Ptflg OlƇoflg.
rŋ'lƇolƃcfbL;' rŋĕbLg+ kbŴá x]Ūf ksĕl;tá. klŞd];' kg tL;' k'Ƒef±uë cgţft+ cdt+ kb+, rt';ŝwƙ+ jf
hĕlgƧfdLlt Pj+ klkƉƧ pƍşgtá OlƇoŪ;Ƙjtá r cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+. cfhĕggtá cţf Pj OlƇolƃ clţlƇo+.
cţftfljgá rt";' ;ŝ];' lglŪt`f)lsŝƧ
vL)f;jƧ OlƇolƃ cţftfljlƇo+. tŴ r k;flblƇofgƃ/+
rŋ'ljţf)flbjLlylrųƍjlųo+ ¿kfbLg+ lgotefjƧ, cųgá ltŋdƆtfg'ljwfgƧ r cfkfbgtá cflwkŝ+ j]lbtƑ+.
dlglƇofbLg+ kg cųgá cųgá ljhĕggflbnŋ±)ë cflwkŝ+ j]lbtƑ+. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]btá kg]Ŵ hËljltlƇo+ ¿kf¿kj;]g lƀwf. ;'lvlƇofbLlg kť j]bgfefjtá Pswƙá, tyf klţlƇofbLlg
rųfl/ cdáxefjtá. ;];flg kg OlƇoflg Ps]þswƙf Pjflt Pj+ k/dŴtá ;áń; wƙfj ƀfjL;ltlƇoefj]g b]l;tflg.
;];flg kg]Ŵ r]tl;s¿klgƑfgflg c;ślxtfgLlt co+ wƙe]bá.
94

ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo+ gfd g ulxt+. sƨfĠ ;'ųƃ] Odfo klkflof ƀfjL;ltof OlƇofg+
cgfutųf. ;'ųƃƸƨ lx sŴlr ƀ] OlƇoflg slytflg, sŴlr tLl), sŴlr kť, Pj+ kg lg/ƃ/+ ƀfjL;lt cfutflg gfd
glŴ. clewƙefhgLo]lk lj;];á glŴ.
kŤfk'Şsgo] kg ƀfjL;ltof OlƇofg+ slt s';nf»k]0 slt c/)fltĠ cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+ s';n+,
bádglƧlƇo+ cs';n+, ;źf;ltkţfclţlƇoflg rųfl/ s';nfƓfstflg, dghËljt;ádgƧpk]ŋĕjLl/o;dflwlƇoflg %
ltwflk, ;];flg b; cƓfstflg. % OlƇoflg l;of ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf, l;of cb'ŋd;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųflt, tLl)
ltwflk, hËljt+ ltwf r g jųƑť, ƀfbl;lƇoflg g jųƑflg Pj. tLl) ljkfsĕlg, ƀ] ljkfswƙwƙflg, ¿lklƇoflg
;ų g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙflg, clţlƇo+ l;of ljkfs+þ, l;of ljkfswƙwƙ+, gljlƇoflg ltwflk. gljlƇoflg
pkflbƉ'kfbflgoflg, bádglƧlƇo+ cg'kflbƉ'kfbflgo+, tLl) cg'kflbƉcg'kfbflgoflg, gj ltwflk. bádglƧlƇo+
;ljtŊþ;ljrf/+, pk]lŋlƇo+ tyf r cljtŊþcljrf/ť, gj cljtŊþcljrf/flg, Psĕb; ltwflk. ;ų ¿lklƇoflg r]j
;'vb'ŋbádglƧlƇoflg rflt b; kl/ųflg, klŞdflg tLl) cƍdf)flg, ;];flg gj ltwfj. tŴ r ;ádglƧlƇo+
¿kfjr/j;]g]j dxƮt+, tbj;];flg c¿kfjr/j;]gfkLlt j]lbtƑ+.
klťlƇoflg clgbƧg;ƍl#flg, ;ų/;
clgbƧgcƍl#fg]j.
klţlƇofbLlg rųfl/ x]t", ;];f g x]t"»k]0 bádglƧlƇo+ ;/)+, dghËljt;ádgƧpk]ŋĕjLl/o;dflwlƇoflg
lƀwflk, ;];flg kƉ/; c/)fg]jflt co+ kŤfk'Şsgoá.
OlƇo];' kg]t];', kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
sdtá bflg ljţ]Ɯá, tŴ s]ĕ;ƟldŞtfĶ
sdtált colƕ b];gfŊþdáj. tŴ cŢųwƙ] kl/ţfo cl/oe"ldklnfeá xátLlt cųefjkl/ofkƉflg
rŋ'lƇofbLlg k&d+ b]l;tflg. ;á dg'Ƨųefjá o+ wƙ+ pkfbfo æOŴLÆlt jf æk'l/;áÆlt jf ;ř+ uŞlt, æco+ ;áÆlt
lgbƧgŴ+ ttá OlŴlƇo+, k'l/l;lƇoť. ;á b'lj±wëflk hËljltlƇoklaźj'ųLlt `fkgŴ+ ttá hËljltlƇo+. ofj tƧ kjlų,
tfj Pt];+ j]blotfg+ clgjlų. oť lslť j]blot+, ;Ƒ+ t+ ;'v+ b'ŋlƃ `fkgŴ+ ttá ;'lvlƇofbLlg. tlƉ/áwŴ+ kg Pt]
wƙf efj]tƑflt klklųbƧgŴ+ ttá ;źfbLlg. æOdfo klklųof P; wƙá k&d+ cųlg kft'ejtLÆlt klklųof
cdá#efjbƧgŴ+ ttá cgţftţƧfdLltlƇo+. tƧ]j mþnųf, ttá cgƃ/+ efj]tƑųf r ttá clţlƇo+. Otá k/+ efjgfo
OdƧ clwudá, clwut] r kg OdƸƨ glŴ lslť pųl/ s/)Lolƃ `fkgŴ+ cƃ] k/dƧf;e"t+ cţftfljlƇo+ b]l;tlƃ Pj+
sdtá kflńd'ųljlgŞogoá ljţ]Ɯá.
OlƇoljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

kŝofsĕ/ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
kŝofsĕ/ljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ cljşĕkŝofltcfbL;' cljlƆo+ sĕob'ŝl/tfƸb ljƆlt klnelt,
ljlƆo+ jf sĕo;'rl/tfƸb g ljƆlt, wƙfg+ jf oyf;efj+ cljlbt+ s/ált, cƃlj/lxt] jf ;+;f/] ;ų] hjfk]lt,
cljşdfg];' jf hjlt, ljşdfg];' jf g hjtLlt cljşĕ. klŝ mþnd]lt Ptƨflt kŝoá, wƙfg+ pƍlųof, l&ltof r
pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá. cljşĕ r ;f kŝoá rflt cljşĕkŝoá, tƨf cljşĕkŝof. ;řtdle;ř/áƃLlt ;řf/f.
Otá k/+ ;řf/kŝof ljţf)lƃcfbL;' j'ų+ j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑ+. cj'ų];' kg ljhĕgftLlt ljţf)+. gdtLlt
gfd+, ?ƍtLlt ¿k+, gfdť ¿kť gfd¿kť gfd¿klƃ Psb];;¿k]s;];go]g j]lbtƑ+. cfo] tgált, cfotť gotLlt
cfotg+, %Ūfotgť ;ńfotgť ;ńfotglƃ Ps;];go]g j]lbtƑ+. m'þ;tLlt mþƧá. j]botLlt j]bgf. kl/tƧtLlt
tŲf. pkflbotLlt pkfbfg+. ejlt, efjolt rflt ejá. hgg+ hĕlt. hË/)+ h/f. d/lƃ Pt]gflt d/)+.
;árg+ ;ás]ĕ. kl/b]jg+ kl/b]já. b'ŋolt, pƍfblŪltj;]g lƀwf v)tLltlk b'ŋ+. b'ƙgƧ efjá bádgƧ+. e';á
cfof;á pkfof;á. ;ƘjƃLlt lgƑųlƃ. g s]þjnť ;ásĕbLx]j, cy ±vëf cljşĕkŝof ;řf/f ;ƘjƃLltcflbgf ;Ƒkb]lxlk
;Ƙjlƃ-;ŹƧ oáhgf sĕtƑf. Pj+ lx kŝokŝo'ƍƉjjŴfg+ st+ xált.
Pjlƃ lglŹŪgolgbƧg+, t]g cljşĕbLx]j sĕ/±)ëlx, g OƧ/lgƙfgfbLxLlt bƧ]lt. PtƧflt oyfj'ųƧ.
s]þjnƧflt c;lƙƧƧ, ;snƧ jf, b'ŋŋƈƧflt b'ŋ;d"xƧ, g ;ųƧ, g ;'v;'efbLg+. ;d'boált lgƑlų, xátLlt
;Ƙjlt. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]btá kg]Ŵ cljşĕlt ;'ųƃkl/ofo]g b'ŋĕbL;' rt";', clewƙkl/ofo]g k'ƑƃfbLlx ;Ƹź cŪ;' jf &fg];'
cţf)+. ;řf/f kg k'ţfk'ţfg]ŧfle;řf/f toá, sĕojrLlrų;řf/f toá rflt %lƑwf. tŴ cŪ sĕdfjr/s';nr]tgf,
kť ¿kfjr/s';nr]tgf r]lt t]/; r]tgf k'ţfle;řf/á gfd. ƀfb; cs';nr]tgf ck'ţfle;řf/á gfd. rtƧá
c¿kfjr/s';nr]tgf cfg]ŧfle;řf/á gfd. Od];+ kg ltŰ+ ;řf/fg+ Pj ƀf/tá kjlųbƧgŴ+ co+ ;řf/flblųs]ĕ j'ųá.
cŪ sĕdfjr/s';nr]tgf r]j ƀfb;fs';nr]tgf r sĕoƀf/] kjlųo+ sĕo;řf/á, jrLƀf/] kjlųo+ jrL;řf/á,
Ptf r]j dgáƀf/] kjlųo+, dgáƀf/] Pj kjųgsĕ ¿kf¿ks';nr]tgf r lrų;řf/ált j'ŝlƃ. cleţfr]tgf, kg]Ŵ
pźŝr]tgf r k/tá kl;lƈljţf)kŝoefj] ckg]tƑflk cljşĕkŝof ;Ƙjtá Ow ux]tƑfjflt co+ lts]ĕ k'l/dlųsd]j
klj;tLlt cŴtá nálsos';nfs';nr]tgfj cljşĕkŝof ;řf/flt j]lbtƑ+. Obť ;'ųƃefhgLogo]g, clewƙefhgLogo]g
95

kg nálsonás'ų/] Ps]þslrųŋ±)ë ƀfb;śƧ klŝ;d'ƍfbƧ ux)tá ;Ƒflk
r]tgf ;řf/flt j]lbtƑ+. Pj+
ljţf)gfd¿kfbL;'lk ;Ƒlrų;ƕo'ųj;]g r wƙe]bá j]lbtƑá. ;'ųƃefhgLogo]g]j kg bƧloƧfd.
;řf/kŝof ljţf)ť rŋ'ljţf)flb%lƑw+ afƸų;nálsoljkfsljţf)d]j xált, nás'ų/flg kg jũsyfo g
o'şƃLlt g ulxtflg. ljţf)kŝof gfd¿k+ kg ;Ƒnálsoljţf);ƕo'ųf toá c¿lkgá vƈf. ¿k+ ;Ƒflg
e"t'kfbfo¿kflg. ;ńfotg+ dgŞŪflg OlƇoflg. mþƧá rŋ';ƖþƧflbs]ĕ %ljkfsmþƧá, tyf j]bgflk. tŲf
¿ktŲflbe]btá %lƑ±wëf náeá. pkfbfg+ sĕd'kfbfgflbtá rt'lƑwf náelblŪoáj. ejá kg b'lj±wëf sƙejá,
pkklųejált. tŴ sƙejá t]e"dss';nfs';nr]tgf r t+;ƕo'ųf cleŢĕboá r. pkklųejá kg sƙflelgƑųf kťlk
vƈf. ;á ke]btá sĕd¿kf¿kejf toá, ;ţf c;ţf g]j;ţfgf;ţf ejf toá, Psrt'kťjásĕ/ejf toált gjlj±wëf
lglŹŪá. hĕltcfbLlg k'Ƒ] j'ųflg. t];' hĕltƮx±)ëg ljţf)gfd¿k;ńfotgmþƧj]bgfj ulxtf tbljgfefjtá. tyf
h/fd/)Ʈx±)ëgflk t];ţ]j kfse]bųf. ;ásĕboá kg h/fd/±)ëg ƀfb;d]g cś]g Ps;ř]k+ sŷf j'ųf, g lj;'+
cśefj]g. lsdŴlƃ r]Ġ ejrŊþƧ cljŞ]bbƧgŴ+. ;ásĕlbtá lx cljşĕ l;źf xált cljşĕljƍoáutá cljşĕ;d'ƍlųtá
r. h/fd/)ưfxtƧ lx afnƧ]j t] ;Ƙjlƃ, t]lx r cljşĕo l;źfo k'g cljşĕkŝof ;řf/flt Pj+ x]t'mþnk/ƕ/fo
ejrŊ+þ cljlŞƉ+, cgflbs+þ, ckl/oƃ+, ckl/oá;fgť xált.
olb Pj+, sƨf cljşĕ cflbtá j'ųfltĠ kwfgbƧgŴ+ kg cflbtá j'ųf. ltŰ+ lx jũfg+ cljşĕ kwfgá x]t' tƧf
efj] efjtá, lg/á±wëg r lg?Ţgtá. Pj+ cljşĕbLlx ƀfb;lx cś]lx ;'ųƃefhgLogo]g ;Ƒ] nálsowƙfj
kŝokŝo'ƍƉefj]g j'ųflt j]lbtƑf. clewƙkl/ofo]g kg nás'ų/fkLlt cod]Ŵ wƙe]bá.
ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ kŤfk'Şsgoá glŴ, ;'ųƃefhgLogoflk wƙe]b] j'ųgo]g]j ljŴf/tá ljeųflt j]lbtƑá.
clewƙefhgLo] kg _
æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/á, ;řf/kŝof ljţf)+, ljţf)kŝof gfd+, gfdkŝof
%Ūfotg+,
%Ūfotgkŝof mþƧá, mþƧkŝof j]bgf, j]bgfkŝof tŲf, tŲfkŝof pkfbfg+, pkfbfgkŝof ejá, ejkŝof
hĕlt, hĕltkŝof h/fd/)+, Pjd]tƧ s]þjnƧ b'ŋŋƈƧ ;d'boá xált.
æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/á»k]0 ljţf)kŝof gfd+, gfdkŝof mþƧá»k]0 ;d'boá xált.
æcljşĕkŝof»k]0 ljţf)kŝof gfd¿k+, gfd¿kkŝof %Ūfotg+, %Ūfotgkŝof mþƧá»k]0
;d'boá xált.
æcljşĕkŝof »k]0 ljţf)kŝof gfd¿k+, gfd¿kkŝof ;ńfotg+, %Ūfotgkŝof mþƧá»k]0
;d'boá xátLÆlt ‘lje0243’ _
Pj+ kŝort'Ŋ+þ, k'g æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/á cljşĕx]t's]ĕÆltcflbgf ‘lje0244’ j'ųgo]g]j x]t'rt'Ŋ+þ, k'g æcljşĕkŝof
;řf/á cljşĕ;ƕo'ųáÆltcflbgf ‘lje0245’ ;ƕo'ųrt'Ŋ+þ, k'g æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/á, ;řf/kŝoflk cljşĕÆltcflbgf
‘lje0246’ cţdţkŝort'Ŋþlƃ Pj+ cljşĕd"nsĕlg rųfl/ rt'Ŋĕlg j'ųflg. Pj+ æ;řf/kŝof cljşĕÆltcflbgf
;řf/flbd"nsĕlbpkfbfgd"nskl/oá;fgflg cŪ;' kb];' rųfl/ rųfl/ rt'ŊĕgLlt afƸų; rt'Ŋĕlg dflts+þ sŷf lglŋlkŷf
k'g cs';ns';nljkfslsl/olrų];' nálsonás'ų/];' Ps]þsƸƨ lrų] oyflglŋų]lx %Ƹų;afƸų;dfltsĕrt'Ŋ]þlx ljŴf/tá
oyfg'¿k+ kŝofsĕ/á ljeųá. Obť oƨf g s]þjn+ co+ kŝofsĕ/á gfgflrų];' Pj xált, Pslrų]lk xálto]j. gflk
jũlrų] Pj xált, tŲfefjtá ljjũlrų]lk, tƨf t+ lgƍb];tá Pslrųŋl)s+þ kŝofsĕ/+ bƧ]t'+ j'ų+. t]g]j x]Ŵ
æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/fÆlt cjŷf æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/áÆlt Psjrg]g j'ų+ Pslrųŋ±)ë ax'r]tgfefjf. tŴ ob]t+
k&drt'Ŋ+þ, tŴ k&djf/á gfd¿kŪfg] gfd+, ;ńfotgŪfg] %Ūfotgť ux]ŷf ¿kf¿kflb;Ƒej;fwf/)j;]g,
Pslrųŋ)kl/ofkƉwƙƮx)j;]g r ¿k+ %ū]ŷf j'ųá ¿kƧ ;Ƒejf;fwf/)ųf, ax'lrųŋl)sųf r. b'ltoá gfd¿kŪfg]
gfd+, ægfdkŝof mþƧáÆlt ;ńfotgŪfg] mþƧd]j
ux]ŷf mþƧƧ ;ńfotg+ ljgflk kŝolj;];;ƘjbƧgj;]g r]j
dxflgbfg;'ųgobƧgj;]g ‘bL0lg02=95cfboá’ r j'ųá. tltoá ;ńfotgŪfg] %Ūfotgd]j ux]ŷf uư;]Ɯsĕg+
ckl/k'Űfotgfg+, ¿keljsĕbLgť j;]g j'ųá. rt'Ŵá ægfdkŝof ;ńfotg+,
;ńfotgkŝof mþƧáÆlt Pj+
Ot/fotg]lxlk ;ńfotgƧ lj;];tá mþƧkŝot+j bƧ]ŷf cákkfltsĕg+, kl/k'Űfotgfg+ sĕdeljsĕgť j;]g j'ųá. Pj+
b'ltort'ŊĕbL;'lk.
;ƑŴflk r]Ŵ oƨf ;ásĕboá ;Ƒ] Pslrųŋ±)ë g ;Ƙjlƃ, ;Ƒlƨť lrų], ej] r gƍjųlƃ, tƨf g ulxtf.
hĕlth/fd/)flg kg]Ŵ c¿kwƙfg+ nŋ)dųflg, tflg r clrųŋ)dųflglk ;dfgflg lrųŋ±)ë cƃáuwųf kl/ofotá
kŝo'ƍƉ] sŷf cśkl/k"/)Ŵ+ ulxtflg. ejált r]Ŵ pkfbfgflbkŝolj/lxtf rųf/á c¿lkgá vƈf, tŲfkŝof
pkfbfglƃ PŴ sĕd'kfbfg+ jş]ŷf tLl) pkfbfgflg Pj ux]tƑflg lƀƉlƕ Psnŋ)fg+ wƙfg+ Psŋ±)ë c;Ƙjf
náed"nlj/lxt];' bá;dáxd"n];' r]j s';nfƓfst];' r lrų];' j]bgfkŝof kl#+ ljlrlsŞf pźŝlƃ Pj+ tŲf&fg] oyfoáu+
kl#fboá toá. t];' ljlrlsŞfjlşt];' r]j lblŪljƍo'ų];' r pkfbfgŪfg] clwdáŋ]ĕ ulxtá. ljlrlsŞfo kg ;Ƹź
clwdáŋƧflk c;Ƙjf ljlrlsŞfkŝof ejált r ulxtá. pkfbfgŪfg] r clwdáŋ]ĕ r ulxtá. nálsofgť]Ŵ s';nfƓfstfg+
pklgƧoj;]g cljşĕkŝotf j'ųf. nás'ų/fg+ kg oƨf cƍxLgfljşá cljşĕo kxfgŴ+, klƍƧƘgŴť nás'ų/+ efj]lt,
tƨf ;dltŊþdgj;]g cljşĕkŝotf j'ųf, g ;xhĕtj;]g. t]g]j t];+ lgŹ];jf/];' ætŴ stdf cljşĕÆlt cljelhŷf
ætŴ stdá cljşĕkŝof ;řf/áÆlt ‘lje0240’ ljeų+. lsl/owƙfg+ kg s]þglr kl/ofo]g cljşĕd"nsų+ gŴLlt
æ;řf/kŝof ljţf)Ælƃcflbgf ;řf/d"nsĕlbs]ĕ goá j'ųá, g cljşĕd"ns]ĕ. clkr nálsos';nfbL;' t];+ wƙfg+
b'ŋ;ŝkl/ofkƉųf æPjd]tƧ s]þjnƧ b'ŋŋƈƧ ;d'boá xátLÆlt ‘lje0225’ Pj+ cƍgf stf, nás'ų/s';nfbL;'
æPjd]t];+ wƙfgÆlƃ. co+ nálsotá nás'ų/fg+ b];gfo lj;];ált co+ clewƙefhgLo] goá.

96

Obflg kŝogof, sĕ/sĕbLlx ;'ţtá.
d"nź;lƈ;ř]kfsĕ/jũljefutáĶ
jf/±)ëfkdták]Ŵ, uƘL/goe]btá.
oyf/x+ ljhĕgLoá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ kŝogoá ;fdţtá, lj;];tá rflt b'lj±wëf xált. tŴ tưfjefljdųtfksĕ;s]ĕ ;fdţtá kŝogoá.
lj;];tá kg kŪfg] cfut];' x]t'kŝoflbrt'jL;ltof kŝo];' oyfg'¿k+ kŝolj;];'ƍƉdųtfksĕ;s]ĕ. ;f r g];+ rt'jL;ltof
kŝofg+ ljefutf kŪfgdfltsŴ;+jŰgfo cflj eljƧlt. tŴ ;fdţtá ;řf/fboá cljşĕlbkŝoefj] Pj efljgált
j]lbtƑf. oƧ lx rt";' ;ŝ];', k'ƑƃfbL;' r cljşĕ cƍxLgf xált, ;á b'ŋ] tfj k'ƑƃfbL;' r cţf±)ëg tL;' ej];'
hĕlth/f/áud/)flbcg]sĕbLgjjálsŰ+ k'ţmþn;řft+ ;řf/ljkl/)fdb'ŋ+ b'ŋtá chĕgƃá ;'v;ţfo kŴ]ŷf tLlx ƀf/]lx
k'ţfg]ŧfle;řf/] cf/elt. ;d'bo] cţf±)ëg b'ŋx]t'e"t];l' k tŲfkl/ŋĕ/];' b'ŋx]t's+þ cfkflosĕlbb'ŋ+, b'ŋx]t'e"t];'
sĕd"k;]jgfbL;' r cfbLgj+ ckƧƃá ;'vx]t';ţfo r]j lsn];flee"ttfo r ltlj±wëlk ;řf/] cf/elt. lg/á±wë, kg d±Ʈë r
cţf±)ëg clg/áwe"t] ultlj;];] lg/áw;ţL, lg/áwƧ r jf cdƮe"t];'lk oţfd/tkfbL;'lk lg/áwdƮ;ţL x'ŷf ltlj±wëlk
;řf/] cf/elt. Obƍŝotfklŝ;d'ƍƉ];' wƙ];' cţf±)ëg æcx]t" cƍŝof ;ųf pƍşlƃ, g xálƃ k/+ d/)fÆlt jf
æcųfj hĕgflt jf g hĕgflt jf, ;áj ;řf/] ;ř/ált, ;áj kl;lƈo+ pƍşlt, tƧ c)'OƧ/fboá snnflbefj]g ;/L/+
;Ůfk]ƃf OlƇoflg ;ƕfb]lƃ, ;áj OlƇo;ƕƉá m'þ;lt, j]bolt, tlŲolt, pkfbfgfbLlg r s/átLÆlt jf æ;Ƒ] ;ųf
lgolt;śltejkl/)tfÆlt jf ljsƍ]lt. ;á Pj+ cljşĕo cƈLstá _
æoyflk gfd hŝƈá, g/á ckl/)fos]ĕ.
Psbf oflt d±Ʈëg, pƙ±Ʈëgflk PsbfĶ
æ;+;f/] ;+;/+ afná, tyf ckl/)fos]ĕ.
s/ált Psbf k'ţ+, ck'ţdlk PsbfÆltĶ ‘lje0cŪ0226;śf/kblgŹ];’ _
j'ųgo]g ltlj±wë ;řf/] cle;ř/átLlt. Ƹs kg]Ŵ Psĕj cljşĕ ;řf/fg+ kŝoá xált, gg' Psƨf sĕ/)f Ps+þj sĕl/o+
pƍşlt, cg]s+þ sĕl/o+ g pƍşlt, cg]sƨf jf Pslƃ, cg]sƨf sĕ/)f cg]s+þ sĕl/o+ pƍştLltĠ ;ŝ+,
kwfgųkfsųc;fwf/)ųbLkgŴ+ kg]Ŵ cg]s]þ;' sĕ/±)ë;'lk Psĕ cljşĕ Pj kŝoefj]g lglŹŪf æmþƧkŝof j]bgf
‘pbf03’, ;]ƛ;d'Ūfgf cfafwfÆltcfbL;' ‘c0lg0 10=60 dxflg05 r"ńlg0vƮlj;f);'ųlgŹ]; 128’ ljo. cljşĕ lx
kwfgá x]t', ;řf/fg+ kfsá, c;fwf/±)ëf r tŲflbx]t"glƕ x]t'ųf, g jŴf/ƙ)fbLlg vL)f;jƧ t];+ ;Ƙj]lk ;řf/fg+
cefjflt. Pj+ tfj]Ŵ jũ;řf/fg+ cljşĕo Pj efj] efjá j]lbtƑá. tyf ljţf)Ƨflk pklrtsƙfefj] cefjtá, ;ƑŴ
;Ƒ];ť ;Ƒljkfsljţf)'ƍlųƍ;śtá r ;řf/fg+ Pj efj] efjá j]lbtƑá. oyf r]Ŵ, Pj+ pkl/lk gfd¿kfbLg+
ljţf)flbefj] efjá oyfg'¿k+ cg'ejo'ųLlx `ftƑált co+ ;fdţtá kŝogoá.
lj;];tá kg cljşĕ k'ţfle;řf/fg+ tfj cf/ƙ)kŝo]g, pklgƧokŝo]g rflt lƀwf kŝoá xált. ;f lx
cljş+ cf/ư ;ƙ;gflbj;]g pƍlųo+ sĕdfjr/fg+, cleţflrų]g ;dáxlrųƧ hĕggsĕn] ¿kfjr/fgť k'ţfle;řf/fg+ tfj
cf/ƙ)kŝo]g kŝoá xált, cljşĕ;dltŊþdgŴfo kg cljşĕ;ƙ"ŃÜtfo sĕd¿kej;ƕlųoá kŴ]ŷfj sĕd¿kfjr/k'ţflg
s/áƃƧ pklgƧokŝo]g kŝoá xált. ck'ţfle;řf/fg+ kg];f cljş+ cf/ư /fufbLg+ pƍşgsĕn] cf/ƙ)flbkŝo]g
cljşĕ;ƙ"ŃÜtfo kf)fltkftfbLlg s/áƃƧ lgƧokŝo]g, b'ltohjgfbLg+ cgƃ¿klgƧof;]jgglŴljutkŝo]lx o+ lslť
cs';n+ s/áƃƧ x]t';xhĕtcţdţlgƧo;ƕo'ųclŴcljutkŝo]xLlt Pj+ cg]swf kŝoá xált, cfg]ŧfle;řf/fg+ kg Ps]þg
pklgƧokŝo]g]j kŝoá xált.
;řf/kŝof ljţf)kb] kg toálk ;řf/f ljţf)Ƨ oyf/x+ tL;' ej];' kl;lƈkjųL;' sƙkŝo]g r]j
pklgƧokŝo]g
rflt
lƀwf
kŝof
xálƃ.
clewƙefhgLogo]g
;xhĕtƧ
ljţf)Ƨ
;xhĕtcţdţlgƧo;ƕo'ųsƙlŴcljutflbkŝo]lx kŝof xálƃ.
ljţf)kŝof gfd¿kkb] kg ljţf)+ ljkfse"t+, cljkfse"tť gfdƧ s]þjnƧ jf ¿kldƧsƧ jf kl;lƈkjųL;'
;xhĕtcţdţlgƧo;ƕo'ųljkfscfxf/OlƇoclŴcljutkŝo]lx oyf/x+ gjwf, cŪwf jf kŝoá xált. kl;lƈo+
ljkfsljţf)+ jŴ'¿kƧ ;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoljkfscfxf/OlƇoljƍo'ųclŴ cljutkŝo]lx gjwf kŝoá xált. &k]ŷf kg
jŴ'¿k+ ;];¿kƧ t]x]j cţdţkŝo/lxt]lx cŪlx kŝoá xált. cle;řf/ljţf)+ kg Psjásĕ/kťjásĕ/ej];' sƙh¿kƧ
;'ųlƃskl/ofo]g pklgƧoj;]g kŝoá xált. kjlųo+ kg ;Ƒlƕ ljţf)+ tƧ tƧ gfd¿kƧ oyf/x+ kŝoá xált. tŴ
c¿kej] ljţf)+ gfdƧ]j, c;lţej] ¿kƧ]j, kťjásĕ/ej] gfd¿kƧ kŝoá xátLlt j]lbtƑ+. t]g]j gfdť ¿kť gfd¿kť
gfd¿klƃ lgƑrg+ stlƃ.
gfd¿kkŝof
;ńfotgkb] kg gfd+ ljkfse"t+, cljkfse"tť c¿kej]
%ŪfotgƧ cjs+þ;tá
;xhĕtcţdţlgƧo;ƕo'ųljkfsclŴcljutj;]g oyf/x+ ;ųwf kŝoá xált. Ot/];+ kg]t+ kťƉ+ rŋĕotgfbLg+
kťjásĕ/ej] kl;lƈo+ rt'dxfe"t;xfo+ x'ŷf ;xhĕtlgƧoljkfsljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g %wf kŝoá xált. lslť kg]Ŵ
x]t'kŝo]g, lslť cfxf/kŝo]g rflt t];+ j;]g ;Ƒjf/];' pŊ+þ;fjs+þ;á j]lbtƑá. kjų] kg rŋĕbLg+ kťƉ+
ljkfsdljkfslƕ gfd+ kŞfhĕtljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g rt'wf kŝoá xátLlt. Pj+ tfj gfdd]j ;ńfotgƧ kŝoá xátLlt
j]lbtƑ+.
¿k+ kg jŴ'e"t+ kl;lƈo+ %ŪfotgƧ ;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g %wf kŝoá xált.
rt'dxfe"t¿k+ rŋĕbLg+ kťƉ+ kl;lƈo+, kjų] r ;xhĕtlgƧoclŴcljutkŝo]lx rt'wf kŝoá xált. ¿khËljltlƇo+ kg
97

OlƇoclŴcljutj;]g ltljwf. tyf cfxf/á cfxf/lŴcljutj;]g. ;á r cfxf¿khËjLg+ kjų]o]j, gá kl;lƈo+.
tflg kg kť rŋĕotgfbLlg kťljţf);řftƧ %ŪƧ dgfotgƧ lgƧok'/]hĕtOlƇoljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g %wf kŝof
xálƃ kjų]o]j, gá kl;lƈo+. tyf kťljţf)lj/lxtdgfotgƧ jŴ'¿k+ lgƧok'/]hĕtljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g kťwf
kŝoá xátLlt. Pj+ ¿kd]j %ŪfotgƧ, ;ńfotgƧ r kŝoá xátLlt j]lbtƑ+. vƈųojŴ'¿k;řft+ kg gfd¿k+
%ŪfotgƧ kl;lƈo+ ;xhĕtcţdţlgƧo;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųljkfsclŴcljutflbj;]g oyf/x+ kŝoá xátLlt. Pj+ gfdť
¿kť gfd¿kť oyf/x+ %ŪfotgƧ, ;ńfotgƧ r kŝoá xátLlt j]lbtƑ+.
;ńfotgkŝof mþƧkb] kg %Ūfotg+ ljkfs+þ, cljkfsť ;ƑŴ ;ƕo'ųmþƧƧ ;xhĕtflbj;]g gjwf, cŪwf jf
kŝoá xált. rŋĕotgfbLlg kť oyfŊþd+ kjų] rŋ';ƖþƧfbLg+ kťƉ+ lgƧok'/]hĕtOlƇoljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g %wf,
¿kfotgfbLlg kť t];+ cf/ƙ)k'/]hĕtclŴcljutj;]g ltwf. dgá;ƖþƧƧ
kg tflg, wƙf/ƙ)ť tyf r
cf/ƙ)flwkltdų]g rflt ax'wf kŝof xálƃ. Pj+ %Ūfotgť ;ńfotgť %lƑwƧflk mþƧƧ kŝoá xátLlt j]lbtƑ+.
mþƧkŝof j]bgfkb] ;Ƒálk mþƧá ;xhĕtfg+ j]bgfg+ ;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoljkfscfxf/;ƕo'ųclŴcljutj;]g
cŪwf, ;ųwf jf kŝoá xált, c;xhĕtfg+ pklgƧoj;]g]jflt.
j]bgfkŝof tŲfkb] ljkfsj]bgf cg';oklttfo tŲfo pklgƧoj;]g, ;xhĕtflbj;]g r kŝoá xált. oƨf
kg _
b'ŋË ;'v+ kŴolt, ;'vL leƜálk OŞlt.
pk]ŋĕ kg ;ƃųf, ;'vldŝ]j efl;tf.
tŲfo kŝof tƨf, xálƃ ltƧálk j]bgfltĶ ‘lj;'lź02=644’.
tŲfkŝof pkfbfgkb] tŲf c;xhĕtf rt'Ɖlƕ pkfbfgfg+ pklgƧoj;]g r]j cgƃ/flbj;]g r, ;xhĕtf kg
sĕd'kfbfgjlştfg+ ltŰ+ x]t';xhĕt cţdţlgƧo;ƕo'ųclŴcljutj;]g ;ųwf kŝoá xált.
pkfbfgkŝof ejkb] rt'lƑwlƕ pkfbfg+ c;xhĕtƧ ;ƑsƙejƧ r]j pkklųejƧ r pklgƧoj;]g]j kŝoá
xált, ;xhĕtƧ kg sƙejƧ x]t';xhĕtflbj;]g kŝoá xált.
ejkŝof hĕltkb] ejált sƙejáj clwƍ]tá, ;á r hĕltof sƙkŝopklgƧokŝoj;]g lƀwf kŝoá xált.
hĕltkŝof h/fd/)flbkb] hĕlt kg h/fd/)fg+, ;ásĕbLgť tưfjefjLefjdųtá ;'ųlƃsgo]g pklgƧos]ĕlofj
kŝoá xátLlt co+ tfj]Ŵ kŝogoá.
sĕ/sĕbLlx ;'ţtá kg]t] cljşĕboá ƀfb; wƙf oƨf Pj+ kŝokŝo'ƍƉefj]g cţdţ+ klaźf cţlg/k]ŋĕ x'ŷf
cljlŞƉf cgflbsĕ kjųlƃ, tƨf ttá cţ]g Ɣƪflbgf sĕ/s]þg, ksltc)'sĕnflbx]t'gf jf sĕ/sj]bs¿k]g k/kl/slƍt]g
cųgf jf /lxtf. g r]t] cųf, g cųlg, g cųjƃá, ;'ţf Pt] cų]g jf cųlgo]g jf w'jefj]g jf ;'eefj]g jf
;'vefj]g jflt co+ sĕ/sĕbLlx ;'ţtf.
d"nź;lƈ;ř]kfsĕ/jũljefutált PŴ d"ntá tfj cljşĕ, tŲf rflt ƀ] wƙf d"nlƃ j]lbtƑf. cźtá kg]Ŵ
cljşĕ, ;řf/flt ƀ] cśflg ctLtá cźf, ljţf)fbLlg ejfj;fgflg cŪ kŝ'ƍƉá cźf, hĕlt r]j h/fd/)ťflt ƀ]
cgfutá cźflt toá cźf j]lbtƑf. ;lƈtá kg ;řf/fg+, kl;lƈljţf)Ƨ r cƃ/f Ps]ĕ x]t'mþn;lƈ, j]bgfo r tŲfo
r cƃ/f Ps]ĕ mþnx]t';lƈ, ejƧ r hĕltof r cƃ/f Ps]ĕ x]t'mþn;lƈ rflt toá ;ƈL j]lbtƑf. ;ř]ktá kg ;ƈLg+
cflbkl/oá;fgjjlŴtf rųf/á ;ř]kf xálƃ. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ cljşĕ;řf/f Ps]ĕ ;ř]ká, ljţf)gfd¿k;ńfotgmþƧj]bgf b'ltoá,
tŲ'kfbfgejf tltoá, hĕlth/fd/)flg rt'Ŵált Pj+ rųf/á ;ř]kf j]lbtƑf.
cfsĕ/tá kg]Ŵ _
ctLt] x]t'oá kť, Obflg mþnkťs+þ.
Obflg x]t'oá kť, cfoƸt mþnkťslƃĶ _
Pj+ jL;lt cfsĕ/f xálƃ.
PŴ lx ;¿ktá j'ųf cljşĕ;řf/f, t];+ ux±)ëg tbljgfefjtá ulxtf tŲ'kfbfgejflt Od] kť wƙf ctLt]
x]t'oá gfd, ;¿ktá j'ųf ljţf)fboá kť wƙf Obflg mþnkťs+þ gfd, ;¿ktá kg j'ųf tŲ'kfbfgejf, t];+ ux±)ëg
tbljgfefjtá ulxtf cljşĕ;řf/flt Od] kť Obflg x]t'oá gfd. hĕltcflbckb];]g j'ųf ljţf)fboá kť wƙf cfoƸt
mþnkťs+þ gfdflt Pj+ jL;lt cfsĕ/f j]lbtƑf. jũtá kg]Ŵ ;řf/ejf sƙjũ+, cljşĕtŲ'kfbfgf lsn];jũ+, ;];flg
ljkfsjũlƃ tLl) jũflg xálƃ. ofj r t];' lsn];jũ+ cl/od±Ʈëg g pklŞşlt, tfj Ob+ ejrŊ+þ cg'klŞƉ+ kjųtLlt
cod]Ŵ d"nź;lƈ;ř]kfsĕ/jũljef±uëf.
jf/±)ëfkdtált
PŴ jf/)tá tfj _ æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/fÆlt Obdx]t'slj;dx]t'sbƧglgjf/)+,
æ;řf/kŝof ljţf)Ælƃ pŞ]bcų;ŘlƃbƧglgjf/)+, æljţf)kŝof gfd¿kÆlƃ
cųflt kl/slƍtjŴ'e]bbƧgtá
#g;ţflgjf/)+, ægfd¿kkŝof ;ńfotgÆlƃcflb cųf kƧlt»k]0 ljhĕgflt m'þ;lt, j]bolt, tlŲolt, pkflbolt,
ejlt, hĕolt, hËolt, dLotLlt PjdflbbƧglgjf/)lƃ Obd]Ŵ ldŞfbƧglgjf/)+.
pkdftá kg]Ŵ cƈá ljo cljşĕ, tƧ pkŋng+ ljo ;řf/f, ktg+ ljo ljţf)+, t]g uůkft'efjá ljo
gfd¿k+, tƧ uůe]bkLńsĕ ljo ;ńfotg+, tƧ ;Ŝũg+ ljo mþƧá, tşlgtb'ŋ+ ljo j]bgf, b'ŋƧ klsĕ/flenf;á ljo
tŲf, c;ƍfoƮx)+ ljo pkfbfg+, c;ƍfofn]kg+ ljo ejá, t]g uůljsĕ/kft'efjá ljo hĕlt, tlƑsĕ/e]bá ljo
h/fd/)+. oyf;efjbƧglgjf/)flbtá jf Pt] cljşĕboá clŋknflb pkdflxlk j]lbtƑflt cod]Ŵ pkdf.
uƘL/goe]btált PŴ uƘL/e]bá tfj Od];+ cljşĕbLg+ kŝ]s+þ wƙŴb];gfklj]wuƘL/tf j]lbtƑf. Od] lx
cljşĕboá wƙf o]gfsĕ/]g objŴf r ;řf/fbLg+ mþnfg+ kŝof xálƃ, ;á g];+ kŝoŪá b'/jaáwtá uƘL/ált cod]Ŵ
98

wƙuƘL/tf. wƙált x]t' æx]t'lƛ `f)+ wƙkl;lƘbfÆlt ‘lje0720’ jrgtá. h/fd/)fbLg+ mþnfg+ hĕltcfbLlx
kŝo]lx ;Ƙ"t;d'bfutŪá b'/jaáwtá uƘL/ált co+ cŴuƘL/tf. cŴált mþn+ æx]t'mþn] `f)+ cŴkl;lƘbfÆlt
‘lje0720’ jrgtá. t];+ kg x]t"g+, mþnfgť t]g t]gfsĕ/]g cljk/Lttá b];gflk ;Ƒţ'tţf)Ƨ]j ±uëfr/tá uƘL/flt
co+ b];gfuƘL/tf. oá kg];+ cljşĕ;řf/fbLg+ cbƧgfo"xgflb;efjá, ;á dƆkţ]lx b'ƍl/oáufxųf uƘL/ált co+
klj]wuƘL/tflt cod]Ŵ uƘL/e]bá.
goe]bá kg]Ŵ Psųgoá gfgųgoá cƓfkf/goá Pj+wƙtfgoált Od];+ rt'Ɖ+ cŴgofg+ j;]g j]lbtƑá. tŴ lx
æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/f, ;řf/kŝof ljţf)Ælƃ Pj+ aLhƧ cŘ'/flbefj]g ?ŋefjƍlų ljo ;ƃfgfg'kŞ]bá Psųgoá gfd.
o+ ;ƙf kƧƃá x]t'mþn;Ɨƈ]g ;ƃfgfg'kŞ]bfjaáwtá pŞ]blbƸŪ khxlt, ldŞf kƧƃá x]t'mþn;Ɨƈ]g kjųdfgƧ
;ƃfgfg'kŞ]bƧ PsųƮx)tá ;ƧtlbƸŪ pkflbolt.
cljşĕbLg+ kg oyf;s+þ nŋ)jjŴfg+ gfgųgoá gfd. o+ ;ƙf kƧƃá gjgjfg+ pƍfbbƧgtá ;ƧtlbƸŪ
khxlt, ldŞf kƧƃá Ps;ƃfgklttƧ leƉ;ƃfgƧ]j gfgųƮx)tá pŞ]blbƸŪ pkflbolt.
cljşĕo kg æ;řf/f dof pƍfb]tƑf, ;řf/fg+ jf ljţf)+ cƛ]xLÆlt PjdflbƓfkf/fefjá cƓfkf/goá gfd.
o+ ;ƙf kƧƃásĕ/sƧ cefjfjaáwtá cųlbƸŪ khxlt, ldŞf kƧƃá oá c;ltlk Ɠfkf/] cljşĕbLg+ ;efjlgodl;źá
x]t'efjá, tƧ cƮx)tá clsl/olbƸŪ pkflbolt.
cljşĕbLlx kg sĕ/±)ëlx ;řf/fbLg+o]j ;Ƙjá vL/fbLlx blwcfbLg+ ljo, g cţ];lƃ co+ Pj+wƙtfgoá gfd.
o+ ;ƙf kƧƃá kŝofg'¿ktá mþnfjaáwtá cx]t'slbƸŪ, clsl/olblŪť khxlt, ldŞf kƧƃá kŝofg'¿k+ mþnƍjƸų cƮx]ŷf
otá s'tálr oƧ sƧlr c;ƘjƮx)tá cx]t'slbƸŪ r]j lgotjfbť pkflbotLlt cod]Ŵ goe]bált Pj+ ljhĕgLoá
kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
kŝofsĕ/ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

;ltkŪfgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
;ltkŪfgljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ rųf/ált u)gkl/Ş]bá, t]g g ttá x]Ūf, g pźlƃ bLk]lt.
;ltkŪfgflt PŴ ƀ] ;ltkŪfgf ;lt±uëfr/álk ;ltlk. ært'Ɖ+, leŋj], ;ltkŪfgfg+ ;d'boť cŴśdť b];]ƧfdLÆltcfbL;'
‘;+0lg0 5=408’ lx ;lt±uëfr/á æ;ltkŪfgÆlƃ j'ŝlt, tƧŴá kltŪflt tlƨlƃ kŪfg+, sĕ kltŪfltĠ ;lt. ;ltof
kŪfg+ ;ltkŪfg+. kwfg+ &fglƃ jf kŪfg+, ;ltof kŪfg+ ;ltkŪfg+. ærųf/á ;ltkŪfgf efljtf ax'nLstf ;ų
aáŢś] kl/k"/]ƃLÆltcfbL;' ‘d0lg03=147’ kg ;lt. tƧŴá kltŪftLlt kŪfg+, pkŪflt cáŊþlƃŷf kŋlƆŷf kjųtLlt
cŴá. ;lto]j kŪfgŴ]g ;ltkŪfg+. cy jf ;/)Ū]g ;lt, ;f r pkŪfgŪ]g kŪfglƃ ;ltkŪfg+, Obldw clwƍ]t+.
olb Pj+, sƨf ;ltkŪfgflt ax'jrg+ st+Ġ ;ltof ax'ųf. cf/ƙ)e]b]g lx ax'sĕ tf ;ltoá.
Owflt OdƸƨ ;f;g], t]g cŢųflbj;]g ;Ƒƍsĕ/rt'rųfnL;ljw;ltkŪfglgƑųsƧ k'ƮnƧ lgƧoe"t+
;f;gd]j, gfţ+ ;f;glƃ bLk]lt. j'ų+ x]t+ æO±wëj, leŋj], ;d±)ëf»k]0 ;'ţf k/ƍjfbf ;d±)ëlx cţ]xLÆlt
‘bL0lg02=214 d0lg01=139 c0lg0 4=241’.
leŋ"lt ;+;f/] eo+ Oŋgs]ĕ. t]g lsťflk eujtá b]jnás]þ lg;Llbŷf ;ltkŪfg+ b];]ƃƧ ;lƃs]þ b]ju)+ d'lťŷf
Psleŋ'lk lgl;Ɖá gfd glŴ, tyflk b]já jf xát' dg'Ƨá jf uxŪá jf kƑlhtá jf, ;+;f/] eolƃ ;ƙf Oŋdfgá
oyfg'l;Ū+ klkşdfgáj leŋ' gfd xált, gfţált bƧ]lt. oyfx æcnŘtá r]kLÆlt ‘w0k0142’.
cŢųlƃ lgosŢų+. sĕo]lt PŴ cfolƃ ttált cfoá. s]þ cfolƃĠ s'lŞtf s]þ;fboá, Olt s'lŞtfg+ cfoált
sĕoá. cy jf cśkŝśfg+, s]þ;fbLgť ;d"xŪ]glk sĕoá, ¿ksĕoá, tƸƨ cųgá sĕo]lt cŴá. sĕofg'kƧLlt sĕo+
cg'kƧg;Lná. æsĕo]Ælt r jŷf k'g æsĕofg'kƧLÆlt b'ltosĕo-Ʈx)+ æPj+ g sĕo] cśkŝśljlgd'ųPswƙfg'kƧL, gflk
s]þ;nádflbljlgd'ųOlŴk'l/;fg'kƧL,
g
r
e"t'kfbfoljlgd'ųPswƙfg'kƧL,
cy
±vëf
/y;Ƙf/gu/fjojsblnŋƈljefufg'kƧs]ĕ ljo oyfŊþd+ cśkŝśs]þ;flbe"t'kfbfo;d"xfg'kƧL PjfÆlt bƧgŴ+ st+. tyf
x]Ŵ oyfj'ųwƙ;d"xljlgd'ųá OlŴk'l/;flbs]ĕ, cţá jf s]ĕlr wƙá g lbƧlt, oyfj'ųwƙ;d"xdų]o]j kg afnf tyf tyf
;'eflbtá r ldŞflelgj];+ s/álƃ, co+ kg oáuL tŴ sĕofg'kƧL Pj clgŝb'ŋcgųf;'efg'kƧL Pjflt j'ų+ xált. cy
jf ø−fo+ dxf;ltkŪfg] cƧf;kƧf;flbs]ĕ r'Ź;lj±wëf sĕoá j'ųá, tƧ ;ƑƧ OdƸƨo]j sĕo] cg'kƧgtá æsĕo] sĕofg'kƧLÆlt
Pjdflbgflk cŴá bŪƑá.
ljx/tLlt Ol/olt, rt";' Ol/ofk±yë;' Ps]þgfut+ ;/L/afwg+ cţ]g Ol/ofk±yëg ljlŞlƆŷf cktdfg+ cųefj+
x/lt, kjų]tLlt cŴá. alxźf sĕo]lt k/Ƨ sĕo]. cŢųalxźf sĕo]lt sĕn]g cųgá, sĕn]g k/Ƨ sĕo]. sĕn]g lx
cŢųalxźfsĕo];'lk PsƸƨ v±)ë sĕofg'kƧgf pƍşlt, ku')sƙŪfgƧ kg ck/fk/+ ;ť/)sĕná PŴ slytá. cftfkLlt
sĕokl/ƮfxsjLl/o]g jLl/ojf. ;á lx oƨf lsn];fg+ cftfkgtá cftfká j'ŝlt jLl/o+, ;á rƧ clŴ, tƨf cftfkLlt
j'ŝlt. ;ƕhĕgált sĕokl/Ʈfxs]þg ;ƕhţ]g ;dƉfutá. ;ltdflt sĕokl/Ʈflxsĕo ;ltof ;dƉfutá. co+ kg oƨf
;ltof cf/ƙ)+ kl/Ʈx]ŷf kţfo cg'kƧlt, jLl/o]g r cƃ/f já;fg+ gfkşlt, tƨf o];+ wƙfg+ cfg'efj]g t+ ;ltkŪfg+
;ƕşlt, t];+ bƧgŴ+ æcftfkL ;ƕhĕgá ;ltdfÆlt Ob+ j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
Olt sĕofg'kƧgf;ltkŪfg+, ;ƕoáuśť bƧ]ŷf Obflg kxfgś+ bƧ]t'+ æljg]Ɯ nás]þ cleŢĕbádgƧÆlƃ j'ų+.
99

tŴ ljg]Ɯflt tbśljgo]g jf ljŋƘgljgo]g jf ljgloŷf. nás]þlt ø−fo+ cŢųflbe]bá sĕoá j'ųá, Ʃ]j Ow
n'şgkn'şgŪ]g nás]ĕ gfd. ljeś] kg oƨf ¿ksĕo] kxLgcleŢĕboá j]bgfbL;'lk kxLolƃ Pj, tƨf kťlk pkfbfgŋƈf
ænás]ĕÆlt j'ų+. tƸƨ nás]þ cleŢĕbádgƧ;řft+ sĕdŞƆƓfkfb+ ljg]Ɯflt ;Ɨƈá. OdƧ r gLj/±)ë;' anjwƙƀoƧ
kxfgbƧg]g ;];gLj/)fglƕ kxfg+ j'ų+o]jflt j]lbtƑ+. lj;];]g r]Ŵ cleŢĕbádgƧljgo]g oyfŊþd+ sĕo;ƕlųljklųd"nfg+
cg'/áwlj/áwfg+, cųcle/lttb;'efsĕ/flbefjgfgle/tLg+, ce"tu')kŋ]ke"tbá;fkgogfgť kxfg+ j'ų+, t]g oáufjr/Ƨ
oáufg'efjlgƑųmþn+, oáu;dŴtf r bLlktf xált.
cŢų+ j]bgf;"ltcfbL;'lk cŢųfbLlg j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑflg. PŴ kg j]bgflt ltƧá j]bgf nálsof, tyf lrų+,
wƙf r, t];+ ljef±uëf ljeśgo] cflj eljƧlt. s]þjn+ kg]Ŵ oyf j]bgfboá cg'kƧƃá j]bgflbcg'kƧL gfd xált, ;á
goá bƧ]tƑá. ;]Ɯlyb+ _ j]bgf;' tfj ;'vf j]bgf b'ŋtá, b'ŋĕ ;Ɵtá, Ot/f r clgŝtá cg'klƧtƑf. oyfx _
æoá ;'v+ b'ŋtá cŹ, b'ŋdŹlŋ ;Ɵtá.
cb'ŋd;'v+ ;ƃ+, cŹlŋ g+ clgŝtáÆlt ‘;+0lg0 4=253 Oltj'053’Ķ
;Ƒf Pj Ptf b'ŋtá cg'klƧtƑf æo+ lslť j]blot+, t+ b'ŋlƨlƃ jbfdLÆlt ‘;+0lg0 4=259’ jrgtá. Pj+
cg'kƧƃá kg clgŝflb;ųfg'kƧgfj;]g jf cg'kƧƃálk æOd+ j]bg+ s]ĕ j]bolt, sƧfo+ j]bgf, Ƹs sĕ/)fo+ j]bgfÆlt
pkkl/lŋŷf æg s]ĕlr ;ųflbs]ĕ j]bolt, g s]þ;lť ;ųfbLg+ j]bgf, jŴf/ƙ)flbsĕ/)f
kgfo+ j]bgf pƍştLÆlt
cg'kƧƃálk j]bgfg'kƧL gfd xált. cy jf ;'vfbLg+ pƍlųŋ±)ë b'ŋĕbLg+ c;Ƙjf clgŝf cź'jf ljkl/)fdwƙflt Pj+ jf
cg'kƧƃá j]bgfg'kƧL gfd xált. Oldgfj go]g kflńgofg';f/]g ;];lrųwƙfglƕ cg'kƧgfsĕ/á j]lbtƑá. lj;];tá
kg]Ŵ lrų];' clgŝtfj;]g, wƙ];' cgųtfj;]g r cg'kƧƃá lrųfg'kƧL, wƙfg'kƧL r gfd xátLlt j]lbtƑ+. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg]Ŵ glŴ, ;/)j;]g r Psĕj ;lt cf/ƙ)j;]g ærųf/á ;ltkŪfgfÆlt j'ųflt.
ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj cŢųalxźftb'eosĕo] s]þ;flbs]ĕŪf;efjgfj;]g k&d+ ;ltkŪfg+
ljŴfl/t+. tyf cŢųfbL;' kŝ]s+þ ;fld;lg/fld;j;]g b'ljwfg+
;'vb'ŋcb'ŋd;'vj]bgfg+ j;]g b'lto+,
;/fujLt/fu;bá;jLtbá;;dáxjLtdáx;+lvųljlŋųdxƮtcdxƮt;pų/fg'ų/;dflxtf;dflxtljd'ųfljd'ųe]btá
;áń;lj±wëlx
lrųkhĕggj;]g
tlto+,
kťgLj/)fg+,
;ųaáŢśfgť
;Ƙjf;ƘjpƍfbkxfgkxLgfg'ƍlųefjgfkfl/k"l/x]t'Ţĕgj;]g rt'Ŵ+ ;ltkŪfg+ ljŴfl/t+. co+ ;'ųƃefhgLogoá.
clewƙefhgLo] kg tfj ærųf/á ;ltkŪfgf. Ow leŋ' sĕo] sĕofg'kƧL ljx/lt j]bgf;'»k]0 wƙ];'
wƙfg'kƧL ljx/tLÆlt ‘lje0380’
Pj+ dflts+þ &k]ŷf wƙ;śl)o+ j'ųgoƧ ljŴf/];' cŪ;' nás'ų/lrų];'
;ƕo'ų;ltj;]g]j ljŴf/tá ljeųf.
kŤfk'Şsgo]lk rt'Ɖ+ ;ltkŪfgfg+ slt s';nf»k]0 slt c/)fĠ l;of s';nf, l;of cƓfstf»k]0
cg'kflbƉcg'kfbflgofj, c;+lslnŪc;+lsn]l;sĕj»k]0 clgbƧgcƍl#fj. g x]t" cx]t'sĕj»k]0 cg'ų/f c/)fjflt
nás'ų/j;]g]j ljeųf. ;ƙf;Ɨ'ź]g lx ;'ųƃefhgLolƨţ]j
nálsonás'ų/ldƧsĕ ;ltkŪfgf slytf,
clewƙefhgLokŤfk'Şs]þ;' kg nás'ų/fo]j. t];' r nálsof gfgflrų];' Pj nưlƃ. cţ]g]j lx lrų]g sĕo+ kƮŲlƃ,
cţ]g j]bgfboált. nás'ų/f kg rųf/álk dƮŋ±)ë Pslrų]o]j nưlƃ. PslƨlŤ dƮlrųŋ±)ë cf/ƙ)tá lgƑfgf/ƙ)f
Psĕj ;lt sĕofbL;' ;'e;'vlgŝcųljkƟf;;d'Ş]bstfo rt'lsŝ;fwgŪ]g rųfl/lk gfdflg netLlt cod]Ŵ ljeśgoá.
sdtá ;ltkŪfg], cg"gflwstálk r.
kflńd'ųgoá `]Ɯá, tŴ s]ĕ;ƟldŞtfĶ
tŴ sdtá tfj colƕ b];gfŊþdáj, ;álk kfsfkfsj;]g j'ųá. Odf;' lx ¿ksƙŪfg+ kfslƃ k&d+
sĕofg'kƧgf j'ųf. ttá c¿ksƙŪfg+. tŴflk cf/ƙ)+ cg'ejƃL pƍşdfgf j]bgf kfsflt cgƃ/f j]bgfg'kƧgf,
ttá cf/ƙ)+ ljhĕgƃ+ ljţf)+ kfslƃ lrųfg'kƧgf, lrų] kfs] tlƉlƧtf ;'v'dflk wƙf kfsf xáƃLlt cƃ] wƙfg'kƧgf
j'ųf. co+ tfj]Ŵ sdá.
cg"gflwstált PŴ kg sƨf eujtf rųf/áj ;ltkŪfgf j'ųf, cg"gf cglwsĕltĠ
tŲfrl/tlblŪrl/t;dyoflgsljkƧgfoflgsĕg+ dƆltŋj;]g lƀwf kjųfg+ lj;'lźdƮj;]g. dƆƧ lx tŲfrl/tƧ
cáńfl/s+þ sĕofg'kƧgf;ltkŪfg+ lj;'lźd±Ʈëf, ltŋƧ ;'v'd+ j]bgfg'kƧgf;ltkŪfg+, lblŪrl/tƧflk dƆƧ gfltƍe]but+
lrųfg'kƧgf;ltkŪfg+, ltŋƧ cltƍe]but+ wƙfg'kƧgf;ltkŪfg+ lj;'lźd±Ʈëf. ;dyoflgsƧ r dƆƧ clsŞ]g
clwuƃƑlgldų+ k&d+ ;ltkŪfg+ lj;'lźd±Ʈëf, ltŋƧ b'lto+, ljkƧgfoflgsƧflk dƆƧ tlto+, ltŋƧ rt'Ŵ+ lj;'lźd±Ʈëflt
j]g]ƜŢĕ;otá rųf/á j'ųf. ;'e;'vlgŝcųefjljkƟf;ƍxfgŴ+ jf rt'/á#oáuf;juƅpkfbfgcultƍxfgŴlƕ
rt'lƑwfxf/kl/ţŴť rųf/áj j'ųf, cg"gf cglwsĕlt cod]Ŵ cg"gflwstf. Pj+ kflńd'ųgoá `]Ɯá.
;ltkŪfgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

;ƙƍwfgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
;ƙƍwfgljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ ;ƙƍwfgflt sĕ/)ƍwfgf pkfoƍwfgf. oálg;á kbxgtá k/d+ wfg+
100

kwfg+, kwfgjLl/ofgLlt cŴá. Ow leŋ"lt OdƸƨ ;f;g] klkƉs]ĕ leŋ'. cg'ƍƉfglƃ clgƑųfg+. kfksĕglƃ
nfdsĕg+. cs';nfg+ wƙfglƃ cs]ĕ;Ɵ;Ƙ"tfg+ wƙfg+. cg'ƍfbfoflt g pƍfbgŴfo. %Ɔ+ hg]tLlt sų'sƚtf;řft+
s';nŞƆ+ hg]lt pƍfb]lt. jfodtLlt koáu+ k/Ŋþd+ s/ált. jLl/o+ cf/etLlt sĕlosr]tl;sjLl/o+ s/ált. lrų+
kƮŲftLlt t]g]j ;xhĕtjLl/o]g lrų+ plŋklt. kbxtLlt kwfgjLl/o+ s/ált. klkflof kg]tflg rųfl/lk kbflg
jLl/oƧ]j cf;]jgfefjgfax'nLsƙ;ftŝlsl/oflx oáh]tƑflg.
pƍƉfglƃ cg'ƍƉflt cjųƑt+ cfkƉfg+. kxfgfoflt khxgŴfo. cg'ƍƉfg+ s';nfg+ wƙfglƃ clgƑųfg+
s]ĕ;Ɵ;Ƙ"tfg+ wƙfg+. pƍfbfoflt pƍfbgŴfo. pƍƉfglƃ lgƑųfg+. l&ltoflt l&tŴfo. c;ƙá;foflt cgƧgŴ+.
leƜáefjfoflt k'gƍ'g+ ejgfo. j]k'Ɵfoflt ljk'nefjfo. efjgfoflt jlŬof. kfl/k"l/oflt kl/k"/)Ŵfo. ;];+
kbtá pųfgd]j.
cŴtá kg]Ŵ æcg'ƍƉfg+ kfksĕgÆlƃcfbL;' c;d'bfrf/j;]g jf cgg'e"tf/ƙ)j;]g jf lsn];fg+ cg'ƍlų
j]lbtƑf. cţyf lx cgdt±Ʈë ;+;f/] cg'ƍƉf
cs';nwƙf gfd glŴ. s';nwƙ];' kg
/tgųoƍ;fbljkƧgflbljjũ"klgƧos';nflbj;]g cg'ƍƉflk clŴ. t];lƕ pƍƉk'Ƒų] ;lt ;Ƒ;ųfg+ Otá k'Ƒ] r
cf;jŋoƍ;śtá. Psƃƍjų;fwsĕ t];+. tŴ PsŝƧ jųuƅw'tś;dflwljkƧgfgjsƙ];' cţt/Ƹƨ lgŝƍo'ųƧ, #tá,
jfodtá r Ɣƪnásĕ cfutųf ejj;]g lsn];];' cnźf;]jgƧ ;ųƧ lsn];f g ;d'bfr/lƃ, ck/ef±uë kgƧ jųfbLlg
ljƧş]ŷf s';LtƧ r/tá r]j csƠf)ldųflbtá lsn];];' nźf;]jgƧ r coálg;ádgl;sĕ/+, ;ltjáƧƮť cfuƙ pƍşlƃ.
Pj+ tfj c;d'bfrf/j;]g lsn];fg+ cg'ƍlų j]lbtƑf.
PsŝƧ kg tƸƨ cųefj] cgg'e"tk'Ƒ+ lbƑflbe]b+ dgflko+ cf/ƙ)+ nleŷf tŴ coálg;ádgl;sĕ/;ltjáƧ±Ʈë
cfuƙ lsn];f pƍşlƃ, cnleŷf Pj+ cgg'e"tf/ƙ)j;]g lsn];fg+ cg'ƍlų j]lbtƑf.
æpƍƉfg+ kfksĕgÆlƃ PŴ kg rt'lƑw+ pƍƉ+ jųdfge"tfkutcásĕ;ste"ldnźj;]g, t];+ ljef±uëf pƍƉlųs]þ
j'ųáj. ck/lƕ rt'lƑw+ pƍƉ+ ;d'bfrf/cf/ƙ)flwƮlxtcljŋlƘtc;d'Ŕflttj;]g. tŴ ;ƕlt jųdfg+o]j ;d'bfrf?ƍƉ+
gfd. ;];+ kfsd]j. oƨf kg]Ŵ Od];' pƍƉ];' jųdfge"tfkutcásĕ;st;d'bfrf/;řft+ rt'lƑw+ pƍƉ+ g dƮflbjŢ+,
tƨf e"ldnźcf/ƙ)flwƮlxtc;d'Ŕfltt;řft+ rt'lƑw+ pƍƉ+ ;ƈfo]Ŵ æpƍƉfg+ kfksĕg+ kxfgfofÆlt j'ų.
+
sy+ kg dƮŋ±)ë cg'ƍƉfg+ s';nfg+ pƍfbfo jfofdá xált, syť pƍƉfg+ l&ltofltĠ dƮƍjlųof Pj. d±Ʈëf
lx kjųdfgá k'Ƒ] cg'ƍƉk'Ƒųf cg'ƍƉá gfd j'ŝlt. of rƧ kjlų, cod]j l&lt gfdflt co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg]Ŵflk PsƧ]j jLl/oƧ lsŝe]btá rt'wf j'ųflt cod]Ŵ kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
ljeśgotá kg ;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj rųf/á ;ƙƍwfgf nálsonás'ų/s';nlrų;ƕo'ųjLl/oj;]g cs';nflbkb]lx
;Ƹź ljŴf/tá ljeųf. clewƙefhgLokŤfk'Şs]þ;' kg]t] nás'ų/s';nlrų;ƕo'ųj;]g]j ljeųf, mþnlrų;ƕo'ųf kg g
ulxtf. t]g]j kŤfk'Şs]þ æs';nf Pj, ljkfswƙwƙf Pj, ckroufldgáj, ;]vfjfÆltcflbgf j'ųf. ;];á kg]Ŵ
ljlgŞoá ;ltkŪfg] j'ųgofg';f/]g j]lbtƑá.
;ƙƍwfgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

OlźkfbljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
Olźkfbljeśdfltsĕo kg rųf/á Olźkfbflt PŴ OŢtLlt Olź, ;ldŢlt lgƎþştLlt cŴá, Olź Pj kfbá
Olźkfbá, Olźs]ĕŪf;ált cŴá. OŢlƃ jf Ptfo ;ųf Oźf j'źf pŊ+þ;utf xáƃLltlk Olź, kşlƃ Pt]gflt kfbá, kltŪf
clwud"kfoált cŴá, Olźof kfbá Olźkfbá. %Ɔ;dflwkwfg;řf/;dƉfutlƃ PŴ %Ɔx]t's]ĕ, %Ɔflws]ĕ jf ;dflw
%Ɔ;dflw, sų'sƚtf%Ɔ+ clwkƸt sl/ŷf klnź;dflwƧ]t+ clwjrg+. kwfge"tf ;řf/f kwfg;řf/f, rt'lsŝ;fwsƧ
;ƙƍwfgjLl/oƧ]t+ clwjrg+. ;dƉfutlƃ t]g %Ɔ;dflwgf, kwfg;řf/]g r pk]t+. Olźkfblƃ oyfj'ųŴ]g æOźLÆlt
;Ś+ utfg+ pkrf/Ţĕgflbs';nlrų;ƕo'ųfg+ %Ɔ;dflwkwfg;řf/fg+ clwŪfgŪ]g kfbe"t;];lrųr]tl;s/fƸ;. efj]tLlt
jŬ]lt, cųgá ;ƃfg] k'gƍ'g+ hg]tLlt cŴá. Oldgf go]g ;];];'lk cŴá j]lbtƑá. tŴ jLd+;flt kţf. ;];+ kbtá
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
cŴtá kg]Ŵ t]g Ƹs slyt+Ġ rt'Ɖ+ leŋ"g+ dŴsƍų+ sƙŪfg+ slyt+. oyf lx rt";' cdŝk'ų];' &fgƃ/+ kŴ]ŷf
ljr/ƃ];' Ps]ĕ pkŪfg]g, Ps]ĕ ;"/efj]g, Ps]ĕ hĕlt;ƕlųof, Ps]ĕ dƃan]gflt Pj+ t] kŝ]ssĕ/±)ëg /fhĕg+ cf/f±wëŷf
&fgƃ/+ kfk')lƃ, Pj+ leŋ"lk %ƆjLl/olrųjLd+;f;' Ps]þs+þ h]Ū+ w'/+ k'Ƒśd+ sŷf nás'ų/wƙlgƑųsĕ xálƃ. PŴ r %Ɔá
;dflw kwfg;řf/ált toá wƙf OźLlk xálƃ Olźkfbflk, ;];f kg ;ƕo'ųf rųf/á vƈf Olźkfbf Pj. Pj+
;];flwklto'ųlrų];'lk Olźkfbflt j]lbtƑf.
clkr ´fgljkƧgf;' k'Ƒef±uëf Olźkfbá. oá klnfeá, ;f Olź. k&dŢĕgfbLg+ lx k'Ƒefukl/sƙflg
Olźkfbá gfd, k&dŢĕgfboá Olź gfd. k&ddƮfbLg+ k'ƑefuljkƧgf Olźkfbá gfd, k&ddƮfboá Olź gfd.
klnfej;]gflk bLk]t'+ jũlt. k&dŢĕgfboá lx k&ddƮfboá r Olźkfbá gfd, b'ltoŢĕgfboá, b'ltodƮfboá r Olź
gfdflt co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg]Ŵ ljeśgo]g]j kfsá eljƧlt. tŴ lx ;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj %ƆfbLg+ kbfg+ ljeś+ jŷf cƃ]
æOlźkfbált tyfe"tƧ j]bgfŋƈá»k]0 ljţf)ŋƈá. Olźkfb+ efj]tLlt t] wƙ] cf;]jlt efj]lt ax'nLs/ált, t]g j'ŝlt
101

Olźkfb+ efj]tLÆlt ‘lje0434’ Pj+ ;Ƒ] nálsonás'ų/wƙf Olźkfbált j'ųf.
clewƙefhgLo] kg %ƆfbLlg kbflg ljelhŷf cƃ] æOlźkfbált tyfe"tƧ mþƧá»k]0 kƮfxá cljŋ]káÆlt
‘lje0447’ Pj+ ;Ƒ] nás'ų/s';nwƙf Olźkfbflt jŷf k'g æ%lƆlźkfbá jLl/lolźkfbá lrlųlźkfbá jLd+l;lźkfbáÆlt
‘lje0457’ dflts+þ &k]ŷf ætŴ stdá %lƆlźkfbáĠ Ow leŋ' oƸƨ ;do] nás'ų/+ ´fg+ efj]lt»k]0 oá tƸƨ ;do] %Ɔá
%lƆstf»k]0 co+ j'ŝlt %lƆlźkfbáÆltcflbgf nás'ų/s';nlrų;ƕo'ų%ƆjLl/olrųjLd+;f Pj Olźkfbflt j'ųf. tyf
kŤfk'Şs]þlk s';nf Pj, clgbƧgcƍl#f Pj, jLd+l;lźkfbá x]t', ;];f g x]t"»k]0 lrlųlźkfbá g jųƑá, ;];f
lrų;ƕo'ųf»k]0 cg'ų/fj, c/)fjflt. ;];d]Ŵ ;ltkŪfg] j'ų;lb;d]j. kflńd'ųsgoá kg]Ŵflk g pźált.
OlźkfbljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

aáŢśljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
aáŢśljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ ;ų aáŢśflt PŴ aálwof, aálwƧ jf cśflt aáŢśf. Ob+ j'ų+ xált
_ ofo Pj wƙ;fdlƮof dƮŋ±)ë pƍşdfgfo nLg'źŝflbcg]s]þ;+ pkŹjfg+ klkŋe"tfo ;ltwƙljroflb;ųljwfo
wƙ;fdlƮof cl/o;fjs]ĕ a'Ţlt, lsn];lgŹfo pŪxlt, ;ŝflg jf klljŢlt, tƧf wƙ;fdlƮ;řftfo aálwof cśflt
aáŢśf ´fgśdƮśflg ljo. oá kg]; oyfj'ųƍsĕ/fo Ptfo wƙ;fdlƮof a'ŢtLlt sŷf cl/o;fjs]ĕ æaáwLÆlt j'ŝlt,
tƧ aálwƧ cśflt aáŢśf ;]gś/yśfboá ljo. clkr æaáwfo ;+jųƃLlt aáŢśfÆltcflbgf kl;lƘbfgo]gflk aáŢśŴá
j]lbtƑá. k;Ŵá, ;'Ɔ/á jf aáŢśá ;ƗáŢśá, ;lto]j ;ƗáŢśá ;lt;ƗáŢśá. Pj+ ;];];'lk. tŴ wƙ] ljlrgflt
clgŝflbtá kl/jLd+;lt hĕgflt, wƙ] jf Pt]g ;ųf ljlrgƃLlt wƙljroá, kţf. pk]ŋlt ;d/;fg+ wƙfg+ xfkgjŬg]
cjfjtfo kl;řfgfsĕ/]g dŢųf xátLlt pk]ŋĕ, tŶdŢųtf. kl;řfgnŋ±)ëf lx pk]ŋĕ;ƗáŢśált. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá. wƙe]bák]Ŵ ;'ljţ]Ɯáj.
ljeśgotá kg]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo] tfj nálsonás'ų/j;]g ;];];' nás'ų/s';nljkfsj;]g ljeųf. kŤfk'Şs]þ
kg l;of s';nf, l;of cƓfstf, kLlt;ƗáŢśá ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųáj, ;];f ƀLlx»k]0 kLlt;ƗáŢśá ;'v;xutáj,
;];f ltwflk, clgbƧgcƍl#f, wƙljro;ƗáŢśá x]t', ;];f g x]t"»k]0 ¿kfjr/fj, c/)fjflt. ;];+ ;ltkŪfg]
j'ųgod]j. cod]Ŵ ljeśgoá.
Obflg kg _
sdtá tfjųtá r, x]t'e"ldljefutá.
ljj]stá r ljţ]Ɯá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ sdtá tfj colƕ b];gfŊþdáj. ;Ƒ];+ lx aáŢśfg+ pksĕ/ųf ;lt;ƗáŢśá k&d+ j'ųá, ttá oƨf
pklŪt;lts]ĕ wƙ] kţfo kljlrgflt, kljlrtwƙá jLl/o+ cf/elt, cf/źjLl/oƧ kLlt pƍşlt, kLltdgƧ sĕoálk
lrųlƕ kƧƘlt, kƧźsĕoƧ ;'lvgá lrų+ ;dflwolt, ;dflxtlrųá t+ lrų+ ;fw's+þ cŢ'k]lŋtf xált, tƨf
wƙljro;ƗáŢśfboá oyfŊþd+ j'ųflt co+ tfj]Ŵ sdá.
tfjųtá kg sƨf t] ;ų]j j'ųf, cg"gf cglwsĕltĠ nLg'źŝklkŋtá, ;Ƒlųstá r. PŴ lx toá aáŢśf
nLgƧ klkŋĕ. oyfx _ æoƸƨ r ±vëf, leŋj], ;do] nLg+ lrų+ xált, sĕná tƸƨ ;do] wƙljro;ƗáŢśƧ efjgfo,
sĕná jLl/o»k]0 kLlt;ƗáŢśƧ efjgfofÆlt ‘;+0lg0 5=234’. toá pźŝƧ klkŋĕ. oyfx _ æoƸƨ r ±vëf, leŋj],
;do] pźt+ lrų+ xált, sĕná tƸƨ ;do] kƧlź;ƗáŢśƧ efjgfo, sĕná ;dflw»k]0 pk]ŋĕ;ƗáŢśƧ efjgfofÆlt
‘;+0lg0 5=234’. Ps]ĕ kg]Ŵ ná)w"kg+ ljo ;ƑƓŧg];' ;ƑaáŢś];' OlŞtƑá. oyfx _ æ;ltť őfx+, leŋj],
;ƑlŴs+þ jbfdLÆlt ‘;+0lg0 5=234’. Pj+ nLg'źŝklkŋtá r ;ƑlŴstá r ;ų]j j'ųflt co+ tfjųtá.
x]t'e"ldljefutált PŴ x]t'ljefutá tfj _ rųf/á ;lt;ƗáŢśƧ pƍfbfo
;+jųlƃ ;lt;ƕhţ+
d'ŪƧltk'Ʈnkl/jşgtf pklŪtƧltk'Ʈn;]jgtf tblwd'ųtflt. tyf ;ų wƙf b'ltoƧ kl/k'Şstf jŴ'lj;blsl/of
OlƇo;dųklkfbgf
b'ƍţk'Ʈnkl/jşgf kţjƃk'Ʈn;]jgf uƘL/`f)rl/okŝj]ŋ)tf tblwd'ųtflt.

cŢlųsaflx/fg+ ;/L/kl/ŋĕ/e"tfg+ jŴ"g+ lj;befjs/)+ jŴ'lj;blsl/of
gfd. tyf Psĕb; wƙf tltoƧ
ckfoeoudgjLlybfoşdxų;Ŵ'dxųhĕltdxų;Ɣƪrfl/dxųfg+
kŝj]ŋ)tf cflg;+;bƧfljtf lkůkftfkrfogtf
s';Ltk'Ʈnkl/jşgtf cf/źjLl/ok'Ʈn;]jgtf tblwd'ųtflt. tŴ æa'źfbLlx utd±Ʈëf dof uƃƑáÆlt kŝj]ŋ)f
jLlykŝj]ŋ)f gfd. æbfos]þlx lbƉlkůkftƧ dxƎþnt+ ;ƕfb]ƧfdLÆlt cųfg+ bdg+ lkůkftfkrfog+ gfd. tyf Psĕb;
wƙf rt'ŴƧ a'źwƙ;Ŝ;Lnrfub]jták;dfg'Ƨltoá ;ų, n"vk'Ʈnkl/jşgtf l;lgźk'Ʈn;]jgtf k;fbgLo;'ųƃkŝj]ŋ)tf
tblwd'ųtflt.
tyf ;ų wƙf kťdƧ k)Lteáhg;]jgtf, pt';'vOl/ofky;'v;]jgtf ƀ] dŢųƍoáutf
;f/źsĕok'Ʈnkl/jşgtf ;ƃsĕok'Ʈn;]jgtf tblwd'ųtflt. Psĕb; wƙf %ŪƧ jŴ'lj;blsl/of OlƇo;dųklkfbgf
lgldųs';ntf ;do] lrųƧ kƮxlgƮx;ƕx+;gŢ'k]ŋgf rtƧá
c;dflxt;dflxtk'Ʈnfg+ kl/jşg;]jgtf ƀ],
´fgljdáŋkŝj]ŋ)tf tblwd'ųtflt. tŴ sl;)flblgldųfg+ pƮx)s';ntf lgldųs';ntf gfd. kť wƙf ;ųdƧ
;ų;řf/s]þnfogdŢųk'Ʈnfg+ kl/jşg;]jgtf ƀ] ƀ], tblwd'ųtflt. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg ;ƙáxljgáblgof
ljeśŪsyfo ux]tƑált cod]Ŵ x]t'ljef±uëf.
102

e"ldljefutá kg]t] sĕdfjr/f, nás'ų/f jf xálƃ, sĕdfjr/];' anjljkƧgfbL;' Pj aáŢśf nưlƃ, g
Ot/];'. nás'ų/];' kg ;ƑŴ nưlƃ, ¿kfjr/f¿kfjr/lrų];' ;Ƒyf g nưlƃ caálwklŋsųf. s]þlr kg ±yë/f
ljkƧgfkfbs]þ;' sl;)f;'eƔƪljxf/Ţĕg];'lk aáŢś] pź/lƃ, g r t] kll;źf cŪsyfrl/o]lx, tƨf t];+ dt]g
¿kfjr/flk xálƃ, g s]þglr kl/ofo]g c¿kfjr/flt cod]Ŵ e"ldljef±uëf.
ljj]stált PŴ ljj]s]ĕlt ljljųtf, Ʃfo+ kťlj±wëf tbśljŋƘg;d'Ş]bklkƧlźlgƧ/)ljj]sj;]g.
tbśljj]s]ĕlt ljkƧgf, ljŋƘgljj]s]ĕlt cŪ ;dfklųoá, ;d'Ş]bljj]s]ĕlt d±Ʈëf, klkƧlźljj]s]ĕlt mþn+, lgƧ/)ljj]s]ĕlt
;ƑlgldųlgƧ+ lgƑfg+. tlŶd] tbś;d'Ş]bklkƧlźlgƧ/)ljj]slglƧtf xálƃ. tyf x]t] ljkƧgfŋ±)ë lsŝtá
tbśljj]slglƧtf, cŢĕ;otá lgƧ/)ljj]slglƧtf.
dƮsĕn] kg lsŝtá ;d'Ş]bljj]slglƧtf, cf/ƙ)tá
lgƧ/)ljj]slglƧtf, mþnŋ±)ë lsŝtá klkƧlźljj]slglƧtf. cf/ƙ)tá lgƧ/)ljj]slglƧtf r xálƃ. s]þ;lť ±yë/fg+
dt] ljkƧgfkfbs¿kfjr/Ţĕgŋ±)ë ljŋƘgljj]slglƧtfjflt kťljj]slglƧtflk xáƃLlt cod]Ŵ ljj]s]ĕ. Pj+ ljţ]Ɯá
kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
aáŢśljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

dƮśljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
dƮśljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ cl/oált t+t+dƮjŢlsn];]lx cf/sųf cl/oefjs/ųf r cl/oá, cŪ
cśflg cƧflt cŪlśs]ĕ, lgƑfglŴs]þlx dƮLolt, lgƑfg+ jf dƮlt, lsn];] jf df/]ƃá uŞtLlt d±Ʈëf. ;]Ɯlyblƃ ;á
stdált r], Obflg Ʃfo+ d±Ʈëf rt'/lśgL ljo ;]gf cśdųd]j xált, cśljlgd'ųá gŴLlt bƧ]ƃá æ;ƙflblŪ»k]0»
;ƙf;dfwLÆlt cfx. tŴ ;ƙf kƧtLlt ;ƙflblŪ, kţf. ;ƙf ;Řƍ]lt tŊ]þtLlt ;ƙf;Řƍá, ljtŊþá. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. ttá wƙe]bálk ljeśgoálk aáŢś];' j'ų;lb;á.
clewƙefhgLo] kg lj/ltųojlştá kťlśs]ĕlk d±Ʈëf ljeųá, tť kťƉ+ cśfg+ lsŝflwst+, lj/tLgť
cj'ųl;źt+ ;ƈfo, lj/ltjlştƧ kg nás'ų/dƮƧ cefjf ;álk cŪlśs]ĕjflt j]lbtƑá.
kŤfk'Şs]þlk ;ƙf;Řƍá ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųáj, ;];f ƀLlx. ;ƙf;Řƍá cljtŊþljrf/dųá, kLlt;xutá
;'v;xutáj, g pk]ŋĕ;xutá, ;];f ltwflk. ;ƙflblŪ x]t', ;];f gx]t"lt co+ lj;];á. ;];+ ;dd]j. Obflg kg _
sdtá lsŝe]btá, e"lde]bljj]stá.
dƮś];' ljhĕgLoá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ sdtá tfj colƕ b];gfŊþdáj. eujtf lx lgƑfgflwudfo klkƉƧ kţfkşátkţf;Ŵtfo
cljşƈsĕ/ljwdgtá ax"ksĕ/ųf k&d+ ;ƙflblŪ b]l;tf. ttá x]/lţsƧ sxfk)kl/jųsxŴá ljo oyf;efjbƧgƧ
;ƙflblŪof ax"ksĕ/ųf ;ƙf;Řƍá. Ʃfo+ oyf ;ƙflblŪof, Pj+ ;ƙfjfrfolk pksĕ/s]ĕ. oyfx æk'Ƒ] ±vëf, uxklt,
tŊ]þŷf ljrf/]ŷf kŞf jfr+ leƆtLÆlt ‘d0lg01=463’, tƨf tbgƃ/+ ;ƙfjfrf. oƨf kg jfrfo ;+ljblxŷf nás]þ sƙƃ]
koáh]lƃ, tƨf tbgƃ/+ ;ƙfsƙƃá. sĕojrLb'ŝl/t+ kxfo peo;'rl/t+ k"/]ƃƧ]j oƨf cfhËjŪds+þ ;Ln+ k"/lt, g
Ot/Ƨ, tƨf tb'eofgƃ/+ ;ƙfcfhËjá j'ųá. Pj+ ælj;'źlblŪ;Ln]gflk Pųfjtf kl/tá;+ csŷf Ob+ jLl/o+ cf/letƑÆlƃ
bƧ]t'+ tbgƃ/+ ;ƙfjfofdá. cf/źjLl/o]gflk sĕofbL;' ;lt ;"klŪtf sĕtƑflt bƧgŴ+ tbgƃ/+ ;ƙf;lt. ;"klŪtfo
;ltof Psųf/ƙ±)ë lrų+ ;dfwft'+ ;Ŋĕlt tbgƃ/+ ;ƙf;dflw j'ųált co+ tfj]Ŵ sdá.
lsŝtá kg];+ Ps]þsƧ tLl) tLl) lsŝflg, ;]Ɯlyb+ _ ;ƙflblŪ tfj cţ]lxlk cųgá kŝgLslsn];]lx ;Ƹź
ldŞflbƸŪ khxlt, cf/ƙ)tá
lg/áw;ŝ+ ;lŞs/ált, c;ƙáxtá ;];;ŝflg klljŢlt. Pj+ ;ƙf;ŘƍfbLg+
ldŞf;Řƍkhxgflbj;]g oyfg'¿klƃ lsŝtf j]lbtƑf. lj;];tá kg]Ŵ ;ƙf;Řƍá ;xhĕtwƙ] clelg/ák]lt, ;ƙfjfrf
kl/ƮŲflt
;ƙfsƙƃá ;d'Ūfk]lt, ;ƙfcfhËjá jábfk]lt, ;ƙfjfofdá kƮŲflt, ;ƙf;lt pkŪfk]lt, ;ƙf;dflw
;dfbxtLlt Obd]Ŵ lsŝ+.
e]btá kg k'Ƒef±uë ;ƙflblŪ æb'ŋ] `f)Ælƃcflbgf rt";' ;ŝ];' `f)j;]g gfgŋ)f gfgf/ƙ)f gfgfgfdf xált,
b'ltoá
kg
g]ŋƙcƓfkfbcljƸx;f;Řƍj;]g,
lj/ltoá
rt'lƑwjrLb'ŝl/tltljwsĕob'ŝl/tldŞfhËjlj/d);řftr]tgfj;]glk
lj/ltj;]glk,
%Ū;ųdf
rt'lƑw;ƙƍwfg;ltkŪfgj;]g gfgŋ)f gfgf/ƙ)f gfgfgfdf xálƃ. dƮsĕn] kg]t] ;ƙflblŪcfboá Psŋ)f Psĕ/ƙ)f.
lsŝtá kg tflg k'Ƒef±uë gfgfgfdflg nelƃ, ;ƙf;dflw kg k'Ƒef±uëlk dƮŋ±)ëlk rt'ŊþkťsŢĕgj;]g gfgŋ±)ëf
gfgfgfdá, dƮŋ±)ë kg Psĕ/ƙ±)ëf xált. PsƧ lx k&dd±Ʈëf kfbsŢĕgflblgodtá k&dŢĕgflbs]ĕ jf b'ltoŢĕgfbL;'
cţt/Ţĕlgs]ĕ jf, b'ltodƮfboálkƧ k&ddƮ;lb;Ţĕlgsĕ jf lj;lb;Ţĕlgsĕ jflt ;á dƮsĕn]lk gfgŋ±)ëf gfgfgfdá jflt
cod]Ŵ e]bá.
e"ldtá r ljj]stá r ljlgŞoá aáŢś];' j'ųfg';f/]g j]lbtƑált Pj+ ljhĕgLoá kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
dƮśljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

103

´fgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
´fgljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ kfltdáŋ;+j/;+j'táltcfbL;' kfltdáŋlƃ l;ŋĕkb;Ln+. t+ lx oá g+ kflt
/ŋlt, t+ dáŋ]lt dár]lt cfkflosĕbLlx b'ŋ]lx, tƨf ækfltdáŋÆlƃ j'ŝlt. ;+j/)+, ;+j/lƃ jf t]gflt ;+j/á,
kfltdáŋd]j ;+j/á kfltdáŋ;+j/á, sƙjfrfkl/oá;fg] OŢgsƧ cŴtá r]tgflb¿kƧ kfltdáŋ;+j/;LnƧ]j]t+ clwjrg+.
t]g ;+j'tá lklxtsĕojrLkoá±uëflt kfltdáŋ;+j/;+j'tá. ljx/tLlt Ol/olt kjų]lt. cfrf/±uëfr/;ƕƉált PŴ
cfrl/tƑtá cfrf/á, ufjá r/lƃ PŴflt ±uëfr/á, u'Ɖ+ r/)Ūfg+. t+;lb;tfo kg ;Ƒálk kjlųlj;oá ±uëfr/ált
j]lbtƑá. t];+ ljef±uëf lgŹ];] j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑá.
lgŹ];] lx _
æcfrf/±uëfr/;ƕƉált clŴ cfrf/á, clŴ cgfrf/á. tŴ stdá cgfrf/áĠ sĕlos]ĕ jLltŊþdá,
jfrl;s]ĕ jLltŊþdá, sĕlosjfrl;s]ĕ jLltŊþdá, co+ j'ŝlt cgfrf/á, ;Ƒlƕ b'ƧLƠ+ cgfrf/á, O±wësŝá j]ń'bfg]g
jf kų»k]0 k'Ǝþmþnl;gfgbƃsŪbfg]g jf rf'sƚtfo jf d'Ʈ;'Ətfo jf kfl/e'tfo jf hŜk];lgs]þg jf
cţt/ţt/]g jf a'źklts'Ū]g ldŞfcfhËj]g hËljs+þ sƍ]lt, co+ j'ŝlt cgfrf/á.
ætŴ stdá cfrf/áĠ sĕlos]ĕ cjLltŊþdáÆltcflbgf ‘lje0513’ _
j'ųljkl/ofo]g cfrf/á lglŹŪá.
æ±uëfr/ált clŴ ±uëfr/á, clŴ c±uëfr/á. tŴ stdá c±uëfr/áĠ O±wësŝá j]l;of±uëfr/á jf
xált, ljwjf»k]0 y'Ɵs'df/Lkůsleŋ'gLkfgfuf/±uëfr/á jf, ;+;Ūá ljx/lt /fh"lx /fhdxfdų]lx ltlŴo]lx
ltlŴo;fjs]þlx cgg'nálds]þg ;+;±Ʈëg, oflg jf kg tflg s'nflg cƧźflg cƍ;Ɖflg»k]0 tyf¿kflg s'nflg
;]jlt ehlt klo?kf;lt, co+ j'ŝlt c±uëfr/á.
ætŴ stdá ±uëfr/áĠ O±wësŝá g j]l;of±uëfr/á xátLÆltcflbgf ‘lje0514’ _
j'ųljkl/ofo]g ±uëfr/á lglŹŪá.
clkr]Ŵ ±yë/fg+ leŋ"g+ k'/tá udglg;LbgrŘdg#ũgfleejgflbsĕlosĕlrųLsĕ/lsl/ofgť]j ±yë/] leŋ" cgfk'Şf
wƙsygv'+;gflbjfrl;sĕlrųLsĕ/lsl/ofgť cgfrf/fg+ klkŋj;]g sĕlosjfrl;s]ĕ cfrf/á j]lbtƑá. clkr leŋ' ;uf/já
;ƍltƧá lx/áųƍ;ƕƉá ;'lgjŴá ;'kf?tá kf;flbs]þg cleŊþƃflbgf cálŋųrŋ' Ol/ofky;ƕƉá cfle;dfrfl/s]þ;' ;Ŋþŝsĕ/L
u?lrųLsĕ/ax'ná ljx/lt, co+ j'ŝlt cfrf/á. ±uëfr/á kg ltlj±wëf pklgƧo±uëfr/á cf/ŋ±uëfr/á pklgaƈ±uëfr/ált.
tŴ b;syfjŴ'u');dƉfutá sƠf)ldųá pklgƧo±uëfr/á gfd. cƃ/#/fbL;' cálŋųrŋ'tfbLlx lb;f ljlb;f cgánás]þŷf
udg+ cf/ŋ±uëfr/á gfd. rųf/á kg ;ltkŪfgf pklgaƈ±uëfr/á gfd. oŴ lrų+ pklgaƈlt, co+ ltlj±wëfk]Ŵ
±uëfr/ált j]lbtƑá. Oldgflt Oldgf cfrf/]g, ±uëfr/]g r ;dƉfutá cfrf/±uëfr/;ƕƉá gfd.
c)'dų];' jş];"lt c)'ƍdf±)ë;' bá;];'. eobƧfjLlt eobƧg;Lná, c)'dų+ /])'+ l;g]?;lb;+ kƧƃá ljo
;Ƒnx'slƕ b'Ŋþb'ưfl;tdų+ kf/flhs;lb;+ sŷf jştá eotá bƧg;Lnált cŴá. ;dfbfo l;ŋlt l;ŋĕkb];"lt o+ lslť
l;ŋĕkb];' l;lŋtƑ+, t+ ;'Ū' cfbfo ux]ŷf l;ŋlt.
OlƇo];' u'ųƀf/ált dgŞŪ];' OlƇo];' ¿kflbcf/ƙ)lgldųfbLg+ cƮx);řft;lt;+j/]g lklxtƀf/á. eáhg]
dųţ"lt lkůkft] klƮx)kl/eá±uë;' kŝj]ŋ)`f)j;]g r]j clƍŞtfbLlx r dųhĕggs]ĕ, lkůkftj;]g r]Ŵ rt'Ɖ+ kŝofg+
ux)+ j]lbtƑ+. cy jf e'lŧtƑtá eáhglƃ rt'Ɖ+ kŝofg+ ux)+ j]lbtƑ+. k'Ƒ/ųfk//ųlƃ PŴ cŬ/lų;řftfo /lųof
k'Ƒ] k'Ƒ/ų+, Oldgf k&dofdť]j kŞfeųť uŲflt. /lųof kŞf ck//ų+, Oldgf klŞdofdť]j k'/]eųť uŲflt.
klŞdofdá kgƧ leŋ'gá lgŹflsndyljgábgásĕ;ált g ulxtá.
hĕul/ofg'oáudg'o'ųált c;'eefjgf;řftƧ efjgf/fdƧ cg'oáu;řft+ cf;]jgefjg+ cg'o'ųá rŘdglg;şĕlx
oálg;ádgl;sĕ/]g cfj/)Lo]lx wƙ]lx lrųkl/;áwg] o'ųƍo'ųált cŴá. ;ftŝ+ g]kŊþlƃ ;tt+ kjųlotƑtá ;ftŝ;řft+
jLl/o+, kl/kfsutųf g]kŊþ;řftť kţ+ cg'o'ųált ;Ɨƈá. Oldgf jLl/okţflx o'ųƧ]j hĕul/ofg'oául;źLlt bƧ]lt.
Obflg t+ hĕul/ofg'oáu+ ;¿ktá bƧ]ƃá æaálwklŋsĕg+ wƙfgÆlƃcflbdfx. aálwklŋsĕg+ wƙfglƃ
rt';ŝfjaáw;řftƧ dƮ`f)Ƨ kŋ] ejfg+ rt';ŝ;ltkŪfgflb;ųƸt;wƙfg+.
lgŹ];] kgƧ nálsoefjgfo
lj;];aálwklŋowƙ] Psĕ/ƙ±)ë kjųg;dŴtfo ;ų aáŢśf Pj lglŹŪf. t];+ ux±)ëg kg ;];fglƕ tŴ ux)+ j]lbtƑ+.
;á cleŊþƃ] klŊþƃ]ltcfbL;' cleŊþƃ+ j'ŝlt k'/tá udg+, klŊþƃ+ lgjųg+, tb'eoť &fglg;şĕ;og];'lk k'/tá, kŞtá
r sĕoƧ cleudgckudgj;]g nưlt. ;ƕhĕgsĕ/L xátLlt ;ƕhţ]g ;Ƒlsŝsĕ/L, ;ƕhţƧ]j jf sĕ/L, ;ƕhţ-Ʈx±)ëg
r]Ŵ cljƍoáutá ;ltlk ulxtfj xált. t]g]jƧ lgŹ];] æ;tá ;ƕhĕgá cleŊþdtLÆltcflb j'ų+.
cfnálst]ltcfbL;' cfnálst+ gfd k'/tá k]ŋg+. ljnálst+ gfd cg'lb;fk]ŋg+. Od];+ kg lƀƉ+ ux±)ëg x]Ūf
pkl/ kŞtá k]ŋg;řftflg cánálst'Ɵálstfknálstflglk ulxtfgLlt j]lbtƑflg.
;ldlŧt] k;fl/t]lt kƑfg+ ;ldŧg], k;f/±)ë r. ;ŜflkųrLj/wf/±)ëlt
PŴ ;ŜflrLj/fg+
lgjf;gkf?kgj;]g, kųƧ leŋĕklƮx)flbj;]g r kl/eá±uëf wf/)+ gfd. cl;t]lt lkůkftflbeáhg]. kLt]lt
ofu'cflbkfg]. vflot]lt lkŪvşĕlbvfbg]. ;flot]lt dw'mþfl)tflb;flot]. pŝf/kƧfjsƙ]lt pŝf/Ƨ r kƧfjƧ r
s/±)ë. ut]lt udg]. l&t]lt &fg]. lgl;Ɖ]lt lg;şĕo. ;'ų]lt ;og]. hĕul/t]lt hĕu/±)ë. PŴ r
leŋĕrf/udgflbj;]g
æcleŊþƃ]Ælt j'ų+. ljxf/] kg rŘdgflbOl/ofkyj;]g]j æut]Æltcflb j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
efl;t]lt syg]. t'ŲLefj]lt csyg].
104

;Ƒ];' kg t];' cleŊþƃfbL;' kŝ]s+þ ;fŴs;ƕhţ+ ;ƍfo;ƕhţ+ ±uëfr/;ƕhţ+ c;ƙáx;ƕhţlƃ rt'lƑw+ ;ƕhţ+
j]lbtƑ+. tŴ cleŊþldt'sĕdtflblrų] pƍƉ] lrųj;]g]j udgfƸb csŷf æƸs g' d] tŴ ut]g cŴáÆlt kl/ƮlŲŷf
r]ltobƧgflbgá tƧ tƧ cŴƧ kl/ƮŲg+ ;fŴs;ƕhţ+ gfd. ;fŴs]þ;' kg]t];' udgfbL;' hËljtƔƪrl/oƃ/fofgť]j
;Ɵ]vklklųlj#fts/fg+ sĕlosr]tl;skl/lŊþn];fgť ;Ƒ];fg+ ;ưfjfefj+ kl/Ʈx]ŷf ;ƍfokl/ƮŲg+ ;ƍfo;ƕhţ+ gfd.
Pj+ kl/Ʈlxt;fŴs;ƍfoƧ kg cŪƸt;fo sƙŪfg];', ljkƧgfo jf cųgá cle?lrt+ sƙŪfg;řft+ ±uëfr/+ cljƧş]ŷfj
cleŊþdfbLg+ s/)+ ±uëfr/;ƕhţ+ gfd. cleŊþdfbL;' kg cƈafnk'y'şgf æcųf cleŊþdfbLlg s/ált, cx+ s/ádLÆlt jf
;ƙ'ƞlƃ, tyf c;ƙ'lƞŷf æcleŊþldt'sĕdtflblrųlsl/ojfoáwft' ljƎþf/flbsĕ/);fdlƮof co+ sĕo;řftá clŪ;Ŝfá
cleŊþdfbLlg s/ált, ttá cţá cưƃ/] cųf jf ;ųá jf cleŊþdƃá jf klŊþdƃá jf»k]0 t'ŲL ejƃá jf gŴLÆlt
Pjdflbgf ofyfjtá hĕggj;]g kţfo kjųg+ c;ƙáx;ƕhţ+ gfd. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg ;ƙáxljgáblgo+
‘lje0cŪ0508’ ux]tƑá.
Obflg oƨf oƧ cưƃ/] oyfj'ųf Pųsĕ u')f glŴ, tƧ c/ţjf;á kg dŊþfbLg+ ljo cg'Şljs]ĕ g xált,
pkrf/dųlƕƧ ´fg+ g pƍşlt. oƧ kg ;lƃ, tƧ c/ţjf;á cg'Şljs]ĕ xált. ;á lx tŴ ;Ƒƍsĕ/Ţĕg+ lgƑų]t'+
;Ŋþált, c/ţjf;ť]j cf/ţs]þ r pk;áe]lt, ;snť ;f;g+ k;fb]lt, tƨf Pj¿kƧ leŋ'gá pkf;gŪfgoáuky+
;ƍfo;]gf;g+ bƧ]ƃá æ;á ljljų+ ;]gf;g+ ehtLÆltcflbdfx. tŴ ljljųlƃ ;'ţ+. ;]lt r]j cf;lt r PŴflt ;]gf;g+,
dťflb, ljxf/flb r. t]g]jƧ lgŹ];] ædťá kL&Ælƃcflb j'ų+.
Obflg cţlƕƧ ke]b+ bƧ]t'+ æc/ţÆlƃcflb j'ų+. tŴ c/ţlƃ ljgokl/ofo]g tfj &k]ŷf ufdť ufd"krf/ť
cj;];+, ;'ųƃkl/ofo]g r cf/ţs+þ leŋ'+ ;ƈfo kťwg';lts+þ klŞd+ c/ţlƃ j'ų+, clewƙkl/ofo]g kg ufdƀf/Ƨ
OƆvLntá alx ;Ƒ+ æc/ţÆlƃ ux]tƑ+. ælgŋldŷf alx OƆvLnfÆlt ‘lje0529’ lx j'ų+. sƆ/lƃ s+þ j'ŝlt pbs+þ,
t]g bl/t+ pbs]þg leƉ+ kƑtkb];+, o+ ælgt'ƗÆlƃlk ægbLs'ŧÆlƃlk jblƃ. tŴ lx /htkũ;lb;jflnsĕk'lng]
dl)ljtfg;lb;] ;ƆŞfo] jguxg] lg;Llbŷf dl)ŋƈ;lb;] pbs]þ ;Ɔdfg] ;Lt]g jft]g aLlhodfgƧ ;d)wƙ+ s/átá lrų+
PsƮ+ xált. lul/u'xlƃ lƀƉ+ kƑtfgdƃ/+, Pslƨţ]j jf pdś;lb;+ dxfljj/+. jgkŴlƃ ufdƃ+ cltŊþldŷf dg'Ƨfg+
cg'krf/Ūfg+, oŴ g s;lƃ g jklƃ. t]g]jƧ lgŹ];] æjgkŴlƃ b"/fgd]t+ ;]gf;gfg+ clwjrgÆlƃcflb j'ų+.
cưásĕ;lƃ cŞƉ+. cfsřdfgá kg]Ŵ rLj/s'Ƹ sŷf j;lt. knfnk'ŧlƃ knfn/fƸ;. dxfknfnk'ŧtá lx
knfn+ lgŊþlŬŷf kưf/n]);lb;] cfno] s/álƃ, uŞu'ƗfbLglƕ pkl/ knfn+ klŋlkŷf x]Ūf lg;Lblƃ, t+ ;ƈfo]t+ j'ų+.
cƍ;ŹlƃcfbL;' jrg;Ź]g lj/lxtųf cƍ;Ź+. gu/lgŔá;;Ź]g r]j lduklŋlgŔá;]g r /lxtųf cƍlgŔá;+.
ljhgjftlƃ cg';ť/shgƧ ;/L/jft]g lj/lxtųf ljhgjft+, æljhgjfbÆlƃlk kf±&ëf. ;]gf;gƧ cƃá hgjfb;Ź]g
/lxtlƃ cŴá. dg'Ƨfg+ /xƧ lsl/of/xųf dg'Ƨ/fxƧ]Ɯs+þ, ttá ttá kllgjlųŷf ;ƙb]j sƙŪfg] lrųƧ nLogtá
kl;Ɵfg;řftƧ ljj]sƧ efjgf/fdƧ cg'¿kųf kl;Ɵfg;f?ƍ+. ehtLlt ;Ɨƈá. c/ţutáltcfbL;' c/ţ+, ?ŋd"nť
&k]ŷf cj;];+ ;Ƒlƕ ;]gf;g+ ;'ţfuf/]g ;ślxt+.
kƟŘ+ cfe'lhŷflt ;dƃtá ö?aźf;g+ alƈŷf. ph'+ sĕo+ kl)wfoflt pkl/dsĕo+ ph'+ &k]ŷf, cŪf/;
lklŪsŭs]þ s]ĕlof s]ĕƸ klkfb]ŷf. Pj+ lgl;ƉƧ lx rƙd+;gxf¿lg g k)dlƃ, cyƧ t];+ ck)dgkŝof v±)ë v±)ë
j]bgf g pƍşlƃ, ttá lrų+ PsƮ+ xált, sƙŪfg+ j'Ƹź pkuŞlt. kl/d'v+ ;Ƹt pkŪk]ŷflt sƙŪfgfled'v+ ;Ƹt
kŪk]ŷf, d'v;dLk] jf sŷf. t]g]jƧ lgŹ];] æco+ ;lt pklŪtf xált ;"klŪtf, gfl;s±Ʈë jf d'vlgldų] jfÆlt
‘lje0537’ j'ų+. d'vlgldųlƃ r]Ŵ pų/áŪƧ j]dŢkb];á, oŴ gfl;sĕjftá klxţlt. cy jf æk/Llt kl/ƮxŪá,
d'vlƃ lgƜfgŪá, ;tLlt pkŪfgŪá, t]g j'ŝlt kl/d'v+ ;ltÆlƃ ‘kl0d0 1=164’ j+ kl;lƘbfo+ j'ųgo]gk]Ŵ cŴá
bŪƑá. tŶfo+ ;ř]kŴá ækl/ƮlxtlgƜfg+ ;Ƹt sŷfÆlt.
cleŢ+ nás]þltcfbL;' cled'v+ ´folt lrƃ]tLlt cleŢĕ, /f±uëf. n'şgkn'şgŪ]g nás]ĕ, kť'kfbfgŋƈf. t];'
sĕdŞƆ+ ljŋƘ]ŷflt cŴá. ljŋƘgj;]g]j ljutfleŢ]g, g rŋ'ljţf)flb;lb;]gflt cŴá. r]t;flt lrų]g, OŴƘ"tá
ljx/tLlt cŴá. cleŢĕoflt cleŢĕtá. lrų+ kl/;á±wëtLlt oyf g+ ;f d'lťŷf g k'g uŲflt, Pj+ kl/dár]tLlt cŴá.
Ɠfkşlt Oldgf lrų+ k"lts'ƙf;fboá ljo ksƸt hxftLlt Ɠfkfbá. ljsĕ/ƍlųof kb'Ƨlt, k/+ jf kb";]lt ljgf;]tLlt
kbá;á, peoƕ]t+ s]ĕwƧ]jflwjrg+. oƨf r]t+ ;ƑsƙŪfg;fwf/)j;]g b];Lolt, tƨf æ;Ƒkf)e"tlxtfg'sƕLÆlt Pj+
d]ųfj;]g cjŷf æcƓfkƉlrųáÆlt Pųsd]j j'ų+.
lyg+ lrųƧ ±uënţ+, ldź+ r]tl;sĕg+. cfnás;ţLlt /lųolƕ lbjflk lbŪcfnás;ŧfgg;ţfo ;dƉfutá, tfo
kg cfnás;ţfo lygldźljgábgƧ lj;];tá ;lt;ƕhţ+ OlŞtƑlƃ cfx æ;tá ;ƕhĕgáÆlt.
cg'źtált cljlŋųá tyf Pj cŢų+ j"k;ƃlrųá. ltŰljlrlsŞált ljlrlsŞ+ cltŊþldŷf l&tá. csy+syL
s';n];' wƙ];"lt cgjşwƙ];' æsy+ Od], sy+ Od]Ælt Pj+ kjųgtá sy+syL;řftfo ljlrlsŞfo lj/lxtá. Pj+
kťgLj/)ƍxfg+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg oƨf cƍxLggLj/)Ƨ ´fg+ g pƍşlt, g lx sĕdŞƆfbLlx gfgflj;oljlŋųlrų+
Psųf/ƙ±)ë ;dflwolt, g sĕdwft';dltŊþdgfo jf klkşlt, tƨf æ;á Od] kť gLj/±)ë kxfofÆltcflb j'ų+. tŴ
;ált oá oyfj'ų;Lnflbu'±)ë kltŪfo c/ţflbcg'¿k;]gf;gutá cųgá rl/ofg's'nsƙŪfg] nLg'źŝ/lxtfo ;ftŝlsl/ofo
pƍflbt'krf/Ţĕg]g kxLgkťgLj/±)ëf k&dŢĕgflwudfo jfodlt, ;ált cŴá.
r]t;á pklŊþn];]lt lrųƧ cƍeƧ/efjs/±)ë. kţfo b'ƑnLs/±)ëlt oƨf Od] gLj/)f pƍşdfgf cg'ƍƉfo
nálsonás'ų/fo kţfo pƍlşt'+ g b]lƃ, pƍƉfo kg nálsocŪ;dfklųof, cleţfe"tfo jf d"n+ pklŞlƆŷf kft]lƃ, tƨf
ækţfo b'ƑnLs/)fÆlt j'ŝlƃ. ljljŝ]j sĕd]xLltcfbL;' sĕd]xLlt jŴ'sĕdlsn];sĕd]lx. ljljŝ]jflt ljljlŝŷf ljgf x'ŷf,
ckŊþldŷflt cŴá. lgodŴ]g kg]Ŵ Pj-sĕ/]g ´fgklkŋe"tfg+ sĕdfg+ kl/ŝf±uëg]j k&dŢĕgflwudá, cƈsĕ/kl/ŝf±uëg]j

105

bLkƍjlų ljoflt bƧ]lt. pų/kb]lk r]; Pj-sĕ/á cfg]ŷf æljljŝ]j cs';n]lx wƙ]xLÆlt ;ƗlƈtƑá. g lx ;Ŋĕ
sĕdtá cţ]lx gLj/);řft]lx cs';nwƙ]lx cljljŝflk ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljxl/t'+. kbƀo]lk kg æljljŝfÆlt Oldgf
sĕoljj]sĕbL;', tbśljj]sĕbL;' r tbślgƧ/)ljj]sjlştf ;Ƒ]lk ljj]sĕ Ow clwƍ]tf. jŴ'sĕdljj]sjrgtá lx sĕoljj]s]ĕ
j'ųá, lsn];sĕd]lx kg ;];fs';n]lx r ljj]sjrgtá lrųpklwljj]sĕ, ljŋƘgflbljj]sĕ r j'ųf. nás'ų/Ţĕglƕ ;ślxtųf
bŪƑ+. Pjd]t]g kbƀo]g oyfŊþd+ sĕdŞƆgLj/);];gLj/)ljŋƘgflbs]ĕ j'ųá. Pj+ cá#fbL;'lk oyf/x+ oáh]tƑ+.
Pųfjtf r k&dƧ ´fgƧ kxfgś+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg ;ƕoáuś+ bƧ]t'+ æ;ljtŊ+þ ;ljrf/Ælƃcflb j'ų+ tŴ
ljtŊ]þg r ljrf/]g r ;x jųlt ?ŋ]ĕ ljo k'Ǝ]þg, mþn]g rflt Ob+ ´fg+ æ;ljtŊ+þ ;ljrf/Ælƃ j'ŝlt. ljj]shlƃ PŴ
ljljlų ljj]s]ĕ, gLj/)ljudált cŴá. ljljųált jf ljj]s]ĕ, gLj/)ljljųá ´fg;ƕo'ųwƙ/f;Llt cŴá, tƨf ljj]stá,
tƸƨ jf ljj]s]þ hĕtlƃ ljj]sh+. kLlt;'vlƃ PŴ kLtLlt cƍgfƍųf mþ/)fkLlt, ;'vť t+;ƕo'ų+, Olt coť kLlt Obť
;'v+ cƧ ´fgƧ, cƸƨ jf cŴLlt Ob+ ´fg+ ækLlt;'vÆlƃ j'ŝlt. cy jf kLlt r ;'vť kLlt;'v+, ljj]sh+ kLlt;'v+ cƧ,
cƸƨ jflt ljj]sh+ kLlt;'v+, Pj+ Pskbj;]g æljj]shkLlt;'vÆlƃ jųƑ] lgƮxLtfud+ sŷf æljj]sh+ kLlt;'vÆlƃlk jų'+
o'şlt. o±yëj lx ´fg+, Pj+ kLlt;'vlƕ ljj]shd]j xátLlt. k&d+ ´fglƃ u)gfg'k'Ƒtá k&d+, k&d+ pƍlųtálk
k&d+. cf/ƙ)"klgŢĕgtá, kŝgLs´fkgtá jf ´fg+, Oldgf go]g pkl/ æb'lto+ ´fgÆlƃcfbL;' cŴá j]lbtƑá.
pk;ƕş ljx/tLlt Pj+ kťśljƍxLg+ kťś;dƉfut+ ltljwsƠf)+ b;nŋ);ƕƉ+ k&d+ ´fg+ clwuƄf tbg'¿k]g
Ol/ofkyljxf/]g kjųtLlt cŴá. PŴ r lrų]sƮtf lsťflk æ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/Ælƃ OdƸƨ kf±&ë g lglŹŪf, tyflk
ljeś] æ´fglƃ ljtŊþá ljrf/á kLlt ;'v+ lrųƧ]sƮtfÆlt ‘lje0569’ j'ųųf cśd]j.
Pj+ k&dŢĕgflwud+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg tbgƃ/+ clwutk&dŢĕgƧ t+ cfjşg;dfkşgj'ŪfgflwŪfgkŝj]ŋ);řftflx
kťlx j;Llx j;Le"t+ sŷf ttá j'Ūfo tŴ cf;ƉgLj/)kŝlŴstfo r]j cáńfl/sljtŊþljrf/ŋ]ĕe;dlśtfo r bá;+ lbƩf
lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo ljtŊĕlbe]báńfl/sśƍxfgfo, kLltcflb;ƃśklnfefo r tb]j sƙŪfg+ k'gƍ'g+ dgl;s/átá b'lto+
´fg+ pƍşlt, tƍfbsť nás'ų/Ţĕg+ k'ƮnflwŪfg]g bƧ]t'+ æljtŊþljrf/fg+ j"k;dfÆltcflbdfx. tŴ j"k;dflt
;dltŊþdf, b'ltoŢĕgŋ±)ë ckft'efjflt j'ų+ xált. cŢųlƃ cųlg hĕt+, cų;ƃfg] lgƑųlƃ cŴá. ;ƕ;fbglƃ
;źf;řft;ƕ;fbgoáutá ´fglƕ ;ƕ;fbg+ gLnjŰoáutá gLnjŴ+ ljo. Ps]ĕlbefjlƃ PŴ ljtŊþljrf/]lx cgŢĕ?ŃÜųf
Ps]ĕ c±Ʈëf ;]Ūá pb]tLlt Ps]ĕlb, ;dflw. t+ efj]lt jŬ]tLlt b'ltoŢĕg+ Ps]ĕlbefj+. ;á kgfo+ Ps]ĕlb oƨf r]t;á, g
;ųƧ, g hËjƧ, tƨf Pt+ ær]t;á Ps]ĕlbefjÆlƃ j'ų+.
gg' rfo+ ;źf k&dŢĕg]lk clŴ, coť Ps]ĕlbgfds]ĕ ;dflw, cy sƨf Obd]j Pj+ j'ųlƃĠ j'ŝt] _ OdlƨlŤ
´fg] ljtŊþljrf/ŋ]ĕefefj]g anjtL ;źf, ;dflw r, tƨf Obd]j Pj+ j'ųlƃ. cljtŊ+þ cljrf/lƃ efjgfo kxLgųf
glŴ PtƸƨ, PtƧ jf ljtŊþá ljrf/á, g tltoŢĕgflb ljo, rŋ'ljţf)flb ljo r cefjƍlųtá, tƨf OdƧ
æljtŊþljrf/fg+ j"k;dfÆlt Ob+ sĕ/)jrglƃ bŪƑ+. ;dflwhlƃ k&dŢĕg;dflwtá, ;ƕo'ų;dflwtá jf hĕt+,
ljtŊĕlbŋ]ĕefefj]g r]tƧ jŰe)gŴ+ Obd]j æ;dflwhÆlƃ j'ų+. pk;ƕş ljx/tLlt Pj+ b'jśljƍxLg+ ltjś;dƉfut+
ltljwsƠf)flbo'ų+ b'lto+ ´fg+ clwuƄf j'ųgo]g jųtLlt cŴá.
Pj+ b'ltoŢĕgflwud+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg tbgƃ/+ clwutb'ltoŢĕgƧ t+ j'ųgo]g]j j;Le"t+ sŷf tŴ
cf;ƉljtŊþljrf/kŝlŴstfo r]j cáńfl/skLtś;dlśtfo r bá;+ lbƩf lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo tbáńfl/sśƍxfgfo
;];;ƃśklnfefo tb]jf/ƙ)+ k'gƍ'g+ dgl;s/átá tlto+ ´fg+ pƍşlt, tƍfbsť nás'ų/+, t+ bƧ]t'+ ækLltof r
lj/fufÆltcflbdfx. tŴ lj/şg+ lj/f±uëf, ;dltŊþdá, tƨf lj/fuf. r-sĕ/]g ljtŊþljrf/fg+ j"k;d+ ;lƕů]lt
ækLltof r lj/fuf, ljtŊþljrf/fgť j"k;dfÆlt. Obť]tƧ cfudgdƮkl/bLkgŴ+, jŰe)gŴť j'ų+. pk]ŋs]ĕ
ljx/tLlt PŴ pkklųtá Oŋlt ckŋklttf x'ŷf kƧtLlt pk]ŋĕ, tŶdŢųtf. tfo lj;bfo kLltlj/fukbŪfgfo
yfdutfo ;dƉfutųf tltoŢĕg;dśL æpk]ŋs]ĕÆlt j'ŝlt, ljtŊĕlbŋ]ĕefefj]g kg];f PŴ]j kl/Ɠųlsŝf hĕtf, g
k&dŢĕgfbL;"lt. ;tá r ;ƕhĕgált k'ƮnflwŪfg]g ;lt r ;ƕhţť j'ų+, Obť ;lt;ƕhţan]g]j l&t+ t+kLlt;xrl/t+
;'v+, ttá ckgLt+ jŞá ljo aƈgan]g ±wëg'+ kLƸt g pkuŞlt, Odlƨť ;lt cltdw'/] ;'±vë oálugá g ;f/şlƃ, gá
cţyflt Odlƕ cŴlj;];+ bƧ]t'+ O±wëj j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+. ;'vť sĕo]g kl;+j]b]tLlt PŴ lsťflk tltoŢĕg;dlśgá
;'vkl;+j]bgfeá±uëf glŴ, Pj+ ;ƃ]lk oƨf tƧ gfdsĕo]g ;ƕo'ų+ cltk)Lt+ ;'v+, t+;d'lŪt]g tƧ cltk)Lt]g ¿k]g
¿ksĕoá m'þŪá, oƧ m'þŪųf ´fgf j'lŪtálk sĕlos;'v+ kl;+j]b]Ɯ, tƨf PtdŴ+ bƧ]ƃá æ;'vť sĕo]g kl;+j]b]tLÆlt cfx.
o+ tlƃcfbL;' olƃ oƨf, o+ ´fgx]t"lt cŴá. tlƃ t+ tltoŢĕg;dlśk'Ʈn+ a'źfboá cl/of cflrŋlƃ k;+;lƃ. lslƃĠ
æpk]ŋs]ĕ ;ltdf ;'vljxf/LÆlt. Pj+ PsśljƍxLg+ b'jś;dƉfut+ ltljwsƠf)flbo'ų+ tlto+ ´fg+ clwuƄf kjųtLlt
cŴá. o+ kg ´fg+ ljeś] æ´fglƃ pk]ŋĕ ;lt ;ƕhţ+ ;'v+ lrųƧ]sƮtfÆlt ‘lje0591’ j'ų+, t+ ;kl/ŋĕ/+ ´fg+ bƧ]t'+
kl/ofo]g j'ų+. pklgŢĕgnŋ)fg+ kg ;'vlrų]sƮtfg+ j;]g b'jlśsd]j]t+ j]lbtƑ+. oyfx _ æb'jlśs+þ ´fg+
xátLÆltcflb ‘lje0624’.
Pj+ tltoŢĕgflwud+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg tbgƃ/+ clwuttltoŢĕgƧ t+ j;Le"t+ sŷf ttá j'Ūfo tŴ j'ųgo]g bá;+
lbƩf lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo cáńfl/s;'vśƍxfgfo, pk]ŋ]sƮtf;řft;];;ƃśklnfefo r tb]j lgldų+ dgl;s/átá rt'Ŵ+
´fg+ pƍşlt, tƍfbsť nás'ų/+, t+ k'ƮnflwŪfg]g bƧ]t'+ æ;'vƧ r kxfgfÆltcflbdfx. tŴ ;'vƧ r kxfgf b'ŋƧ r
kxfgflt sĕlosƧ ;'vƧ, b'ŋƧ r kxfgf. k'Ƒ]jflt tť ±vëf k'Ƒ]j, g rt'ŴŢĕgŋ±)ëlt cŴá. ;ádgƧbádgƧfg+
cŴśdflt r]tl;sƧ ;'vƧ, b'ŋƧ r k'Ƒ]j kxfgf. sbf kg t];+ kxfg+ xátLltĠ rt'Ɖ+ ´fgfg+ pkrf/ŋ±)ë.
b'ŋbádgƧ;'v;ádgƧflg lx oyfŊþd+ k&dflbrt'Ɖ+ ´fgfg+ pkrf/ŋ±)ë Pj kxLolƃ. olb Pj+, sƨf kg];
æljljŝ]j»k]0 k&d+ ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt, PŴ'ƍƉ+ b'lŋlƇo+ ckl/;];+ lg?Ţlt»k]0 rt'Ŵ+ ´fg+ pk;ƕş ljx/lt,

106

PŴ'ƍƉ+ ;ádglƧlƇo+ ckl/;];+ lg?ŢtLÆlt ‘;+0lg0 5=510’ Pj+ ´fg]Ʃ]j lg/á±wëf j'ųáltĠ clt;olg/áwƧ j'ųųf.
pkrf/ŋ±)ë;' lx oá lg/á±wëf, ;á lg/á±wëf Pj, gflt;olg/á±wëf, ;á kg ´fgŋ±)ë;' Pj. ttá Pj lx tŴ tŴ
ckl/;];Ʈx)+ stlƃ, tŴ tŴ kg kxLgflk Ptf j]bgf PŴ b'ljţ]Ɯnŋ)fo cb'ŋd;'vfo j]bgfo b'ŋĕlbƓlt/]s]þg
;'vƮx)Ŵ+, jŰe)gŴťƧ ´fgƧ ;dfxf, kŝobƧgŴťƧ. oyfx _ ærųf/á ±vëf, cfj';á, kŝof cb'ŋd;'vfo
r]táljd'lųof ;dfklųof, Owfj';á, leŋ' ;'vƧ r kxfgfÆltcflb ‘d0 lg01=458’.
pk]ŋĕ;ltkfl/;'lźlƃ tŶdŢųtf;řftfo pk]ŋĕo hlgt;ltof kfl/;'lź. lg?kŎ];tfo lx t+ kl/;'źų+. g
s]þjnť]Ŵ pk]ŋĕo ;lt Pj kl/;'źf, clkr ±vëf ;Ƒ]lk ;ƕo'ųwƙf, ;lt;L;]g kgfo+ b];gf stflt. pk;ƕş ljx/tLlt
Pj+ PsśljƍxLg+ b'jś;dƉfut+ ltljwsƠf)flbo'ų+ rt'Ŵ+ ´fg+ clwuƄf tbg'¿k]g Ol/ofkyljxf/]g kjųtLlt cŴá.
Pj+ ¿kfjr/nás'ų/rt'ŊþŢĕg+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg c¿kfjr/Ţĕg+ bƧ]ƃá
o+ tŴ k&d+, Pj+
clwut¿kfjr/rt'ŴŢĕgƧ s/h¿k] bůfbfgfbLgť]j rŋ'/áuflbcfafwfgť j;]g lbŪfbLgjƧ s/h¿kƧ ;dltŊþdfo
cfsĕ;sl;)lj/lxt];' gj;' sl;±)ë;' cţt/Ƹƨ rt'Ŵ+ ´fg+ pƍfb]ŷf tƧf/ƙ)e"t+ sl;)klefu¿klƕ s/h¿kklefutfo,
c/ţ] ;ƍfg'aƈƧ eo]g knfotá /ş'tfnkŰfƸb ;ƍklefutfo ljo ;dltŊþldt'sĕdƧ kťxfsĕ/]lx t+ ´fg+ j;Le"t+ sŷf
ttá j'Ūfo tŴ lgƑ]hgLo¿kklefuf/ƙ)tfo, cf;Ɖ;ádgƧkŝlŴstfo r bá;+ lbƩf lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo cś];'
;dltŊþldtƑfefj]g cf/ƙ);dltŊþde"t+ cfsĕ;fgťfotg+ ;ƃtá dgl;sl/ŷf rŊþjfńkl/oƃ+ jf oųs+þ jf OŞlt, tųs+þ
sl;)+ kŴl/ŷf jf sl;)+ cdgl;sl/ŷf t]g m'þŪásĕ;+ æcfsĕ;á cfsĕ;áÆlt jf æcgƃá cfsĕ;áÆlt jf dgl;sĕ/]g sl;)+
pŔf]ŷf jf t+ sl;)'Ŕfldfsĕ;lgldų+ æcfsĕ;áÆlt k'gƍ'g+ dgl;s/átá cfsĕ;fgťfotg+ pƍşlt, t+ tfj bƧ]t'+ æ;Ƒ;á
¿k;ţfg+ ;dltŊþdfÆltcflbdfx.
tŴ ;Ƒ;ált ;Ƒfsĕ/]g, ;Ƒf;+ jf cgj;];fglƃ cŴá. ¿k;ţfglƃ ;ţf;L;]g j'ųfg+ s';nljkfslsl/oj;]g
kťb;¿kfjr/Ţĕgfgť]j tbf/ƙ)fgť. ¿kŢĕglƕ lx æ¿k] ;ţf ¿k;ţfÆlt Pj+ ;ţf;L;]g j'ŝlt, tbf/ƙ)sl;)lƕ
¿klƃ ;ţf gfddƧflt æ¿k;ţÆlƃ j'ŝlt. ;dltŊþdflt lj/fuf, lg/áwf r. ljeś] kg ;ţf;' ;dltŊþƃf;' cf/ƙ)+
;dltŊþƃd]j xátLlt æ;dfkƉƧ jf pkkƉƧ jf lbŪwƙ;'vljxfl/Ƨ jfÆltcflbgf ‘lje0602’ ;ţfgd]j ;dltŊþdá
j'ųá, cf/ƙ±)ë clj/ųƧ ;ţf;dltŊþdá gŴ]jflt t+ ;dltŊþdj;]gflk cŴjŰgf sĕtƑfj.
kl#;ţfg+ cŴśdflt rŋĕbLg+ jŴ"g+, ¿kfbLgť cf/ƙ)fg+ kl#ft]g ;d'ƍƉf lƀkťljţf);ţf kl#;ţf,
tf;+ cŴśdf. lsťflk tf ¿kfjr/Ţĕg;dfkƉƧflk g ;lƃ, cy ±vëf g kxLgųf g ;lƃ. g lx ¿klj/fufo
¿kfjr/efjgf ;+jųlt, ¿kfoųfj Ptf;+ kjlų, co+ kg efjgf ¿klj/fufo ;+jųlt, tƨf tf PŴ kxLgflt jų'+
jũlt. gfgų;ţfg+ cdgl;sĕ/flt gfgų] ±uëfr/]
kjųfg+, gfgųfg+ jf dgáljţf)wft'j;]g kjųfgť
rt'rųfnL;sĕdfjr/;ţfg+ cdgl;sĕ/f cgfjşgf. PŴ r ¿kkl#;ţfg+ Oldgf ´fg]g lgƑųej]lk cg'ƍlųtá
æ;dltŊþdf cŴśdfÆlt Pj+ cefjá Pj j'ųá. ægfgų;ţfg+ cdgl;sĕ/fÆlt cŪsĕdfjr/s';nfg+ gjlsl/ofg+
b;fs';nfg+ j;]g ;ųjL;lt;ţfg+ c¿kej]lk dgl;sĕ/]g pƍlų;Ƙjtá tf;+ cdgl;sĕ/f Oŝ]j j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
cgƃá cfsĕ;ált PŴ gfƧ pƍfbƃá jf joƃá jf kţfotLlt cgƃá. cfsĕ;ált sl;)'Ŕfldfsĕ;á j'ŝlt,
dgl;sĕ/j;]gk]Ŵ cgƃtf j]lbtƑf. t]g]j ljeś] j'ų+ ætƸƨ cfsĕ;] lrų+ &k]lt»k]0 cgƃ+ mþ/lt, t]g j'ŝlt cgƃá
cfsĕ;áÆlt ‘lje0605’. Ob+ kgƧ efjgfsĕ/bƧg+. cfsĕ;fgťfotglƃ PŴ gfƧ cƃált cgƃ+ cfsĕ;d]j cgƃ+
cfsĕ;fgƃ+, cfsĕ;fgƃd]j cfsĕ;fgť+, tb]j cfsĕ;fgť+ clwŪfgŪ]g, ;ŧflt;dá;/)Ū]g r cfotg+, t+ cf/ƙ)dƧ
;;ƕo'ųwƙƧ ´fgƧflt cfsĕ;fgťfotg+. t+ pk;ƕş j'ųgo]g ljx/tLlt cŴá.
Pj+ cfsĕ;fgťfotgflwud+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg o+ tbgƃ/+ clwutk&df?ƍƧ t+
j;Le"t+ sŷf tŴ
cf;Ɖ¿kŢĕgkŝlŴstfo, ¿kklefufsĕ;f/ƙ)tfo r bá;+ lbƩf lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo t+ ;dltŊþdfo cfsĕ;+ mþl/ŷf kjų+
ljţf)+ æcgƃ+ ljţf)Ælƃ k'gƍ'g+ dgl;s/átá ljţf)ťfotg+ pƍşlt, t+ bƧ]t'+ æ;Ƒ;á cfsĕ;fgťfotg+
;dltŊþƙfÆltcflb j'ų+. tŴ k'Ƒ] j'ųgo]g ´fglƕ cfsĕ;fgťfotg+ cf/ƙ)lƕ. cf/ƙ)lƕ lx k'l/dgo]g cfsĕ;fgťť t+
k&df?ƍƧ cf/ƙ)ųf j'ųgo]g cfotgťflt æcfsĕ;fgťfotgÆlƃ j'ŝlt. Olt peoƧflk cƍjlųs/±)ëg, cdgl;s/±)ëg
r PsŢ+ sŷf æcfsĕ;fgťfotg+ ;dltŊþƙfÆlt Ob+ j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
cgƃ+ ljţf)lƃ tţ]j k&df?ƍljţf)+ cfsĕ;+ cgƃtá mþl/ŷf kjų+ æcgƃ+ ljţf)Ælƃ Pj+ dgl;s/átált j'ų+
xált, dgl;sĕ/j;]g jf cgƃ+. ljeś]lk lx æcgƃ+ mþ/tLÆlt ‘lje0610’ j'ų+. ljţf)ťfotglƃ PŴ j'ųgo]g
cgƃd]j cfgť+, ljţf)ť t+ cfgťťflt ljţf)fgƃlƃ jųƑ] ?lŃÜtá æljţf)ťÆlƃ j'ų+, tb]j cfotgdf/ƙ)dƧflt
ljţf)ťfotg+. ;];+ j'ųgod]j.
Pj+ ljţf)ťfotg+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg o+ tbgƃ/+ clwutb'ltof?ƍƧ t+ j;Le"t+
sŷf tŴ
cf;Ɖfsĕ;fgťfotgkŝlŴstfo, tbf/ƙ)tfo r bá;+ lbƩf lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo t+ ;dltŊþdfo k&df?ƍljţf)fefj+ æglŴ
gŴLÆlt jf æ;'ţ+ ;'ţÆlƃ jf æljljų+ ljljųÆlƃ jf k'gƍ'g+ dgl;s/átá cflsťţfotg+ pƍşlt, t+ bƧ]t'+
æ;Ƒ;áÆltcflbdfx. Owflk j'ųgo]g ´fgƧ, tbf/ƙ)Ƨ r ljţf)ťfotgƧ ;dltŊþdáj j]lbtƑá. glŴ lsťLlt æglŴ
glŴ, ;'ţ+ ;'ţ+, ljljų+ ljljųÆlƃ Pj+ dgl;s/átált cŴá.
cflsťţfotglƃ PŴ gfƧ lsťglƃ clsťg+, cƃd;á eśdųlƕƧ cjl;Ū+ gŴLlt j'ų+ xált, clsťgƧ efjá
cflsťţ+, cfsĕ;fgťfotgljţf)fkudƧ]t+ clwjrg+, cflsťţ+ cfotgdf/ƙ)dƧflt cflsťţfotg+. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
Pj+ cflsťţfotgflwud+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg o+ tbgƃ/+ clwuttltof?ƍƧ t+
j;Le"t+ sŷf tŴ
cf;Ɖljţf)ťfotgkŝlŴstfo bá;+ lbƩf lgsƸƃ kl/ofbfo t+ ;dltŊþdfo tb]j cflsťţfotg+ æ;ƃ+ ;ƃÆlƃ k'gƍ'g+
dgl;s/átá g]j;ţfgf;ţfotg+ pƍşlt, t+ bƧ]t'+ æ;Ƒ;áÆltcflbdfx. tŴ g]j;ţfgf;ţfotglƃ cáńfl/sĕo ;ţfo

107

cefjtá, ;'v'dfo r efjtá g]jƧ ;;ƕo'ųwƙƧ ´fgƧ ;ţf gf;ţflt g]j;ţfgf;ţ+, tb]j wƙfotgdgfotgkl/ofkƉųf
cfotglƃ g]j;ţfgf;ţfotg+.
cy jf ofod]Ŵ ;ţf, ;f k';ţflsŝ+ sĕt'+ c;dŴtfo g]j;ţf, ;řf/fj;];;'v'defj]g ljşdfgųf gf;ţflt
g]j;ţfgf;ţf, g]j;ţfgf;ţf r ;f ;ƕo'ųwƙfg+ clwŪfgŪ]g cfotgťflt g]j;ţfgf;ţfotg+. g s]þjnť]Ŵ ;ţfj
Plb;L, clk t' mþƧálk g]jmþƧá gfmþƧá, lrųlƕ g]jlrų+ gflrų+, Pj+ ;];;ƕo'ųwƙflk, ;ţf;L;]g kgfo+ b];gf stflt
j]lbtƑf. tŴ ;řf/fj;];;'v'defj]gflt cŝƃ;'v'defjƍų;řf/efj]g. ;];+ j'ųgod]j.
co+ kg]Ŵ cflbtá kŪfo lkůŴƍsĕ;gf _ æOw leŋ' kfltdáŋ;+j/;+j'táÆltcflbgf
;f;g]
nálsonás'ų/ŢĕglgƑųsk'ƮnƧ
kltŪfe"t;Ln];' kfltdáŋ;+j/;Lnlj;'Ƹź
pklb;lt. æljx/tLÆlt Oldgf
tbg'¿kljxf/;dlśefj+. æcfrf/±uëfr/;ƕƉáÆlt Oldgf cfhËjkfl/;'lź;Ln+, tb'ksĕ/s]þ r wƙ]. æc)'dų];"Æltcflbgf
oyfj'ų;Ln]lx crjg+, t];ť cgj;];tá ;dfbfg+. æOlƇo];' u'ųƀf/áÆlt Oldgf OlƇo;+j/;Ln+. æeáhg] dųţ"Ælt
Oldgf kŝo;lƉlƧt;Ln+, ;ƃá;flbu')ť. æk'Ƒ/ųfk//ųÆlƃcflbgf ;Lnw'tś];' kltlŪtƧ efjgf/fdƧ tb'ksĕ/s]þ
wƙ]. æaálwklŋsĕgÆlƃcflbgf klklųof lgƑ]wefluot+. æ;á cleŊþƃÆ] ltcflbgf oyfj'ųu')fg+ ckl/xfgfo,
jŋdfgfgť klnfefo ;lt;ƕoáu+. æ;á ljljųÆlƃcflbgf efjgfg'¿k;]gf;gkl/Ʈx+. æ;á c/ţutáÆltcflbgf
´fgefjgf/Ƙƍsĕ/+. æ;á cleŢÆlƃcflbgf ´fgefjgfleoá±uëg kxLgkťgLj/)Ƨ pkrf/Ţĕg'ƍƸų. æ;á Od] kť
gLj/±)ëÆltcflbgf tƧ pk¿kl/ jfodtá ¿kf¿kŢĕg'ƍlųŊþd+ pklb;lt. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg]Ŵ ljeśgo] kfsá eljƧlt. tL;' lx go];' dxƮtnás'ų/f s';nljkfslsl/olrų;ƕo'ųf
ljtŊþljrf/kLlt;'vpk]ŋĕPsƮtf;řftf ´fgwƙf gfgfgo]lx ljeųf, ´fg;ƕo'ųf kg ;];sĕdfjr/wƙfj Ow ;ślxtf.
lsťflk kg]Ŵ kfltdáŋ;+j/;Lnfboálk j'ųf, tyflk t] ´fgfg+ k'ƑefuƍlklųbƧgj;]g r]j ´fg;ƕo'ųwƙj;]g r
j'ųf, Ow kg g ;ślxtflt j]lbtƑf.
kŤfk'Şs]þ kg l;of s';nf, l;of cƓfstf, tLl) ´fgflg ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf, rt'Ŵ+ cb'ŋd;'vfo
j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+, pk]ŋĕ kg]Ŵ j]bgf g jųƑf, l;of ljkfsĕ, l;of ljkfswƙwƙf, k&dŢĕg+ ljtŊþljrf/jlşt+
;ljtŊþ;ljrf/+, ljtŊþá kg]Ŵ cljtŊþljrf/dųá, ljrf/á g jųƑá, tLl) ´fgflg cljtŊþcljrf/f, ƀ] ´fgflg
kLltjlştflg kLlt;xutflg, tLl) ;'vjlştflg ;'v;xutflg, rt'Ŵ+ pk]ŋĕjlşt+ pk]ŋĕ;xut+, tltoŢĕg] ;'v+, pk]ŋĕ r
Ow g jųƑ+»k]0 l;of dxƮtf, l;of cƍdf)f, tLl) l;of cƍdf)f/ƙ)f, l;of g jųƑf, rt'Ŵ+ ltwflk g jųƑť,
tLl) l;of dƮx]t'sĕ, l;of dƮflwkltgá, l;of g jųƑf, rt'Ŵ+ ltwflk g jųƑť»k]0 kLlt alxźf/ƙ)flg, rt'Ŵ+
ltwflk g jųƑť»k]0 clgbƧgcƍl#f g x]t"»k]0 gálrųr]tl;sĕ c/)flt. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kflńd'ųgoá kg]Ŵ
glŴ, Otá k/+ kg Pųslƕ cjŷf ljşdfgŪfg] Pj jŋĕd.
´fgljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

cƍdţfljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
cƍdţfljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ rtƧá cƍdţfoáltcfbL;' mþ/)cƍdf)j;]g cƍdţfoá. Ptf lx
cf/ƙ)j;]g cƍdf±)ë jf ;ų] mþ/lƃ, Ps;ųlƛ jf cgj;];mþ/)j;]g cƍdf)tá mþ/ƃLlt Pj+ mþ/)cƍdf)j;]g
æcƍdţfoáÆlt j'ŝlƃ, ;ų cƍdf)j;]gflk jų'+ jũlt. d]ųf;xut]gflt d]ųfo ;dƉfut]g. Ps+þ lb;lƃ k'/lŴdfbL;'
rt";' lb;f;' o+ lslť Ps+þ lb;+, t+lb;fkl/ofkƉ;ųmþ/)j;]g r]t+ j'ų+. mþl/ŷflt m'þl;ŷf cf/ƙ)+ sŷf. ljx/tLlt
kjų]lt. tyf b'ltolƃcfbL;'. oyf Ps+þ lb;+ mþl/ŷf, t±yëj tbgƃ/+ b'lto+, tlto+, rt'Ŵťflt cŴá. Olt pźd±wëf
ltl/olƃ Pt]g]j go]g pkl/d+ lb;+, x]lŪd+ lb;+, cg'lb;ť cg'Ŋþd]g d]ųf;xut]g r]t;f mþl/ŷf ljx/tLlt cŴá.
Pųfjtf Psd]s+þ lb;+ kl/Ʈx]ŷf cálw;á d]ųfmþ/)t+ blƧt+.
;ƑwLltcflb kg cgálw;á bƧgŴ+ j'ų+. tŴ ;ƑwLlt ;ƑŴ. ;Ƒųtfoflt
;Ƒ];'
xLgdlŢd'ŊþŪldų;kųdŢųflbƍe]b];' cųtfo, t];' ljefu+ csŷf cų;dtfoflt j'ų+ xált. cy jf ;Ƒųtfoflt ;Ƒ]g
lrųefj]g, ó;slƕ alx cljŋ]kdfgált cŴá. ;Ƒfjƃlƃ ;Ƒ;ųjƃ+, ;Ƒ;ųo'ųlƃ cŴá. náslƃ ;ųnás+þ. k'g
æd]ųf;xut]gfÆlt Ob+ æljk'n]gfÆltcfbLlx lj;];g]lx ;ƗƈbƧgj;]g jf j'ų+, lgudgj;]g jf. tŴ mþ/)j;]g
ljk'ntf j]lbtƑf. e"ldj;]g kg dxƮttf. ku')j;]g, cƍdf);ųf/ƙ)j;]g r cƍdf)tf. ƓfkfbkŝlŴsƍxfg]g
cj]/tf. bádgƧƍxfg]g lgŹ'ŋtf, ;řttf, cƓfkştf r bŪƑf. Pj+ s?)f;xut]gfltcfbL;'lk cŴá j]lbtƑált co+
tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg]Ŵ ;'ljţ]Ɯáj. ljeśgo]g kg tL;' ¿kfjr/s';nljkfslsl/oflrų];'
;ƕo'ųf ;ų];'
d]ųflbƔƪljxf/e"tf cbá;á s?)f d'lbtf tŶdŢųtflt rųf/á wƙf gfgfgo]lx ljeųf, t+;ƕo'ųf kg sĕdfjr/e"tf r
Ptf Ow g ulxtf. c¿kfjr/nás'ų/];' kg]tf cƍdţf gŴ]jflt. kŤfk'Şs]þ kg]tf tfj l;of s';nf, l;of
cƓfstf. ltƧá ;'vfo, rt'Ŵf cb'ŋd;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf. ljkfslųs]þ ltwflk, pk]ŋĕ cljtŊþcljrf/f, ;];f
ltwflk, dxƮtfj, kl/ųf/ƙ)ctLtf/ƙ)lųs]þ;' g jųƑfj, alxźf/ƙ)fj, clgbƧgcƍl#fj, d]ųf x]t', ;];f g x]t",
gá lrųf, r]tl;sĕ, ¿kfjr/f, ;pų/fj. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt.

108

cƍdţfljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

l;ŋĕkbljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
l;ŋĕkbljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ l;ŋĕkbfgLlt l;lŋtƑkbflg, l;ŋĕs]ĕŪf;flt cŴá. clkr ;Ƒ]lk s';nf
wƙf l;lŋtƑtá l;ŋĕ, tf;+ kltŪfgŪ]g kb+, kť;' kg ;Lnś];' o+ lslť cś+. kf)fltkftfbL;' kf)Ƨ ctLj kftá
kf)fltkftá, kf)j±wëflt cŴá. kf±)ëflt r]Ŵ jáxf/tá ;ųá, k/dŴtá hËljltlƇo+, tƸƨ kg kf±)ë kf);lţgá
hËljltlƇo'kŞ]bspkŊþd;d'Ūflksĕ sĕojrLƀf/fg+ cţt/ƀf/ƍjųf jwsr]tgf kf)fltkftá, tƨf kf)fltkftf. j]/d)Llt
lj/lt, ;f Pj j'ųgo]g l;ŋĕkblƃ j]/dl)l;ŋĕkb+. clbƉlƃ g lbƉ+, k/kl/Ʈlxt+, k/kl/ƮlxtƧ clbƉƧ cfbfg+
clbƉfbfg+. k/Ƨ x/)+ ±yëƜ+ rál/sĕlt j'ų+ xált. cŴtá kg k/kl/Ʈlxt] tyf;lţgá tbfbfospkŊþd;d'Ūflksĕ
±yëƜr]tgf clbƉfbfg+. sĕd];"lt jŴ'sĕd];'. ldŞfrf/flt lsn];sĕdj;]g nfdsĕrf/f, k'l/;Ƨ dft'/lŋtflb;řftf;', OlŴof
cųgá lgoldtk'l/;tá k/k'l/;;řft];' r cudgLoŪfg];' jLltŊþdfrf/flt j'ų+ xált. cŴtá kg cudgLojŴ";'
d±ƮëgdƮƍlkfbgákŊþd;d'Ūflksĕ, clwjf;gfsĕ/ƍjųf jf d]y'gr]tgf sĕd];'ldŞfrf/á. d';flt ce"t+ ctŞ+ jŴ', jfbált
tƧ ce"tt+ `ŷfj e"ttá tŞtá ljţfkg+. nŋ)tá kg cty+ jŴ'+ `ŷf
tytá k/+ ljţfk]t'sĕdƧ
cŴeŧssĕojrLkoáu;d'Ūflksĕ r]tgf d';fjfbá. ;'/flt lkŪ;'/f k"j;'/f cábg;'/f lsŰklŋųf ;Ƙf/;+o'ųflt kť
;'/f. d]/olƃ k'Ǝþf;já mþnf;já u'ńf;já dƂf;já ;Ƙf/;+o'ųált kť cf;jf. tb'eolƕ dbgLoŪ]g dş+, ofo r]tgfo
t+ dş+ lkjlt, ;f kdfbsĕ/)ųf kdfbŪfg+, tƨf ;'/fd]/odşkdfbŪfgf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg ljeśgo] kfsá eljƧlt. Pj+ pkl/lk. ljeśgo];' r]Ŵ ;'ųƃefhgLo+ glŴ, clewƙefhgLo]
kg]tflg kť l;ŋĕkbflg sĕdfjr/s';nlrų;ƕo'ųfg+ lj/tLg+ j;]g gfgƍsĕ/tá k&djf/] ljeųflg, tyf b'ltojf/]
r]tgfj;]g, lj/ltr]tgf;ƕo'ųf kg]Ŵ wƙf g l;ŋĕkbflg, l;ŋĕkb;ƕo'ųf kg xálƃ, tyf tltogo] mþƧfbLg+ ;Ƒ];+
wƙfg+ j;]g gfgƍsĕ/tá ljeųflt.
kŤfk'Şs]þ kg r]tgfo, mþƧfbLgť kl/ofol;ŋĕkbųf lgƍl/ofol;ŋĕkbe"tfg+ lj/tLg+ j;]g]j ljeųflg. tŴ
lx kť l;ŋĕkbflg s';nf Pj, l;of ;'vfo, l;of cb'ŋd;'vfo ;ƕo'ųf»k]0 kl/ųf/ƙ)fj, kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)fj,
alxźf/ƙ)fj, clgbƧgcƍl#fj, g x]t", ;x]t'sĕ, gá lrųf, r]tl;sĕ, sĕdfjr/f ;pų/fj, c/)fjflt. PŴ r
oflg l;ŋĕkbflg ;ųf/ƙ)flg j'ųflg, tflg r lj/lt;efjųf oƨf æ;ųáÆlt ;ř+ ut] kl/ųwƙ] Pj kŝ'ƍƉ] Pj wƙ]
cf/ƙ)+ s/álƃ, tƨf kl/ųf/ƙ)flt r j'ųflt j]lbtƑf. Obflg lj/ldtƑkf)fltkftfbLg+ _
wƙsƙkyfnƗ-j]bgfd"nsƙtá.
;fjşśflbtá `]Ɯá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ wƙtá tfj _ kťk]t] kf)fltkftfboá r]tgf;efjfj xálƃ. sƙkytá kť sƙkyfj. cf/ƙ)tá kg
kf)fltkftá hËljltlƇof/ƙ±)ëf, clbƉfbfg+ ;ųf/ƙ)+, ;řf/f/ƙ)+ jf, tyf d';fjfbá, ldŞfrf/á OlŴk'l/;f/ƙ±)ëf,
;'/fkfg+ ;řf/f/ƙ)+. j]bgftá kg kf)fltkftá b'ŋj]bgá, clbƉfbfg+ ltj]bg+, tyf d';fjfbá, ldŞfrf/á kg
;'vdŢųj;]g lƀj]bgá, tyf ;'/fkfg+. d"ntá kg k&dá bá;dáxd"ná, b'lto+ l;of náedáxd"n+, l;of bá;dáxd"n+,
tyf d';fjfbá, ldŞfrf/á kg náedáxd"náj, tyf ;'/fkfg+. sƙtá kg]Ŵ d';fjfbá jrLsƙ+, ;];f sĕosƙd]j.
;fjştá kg kf)fltkftá tfj cdg'Ƨs]þ kf±)ë cƍ;fjşá, dg'Ƨs]þ dxf;fjşá. t];' r v'Źs;/L/]
cƍ;fjşá, dxf;/L/] dxf;fjşá. sƨfĠ koáudxƃtfo. koáu;dų]lk cƍu'±)ë cƍ;fjşá, dxfu'±)ë dxf;fjşá.
;/L/u')fg+ ;defj] ;lt lsn];fg+, pkŊþdfgť d'b'ltƑtfo cƍdxf;fjşá xált, vL)f;j] kg dxf;fjşt/ált.
clbƉfbfg+ jŴ'gá xLgƍ)Lttfo r]j u')lj/lxttƑƃ;ƃstfo r. tŴflk t+ t+ pkfbfo'kfbfo r cƍdxf;fjş+,
vL)f;j;ƃs]þ dxf;fjşt/lƃ j]lbtƑ+. ldŞfrf/á b'ƧLn;LnjƃjŴ'jLltŊþdg]g. tŴflk t+ t+ pkfbfo'kfbfo r
cƍdxf;fjşá, vL)f;jjŴ'jLltŊþdg] dxf;fjşt/ált r j]lbtƑá. d';fjfbá odŴ+ eŧlt, tƧ cƍdxƃt+, jŴ';fldgá
u')lj/lxtt+, tƑƃtť pkfbfo'kfbfo cƍdxf;fjşá xált. clkr cųgá ;ƃs+þ cbft'sĕdtfo, x;flwƍfo]g jf
ægŴ]tÆlƃcflbgoƍjųá cƍ;fjşá, clbŪ+ ælbŪÆlƃcflbgf s"þ;lŋcflbefj]g jf kjųá dxf;fjşá, d';f jŷf kg
;Ŝe]bg] dxf;fjşt/á.
;'/fkfg+ laƆ'dųtá kŪfo t+ t+ pkfbfo'kfbfo cƍ;fjş+, ax's]þ dxf;fjş+,
sĕoljsĕ/hggkxágskfg] kg dxf;fjşt/d]j.
cśflbtá kg kf)fltkftƧ kf±)ëf kf);lţtf jwslrų+ pkŊþdá t]g d/)lƃ kť cśflg. ;fxlŴs]ĕ cf)lųs]ĕ
lgƧlƮs]ĕ yfj/á ljşĕdoá Olźdoált % koáuf. clbƉfbfgƧ k/kl/Ʈlxttf tyf;lţtf ±yëƜlrų+ pkŊþdá t]g x/)lƃ
kť cśflg. ;fxlŴsĕboá % Pj koáuf. t] r ±vëf oyfg'¿k+ ±yëƜfjxf/fbLg+ j;]g kjųf. ldŞfrf/Ƨ cudgLojŴ'tf
;]jglrų+ d±Ʈëg dƮƍlkųLlt tLl) cśflg. ;fxlŴs]ĕ Ps]ĕj koá±uëf. Pj+ ;];fglƕ koá±uëf j]lbtƑá. d';fjfbƧ cty+
jŴ', lj;+jfbglrų+, tşá jfofdá, k/Ƨ tbŴljhĕgglƃ rųfl/ cśflg. ;'/fkfgƧ ;'/fbLg+ cţt/tf cŢáx/)lƃ ƀ]
cśfgLlt.
Pj+ kf)fltkftfbLg+ wƙflbtá ljlgŞo+ `ŷf Obflg kf)fltkftfj]/dl)cfbLg+ kťƉlƕ _
wƙsƙkyfnƗ-;dfbfgkoáutá.
vůtá r ljhĕgLoá, kflńd'ųljlgŞoáĶ
109

tŴ wƙsƙkytá ljlgŞoá j'ųgoáj. cf/ƙ)tá kg]tflg hËljltlƇoflbt+t+jLltŊþldtƑjŴf/ƙ)flg.
;dfbfgtá PsƧ ;lƃs]þ jf ;od]j jf ækť ;Lnflg clwŪxfdLÆlt Pstá jf kflPŊ+þ jf ;dflboƃ]g Ptflg ;dflbƉfg]j
xálƃ. koáutá kg ;Ƒflglk ;fxlŴskoáufg]j. vůtá uxŪf o+ o+ jLltŊþdlƃ, t+ tb]j vů+ xált, g]t/]. uxŪf
clgaź;Lnf xálƃ, o+ o+ ;Ŋþálƃ, t+ tb]j ±uëfk]lƃ. ;fd±)ë/fg+ kg PsƸƨ jLltŊþldt] ;Ƒflglk leşƃLlt Pj+ ljhĕgLoá
kflńd'ųljlgŞoá.
l;ŋĕkbljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

kl;lƘbfljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
kl;lƘbfljeśdfltsĕo cŴtá tfj _ rtƧá kl;lƘbflt rųf/á ke]bf. lgŹ];] kg æcŴ] `f)+
cŴƍl;lƘbfÆltcflbgf ‘lje0718’ `f)j;]g lglŹŪųf `f)Ƨ]j, g cţƧ sƧrLlt j]lbtƑ+. cŴkl;lƘbflt
cŴlj;o`f)ƍe]bf, cŴƍe]b;Ɵŋ)ljefjgjjŴfgs/);dŴtfj;]g cŴ] ke]but+ `f)lƃ cŴá. ;];kb];'lk P;]j
goá. PŴ r cŴált x]t'mþn.
+ ;á lx x]t'j;]g c/)Lotá uƃƑtá, pƍfb]tƑtá r æcŴáÆlt j'ŝlt. ke]btá kg];álk
kťlj±wëf xált o+ lslť kŝo'ƍƉ+, lgƑfg+, efl;tŴá, ljkfs]ĕ, lsl/oflt.
wƙált kŝoá, ;á lx mþn+ ljbxlt kjų]lt pƍfb]lt r]j kfk]lt rflt æwƙáÆlt j'ŝlt. ke]btá kg];álk
kťlj±wëf xált oá s]ĕlr mþnlgƑųs]ĕ x]t', cl/od±Ʈëf, efl;t+, s';n+, cs';nlƃ.
lg?ųLlt oyfj'ųfg+ wƙfg+, cŴfgť jfrs]ĕ ;efjlg?lų;řftá ;Źá. Odf wƙŴlg?lųoá cf/ƙ)+ sŷf
kŝj]ŋƃƧ tŴ tŴ ke]but+ `f)+ lg?lųkl;lƘbf gfd.
PŴ r lg?lųkl;lƘbf ;Źf/ƙ)f, g kţųf/ƙ)f, kl;lƘbfkųá lx æmþƧá j]bgfÆltcflbs+þ ;Ź+ ;'ŷf æco+
;efjlg?ųLÆlt hĕgflt, æmþƧf j]bgáÆltcflbs+þ kg æg ;efjlg?ųLÆlt hĕgflt. ;efjlg?ųLlt ‘lje0cŪ0718’ r
dfulwsĕ ef;f, ofo ;ƙf;Ɨ'źf t]lks+þ a'źjrg+ tƸƃ cf/ák]lƃ, Ɣƪfgá r cufds]þ c/ţ] lslť jrg+ c;'ŷf jlŬtbf/sĕ
r cųgá wƙtfo ef;lƃ, of r ckfo];' dg'Ƨ] b]jnás]þ r]j dfuwef;f pƧƉf, kŞf r ttá cƈsoágsbldńflbb];ef;f
r]j ;ŊþtflbcŪf/;dxfef;f r lgƑųf, ;f lx oƨf Ot/f;' ef;f;' kl/jųƃf;'lk g kl/jųlt, ;Ƒsĕn+ cųgá ;efj] Pj
ltŪlt, tƨf æ;efjlg?ųLÆlt j'ŝlt. of Ɣƪjáxf/á, cl/ojáxf/ált r j'ŝlt, tfo kg dfuwef;fo tƸƃ cf?ŃÜƧ
a'źjrgƧ kl;lƘbfkųfg+ ;átkyfudgd]j kkťá ;át] kg ;Ŝlũtdų] Pj go;t]g go;xƧ]g cŴá pkŪflt. cţfo
kg ef;fo tƸƃ cf?ŃÜ+ t+ t];+ lrų+ ;x;f gf/áxlt, lsŞ]g pƮx]tƑ+ xált, k'y'şgfgť ;sn+ a'źjrg+ pƮx]ŷflk
kl;lƘbfklų gfd glŴ, cl/o;fjs]ĕ gá kl;lƘbfkųá gfd glŴ, kl;lƘbfkųá cţ+ ;Ź+ gfdfŐfták;Ʈlgkfte]btá
hĕgflt, g hĕgftLltĠ ob±Ʈëg ;Ź+ ;'ŷf æco+ ;efjlg?lų, co+ g ;efjlg?ųLÆlt hĕgflt, tb±Ʈëg Ptlƕ hĕlgƧlt, g
r]t+ kl;lƘbflsŝlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
klefglƃ wƙŴflblj;o+ ;ƑŴs`f)+, t+ `f)+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf kŝj]ŋƃƧ ke]but+ `f)+ klefgkl;lƘbf gfd,
Odf rtƧálk kl;lƘbf clwud]g kl/olųpƮx±)ëg ;ŊþŝwƙƧjg]g cŴkl/k'Şfo k'Ƒoá±uëgflt kťlx sĕ/±)ëlx lj;bf
xálƃ, ;]ve"ldo+, c;]ve"ldoťflt ƀL;' &fg];' ke]b+ uŞƃLlt j]lbtƑf. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴá.
wƙe]bá kg]Ŵflk ljeśgo] kfsá eljƧlt. ljeśgo];' lx tL;'lk wƙlg?lųklefgkl;lƘbf ltƧálk
sĕdfjr/hjg;ƕo'ų`f)fg+ j;]g tlƑ;oƍe]b]g ;Ƹź gfgƍsĕ/tá ljeųf. cŴkl;lƘbf kg t];+ `f)fgť]j
cŪnás'ų/lrų;ƕo'ųfgť j;]g
tlƑ;oƍe]b]g ;Ƹź. nás'ų/`f)flglk lx dƮƍųƑtfo cŴe"tlgƑfgf/ƙ)ųf
æcŴkl;lƘbfÆlt j'ŝlt.
kŤfk'Şs]þ kg l;of s';nf, l;of cƓfstf, ltƧá kl;lƘbf l;of
ljkfswƙwƙf, l;of
g]jljkfsgljkfswƙwƙf, cŴkl;lƘbf ltwflk, ltƧá kl;lƘbf kl/ųf, cŴkl;lƘbf l;of kl/ųf, l;of cƍdf)f
lg?lųkl;lƘbf kl/ųf/ƙ)f, alxźf/ƙ)f r, ;];f ltwflk, lg?lųkl;lƘbf kŝ'ƍƉf/ƙ)fj, cŴkl;lƘbf ltwflk g
jųƑf r, clgbƧgcƍl#f, x]t", ;x]t'sĕ, ltƧá kl;lƘbf ;pų/f, cŴkl;lƘbf lƀwflk, c/)f rflt. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
kl;lƘbfljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

`f)ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
`f)ljeśdfltsĕo kg cŴtá tfj _ Pslj±wëgflt Psƍsĕ/]g, Pss]ĕŪf;]g jf. `f)jŴ"lt PŴ kg `f)ť t+
jŴ' r gfgƍsĕ/fg+ ;ƕųLglƃ `f)jŴ'. kť ljţf)flt rŋ'ljţf)fbLlg kť. g x]t" cx]t'sĕltcfbL;' x]Ūf x]t'b'sĕbL;'
j'ųgofg';f/]g ;ƑŴ cŴá j]lbtƑá. clkr x]t'b'sĕbL;' kť ljţf)f x]t" wƙflt jf ;x]t'sĕ wƙflt jf g jųƑf, Psƃ]g
kg g x]t" Pj, cx]t'sĕ Pjflt. Pj+ æofyfjsjŴ'ljefjgf kţfÆlt Oldgf pkl/ Psljwkl/Ş]bfj;fg] jŋdfg]g
110

;Ɨƈált. Oldgf go]g ;ƑŴ oyfg'¿k+ cŴá j]lbtƑá. tŴ r cr]tl;sĕlt lrųflg Pj kťljţf);ƕo'ųfg+ Ow
ck/fdŪųf.
pƍƉjŴ'sĕ pƍƉf/ƙ)flt v)kŝ'ƍƉj;]g cgfutklŋ]ká. g lx tflg cgfut];' kť;' jŴf/ƙ±)ë;' pƍşlƃ.
k'/]hĕtjŴ'sĕ k'/]hĕtf/ƙ)flt ;x'ƍlųklŋ]ká. g lx tflg ;x'ƍƉ+ jŴf/ƙ)+ klŝ pƍşlƃ. cŢlųsjŴ'sĕlt
cŢųŢųe"t] kť k;fb] jŴ'+ sŷf pƍşgsĕ. PŴ r kť ljţf)f ;olƕ cŢlųsĕ, cŢlųsjŴ'sĕ r, dgáljţf)+
xbolglƧt+ cŢlųs+þ, aflx/jŴ's+þ, kťljţf);ƕo'ųf toá vƈf aflx/f, cŢlųsjŴ'sĕ, dgáljţf);ƕo'ųf toá vƈf
aflx/f, aflx/jŴ'sĕlt Pj+ rt'Ŋ+þ j]lbtƑ+.
c;lƘƉjŴ'sĕ c;lƘƉf/ƙ)flt clg?źjŴf/ƙ)f. g lx tflg lg?źjŴf/ƙ)+ klŝ pƍşlƃ. gfgfjŴ'sĕ
gfgf/ƙ)flt tflg oyfŊþd+ rŋ'¿kflblgot]s]þsjŴf/ƙ)tfo cţdţ+ leƉjŴ'sĕ, leƉf/ƙ)f r. g lx rŋ'ljţf)+ rŋ'+
d'lťŷf ;átfbL;' cţt/+ jŴ'+ sŷf ¿k+ d'lťŷf ;ŹfbL;' cţt/f/ƙ)+ klŝ pƍşlt, g Ot/flg r]t/flg. g cţdţƧ
±uëfr/lj;o+ kŝg'eáƃLlt Oldgf r g];+ gfgf/ƙ)t+o]j ljefj]lt. g c;dƉfxf/f pƍşƃLlt cgfjşg] g pƍşlƃ,
kťƀf/fjşg]g cgfjlşt] lj;o] g pƍşƃLlt cŴá. g cdgl;sĕ/flt td]j]Ŵ kl/ofoƃ/]g ljefj]lt. g cƑálsŰflt
cţdţ+ lg/ƃ/f x'ŷf g pƍşlƃ. g ck'Ƒ+ crl/dlƃ Psŋ±)ëlk ;x g pƍşlƃ. g s]þjnť Ptflg, cţflglk
ljţf)flg ƀ] jf tb'ųƸ/ jf Pstá g pƍşlƃ, Ps]þsd]j kg ljţf)+ pƍştLlt j]lbtƑ+. oyfx _ æcţ+ pƍşt] lrų+,
cţ+ lrų+ lg?ŢtLÆltcflb ‘bL0lg0cŪ01=214 d0lg0cŪ01=109 ;+0lg0cŪ03=5=368 lje0cŪ0523’. g cţdţƧ
;dgƃ/flt Oldgf cgƑálsŰtfo Pj ljefjgf.
cgfeáuflt cgfjşge"tf cfjşgŪfg] &ŷf cfjşglsŝ+ sĕt'+ g ;dŴflt cŴá. g slť wƙ+ klljhĕgftLlt
ædgák'Ƒśdf wƙfÆlt ‘w0 k01-2’ Pj+ j'ų+ Pslƕ s';nfs';n+ wƙ+ s]ĕlrlk k'Ʈná g klljhĕgflt, t]lx ljţf±)ëlx g
;f±wëtLlt cŴá. cţŶ clelgkftdųflt &k]ŷf ¿kflbcf/ƙ)fg+ clelgkftdų+ cfkfyudgdų+, Ɠųt/álk k'Ʈná
kťljţf±)ëlx cfkfyutf/ƙ)klljhĕggdųtá cţ+ s';nfs';nklljhĕgg+ sĕt'+ g ;ŊþátLlt cŴá.
kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ ;dgƃ/fkLlt dgáwft'oflk. clk-;Źá r]Ŵ ;lƕůgŴá, t]g g s]þjn+ dgáwft'ofj, ttá
k/]lxlk kťƀfl/sljţf±)ëlx tbf/ƙ)kl/oá;fg]lx g lslť s';nfs';n+ wƙ+ klljhĕgftLlt codŴá blƧtált ux]tƑá.
lsťflk kťƀf/] s';nfs';nfbLlg hjgflg pƍşlƃ, tyflk tflg dá#k'Ǝþflg ljo cƑáxfl/sĕgLlt bŪƑflg. g slť
Ol/ofky+ sƍ]tLltcfbL;'lk P;]j goá. g lx kťƀfl/sljţf±)ëlx udgfbL;' slť Ol/ofky+ sƍ]lt, g sĕojrLsƙ+
kŪk]lt, g ljţƸų jf ;d'Ūfk]lt, g s';nfs';n+ wƙ+ ;dflbolt, g nálsonás'ų/+ ;dfƸw ;dfkşlt, g ttá j'Ūflt, g
ejtá rjlt, g ejƃ/] pƍşlt, ;Ƒƕ]t+ lsŝ+ dgáƀfl/slrų]g]j xált. oyf r]t];+ Ptflg lsŝflg glŴ, Pj+
lgofdáŊþdgfbLlglk. g lx s]ĕlr kťƀfl/shjg]lx ldŞųlgofd+, ;ƙųlgofd+ jf cáŊþdlt, g r]tflg gfd±uëfų+ jf
sl;)flbkţƸų jf ltnŋ)fƸb jf cf/ư ejlƃ. g ;'ktLltcfbL;' ;Ƒ]lx kťƀfl/slrų]lx g lgŹ+ cáŊþdlt, g lslť
;'lkg+ kƧlt. lgŹfoƃƧ lx OlƇo];' dxfkbLkt'l/o;Źflbcáńfl/s]þlxlk ¿kflbkťf/ƙ±)ëlx #lũt];' k&d+ kťƀfl/sĕlg
cfjşgflg ejś+ cfjũ]t'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ, dgáƀfl/sd]j cfjşg+ ;Ŋþált, tlƨť pƍƉ] dgáƀfl/shjg+ hljŷf ejś+
cát/lt. b'ltojf/] kg kťƀfl/scfjşg];' o+ lslť oyf/x+
ejś+ cfjũ]lt, ttá tbf/ƙ)kl/oá;fgflg
t+t+ƀfl/sjLlylrųflg oyfŊþd+ kjlųŷf ejś+ cát/lƃ. tltojf/] kg dgáƀfl/sĕjşghjgflg kjųlƃ, tƸƨ v±)ë
¿kflbkťf/ƙ)jjŴfg+ xált, ;ųá r lgŹfo kla'źált, Pj+ dgáƀfl/slrų]g]j kla'Ţlt.
;'lkglƕ lx t]g]j kƧlt, g kťƀfl/s]þg, tť kg]t+ ;'lkg+ kƧƃá rt"lx sĕ/±)ëlx kƧlt wft'ŋ]ĕetá jf
cg'e"tk'Ƒtá jf b]jták;+xf/tá jf k'Ƒlgldųtá jf. Od];+ kg ;+;Ʈ;lƉkfttálk ax'wf kkť]lƃ. tŴ o+
jftlkųflbwft'ŋ]ĕetá, cg'e"tk'Ƒtá r ;'lkg+ kƧlt, g t+ ;ŝ+. o+ b]jták;+xf/tá kƧlt, t+ ;ŝ+ jf xált clns+þ jf.
s'źf lx b]jtf ljk/Ltlƕ sŷf bƧ]lƃ. o+
k'Ƒlgldųtá kƧlt, t+ Psƃ;ŝd]j aálw;ųs]ĕ;n/fhĕbLg+
kť;áń;dxf;'lkgflg ljo. tť kg]t+ rt'lƑw+ ;'lkg+ ;]vk'y'şgfj kƧlƃ, g c;]vf kxLgljkƟf;ųf. Ƹs kg]t+ kƧƃá
;'ųá kƧlt kla'źá jfĠ lsť]Ŵ, olb ;'ųá kƧlt, ;'lkgƧ s';nflb;efjtá, ejśƧ r tbefjf clewƙlj/á±wëf
cfkşlt. cy kla'źá, ;'lkg+ kƧƃ]g stƧ cƑáxfl/sƧflk jLltŊþdƧ ;Ƒáxfl/sƧ]j Psƃ;fjşųf cgfklų g l;oflt
ljgolj/á±wëf cfkşlt. ksĕ/ƃ/á r glŴ, o]g ;'lkg+ kƧ]Ɯflt ;'lkgƧ cefjáj cfkştLltĠ gfkşlt. sƨfĠ oƨf
slkldźk/]tá kƧlt æslkldźk/]tá ±vëf, dxf/fh, ;'lkg+ kƧtLÆlt ‘ld0k05=3=5’ jrgtá, of kg lgŹf dŊþlgŹf
ljo k'gƍ'g+ s';nflblrųjálsŰųf nx'kl/jųf, t+ slkldź+, t]g ;'ųá ;'lkg+ kƧlt, tƨf ;'lkgá s';nálk xált
cs';nálk, cfjşgtbf/ƙ)j;]g cƓfstálk, ;'lkg] r st+ s';nfs';nb'Ƒntfo kl;Ƹƈ cfslŬt'+ g ;Ŋþált, kjų]
j]bgLo+ kg xált. æofyfjsjŴ'ljefjgf kţfÆlt PŴ oá kťƉ+ ljţf)fg+ oyfj'ųá g x]t'sŪá, cx]t'sŪá»k]0 g
;'lkg+ kƧgŪá, ;á ofyfjŪá, t+t+ofyfjŴ'+ ljefj]tLlt ofyfjsjŴ'ljefjgf kţf. Pj+ Pslj±wëg `f)jŴ"lt Pj+ j'ų]g
Ps]þg ksĕ/]g Ps]þg cfsĕ/]g, Pss]ĕŪf;]g `f)jŴ' xátLlt.
Pss+þ lglŪt+.
b's]þ;' cŴhĕlksĕlt PŴ cŴkl;lƘbfljeś] j'ų];' kť;' cŴ];' oyfg'¿k+ cŴ+ hĕk]lt hg]lt kjų]tLlt cŴhĕlksĕ,
rt'e"dss';nlrų];' r]j c;]vfg+ cleţf;dfkųLg+ kl/sƙflbe"tsĕdfjr/lsl/oflrų];' r ;ƕo'ųf kţf. tf;' lx oƨf
s';n;ƕo'ųfj kţf cųgá cųgá e"ldkl/ofkƉ+ ljkfs;řft+ cŴ+ hĕk]lt hg]lt. sĕdfjr/lsl/of;ƕo'ųf kg
kl/sƙflbe"tf cleţf;dfklųlsl/of c/xųmþn;řft+ cŴ+ hĕk]lt hg]lt, tƨf Ptf cŴhĕlksĕlt j'ųf. cŪsyf;' kg
111

kflńo+ cj'ųflk tL;' e"dL;' lsl/ohjgkţf cgƃ/flbkŝoj;]g cųgá cgƃ/+ lsl/oŴ+ hĕk]tLlt æcŴhĕlksĕÆŷ]j j'ųf.
hĕlktŴf kţflt ;xhĕt+ ljkfsŴ+ hĕk]ŷf l&tf, cųgá jf sĕ/±)ëlx hĕlktf hlgtf kjlųtf ;olƕ cŴe"tflt hĕlktŴf.
rt'e"dsljkfs]þ;' r lsl/ofleţf;dfkųL;' r ;ƕo'ųf kţf. cŪsyf;' kg kflńo+ cj'ųf ;];lsl/of;ƕo'ųflk kţf
oyf;s+þ sĕ/±)ëlx hĕlktf, ;oť cŴe"tflt æhĕlktŴfÆŷ]j j'ųf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
b's+þ lglŪt+.
lts]þ;' kg lrƃfdolųs]þ k/tá clbƩf c;'ŷfj cųgá wƙtfo æPj+ ;lt Pj+ eljƧtLÆlt Pj+
lrƃfdocg'a'lźof pƍflbtf cgjşsƙfotgl;ƍfotgljşĕŪfg];' kţf r]j sƙƧst`f)+, ;ŝfg'nálds`f)ť lrƃfdof gfd
kţf. tŴ jŬlssƙk'Ǝþ%ūssƙflb xLgť]j sl;jfl)şĕlb pŊþŪť sƙd]j sƙfotg+. gńsĕ/k];sĕ/l;ƍflb xLgť]j
d'Źfu)gfn]vflb pŊþŪť l;ƍd]j l;ƍfotg+. gfudůnkl/ųflb wlƙsljşĕj ljşĕŪfg+. t];' lrƃfan]g]j pƍƉf kţf.
aálw;ųfboá lx ;ųlxtfo clbŪ+ c;'t+ t+t+cgjşsƙl;ƍtb'ks/)s/)ƍsĕ/ť
`f)an]g lrƃ]ŷf lgƎþfb]lƃ.
gfudůnkl/ųflbljşlƕ pƍfb]lƃ, Pj+ stflglk tflg k'Ƒ] pƮlŲŷf s/áƃ]lx stl;ƍ;lb;fg]j xálƃ. sƙƧst`f)+ gfd
s';nsƙ+ ;ųfg+ ;s+þ, cs';n+ gá ;slƃ Pj+ hĕggkţf. cy jf s';nsƙd]j ;ųfg+ ;s+þ tbfoŴj'lųtfo, gfţlƃ Pj+
hĕggkţflk. ;ŝfg'nálds+þ `f)lƃ ljkƧgf`f)+. t+ lx dƮ;ŝƧ k/dŴ;ŝƧ cg'nádgtá æ;ŝfg'náldsÆlƃ j'ŝlt.
Oblƕ lx `f)ƀo+ k/tá c;'ŷf lrƃfan]g pƍflbt+ lrƃfdo`f)d]j xált. Obť g o];+ s]þ;lť ;ųfg+ pƍşlt,
cleţftfg+ kg k'ţjƃfg+ dxf;ųfgd]j pƍşlt. tŴflk ;ŝfg'nálds`f)+ klŞdeljsĕg+ lƀƉţ]j aálw;ųfg+ pƍştLlt
j]lbtƑ+. ;'tdof kţflt k/tá ;'ŷf ;'tj;]g pƍflbtf oyfj'ųsƙfotgflbkţfj. k/tá c;'ŷf kg sƙfotgflb
k/]g slo/dfg+, st+ jf lbƩf pƮx]ŷf jf klnźflk kţf æ;'tdofÆŷ]j j'ŝlt. tb'eoflk lrƃfdof, ;'tdof r
sĕdfjr/fj. efjgfdof kg kţf lrƃfdoj;]g, ;'tdoj;]g jf kjlųtsĕdfjr/k'ƑefuefjgflgƎþlųof ;d'ƍƉf
dxƮtnás'ų/hjgkţf.
bfgdolųs]þ b]Ɯwƙkl/ŝfuj;]g kjųf bfgdof, ;Lnk"/)j;]g kjųf ;Lndof, tb'eoflk sĕdfjr/fj.
efjgfdof kg]Ŵ ;dyljkƧgfj;]g kjųf rt'e"dskţf. lgŹ];] kgƧ lsťflk æ;dfkƉƧ kţfÆlt ‘lje0768’ Pj+
dxƮtnás'ų/kţfj j'ųf, tyflk t+ pŊþŪj;]g j'ų+. sĕdfjr/fg+ kg k'Ƒefuefjgfg+, cg'Ƨltpkrf/efjgfgť
efjgfdo] ;śxált bŪƑ+. k'l/dlųs]þ kg]tf;+ lrƃfdo] ;ślxtųf efjgfdo] c;śxá, tŴflk efjgfanlgƎþƉfgd]j ;śxá
bŪƑá.
clw;Lnlųs]þ kfltdáŋ;+j/;Ln+ ljkƧgfx]t'ųf ;];;Lntá clws+þ ;Lnlƃ clw;Ln+, tƸƨ ;ƕo'ųf kţf clw;Ln]
kţf. ljkƧgfkflbsĕ kg cŪ ;dfklųoá ;];lrų]lx clwsųf clwlrų+, tƸƨ kţf clwlrų] kţf, lrų;L;]g r]Ŵ ;dflw
lglŹŪá. ;ljkƧgf kg dƮmþnkţf ;];flx clwsųf clwkţf gfd. ;f r clwkţfo kţflt b];gfo ;d/;tfo j'ųf.
;Lnfboá æ;Ln+ lrų+ kţf, clw;Ln+ clwlrų+ clwkţfÆlt kŝ]s+þ b'ljwf xálƃ. t];' k'l/df kť;Lnb;;Lnflg,
jũkflbscŪ;dfklųoá, lgƑ]wefluosƙƧstkţf r oyfŊþd+ xálƃ. t] r wƙf cg'ƍƉ]lk tyfut] aálw;ųfg+,
tfk;kl/Ƒfhsĕg+, rŊþjlų/fhĕbLgť sĕn] kjųlƃ, klŞdf kg j'ųfj;];f pƍƉ] Pj tyfut] ljŴfl/sĕ xálƃ, gá
cg'ƍƉ]lt j]lbtƑá. PŴ r /tgųo] bfgfkrfogflbj;]g, ;/)udg;źƙ;jgflbj;]g r kjųf ljjũ"klgƧoe"tf
s';nwƙflk clw;Lnclwkţf;' ulxtf Pjflt ux]tƑf.
cfos]ĕ;Ɵlųs]þ cfoált jlŬ, ;f cs';nflbcgŴxflgtá, s';nflbcŴ'ƍlųtá r b'ljwf. ckfoált cjlŬ, ;flk
s';nflbcŴxflgtá, cs';nflbcgŴ'ƍlųtá r b'ljwf. t];' s]ĕ;Ɵ+, s';n;efjf kţf. ckfos]ĕ;Ɵ+ kţjtá Pj æPj+
dgl;sĕ/flbƍjlųo+ cjlŬ pƍşlt, jlŬ kl/xfotLÆlt `ŷf tb'eoklklų;Ƙjtá. pkfos]ĕ;Ɵlƃ cŶ pkfoá
cŝfloslsŝfbL;' &fg'ƍlųspkfohĕggkţf, ltljwflk r]tf sĕdfjr/kţflt j]lbtƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
lts+þ lglŪt+.
rt'Ŋ]þ;' kg k&d] sƙƧst`f)+ ;ŝfg'nálds+þ `f)ť j'ųd]j, Ow kg &k]ŷf ;ŝfg'nálds`f)+ ;Ƒflk ;f;jf
s';nf kţf sƙƧst`f)lƃ j]lbtƑ+. rt";' d±Ʈë;', mþn];' r kţfj dƮ;dlśƧ `f)+, mþn;dlśƧ `f)ťflt.
;ŝrt'Ŋ]þ cl/odƮmþnkţfj rt";' ;ŝ];' Psklj]wj;]g æb'ŋ] `f)Ælƃcflbgf rt";' &fg];' ulxtf. lsťflk
lx sĕdfjr/`f)lƕ rt";' ;ŝ];' cf/ƙ)j;]g kjųlt, klj]wlsŝj;]g kg Owflwƍ]tųf kflńo+ t+ g ulxtlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
wƙrt'Ŋ]þ dƮmþn];' kţf wƙ] `f)+ gfd. t];' lx dƮ`f)+ tfj rt';ŝwƙfg+ Psklj]wj;]g hĕggtá æwƙ]
`f)Ælƃ j'ŝlt. mþn`f)+ kg lg/áw;ŝj;]g wƙ] `f)lƃ j]lbtƑ+. dƮfg'efjlgƑų+ kg ctLtfgfut];'
;ŝklj]wgo;śx)j;]g kjų+ kŝj]ŋ)`f)+ cƋo] `f)+ gfd. tƧ r o]lx go]lx cl/of ctLtdźfg+ rt';ŝwƙ+ hĕƸg;',
t]lk Odţ]j rt';ŝ+ Pjd]j hĕƸg;', cgfutdźfglƕ hĕlgƧƃLlt Pj+ hĕggj;]g kjlų cfsĕ/á j]lbtƑá. ;/fuflbj;]g
k/lrųkl/Ş]b`f)+ kl/o] `f)+ gfd. wƙƋokl/o`f)flg kg &k]ŷf ;Ƒnálsokţf`f)lƃ ;ƙtųf ;ƙ'ltlƛ `f)lƃ
;ƙ'lt`f)+ gfd.
cfrort'Ŋ]þ sĕdfjr/s';n] kţf cfrofo gá ckrofo. ;f lx r'ltkl;Ƹƈ cflrgált Pj, gá cklrgált.
dƮkţf kg ckrofo gá cfrofo. ¿kf¿ks';nkţf cfrofo r]j ckrofo r. ;f lx ljŋƘgj;]g lsn];] r tƙ"ns]þ
r ljkfswƙ] cklrgált. ;];f cƓfstf kţf g]jfrofo gá ckrofo.
lglƑbfrt'Ŋ]þ ¿kfjr/k&dŢĕgkţf lglƑbfo gá klj]wfo. ;f lx sĕdljj]s]þg kųƑųf lsn];lglƑbfo
kjųlt, cleţfkfbsefj+ kg cƍųtfo g]jfleţfklj]wfo ;+jųlt. rt'ŴŢĕgkţf klj]wfo gá lglƑbfo. ;f lx
112

cleţfkfbsefj]gflk cleţfefjƍlųoflk klj]wfo ;+jųlt. k&dŢĕgŋ±)ë Pj gLj/)lglƑƆgųf gá lglƑbfo.
b'ltotltoŢĕgkţf kg ;ádgƧ;xuttfo k&dŢĕg;lƉlƧtf jf cljtŊþtfo rt'ŴŢĕg;lƉlƧtf jf sĕtƑf. dƮkţf kg
lglƑbfo r]j klj]wfo r. PŴ lx rt';ŝklj]wj;]g lglƑbfo r]j]tf;+ %ńleţfƍlųof klj]wfo r ;+jųg+ j]lbtƑ+.
;];f nálsonás'ų/f kţf g]j lglƑbfo gá klj]wfo.
xfgefluort'Ŋ]þ xfg+ ehtLlt xfgeflugL, Pj+ ;];];'lk. lgƑ]±wëflt
r]Ŵ cl/od±Ʈëf
tlƉƑųsljkƧgfkfbsųf. lgƑ]weflugLlt rt";'lk &fg];' ¿kf¿ks';nkţfj j'ųf. tflg lx cųgá ;efjf kl/xfloŷf
x]Ūf cá/áx)kŝoe"tf xfgeflugL. pklgŢĕgkŝoe"tf lj;];eflugL, t+ kg ´fglgslƃof anjtfo lj;];+, xfƸg jf
cg'Ƨ'lŊþŷf l&lts]ĕŪfl;sĕ l&lteflugL, cl/odƮkbŪfgljkƧgfkfbse"tfj lgƑ]weflugL r xáƃLlt j]lbtƑf.
rtƧá kl;lƘbflt cŴwƙlg?lųklefgkl;lƘbfj. rtƧá klkbflt b'ŋĕklkbfbƈfleţfboá x]Ūf
j'ųfj. rųfl/ cf/ƙ)fgLlt kl/ųf, kl/ųf/ƙ)fltcflbsĕ x]Ūf j'ųgofj. h/fd/)flbrt'Ŋ]þ;'lk dƮ`f)j;]g]j rtƧá
oáhgf j'ųf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
rt'Ŋ+þ lglŪt+.
kťs]þ;' kg kťlśs]ĕ ;ƙf;dfwLlt kLltmþ/)tf ;'vmþ/)tf r]támþ/)tf cfnásmþ/)tf kŝj]ŋ)lgldųlƃ Pj+
kflńo+ j'ų]lx kťlx `f)ś]lx ;dƉfutá ;dflw. tŴ kLƸt mþ/dfgf pƍştLlt ƀL;' ´fg];' kţf kLltmþ/)tf gfd, ;'v+
mþ/dfgf pƍştLlt tL;' ´fg];' kţf ;'vmþ/)tf gfd. k/];+ r]támþ/dfgf pƍştLlt r]tákl/o`f)+ r]támþ/)tf gfd.
cfnásmþ/±)ë pƍştLlt lbƑrŋ'`f)+ cfnásmþ/)tf gfd. kŝj]ŋ)`f)+ kŝj]ŋ)lgldų+ gfd. PŴ r kLltmþ/)tf,
;'vmþ/)tf r ƀ] kfbf ljo, r]támþ/)tf, cfnásmþ/)tf r ƀ] xŴf ljo, kŝj]ŋ)lgldų+ ;L;+ ljo, cleţfkfbsŢĕg+
dlŢdsĕoá ljo. Olt eujf kťlśs+þ ;ƙf;dfƸw cśkŝś;ƕƉ+ k'l/;+ ljo sŷf bƧ]lt. Oldgf r ;dflwgf cśflg kť
`f)śflg j'ųfgLlt j]lbtƑflg.
kť`fl)s]ĕ ;ƙf;dfwLlt _
æ‚co+ ;dflw kŝ'ƍƉ;'±vëf r]j cfoltť ;'vljkfs]ĕƒlt kŝųţ]j `f)+ pƍşlt, ‚co+ ;dflw
cl/oá lg/fld;áƒlt»k]0 ‚dxfk'l/;;]ljtáƒlt»k]0 ‚;ƃá k)Ltá klkƧlźnźá Ps]ĕlbefjflwutá g
;;řf/lgƮƞjfl/tutáƒlt»k]0 ‚;á ±vëf kgfx+ Od+ ;dfƸw ;táj ;dfkşĕld, ;tá j'ŪxfdLƒlt kŝųţ]j `f)+
pƍştLÆlt ‘lje0804’ _
Pj+ kflńo+ j'ų]lx kťlx kŝj]ŋ)`f±)ëlx o'ųá c/xųmþn;řftá ;dfklųmþn;dflw. ;á Pj+ lx
clƍtlƍtŋ±)ë ;'vųf kŝ'ƍƉ;'±vëf, k'l/dá k'l/dá klŞdƧ klŞdƧ ;dflw;'vƧ r]j cųgf ;d'Ūflktlƕ
k)Lt¿k]g m'þŪ;snsĕotfo mþn;dfklųtá j'lŪtsĕn] cltk)Lt+ sĕoljţf);'vƧ kŝoųf cfoƸt ;'vljkfs]ĕ
pƍşlt,
Oldgflk kl/ofo]g cfoƸt ;'vljkfs]ĕlt Ps+þ cś+, lsn];]lx cf/sųf cl/oá
sĕdfld;jũfld;násĕld;fg+ cefjf lg/fld;ált Ps+þ, a'źfbLlx dxfk'l/;]lx ;]ljtųf csĕk'l/;;]lj;ált Ps+þ,
cśf/ƙ±)ë ;ƃtfo, ;Ƒlsn];b/y;ƃtfo r ;ƃá ctƍgLoŪ]g k)Ltá lsn];klkƧlźefjƧ nźųf
klkƧźnźá Ps]ĕlbefj]g r clwutá cƍu');f;j;dflw ljo ;;řf/]g ;ƍoá±uëg kŝgLswƙ] lgƮƞ lsn];]
jf/]ŷf cglwutųf g ;;řf/lgƮƞjfl/tutá. k'ƮnƧfo+ ;dfwLlt Pj+ vL)f;jƧ ;ltj]k'Ɵƍlųof
oyfkl/lŞƉsĕnj;]g Od+ ;dfƸw ;táj ;dfkşlt, pŪxlt rflt Psdślƃ Od]lx kťlx cś]lx ;Ƒfsĕ/tá
o'ųųf ækť`fl)s]ĕ ;ƙf;dfwLÆlt j'ŝlt.
kťs+þ lglŪt+.
%Ŋ]þ %;' cleţf;' kţflt Olźlj±wë `f)+, lbƑ;átwft'of `f)+, r]tákl/o] `f)+, k'Ƒ]lgjf;fg'Ƨlto+ `f)+,
r't"kkft] `f)+, cf;jfg+ vo] `f)lƃ Pj+ j'ųflg %ńleţflrų;ƕo'ųflg `f)flg. t];' klŞd+ nás'ų/+, ;];flg
¿kfjr/kťdŢĕlgsĕgLlt.
%Ŋ+þ lglŪt+.
;ųs]þ ;ų;ųlt `f)jŴ"gLlt æcljşĕkŝof ;řf/fÆlt kŝj]ŋ)`f)+ Ps+þ, æc;lt cljşĕo glŴ ;řf/fÆlt
Pslƃ ƀ] `f)flg, Pj+ ctLt]lk ƀ], cgfut]lk ƀ]lt %, t+ %lƑwlƕ `f)+ ævowƙÆlƃcflbgf kŝj]ŋ)`f±)ëg ;Ƹź ;ų
`f)flg. Pj+ ;];];'lk hĕltkl/oá;fg];' rflt Pj+ Psĕb;;' klŝ;d'ƍfbś];' kŝ]s+þ sĕnųo]lk cƋoƓlt/]s`f)+ t];+
jobƧg`f)Ƨ r j;]g ;ų ;ų sŷf ;ų;ųlt `f)flg.
;ųs+þ lglŪt+.

cŪs+þ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
gjs]þ gj;' cg'k'Ƒljxf/;dfkųL;' kţflt lg/áw;dfkƸų ;dfkşƃƧ cg'klkflof ljxftƑtá pƍfb]tƑtá

113

cg'k'Ƒljxf/;řftf;' ¿kf¿k;dfkųL;'
kŝj]ŋ)`f)ťflt gj.

;ƕo'ųf cŪ kţf r]j tbgƃ/+ lg/áw+ m'þl;ŷf j'lŪtƧ

lg/áw+ ;ƃtá

gjs+þ lglŪt+.
b;s]þ tyfutƧflt oyf ljkƧLcfboá k'Ƒsĕ O;oá cfutf, tyf cfutƧ ;ƙf;Ɨ'źƧ. tyfutanfgLlt cţ]lx
c;fwf/)flg tyfutƧ]j anflg, oyf jf k'Ƒa'źfg+ anflg k'ţ'Ƨo;ƕlųof cfutflg, tyf cfutflg anfgLltlk cŴá.
tŴ b'ljw+ tyfutƧ an+ sĕoan+, `f)anť. t];' sĕoan+ xlŴs'nfg';f/]g j]lbtƑ+. j'ų+ x]t+ ká/f±)ëlx _
æsĕńfjsť uś]Ɯ+, ků/+ tƗlkśn+.
uƈdśnx]dť, pká;y%Źlƃd] b;fÆltĶ ‘lje0cŪ0760 d0lg0cŪ01=148 ;+0lg0cŪ02=2=22
c0lg0 10=21 pbf0cŪ075 a'0j+0cŪ01=39 kl0d0cŪ02=2=44 r"ńlg0cŪ081’.
Odflg lx b; xlŴs'nflg. tŴ sĕńfjslƃ ksltxlŴs'n+, o+ b;Ɖ+ k'l/;fg+ sĕoan+, t+ PsƧ sĕńfjsxlŴgá
an+, o+ t];+ b;Ɖ+ an+, t+ PsƧ uś]ƜƧ, t];+ b;Ɖ+ ků/Ƨ, t];+ b;Ɖ+ tƗƧ, t];+ b;Ɖ+ lkśnƧ, t];+ b;Ɖ+
uƈxlŴgá, t];+ b;Ɖ+ dśnƧ, t];+ b;Ɖ+ x]dƧ, t];+ b;Ɖ+ pká;yƧ, t];+ b;Ɖ+ an+ %ŹƃƧ, o+ b;Ɖ+ %Źƃfg+ an+, t+
tyfutƧ gf/fo)anlƃ j'ŝlt. tb]t+ ksltxlŴu)gfo xŴLg+ s]ĕl;xƧ+, k'l/;u)gfo b;Ɖ+ k'l/;s]ĕl;xƧfg+ an+
xált. Ob+ tfj tyfutƧ sĕoan+. oflg kg b;anrt'j];f/şĕbLlg cg]sĕlg `f);xƧflg, Pt+ `f)an+ gfd. Owflk
`f)and]j clwƍ]t+. `f)lŤ cslƕoŪ]g, pkŴƘgŪ]g r anlƃ j'ų+.
o]lx an]lx ;dƉfutált o]lx b;lx `f)an]lx pk]tá. cf;eŮfglƃ ;]ŪŪfg+. clkr uj;th]Ūs]ĕ p;eá,
uj;xƧh]Ūs]ĕ j;eá. jh;th]Ūs]ĕ jf p;eá, jh;xƧh]Ūs]ĕ j;eá, ;Ƒuj;]Ūá lg;eá, ;]tá kf;flbs]ĕ dxfef/jxá
;Ƒkl/Ƨo;xá c;lg;t;Ź]lxlk csƕgLoá lg;eá, ;á Ow p;eált clwƍ]tá. Oblƕ lx tƧ kl/ofojrg+. p;eƧ
Oblƃ cf;e+. &fglƃ tƧ lg;ean;dƉfutƧ rt"lx kfb]lx kyƸj pƍLń]ŷf crnŪfg+, Ob+ kg cf;e+ ljoflt cf;e+.
o±yëj lx lg;e;řftá p;eá p;ean]g ;dƉfutá rt"lx kfb]lx kyƸj pƍLń]ŷf crnŪfg]g ltŪlt, Pj+ tyfutálk lx
b;an;dƉfutá rt'j];f/şkfb]lx cŪkl/;kyƸj pƍLń]ŷf ;b]js]þ nás]þ s]þglr cƍw+l;oá crn]g &fg]g ltŪlt, tť];
klhĕgflt pkuŞlt g kŝŋĕlt cųlg cf/ák]lt, t]g j'ų+ æcf;e+ &fg+ klhĕgftLÆlt ‘lje0760’.
kl/;f;"lt cŪ;' kl/;f;'. ;Lxgfb+ gbtLlt ;]Ūgfb+ ceLtgfb+, ;Lxgfb;lb;+ jf gfb+ gblt. codŴá
;Lxgfb;'ų]g bLk]tƑá. oyf jf ;Lxá ;xgtá r xggtá r æ;LxáÆlt j'ŝlt, Pj+ tyfutálk náswƙfg+ ;xgtá,
k/ƍjfbfgť xggtá æ;LxáÆlt j'ŝlt, tƧ gfb+ gblt.
ƔƪrŊþlƃcfbL;' Ɣƪlƃ pųd+ lj;'ź+. rŊþ-;Źá kgfo+ ærųfl/dflg, leŋj], rŊĕlg, o]lx ;dƉfutfg+
b]jdg'ƧfgÆlƃcfbL;' ‘c0lg0 4=31’ ;ƕlųo+ lbƧlt. ækfbtn];' rŊĕlg hĕtfgLÆltcfbL;' ‘bL0 lg02=35 3=204
d0lg02=386’ nŋ±)ë. ærŊ+þj jxtá kbÆlƃ ‘w0k0 1’ PŴ /yś]. ært'rŊ+þ gjƀf/Ælƃ ‘;+0lg0 1=29’ PŴ
Ol/ofk±yë. ærŊ+þ kjųo ;Ƒkfl)gÆlƃ ‘hĕ01=7=149’ PŴ bfg]. ælbƑ+ rŊþ/tg+ kft'/xá;LÆlt ‘bL0lg03=85’ PŴ
/tgrŊ]þ. æOŞfxtƧ ká;Ƨ, rŊ+þ edlt dŴs]þÆlt ‘hĕ01=1=104 1=5=103’ PŴ p/rŊ]þ. æv'/kl/oƃ]g r]lk
rŊ]þgfÆlt ‘bL0lg01=166’ PŴ kx/)rŊ]þ. æc;lgrŊþÆlƃ ‘bL0lg0 3=61 ;+0lg0 2=162’ PŴ c;lgdůn]. ædof
kjlųt+ rŊþÆlƃ ‘;'0 lg0562’ PŴ wƙrŊ]þ. Ow kg wƙrŊ]þ kjųlt.
wƙrŊþť b'ljw+ xált klj]w`f)ť b];gf`f)ť. tŴ kţfkefljt+ cųgá cl/omþnfjx+ nás'ų/+ klj]w`f)+,
s?)fkefljt+ ;fjsĕg+ cl/omþnfjx+ sĕdfjr/+ b];gf`f)+, peolƕ kg]t+ cţ]lx c;fwf/)+ a'źfgţ]j cá/;`f)+, t+
kjų]lt pƍfb]lt ljefj]lt ljŴfl/s+þ s/átLlt cŴá.
Obflg oflg b; `f)flg cflbtá ætyfutanfgLÆlt lglŋųflg, tflg ljŴf/]t'+ æstdflg b;Ġ Ow
tyfutáÆltcflbdfx. tŴ &fgť &fgtált sĕ/)ť sĕ/)tá. sĕ/)+ lx oƨf tŴ mþn+ ltŪlt tbfoųj'lųtfo pƍşlt
r]j kjųlt r, tƨf &fglƃ j'ŝlt. cŪfgť cŪfgtált csĕ/)ť csĕ/)tá. oƕLlt o]g `f±)ëg oyfe"t+ khĕgflt,
Oblƕ &fgf&fg`f)+ tyfutƧ tyfutan+ gfd xátLlt cŴá. Pj+ pkl/lk ;ƑŴ oáhgf j]lbtƑf. sy+ kg]Ŵ eujf
&fgť &fgtá, cŪfgť cŪfgtá oyfe"t+ khĕgftLltĠ cŪfgd]t+ cgjsĕ;á, o+ lblŪ;ƕƉá k'Ʈná slť ;řf/+ lgŝtá
pkuŞ]Ɯ»k]0 slť wƙ+ cųtá pkuŞ]Ɯ, dft/+ hËljtf já/ák]Ɯ, lkt/+»k]0 c/xƃ+ hËljtf já/ák]Ɯ, kb'Ūlrų]g
tyfutƧ nálxt+ pƍfb]Ɯ, ;Ŝ+ leƆ]Ɯ, cţ+ ;Ŵf/+ plŹ;]Ɯ, cŪd+ ej+ lgƑų]Ɯ, g]t+ &fg+ ljşlt, k'y'şgá kg]t+ ;Ƒ+
s/]Ɯflt &fgd]t+ ljştLlt khĕgflt, tyf o+ PlsƧf náswft'of ƀ] c/xƃá ;ƙf;Ɨ'źf ck'Ƒ+ crl/d+ pƍş]Ɯ'+, tyf ƀ]
/fhĕgá rŊþjųL pƍş]Ɯ'+, g]t+ &fg+ ljşlt, Ps]ĕ kg pƍşlt, &fgd]t+ ljştLlt khĕgflt, tyf o+ sĕob'ŝl/tfbLg+ ltŰ+
b'ŝl/tfg+ OŪá ljkfs]ĕ, ;'rl/tfgť clgŪá ljkfs]ĕ lgƑų]Ɯflt g]t+ &fg+ ljşlt, tlƑk/Ltá kg g];+ ljkfs]ĕ lgƑų]Ɯflt
&fgd]t+ ljştLlt, o] o] wƙf o];+ o];+ wƙfg+ x]t" kŝof pƍfbfo, t+ t+ &fg+, Ot/] cŪfglƃ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt, PŴ
kgfo+ ;ř]ktá cŪsyfljlgŞoá. æ;'vtá pkuŞ]ƜfÆlt Ob+ æPsƃ;'vL cųfÆltcflbgf ‘d0lg03=27’ lblŪljkƟf;j;]g
;'vtá ufx+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, ;ţflrųljkƟf;j;]g kg cl/o;fjs]ĕlk lsn];kl/ńfxflee"tá dųxlŴkl/tfl;tá ljo, ;'lrsĕdá
u"ys"þk+ ljo slť ;řf/+ ;'vtá pkuŞlt, cųtá pkudgjf/] sl;)flbkŰlųof, lgƑfgƧ r ;śŲgŴ+ æ;řf/Ælƃ cjŷf
æslť wƙÆlƃ j'ų+.
dft/lƃcfbL;' lsťflk cl/o;fjs]ĕ ;L;Ş]b+ kfk')ƃálk s'ƅlslklƟs+þ pkfbfo kf)fltkft+, clbƉfbfgfbL;' jf
o+lslť b'ŝl/t+ ckfox]t'e"t+ sĕt'+ ejƃ/]lk g ;Ŋþált, k'y'şgefjƧ kg dxf;fjştfbƧgŴd]Ŵ kťfgƃl/ofg]j
pźflg. ;fjşá lx k'y'şgefjá, oŶ lx gfd cfgƃl/oflglk sl/ƧtLlt. PŴ r dg'Ƨe"tƧ]j dg'Ƨe"t+ hlgs+þ dft/+,
114

lkt/+ jf clk kl/jųlnś+ hËljtf já/ák]ƃƧ sƙ+ cfgƃl/o+ xált. lt/Şfge"t+ kg dft/+, lkt/+ jf ;o+ jf
lt/Şfge"tá dg'Ƨe"t+, lt/Şfge"t+ jf hËljtf já/ák]ƃá cfgƃl/o+ g m'þ;lt, sƙ+ kg efl/o+, cfgƃl/o+ cfxŝ]j
ltŪlt. c/xƃlƕ dg'Ƨe"td]j #ft]ƃá cfgƃl/o+ m'þ;lt. tƧ r k'y'şgsĕn] kxf/+ bŷf c/xų+ kŷf tƸƨ t]g]j /á±uëg
dt]lk c/xƃ#fts]ĕ xált, g oŋe"t+ c/xƃ+, ;];cl/ok'Ʈn] jf dg'Ƨe"t]lk #ft]ƃá, sƙ+ kg cfgƃl/o;lb;+ xált. o+
kg k'y'şgsĕn] lbƉ+ bfg+ c/xų+ kŷf kl/e'ŧlt, k'y'şgƧ]j t+ lbƉ+ xált, ;];cl/ok'Ʈn] df/]ƃƧ cfgƃl/o+ glŴ, sƙ+
kg u?s+þ xált. PŴ r Pńsĕlbrt'Ŋ+þ j]lbtƑ+ _ æPńs+þ df/]dLÆlt lx cle;lƈgf PńsŪfg] lgkƉ+ dft/+, lkt/+,
c/xƃ+ jf df/]ƃá cfgƃl/o+ m'þ;lt, Pńsĕle;lƈgf jf dftflbcle;lƈgf jf Pńs+þ df/]ƃá cfgƃl/o+ g m'þ;lt,
dftflbcle;lƈgf t] Pj df/]ƃá m'þ;t]j. P; goá rá/rt'ŊĕbL;'lk.
nálxt'ƍfb] tyfutƧ ce]şsĕotfo s'źlrųƧ k/Ƨ pkŊþd]g rƙŞ]bá, nálxtkŔ/)+ jf glŴ, b]jbų]g kg
kljźl;nftá lelşŷf ut;ŋlnsƍxf/]g ljo ;/L/Ƨ cƃáo]j PsƸƨ &fg] oyf v'lŹsdlŋsĕlkjgdųlƕ nálxt+ lj;d+
;dá;/lt, tyf s/áƃƧ cfgƃl/o+ xált, g kg hËjsƧ]j d'b'lrų]g b'Ūnálxt+ gLxl/ŷf mþf;'s+þ s/áƃƧ k'ţd]j kgƧ
xált, kl/lgƑ't] eujlt r]lto+ leƆƃƧ, aáƸw l%ƆƃƧ, wft";' pkŊþdƃƧ r cfgƃl/o+ g xált, sƙ+ kg
cfgƃl/o;lb;+ xált. aálw?ŋƧ kg y"k+ jf ;wft's+þ kld+ jf afwodfg+ ;fv+, r]ltojŴ'+ lelƆŷf uŞƃ+ aálwd"nť
l%lƆŷf xl/t'+ jũlt. ;r]lk ;fvfo lgnLgf ;s')f r]lto] jŝ+ kft]lƃ, l%lƆt'+ jũlt. kl/eáur]ltotá lx
;/L/r]ltod]j dxƃt/+. wft'lgwfg/lxt+ kldf#/+ jf aálw#/+ jf af±wëƃ+ ;fv+ l%lƆt'+ g jũlt, cáh]ĕx/);fv+, kgƧ
k"ltŪfg+ jf l%lƆt'+ jũlt, ;/L/klhƮg] ljo k'ţd]j xált.
;Ŝe]b] ;dfg;+jf;;Ldfo ;dfg;+jf;s]þ ;Ŝ] Pstá l&t] lj;'+ jƮ;Ŝ+ ux]ŷf kťlx sĕ/±)ëlx ;Ŝ+ leƆƃƧ
;Ŝe]bá xált cfgƃl/osƙť. j'ų+ x]t+ ækťlx, pkfln, cfsĕ/]lx ;Ŝá leşlt. std]lx kťlxĠ sƙ]g pŹ];]g
jáx/ƃá cg'Ƨfjg]g ;nfsƮfx]gfÆlt ‘kl/0458’. tŴ sƙ]gflt cknásgfbL;' rt";' cţt/]g sƙ]g. pŹ];]gflt
kfltdáŋ'Ź];]g. jáx/ƃá syoƃá tflx tflx pkkųLlx æcwƙ+ wƙáÆltcfbLlg cŪf/; e]bs/jŴ"lg bLk]ƃá.
cg'Ƨfjg]gflt ægg' t'ƛ] hĕgfy dƞ+ ax'Ƨ'tflbefj+, sy+ lx gfd dflb;á pźƙ+ plƑgo+ ;Ŵ';f;g+ ufx]Ɯ, lsdx+ ckfotá
g efofdLÆltcflbgf go]g sŰd"n] jrLe]b+ sŷf cg'Ƨfjg]g. ;nfsƮfx]gflt Pj+ jáxf/fg'Ƨfjg]lx t];+ lrų+ pkŴƘ]ŷf
clgjlųwƙ+ sŷf æuŲy Od+ ;nfsÆlƃ ;nfsƮfx]g.
PŴ r sƙd]j pŹ];á jf kdf)+, jáxf/fg'Ƨfjg;nfsƮfxf kg k'Ƒefuf. t];' lgƎþƉ];'lk cleƉáj xált
;Ŝá. obf kg jáxf/fg'Ƨfjg]lx rųf/á jf clt/]s]þ jf leŋ" ;nfs+þ ufx]ŷf jƮ+ ;Ŝ+ ux]ŷf lj;'+ sƙ+ jf pŹ];+ jf
s/ált, tbf ;Ŝá leƉá gfd xált. ce]bk'/]ŋĕ/Ƨ kg ;dƮ;ţfo jũlt. ;dƮ;ţfo lx s/áƃƧ g]j e]bá xált, g
cfgƃl/o+, tyf ttá ögkl/;fo s/áƃƧ. j'ų+ x]t+ æPstá, pkfln, rųf/á xálƃ Pstá rųf/á, gjdá
cg'Ƨfj]tLÆltcflb ‘r"ńj0351’.
Od];' kg kť;' cfgƃl/o];' ;Ŝe]bá jrLsƙ+, ;];flg sĕosƙflg, ;Ƒfg]j ±vëf tflg sĕoƀf/tálk jrLƀf/tálk
;d'Ūxlƃ. ;Ŝe]bálk lx xŴd'Źfo e]b+ s/áƃƧ sĕoƀf/tálk ;d'Ūflt, ;Ŝe]bá r]Ŵ sƍlŪltoá. sƍljgf;] Pj lx
;Ŝe]btá d'ŝlt, ;];fg+ kg tyf lgodá glŴ. o]g r kťk]tflg sƙflg stflg xálƃ, tƧ ;Ŝe]báj lg/o] ljkŝlt,
;];flg æcxál; sƙ+ gfxál; sƙljkfs]ĕÆlt PjdfbL;' ;Ś+ uŞlƃ. ;Ŝe]bfefj] nálxt'ƍfbá, tbefj] c/xƃ#ftá
tbefj] dft'#ftá, lkt'#ftá jf, tlƨlƕ ;Ln;ƕƉt/]. k'l/dflg r]Ŵ rųfl/ ;Ƒ];+ uxŪkƑlhtfg+ ;fwf/)flg, ;Ŝe]bá
kg kstųƧ leŋ'gáj, c;fwf/±)ëf cţ];+, leŋ'gLlk lx ;Ŝ+ g leƆlt, k±uëj Ot/]. kťlk r]tflg b'ŋj]bgf;ƕo'ųflg,
bá;d"nflg rflt j]lbtƑflg.
cŪd+ ej+ lgƑų]Ɯflt PŴ cl/o;fjsƧ cŪdejfux)+ s]þg lgofldtlƃĠ ljkƧgfo. oƧ lx ;f ltŋĕ, ;á
Ps+þ Pj ej+ lgƑlųŷf c/xų+ kŷf PsaLhË gfd xált. oƧ dƆf, ;á b'lto]»k]0 %Ū] jf ej] c/xų+ kŷf s]ĕn+s]ĕná
gfd xált. oƧ kg cltdƆf, ;á ;ųd+ ej+ gfltŊþdlt, tŴ lgod]g c/xų+ kfk'l)ŷf ;ųŋų'k/dá gfd xált. ;r]lk
lxƧ ;ųd] ej] lgŹ+ cáŊþƃƧ dŴs]þ c;lg jf kƑts"þá jf kt]Ɯ, tlƨlƕ sĕn] c/xų+ kŷfj kl/lgƑflt. pųds]ĕlof
lx ;ųdejfgltŊþdgţ]j ;ƈfo]j ælgotá ;Ɨálwk/fo±)ëfÆlt ‘d0lg01=66 2=169 ;+0lg0 5=998’ j'ųált.
PlsƧf náswft'of ƀ] c/xƃá ;ƙf;Ɨ'źfltcfbL;' b;;xƧrŊþjfń;řft+ hĕlt±vëų+ Psĕ náswft' gfd
cf)flj;o±vëų];' a'ź'ƍlų;Řfo Pjfefjtá. tŴ lƀƉ+ a'źfg+ pƍlųkl;]w+ csŷf hĕlt±vëų] Pj stá. &k]ŷf Od+ rŊþjfń+
cţƸƨ rŊþjfń] a'źf g pƍşlƃ a'źųx]t"g+ cgflba'źk/ƕ/fbLg+ tyfefjf. ttá Pj lx ;ųf lg/j;];tá lgƑ'Ƹt g
kfk')lƃ. olb lx ;ƑrŊþjfń];' a'źf pƍş]Ɯ'+, ;Ƒ] ;ųf Otá k'Ƒ] lg/j;];tá lgƑ'Ƹt kfk'±)ëƜ'+, g r t+ clŴ, tƨf
cgflba'źk/ƕ/fo ljjũ"klgƧo;ƕƉfg+ lgjf;e"t] OdƸƨ rŊþjfń] Pj pƍşƃLlt j]lbtƑf. t] r]Ŵflk b'Ɵef, t];+
b'Ɵeųf Pj]Ŵ sƍfg+ c;Ś]Ɯlƕ a'ź'ƍfb/lxt+ xált. olb r t] ;'nef ej]Ɯ'+, PsƸƨ ljjũŪfloc;Ś]Ɯ] rt';lŪa'źfglƕ
pƍlşt'+ ;Ŋĕ ej]Ɯ cƃ/sƍƧ a'źƃ/ųf. eŹsƍ];' r]Ŵ kť a'źf Pj pƍşlƃ. sy+ kg]Ŵflk b'Ɵet/f rŊþjfńƃ/];'
pƍş]Ɯ'+, a'źfgť b'Ɵetf sĕ/)b'Ɵetfo, tƨf Odlƨţ]j rŊþjfń] a'źf pƍşlƃĠ PŴflk g b]jƔƪnás]þ;', dg'Ƨnás]þ Pj
kg pƍşlƃ PŴ]j ;Ƒ;á ltljw;źƙfwf/Ƨ ;Ŝ/tgƧ kft'efjtá, Ot/nás]þ;' lg/j;];tá ksĕ/f;Ƙjtá r.
olb lx a'źf b]jnásĕbL;' pƍş]Ɯ'+, dg'Ƨf eo]g pk;Řldt'd]j g ;Ŋþálƃ, k±uëj wƙ;jgkƑşĕƸb sĕt'+, t]g]j
cƛfs+þ aálw;ųá cųgá ¿ksĕofg'efjflb;ƕlųof pƍƉcdg'Ƨ;Řfs't"xn+ hg+ lgŢĕk]t'+ pųfg;]Ɯsĕlblgofd]g jlŬŷf
bf/kl/ƮxfƸb csĕl;, Pj+ sŷf kƑlhtlƕ g+ /fhux] lkůfo kljl;ŷf kůjkƑtkƧ] lg;Llbŷf lkůkft+ kl/e'ŧƃ+
lalƗ;f/á gfgƍsĕ/tá dg'Ƨefj+ ljlrlgŷfj pk;Řldt'+ lj;lx, gá cţyf. náslgŴf/)Ŵfo lx a'źf pƍşlƃ, g cųgá
;Ŋĕ/flbcŴfo, tƨf dg'Ƨ];' Pj pƍşƃLlt j]lbtƑá. tŴflk OdƸƨ hƗ'bLk] Pj, tŴflk OdƸƨ dlŢdkb];] Pj. g

115

s]þjnť a'źfj, kŝ]sa'źf, cƮ;fjsdxf;fjsĕ r rŊþjlųcfboá r cţ]lk k'ţjƃ;ųf PŴ]j pƍşlƃ.
ck'Ƒ+ crl/dlƃ PŴ dft's'lŞƸƨ kl;lƈƮx)tá k'/] k'Ƒ+ gfd, wft'cƃ/wfgtá kŞf rl/d+ gfd, pleƉdƃ/f
ck'Ƒ+ crl/d+ gfd. PŴƃ/] cţƧ a'źƧ pƍlų lgjfl/tf, wft'cƃ/wfg] kg hĕt] cţƧ pƍlų g lgjfl/tf. lsťflk g
lgjfl/tf, cƃ/sƍ+ kg ±vëk]ŷfj pƍşƃLlt j]lbtƑ+.
kť lx cƃ/wfgflg gfd clwudcƃ/wfg+ klklųcƃ/wfg+ kl/olųcƃ/wfg+
lnścƃ/wfg+
wft'cƃ/wfglƃ. tŴ clwudált dƮmþnfleţfkl;lƘbfoá, ;á kl/xfodfgá kl;lƘbftá kŪfo kl/xfolt.
kl/lgƑfgtá lx jƧ;xƧd]j kl;lƘbf lgƑų]t'+ ;Ŋþálƃ, ttá k/+ cleţf, tflk lgƑų]t'+ c;Ŋþáƃf ;'ŋljkƧsvL)f;jf
xálƃ, ttá cgfufldgá, ttá ;sbfufldgá, ;átfkƉf r xálƃ, t];' w/ƃ];'lk clwudá cgƃ/lxtáj xált, klŞdsƧ kg
;átfkƉƧ hËljtŋo]g clwudá cƃ/lxtá gfd xált. Ob+ clwudcƃ/wfg+.
ttá dƮmþnflg lgƑų]t'+ c;Ŋþáƃf æglŴ bflg gá cl/owƙklj]±wëfÆlt ´fgljkƧgf;' já;fg+ cfklşŷf
s]ĕ;şax'nf rt'kfl/;'lź;Lndų+ /ŋƃá cţdţ+ g ráb]lƃ, g ;f/]lƃ, cs'Ŋ'þŝsĕ xálƃ, ttá kŪfo v'Źfg'v'Źsĕlg dŹlƃ,
ttá u?sĕkƸų cfkşlƃ, kf/flhsdųd]j /ŋlƃ, t];' w/ƃ];'lk klklų cgƃ/lxtfj xált, klŞdsƧ kg leŋ'gá
;Lne]b]g jf hËljtŋo]g jf klklų cƃ/lxtf gfd xált. Ob+ klklųcƃ/wfg+ gfd.
kl/oųLlt ;fŪsy+ t]lks+þ a'źjrg+, uŞƃ] uŞƃ] sĕn] cwlƙs]þlx slno'u/fhĕbLlx ljkƉ;Ƨflb;ƕlųtfo
kŝobfosĕ b'Ʈtf xálƃ, leŋ" r kŝo]lx lsndƃf cƃ]jfl;s]þ ux]t'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ. ttá cŪsyf kl/xfolt, kflńj;]g]j
kl/oƸų wf/]lƃ, ttá kfƸń ;sn+ wf/]t'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ, k&d+ clewƙlks+þ kl/xfolt, tťƧ kl/xfog+ dŴstá k&fo.
k&dd]j lx dxfks/)+ kl/xfolt, ttá ods+þ syfjŴ' k'Ʈnkţlų wft'syf ljeśá wƙ;śxá r cg'Ŋþd]g kl/xfolƃ,
ttá dŴstá kŪfo ;'ųƃlks+þ kl/xfolt, k&d+ lx cś'ų/lgsĕoá Psĕb;slgkfttá kŪfo ofjPsslgkftf kl/xfolt,
ttá dŴstá kŪfo ;+o'ųlgsĕoá, k&d+ lx dxfj±Ʈëf kl/xfolt, ttá ;ńfotgj±Ʈëf vƈsj±Ʈëf lgbfgj±Ʈëf ;ufyfj±Ʈëflt,
Pj+ dlŢdlgsĕobL#lgsĕofboá r dŴstá kŪfo kl/xfolƃ, ttá ljgolksd]j ltŪlt, tlƕ kl/jf/tá kŪfo ofj
dxfljeśf kl/xfolt, ttá pká;yŋƈstá dfltsĕdųd]j wf/]lƃ, tbflk ofj rt'ƍlbsĕlk ufyf dg'Ƨ];' kjųlt, tfj
kl/olų cgƃ/lxtfj xált, tfo cƃ/lxtfo kl/olų cƃ/lxtf gfd xált. Ob+ kl/olųcƃ/wfg+ gfd.
uŞƃ] uŞƃ] sĕn] kųrLj/Ʈx)flbcfsƍ+ g kf;flbs+þ xált, lguŮfboá ljo cnfa'kųfƸb cƮafxfo
klŋlkŷflk cánlƗŷflk l;Ŋĕo cán±Ʈëŷflk ljr/lƃ, rLj//hglƕ g ;f?ƍ+, cáŪlŪsjŰ+ sŷf wf/]lƃ, ttá /hglƕ
cájlũsljŢglƕ g xált, b;f %]ŷf kl/Ƒfhsĕ ljo sĕ;fjdųd]j wf/]lƃ, ttá kl/ŋ˱)ë sĕn] v'Źssĕ;fjvů+ xŴ] jf uLjfo
jf alƈŷf sl;sƙfbLlg sŷf bf/e/)fƸb s/álƃ, tbf blŋ)+ b]ƃá hgá ;Ŝ+ plŹƧ Pt];+ b]lt, Ob+ ;ƈfo eujtf j'ų+
æeljƧlƃ ±vëf kgfgƆ, cgfutdźfg+ ±uëfŶe'gá sĕ;fjsŮf b'ƧLnf kfkwƙf, t];' b'ƧLn];' ;Ŝ+ plŹƧ bfg+ bƧlƃ, tbfkx+,
cfgƆ, ;Ŝut+ blŋ)+ c;Ś]Ɯ+ cƍd]Ɯ+ jbfdLÆlt ‘d0lg03=380’. ttá ækkťá P;, Ƹs Oldgf cƛfsÆlƃ t+ sĕ;fjvů+
l%lƆŷf c/ţ] lvklƃ, PtƸƨ sĕn] lnś+ cƃ/lxt+ gfd xált. Ob+ lnścƃ/wfg+ gfd.
ttá tŴ tŴ ;Ŋĕ/;ƙfg+ cnedfgf wft'oá a'źfg+ clwŪfgan]g ;Ŋĕ/;ƙfgnưdfgsŪfg+ uldƧlƃ, ttá ;ƑŴ
cnedfgf ;Ƒwft'oá dxfaálwdůd]j uldƧlƃ. ;f;kdųflk lx wft' g cƃ/f glƧƧlt, tf kg aálwdů] kƟŘ]g
lgl;Ɖa'ź;/L/l;Ƹ/, odskflxfl/oť bƧ]Ƨlƃ, ttá wft';/L/tá t]h]ĕ ;d'Ūfo t+ ;/L/+ ckŰlųsefj+ ud]lt, tbf
b;;xƧrŊþjfń] b]jtf kl/lgƑfglbj;] ljo kl/b]ljŷf k"hĕ;Ŋĕ/+ sŷf kŊþdlƃ. Ob+ wft'cƃ/wfg+ gfd.
OdƧ kťljwƧ cƃ/wfgƧ kl/olųcƃ/wfgd]j d"n+. kl/olųo+ lx ;lt klj]wfboálk gŪf gfd g xálƃ,
c;lt gŪflt. oyf r lglws'lƘof hĕggŴfo kf;f)lkŪ] pklgaźcŋ/];' w/ƃ];' lglws'lƘ gŪf gfd g xált, cŋ/];'
kg gŪ];' gŪf, Pj+;ƕbldb+ j]lbtƑ+. oyfx _
æofj ltŪlƃ ;'ųƃf,
ljgoá ofj lbƍlt.
tfj bŋlƃ cfnás+þ,
;"l/o] cư'lŪt] oyfĶ
æ;'ųƃ];' c;ƃ];',
kd'Ū] ljgolƛ r.
tdá eljƧlt nás]þ,
;"l/o] cŴśt] oyfĶ
æ;'ųƃ] /lŋt] ;ƃ],
klklų xált /lŋtf.
klklųo+ l&tá wL/á,
oáuŋ]df g w+;tLÆlt. ‘c0lg0cŪ01=1=130 ;f/Ŵ0L0kflrlųo 3=438’.
Pjldd];' kť;' cƃ/wfg];' wft'cƃ/wfgtá kŞf rl/d+ gfdflt j]lbtƑ+.
sƨf kg ƀ] ;ƙf;Ɨ'źf ck'Ƒ+ crl/d+ g pƍşƃLltĠ lg/Ŵstáj. Ps]ĕj lx ;ƙf;Ɨ'źá cgƃ];' rŊþjfń];'
;Ƒ;ųfglƕ olb pklgƧoá ej]Ɯ, Psŋ±)ë ;kflxfl/o+ ;Ƒfg's"þn+ wƙ+ b];]ŷf t] ljg]t'+ ;Ŋþált, lsdś+ kg gfgŋ±)ë;',
tƨf PsƸƨ sĕn] cg]s]þ;+ ;ƙf;Ɨ'źfg+ pƍlų lg/lŴsĕj. cgŴstf kg cgŞl/ocuf/jljjfbflbbá;tá r]j dxfkyljof
lƀƉ+ a'źfg+ wf/±)ë c;dŴtfo ljls/)flbbá;tá r j]lbtƑf. rŊþjlųgá kg PsƸƨ rŊþjfń] ƀ] Pstá g pƍşlƃ, Ps]ĕj
pƍşlt. gfgfrŊþjfń];' kg ax"lk Pstá pƍşƃLlt j]lbtƑf. PŴ lx æPlsƧf náswft'ofÆlt PtƧ PsƸƨ rŊþjfń]lt
116

cŴá ux]tƑá. ck'Ƒ+ crl/dť]Ŵ rŊþ/tgkft'efjcƃ/wfgfg+ j]dŢ+ j]lbtƑ+. cƃ/wfgťƧ rŊþjlųgá sĕnlsl/otá,
kƑşĕtá jf ;ųd] lbj;] xált, tƧ r cfg'efj]g lƀƉ+ PsŴ ;xcg'ƍlų r j]lbtƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
&fgf&fg`f)an+ k&d+.
b'lto] sƙ;dfbfgfglƃ ;dflbloŷf stfg+ s';nfs';nfg+, sƙd]j jf sƙ;dfbfg+. &fg;á x]t';ált kŝotá
r]j x]t';řftsĕ/)tá r tŴ ultpklwsĕnkoáuf ljkfsƧ kŝof, sƙ+ x]t'. tb'eotá sƙljkfs+þ oyfe"t+ khĕgflt.
sy+Ġ eujf lx æPsŝƧ ax"lg kfksƙflg ultpklwsĕnkoáufg+ ;ƕlųof klaflxtflg g ljkŝlƃ, t];+ ljkƸų cfuƙ
ljkŝlƃ, PsŝƧ ax"lg sƠf)sƙflg t];+ ljklųof klaflxtflg g ljkŝlƃ, t];+ ;ƕƸų cfuƙ ljkŝƃLÆlt khĕgflt.
tŴ ultljkųLlt rųf/á ckfof. ult;ƕųLlt dg'Ƨb]jultoá. pkwLlt cųefjá tƧ ;ldlź ;ƕlų gfd,
c;ldlź ljklų gfd. sĕn;ƕųLlt ;'/fh;'dg'Ƨsĕn;řftá ;ƕƉsĕná, tƍlkŋ]ĕ sĕnljklų gfd. tƧ tƧ kg sƙƧ
;ƙfkoá±uëf koáu;ƕlų, ldŞfkoá±uëf koáuljklų gfd. tŴ lx PsŝƧ s';nsƙ]g b]jultcfbL;' ulto+ lgƑųƧ t+
ult;ƕƸų cfuƙ s';nflg Pj ljkŝlƃ. tfo kg ult;ƕlųof klaflxtflg cs';nflg tŴ ljklŝt'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ. tflg
k'g lg/ofbL;' ckfo];' lgƑųƧ t+ ultljkƸų cfuƙ oyf;'v+ ljkŝlƃ. tfo kg ultljklųof klaflxtflg s';nflg
tŴ ljklŝt'+ g ;Ŋþálƃ. PsŝƧ bƧgLo]gfle¿k]g sĕo]g ;dƉfutƧ olblk ;á bf;á jf xált xLghŝá jf, t+
pklw;ƕƸų cfuƙ s';nflg PjƧ ljkŝlƃ. tflb;+ lx ;'¿k+ æco+ lslnŪsƙƧ gfg'Şljs]ĕÆlt pŝ];' cdŝflbŪfg];'
&k]lƃ, růflnlƕ ;'¿k+ cƮdx]l;cflbŪfg];' &k]lƃ. tfo kg pklw;ƕlųof klaflxtflg cs';nfgƧ ljklŝt'+ g
;Ŋþálƃ. tflg kg pklwljklųo+ r l&tƧ oyf;'v+ ljkŝlƃ. /fhs'nfbL;' lx pƍƉlƕ b'¿k+ xLg];' &k]lƃ. PsŝƧ
kg k&dslƍsĕg+ jf rŊþjlų/ţá jf a'źfg+ jf ;'/fh;'dg'Ƨfg+ ;ƕƉ] sĕn] lgƑųƧ t+ sĕn;ƕƸų cfuƙ s';nflg Pj
ljkŝlƃ, g cs';nflg. tflg k'g b'/fhb'dg'Ƨfg+ ljkƉ] sĕn] t+ sĕnljkƸų cfuƙ ljkŝlƃ, g kg s';nflg tfo
sĕnljklųof klaflxtųf. PsŝƧ kg ;Ln;+odflbcgjşkoá±uëg r]j ;fjş]g jf cgjş]g jf b];sĕnfg';f/]g
cfo'wl;ƍflbkoáu;fdlŴo]g r ;dƉfutƧ t+ koáu;ƕƸų cfuƙ s';nflg Pj ljkŝlƃ, g cs';nflg. tflg k'g
oyfj'ųljk/LtkoáuljkƸų cfuƙ ljkŝlƃ, g kg s';nflg tfo klaflxtųf. o'źfbL;' lx kf)fltkftflbcs';n+
s/áƃflk t+t+cfo'wl;ƍflbkoáu;ƕƸų lgƧfo]j ;]gfkltŪfgflbdxf;ƕƸų nelƃ, g kg t+ cs';n+ lgƧfo. oyf
bfgj]ƜfjŝfbL;' s';n+ s/áƃflk clwdųjfofdflbkoáuljkƸų lgƧfo cgoƓ;glƕ kfk')lƃ, g kg t+ s';n+ lgƧfo.
Pjd]tflx rt"lx ;ƕųLlx, ljkųLlx r s';nfs';nfg+ ljkŝgfljkŝgljefu+ eujf oyfe"t+ khĕgflt. co+ tfj]Ŵ
ljeśgo]g b'ltoanƧ ljefjgf.
ck/]g rƧ _
æcxál; sƙ+ cxál; sƙljkfs]ĕ, cxál; sƙ+ gfxál; sƙljkfs]ĕ, cxál; sƙ+ clŴ sƙljkfs]ĕ,
cxál; sƙ+ glŴ sƙljkfs]ĕ, cxál; sƙ+ eljƧlt sƙljkfs]ĕ, cxál; sƙ+ g eljƧlt sƙljkfs]ĕ, clŴ sƙ+
glŴ sƙljkfs]ĕ, clŴ sƙ+ glŴ sƙljkfs]ĕ, clŴ sƙ+ eljƧlt sƙljkfs]ĕ, clŴ sƙ+ g eljƧlt sƙljkfs]ĕ,
eljƧlt sƙ+ eljƧlt sƙljkfs]ĕ eljƧlt sƙ+ g eljƧlt sƙljkfs]ĕÆlt ‘kl0d01=234’ _
Oldgf kl;lƘbfo+ j'ų]gflk go]g ljefjgf j]lbtƑf. tŴ o+ ctLtųefj] cfo"lxt+ sƙ+ j'ų+, x]t'kŝo+ cfuƙ tŴ]j
ljkfs+þ cbfl;. Ob+ ;ƈfo æcxál; sƙ+ cxál; sƙljkfs]ĕÆlt k&d+ kb+ j'ų+. o+ ctLt];' kg lbŪwƙj]bgLofbL;'
ax";' Ps+þ lbŪwƙj]bgLo+ nźkŝo+ ljkfs+þ b]lt, ;];flg cljkfsĕlg. Ps+þ pkkşj]bgLo+ kg kl;Ƹƈ cfsŬlt, Ps+þ
cfgƃl/o+ lg/okl;Ƹƈ b]lt, ;];flg cljkfsĕlg. cŪ;' ;dfkųL;' Psĕo Ɣƪnás]þ lgƑųlt, ;];f cljkfsĕ. Ob+ ;ƈfo
æcxál; sƙ+ gfxál; sƙljkfs]ĕÆlt b'lto+ kb+ j'ų+. o+ ctLt+ sƙ+ Pt/lx ljkfs+þ b]lt, Ob+ ;ƈfo tlto+. o+
k'l/dgo]g g ljkŝlt, Ob+ ;ƈfo rt'Ŵ+. o+ cgfut] ljkfs+þ bƧlt, Ob+ ;ƈfo kťd+. o+ g ljkŝlt, Ob+ ;ƈfo
%Ū+. o+ Pt/lx cfo"lxt+ sƙ+ Pt/x]j ljkfs+þ b]lt, Ob+ ;ƈfo ;ųd+. o+ g ljkŝlt, Ob+ ;ƈfo cŪd+. Oldgf
go]g ;];kbfglƕ cŴá bŪƑá. Ob+ tyfutƧflt Ob+ ;Ƒ]lx Pt]lx ksĕ/]lx ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉfg+ sƙƃ/ljkfsƃ/fg+
oyfe"ttá hĕgg`f)lƃ cŴá. b'ltoan+.
tlto] ;ƑŴufldlglƃ ;Ƒultufldlgť cultufldlgť. klkblƃ dƮ+. oyfe"t+ khĕgftLlt ax";'lk dg'Ƨ];'
kf)fltkftfbL;' Psd]j cs';n+ Pstá s/áƃ];' OdƧ r]tgf lg/oufldgL eljƧlt, OdƧ lt/ŞfgoálgufldgL, OdƧ
k]lųlj;oufldgL, lg/ofbL;'lk kg];f Pj¿k] Pj¿k] &fg] Pjť]jť ljkfs+þ bƧlt, OdƧ kl;Ƹƈ cfslŬt'+ g ;Ŋþált,
cţ]g sƙ]g lbƉkl;lƈsƧ b'Ƒn+ pklwj]kŊ+þ eljƧlt. ax";' jf Pstá bfgflbs';n+, ljkƧg+ jf kŪk]ƃ];' OdƧ
r]tgf dg'ƧultufldgL eljƧlt, OdƧ b]jultufldgL, tŴflk Pjť]jť ljkfs+þ bƧlt, OdƧ jf ljkƧgf Ps+þ dƮ+ ƀ] jf
toá jf rųf/á jf kl;lƘbflb;lxt] jf /lxt] jf lgƎþfb]Ƨlt, OdƧ g slť klj]w+ ;f±wëƧtLltcflbgf cgƃ]lx
cfsĕ/]lx PsjŴ'lƨlƕ pƍƉ+ s';nfs';n;řft+ ;ƑŴufldlgklkb+ cljk/Lttá khĕgftLlt. tltoan+.
rt'Ŵ] cg]swft'lƃ rŋ'wft'cfbLlx, sĕdwft'cfbLlx jf ax'wft'+. gfgfwft'lƃ tf;ţ]j wft"g+ ljnŋ)ųf gfgƍsĕ/+
wft'+. náslƃ vƈfotgwft'nás+þ. oyfe"t+ khĕgftLlt tf;+ tf;+ wft"g+ vƈfotgwft'ljeśfbL;' j'ųgo]g cgƃƍe]b+
gfgų+ cljk/Lttá khĕgflt. g s]þjnť tyfutá pkflbƉs;řf/násƧ]j
gfgų+ khĕgflt, cy ±vëf
cg'kflbƉs;řf/násƧflk kŝ]sa'źfbLlx klljlŢt'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜ+ gfgų+ khĕgflto]j. t]lx pkflbƉsnásƧflk gfgų+
Psb];táj hĕglƃ, cg'kflbƉƧ kg g]j hĕglƃ, ;Ƒţ'a'źƧ]j]t+ lj;oá. Pj+ lx Odfo gfd wft'of pƧƉfo Od];+
?ŋuŞntfbLg+, vƈbůjlƟtrkųk'Ǝþmþnflbgá ;ŮfgjŰuƈ/;cáhĕlx, b];sĕn]lx r cgƃƍe]b+ gfgų+, kyjLkƑtfbLgť
gfgų+ xátLlt cgƃ]lx cfsĕ/]lx hĕlgt'+ ;Ŋþált, gfţ]lt. rt'Ŵan+.
kťd] gfgflwd'lųslƃ xLgfbLlx clwd'ųLlx gfgflwd'lųsefj+. oyfe"t+ khĕgftLlt tL;'lk sĕn];' xLgflwd'lųsĕ

117

xLgflwd'lųs]þ Pj ;]jlƃ, k)Ltflwd'lųsĕ r k)Ltflwd'lųs]þ. tŴflk cƧźf cƧź], b'ƧLnf
b'ƧLn], ldŞflblŪsĕ
ldŞflblŪs]þ, ;źf ;ź], ;Ln;'trfukţflb;ƕƉf r t] t] Pj ;]jƃLlt gfgƍsĕ/tá hĕgflt. ;źf;Lnflb;ƕƉf lx tlƑ/lxt]
cųgá cfrl/o'kŢĕo]lk g ;]jlƃ, t]lk Ot/], cųgf cųgf kg ;lb;] Pj ;]jƃLlt. kťdan+.
%Ū] k/;ųfglƃ kwfg;ųfg+. k/k'Ʈnfglƃ ttá k/];+ xLg;ųfg+. PsŴd]j jf Pt+ kbƀo+ j]g]Ɯj;]g
lƀwf j'ų+. OlƇok/ákl/oųlƃ ;źfbLg+ OlƇofg+ k/efjť ck/efjť, j'lźť xflgťflt cŴá. oyfe"tlƃ ;Ƒ];+ ;ųfg+
cf;ofg';orl/tflwd'lųcfbLlx ;źflb ltlŋlƇod'lblƇot+ ;Ƒfsĕ/tá hĕgflt. tŴ cf;oált lgjf;Ūfg+, oŴ ;ųfg+
lrų;ƃfg+ lgŝ+ lgj;lt. ;á b'lj±wëf jũf;oá ljjũf;oá r. tŴ ;Ƨt'Ş]bj;]g kjų+ ;Ƒ+ lblŪut+ jũf;oá gfd.
;ƍŝogfd¿kkl/Ʈxtá kŪfo ;Ƒ+ ljkƧgf`f)+, dƮ`f)ť ljjũf;oá gfd. dƮ`f)lƕ lx æb;lod], leŋj],
cl/ofjf;f, obl/of cfjƸ;;"Æltcflbjrgtá ‘c0lg0 10=19’ cf;oáj. Od+ kg eujf ;ųfg+ cf;o+ hĕgƃá pleƉ+
lblŪ`f)fg+ cƍjlųŋ±)ëlk hĕgflt Pj. sĕd/fuflblsn];flwd'ųţ]j lx k'Ʈn+ eujf t±yëj hĕgflt. æco+ g]ŋƙflbcle/tá
ljjũf;oáÆlt g]ŋƙfƸb ;]jƃţ]j hĕgflt, æco+ sĕdflbcle/tá jũf;oáÆlt cg';orl/tflbhĕgg]lk P;]j goá. tŴ
cg';oá sĕd/fufg';oflbtá ;ųlj±wëf. rl/tlƃ tLlx ƀf/]lx cle;řtnálsos';nfs';n+. clwd'ųLlt cŢĕ;oá. Pjd]Ŵ
cf;ofg';o`f)+, OlƇok/ákl/oų`f)ťflt ƀ] `f)flg Pstá x'ŷf Ps+þ an`f)+ gfd hĕtlƃ. %Ūan+.
;ųd] ´fgljdáŋ;dflw;dfkųLglƃ k&dfbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ ´fgfg+, æ¿kL ¿kflg kƧtLÆltcfbLg+ cŪƉ+ ljdáŋĕg+,
;ljtŊþ;ljrf/fbLg+ ltŰ+ ;dfwLg+, k&dŢĕg;dfklųcfbLg+ gjƉ+ cg'k'Ƒ;dfkųLg+. ;+lsn];lƃ xfgefluowƙ+.
jábfglƃ lj;];efluo+ wƙ+. j'Ūfglƃ o]g sĕ/±)ëg ´fgfbLlx j'Ūxlƃ, t+ sĕ/)+. t+ kg b'ljw+ jábfglƕ ejślƕ.
x]lŪd+ lx ku')+ ´fg+ cųgá jábfgj;]g pkl/dƧ ´fgƧ kbŪfgtá æj'ŪfgÆlƃ j'ŝlt, tƛf tƛf kg ;dflwƛf
ejśj;]g]j j'Ūfgtá ejślƕ. lg/áwtá kg mþn;dfklųofj j'Ūxlƃ. Ob+ kflńd'ųsj'Ūfg+ gfd, t+ ;Ƒ+ eujf oyfe"t+
;Ƒfsĕ/]g khĕgflt. ;ųdan+.
cŪd] k'Ƒ]lgjf;fg'ƧtLlt k'Ƒ]lgj'Ŵŋƈfg'Ƨ/)+, t+ gfd±uëfųjŰfxf/;'vb'ŋĕbLlx tŴ tŴ ej] ljşdfg]lx
cgƃ]lx cfsĕ/]lx oyfe"t+ khĕgftLlt. cŪdan+.
gjd] r't"kkftlƃ r'ltť pkkftť, t+ rjdfgpkkşdfgxLgk)Lt;'jŰb'ƑŰflbtá cgƃke]b] oyfsƙ"k±uë ;ų]
lbƑrŋ'`f±)ëg jŰfotgƮx)d'±vëg lbƩf ;Ƒfsĕ/tá khĕgftLlt. gjdan+.
b;d] cf;jfg+ volƃ cf;jlg/áw+ lgƑfg+, t+ c/xųdƮ`f±)ëg rt';ŝklj]wtá khĕgftLlt. b;dan+.
OdfgLlt oflg x]Ūf ætyfutƧ b; tyfutanfgLÆlt cjár, Odflg tfgLlt cƍg+ s/ált. oƨf
r]tákl/o`f)fbLlg ;fjsĕbLglƕ oyf/x+ ljşdfgflglk ;lj;o+ lslťb]j hĕglƃ, g r ;Ƒfsĕ/tá. a'źfg+ kg ;Ƒţ'tţf)+
ljo ;Ƒwƙ];' oyf;s+þ lj;o] ;ƑŴ ;Ƒfsĕ/tá Psŋ±)ë cƍlxt+ kjųlt, tƨf ætyfutanfgLÆlt j'ŝlƃ. olb Pj+
;Ƒţ'tţf)Ƨ]jfo+ ke]bá xált, sƨf kg æb;an`f)fgLÆlt lj;'+ ljeųfgLltĠ lj;olsŝe"lde]btá g];+ cţųf.
b;an`f±)ë;' lx k&d+ sĕ/)fsĕ/)d]j hĕgflt, b'lto+ sƙƃ/ljkfsƃ/d]j hĕgflt, tlto+ sƙkl/Ş]bd]j, rt'Ŵ+
gfgųsĕ/)d]j, kťd+ ;ųfg+ cŢĕ;oflwd'lųd]j, %Ū+ OlƇofg+ ltŋd'b'efjd]j, ;ųd+ ´fgfbLlx ;Ƹź t];+ ;+lsn];flbd]j,
cŪd+ k'Ƒ]lgj'Ŵŋƈ;ƃltd]j, gjd+ ;ųfg+ r'ltkl;lƈd]j, b;d+ ;ŝkl/Ş]bd]j, gfţ+.
;Ƒţ'tţf)+ kg Pt]lx hĕlgtƑť ttá pųl/ť ;Ƒ+ ctLtflbe]b+ Psŋ±)ë ;Ƒfsĕ/tá hĕgflt, Pt];+ kg lsŝ+ g
;Ƒ+ s/ált. t+ lx ´fg+ x'ŷf cƍ]t'+, Olź x'ŷf ljs'lƑt'+, d±Ʈëf x'ŷf lsn];] ±vëk]t'+ g ;Ŋþált. b;an`f)flg kg t+ ;Ƒ+
oyf/x+ sĕt'+ ;Ŋþálƃ. t];' r klkflof ;ų `f)flg sĕdfjr/flg, ttá ƀ] ¿kfjr/flg, cj;fg] Ps+þ nás'ų/+.
;Ƒţ'tţf)+ kg sĕdfjr/d]jflt Pj+ lj;olsŝe"lde]btá cţd]j b;an`f)+. cţ+ ;Ƒţ'tţf)lƃ. co+ tfj
kbŴfg';f/tá ljlgŞoá. wƙe]bflbtá kg ;Ƒálk ljlgŞoá Psljws]ĕŪf;tá kŪfo PŴ j'ųfg';f/táj `ftƑá,
;'ųƃefhgLofboá lx ljeśgoe]bf PŴ, Otá k/];' r ljeś];' gŴLlt.
`f)ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśdfltsĕo kgfo+ lgŋ]kkl/Ş]b]g ;Ƹź cŴtá ljlgŞoá. dfltsĕo lx cflbtá tfj _
hĕltdbáltcfboá t];ųlt Pssĕ lglŋųf, ttá s]ĕ±wëf r pkgfxá rfltcfboá cŪf/; b'sĕ, cs';nd"nfboá kťƸt; ltsĕ,
cf;jrt'Ŋĕboá r'Ź; rt'Ŋĕ, cá/Ƙfluo;+oáhgfboá kƉ/; kťsĕ, ljjfbd"nfboá r'Ź; %Ŋĕ, cg';ofboá ;ų ;ųsĕ,
lsn];jŴ'cfboá cŪ cŪsĕ, cf#ftjŴ'cfboá gj gjsĕ, lsn];jŴ'cfboá ;ų b;sĕ, %Ɖ+ cŪf/;sĕg+ j;]g
cŪ;ttŲfljrl/tflg r oyfŊþd+ lglŋlkŷf cƃ] ƀf;lŪ lblŪutflg Ɣƪhĕn;'ų] cltblƧtfgLlt ;Ƒflglk t];lŪclwsĕlg
cŪlsn];;tflg lglŋųfgLlt j]lbtƑflg. co+ tfj lgŋ]kkl/Ş]bá.
cŴtá kg æhĕltdbáÆltcfbL;' hĕltpŝfs'nLgt+ lgƧfo ævlųofbLg+ rt'Ɖlƕ jŰfg+ cx+ pųdhĕlts]ĕ, Od] g
pųdhĕltsĕÆlt Pj+ cų'Ŋ+þ;gk/jƘgj;]g pƍƉá dşgfsĕ/ƍjųá dfgá hĕltdbá gfd. ;];kb];'lk P;]j goá. tŴ
cflbŝ±uëfųsƧk±uëfųflbpųd±uëfų+ lgƧfo ±uëfųdbá. lg/fafwt+, oáƑţ+, ælr/+ ;'v+ hËƸj hËjfld hËljƧfdLÆlt Pj+ hËljt+,
ax'nfeť lgƧfo oyfŊþd+ cf/áŕdbfboá j'ųf. ;'stk)Ltkŝonfe+, dfggjƆgflbu?sĕ/+ dţ]j kd'v+ sŷf kŤ+ k'Şlƃ,
kl/jf/]ŷf uŞƃLlt Pj+ k'/]ŋĕ/+, dxfkl/jf/+, ;'lrkl/jf/ť lgƧfo oyfŊþd+ ;Ŋĕ/dbfboá r j]lbtƑf. eá±uëf kg
lsťflk nfeƮx±)ëg]j ulxtá, lglxtwgj;]g kg]Ŵ nfeá j]lbtƑá, æcƉkfgjŴfe/)dfnfuƈflbpkeáu;ldlźj;]gflk
118

jų'+ jũtLÆltlk jblƃ. ;/L/jŰ+, u')jŰť lgƧfo jŰdbá. afx';ŝ+, klefg+, æjŰ+ a'źj+;+ /fhj+;+ hgkbj+;+
ufdj+;+ /lųlƆjkl/Ş]b+ gŋųd'x'ųoáu+ hĕgfdLÆlt Pj+ /ųţ't+ jf lgƧfo oyfŊþd+ ;'tdbfboá r j]lbtƑf.
hĕltlkůkfltst+, cgjţftt+, Ol/ofkykf;flbst+, dlxlźstť lgƧfo oyfŊþd+ lkůkfltsdbfboá. lsťflk kl/jf/Ʈx±)ëg o;á ulxtá. kl/jf/Ƨ kg ;j;jųsefj]g kŴt+ lslųo;ţ]j jf lgƧfo o;dbá. kl/;'ź;Ln+
pkrf/ƍgf´fg+, l;ƍs]ĕ;Ɵ+, ;/L/Ƨ cf/áx;ƕb+, kl/)fx;ƕb+, cg"glgŹá;cśkŝśtfo ;/L/kfl/k"l/ť lgƧfo
;Lndbfboá j]lbtƑf.
Oldgf Pųs]þg &fg]g ;jŴ's+þ dfg+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg cjŴ'sd]j ;fdţtá dfg+ bƧ]ƃá ædbáÆlt cfx.
kdfbáltcfbL;' kťsĕdu'±)ë;' lrųjáƧƮ;řftá
;'rl/tf;]jgfo, b'ŝl/t;]jgfo r x]t'e"tá kdşgfsĕ/ƍjųá
cs';nlrų'ƍfbá kdfbá gfd, Ʃfo+ ;ltjáƧƮnŋ±)ëf. jftel/teųf ljo dftflkt";'lk cgá)tefj;řftá sŋńdfgá yƘá
gfd, Ʃfo+ lrųƧ pź'dftefjnŋ±)ëf. cţ];+ ±uëxflbpks/);ƕb+, ljşĕ;ƕb+ jf lbƩf tlŹu');df/Ƙgj;ƍjųá
cs';nlrų'ƍfbá ;f/Ƙá gfd. uƅálk lx ;f/Ƙj;]g pƮx]t'+ g jũlt, cs';nd]j xált. Ʃfo+ s/)'ųl/onŋ±)ëf.
cŶ cŶ lj;o] OŞf cƧflt clŶŞá, k'Ʈná, tƧ efjá clŶŞtf. Pj+ dlxŞtfbL;'lk cŴá j]lbtƑá. tŴ o+
o+ nź+, t]g t]g c;ƃ'lƧŷf ck/Ƨ ck/Ƨ kŴgfj;]g kjųá náeá clŶŞtf. ofo cųgf nź+ k)Ltlƕ nfds+þ ljo
vfolt, k/]g nź+ nfdslƕ k)Lt+ ljo vfolt. ;fo+ ck/fk/nfekŴgfnŋ)f. ;ƃu')ljefjgfj;ƍjųá r]j tb'ƍƉ]lx
cltdxƃ]lxlk jŴ"lx c;ƃ'Ƨgfsĕ/ƍjųá r náeá dlxŞtf. ofo ;dƉfutá k'Ʈná kŝo]lx b'ƍ"/á clƮ ljo pkfbfg]g,
;d'Źá ljo r pbs]þg. of rfo+ ;ƃu');Ƙfjgtf, klƮx±)ë r kl/eá±uë r cdųţ'tf, Pt+ dlxŞtfnŋ)+.
c;ƃfg+ kg ;źf;Lnfg+, dƮmþnfbLgť nálsonás'ų/fg+ u')fg+ ljefjgfj;ƍjųá r]j tb'ƍƉ]lx cltdxƃ]lxlk
kŝo]lx c;ƃ'Ƨgfsĕ/ƍjųá r náeá kflkŞtf. of rfo+ c;ƃu');Ƙfjgtf, klƮx±)ë r kl/eá±uë r cdųţ'tf Pt+
kflkŞtfnŋ)+.
l;ślƃ ljŢgŪ]g l;ś+, gful/sefj;řftƧ lsn];l;śƧ]t+ clwjrg+, t+ cŴtá l;śf/s/)j;ƍjųá náeáj.
ltlƃ)lƃ vLog+, t+ cŴtá lgjf;Ūfg] ;'gvfg+ ljo cţdţ+ ;ųfg+ ætj ;ƃs+þ, dd ;ƃsÆlƃ lvƜgfsĕ/ƍjųá bá;áj.
rfkƠlƃ rkntf, t+ kųrLj/flbkl/ŋĕ/fg+, cųefjƧ r důglje";gs]þńfogj;ƍjųá /f±uëfj, o]g ;dƉfutá lhŰálk
bx/á ljo xált. c;efuj'ųLlt lj;efuj'lų lj;efulsl/of, ;f u?Ūflgo];'lk cgfb/j;]g ljkŝgLsƮflxtfj;ƍjųá
bá;áj ofo ;dƉfutá lunfg]lk dftflkt'cfrl/o'kŢĕoflbs]þ g cánás]þlt, t]lx ;Ƹź nfe;Ŋĕ/sĕ/)f snx+ s/ált, t];'
lx/áųƍ+, r]ltofbL;' lrųLsĕ/ť g kŝ'kŪk]lt. c/tLlt kƃ];' ;]gf;g];', ;dyljkƧgf;' r cgle/d)f pŊþlŮttf, ;f
tyfkjųá cs';nlrų'ƍfbá. tƆLlt cfnƦ+. ljhlƘtflt sĕoƧ cfgdgflbcfsĕ/]g mþƆgf ljhƘgf. eų;ƙbált
eųd'Şfo sĕoƧ csƙţtf. r]t;á r nLgųlƃ lrų;Řárá. cŴtá kg]tflg ;Ƒflglk lygldźj;]g lrųƧ lunfgfsĕ/áj.
s'xgfltcfbL;' nfe;Ŋĕ/l;nás;lƉlƧtƧ kflkŞƧ t]g t]g pkfo]g ljƛfkgf s'xgf gfd. ;f ltljwf
kŝokl;]jg;fdƃhƍgOl/ofky;Ůfkgj;]g. tŴ rLj/fbLlx lgdlƃtƧ tblŴsƧ]j ;tá kflkŞt+ lgƧfo kllŋkg]g,
t] r uxklts]þ cųlg ;'ƍltlŪt;ź] `ŷf k'g t];+ æcxá cƜá clƍŞá g lslť klƮlŲt'+ OŞlt, ;'nź+ jt gá cƧ, ;r]
cƍdųs+þ lslť klƮŲ]ƜfÆlt gfgflj±wëlx pkfo]lx k)Ltflg rLj/fbLlg pkgfd]ƃfg+ tbg'Ʈxsĕdtţ]j cfljsŷf
klƮx±)ëg r ttá ke'lt clk ;sef/]lx pkgfdgx]t'e"t+ ljƛfkg+ kŝokl;]jg;řftf s'xgf gfd. kflkŞƧ]j kg
;tá æoá Pj¿k+ rLj/+ wf/]lt, ;á ;d±)ëf dx];ŋ]ĕÆltcflbgf pųl/dg'Ƨwƙflwudkl/bLkgjfrfo tyf tyf ljƛfkg+
;fdƃhƍg;řftf
s'xgf gfd. kflkŞƧ]j kg ;tá ;dflxtƧ]j ;Ƙfjgflwƍfost]g kl)wfo
;Ůlkt]g
udgflbOl/ofk±yëg ljƛfkg+ Ol/ofky;Ůkg;řftf s'xgf gfd.
cfnkgfltcflbgf kg j'ųkŝokl;+o'ųf jfrfo]j blƧtf. cg'lƍoefl)tf, rf'sƚtf, d'Ʈ;"Ətf,
kfl/eotf r cfnkgf gfd. tŴ cfnkgfltcflbtáj nkgf. cg'lƍoefl)tflt ;ŝfg'¿k+, wƙfg'¿k+ jf cgknás]þŷf
k'gƍ'g+ lkoe)g+. rf'sƚtflt gLrj'lųtf, cųfg+ x]Ūtá &k]ŷf kjųg+. d'Ʈ;"Ətflt d'Ʈ;"k;lb;tf, ckŊþd'Ʈ;lb;]g
cƍ;ŝ]g ;dƉfutjrgtf. kfl/eotflt s'nbf/sĕg+ cŘ]g kl/x/)flbs+þ kl/eƧ lsŝ+. Pjdo+ ;Ƒálk lsl/ofe]bá
ænkgfÆŷ]j j'ŝlt. k/];+ kg kŝobfg;ţfhgs+þ sĕojrLsƙ+ g]ldlųstf gfd, of ækl/s±yëfef;lgldųsƙÆlƃ j'ŝlt.
cŊþá;gjƘgu/x)fbLlx oyf bfos]ĕ cjŰ+ efolt, Pj+ t+ lgƍLńg+ lgƍ]l;stf gfd. co+ lx oƨf j]ń'k]l;sĕo ljo
cưś+ Odfo k/Ƨ u')+ lgƍ];]lt lgk'Ŧlt, oƨf jf uƈhĕt+ lkl;ŷf uƈdƮgf ljo k/u'±)ë lglƍl;ŷf ljr'Ű]ŷf P;f
nfedƮgf xált, tƨf ælgƍ]l;stfÆlt j'ŝlt. PsƸƨ kg s'n] nźfld;+ cţŴ bfgj;]g nfe]g nfeƧ kŴgf nfe]g nfe+
lglhuL;gf gfd. Od] r s'xgfboá kťlk tyf tyf kjųf náeflbcs';nlrų'ƍfbflt j]lbtƑf. æ;]ƜáxdƨLÆltcfboá
ƀfb; dfgf x]Ūf ;+oáhg±uëfŞs]þ j'ųfg';f/]g ;'ljţ]Ɯfj. tŴ r cflbtá
toá dfgf k'Ʈn+ clgƧfo
hĕlt±uëfų¿keául;ƍ;'tflbdfgjŴ'j;]g]j slytf, ttá k/+ kg gj dfgf ;]Ɯ;lb;xLgk'Ʈn] lgƧfo slytf.
Pjd]t]lx ƀfb;lx kb]lx ;jŴ's]þ dfg] s±yëŷf Obflg cjŴ's+þ bƧ]t'+ ædfgáÆltcflb j'ų+. ttá k/+
cltdfgáltcfbL;' æhĕltcfbLlx dof ;lb;á gŴLÆlt cltŊþldŷf dţgfj;]g kjųá dfgá cltdfgá gfd. æOd] dof k'Ƒ]
;lb;f, Obflg cx+ ;]Ūá, Od] xLgt/fÆlt pƍƉá dfgá ef/fltef/á ljo dfgfltdfgá gfd. cųfg+ kg cjdţgfj;]g
kjųá dfgá cádfgá gfd, ;á æxLgáxdƨLÆlt kjųxLgdfg;lb;áj. cglwut];' cl/owƙ];' æclwutf dofÆlt pƍƉá
dfgá clwsdfgųf clwdfgá gfd, co+ kg ;átfkƉflbcl/o;fjsĕg+ æcx+ ;sbfufdLÆltcflbgf g pƍşlt t];+
dƮmþnlgƑfgkxLglsn];fjl;Ūlsn];kŝj]ŋ±)ëg cl/ou')klj]±wë lgŊþřųf. b'ƧLnƧ kg g pƍşt]j, ;Lnjtálk
kl/ŝųsƙŪfgƧ g pƍşlt, kl/;'ź;LnƧ]j kg ;'ź;dynflegá, ;'źljkƧgfnflegá, tb'eonflegá jf pƍşlt. t];'
tb'eonfeL c/xų] Pj clwdlţŷf kltŪflt ;'ljŋlƘtlsn];ųf, kl/dlŹt;řf/ųf r, Ot/] ;átfkƉfbL;'kLlt j]lbtƑf.

119

kť;' kg vƈ];'
æcxdƨLÆltcflbgf kjųá dfgá clƨdfgá gfd. kfks]þg kg k¿k#fts]þg
sƙfotgl;ƍfotgljşĕŪfgflbgf cųfg+ ;]Ɯflbtá hƍgj;]g kjųá dfgá ldŞfdfgá gfd.
`fltljtŊþáltcfbL;' ædƞ+ `ftsĕ ;'vhËljgá ;ƕlųo'ųfÆlt Pj+ ±uëxl;tk]d]g `fts]þ plŹƧ pƍƉá ljtŊþá
`fltljtŊþá gfd, æ`ftsĕ vo+ utf jo+ utf ;źf k;ƉfÆltcflbgf kg g]ŋƙl;tá `fltljtŊþá gfd g xált. Pj+
hgkbljtŊ]þlk, tƧ kg æcƛfs+þ hgkbá ;'leŋ]ĕ ;'Ɔ/áÆltcflbgf kjlųcfsĕ/á j]lbtƑá. cd/Ŵfo ljtŊþá, cd/á jf
ljtŊþált cd/ljtŊþá. tŴ oá pŊ'þlsƍwfgfbLlx b'ŋ] lglşŰ] ;ƕ/fo] cųf ;'vL cd/á xátLlt Pj+ kjųá, ;á
cd/Ŵfo ljtŊþá gfd. oá kg lblŪultsƧ PsƸƨ kŋ] c;Ůlxŷf æPjlƕ d] gá, tyflk d] gá, cţyflk d]
gáÆltcflbgf cd/dŞá ljo ux]t'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜtfo kjųá, ;á cd/á ljtŊþá gfd. t+ b'ljwlƕ Pstá sŷf Ow
æcd/ljtŊþáÆlt j'ųá.
cg'Źotf klt¿ks]þg kg luxLlx ;x;áls;xglƆtflbj;]g ±uëxl;tk]d]g o'ųá k/fg'Źotfkl;+o'ųá ljtŊþá
gfd. nfe]g r]j ;Ŋĕ/]g r lslų;Ź]g r ;Ƹź cf/ƙ)s/)j;]g o'ųá ±uëxl;tá ljtŊþá nfe;Ŋĕ/l;náskl;+o'ųá ljtŊþá
gfd, tƧ kg æcxá jt d] nfefboá pƍş]Ɯ'Ælƃcflbgf kjlųcfsĕ/á j]lbtƑá. æcxá jt d+ k/] g cjhĕg]Ɯ'Ælƃ
pƍƉá ±uëxl;tá ljtŊþá cgjţlųkl;+o'ųá ljtŊþá gfd. Pss+þ.
b'sĕbL;' s]ĕwfboá x]Ūf j'ųŴ] jş]ŷf cj;];fgţ]j jŰgf xált. tŴ b'sþ;] ' tfj pkgfxáltcfbL;' k'Ƒef±uë s]ĕ±wëf
æcŊþálŞdÆlƃcflbgf cf;]jg]g ck/sĕn] j]/lrų] bŃÜt/+ cfaźá pkgfxá gfd, o]g ;dƉfutá j]/+ lgƧlşt'+ g ;Ŋþált
j;ft]ndlŋtlknáltsĕ ljo, ;álwodfglƕƧ lrų+ g kl/;'Ţlt, Ʃfo+ j]?klgaƈgnŋ±)ëf.
k/u')+ kg ljgf;]ŷf tŴ bá;dŋgj;]g kjųá s]ĕ±wëf dŋ]ĕ gfd. co+ lx k&dt/+ cųgá lrų+ u"±yëf ljo
u"yƮfxs+þ xŴ+ dŋ]lt, kŞf k/lƃ ædŋ]ĕÆlt j'ųá, Ʃfo+ k/u')dŋgnŋ±)ëf. kńf;]tLlt kńf;á, k/Ƨ u'±)ë bƧ]ŷf
cųgá u'±)ëlx ;d] s/átLlt cŴá. tyfkjųá náeá, Ʃfo+ o'uƮfxnŋ±)ëf.
ƀf/ųo]lk ljşdfgƧ]j bá;Ƨ klŞfbgtá rŋ'dáxgdfof ljoflt dfof, ;f stbá;klŞfbgnŋ)f. ;&Ƨ
efjá, sƙ+ jf ;f±&ëƜ+, s]þ/flo+, t+ cljşdfgu')ƍsĕ;gnŋ)+.
cgşjfboá x]Ūf j'ųcşjflbklkŋcs';nj;]g j]lbtƑf. cŢų;+oáhglƃcfbL;' cŢųlƃ sĕdejá, tŴ ;ų]
aƈgj;]g kjųflg kťá/Ƙfluo;+oáhgflg cŢų;+oáhg+ gfd. alxźflt ¿kf¿kejá. tŴ aƈgj;]g kjųflg kť
pźƘfluo;+oáhgflg alxźf;+oáhg+ gfd. sĕdej] lx ;ųfg+ cfnoá ax's]ĕ, g Ot/];', tƨf ;á cŢų+ Ot/] r alxźflt
j]lbtƑf. b's+þ.
lts]þ;' kg náefbLlg tLl) cs';nd"nflg gfd. sĕdƓfkfbljƸx;f;ƕo'ųf ljtŊĕ toá cs';nljtŊĕ gfd. t]
Pj ;ţf;L;]g ltƧá cs';n;ţf. ;efjŪ]g ltƧá cs';nwft'oált r j'ŝlƃ. sĕojrLdgáb'ŝl/tflg tLl) b'ŝl/tflg
gfd, tflg ƀf/ųoƍjųfg+ kf)fltkftfbLg+, ;Ƒfs';nfg+ jf j;]g oáh]tƑflg. ;'ųƃkl/ofo]g kg lbŪf;jjlştf
sĕdf;jfboá toá cf;jf gfd. ;ŊĕolblŪljlrlsŞf;LnƑtk/fdf;f tLl) ;+oáhgflg gfd.
sĕdtŲf ejtŲf ljejtŲf r ltƧá tŲf gfd. tŴ ;ƧtlblŪ;xutá /f±uëf ejtŲf, pŞ]blblŪ;xutá /f±uëf
ljejtŲf, cj;];f kg ;Ƒflk tŲf sĕdtŲf. sĕdwft'kl;+o'ųá jf /f±uëf sĕdtŲf, ¿kf¿kwft'kl;+o'ųá ejtŲf,
pŞ]blblŪ;xutá ljejtŲflt j]lbtƑf. sĕdtŲf ¿ktŲf c¿ktŲf r ck/flk ltƧá tŲf gfd. ¿ktŲf c¿ktŲf
lg/áwtŲf r k'g ck/flk ltƧá tŲf gfd. tŴ lg/áwtŲflt pŞ]blblŪ;xutá. sĕd];gf ej];gf Ɣƪrl/o];gf r
ltƧá P;gf gfd. tŴ Ɣƪrl/o];gflt ;Ƨt'Ş]blblŪ;řftƔƪrl/oƧ uj];gf. æ;]ƜáxdƨLlt ljwf, ;lb;áxdƨLlt
ljwf, xLgáxdƨLlt ljwfÆlt Pj+ j'ųdfgljwf ltƧá ljwf gfd. dfgá lx ;]Ɯflbj;]g ljbxgtá dţgtá æljwfÆlt
j'ŝlt. hĕlth/fd/)flg klŝ pƍƉflg eoflg tLl) eoflg gfd. æctLt+ jf cźfg+ cf/ưfÆltcflbgf j'ųflg tLl),
a'źfbL;' sřgljlrlsŞgj;]g kjųf ltƧá cljşĕ tLl) tdflg gfd. ljlrlsŞf;L;]g tƧ ljeś] t+;ƕo'ųf cljşĕj j'ųf,
tƧf Pj klŞfbsų]glk tdefjtált bŪƑ+.
o+ lslť kg ;ųƧ ;'vflbs+þ pƍşlt, t+ ;Ƒ+ k'Ƒ]stx]t"lt Ps+þ ltŴfotg+, OƧ/lgƙfgx]t"lt b'lto+,
cx]t'cƍŝoflt tltolƃ Odflg tLl) ltŴfotgflg
gfd. tŴ k&djfbL s';nfs';nlsl/opt'lrųfxf/flbs+þ,
ultpklwcflbs+þ, ;ƍ'l/;"klgƧo;źƙƧjgflbsť ;Ƒ+ kŝokŝo'ƍƉ+ kllŋlkŷf Ps+þ sƙljkfsd]j ;ƕlŞlt, Ot/] kg
ƀ]lk ;Ƒ+ x]t'+ kllŋlkŷf OƧ/x]t's+þ, cx]t'sť ;ƕlŞlƃ, t];+ ltŰ+ jfbfg+ j;]g]j koáhgfefjflbtá oyfg'¿k+ bá;á
`ftƑá. uƅljŴf/eo]g kg]Ŵ g ljŴf/loƛ.
/fubá;dáxf kg toá klnaáwŪ]g lsťgf gfd. t] Pj lx lsn];Ū]g cś)flg, dnLgefjs/)Ū]g dnflg,
kŋngkftx]t'tá lj;dflg r xálƃ. kf)fltkftfbLlg sĕojrLdgálj;dflg ck/flglk tLl) lj;dflg gfd.
/fubá;dáxf cg'bxgŪ]g toá cƮL, s;lg/áhŪ]g s;fjf r xálƃ. kf)fltkftfbLlg sĕos;fjfboá kg ck/]lk toá
s;fjf gfd. cƧfblblŪlųs]þ sĕdkl/eá±uë æglŴ sĕd];' bá;áÆlt Pj+ kjųf ;ƧtlblŪ cƧfblblŪ gfd. jL;ltjŴ'sĕ
kg cųlblŪ cųfg+ cg'utųf cųfg'lblŪ gfd. tƧf kg æ¿k+ cųtá ;dg'kƧlt, ¿kjƃ+ jf cųfg+, cųlg jf ¿k+,
¿kƸƨ jf cųfg+ ;dg'kƧtLÆlt Pj+ ¿kŋƈ] rtƧá lblŪoá. Pj+ ;];ŋƈ];'kLlt jL;ltjŴ'stf j]lbtƑf.
tŴ r ¿k+ cųtálbcflbgf kťŋƈ] cųtá ux)j;]g kjųf kť pŞ]blblŪoá, ;];f kg ;ƧtlblŪoált
j]lbtƑf. æglŴ lbƉÆlƃcflbgoƍjųf kg glŴslblŪ ldŞflblŪ gfd, nfdslbŪLlt cŴá. c/ltlųs]þ kfl)n]ū'bůfbLlx
;ųfg+
ljƸx;gf ljx];f gfd. ƀf/ųoƍjųcs';nwƙƧ rl/of cwƙrl/of gfd.
bájrƧtflts]þ ;fj
sĕdƓfkfbljƸx;f;ţf gfgf/ƙ±)ë;' kjlųtá, gfgfe"tųf r gfgų;ţf gfd. pźŝlųs]þ s';LtƧ efjá s]ĕ;ş+, kdfbáj.
cgfbl/olųs]þ cájfbƧ cgflbogj;ƍjųá s]ĕ±wëf cgfbl/o+ gfd. cƧlźolųs]þ /tgųosƙmþnfg+ c;Źxgj;ƍjųf

120

cs';nwƙf cƧlźo+ gfd. kťljwdŞl/oj;]g æb]xLÆlt jrgƧ chĕggf cjbţ'tf gfd.
pźŝlųs]þ dgŞŪ];' OlƇo];' cu'ųƀf/tf c;+j/á gfd. sĕlosjfrl;sjLltŊþdá b'ƧLƠ+ gfd. cl/olųs]þ
a'źkŝ]sa'ź;fjsĕg+ bƧgákf;gfbL;' clgŞf cl/ofg+ cbƧgsƚtf gfd. aálwklŋs;źƙƧ ;jgwf/)fbL;' clgŞf ;źƙ+
c;át'sƚtf gfd. k/Ƨ bá;f/ákg] /ƈuj]l;tf;řftá pkf/Ƙáj pkf/Ƙlrųtf gfd. d'ŪƧŝlųs]þ pźŝ+ r]t;á ljŋ]ká
gfd. coálg;ádgl;sĕ/lųs]þ æclgŝ] lgŝÆlƃcflbgf, ;ŝklkŋj;]g jf
cg'kfodgl;sĕ/;řft+ cfjşglrų+
coálg;ádgl;sĕ/á gfd. ldŞflblŪldŞf;Řƍfboá cŪ ldŞfdƮf s'ƙ±Ʈëf gfd, ldŞfdƮƧ cf;]jgf s'ƙƮ;]jgf gfd.
lygldź+ r]t;á r nLgų+ gfd. lts+þ.
rt'Ŋ]þ;' rLj/fbL;' rt";' kŝo];' æsŴ dgfk+ nleƧfdLÆlt tŲfo pƍfbá rųf/á tŲ'ƍfbf gfd. g uŞlƃ
Ptflx cl/oflt cultoá, %Ɔbá;dáxeof. tf lx cuƃƑdƮudgflg csųƑs/)flg rųfl/ cultudgflg gfd. tŴ
%Ɔált kŋkft/f±uëf. eolƃ tyfkjųá bá;á. clgŝfbL;' ælgŝ+ ;'v+ cųf ;'eÆlƃ Pj+ kjųf rųf/á ljkl/of;f
ljk/Lttá wƙ] P;gtá. t];' jf cf;gtá klj;gtá rųf/á ljkl/of;f gfd. t] ;ţflrųlblŪljkl/of;j;]g kŝ]s+þ
toá toá x'ŷf ƀfb; xálƃ. t];' clgŝ] lgŝ+, cgųlg cųflt ;ţflrųlblŪljkl/of;f %, b'ŋ] ;'v+, c;'e] ;'elƃ
lblŪljkl/of;f ƀ] rflt cŪ ;átfklųd±Ʈëg kxLolƃ, c;'e] ;'elƃ ;ţflrųljkl/of;f ƀ] cgfufldd±Ʈëg, b'ŋ] ;'vlƃ
;ţflrųljkl/of;f ƀ] c/xųd±Ʈëgflt j]lbtƑf.
clbŪ] lbŪ+, c;'t] ;'t+, cd't] d't+, cljţft] ljţftlƃ Pj+ kjųf rųf/á cgl/ojáxf/f gfd. lbŪfbL;' kg
clbŪ+ c;'t+ cd't+ cljţftlƃ Pj+ kjųf ck/]lk rųf/á cgl/ojáxf/f gfd. Od] r k'l/d]lx ;Ƹź cŪ
cgl/ojáxf/fltlk j'ŝlƃ. kf)fltkftclbƉfbfgsĕd];'ldŞfrf/d';fjfbf
rųfl/ b'ŝl/tflg gfd.
d';fjfbflbjrLb'ŝl/tflg ck/flglk rųfl/ jrLb'ŝl/tflg gfd. hĕlth/fƓflwd/)eoflg rųfl/ eoflg gfd.
/fhrá/clƮpbseoflg rųfl/, ;d'Ź+ cá/áxƃƧ kg pƍşgsĕlg ölds'ƘLncfjũ;';'sĕeoflg
r rųfl/,
cųfg'jfbk/fg'jfbbůb'Ʈlteoflg rųfl/ rflt Odflg jf ck/flg tLl) rt'Ŋĕlg rųfl/ eoflg gfd. tŴ ;';'sĕlt
růdŞf. ;Ƒflglk r]tflg eoflg kl#lrųfgLlt j]lbtƑflg. ;Ƒ+ ;'vb'ŋĕlbs+þ ;o+st+ k/+st+ peost+ clwŝ;d'ƍƉlƃ
Pj+ pƍşdfgf Odf rtƧá lblŪoá gfd. rt'Ŋ+þ.
kťs]þ;' kťá/ƘfluofltcfbL;' cá/+ j'ŝlt sĕdwft' x]Ūfefjtá, tŴ pkklųlgƎþfbgtá t+ cá/+ ehƃLlt
;ŊĕolblŪljlrlsŞf;LnƑtk/fdf;sĕd/fukl#f kť cá/Ƙfluo;+oáhgflg gfd. pźlƃ ¿kf¿kwft' pkl/efjtá, t+
j'ųgo]g ehƃLlt ¿k/fuc¿k/fudfgpźŝcljşĕ kť pźƘfluo;+oáhgflg gfd. /fubá;dáxdfglblŪoá kť nƮgŪ]g
;śf gfd. t] Pj kť cg'klj;gŪ]g, t'bgŪ]g r kť ;Ɵf gfd. ;Ŵ'wƙ;Ŝl;ŋĕ;' sřgflg rųfl/, ;Ɣƪrf/L;'
s'lktlrųtf rflt Od] kť lrųƧ yźsrj/vf)'sefjs/)ųf r]tálvnf gfd. sĕd];' cjLt/f±uëf. sĕo]»k]0 ¿k]»k]0
ofjbŴ+ e'lŧŷf ;]Ɯ;'v+ kƧ;'v+ ldź;'v+ cg'o'ųá ljx/lt, cţt/+ b]jlgsĕo+ kl)wfo Ɣƪrl/o+ r/tLlt Pj+ kjųf kť
wƙf lrų+ alƈŷf d'lŪo+ sŷf ljo ux)tá r]t;áljlgaƈf gfd. tŴ sĕo]lt cŢlųs]þ sĕo], ¿k]lt alxźf¿k]. ;ţL cųf,
c;ţL cųf, g]j;ţLgf;ţL cųf, ;+ljşdfgá kg cųf plŞşlt, lbŪwƙlgƑfg+ jf kfk')ftLlt Pj+ kjųf kť lblŪoá
gfd.
kf)fltkftflbdşkfgkl/oá;fgf kť j]/s/)Ū]g j]/f gfd. `flteáu/áu;LnlblŪƓ;gflg kť Ɠ;gf gfd.
tŴ Ɠ;gflt ljgf;;xhĕtf, ttá pƍƉf cs';nf
ax'hgƧ clƍotf, j]/ax'ntf, jşax'ntf, ;ƙ"ŃÜd/)+,
ckfoudglƃ Od] kť cŋlƃof cfbLgjf, cglwjf;gfo bá;flt cŴá. cfhËjseo+ cl;náseo+ kl/;;f/şeo+ d/)eo+
b'Ʈlteolƃ Odflg kť eoflg gfd. ofjbŴ+ kťsĕdu')kl/eá±uëg r]j k&dŢĕgfbLlx rt"lx ´fg]lx rflt kťlx sĕ/±)ëlx
cųf k/dlbŪwƙlgƑfgƍųá xátLlt kjųf jfbf kť lbŪwƙlgƑfgjfbf gfd. kťs+þ.
%Ŋ]þ;' kg s]ĕ±wëf dŋ]ĕ OƧf ;f±&ëƜ+ kflkŞtf ;lƆlŪk/fdfl;tflt Odflg % ljjfbd"nflg. dgflko];' ¿kfbL;'
%;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' %Ɔ/f±uëflt Od] % %Ɔ/fuf ±uëxl;tf wƙf gfd. cdgflko];' %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' kl#á % lj/áwjŴ"lg
gfd. lj/á±wëf Pj jŴ' lj/áwjŴ'. %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' tŲfj % tŲfsĕof gfd. ;Ŵ'wƙ;Ŝl;ŋĕ;', cƍdfb], kl;ƅf/] r
cuf/jf % cuf/jf gfd. sƙf/fdtf, eƧlgŹf;śl)s;+;Ʈkkťf/fdtf r % kl/xflgof wƙf gfd, kl/xflgs/flt
cŴá. tŴ ;jgbƧg;d'Ɵkgkl/eáusĕo;+;±Ʈë;'
kť;' o'ųko'ųtf ;+;Ʈf/fdtf. tŲfdfglblŪkkť];' o'ųko'ųtf
kkťf/fdtflt j]lbtƑ+. sƙeƧlgŹf;śl)sĕ/fdtf rųf/á, bájrƧtf, kfkldųtf ƀ] rflt Od] ck/]lk % kl/xflgof
wƙf gfd.
;ádgƧŪflgo];' ¿kfbL;' %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' pƍƉf ±uëxl;t;ádgƧ;ƕo'ųf ljrf/f ;ádgƧ'kljrf/f gfd, ljtŊĕboá
wƙf, t+;ƕo'ųf rflt ux]tƑf. P; goá Ot/ƀo]lk. cţf);lxtf kg]Ŵ j]bg'k]ŋĕ pk]ŋĕlt j]lbtƑf, of
æcţf)'k]ŋĕÆltlk j'ŝlt. OŪflgŪdŢų];' %;' cf/ƙ±)ë;' oyfŊþd+ pƍƉf j]bgf æ% ±uëxl;tflg ;ádgƧfgLÆltcflbgf
%Ŋþųo]g j'ųf. æclŴ d] cųfÆlt jf, æglŴ d] cųfÆlt jf, æcųgf jf cųfg+ ;ŧfgfdLÆlt jf, æcųgf jf cgųfg+
;ŧfgfdLÆlt jf, æcųgf jf cųfg+ ;ŧfgfdLÆlt jf, æ;á d] co+ cųf sĕ/s]ĕ j]bs]ĕ lgŝá w'jáÆlt Pj+ pƍşdfgf Odf %
lblŪoá gfd. tŴ cŴLlt ;ƧtlblŪ. gŴLlt pŞ]blblŪ. kťlk vƈ] æcųfÆlt ux]ŷf ;ţfŋƈ]g ;];fg+ hĕggj;]g
cųgf jf cųfg+ ;ŧfgfdLlt lblŪ, ;ţfŋƈ+ kg æcųfÆlt, Ot/] r æcgųfÆlt ux]ŷf cųgf jf cgųfg+ ;ŧfgfdLlt
lblŪ, ;ţfŋƈ+ kg æcgųfÆlt, Ot/] r æcųfÆlt ux]ŷf cgųgf jf cųfg+ ;ŧfgfdLlt lblŪ r j]lbtƑf. %Ŋ+þ.
;ųs]þ;' kg sĕd/fukl#dfglblŪljlrlsŞfej/fucljşĕ ;ų yfdutŪ]g, cƍxLgŪ]g r lrų;ƃfg] cg' cg'
;ogtá cg';of gfd. t] Pj ;ų] jũƸƨ ;+oáhgtá ;+oáhgflg. ;d'bfrf/j;]g kl/o'Ūfgtá kl/o'Ūfgflt j]lbtƑf.
cƧlźo+ clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ cƍƧ'ttf s]ĕ;ş+ d'ŪƧŝ+ b'ƍţtflt Od] ;ų c;t+ c;ƍ'l/;fg+, c;ƃf jf nfdsĕ wƙflt

121

c;źƙf gfd. kf)fltkftfboá sĕojrLb'ŝl/tflg ;ų b'ŝl/tflg gfd. dfgá cltdfgá dfgfltdfgá cádfgá clwdfgá
clƨdfgá ldŞfdfgált Od] ;ų dfgf gfd. ædg'Ƨnás]þ dftfk]lųs;Ƙjá cųf plŞşlt, tyf %;' b]jnás]þ;' lbƑá
sańLsĕ/eŋ]ĕ cųf, ¿knás]þ ¿kL dgádoá cųf, rt";' c¿kej];' rt'lƑ±wëf c¿kL cųf tŴ tŴ plŞşlt ljgƧlt g xált
k/+ d/)fÆlt Pj+ kjųf ;ų pŞ]blblŪoá ;ų lblŪoá gfd. PŴ r cflbtá ltƧá lblŪoá ¿kŋƈ+ cųtá ux]ŷf kjųf
pŞ]blblŪoá, ;];f rtƧá c¿kŋƈ]lt `ftƑf. ;ųs+þ.
cŪs]þ;' kg náeá bá;á dáxá dfgá lblŪ ljlrlsŞf lyg+ pźŝťflt cŪ lsn];jŴ"lg gfd. æo+ lslť sƙ+ sųƑ+
d]Ælt Ps+þ, tyf æst+ d]Ælt, æd±Ʈëf d] uƃƑáÆlt, æutáÆlt, æcƍs+þ d] e'ųÆlƃ, æ;'e'ųÆlƃ, æcfaf±wëf d]
pƍƉáÆlt, æclr/j'lŪtá ±uënţfÆlt Pslƃ Odflg cŪ s';LtjŴ"lg gfd, s';LtƧ s]ĕ;şsĕ/)fgLlt cŴá. nfe] cnfe] r
o;] co;] r k;+;fo lgƆfo r ;'±vë b'ŋ] r oyfŊþd+ /fubá;]lx lrųƧ klxgg+ cŪ;' náswƙ];' lrųƧ kl#ftá gfd.
x]Ūf ƀLlx rt'Ŋ]þlx j'ųf cŪ cgl/ojáxf/f gfd. ldŞflblŪldŞf;Řƍfboá cŪ ldŞųf gfd. leŋ"lx ljşdfgfo
cfklųof rálbodfgƧ æg ;/fdLÆlt lgƑ]&g+ Ps+þ, æŷ+ afnáÆltcflbgf rábsklƎþ/)+ Ps+þ, tyf æt'j+ r]tdfkƉáÆlt
rábsƧ kŝf/ákg+, cţ]gţ+ klr/)+, ;Ŝ] afxfljŋ]ke)g+, t'ŲLefj]g ljx]&g+, ;Ŝ+, rábsť cgflbloŷf kŊþdg+,
rábgfeof l;ŋĕkŝŋĕglƃ Od] cŪ k'l/;bá;f gfd. c;ţL cųf ¿kL, c¿kL ¿kL r c¿kL r, g]j¿kLgf¿kL, cƃjf,
cgƃjf, cƃjf r cgƃjf r, g]jƃjfgfgƃjflt Pj+ kjųf cŪ c;ţLjfbf gfd. g]j;ţLgf;ţL cųf ¿kL
c¿kLltcflbgf kjųf cŪ g]j;ţLgf;ţLjfbf gfd. cŪs+þ.
gjs]þ;' kg æcgŴ+ d] crl/, r/lt, rl/Ƨlt, lkoƧ d] cgŴ+ crl/, r/lt, rl/Ƨlt, clƍoƧ d] cŴ+
crl/, r/lt, rl/ƧtLÆlt Pj+ kjųf gj cf#ftf Pj cf#ftjŴ"lg gfd. s]ĕ±wëf dŋ]ĕ OƧf dŞl/o+ dfof ;f±&ëƜ+
d';fjfbá kflkŞtf ldŞflbŪLlt Odflg gj k'l/;dnflg gfd. æ;]ƜƧ ;]ƜáxdƨLÆltcfboá gjljwf dfgf gfd. ætŲ+
klŝ kl/o];gf, kl/o];g+ klŝ nfeá, t+ klŝ ljlgŞoá, t+ klŝ %Ɔ/f±uëf, t+ klŝ cŢá;fg+, tyf kl/Ʈxá,
dŞl/o+, cf/ŋ]ĕ, cf/ŋĕlws/)+ bůfbfg;ŴfbfgsnxljƮxljjfbflbcg]s]þ kfksĕ wƙfÆlt Pj+ j'ųf Od] gj tŲfd"nsĕ wƙf
gfd. tŴ ljlgŞoált `f)tŲflblŪljtŊþj;]g rt";' ljlgŞo];' ljtŊþljlgŞoá Ow clwƍ]tá. nfe+ lx nleŷf æOb+
¿kf/ƙ)Ŵfo, Ob+ ;Źf/ƙ)flbcŴfofÆlt Pj+ ljtŊ]þg]j ljlgŞoá. %Ɔ/f±uëf b'Ƒn/f±uëf, cŢá;fglƃ anj;lƉŪfg+.
kl/Ʈxált tŲflblŪj;]g kl/Ʈxs/)lƃ j]lbtƑ+. æcƨLÆlt, æcxdƨLÆlt, æcodxdƨLÆlt, æeljƧÆlƃ, æ¿kL
eljƧÆlƃ, æc¿kL eljƧÆlƃ, æ;ţL eljƧÆlƃ, æc;ţL eljƧÆlƃ, æg]j;ţLgf;ţL eljƧÆlƃ Pj+ j'ųflg Odflg gj
rngŪ]g Olŧtflg gfd. Odfg]j dţgŪ]g dlţtflg, ljƎþƆgtá ljƎþlƆtflg, kkťgtá kklťtflg, tfg]j t]lx t]lx
sĕ/±)ëlx ;řtųf ;řtflg r gfd xálƃ. ;Ƒ]lx t]lx kťlx gjs]þlx dfgá Pj slytá. ;álk lx æcƨLÆltcfbLlx ;ţLlx
r cfsĕ/]lx lblŪ ljo kjųtLlt. gjs+þ.
b;s]þ;' kg náeá bá;á dáxá dfgá lblŪ ljlrlsŞf lyg+ pźŝ+ clxl/s+þ cgáųƍlƃ Od] b; lsn];f Pj
lsn];jŴ"lg gfd. æcgŴ+ d] cr/LÆltcfboá gj vf)'sŭsĕbL;' cŪfgcf#ft]g ;Ƹź b; cf#ftjŴ"lg gfd.
kf)fltkftfboá
b;
cs';nsƙkyf
gfd.
sĕd/fu;+oáhg+
kl#dfglblŪljlrlsŞf;LnƑtk/fdf;ej/fuOƧfdŞl/ocljşĕ;+oáhglƃ
Odflg b; ;+oáhgflg gfd.
ldŞflblŪldŞf;Řƍfboá cŪ, ldŞf`f)ldŞfljd'ųLlx ;Ƹź b; ldŞųf gfd. tŴ ldŞf`f)lƃ kfklsl/of;' pkfolrƃfj;]g
r]j kfks+þ sŷf æ;'st+ dofÆlt kŝj]ŋ)j;]g r kjųá dáxá. ldŞfljd'ųLlt cljd'ųƧ]j ;tá ljd'ų;lţtf. æglŴ
lbƉ+, glŴ loŪÆlƃcfbLlx b;lx cfsĕ/]lx kjų+ glŴsbƧg+ b;jŴ'sĕ ldŞflblŪ gfd. æ;Ƨtá nás]ĕ, tyf c;Ƨtá,
cƃjf, cgƃjf, t+ hËj+ t+ ;/L/Ælƃ jf, æcţ+ hËj+ cţ+ ;/L/Ælƃ jf, æxált tyfutá k/+ d/)fÆlt jf, æg
xált»k]0 xált r g xált r, g]j xált g g xált tyfutá k/+ d/)fÆlt jf Pj+ kjųf b;jŴ'sĕ cƃƮflxsĕ lblŪ
gfd. tŴ nás]ĕlt vƈfboá, æcƃjfÆlt Ob+ kl/ų+ sl;)Ţĕg+ ;ƈfo j'ų+. æcgƃjfÆlt Ob+ ljk'nlƃ ux]tƑ+.
tyfutált ;ųá. b;s+þ.
cŪf/;s]þ;' tŲfljrl/tfgLlt tŲf;d'bfrf/f tŲfkjlųoá. cŢlųsƧ'kfbfoflt cŢlųs+þ vƈkťs+þ pkfbfo.
Ob+ lx pkoáuŴ] ;fldjrg+. tŴ æcƨLlt xált, OŴƨLlt xált, PjƨLlt xált, cţyfƨLlt xált, tyf eljƧlƃ, OŴ+
eljƧlƃ, Pj+ eljƧlƃ, cţyf eljƧlƃ xált, tyf cƨLlt, ;ftƨLlt xált, tyf l;olƃ, OŴ+ l;olƃ, Pj+ l;olƃ,
cţyf l;olƃ xált, tyf ckfx+ l;olƃ, ckfx+ OŴ+ l;olƃ, ckfx+ Pj+ l;olƃ, ckfx+ cţtf l;olƃ xátLÆlt Pj+
j'ųflg Odflg cŢlųsƧ'kfbfo cŪf/; tŲfljrl/tflg gfd.
tŴ cƨLlt xátLlt cŢlųs]þ;' vƈkťs]þ;' ;d"xtá æcxdƨLÆlt ux±)ë ;tLlt cŴá. Pj+ kg ux±)ë ;lt ttá
k/+ cg'klgwfo, pklgwfo jflt lƀwf ux)+ xált. tŴ cg'klgwfoflt cţ+ cfsĕ/+ cg'klgwfo cg'kuƙ
;sefjd]jf/ƙ)+ sŷf OŴƨLlt xált. tƧ ævlųofbL;' Ob+ksĕ/á cxÆlƃ tŲfdfglblŪj;]g ux)+ xátLlt cŴá.
pklgwfo ux)+ kg b'ljw+ xált ;dtá r c;dtá r. tŴ ;dtá ux)+ PjƨLlt Ob+, tƧ oyf co+ vlųoá, Ɣfƪ)fboá
jf b]jdg'Ƨ¿kLc¿lkcfboá jf, PjdxdƨLlt cŴá. cţyfƨLlt Ob+ kg c;dtá ux)+, tƧ oyf Od] vlųofboá, ttá
cţyf cx+ xLgá jf clws]ĕ jflt cŴá. Odflg tfj kŝ'ƍƉj;]g rųfl/ tŲfljrl/tflg, eljƧlƃcfbLlg kg rųfl/
cgfutj;]g j'ųflg. t];+ k'l/drt'Ŋ]þ j'ųgoj;]g cŴá j]lbtƑá. tŴ cƨLltcflbƀo+ ;Ƨt'Ş]bƮfxj;]g j'ų+. tŴ lx
cƨLlt ;Ƨt+, ;LbtLlt ;ft+, c;Ƨt+, Otá k/flg l;olƃcfbLlg rųfl/ ;+;okl/ljtŊþj;]g j'ųflg. ckfx+
l;olƃcfbLlg rųfl/ æclk gfdfx+ ej]ƜÆlƃ Pj+ kjųkŴgfsƍgj;]g j'ųfgLlt bŪƑ+. cŪf/;s+þ k&d+.
b'lto] aflx/Ƨ'kfbfoflt aflx/+ vƈkťs+þ pkfbfo. tŴ æOldgf cƨLlt xált, Oldgf OŴƨLlt xált, Oldgf
PjƨLlt xált, Oldgf cţyfƨLlt xátLÆltcflbgf cgƃ/] j'ųgo]g aflx/Ƨ'kfbfo cŪf/; tŲfljrl/tfgLlt j]lbtƑflg.

122

æOldgfÆlt kbdųd]j x]Ŵ k'l/d]lx lj;];á. tŴ Oldgflt Oldgf aflx/]g ¿k]g jf»k]0 ljţf±)ëg jflt cŴá. tŴ r
%ųvƮaLhlgcƉkfgwgwţflbpks/)j;]g aflx/+ ¿k+ j]lbtƑ+. bf;bfl;`fltkl/hgxlŴcƧflbpks/)j;]g j]bgfboá
j]lbtƑf. Od]lx aflx/]lx ¿kfbLlx æOŴƨLlt PjƨLÆltcflbgf ;ƑŴ oáhgf j]lbtƑf. cŪf/;s+þ b'lto+.
Ot/];' kg tb]sŢ+ cle;+o"lxŷfltcfbL;' tb'eo+ cŪf/;s+þ Pstá oáh]ŷf %Ƹų;tŲfljrl/tflg xálƃ, Pj+
Ps]þsƧ k'ƮnƧ ctLtsĕn] lƀƉ+ cŪf/;sĕg+ j;]g %Ƹų;, tyf cgfut] %Ƹų; xálƃ. kŝ'ƍƉ] kg PsƧ oyfnfej;]g
tflglk nưlƃ, ;Ƒ;ųfg+ j;]g kŝ'ƍƉ]lk %Ƹų; nưlƃ. Olt Pj+ j'ų]g ksĕ/]g t+ ;Ƒ+ Pstá sŷf ;Ƒ;ųfg+ sĕnųo]lk
%Ɖ+ cŪf/;sĕg+ j;]g cŪ;t+ tŲfljrl/tflg xáƃLlt cŴá. cŪtŲfljrl/t;t+ xátLlt PŴflk Pjd]j cŴá bŪƑá.
tŲfljrl/tflg lglŪtflg.
oflg rfltcfbL;' oflg r]Ŵ ƀf;lŪ lblŪutflg jųƑflg, tflg Ɣƪhĕngfds]þ bL#lgsĕoƧ k&d;'ųƃ]
‘bL0lg01=29cfboá’ ;Ŵf/f ;o+ cfxŝ efl;tfgLlt cŴá. Ɣƪhĕn] lx rųf/á ;Ƨtjfbf, rųf/á Psŝ;Ƨltsĕ, rųf/á
cƃfglƃsĕ, rųf/á cd/fljŋ]lksĕ, ƀ] clwŝ;d'ƍlƉsĕ, ;áń; ;ţLjfbf, cŪ c;ţLjfbf cŪ g]j;ţLgf;ţLjfbf, ;ų
pŞ]bjfbf, kť lbŪwƙlgƑfgjfbflt Odflg ƀf;lŪ lblŪutflg ;lgbfgflg gfgfgotá j'ųflg, tŴ j'ųgo]g]j g];+
ljef±uëf j]lbtƑá. co+ tfj]Ŵ kbŴfg';f/tá ljlgŞoá, ;];ák]Ŵ ljlgŞoá kbŴ] j'ųfg';f/táj ;'ljţ]Ɯált.
v'ŹsjŴ'ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

wƙxboljeśdfltsŴjŰgf
wƙxboljeśdfltsĕo kg kbŴflbtá ljlgŞoá k'Ƒ] j'ųáj. oƨf kg eujtf x]Ūf gfgfgotá ljeųfgţ]j
vƈfotgfbLg+ ƀfb;Ɖ+ wƙs]ĕŪf;fg+ k'g ;Ƒ;śflxsrt'e"d'ƍlųtƍl/ofkƉtfbLlx b;lx jf/]lx ck'Ƒgo;xƧljefjs]þlx
;Ƒwƙflwƍfo;řft]lx wƙxbo]lx ljefubƧgŴd]jfo+ ljeśá j'ųá, tƨf ljeśgotá r]Ŵ ljlgŞoá xált. ljeś] lx
k&d+ æslt vƈfÆltcflbgf ;k'Şs+þ ƀfb;klbs+þ dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g]j rt'e"ds;fdţtá ;Ƒ;śflxsjf/á
gfd ljeųá, tŴ ;ų mþƧfboá ;ųƉ+ ljţf)wft"g+ j;]g j]lbtƑf.
b'ltoá kg jf/á t];+ rt";' e"dL;' rt"lx s]ĕŪf;]lx pƍųfg'ƍlųbƧgj;]g kjųá. tŴ k&ds]ĕŪf;] tfj _
æsĕdwft'of slt vƈf»k]0 slt lrųflgĠ sĕdwft'of kťŋƈf, ƀfb;fotgflg, cŪf/; wft'oá,
tLl) ;ŝflg, afjL;ltlƇoflg, gj x]t", rųf/á cfxf/f, ;ų mþƧf, j]bgf, ;ţf, r]tgf, lrųfgLÆlt _
dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. tŴ oƨf rt'e"dsĕlk wƙf o]e'Ɯ]g sĕdfjr/;ųfg+ pƍşlƃ g sĕdfjr/fj. t]g]Ŵ
ækťŋƈfÆltcflbgf rt'e"dsĕlk j'ųf. tŴ'ƍşgswƙf x]Ŵ clwƍ]tf, g t+e"ldkl/ofkƉfj. ¿kwft'cfbL;'lk P;]j
goá.
PŴ r tLl) ;ŝfgLlt Ob+ lg/áw;ŝƧ b];ljlgd'ųtfo sŴlr b];] clglŹl;tƑtá t+ jş]ŷf j'ų+. sĕ/);fk]ŋĕ
lx wƙf cųgá lgƧosĕ/)e"t+ b];+ ;dfj;lƃ csĕ/)Ƨ clgƧoųf, oyf jf sbflr pknưdfgf wƙf sĕnlgottfo cųgá
;řtų+j ;"r]lƃ. cţyf Ot/sĕn];'lk efjƧ r k;śtá, Pt/lxlk jf cefjƧ, Pj+ ŏlr b];] pknưdfgfkLlt ux]tƑ+.
;Ƒb];cƓflktf kg c;řtƧ, ;řtƧ jf c;Ƙjtá Pj gákkşlt, tƨf b];sĕnljlgd'ųd]j c;řtlƃ ux]tƑ+.
b'ltos]ĕŪf;] kg _
æ¿kwft'of kťŋƈf, % cfotgflg, gj wft'oá, tLl) ;ŝflg, r'Źl;lƇoflg, cŪ x]t", toá
cfxf/f, rųf/á mþƧf»k]0 rųfl/ lrųfgLÆlt _
dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. oƨf kg ¿kLg+ #fgfbLg+ cefj]g ljşdfgflglk uƈfotgfbLlg cfotgflblsŝ+ g s/álƃ, tƨf
t] jş]ŷf æ% cfotgflg, gj wft'oáÆltcflb j'ų+ g t];+ cefjf. s]þlr kg æ¿knás]þ uƈ/;f sańLsĕ/á cfxf/á r
dxfe"tfgť mþáŪƑlsŝtf glŴ, t]g]j kflńo+ g pźfÆlt jŷf t+ ;f±wët'+ ax'+ x]t'kl¿ks+þ jŷf kkť]lƃ, t+ t];+
dltdųd]jflt g ux]tƑ+. uƈfbLg+ cljlgưáuųf, mþáŪƑųf, wft';efjųf r #fgflbųoefjƀo;'vb'ŋbádglƧlƇoflg,
kg bádgƧx]t'sańLsĕ/fxf/#fgflbųo;ƖþƧfbLlg r jş]ŷf r'Źl;lƇoflbefjá j]lbtƑá.
tltos]ĕŪf;] kg _
æc¿kwft'of rųf/á vƈf, ƀ] cfotgflg, ƀ] wft'oá, tLl) ;ŝflg, Psĕbl;lƇoflg, cŪ x]t",
toá cfxf/f, Ps]ĕ mþƧá»k]0 Ps+þ lrųÆlƃ _
dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. PŴ r rŋ';átcgţftţƧfdLltlƇofglƕ cefjf Psĕbl;lƇoflg j]lbtƑflg.
rt'Ŵs]ĕŪf;] kg _
æckl/ofkƉ] rųf/á vƈf, ƀ] cfotgflg, ƀ] wft'oá, ƀ] ;ŝflg, ƀfbl;lƇoflg, % x]t", toá
cfxf/f, Ps]ĕ mþƧá»k]0 Ps+þ lrųÆlƃ _
dflts+þ
lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. oƨf r cásĕ;j;]g jf ;ų'ƍlųj;]g
jf ckl/ofkƉwft' gfd glŴ, tƨf
æckl/ofkƉwft'ofÆlt cjŷf lgƑlųtnás'ų/d]j bƧ]t'+ æckl/ofkƉ] rųf/á vƈfÆltcflb j'ų+. Pj+ rt"lx s]ĕŪf;]lx
b'ltoá jf/á j]lbtƑá.
123

tltoá kg jf/á _
æ¿kŋƈá sĕdwft'kl/ofkƉá, rųf/á vƈf l;of sĕdwft'kl/ofkƉf, l;of
g
sĕdwft'kl/ofkƉfÆltcflbgf _
rt";' e"dL;' rt"lx s]ĕŪf;]lx t+t+e"ldkl/ofkƉwƙbƧgj;]g kjųá, ;á r x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g ;Ŋĕ `ft'lƃ g ljŴfl/tá. tŴ
r sĕdwft'kl/ofkƉált sĕdfjr/efj]g tŴ cƃáu±wëf sĕdfjr/ált cŴá. ;];];'lk P;]j goá.
rt'Ŵá kg jf/á tL;' e"dL;' rt"lx s]ĕŪf;]lx kl;lƈŋ±)ë pƍşgsĕg'ƍşgswƙbƧgj;]g kjųá. tŴ
k&ds]ĕŪf;] tfj _
æsĕdwft'of pkklųŋ±)ë ;Ƒ];+ kťŋƈf kft'ejlƃ, sƧlr Psĕb;fotgflg kft'ejlƃ, sƧlr
b;fotgflg kft'ejlƃ, sƧlr ck/flg b;, sƧlr gj, sƧlr ;ų, sƧlr Psĕb; wft'oá»k]0 ;ų
wft'oá. ;Ƒ];+ Ps+þ ;ŝ+ kft'ejlt. sƧlr r'Źl;lƇoflg, sƧlr t]/;, sƧlr ck/flg t]/;, sƧlr
ƀfb;, sƧlr b;, sƧlr gj, sƧlr ck/flg gj, sƧlr cŪ, sƧlr ck/flg cŪ, sƧlr ;ų sƧlr
kť, sƧlr rųfl/lƇoflg kft'ejlƃ, sƧlr toá x]t" kft'ejlƃ, sƧlr ƀ], sƧlr cx]t'sĕ kft'ejlƃ. ;Ƒ];+
rųf/á cfxf/f, Ps]ĕ mþƧá»k]0 Ps+þ lrų+ kft'ejtLÆlt _
dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. tŴ kl;lƈŋ±)ë sĕdfjr/fg+ cákkfltsĕg+, cfkflosĕg+, b]jdg'Ƨfg+ kl/k'Űfotgfg+
;Źfotgjlştflg Psĕb;fotgflg kft'ejlƃ, tfg]j Psĕb; wft'oá xálƃ. ;Źá lx Psƃ]g kl;lƈo+ g pƍşlt,
t];ţ]j kg hŝƈfg+ b;, hŝalw/fg+ ck/flg b;, hŝƈalw/fg+ gj, uư;]Ɯsĕg+ ¿kuƈ/;sĕomþáŪƑdgáwƙj;]g ;ų
cfotgwft'oá kft'ejlƃ. cákkfltsĕg+ ltx]t'sĕg+ dgŞŪflg OlƇoflg, efjƀo] Ps+þ, hËljltlƇo+, ;ádgƧ'k]lŋlƇo];' Ps+þ,
;źfbLlg kťflt r'Źl;lƇoflg, t];+ lƀx]t'sĕg+ klţlƇo+ jş]ŷf t]/;, k&dslƍsĕg+ dg'Ƨfg+ ltx]t'sĕg+ efljlƇo+ jş]ŷf
ck/flglk t]/;, t];ţ]j b'x]t'sĕg+ ƀfb;, uư;]Ɯsĕg+ kg ltx]t'sĕg+ k'l/d];' r'Ź;;' rŋĕbLlg rųfl/ jş]ŷf b;, t];+
b'x]t'sĕg+ gj, cákkfltsĕg+ cx]t'sĕg+ kl/k'Űfotgfg+ k'l/d];' r'Ź;;' ;ŹfbLlg jş]ŷf ck/flg gj, t];ţ]j hŝƈfg+
cŪ, tyf alw/fg+, cƈalw/fg+ kg ;ų, uư;]Ɯsĕg+ kg cx]t'sĕg+ sĕodgáefjhËljtpk]lŋlƇoflg kť, t];ţ]j gk'+;sĕg+
rųfl/ kft'ejlƃ. cx]t'slrų];' lx ljşdfgflk PsƮtf ;dflwlƇot+ g uŞlt, dgáljţf)wft'j;]g kg æPs]ĕ
mþƧáÆltcfboá j]lbtƑf.
b'ltos]ĕŪf;] kg _
æ¿kwft'of pkklųŋ±)ë &k]ŷf c;ţ;ųfg+ b]jfg+ kťŋƈf kft'ejlƃ. kťfotgflg, kť
wft'oá, Ps+þ ;ŝ+, bl;lƇoflg, toá x]t", toá cfxf/f, Ps]ĕ mþƧá»k]0 Ps+þ lrųÆlƃ _
dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. tŴ rŋ'¿k;átdgáwƙfg+ j;]g kťfotgwft'oá j]lbtƑf. PŴflk uƈ/;mþáŪƑfg+ cƮx±)ë
sĕ/)+ k'Ƒ] j'ųd]j. rŋ';átdgáhËljltlƇoflg, ;ádgƧ'k]ŋĕg+ cţt/+, ;źfbLlg kťflt bl;lƇoflg j]lbtƑflg.
tltos]ĕŪf;] kg _
æc;ţ;ųfg+ b]jfg+ pkklųŋ±)ë Ps]ĕ vƈá kft'ejlt ¿kŋƈá, ƀ] cfotgflg ¿kfotg+ wƙfotg+,
ƀ] wft'oá ¿kwft' wƙwft', Ps+þ b'ŋ;ŝ+, Ps+þ ¿khËljltlƇo+, c;ţ;ųf b]jf cx]t'sĕ, cgfxf/f, cmþƧsĕ»k]0
clrųsĕÆlt _
;lgŹ];dfltsĕ lglŋųf. PŴ r ¿klƕ lsťflk t];+ cfotgflblsŝ+ g s/ált, ;ljţf)s¿kL;' kg ulxtųf Owflk
ulxt+. uƈfboá kg tŴ g ulxtųf Owflk g ulxtf, gá cljşdfgtfo. Pstnjfl;sĕg+ jf ;];Ɣƪfg+ rŋ'lj;oųf
Owflk ¿kfotg+ pź+, c;ţLg+ kg kťfotgflg, Ps]ĕ cfxf/á pƍştLlt j]lbtƑ+.
rt'Ŵs]ĕŪf;] _
æc¿kwft'of pkklųŋ±)ë rųf/á vƈf, ƀ] cfotgflg, ƀ] wft'oá, Ps+þ ;ŝ+, clŪlƇoflg toá
x]t", toá cfxf/f, Ps]ĕ mþƧá»k]0 Ps+þ lrųÆlƃ _
dfltsĕkbflg lglŋlkŷf ljeųf. PŴ r dgáhËljtpk]lŋlƇoflg, ;źfbLlg kťflt clŪlƇoflg j]lbtƑflg. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. Pj+ rt"lx s]ĕŪf;]lx rt'Ŵá jf/á j]lbtƑá.
kťdá kg jf/á t];+ wƙfg+ e"dƃ/j;]g æsĕdfjr/wƙf, g sĕdfjr/f»k]0 kl/ofkƉfÆlt rųf/á b's]þ
dfltsĕj;]g lglŋlkŷf ljehgj;]g kjųá, ;á x]Ūf j'ųŴáj.
%Ūá kg jf/á ;ƙ'ltb]jpkklųb]jlj;'lźb]j] lglŹl;ŷf dg'Ƨb]jutL;' pƍfbssƙcfo'ƍdf)bƧgj;]g j'ųá.
tŴfo+ ;ř]kŴá _ ;ųf lx bfg;Lnflbsĕdfjr/s';n+ sŷf dg'Ƨnás]þ
vlųodxf;fnflbs'n];' r]j
rft'dxf/flhstfjƸt;ofdt'l;tlgƙfg/ltk/lglƙtj;jlų;řft];'
%;'
b]jnás]þ;'
r
pƍşlƃ,

l;g]?kƑtj]dŢkl/eůkƑttá kŪfo x]Ūf ofj e"ld ltl/o+ rŊþjfńkƑt+ cfxŝ PŴƃ/] kƑtcfsĕ;?ŋkyljlglƧtf
rft'dxf/fhrƆ;"l/of ;Ƒ] rft'dxf/flhsĕ. ttá pź+ rŊþjfńkl/oƃ+ tfjƸt;fboá oyfŊþd+ pk¿kl/ l&tflt j]lbtƑf.
b]jnás]ĕlk k/ƕ/rŊþjfńkƑt+ cƍųá gfd glŴ.
k&dŢĕg+ kg kl/ų+ efj]ŷf Ɣƪkfl/;ş];' pƍşlƃ, dlŢd+ efj]ŷf Ɣƪk'/álxt];', k)Lt+ efj]ŷf dxfƔƪ];', Od]
toálk hgf k&dŢĕge"ldo+ Pstn] j;lƃ. cfo'cfeflbe]b]g kg];+ e]bá, Pj+ pkl/lk.
rt'Ŋþgo] kg b'ltoŢĕg+, kťsgo] b'ltotltoŢĕgť kl/ų+, dlŢd+,
k)Ltť efj]ŷf
kl/ųfefcƍdf)fefcfeƧ/];' pƍşlƃ. tltoŢĕg+ kl/ųflbj;]g efj]ŷf kl/ų;'ecƍdf);'e;'elsŲ];'. rt'ŴŢĕg+ kg
efj]ŷf cf/ƙ)dgl;sĕ/%Ɔflwd'lųcflbgfgųtá s]þlr c;ţL;', s]þlr j]xƎþn];', s]þlr cljx];', ctƍ];', ;'bƧ];', ;'bƧL;',
s]þlr cslgŪ];', cfsĕ;fgťfotgfbL;' rt";' r oyfŊþd+ pƍşlƃ. tŴ lx Psŝ] ltlŴof ælrų+ lgƧfo /şgb'Ƨgfboá,

124

tlƉbfgflg r b'ŋĕlg ;d'ƍşƃLÆlt lrų] bá;+ lbƩf ælbŪwƙlgƑfgd]tÆlƃ ;ţflj/fu+ hg]ŷf tŶ"kklųof ´fg+ efj]ŷf
¿ksĕodųf l&tf jf lgl;Ɖf jf lgkƉf jf x'ŷf lgƑlųŷf tŴ]j kťsƍ;tflg ltŪƃLlt j]lbtƑf.
cŪ;dfklųnfeLg+ st/+ ´fg+ ljkŝtLltĠ ku')+, ;Ƒ];' ku'±)ë;' oƧ ljkfse"Ƹd kŴ]lt, t+kŴgfo r c;lt o+
d/);do] ;dfkşlt, t+, tlƨlƕ c;lt pųdj;]g g]j;ţfgf;ţfotg+ ljkŝlt. ;'źfjf;];' r cljxfbL;'
cgfufldjlştf ;ųf g pƍşlƃ, cgfufldgá kg c;ţLjlştƔƪnás]þ;' ;ƑŴ pƍlşt'+ nelƃ. ;Ƒ];lƕ r cl/ofg+
tŶ"kklųtá pk¿kklųlk, g x]Ū"kklų. t] lx k&dŢĕge"ldo+ lgƑųf cgfufldgá gj Ɣƪnás]þ ;á±wëŷf dŴs]þ j]xƎþn];'
l&tf kl/lgƑlƃ, g lgjųlƃ cl/ofg+ x]Ū"kklųcefjf. j]xƎþncslgŪg]j;ţfgf;ţfotgejf toálk ;]Ūejf gfd.
Od];' tL;' &fg];' lgƑųf cgfufldgá g]j pź+ uŞlƃ, g c±wëf. tŴ]j kl/lgƑfolƃ dg'Ƨnás]þ r ;]vf lulxefj] ofjhËj+
ltŪlƃ, g c;]vf. t] lx c/xų+ kųlbj;] kƑhlƃ jf, kl/lgƑlƃ jf. e'ƙb]j];' kg vL)f;jflk ofjhËj+ ltŪlƃ. %;'
sĕdfjr/b]j];' ;átfkƉ;sbfufldgáj ltŪlƃ, cgfufldgá kg tbx]j ¿kej+ uƃ'+ jũlt vL)f;j]g kl/lgƑft'lƃ
ux]tƑ+. Pj+ Odf;' ;ųjL;ltof e"dL;' kl/ofkƉdg'Ƨb]jƔƪnás]þ;' lgƑų;ų];' dg'Ƨfg+ tfj OdƸƨ a'ź'ƍfb]j jƧ;t+
cfo'ƍdf)+, cƍ+ jf leƜá. cfkflosĕg+, e'ƙb]jfgť sbflr cfo'kl/Ş]bá glŴ, sƙd]j kdf)+. t] lx ;ųfx]glk d/lƃ,
sƍlƕ ltŪƃLlt.
rft'dxf/flhsĕg+ kg dfg';sĕlg kţf; jƧflg Ps+þ /lųlƆj+, tfo /lųof Ƹt; /lųoá df;á, t]g df;]g
ƀfb;dfl;oá ;+jŞ/á, t]g ;+jŞ/]g lbƑflg kťjƧ;tflg cfo'ƍdf)+. tflg dg'Ƨu)gfo gj'ltjƧ;t;xƧflg xálƃ.
tfjƸt;fg+ dfg';s+þ jƧ;t+ Ps+þ /lųlƆj+ sŷf Pjdfut+ lbƑ+ jƧ;xƧ+. Pj+ ofdfbLg+ jƧu)gť lbu')+ sŷf x]lŪdtá
lbu')rt'Ʈ')+ cfo'ƍdf)+ j]lbtƑ+.
Ɣƪ];' kg Ɣƪkfl/;şĕg+ sƍƧ tltoá ef±uëf cfo'ƍdf)+, Ɣƪk'/álxtfg+ pkŬsƍá dxfƔƪfg+ Ps]ĕ sƍá,
kl/ųfefg+ ƀ] sƍflt Pj+ pk¿kl/ lbu')+ sŷf ofj ;'elsŲf oáh]tƑ+. ;'elsŲfg+ lx rt';lŪsƍ+ cfo'ƍdf)+, c;ţLg+,
j]xƎþnfgť kťsƍ;tflg, cljxfg+ sƍ;xƧlƃ pk¿kl/ lbu')j;]g ofj cslgŪf oáh]tƑ+. cslgŪfg+ lx
;áń;sƍ;xƧflg, c¿kfg+ rt'Ɖ+ oyfŊþd+ jL;lt, rųfl/, ;lŪ, rt'/f;Llt sƍ;xƧflg cfo'ƍdf)lƃ.
plŋųf k'ţt]h]g, sĕd¿kuƸt utf.
ejƮtlƕ ;ƕųf, k'gfuŞlƃ b'ƮƸtĶ
tfj bL#fo'sĕ ;ųf, rjlƃ cfo';řof.
glŴ s]ĕlr ejá lgŝá, Olt j'ų+ dx]l;gfĶ
tƨf lx wL/f lgksĕ, lgk')f cŴlrƃsĕ.
h/fd/)dáŋĕo, efj]lƃ dƮd'ųd+Ķ
efjloŷf ;'Ƹr dƮ+, lgƑfgáuwufldg+.
;Ƒf;j] kl/ţfo, kl/lgƑlƃ cgf;jfltĶ ‘lje01029’.
co+ %Ūjf/] goá.
;ųdá kg jf/á t];+ vƈfbLg+ cleţ]Ɯflbefjljefjgj;]g kjųá. tŴ lx _
æ¿kŋƈá cleţ]Ɯá, kl/ţ]Ɯá, g kxftƑá, g efj]tƑá, g ;lŞsĕtƑá. rųf/á vƈf cleţ]Ɯf
kl/ţ]Ɯf, l;of kxftƑf, l;of efj]tƑf, l;of
;lŞsĕtƑf, l;of g kxftƑf g efj]tƑf g
;lŞsĕtƑfÆltcflbgf _
ƀfb;lk s]ĕŪf;f ljŴf/tá ljeųf. tŴ nŋ)kl/Ʈflxsĕo kţfo vƈfboá ;Ƒ] wƙf cleţ]Ɯf. `fttL/)kxfgkl/ţf;'
oyfoáu+ ofo sĕolr kl/ţfo j;]g ;Ƒ]lk wƙf kl/ţ]Ɯf. nás'ų/wƙflk `ftkl/ţ]Ɯfj. cs';nf kg kxftƑf. d±Ʈëf
efj]tƑá, mþn+, lgƑfgť ;lŞsĕtƑ+. tŴ ¿kŋƈá `fttL/)j;]g kl/ţ]Ɯá. ljkƧgflj;o] lx ;Ƒ+ tL/)kl/ţfo
kl/ţ]Ɯlƃ. Oldgf go]g ;ƑŴ cleţ]Ɯflbefjá j]lbtƑá.
cŪdá kg jf/á t];+ ;f/ƙ)tfljefjgj;]g kjųá, gjdá kg];+ lbŪ;'td'tljţft];' ;śxbƧgj;]g. b;dá
s';nlųsĕbLlx ;/)b'skl/oá;fg]lx ltsb's]þlx ljefubƧgj;]g kjųá, t]lk x]Ūf j'ųgofjflt cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á
kg]Ŵ x]Ūf j'ųáo]j. cflbtá kŪfo ;ƑŴ ljeśkflńcŪsyf;' ‘lje0978cfboᶠlje0cŪ0978 cfboá’ ux]tƑált.
wƙxboljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

ljeśdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

125

3= wft'syfdfltsĕ
Obflg ljeśdfltsĕgƃ/+ _
co+ wft'syfbLg+, ;ƕųf cŴjŰgf.
dfltsĕg+ otá tƨf, kťƉlƕ oyf/x+Ķ
cg'ųfgŴtá r]j, ;ř]k]gŴlgŞof.
ljeśgotá r]j, xált ;+jŰgfgoáĶ
tŴ wft'syfdfltsĕo tfj ;+jŰgf xált. ;f kg];f lgŋ]ktá kťwf l&tf _ godfltsĕ cưƃ/dfltsĕ
god'vdfltsĕ nŋ)dfltsĕ aflx/dfltsĕlt. tŴ æ;śxá, c;śxá»k]0 ljƍo'ų]g ;ślxt+ c;ślxtÆlƃ co+ r'Ź;lx
kb]lx lglŋųf ;śxflbs]þg go]g wft'syfo wƙf ljeųflt bƧ]t'+ &lktųf godfltsĕ gfd, of æd"ndfltsĕÆltlk j'ŝlt.
ækťŋƈf»k]0 dgl;sĕ/áÆlt co+ kťjL;flws]þg kb;t]g lglŋųf ;śxflbgo]g ljelhtƑefj]g wft'syfo
cưƃ/] Pj &lktųf cưƃ/dfltsĕ gfd, of æwft'syfdfltsĕÆltlk j'ŝlt.
ætLlx ;śxá, tLlx c;śxá, rt"lx ;ƕoá±uëf, rt"lx ljƍoá±uëfÆlt co+ rt"lx kb]lx lglŋųf vƈfbL;' r
s';nlųsĕbL;' r dfltsĕwƙ];' tLlx vƈfotgwft'kb]x]j ;śxá c;śxá r, tyf rt"lx c¿kŋƈ]lx ;ƕoá±uëf, ljƍoá±uëf
rflt Od];+ ;śxf;śxfbLg+ gofg+ d'vfgLlt bƧ]t'+ &lktųf god'vdfltsĕ gfd.
æ;ef±uëf
lj;ef±uëfÆlt co+ ƀLlx kb]lx lglŋųf ;efulj;efunŋ)j;]g]j
;śxf;śxgof r]j
;ƕoáuljƍoáugof r xáƃLlt bƧ]t'+ &lktųf nŋ)dfltsĕ gfd. ;Ƒflk wƙ;ś)L wft'syfo dfltsĕlt co+ %;lŪ
ltskbflg, ƀ] r b'skb;tflg ;lřlkŷf lglŋųf wft'syf dfltsĕtá alx &lktųf aflx/dfltsĕ gfd. Pjd]ltƧf
kťljwfo dfltsĕo codg'ųfgŴjŰgf.
;śxáltcfbL;' lx ;śxá tfj hĕlt;ŧfltlsl/ofu)gj;]g rt'lƑ±wëf. tŴ æ;Ƒ] vlųof cfuŞƃ', of rfj';á
lj;fv, ;ƙfjfrf, oá r ;ƙfsƙƃá, oá r ;ƙfcfhËjá, Od] wƙf ;Lnŋƈ] ;ślxtfÆlt ‘d0lg01=462’ co+ hĕlt;śxá
gfd. æ;Ƒ] s]ĕ;nsĕ cfuŞƃ', oá rfj';á lj;fv, ;ƙfjfofdá, of r ;ƙf;lt, oá r ;ƙf;dflw, Od] wƙf ;dflwŋƈ]
;ślxtfÆlt ‘d0lg0 1=462’ co+ ;ŧflt;śxá gfd, PsŪfg] hĕlt;Ɨƈefj]g ;śxált cŴá. æ;Ƒ] xŴf/áxf cfuŞƃ',
of rfj';á lj;fv, ;ƙflblŪ, oá r ;ƙf;Řƍá, Od] wƙf kţfŋƈ] ;ślxtfÆlt ‘d0lg01=462’ co+ lsl/of;śxá gfd.
æxlť rŋĕotg+ ¿kŋƈu)g+ uŞlt, t]g jt /] jųƑ] ‚rŋĕotg+ ¿kŋƈ]g ;ślxtƒÆlƃ ‘syf0471’ co+ u)g;śxá
gfd, coldw clwƍ]tá. tƍlkŋ]g
c;śxá j]lbtƑá. t];+ ljsƍtá ;ślxt]g c;ślxtfbLlg,
Ps'ƍfb]slg/áwPsjŴ'sPsĕ/ƙ)tfj;]g ;ƕoá±uëf, tƍlkŋtá ljƍoá±uëf, t];+ ljsƍtá ;ƕo'ų]g ljƍo'ųfbLlg,
tb'eo;+;Ʈljsƍtá ;ślxt]g ;ƕo'ų+ ljƍo'ųlƃcfbLlg r j]lbtƑflg. ;];+ j'ųŴd]j. co+ tfj]Ŵ cg'ųfgkbŴá.

;śxf;śxkbŴjŰgf
cŴljlgŞotá kg oƨf cưƃ/dfltsĕo ¿kŋƈfbLlg, aflx/dfltsĕo s';nfbLlg r æ;śxá c;śxáÆltcflbs]þlx
godfltsĕkb]lx ætLlx ;śxá, tLlx c;śxáÆltcflbgod'vdfltsĕj;]g oyf/x+ lgŹ];Ŵfo eujtf &lktflg, tƨf
vƈfbLg+ ;śxfbLg+ kflńo+ j'ųfg';f/]g]j ;ř]ktá cŴljlgŞoá xált. Oldgf go]g ljeśgoá ;Ŋĕ `ft'lƃ t+ lj;'+ g
jŋĕd.
tŴ ;śxf;śxjf/] vƈfg+ tfj co+ lgŹ];] goá _ ¿kŋƈá Ps]þg vƈ]g Psĕb;lx cfotg]lx Psĕb;lx wft"lx
;ślxtá. rt"lx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx c;ślxtá. tŴ Psĕb;xLlt dgfotgjş]lx. wƙfotg]gflk lx
s]þlr ¿kwƙf ;ślxtf. Psĕb;xLlt ;ųljţf)wft'jşĕlx. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
j]bgfboá toá vƈf oyf;s+þ Ps]þg vƈ]g Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of ;ślxtf, rt"lx vƈ]lx Psĕb;lx
cfotg]lx ;ų/;lx wft"lx c;ślxtf, tyf ljţf)ŋƈálk. s]þjn+ kg]Ŵ ;ųlx ljţf)wft"lx ;ślxtá, Psĕb;lx wft"lx
c;ślxtált Pųsd]j lj;];á. tŴ lx j]bgfbLg+ ltŰ+ vƈfg+ Ps]þg wƙfotg]g r Psĕo wƙwft'of r ;ślxttf
j]lbtƑf. kflńo+ kg]Ŵ vƈkblgŹ];], pkl/ cfotgflblgŹ];];' r æ¿kŋƈá r j]bgfŋƈá r ƀLlx vƈ]lx Psĕb;xfotg]lx
Psĕb;lx wft"lx ;ślxtfÆltcflbgf ‘wft'015’ lƀd"nsĕlbgo]gflk ljŴf/goá ljeųá, ;álk Oldgf Psd"ngofg';f/]g
;ƑŴ ;'ljţ]Ɯált g ljŴf/loƛf. co+ vƈkblgŹ];goá.
cfotgwft'kbfglƕ vƈkb] j'ųfg';f/]g]j tLlx ;śxá, tLlx c;śxá r oyfoáu+ oáh]ŷf `ftƑá. s]þjn+ kg]Ŵ
wƙfotgwƙwft";' c;řtƧ vƈ;śxfefjf t+ &k]ŷf ;];fg+ vƈ];' ;śxá j]lbtƑá.
;ŝ];' b'ŋ;ŝ+ ;Ƒ]lx vƈfotgwft"lx. ;d'bodƮ;ŝflg ;řf/ŋƈ]g, wƙfotgwƙwft"lx r ;ślxtflg.
lg/áw;ŝ+ vƈ]g c;ślxt+, wƙfotgwƙwft"lx Pj ;ślxt+.
OlƇo];' hËljltlƇo+ ƀLlx ¿kŋƈ;řf/ŋƈ]lx. ;'lvlƇofbLlg kť j]bgfŋƈ]g ;źfbLlg ;řf/ŋƈ]g, ;Ƒflg
r]tflg hËljltlƇofbLlg, OlŴlƇok'l/l;lƇofbLlglk wƙfotgwƙwft"lx ;ślxtflg. ;]l;lƇoflg ;'ljţ]Ɯflg.
klŝ;d'ƍfb];' gfd¿k+ ljţf)jlşt]lx rt"lx vƈ]lx, Psĕb;lx cfotgwft"lx r ;ślxt+. PŴ lx kjlųo+
126

gfd¿kƧflk ulxtųf ;Źfotglƕ ulxtlƃ j]lbtƑ+. ;ńfotg+ ƀLlx vƈ]lx, k;fbljţf)e"t]lx %lx cfotg]lx, ƀfb;lx
wft"lx ;ślxt+. pkklųejá kg sĕdeje"tá kťlx vƈ]lx, ;Źfotgjlşt]lx Psĕb;lx cfotg]lx, ;ų/;lx wft"lx.
¿kejá kťlx vƈ]lx, ;Źflbrt'Ŋþ#fgflbųotlƑţf)jş]lx kťxfotg]lx, cŪlx wft"lx ;ślxtá. c;ţLejá Ps]þg
¿kŋƈ]g, ¿kwƙj;]g ƀLlx cfotgwft"lx ;ślxtá. #fgflbųo+ kg]Ŵ cfotgflblsŝfs/)tá cfotgwft"lx c;ślxtlƕ
¿kŋƈ]g ;ślxtlƃ bŪƑ+. ejƧ r Psƃd'kflbƉųf kjlųljkfsĕg+ rŋ'ljţf)fbLg+ ux±)ëlk cg'kflbƉ;ŹfotgƧ Ow
cƮx)+ bŪƑ+. c¿kejá rt"lx vƈ]lx ƀLlx cfotgwft"lx. hĕlth/fd/)flg gfd¿kwƙfg+ nŋ)ųf ƀLlx
¿kŋƈ;řf/ŋƈ]lx. ;ásb'ŋbádgƧflg j]bgfŋƈ]g. pkfof;á ;řf/ŋƈ]g, wƙfotgwƙwft"lx r ;ślxtá. kl/b]já
¿kŋƈ;Źfotg;Źwft"lx. ;];flg kg]Ŵ klŝ;d'ƍfbśflg, ;ltkŪfg;ƙƍwfgf r ;'ljţ]Ɯfj.
Olźkfbf ƀLlx vƈ]lx, cfotg]lx, wft"lx ;ślxtf. PŴ r lrlųlźkfbƧ wƙwft'dgáljţf)wft'lgodtá
;áń;lx wft"lx c;śxá j]lbtƑá. ´fgflg ƀLlx j]bgf;řf/ŋƈ]lx, Ps]þgfotg]g, Psĕo wft'of r ;ślxtflg. cƍdţf
Ps]þg vƈ]g, Ps]þg cfotg]g, Psĕo wft'of ;ślxtf. Pj+ klťlƇofbLlglk. s]þjn+ kg lrų+ ;ųlx ljţf)wft"lx
;ślxtlƃ Pųsd]j lj;];á. ;Ƒ];lƕ r]; j'ųfj;];l] x vƈfotgwft"lx c;ślxtefjá j]lbtƑá.
Oldgf go]g aflx/dfltsĕolk æs';nf wƙf, cs';nf wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx, ƀLlx cfotg]lx, wft"lx ;ślxtf.
cƓfstf kg c;řt+ vƈtá &k]ŷf kťlx vƈ]lx ƀfb;lx cfotg]lx cŪf/;lx wft"lx ;ślxtfÆltcflbgf oáh]ŷf
;śxf;śxá `ftƑált cod]Ŵ ;ř]ká, ljŴf/á kg wft'syfkflńcŪsyf;' ‘wft'077cfboᶠwft'0cŪ077’ ux]tƑált.
lglŪtá æ;śxá c;śxáÆlt kbƧ

cŴljlgŞoá.

;ślxt]gc;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
;ślxt]gc;ślxtkb] ;Ƒ];+ ¿kŋƈflbkbfg+ lgŹ];á g ;Ƙjlt. oflg kg]Ŵ kbflg ¿k]sb];+, c¿k]g
c;lƙƧ+ ljţf±)ësb];ť cţ]g c;lƙƧ+ bLk]lƃ, t];ldw lgŹ];á. tflg kg dgfotgwƙfotgjlştfg+ b;fotgfg+,
wƙwft'jlştfg+ ;ų/;Ɖ+ wft"g+, ;ų¿lklƇofgť j;]g j]lbtƑflg, g ¿kŋƈfbLg+. t]g]j kflńo+ _
æb;fotgf ;ų/; wft'oá,
;lųlƇof c;ţfejá Psjásĕ/ejá.
kl/b]já ;lgbƧg;ƍl#+,
clgbƧg+ k'gb]j ;ƍl#+ pkfbfÆltĶ ‘wft'0178’ _
Pj+ pŹfgufyf j'ųf. ¿kŋƈ]g lx ¿kŋƈáj ;ślxtá, Pj+ j]bgfŋƈfbLlx r j]bgfŋƈfboáj. t]lk r o]lx s]þlxlr
cfotgwft"lx c;ślxtf gfd gŴLlt t];+ ;ślxt]g c;ślxtųfefjf oyfj'ųfotgfg+ j;]g]j]Ŵ cŴljlgŞoá xált. Ob+
x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o+ vƈkb]g ;ślxt+ x'ŷf cfotgwft'kb]lx c;ślxt+, vƈfotgkb]lx jf ;ślxt+ x'ŷf wft'kb]g c;ślxt+,
tƧ vƈfotgwft"lx c;śxá j'ŝlt. sy+Ġ rŋĕotg]g o] wƙf vƈ;śx]g ;ślxtf, cfotg;śx]g, wft';śx]g r
c;ślxtf, t] wƙf sltlx vƈ]lx, cfotg]lx, wft"lx c;ślxtfĠ t] wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx ƀLlx cfotg]lx cŪlx wft"lx
c;ślxtf. Pj+ ¿kfotgfbL;'lk k;fblj;oe"t];' wft";', ¿lklƇofbL;' r oáhgŊþdá j]lbtƑá.
tŶfo+ goá _ rŋĕotg]g o] ¿kwƙf vƈ;śx]g ¿kŋƈált ;ślxtf, cfotgwft';śx]g rŋĕotg]g c;ślxtf,
rŋ'wft'of c;ślxtf, rŋĕotgrŋ'wft"lx PsƧ]j]tƧ rŋ'Ƨ lj;'+ cfotgwft";' ;ślxtųf t] rŋĕotglj/lxtf ;Ƒ] ¿kwƙf
rt"lx c¿kŋƈ]lx rŋĕotg+ dgfotglƃ ƀLlx cfotg]lx rŋ'wft' ;ųljţf)wft"lt cŪlx wft"lx c;ślxtf. pkl/
¿kfotgfbL;'lk P;]j goá. OdƸƨ lx jf/] rŋĕotgƧ cųgá tLlxlk vƈfotgwft';śx]lx ;ślxttfo c;ślxtųfefjf
vƈ;śx]g ;ślxt+, cfotg;śx]g c;ślxt+, wft';śx]g c;ślxtlƃ Pj+ tLlxlk ;ślxtf;ślxtlj;];g]lx ljl;ŪƧ]j
æsltlx vƈ]xLÆltcflbgf vƈfbLlx c;śxƧ j'ŝdfgųf r c¿kŋƈ]lx ;x alxe"ttf j]lbtƑf. oyf r]Ŵ rŋĕotg]g
pknlŋtfg+ ¿kwƙfg+o]j ;ślxt]g c;ślxttf, g rŋĕotgƧ, Pj+ pkl/ ¿kfotgfbLlx pknlŋtjf/]lk oyf/x+
`ftƑf.
;];];' kg rŋ'ljţf)wft'of o] wƙf vƈ;śx]g ;ślxtf, cfotg;śx]g ;ślxtf, wft';śx]g c;ślxtf, t]
wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx Psĕb;lx cfotg]lx
ƀfb;lx wft"lx c;ślxtf. Pj+ ;];ljţf)wft";'lk. klŝ;d'ƍfbś];'
c;ţLej]g o] wƙf»k]0 t] wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx b;xfotg]lx ;áń;lx wft"lx c;ślxtf. pkfbfwƙ]lx o] wƙf»k]0 t]
wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx Psĕb;xfotg]lx ;ų/;lx wft"lx c;ślxtflt Od] rųf/á jf/f ck'Ƒlj;];f ;dfo]j. tŴ
rŋ'ljţf)jf/] ƀfb;xLlt % ljţf)wft'oá jş]ŷf cj;];flx wft"lx ;];f % ljţf)wft'oáj vƈfotg;śx]lx ;ślxtf,
wft';śx]g]j c;ślxtf. cj;];flx ƀfb;lx wft"lx c;ślxtflt. P; goá ;];ljţf)wft";'lk.
b'lto] tLxfotg]xLlt ¿kfotgwƙfotgdgfotg]lx. c;lţƔƪnás]þ lx ¿kfotgwƙfotgj;]g ƀ] cfotgflg
pkklųejefj]g kflńo+ cfutflg, t] kg vƈ]lx ;ślxtflg, cfotgwft";' c;ślxtflg. tbj;];flg gj ¿kfotgflg,
127

tflg t]x]j r ƀLlx dgfotgwƙfotg]lx r c;ślxtflg gfd xálƃ. gjlx wft"xLlt ¿kwft'wƙwft"lx ;Ƹź ;ųlx
ljţf)wft"lx.
tlto] b;xLlt ¿kfotgwƙfotgjş]lx. ;áń;xLlt ¿kwft'wƙwft'jşĕlx. clgbƧg;ƍl#flg gfd gj
cáńfl/sĕotgflg, tflg t]lx vƈ;śx]g ;ślxtflg, cfotgwft';śx]lx r c;ślxtflg, ¿kfotgwƙfotgflg ƀ]lk ;];]lx
cfotgwft"lx c;ślxtflg gfd xálƃ.
rt'Ŵ] Psĕb;xLlt mþáŪƑfotgjş]lx mþáŪƑfotgƧ pkfbfwƙ]lx cfotgfbL;'
c;ślxtųf. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ ;ślxt]gc;ślxtkb] goá.

c;ślxt]g;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
c;ślxt]g;ślxtkb] kg oflg kbflg ljţf±)ëg jf cáńfl/s¿k]g jf c;lƙƧ+ wƙfotg]sb];+ bLk]lƃ, tfg]j
lglŹ;Lolƃ, tflg kg j]bgfbLg+ ltŰ+ vƈfg+, b'ŋ;ŝjlştfg+ ltŰ+ ;ŝfg+, k;fbdgájlştfg+ ;áń;Ɖ+ OlƇofg+,
cljşĕ;řf/mþƧj]bgftŲ'kfbfgsƙejhĕlth/fd/);ásb'ŋbádgƧ'kfof;j;]g r'Ź;kŝofsĕ/kbfgť j;]g j]lbtƑflg, g
¿kŋƈfbLg+. t]g]j cŪsyfo+ _
ætoá vƈf tyf ;ŝf, OlƇoflg r ;áń;.
kbflg kŝofsĕ/], r'Ź;"kl/ r'Ź;Ķ
æ;dƸt; kbf xálƃ, ±uëfŞs]þ;' b;Ʃy.
b'j] r"ńƃ/b'sĕ, cŪ xálƃ dxƃ/fÆltĶ ‘wft'0cŪ0179’ _
Pj+ pŹfgufyf j'ųf. Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o+ vƈkb]g c;ślxt+, cfotgwft'kb]lx ;ślxt+, tƧ]j tLlx lj;];g]lx ljl;ŪƧ
vƈfbLlx ;śxá j'ŝlt. sy+Ġ j]bgfŋƈ]g o] wƙf vƈ;śx]g c;ślxtf, cfotgwft';śx]lx ;ślxtf, t] wƙf sltlx
vƈ]lx, cfotg]lx, wft"lx ;ślxtfĠ t] wƙf c;řt+ vƈtá &k]ŷf tLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of ;ślxtflt.
tŶfo+ goá _ j]bgfŋƈ]g lx lgƑfg+, ;'v'd¿k+, ;ţf;řf/f r vƈ;śx]g
c;ślxtf x'ŷf
wƙfotgwƙwft';śx]g ;ślxtf. t];' lgƑfg+ vƈ;śx+ g
uŞlt, ;];f tLlx ¿k;ţf;řf/ŋƈ]lx ;śx+ uŞlƃ,
cfotgwft'oá kg]Ŵ wƙfotgwƙwft"g+ j;]g]j ;ƑŴ j]lbtƑf Ot/f;+ c;Ƙjf, Od];' r lgƑfglƕ ;śx+ uŞlt. t]g]j
lx æc;řt+ vƈtá &k]ŷfÆlt j'ų+. tƧfodŴá _ vƈ;śx] Pj c;řt+ &k]ŷf, g Ot/;śx];"lt Pj+ ;ţfŋƈfbL;'lk
oáhgf j]lbtƑf. co+ kg lj;];á _ hËljltlƇo]g o] wƙf»k]0 t] wƙf ƀLlx j]bgf;ţfŋƈ]lx ;ślxtf,
¿kf¿khËljltlƇo]lx lgƑfgj]bgf;ţfljţf)ŋƈf vƈ;śx]g c;ślxtf, t];' r lgƑfgj]bgf;ţfj cfotgwft';śx]g
;ślxtflt. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ c;ślxt]g;ślxtkb] goá.

;ślxt]g;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
;ślxt]g;ślxtkb] kg oflg kbflg ;řf/]sb];+ cţ]g c;lƙƧ+ bLk]lƃ j]bg]sb];+ jf ;'v'd¿k+ jf ;Ź]sb];+
jf, tfg]j lglŹ;Lolƃ. vƈfotgwft";' Pslƕ s]ĕŪf;+ ;sn]g ux]ŷf l&tkbflg g o'şlƃ. tflg kg lƀƉ+
;d'bodƮ;ŝfg+, kƉ/l;lƇofg+, Psĕb;klŝkbfbLgť j;]g j]lbtƑflg. Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o+ cųgf vƈflbj;]g
;ślxt]lx vƈflbtá ;ślxt+, tƧ]j k&d+ pźkbƧ k'g vƈfbLlx ;śxá j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ cflbkb] goá _ ;d'bo;ŝ]g o] wƙf vƈfbLlx tLlx ;śx]lxlk ;ślxtf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf vƈfbLlx
tLlxlk ;ślxtf, t] wƙf Ps]þg vƈ]g Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of ;ślxtflt. ;d'bo;ŝ]g lx tŲfjşĕ ;];f ;řf/f
vƈfbLlx ;śx]lx ;ślxtf, k'g t]lx r tŲfj ;ślxtf, ;f r k'g ;řf/ŋƈwƙfotgwƙwft"lx ;ślxtf. ;];];'lk P;]j
goá. co+ ;ślxt]g;ślxtkb] goá.

c;ślxt]gc;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
c;ślxt]gc;ślxtkb] kg oflg kbflg kťŋƈufxs]þlx b'ŋ;ŝfbLlx, ljţf±)ëg ;Ƹź ;'v'd¿kufxs]þlx
cr]tl;sĕbLlx r kb]lx ljjlştflg ¿kŋƈfbLlg, tfg]j lglŹ;Lolƃ. Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o+ k&d+ pź]g ¿kŋƈflbkb]g
vƈflbtá c;ślxt+, o+ t]lx c;ślxt+, tƧ]j k'g vƈfbLlx c;śxá j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ Pskboáhgf _ ¿kŋƈ]g o] wƙf vƈfbLlx tLlxlk c;śx]lx c;ślxtf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf vƈfbLlx
tLlx c;ślxtf, t] wƙf Ps]þg vƈ]g Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx c;ślxtf. ¿kŋƈ]g lx rųf/á vƈf, lgƑfgť
vƈ;śx]g c;ślxtf, cfotgfbLlx kg ljţf)d]j &k]ŷf j]bgfboá wƙfotg]g ¿kŋƈ]sb];]g ;ślxtflt ljţf)d]j
tLlxlk vƈ;śxfbLlx ¿kŋƈ]g c;ślxt+ gfd. t]g k'g ljţf±)ëg ;Ƹź ;lgƑfgf rųf/á vƈf vƈfbLlx c;ślxtf, t]
;Ƒ]lk k'g ljţf)e"t]g Ps]þg vƈ]g Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx c;ślxtflt. co+ c;ślxt]gc;ślxtkb] goá.

128

;ƕoáuljƍoáukbŴjŰgf
;ƕoáuljƍoáukb] kg oflg kbflg lgƑfg]g, ¿k]g jf ldƧ];' ;ų;' ljţf)wft";' Psĕolk cljƍo'ų] c¿kwƙ]
ksĕ;]lƃ, t];+ wƙfotgb'ŋ;ŝfbLg+ lgŹ];á g ;Ƙjlt. sĕlxlr kg ljţf)wft"lx ljƍo'ųfg+ ¿kldƧf¿kwƙfg+,
s]þjnfgf/ƙ)fg+ jf ;sn¿kŋƈfg+ jf ksĕ;sĕg+ ¿kej¿kŋƈs';nflbkbfg+ ;ƕoáukb] Pj lgŹ];á g ;Ƙjlt, ljƍoáukb]
kg ;Ƙjlt. c¿kŋƈfg+ kg kŝ]s+þ, lƀƉ+, ltŰ+, tb]sb];fg+ jf tb'eo]lk ;Ƙjlt. ært"lx ;ƕoá±uëf, rt"lx
ljƍoá±uëf, ;ef±uëf lj;ef±uëfÆlt lx jrgtá rt"lx c¿kŋƈ]x]j ;efufg+ Ps;ƃfg] Psŋ±)ëj pƍƉfg+ c¿kŋƈfg+ Pj
cţdţ+ ;ƕoá±uëf nưlt. ¿kwƙfg+ kg ¿k]g, lgƑfg]g jf, lgƑfgƧ r ¿k]g ;Ƹź ;ƕoá±uëf gfd glŴ, tyf
¿klgƑfgfg+ c¿kŋƈ]lx. lj;efuf lx t] t];+ oyf c¿kŋƈfg+ ¿klgƑfg]lx, Pj+ leƉ;ƃflgs]þlx gfgŋl)s]þlx
c¿kwƙ]lxlk ;Ƹź glŴo]j. t]lk lx t];+ ;ƃfgŋ)lj;efutfo lj;efuf Pj. co+ kg lj;efutf Ow ;fdţtá g
ulxtf t];+ clj;];]g ;ƕoáuƧflk ;Ƙjf. oŴ kg lj;];]ŷf rŋ'ljţf)t+;ƕo'ųfboá lglŋųf, tŴfolƕ lj;efutf
ulxtf. oŴ kg o] clgźfl/tlj;];gf, tŴflk ;Ƒyf ;ƕoáunŋ)+ g ;Ƙjlt. ;á r tƧ Psƃ]g lj;ef±uëflt Ow
uƞlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ ¿kŋƈá s]þglr ;ƕo'ųáltĠ glŴ. sltlx ljƍo'ųáĠ rt"lx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx
ljƍo'ųá, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųá. P; goá rŋĕotgflbcgf/ƙ±)ë;'lk. ;f/ƙ±)ë;' kg j]bgfŋƈá
tLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx ;ƕo'ųá, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ;ƕo'ųá. Ps]þg vƈ]g b;lx
cfotg]lx b;lx wft"lx ljƍo'ųá, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųá. P; goá ;ţfŋƈfbL;'lk.
tŴ Ps]þgflt dgfotg]g. ;ųxLlt ljţf)wft"lx. s]þlxrLlt wƙfotgwƙwft'kl/ofkƉ]lx j]bgf;ţf;řf/]lx.
b'ltogo] tLxLlt cųfg+ &k]ŷf ;];]lx c¿kŋƈ]lx. s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųált wƙfotgwƙwft";' ;ţf;řf/]lx. s]þlxlr
ljƍo'ųált ¿klgƑfg]lx. Pj+ pkl/lk ;ƑŴ oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+. ;];+ j'ųgod]j. co+ kg lj;];á æ;d'bodƮ;ŝfboá
Psĕo dgáljţf)wft'of ;ƕo'ųf, clwdáŋ]ĕ kg dgáwft'dgáljţf)wft"lx ƀLx]jfÆlt. co+ ;ƕoáuljƍoáukb] goá.

;ƕo'ų]gljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
;ƕo'ų]gljƍo'ųkb] kg ;ƕoáuf/xkb];' oflg kbflg wƙwft'of ;ƕo'ų] wƙ], ljţf)ť cţ]g c;lƙƧ+ bLk]lƃ,
t];d]j lgŹ];á. tflg kg rt'Ɖ+ c¿kŋƈkbfg+, dgfotgƧ, ;ųƉ+ ljţf)wft"g+, dgák]ŋĕj;]g lƀƉ+ OlƇofg+,
ljţf)mþƧj]bgfg+ ltŰ+ klŝ;d'ƍfbkbfg+, mþƧ;ųsƧ, cb'ŋd;'v;ljtŊþ;ljrf/pk]ŋĕ;xutfg+ j;]g ltŰ+ ltskbfg+,
;ųdxƃ/b'skbfbLgť j;]g j]lbtƑflg, g Ot/];+ c;Ƙjf. t]g]j cŪsyfo+ _
ærųf/á vƈfotgť Ps+þ,
ƀ] OlƇof wft'kbflg ;ų.
toá klŝf cy mþƧ;ųs+þ,
lts]þ toá ;ų dxƃ/] r.
Ps+þ ;ljtŊ+þ ;ljrf/d]s+þ,
o'ų+ pk]ŋĕo r Psd]jfÆltĶ ‘wft'0cŪ0306’ _
pŹfgufyf j'ųf. Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o] wƙf k&d+ pźkb]g ;ƕo'ųf, t]lx o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t];+ vƈfbLlx ljƍoá±uëf
j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ j]bgfŋƈ]g o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t] wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g
;ųlx wft"lx ljƍo'ųf, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųf. rŋ'ljţf)wft'of o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t]lx wƙ]lx o]
wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t] wƙf g s]þlxlr vƈfotg]lx ljƍo'ųf, Psĕo kg wft'of ljƍo'ųflt Pj+ ;ƑŴ oáhgf j]lbtƑf.
tŴ t] wƙflt ¿klgƑfgwƙf, t] j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų]lx ljƍo'ųf. Ps]þgflt dgfotg]g. b'ltogo] t] wƙflt
;ƍLltsĕ t] wƙf. g s]þlxrLlt k&d+ pź+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'+ &k]ŷf ;];f %ljţf)wft", t+;ƕo'ųf, ¿k+, lgƑfgť. t]lx
;Ƒ];+ vƈfotgfg+ ;ślxtųf g s]þlxlr vƈ]lx, cfotg]lx jf ljƍo'ųf. g lx ;o+ cųgf ljƍo'şlt, ;ƕo'şlt jflt.
Psĕoflt rŋ'ljţf)wft'of. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ ;ƕo'ų]gljƍo'ųkb] goá.

ljƍo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkbŴjŰgf
ljƍo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkb] kg ljƍo'ų]g ;ƕo'ųá gfd wƙá glŴ, b];gf;ƕbdųfo kg dá#ƕ]t+ kb+ pź+, t]g]j
kflńo+ ;Ƒjf/];'lk æglŴ glŴÆ Oŝ]j j'ų+. ¿kŋƈflbcgf/ƙ)wƙ]lx ljƍo'ųf rųf/á vƈf, t];ť cţ]lx ;ƕoá±uëf
glŴ. j]bgfbLlxlk ¿klgƑfgfbLlg ljƍo'ųflg, t];ť s]þglr ;ƕoá±uëfj gŴLlt. co+ ljƍo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkb] goá.

;ƕo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkbŴjŰgf

129

;ƕo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkb] kg oflg kbflg ¿k]g c;lƙƧ+ c¿kŋƈ]sb];d]j bLk]lƃ, t];d]j lgŹ];á, g
¿kf¿k;lƙƧfg+, ;Ƒ¿kŋƈbLksĕg+ t];+ ;ƕo'ųtfoáufefjf. ;Ƒf¿kŋƈ]gflk lx s';nflbgf cţá ;ƕo'ųá gfd glŴ. Ob+
x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o] wƙf k&d+ pźf, cųgf ;ƕo'ų]g k'g ;ƕo'ųf, t];ţ]j vƈfbLlx ;ƕoá±uëf j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ j]bgfŋƈ]g o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t] wƙf tLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g
;ųlx wft"lx ;ƕo'ųf, Ps]þgfotg]g»k]0 s]þlxlr ;ƕo'ųf. ;d'bo;ŝ]g o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf,
t] wƙf tLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo dgáljţf)wft'of ;ƕo'ųf, Ps]þg vƈ]g Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr
;ƕo'ųflt. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ ;ƕo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkb] goá.

ljƍo'ų]gljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
ljƍo'ų]gljƍo'ųkb] kg ;ƕoáukb] j'ųkbfg]j lglŹ;Lolƃ. Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o] wƙf k&d+ pźkb]g
ljƍo'ų]lx k'g ljƍo'ųf, t];+ vƈfbLlx ljƍoá±uëf j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ ¿kŋƈ]g o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t] wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g
;ųlx wft"lx ljƍo'ųf, Ps]þgfotg]g»k]0 s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųf. j]bgfŋƈ]g o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t]lx wƙ]lx o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf,
t] wƙf Ps]þg vƈ]g b;xfotg]lx b;lx wft"lx ljƍo'ųf, Ps]þg»k]0 s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųflt. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+
ljƍo'ų]gljƍo'ųkb] goá.

;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkb] kg ;ślxt]g;ślxtkb] lglŹŪflg ;d'bo;ŝflbkbfg]j lglŹ;Lolƃ. Ob+ x]Ŵ
nŋ)+ _ o] wƙf k&d+ pźkb]g vƈfbLlx tLlxlk ;ślxtf, t];+ vƈfbLlx ;ƕoá±uëf, ljƍoá±uëf r j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ ;d'bo;ŝ]g o] wƙf vƈfbLlx tLlxlk ;śx]lx ;ślxtf, t] wƙf tLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx
wft"lx ;ƕo'ųf, Ps]þg vƈ]g Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ;ƕo'ųf. Ps]þg vƈ]g b;xfotgwft"lx ljƍo'ųf,
Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųf. OlŴlƇo]g o] wƙf vƈfbLlx tLlxlk ;ślxtf, t] wƙf g s]þlxlr ;ƕo'ųf,
rt"lx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx ljƍo'ųf, Ps]þg»k]0 s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųflt.
tŴ Ps]þgflt dgfotg]g. Ps]þg vƈ]gflt ;řf/ŋƈ]g. s]þlxrLlt ;řf/ŋƈ] tŲfo wƙfotgwƙwft";'
tŲfj]bgf;ţflx. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ ;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkb] goá.

;ƕo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
;ƕo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkb] kg ;ƕo'ų]g;ƕo'ųkb] lglŹŪflg j]bgfŋƈflbkbfg]j lglŹ;Lolƃ. Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+
_ o] wƙf k&d+ pźkb]g ;ƕo'ųf, t];+ vƈfbLlx ;śxá, c;śxá r j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ j]bgfŋƈ]g o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t] wƙf tLlx vƈ]lx ƀLlx cfotg]lx cŪlx wft"lx ;ślxtf, ;];]lx
c;ślxtf. ljţf)ŋƈ]g o] wƙf ;ƕo'ųf, t] wƙf tLlx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of ;ślxtf, ;];]lx
c;ślxtflt.
tŴ tLxLlt ;ţfŋƈfbLlx tLlx. t]lx j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųf. ƀLxLlt wƙfotgdgfotg]lx. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j.
co+ ;ƕo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkb] goá.

c;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkbŴjŰgf
c;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkb] kg oflg kbflg ;'v'd¿k+ cljţf)+, c¿k+ ;ljţf)+ jf, s]þjn+ c¿k+ jf
y"n¿kƧlk s]þjn+ jf, ;'v'd¿k+ bLk]lƃ, t];d]j lgŹ];á Ob+ x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o] wƙf k&d+ pźwƙ]lx vƈfbLlx tLlxlk
c;ślxtf, t];+ vƈfbLlx ;ƕoá±uëf, ljƍoá±uëf r j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ ¿kŋƈ]g o] wƙf vƈfbLlx c;ślxtf, t] wƙf tLlx vƈ]lx ;ƕo'ųf, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of
s]þlxlr ;ƕo'ųf, Ps]þg vƈ]g b;lx cfotgwft"lx ljƍo'ųf, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųf. Pj+
wƙfotgOlŴlƇofbL;'lk oáhgf.
c¿kej]g o] wƙf vƈfbLlx c;ślxtf, t] ;ƕo'ųflt glŴ. t] rt"lx vƈ]lx Ps]þgfotg]g ;ųlx wft"lx
ljƍo'ųf, Ps]þgfotg]g Psĕo wft'of s]þlxlr ljƍo'ųf. Pj+ Olźkfbs';nflbkb];'lk oáhgf.
tŴ ¿kŋƈ]g ljţf)Ƨ]j tLlxlk c;ślxtųf tƧ tLlx j]bgfbLlx ;ƕoá±uëf, Ot/]lx r ljƍoá±uëf `ftƑá. ;];+
;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ c;ślxt]g;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųkb] goá.

130

ljƍo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkbŴjŰgf
ljƍo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkb] kg oflg kbflg s]þjnfg+ ;f/ƙ)fg+, cgf/ƙ)fg+ jf wƙfg+ ksĕ;sĕlg r
;efjhĕlte"ldsĕn;ƃfgj;]g leƉtfo s]þlxlr c¿kŋƈ]lx
ljƍo'ųfg+ cgf/ƙ)wƙldƧf¿kŋƈfg+ ksĕ;sĕlg
b'ŋ;ŝcƓfstkl/ųctLtcŢųflbkbflg,
t];d]j
lgŹ];á
Ot/];+
wƙfotghËljltlƇogfd¿k;ńfotghĕlth/fd/)cŢųalxźfclgbƧgcƍl#gx]t'cfbLg+ t];+ s]þglr ljƍoáuf;Ƙjf. Ob+
x]Ŵ nŋ)+ _ o] wƙf k&d+ pźkb]g ljƍo'ųf, t];+ vƈfbLlx ;śxá, c;śxá r j'ŝlt.
tŶfo+ goá _ ¿kŋƈ]g o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t] wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx ƀLxfotg]lx cŪlx wft"lx ;ślxtf, Ps]þg
vƈ]g b;lx cfotgwft"lx c;ślxtf. b'ŋ;ŝ]g o] wƙf ljƍo'ųf, t] wƙf rt"lx vƈ]lx ƀLxfotg]lx ƀLlx wft"lx
;ślxtf. tŴ b'ŋ;ŝ]g ljƍo'ųf gfd nás'ų/lrųr]tl;sĕlg, t] r wƙf j]bgfŋƈflbrt'ŋƈ]lx dgáljţf)wƙwft'j;]g
ƀLlx wft"lx ;ślxtflt. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. co+ ljƍo'ų]g;ślxtf;ślxtkb] goá. cod]Ŵ ;ř]ktá ljeśgo]g ;Ƹź
cŴlgŞoá, ljŴf/á kg wft'syfkflńcŪsyf;' ‘wft'012 wft'0cŪ01-2’ ux]tƑált.
dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

wft'syfdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

4= k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ
PssdfltsŴjŰgf
Obflg k'Ʈnkţlųdfltsĕ;+jŰgfgoá xált. tŴ cg'ųfgŴtá tfj % kţlųoált PŴ æcflrŋlt b];]lt kţk]lt
kŪk]tLÆlt ‘;+0lg0 2=20’ cfutŪfg] ;ƆƧgf ksĕ;gf kţlų gfd. æ;'kţų+ dťkL&Ælƃ ‘kf/f0 269’ cfutŪfg]
&kgf lglŋkgf kţlų gfd, Ow peolƕ jũlt. % kţlųoált lx % kţfkgf % ;ƆƧgf ksĕ;gfltlk, % &kgf
lglŋkgfltlk j'ų+ xált. gfdkţlųo]j lx t] t] ljşdfgfljşdfg] wƙ] ;ƆƧ]tLltlk. t]g t]g s]ĕŪf;]g &k]tLltlk.
vƈkţųLltcflb kg ;ř]ktá tf;+ kţųLg+ ;¿kbƧg+. tŴ vƈfg+ ævƈfÆlt kţfkgf ;ƆƧgf ksĕ;gf r &kgf lglŋkgf
r vƈkţlų gfd»k]0 k'Ʈnfg+ æk'ƮnfÆlt kţfkgf ;ƆƧgf ksĕ;gf r &kgf lglŋkgf r k'Ʈnkţlų gfd. Odf Pj
% kţlųoá ljşlƃ. cţf;lƕ ;ƙ'ltk/dŴsyfg+ kţųLg+ cgƃųf, pknŋ)j;]g kg kwfgefjtá r Ptfj j'ųf.
kflńd'ųsgo]g kg ;Ƒ;śflxsĕ ljşdfgkţlųcfboá % gfdkţlųoá cŪsyf;' ‘k'0k0 cŪ0dfltsĕjŰgf 1’ cfutf, tf
r x]Ūf j'ųflt Ow g j'ųf. tf;' Ow k'Ʈnkţlųkb]g cljşdfgkţlų, ;];]lx ljşdfgkţlų rflt ƀ] Pj nưlƃ.
cŪsyfd'ųs]þg kg cfrl/ogo]g ck/flk % kţlųoá _ pkfbfkţlų pklgwfkţlų ;dáwfgkţlų
pklglŋųkţlų tşĕkţlų ;ƃltkţųLlt, of æcŴkţųLÆlt j'ŝlt. tŴ of vƈkťs+þ pkfbfo lgƧfo ;ƙtf ;ųflbsĕ,
cśflg pkfbfo /yflbsĕ, rƆflbkl/jųfboá pkfbfo sĕnlb;flbsĕ, t+t+e"tlgldų+,
efjgflj;];ť pkfbfo
sl;)flbpƮxklefulgldųflbsĕlt co+ Pj¿kf ;efjwƙ]lx Psų]g jf ;lŞsŪk/dŴ]g cg'knư;efjf pkfbfkţlų
gfd. kţfk]tƑŪ]g r];f kţlų j'ųf, g kg kţfkgŪ]g. of tƧ tƧŴƧ kţfkgf, ;f cljşdfgkţlųo]j.
of kg cţ+ k&dfƸb pklgwfo ck]lŋŷf b'lto+ /Ƨ+ bL#+ b"/+ ;lƃslƃcflbsĕ tbţfk]ŋ"klgwf,
%ųkf)Lltcflbsĕ xŴut"klgwf, s'ůnLltcflbsĕ ;ƕo'ų"klgwf, wţ;slƃ cflbsĕ ;df/álkt"klgwf, OƆ;fnu'xfltcflbsĕ
cljb"/ut"klgwf,
;'jŰjŰáltcflbsĕ klefu"klgwf, Ɣfƪ)ufdáltcflbsĕ tƑx'n"klgwf,
dl)sslƃcflbsĕ
tlƑl;Ū"klgwflt Pjdflb cg]sƍsĕ/f kţfkgf, co+ pklgwfkţlų gfd.
wţ/f;Lltcflbsĕ kg ;dáwfgkţlų gfd. k'l/dƧ k'l/dƧ pklglŋlkŷf ƀ] tL)Lltcflbsĕ pklglŋųkţlų
gfd. t+t+;efjlglƧtf kyjLcflbsĕ tşĕkţlų gfd. cf;Llts]ĕltcflbsĕ kg ;ƃltkţlų gfd.
cŪsyfd'ųs]þg]j cfrl/ogo]g ck/flk wƙslysĕlbsĕ lsŝkţlų, ls;y"nflbsĕ ;Ůfgkţlų, OlŴk'l/;flbsĕ
lnśkţlų, sĕdfjr/flbsĕ, s]ĕ;nsĕlbsĕ r e"ldkţlų, ltƧá gf±uëfltcflbsĕ kŝųkţlų, lg/áwflbsĕ c;řtkţlų rflt %
kţlųoá.
Ptf;' kg ƀfb;;' tşĕkţlų, Psŝf e"ldkţlų, c;řtkţlų r ljşdfgkţlų;řftf gfdkţlų, tbţf
k/dŴfj;];f, kg cŴkţųLlt bLlktf cljşdfgflbkţlųoá rflt. co+ tfj]Ŵ cg'ųfgŴtá ;+jŰgf.
cŴlgŞoá kg]Ŵflk kflńgo]g]j ;Ƹź xált, g ljgf kfƸń tƧ jų'd;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜųf kflńoť oƨf cflbtá kť
kţlųoá, tbŴe"tf vƈfboá r x]Ūf ljeśƍs/±)ë lgƍb];tá slytflt tf Ow ælsųfjtf vƈfg+ vƈkţlų, ofjtf
kťŋƈf ¿kŋƈáÆltcflbgf ;ř]k]g]j lglŹŪf, tf r]Ŵflk j'ųŴf. k'Ʈnkţlų kg x]Ūf g j'ųflt ælsųfjtf k'Ʈnfg+
k'ƮnkţlųĠ ;doljd'ųá, c;doljd'ųáÆltcflbgf Pssĕlbe]b]g ofj b;sĕ b;wf dflts+þ &k]ŷf ljŴf/]g]j ljeųf, ;f r
`ftƑke]btá cj'ŝdfgf b'lƑţ]Ɯf, tƨf k'Ʈnkţlųof Pj r]Ŵ kflńgofg';f/]g ;ř]ktá cŴlgŞoá xált, ;á r]Ŵ dfltsĕo+

131

j'ų] ;Ƒk'Ʈn] cg'źl/ŷf `ftƑfg+ b'lƑţ]Ɯfg+ k'Ʈnfg+ Pssĕlbe]btáj dflts+þ pźl/ŷf ljehgj;]g ;ř]ktáj xált. sy+Ġ
æ;doljd'ųá c;doljd'ųá, s'ƍwƙá cs'ƍwƙá, r]tgfeƑá cg'/ŋ)feƑá, eo"k/tá ceo"k/tá, eƑfudgá ceƑfudgá,
lgotá clgotá, klkƉs]ĕ mþn] l&tá, ;d;L;L l&tsƍL, ;átfkƉá ;ųŋų'k/dá s]ĕn+s]ĕná PsaLhË, ;sbfufdL, cgfufdL
cƃ/fkl/lgƑfoL pkxŝkl/lgƑfoL c;řf/kl/lgƑfoL ;;řf/kl/lgƑfoL pź+;átá cslgŪufdL, c/xfÆlt Pssdfltsĕ.
tŴ oá cƍg+ lgƑų]t'+ o'ųkųsĕn] ¿kf¿k;dfklų;řft]lx cŪlx ljdáŋ]lx kŝgLswƙtá ljd'lŝŷf tL;' d±Ʈë;'
o]g s]þglr oyf;s+þ cf;j] ±vëk]ŷf j'lŪtá, co+ ;doljd'ųá gfd. æPsŝ] cf;jf kl/ŋË)fÆltcflbjrgtá ‘k'0k01’ lx
cŪ;dfklųnfeL k'y'şgá jf vL)f;já jf Ow g ulxtá, ;dfklųnflegá kg mþnŪ;]vfj ulxtflt j]lbtƑf.
;'ŋljkƧsvL)f;já, ;Ƒ]lk r cl/of dƮljdáŋ+ ;ƈfo c;doljd'ųf gfd. aflx/fglŤ cŪƉ+ ;dfkųLg+ ;dfkşƃƧ
kljj]sŪfgnfeflb;doálk clŴ, jųs/)sĕnflbc;doálk clŴ. dƮljdáŋ]g ljd'ŝgƧ kg tflb;á ;doá jf c;doá jf
glŴ, oƧ ;źf anjtL, ljkƧgf r cf/źf, tƧ uŞƃƧ jf e'ŧƃƧ jf dƮmþnklj]±wëf gfd g xátLlt glŴ, tƨf ;Ƒ]
cl/of cl/oljdáŋ] c;doljd'ųflt j]lbtƑf. k'l/dkb]lk nálso;dfklųţ]j ;ƈfo ;]vf ;doljd'ųf gfd hĕtf.
cjl;efjf cŪ;dfklųnfeL kg k'y'şgá, ;átfkƉ;sbfufldgá ƀ] ;]vf cŪ;dfkƸų ;ƈfo s'ƍwƙá gfd.
kl/xfgwƙáltlk b'ljwf Pj. cgfufldcfboá ;'ƍxLg;dflwkfl/klƅsųf jl;efjf ;dfklųnfeL k'y'şgá, cl/of r
nás'ų/wƙ]lk ;ƈfo cs'ƍwƙá gfd. ckl/xfgwƙált t] Pj. r]tgfeƑált r]tgf;řft]g ´fg;dfklųjńŧg]g
ckl/xfƸg cfklşt'+ eƑá. oá lx ¿kf¿kŢĕg];' cflrŰjl;tfo r]tgf;řftfo ´fg;dfklųof lg/ƃ/+ jńŧdfgá t]lx g
kl/xfolt, cjńŧdfgá r kl/xfolt, co+ jńŧdfgá r]tgfeƑá gfd. cg'/ŋ)feƑált ´fgƧ pksĕ/fg'ksĕ/wƙ]
hĕlgŷf cg'/ŋ)fo cjńŧdfgálk ckl/xfƸg cfklşt'+ eƑá, P;á r k'l/dtá anjt/á, cflrŰjl;gá kţf;ƕbfo
pksĕ/fg'ksĕ/wƙ] hĕlgŷf tbg'¿k+ klkşgtált j]lbtƑá.
eo"k/tált eo]g kfktá pk/tá lj/tá ;]±vëf, sƠf)k'y'şgá r. t];' klŞdá b'Ʈltjũlsn];pkjfb;řft]lx
rt"lx eo]lx kfktá cá/dlt, ;]±vëf b'Ʈltjş]lx, ckfo]lx d'ųųf. vL)f;já kg ceo"k/tá gfd ;d'lŞƉeoųf,
pkjfbtá kg cá/ldtƑá.
ceƑfudgált ;ƙųlgofdfudgƧ ceƑá, o] cfgƃl/o;řft]g sƙfj/±)ëg,
lgotldŞflblŪ;řft]g
lsn];fj/±)ëg, cx]t'sb'x]t'skl;lƈ;řft]g ljkfsĕj/±)ëg r ;dƉfutf, a'źfbL;' r ;źf/lxtf, dƮefjgfo r
pų/s'?sĕboá ljo cŞlƆsĕ,
k'Ƒ"klgƧo/lxtf r, ;Ƒ]t] ceƑfudgf gfd. ljk/Ltf eƑfudgf gfd.
kťfgƃl/olgotldŞflblŪsĕ lg/oudg], cŪ cl/ok'Ʈnf cg'kfbfkl/lgƑfgfbL;'
lgotf gfd. cj;];k'Ʈnf
clgaźultstfo clgotf gfd, pų/s'?sĕ kg ;'ultlgotflk ldŞų;ƙųlgofdƧ]j Owflwƍ]tųf ælgotfÆlt g j'ųf.
dƮ;dśL k'Ʈná dƮŋ±)ë mþnŴfo klkƉs]ĕ gfd, mþn;dśL mþnfg'ƍlųolƕ mþn] l&tá gfd.
oƧ kg ck'Ƒfrl/d+ cf;jkl/ofbfgť xált hËljtkl/ofbfgť, co+ ;d;L;L gfd. ;á r ltlj±wëf xált
Ol/ofky;d;L;L /áu;d;L;L hËljt;d;L;Llt. tŴ oá rt";' Ol/ofk±yë;' PsƸƨ ljkƧg+ kŪk]ŷf c/xų+ kŷf tlƨţ]j
Ol/ofk±yë kl/lgƑflt, co+ Ol/ofky;d;L;L gfd. oá kg Ps+þ /áu+ kŷf cƃá/á±uë Pj ljkƧg+ kŪk]ŷf c/xų+ kŷf
t]gj] /á±uëg kl/lgƑflt, co+ /áu;d;L;L gfd. oƧ kg lsn];;L;;řftf cljşĕ, c/xųd±Ʈëg kjų;L;;řft+
hËljltlƇoť r'ltlrų]g ;d+ kl/ofbfg+ uŞlt, co+ hËljt;d;L;L gfd. syldb+ ;d+ xátLltĠ jf/;dtfo. oƸƨ lx
jf/] d±Ʈëg lsn];] ±vëlkt]
kŝj]ŋ)`f)flg kjųlƃ, tƧfgƃ/d]j kl/lgƑfotá Odfo jf/;dtfo Ob+
peo;L;kl/ofbfglƕ ;d+ xált gfd, cod]j hËljt;d;L;L Owflwƍ]tá.
l&tsƍLlt l&tá sƍá l&tsƍá, ƩfƧ cŴLlt l&tsƍL, sƍlƛ ljgƧdfglƛ sƍ+ &k]t'+ ;dŴált cŴá.
;r] lx o];+ dƮ;dlśŋ±)ë sƍljgf;á ej]Ɯ, g]j tfj sƍá ljgƧ]Ɯ, ofjfo+ oyf;s+þ mþn+ g ;lŞs/átLlt t]
ljgƧdfglƕ sƍ+ &k]ƃLlt l&tslƍgá gfd hĕtflt. lsťflk sƍljgf;gsĕn] ;f;g+ glŴ, uts]ĕls]þ lx sĕn] sƍljgf;á
xált, Pj+ ;ƃ]lk dƮfgƃ/mþnƧ cgƃ/fo+ bLk]t'+ Ob+ ce"tlƕ sĕ/)+ cfx+.
;átfkƉált lgƑfg;d'ŹlgƉtfo ;át;řftƧ dƮƧ k&d;dśL j'ŝlt, Ow kg mþnŪá clwƍ]tá. tƧ]j r
ke]bbƧgŴ+ æ;ųŋų'k/dáÆltcflb j'ų+. ;ųjf/f k/df cƧ ej"kkųLlt ;ųŋų'k/dá, ttá k/+ cŪd+ ej+ gflbotLlt
cŴá. ;átfkƉá lx oá ;ųŋų'+ b]j];', dg'Ƨ];' r kl;Ƹƈ ux]ŷf ;ųd] ej] b'ŋƧƃ+ s/ált, co+ ;ųŋų'k/dá gfd.
s'ntá s'n+ ejtá ej+ uŞtLlt s]ĕn+s]ĕná. ;á lx b]jdg'Ƨj;]g ƀ] ultoá ej] ;+;l/ŷf b'ŋƧƃ+ s/ált, co+ s]ĕn+s]ĕná
gfd. sƙkl;lƈof Ps+þ sƙ+ lsn];aLh+ cƧflt PsaLhË. ;á lx Pslƨţ]j ej] vL)f;já xált. Ƹs kgƧ e]bƧ
lgofdslƃĠ ljkƧgfleţfe]bf. ;átfkƉ];' lx oá ljkƧgfo kdųá, ;á ;ųŋų'k/dá xált. oá lslť cƍdųá, ;á
s]ĕn+s]ĕná. oá kg ljkƧgfo cltljo cƍdųá, ;á PsaLhË xált. o] kg cleljo kdųf jũŢĕ;of
cgfylklůslj;fvf;Ŋĕboá, t] k'gƍ'g+ jũƸƨo]j ljr/ƃf cflbtá kŪfo % b]jnás]þ cá;fk]ŷf Ɣƪnás]þ;'lk oyfŊþd+ lgƑlųŷf
cslgŪ] &ŷf kl/lgƑlƃ, g t] Ow ulxtf. t] lx dg'ƧuƸt k'gƍ'g+ cflbolƃ. o] kg dg'Ƨultolƕ ej+ cflbolƃ,
t];+ j;]g ;ųŋų'k/dá s]ĕn+s]ĕná dfg'l;sejlgƑųs]ĕ Pj PsaLhË ulxtá. t] kg ;źfw'/]g cfutf toá, kţfw'/]g
cfutf toált ;átfkƉá %lƑ±wëf xátLlt j]lbtƑá.
kl;lƈj;]g kg ;Ƹs Od+ dg'ƧuƸt cfuŞtLlt ;sbfufdL, b'ltodƮmþn;dśL. Oldgf kť;' ;sbfufdL;'
rųf/á jş]ŷf Ps]ĕj ulxtá. Psŝá lx ;sbfufldmþn] &ŷf k'g b'ltoej] O±wëj kl/lgƑflt, Psŝá Ow kŷf b]jnás]þ
kl/lgƑflt, Psŝá b]jnás]þ kŷf b'ltoej] tŴ]j kl/lgƑflt, Psŝá b]jnás]þ kŷf Ow"kklşŷf kl/lgƑflt, Od]
rųf/álk Ow g ulxtf. oá kg Ow kŷf b]jnás]þ lgƑlųŷf k'g Ow"kklşŷf kl/lgƑflt, cod]s]ĕj Ow ulxtá.
OdƧ r ƀ] kl;lƈoá, PsaLlhƧ kg Psĕjflt Ob+ t];+ gfgfs/)lƃ j]lbtƑ+.

132

kl;lƈj;]g sĕdej+ gfuŞtLlt cgfufdL, tltodƮmþn;dśL. tƧ]j kg
ke]bbƧgŴ+
æcƃ/fkl/lgƑfoLÆltcflb j'ų+. tŴ cƃ/fkl/lgƑfoLlt cfo'j]dŢƧ cƃ/f Pj c/xųdƮ+ pƍfb]ŷf lsn];kl/lgƑfg]g
kl/lgƑfog;Lná Ps]ĕ cgfufdL. ;á r pƍƉ;dgƃ/+ kl/lgƑfoL, cfo'j]dŢ+ cƍŷf kl/lgƑfoL, cfo'j]dŢ+ kŷf
kl/lgƑfoLlt ltlj±wëf xált. pkxŝkl/lgƑfoLlt cfo'j]dŢ+ pkxŝ cltŊþldŷf, d/);do+ jf pkxŝ pkuƄf
kl/lgƑfoL, cfo'j]dŢ+ cltŊþldŷf ofj d/);dof kl/lgƑfoLlt cŴá. c;řf/kl/lgƑfoLlt c;řf/]g cƍb'ŋ]g
clwdųƍoáu+ csŷf kl/lgƑfog;Lná. ;;řf/kl/lgƑfoLlt ;;řf/]g b'ŋ]g sl;/]g clwdųƍoá±uëg kl/lgƑfog;Lná.
pź+;átált pź+jflxefj]g pźdƧ tŲf;át+ jũ;átť, pź+ jf uƄf klnletƑtá pź+ dƮ;átdƧfltlk pź+;átá.
cslgŪ+ uŞtLlt cslgŪufdL. Od];+ kg cgfufdLg+ ke]bbƧgŴƕ]Ŵ pź+;átá cslgŪufdLltcflb rt'Ŋ+þ j]lbtƑ+.
tŴ oá cljxtá kŪfo rt";' oyfŊþd+ pƍlşŷf ofjtfo's+þ &ŷf r'tá cslgŪ] pƍlşŷf kl/lgƑflt, co+
pź+;átá cslgŪufdL gfd. oá kg cslgŪ+ cƍŷf cƃ/f kl/lgƑflt, co+ pź+;átá g cslgŪufdL gfd. oá dg'Ƨnás]ĕ
cslgŪd]j uƄf kl/lgƑflt, co+ g pź+;átá cslgŪufdL gfd. oá kg x]Ūf rt";' ;'źfjf;];' cţt/Ƹƨ pƍlşŷf tŴ]j
kl/lgƑflt, co+ g pź+;átá g cslgŪufdL gfd Pjd]t] cgfufldgá cŪrųfnL;ljwf xálƃ. sy+Ġ cljx];' tfj toá
cƃ/fkl/lgƑflogá, Ps]ĕ pkxŝkl/lgƑfoL, Ps]ĕ pź+;átált kť, t] c;řf/kl/lgƑflo;;řf/kl/lgƑfloj;]g b; xálƃ,
Pj+ ctƍ;'bƧ;'bƧL;"lt rųfnL;+, cslgŪ] kg pź+;átá glŴ, tƨf tŴ t+ ;;řf/f;řf/j;]g b'ljw+ pź+;át+ jş]ŷf cŪ
rflt cŪrųfnL; xálƃ.
c/xflt lsn];f/Lg+ xtųflbgf vL)f;já c/xf gfd. ;á ;'ţtflbljdáŋųoj;]g ltlj±wëf x'ŷf k'g kŝ]s+þ
klkbfrt'Ŋþj;]g ƀfb;ljwf xálƃ. oyf r c/xf ƀfb;lj±wëf, Pj+ ƀfb;]j ;sbfufldgá, rt'jL;lt ;átfkƉf
cŪrųfnL; cgfufldgáj kŝ]slƃ j]lbtƑ+. Od] r ;Ƒ] cl/of OdƸƨ ;f;g] Pj pƍşlƃ, gá alxźflt. Pssgoá.

b'sĕlbdfltsŴjŰgf
b'sĕbL;' æƀ] k'Ʈnf _ s]ĕwgá r pkgfxL r dŋË r kńf;L rfÆltcflbgf b'sť, ætoá k'Ʈnf _ lg/f;á cf;+;á
ljutf;áÆltcflbgf ltsť,
ærųf/á k'Ʈnf _ c;ƍ'l/;á, c;ƍ'l/;]gc;ƍ'l/;t/á, ;ƍ'l/;á,
;ƍ'l/;]g;ƍ'l/;t/áÆltcflbgf rt'Ŋþť, ækť k'Ʈnf _ cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná cf/elt r ljƍl;f/L r xált, tť r]táljd'Ƹų
kţfljd'Ƹų oyfe"t+ gƍhĕgflt. oŴƧ t] pƍƉf kfksĕ cs';nf wƙf ckl/;];f lg?Ţlƃ, cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná cf/elt g
ljƍl;f/L r xált»k]0 ckl/;];f lg?Ţlƃ, cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná gf/elt ljƍl;f/L r xált»k]0 ckl/;];f lg?Ţlƃ.
cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná gf/elt g ljƍl;f/L xált»k]0 ckl/;];f lg?ŢƃLÆltcflbgf kťsť ljŴf/tá dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf
;Ƒ]lk t] k'Ʈnf lglŹŪf, Ow kg t] uƅljŴf/eo]g ;Ƒ] g plŹŪf, kflńof Pj `ftƑflt.
tŴ lts]þ lg/f;ált c/xųf;fo lj/lxtá b'ƧLná. tƧ lx cųgá ceƑtfo eƑ;xfosƧ ;Lnjtá c/xųƍƸų
;'ŷf, růfnk'ųƧ ljo sƧlr /fhk'ųƧ /şĕle;]s+þ ;'ŷf cle;]sƍlųo+, æs'bfƧ' gfdfxlƕ c/xų+ kfk'±)ëƜÆlƃ c/xųƍlųo+
kŴgflk g pƍşlt. cf;+;ált c/xų+ cf;L;dfgá kŴodfgá ;Lnjf. tƧ lx c/xųkŴgfo ;Ln;ƕlųof l&tųf sƧlr
c/xųƍƸų ;'ŷf, petá;'hĕtƧ /fhs'df/Ƨ ljo tflb;Ƨ sƧlr /şĕle;]s+þ ;'ŷf cle;]sƍlųo+, c/xųƍlųo+ kŴgf
pƍşlt. ljutf;ált c/xf. ;á lx kųc/xųtfo tŴ ljutf;á xált kųfle;]s]ĕ ljo vlųoá cle;]sƍlųolƃ
j]lbtƑ+.
rt'Ŋ]þ kg kf)fltkftflbcs';nsƙky;dƉfutá c;ƍ'l/;á gfd. oá kg ;olƕ kf)fltkftfbLlg sŷf k/ť
tŴ ;dfbk]lt, co+ c;ƍ'l/;]gc;ƍ'l/;t/á, c;ƍ'l/;tálk c;ƍ'l/;t/ált cŴá. j'ųklkŋs';nj;]g ;ƍ'l/;á,
;ƍ'l/;]g;ƍ'l/;t/á r j]lbtƑá.
kťs]þ cf/elt r ljƍl;f/L r xátLlt PŴ cf/Ƙ-;Źá cfklųjLltŊþd] jųlt, tƨf cfklųjLltŊþdj;]g
cf/elt r]j tƍŝof r ljƍl;f/L xátLlt cŴá. r]táljd'lųlƃ mþn;ƕo'ų;dfƸw. kţfljd'lųlƃ mþn;ƕo'ų`f)+.
oyfe"t+ gƍhĕgftLlt cglwutųf oyf;efjtá gƍhĕgflt. oŴƧflt oƸƨ c/xųmþn;řft] ´fg] clwut] cƧ k'ƮnƧ ;Ƒ]
kfksĕ cs';nf wƙf lg/j;];f lg?Ţlƃ, t] gƍhĕgftLlt ;Ɨƈá. lsťflk t] dƮŋ±)ë Pj lg?Ţlƃ gfd, mþnŋ±)ë kg
lg?źf gfd xálƃ, Ow kg dƮlsŝj;]g æmþnŋ±)ë lg?ŢƃLÆlt j'ųflt j]lbtƑf.
cf/elt g ljƍl;f/L r xátLlt cfkƸų cfkşlt, t+ kg b];]t'+ ;efuk'Ʈn+ kl/o];lt, j'Ūfk]lt jf, tƨf g
ljƍl;f/L xált. gf/elt ljƍl;f/L r xátLlt cfkƸų gfkşlt, ljgokţlųo+ kg cs]ĕljbųf cgfklųof
cfklų;lţtfo j'lŪtfolk t+ cfklųof ljƍl;f/+ ljgáb]t'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜtfo ljƍl;f/L xált. gf/elt g ljƍl;f/L
xátLlt gf/elt g]j cfkƸų cfkşlt, g ljƍl;f/L xált. c/xųť g kfk')flt. st/á kg]; k'ƮnáltĠ ;Lnjf
cáƧŪjLl/oá k'Ʈná. ;á lx æƸs d] OdƸƨ a'źsĕn] kl/lgƑfg]g, cgfut] d]ų]Ɯ;ƙf;Ɨ'źsĕn] kl/lgƑfloƧfdLÆlt
lj;'ź;Lnálk klkƸų g k"/]lt. Od] rųf/álk k'Ʈnf tyf tyf cájlbŷf cf;jŋo] kltŪfk]tƑf. Pj+ lx t]lk ø−fo+
kťdá k'Ʈná gf/elt g ljƍl;f/L cf/źjLl/oá c/xų+ kfk')flt, t]g ;d;dfj eljƧƃLlt.
%ŊĕbL;' _
æ% k'Ʈnf _ cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná k'Ƒ] cgg'Ƨ't];' wƙ];' ;fd+ ;ŝflg cle;Ɨ'Ţlt, tŴ r ;Ƒţ't+
kfk')flt an];' r j;Lefj+. cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná»k]0 cle;Ɨ'Ţlt, g r tŴ ;Ƒţ't+ kfk')flt, g r an];'
jl;efj+. cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná»k]0 cgle;Ɨ'Ţlt, lbŪ]j wƙ] b'ŋƧƃs/á xált, ;fjskf/ldť kfk')flt.
cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná»k]0 b'ŋƧƃs/á xált, g r ;fjskf/Ƹd kfk')flt. cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná»k]0 cgle;Ɨ'Ţlt, g
133

r lbŪ]j wƙ] b'ŋƧƃs/á xált, cgfufdL xált cgfuƃf OŴų+. cŴ]sŝá k'Ʈná»k]0 cgle;Ɨ'Ţlt, g r
lbŪ]j wƙ] b'ŋƧƃs/á xált, cfufdL xált cfuƃf OŴųÆlƃ _
%Ŋ+þ, æ;ų k'Ʈnf _ ;ų pbs"þkdf k'Ʈnf ;Ƹs lgd'±Ʈëf lgd'±Ʈëfj xált, pƙ'lşŷf lgd'şlt, pƙ'lşŷf l&tá xált, pƙ'lşŷf
ljkƧlt ljnás]þlt, pƙ'lşŷf kt/lt, pƙ'lşŷf klufwƍųá xált, pƙ'lşŷf ltŰá xált kf/śtá, yn] ltŪlt
Ɣfƪ±)ëfÆltcflbgf ;ųs+þ, æcŪ k'Ʈnf _ rųf/á dƮ;dlśgá, rųf/á mþn;dlśgá k'ƮnfÆlt cŪs+þ, ægj k'Ʈnf _
;ƙf;Ɨ'źá kŝ]s;Ɨ'źá petáefuljd'ųá kţfljd'ųá sĕo;ŋË lblŪƍųá ;źfljd'ųá wƙfg';f/L ;źfg';f/LÆlt gjs+þ, æb;
k'Ʈnf _ kťƉ+ Ow lgŪf, kťƉ+ Ow ljxfo lgŪfÆlt b;sť dflts+þ lglŋlkŷf kflńo+ lgŹ];á stá. tŴ %Ŋ]þ k&d]g
kb]g ;ƙf;Ɨ'źá bŪƑá. ;á lx cgfrl/os]ĕ cųgf pƍflbt]g ;Ƒţ'tţf)kbŪfg]g c/xųdƮ`f±)ëg ;Ƒfsĕ/tá ;ŝflg
cle;Ɨ'lŢŷf ;Ƒţ't+ kfk'l), b;`f)an];' r jl;efjlƃ. b'lto]g kg kŝ]s;Ɨ'źá bŪƑá. tlto]g cƮ;fjs]ĕ, rt'Ŵ]g
cj;];f c/xƃá kťd]g cgfufdL, %Ū]g ;átfkƉ;sbfufldgá bŪƑf. t] lx æcfuƃf OŴųÆlƃ j'ųflt.
;ųs]þ k&d]g kb]g ;f;g] clgljŪ;źá lgotldŞflblŪwƙ]lx Psƃsĕńs]þlx ;dƉfutá ulxtá. ;á lx ;d'Ź]
pbseL?sk'l/;á ljo ;+;f/] ckfo] lgd'±Ʈëf lgd'±Ʈëfj xált, g k'g ejtá j'Ūflt, cgƃlƕ sĕn+ ej] Pj ljr/lt
;f;g;dfoáufefjf. b'lto]g kb]g ;f;g] klnź;źálk b]jbųfboá ljo ;źflbkl/xflgo+ l&tá b'ƧLná ulxtá. ;á
lx ;d'Ź] s]þglr sĕ/±)ëg pƙ'lşŷf k'g lgd'±Ʈëf ljo ;f;g;źfo pƙ'lşŷflk ckfo] lgd'şlt Pj, co+ kg lr/sĕnfltŊþd]g
a'źfbLlx, cųgf Pj jf kŝ]saálw`f±)ëg ejtá pź/)Loá xált ;f;g] ;Ƹs pƍƉfolk ;źfo dáŋefj]g lgod]g
lgƑfgfjxųf. cod]j lxƧ k'l/dk'Ʈntá lj;];á, Ot/yf tƧ lj;'+ ux±)ë koáhgd]j g l;oflt ux]tƑ+. tlto]g
;f;g] pƍƉ;źá l&ltefluo]lx ;Lnflbu'±)ëlx ;dƉfutá ulxtá. ;á lx pƙ'lşŷf tL/+ clbƩfj ;d'ŹdŢ] gfjflbcfudg+
cánás]þƃá k'g clgd'lşŷf pŰtƍb];] l&tá ljo ;f;g;źfo pƙ'lşŷf lgƑfg+ clbƩfj a'źfƸb cánásodfgá ;±Ʈë, ;Lnflblƛ
l&tá xált. rt'Ŵ]g kg ;átfkƉá ulxtá. ;á lx pƙ'lşŷf l&tá tL/+ lbƩf pų/)"kfo+ ljnásodfgá ljo
nás'ų/;źfo pƙ'lşŷf lgƑfgtL/+ lbƩf pų/±)ëfkfo+ ljnás]þlt. kťd]g ;sbfufdL ulxtá. ;á lx ;d'Ź] tL/+ lbƩf
tbled'v+ kt/dfgá ljo k&dd±Ʈëg lgƑfgtL/+ lbƩf tbled'v+ b'ltod±Ʈëg kt/lt gfd. %Ū]g cgfufdL ulxtá. ;á
lx ktl/ŷf tL/+ pkƮƙ slƍdf±)ë pbs]þ l&tá ljo c/xų;dLk] ;ltsjfkltŴ] cgfjlųwƙtfo tltod±Ʈëg ltŪlt.
;ųd]g kg c/xf ulxtá, ;á lx tl/ŷf kf/+ kŷf l&tk'l/;á ljo rųf/á cá#] tl/ŷf lgƑfgŴn] l&tá vL)f;jƔfƪ±)ëf
gfd xátLlt.
gjs]þ petáefuljd'ųált ¿kf¿k;dfklųof ljŋƘgljdáŋ]g, cl/od±Ʈëg ;d'Ş]bljdáŋ]g lsn];tá ljd'ųá,
c¿k;dfklųof jf ¿ksĕotá, d±Ʈëg r gfdsĕotált Od]lx petáef±uëlx ljd'ųáltlk petáefuljd'ųá, ;á rt'Ɖ+
c¿k;dfkųLg+ Ps]þstá j'Ūfo ;řf/] ;ƙl;ŷf c/xųƍųfg+ rt'Ɖ+, lg/áwf j'Ūfo c/xųƍųcgfufldgá r j;]g
kťlj±wëf, t];' klŞdáj lgƍl/ofotá petáefuljd'ųá gfd, ;];f kl/ofo]g. PŴ r ¿kfjr/rt'ŴŢĕg+ lsn];sĕotá
ljd'ųlƕ ¿ksĕotá cljd'ų+, c¿kfjr/+ kg tbeotálk ljd'ų+, tƨf tb]j kfbs+þ sŷf c/xųƍųáj petáefuljd'ųá
xált, g ¿kfjr/lƃ j]lbtƑ+. kţfljd'ųált c/xųdƮkţfo cf;j]lx ljd'ųá. ;á lx ;'ŋljkƧs]ĕ, rt"lx
¿kfjr/Ţĕg]lx j'Ūfo c/xųƍųf rųf/á rflt kťlj±wëf. c¿kfjr/Ţĕg];' lx Pslƨlƕ ;lt petáefuljd'ųáj gfd
xált.
sĕo;ŋËlt ¿kf¿kŢĕgnfeL cl/oá. ;á lx ;átfklųdƮŪjlştfg+ %Ɖ+ ;]vfg+ j;]g %lƑ±wëf. t]g]j lxƧ
æPsŝ] cf;jf kl/ŋË)fÆlt lgŹ];] j'ų+. ;átfklųdƮŪƧ r g s]þlrlk cf;jf kl/ŋË)flt jųƑf, kl/ŋËloƧƃLlt kg
jųƑf, c/xtá kg ;Ƒ]lk cf;jf kl/ŋË)f, g Psŝ]lt. ;á lx m'þŪƃ+ ;lŞs/átLlt sĕo;ŋË, m'þŪfg+ klnźfg+ ´fgfg+
cgƃ/+ gfdsĕo]g lg/áw+ ;lŞs/átLltlk sĕo;ŋË, sĕo]gflt r]Ŵ ægfdsĕo]g r]j k/dŴ;ŝ+ ;lŞs/ált, kţfo r cltljŢ
kƧtLÆlt jrgtá c/xųmþn+ &k]ŷf ;];dƮmþnfgd]t+ clwjrg+, t]g sĕo]g k&dŢĕgfgƃ/+ lgƑfgƧ ;lŞs/)tálk sĕo;ŋËlt
s]þlr. lblŪƍųált ;'ŋljkƧs]ĕ, ¿kŢĕgnfeL r oyfj'ųá %lƑ±wëf ;]±vëf r, co+ lbŪƃƍųált lblŪƍųá. bƧg+ lblŪ,
k&dd±Ʈëf, tƧ cgƃ/+ lg/áwƍųált cŴá. lbŪƍųáltlk kf±&ëf, tƧ k&dd±Ʈëg lbŪ+ lgƑfg+ k'g kųált cŴá.
;źfljd'ųált ;'ŋljkƧs]ĕ, ¿kŢĕgnfeL r oyfj'ųá %lƑ±wëf ;]±vëf r. co+ lx ;Źxƃá ljd'ųált ;źfljd'ųá.
sy+ kg]tƧ lblŪƍųtá gfgųlƃĠ cfudgLoklkbfo. lblŪƍųá lx kţf;ƕbfo k'Ƒef±uë ljkƧgfo lsn];] cƍb'ŋ]g
ljŋƘ]ƃá cfutá, ;źfljd'ųá kg ;źfax'ntfo lsn];] b'ŋ]g ljŋƘ]ƃá cfutá. Ptd]j lx e]b+ ;ƈfo lgŹ];] æPsŝ] cf;jf
kl/ŋË)f xálƃ, gá r ±vëf oyflblŪƍųƧfÆlt j'ų+.
wƙfg';f/Llt oƧ ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë klţlƇo+ clwdų+ xált, co+ kţf;řft]g wƙ]g ;/lt cg'Ƨ/tLlt
wƙfg';f/L, ;átfklųdƮŪƧ]t+ gfd+. mþn] kg kų] lblŪƍųá gfd xált. ;źfg';f/Llt oƧ ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë ;lźlƇo+
clwdų+ xált, co+ ;źfo ;/lt cg'Ƨ/tLlt ;źfg';f/L, ;átfklųdƮŪƧ]t+ gfd+. mþn] kg kų] ;źfljd'ųá gfd xált.
nás'ų/wƙ+ lx lgƑų]ƃfg+ ƀ] w'/flg gfd, ƀ] clelgj];f gfd, ƀ] ;L;flg gfd. tŴ ;źfw'/+ kţfw'/lƃ ƀ]
w'/flg gfd. Ps]ĕ kg ;dyflelgj];á, Ps]ĕ ljkƧgflelgj];ált ƀ] clelgj];f. Ps]ĕ r c/xų+ dŴs+þ kfk')ƃá
petáefuljd'ųá xált, Ps]ĕ kţfljd'ųált Odflg ƀ] ;L;flg gfd. o] lx s]þlr nás'ų/+ wƙ+ lgƑų]lƃ, ;Ƒ] t] ƀ] Od] wƙ]
w'/+ sŷf Od];' ƀL;' &fg];' clelgljl;ŷf Od]lx ƀLlx &fg]lx ljd'ŝlƃ. t];' oá leŋ' cŪ;dfklųnfeL kţ+ w'/+ sŷf
;dyj;]g clelgljŪá cţt/+ c¿k;dfkƸų kbŪfg+ sŷf ljkƧg+ kŪk]ŷf c/xų+ kfk')flt, co+ ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë
wƙfg';f/L gfd. k/tá kg %;' &fg];' sĕo;ŋË gfd. c/xųmþn+ kų] petáefuljd'ųá gfd.
ck/á kţd]j w'/+ sŷf ljkƧgfj;]g clelgljŪá ;'ź;řf/] jf ¿kfjr/Ţĕg];' jf cţt/+ ;ƙl;ŷf c/xų+
kfk')flt, colƕ ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë wƙfg';f/L gfd. k/tá kg %;' &fg];' lblŪƍųá gfd, c/xų+ kų] kţfljd'ųá gfd.

134

ck/á kg cŪ;dfklųnfeL ;ź+ w'/+ sŷf ;dflwj;]g clelgljŪá cţt/+ c¿k;dfkƸų kbŪfg+ sŷf ljkƧg+
kŪk]ŷf c/xų+ kfk')flt, co+ ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë ;źfg';f/L gfd, k/tá %;' &fg];' sĕo;ŋËo]j gfd. c/xų+ kų]
petáefuljd'ųáo]j gfd. ck/á ;źd]j w'/+ sŷf ljkƧgfj;]g clelgljŪá ;'ź;řf/] jf ¿kfjr/Ţĕg];' jf cţt/+
;ƙl;ŷf c/xų+ kfk')flt, colƕ ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë ;źfg';f/L gfd, k/tá %;' &fg];' ;źfljd'ųá gfd. c/xųƍų]
kţfljd'ųá gfd. Od] ;ų k'Ʈnf ;ƙf;Ɨ'źkŝ]s;Ɨ'ź]lx ;Ƹź gj nás]þ cƮblŋ±)ëƜf gfdflt.
b;s]þ kťƉ+ Ow lgŪflt ;ųŋų'k/dá, s]ĕn+s]ĕná, PsaLhË, ;sbfufdL sĕdfjr/kl;lƈs]ĕ, c/xf rflt Od];+
kťƉ+ Ow sĕdfjr/e"ldoţ]j cg'kflb;];lgƑfg;řftf lgŪflt cŴá. sĕdfjr/ųefj] Pj lx Pt] kl/lgƑfolƃ, gfţƸƨ.
kťƉ+ Ow ljxfo lgŪflt cƃ/fkl/lgƑfoL pkxŝkl/lgƑfoL c;řf/kl/lgƑfoL ;;řf/kl/lgƑfoL pź+;átá cslgŪufdL
rflt Od];+ kťƉ+ Ow sĕdfjr/] cųefj+ ljxfo ljhlxŷf Ɣƪųefj] l&tfgţ]j lgŪflt cŴá. ;];d]Ŵ pųfgŴd]jflt.
cod]Ŵ ;ř]ktá kflńgo]g ;Ƹź cŴlgŞoá, ljŴf/á kg k'ƮnkţlųkflńcŪsyf;'
‘k'0k0dfltsĕ 1cfboá¶
k'0k0cŪ0dfltsĕjŰgf 1’ ux]tƑált.
dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

k'ƮnkţlųdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

5= syfjŴ'dfltsĕ
k'ƮnsyfjŰgf
Obflg syfjŴ'dfltsĕo cŴ;+jŰgfgoá xált. tŴ cg'ųfgŴtá tfj æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt
co+ k'Şf, æcfdƃfÆlt co+ klhĕggf. sƧ kgfo+ k'Şf, sƧ klhĕggfltĠ æc;'sƧfÆlt g jųƑf. g lx eujf
k/jfbLlx ;Ƹź ljƮflxssy+ s±yëƃá Od+ dflts+þ &k]l;, k'Ʈnkţlųb];gfƸb kg lgƧfo æk/dŴtá cųf gfd
cŴLÆltcflbgf cgfut] ljkƟf;uflxleŋ"g+, k/jfbLgť gfgƍsĕ/lblŪŪfglj;áwgŴ+ dáƮlnk'ųltƧŴ]/Ƨ jfbgobƧgj;]g
k'Ʈnjfbd]t+ cf/ư tlƃj;]g dflts+þ &k]ƃá ;sjflbk/jfbLg+ k'Şflj;şgbá;f/ákglgƮxkfkgflbjrgkljrgj;]g]j
&k]l;, tƨf tbŴƧ ;'vfjwf/)Ŵ+ ;sjfbLk'Şf k/jfbLk'Şf ;sjfbLklţf k/jfbLklţflt Pj+ ljefu+ bƧ]ŷf cŴjŰg+
sl/Ƨfd.
æk'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆlt co+ ;sjfbLk'Şf, tfo r æo] ‚clŴ k'Ʈnáƒlt Pj+nlźsĕ k'Ʈnjflbgá,
t] Pj+ k'lŞtƑfÆlt bLk]lt. s]þ kg t] k'ƮnjflbgáltĠ ;f;g] jlşk'ųsĕ r]j ;lƙltof r alxźf ax" cţltlŴof r.
sbf kg]t] ;f;g] pƍƉfltĠ kl/lgƑfgtá b'lto] jƧ;t]. eujlt ls/ kl/lgƑ't] dxfsƧkŴ]/]g ;d'Ƨflxt]lx tƍd'±vëlx
jl;u±)ëlx ;'eŹj'ŬkƑlhtfbLg+ kfkleŋ"g+ kj];ásĕ;lg;]wgŴ+ chĕt;ų'/fhĕg+ ;xfo+ nleŷf wƙljgo;/L/+ ;śx+ cf/ák]ŷf
;f;g] crn] kjųflkt] ttá jƧ;tƧ cŝo]g j];flno+ jlşk'ųs]þlx bLlktflg b; jŴ"lg dlŹŷf t] r leŋ" lgƮx]ŷf
o;Ŵ]/;d'Ƨflxt]lx jl;u±)ëlx k'g wƙljgo;śx] st] t]lx lgƮlxtf b;;xƧf jlşk'ųsĕ slť b'Ƒn/fhĕg+ an+ nleŷf
d"n;śx+ lelƆŷf cųgá cgfrf/fg's"þnjrg+ klŋlkŷf a'źjrgť %ū]ŷf dxf;śLtLlx lj;'+ wƙljgo;śx+ sŷf
dxf;lŜsĕrl/os'n+ gfd cs+þ;'. kl/;'ź;f;g+ kg ±yë/]lx kl/kflntųf æ±yë/jfbáÆlt kţflo, Od];' kg ƀL;' jfb];'
dxf;lŜstá lelşŷf PsƓáxfl/sĕ, ±uëfs'lnsĕ r, ttá kŰlųjfbf, ax'lnof, r]ltojfbf rflt kť jfbf, dxf;lŜs]þlx
kg ;Ƹź % cfrl/os'nflg gfd hĕtflg. tyf ±yë/jfbtá lelşŷf dlx;f;sĕ, jlşk'ųsĕ r, ttá wƙ'ųl/of, eſoflgsĕ,
%Ɖfufl/sĕ, ;lƙltof r, dlx;f;stá wƙu'lųsĕ, ;ƑlŴsĕ r, ttá sƧlksĕ, ttá ;Řlƃsĕ, ttá ;'ųjfbf rflt Od]
Psĕb; jfbf hĕtf. t] k'l/d]lx %lx ;Ƹź ;ų/; leƉjfbf b'lto] jƧ;t] pƍƉf, ±yë/jfbá kg Ps]ĕj c;lƘƉs]ĕ, t]g
;Ƹź ;f;g] cŪf/; lgsĕof hĕtflt j]lbtƑf, o] æcŪf/;frl/os'nfgLÆlt kj'ŝlƃ. Od];+ kg cŪf/;Ɖ+ cfrl/ojfbfg+
j;]g cfoƸt ;f;gƧ cfn'ńg+ `ŷf ;ƙf;Ɨ'źá lƀƉ+ jƧ;tfg+ cŝo]g ;f;g] klnź;ź]g c;ás]þg wƙ/ţf aflx/s]þ
cgánás]þŷf ;f;g] Pj nfe;Ŋĕ/] kjųƃ] nfe;Ŋĕ/Ŵfo ;f;gj];+ ux]ŷf ;sĕlg ;sĕlg lblŪutflg tytá bLk]ƃ];'
ƀf;lŪlblŪults]þ;' oyfj'ų;ų/;frl/os'n];' r ;dos';ntfo ljlrlgŷf ;]tsĕlg bŷf pƍƑflht];' kl/;'ź] dxfleŋ';Ŝ]
lg;Llbŷf dáƮlnk'ųltƧŴ]/Ƨ oflg tbf pƍƉflg jŴ"lg, oflg r cfoƸt pƍlşƧlƃ, ;Ƒflglk tflg cųgá ;Ŵf/f
lbƉdfltsĕd'vdų]g klaflxŷf ;'ų;xƧkldlůt+ k/ƍjfbdyg+ cfoltnŋ)+ syfjŴ'ƍs/)+ dfltsĕljehgj;]g efl;ŷf t+
tlto;śLlto+ ;śx+ cf/ák]ŷf cfn'lńt+ ;f;g+ kƮx]t'+ ;dŴefj+ leŋ';Ŝ] ksĕ;gŴ+ cfoltjfbƍlafxggobƧgj;]g Od+
syfjŴ'dflts+þ jŷf ±yë/Ƨ cásĕ;+ &k]ƃá tƧf ljeś+ g cjárflt j]lbtƑ+.
tŴ k'Ʈnált cųf hËjá ;ųá. pknưtLlt kţfo pkuƄf nưlt, `fotLlt cŴá. ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gflt PŴ
;lŝsŪált dfofd/Llrcfboá ljo ce"tfsĕ/]g cƮx]tƑá e"tŪá. k/dŴált cg'Ƨjflbj;]g cƮx]tƑá pųdŴá.
peo]gflk oyf ¿kj]bgfboá wƙf e"t]g ;efj]g pknưlƃ, Pj+ tfj æk'Ʈná pknưtLÆlt k'Şlt. k/jfbL æcfdƃfÆlt
135

klhĕgflt. klhĕgglŤ sŴlr æcfd eƃ]Ælt cfuŞlt, sŴlr æcfdáÆlt cfuŞlt, Ow kg æcfdƃfÆlt cfut+.
tŶfo+ clwƍfoá _ k/jfbL lx oƨf eujtf æclŴ k'Ʈná cųlxtfo klkƉáÆltcflbgf ‘c0lg0 4=95-96’ k'Ʈná
ksĕl;tá, eujf r cljtyjfbL, tƨf ;á æ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g]j cŴLÆlt nƸź ux]ŷf æcfdƃfÆlt klhĕgflt.
cyƧ tflb;Ƨ n];jrgƧ %njfbƧ cásĕ;+ cbbdfgá ;sjfbL æoá ;lŝsŪáÆltcflbdfx. tŶfo+ clwƍfoá _
ø−fo+ x]Ūf ¿kj]bgflbs]ĕ wƙƍe]bá cfutá, g ;ƙ'lt;ŝj;]g, gflk cg'Ƨjflbj;]g ux]tƑá, cųgá kg e"ttfo Pj
;lŝsŪá, cųkŝŋtfo r k/dŴá, ;á tyfklţftá k'Ʈná ttá t]g ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g cfsĕ/]g pknưlt, oyf
?ƍgfg'ejgflbgf ;lso]gfsĕ/]g k'g ;lŝsŪk/dŴá pknưlt, Ƹs tj k'Ʈnálk Pj+ pknưtLlt j'ų+ xált. g x]j+
jųƑ]lt cjhĕggf k/jflbƧ. ;á lx tyf¿k+ k'Ʈn+ clgŞƃá cjhĕgflt. g lx cųf gfd vƈflbljd'ųá s]ĕlr lbƧlt
cţŶ Ɠfdáxdųf. tŶfo+ kbŞ]bá _ g lx Pj+ jųƑ]lt. æg x PjÆlƃlk k&lƃ, lƀƉlƕ Pj+ g jųƑált cŴá.
cfhĕgflx lgƮxlƃ ;sjflbjrg+. oƨf t] k'l/dfo jųƑklţfo klŞdf gjųƑklţf, klŞdfo r k'l/df g
;ƈLolt, tƨf lgƮx+ kųá, t+ lgƮx+ bá;+ ck/fw+ cfhĕgflx, ;ƕlŞfxLlt cŴá. Pj+ lgƮx+ cfhĕgfk]ŷf Obflg t+
&kgfo r]j cg'nádklnádtá kfkgf/ákgfgť j;]g kfs+ s/áƃá æxlť k'ƮnáÆltcflbdfx. tŴ xťLlt olb, ;r]
k'Ʈná pknưtLlt cŴá. co+ tfj k/jfbLkŋƧ cg'jbg]g &kgtá lgƮxkltŪfkgtá lgƮxkfkgf/ákgfg+ nŋ)e"tf
cg'nádŪkgf gfd. t]g jt /]ltcflb cg'nádkŋ] lgƮxƧ kflksųf cg'nádkfkgf gfd. tŴ t]gflt sĕ/)jrg+.
jtflt cásƍgjrg+ lgodjrg+. /]lt cfdƃgjrg+. Ob+ j'ų+ xált _ t]g jt /] jųƑ] jt /] xƘá eſd'v t]g
sĕ/±)ëg jųƑá Pjflt cŴá. o+ tŴ jb];Lltcflb cg'nádkŋ] lgƮxƧ cf/álktųf cg'nád/ákgf gfd. oťƧ kl/oá;fg]
ældŞfÆlt kb+, tƧ k'/tá æOb+ t]Ælt cfxl/tƑ+. Ob+ t] ldŞflt coŤ]Ŵ cŴá. Pj+ pkl/lk k/tá kflńolƕ Pt+
cfutd]j. gá r] kg jųƑ]ltcflb æg x]j+ jųƑ]Ælt kllŋųkŋƧ cg'jbg]g &lktųf klnádtá lgƮxkfkgf/ákgfg+
nŋ)e"tf klnádŪkgf gfd. gá r jt /]ltcflb klnádkŋ] lgƮxƧ kflktųf klnádkfkgf gfd. k'g o+ tŴ
jb];Lltcflb klnádkŋ] lgƮxƧ cf/álktųf klnád/ákgf gfd.
tŶfo+ cflbtá kŪfo ;ř]kŴá _ olb k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, t]g jt eá ;á pknưtLlt jųƑá.
o+ kg tŴ jb]l; æjųƑá ±vëf k'l/dkŤ] ‚;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g pknưtLƒlt gá r jųƑá b'ltokŤ] ‚ttá ;á k'Ʈná
pknưtLƒÆlt, Ob+ t] ldŞflt Pj+ tfj cg'nádtá &kgfkfkgf/ákgf xálƃ.
cy g jųƑá b'ltokŤ] ættá ;á k'Ʈná pknưtLÆlt, k'l/dkŤ]lk g jųƑáj. o+ kg tŴ jb]l; æjųƑá
±vëf k'l/dkŤ] ‚;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g pknưtLƒlt, gá r jųƑá b'ltokŤ] ‚ttá ;á k'Ʈná pknưtLƒÆlt, Ob+ t] ldŞflt Pj+
klnádtá &kgfkfkgf/ákgf xálƃ. Pjd]t+ lgƮxƧ r cg'nádtá lƀƉ+, klnádtá lƀƉlƃ rt'Ɖ+ kfkgf/ákgfgť j'ųųf
pknưtLltcflbs+þ cg'nádkťs+þ gfd. PŴ r lsťflk cg'nádtá kfkgf/ákgflx Ps]ĕ, klnádtá kfkgf/ákgflx Ps]ĕlt
ƀ] lgƮxf stf, cfhĕgflx lgƮxlƃ PtƧ]j kg k&dƧ lgƮxƧ ƀLxfsĕ/]lx cf/álktųf Ps]ĕjfo+ lgƮxált ux]tƑá. k&dá
lgƮxá.
Obflg kŝgLsgoá xált. tŴ k'Ʈná g'knưtLlt k'Şf k/jflbƧ. ;sjfbL oyf ¿kj]bgfboá wƙf
pknưlƃ, Pj+ cg'knưgLotá æcfdƃfÆlt klhĕgflt. k'g Ot/á cųgf clwƍ]t+ ;lŝsŪ+o]j ;ƈfo æoá
;lŝsŪáÆltcflbdfx. ;ƙ'lt;ŝk/dŴ;ŝflg jf Pstá sŷflk
k/jfbL Pjdfx. ;sjfbL k'Ʈná lx
pkfbfokţlų;ưfjtálk lƀƉ+ ;ŝfg+ Pstá sŷf k'lŞtųflk æg x]jÆlƃ kllŋklt. Obflg lsťflk t]g k&d+
k/dŴ;ŝj;]g g'knưgLotf ;ƕllŞtf, kŞf kg ;ƙ'lt;ŝj;]g jf jáldƧsj;]g jf kllŋųf. k/jfbL kg
æg'knưtLÆlt jrg;fdţdų+ %njfb+ lgƧfo æo+ tof k&d+ klţft+, t+ kŞf kllŋųÆlƃ eůgƧ kleůg+ ljo cųgá
stƧ lgƮxsƙƧ klsƙ+ s/áƃá æcfhĕgflx klsƙÆlƃ cfx. Obflg oyfƧ cg'nádkťs]þ ;sjflbgf jfbŪkg+ sŷf
cg'nádklnádtá kfkgf/ákgflx k/jflblgƮxá kfsá stá, Pj+ klsƙ+ kfs+ s/áƃá æxlť k'ƮnáÆltcflbdfx. t+
x]Ūf j'ųgo]g]j cŴtá j]lbtƑ+. oƨf kg]Ŵ &kgf gfd k/jflbkŋƧ &kgtá æco+ tj bá;áÆlt bƧ]t'+ &kgdųd]j
xált, g lgƮxƧ jf klsƙƧ jf kfsLefjs/)+, kfkgf/ákgflx kgƧ kfsLs/)+ xált, tƨf Ob+ cg'nádklnádtá
kfkgf/ákgfg+ j;]g rt"xfsĕ/]lx klsƙƧ stųf klsƙrt'Ŋ+þ gfdflt Ps+þ rt'Ŋ+þ j]lbtƑ+.
Pj+ klsƙ+ sŷf Obflg ø−fƧ cg'nádkťs]þ ;sjflbgf lgƮxá stá, tƧ td]j %njfb+ lgƧfo b'Ŋþefj+
bƧ]ƃá æŷ+ r] kg dţ;LÆltcflbdfx. tŴ ŷ+ r] kg dţ;Llt olb ŷ+ dţl;. æjųƑ] ±vëfÆlt Ob+ kŝgLs]þ
æcfdƃfÆlt klhĕgg+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, ægá r jųƑ]Ælt Ob+ kg æg x]jfÆlt cjhĕgg+ ;ƈfo j'ų+. t]g tj tŴflt t]g
sĕ/±)ëg ŷ+o]j tƸƨ æoá g'knưtLÆlt kŋ] x]j+ klhĕglƃ æcfdƃfÆlt Pj+ klhĕgƃá. x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ]lt k'g æg x]jfÆlt
cjhĕgƃá Pj+ lgƮx]tƑá. cy t+ lgƮŲfdflt c±yëj+ lgƮŲgf/x+ t+ lgƮŲfd, ;'lgƮlxtá r xá;Llt ;s]þg dt]g
lgƮlxtųf ;'lgƮlxtá r ejl;. PjdƧ lgƮx]tƑefj+ bƧ]ŷf Obflg t+ lgƮŲƃá æxťLÆltcflbdfx. tŴ
&kgfkfkgf/ákgf x]Ūf j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑf. kl/oá;fg] kg Ob+ t] ldŞflt Ob+ tj jrg+ ldŞf xátLlt cŴá. Ob+
%njfb]g rt"lx cfsĕ/]lx lgƮxƧ stųf lgƮxrt'Ŋ+þ gfd.
Pj+ lgƮx+ sŷflk Obflg æolb co+ dof tj dt]g stá lgƮxá b'lƉƮxá, oálk dd tof x]Ūf cg'nádkťs]þ
stá lgƮxá, ;álk b'lƉƮxáÆlt bƧ]ƃá æP;] r] b'lƉƮlxt]Æltcflbdfx. tŴ P;] r] b'lƉƮlxt]lt P;á r] tj jfbá dof
b'lƉƮlxtá, cy jf P;á r] tj dof stá lgƮxá b'lƉƮxá. x]jd]j+ tŴ bŋĕlt tŴflk tof dd x]Ūf st] lgƮx] Pjd]j+
kƧ. Obflg ø−fƧ x]Ūf ;sjflbgf lgƮxá stá, t+ æjųƑ] ±vëfÆltcflbjrg]g bƧ]ŷf k'g t+ lgƮx+ clgƮxefj+ pkg]ƃá
ægá r do+ tofÆltcflbdfx. tŴ gá r do+ tof tŴ x]tfo klţfofltcfbL;' codŴá _ oƨf ;á tof dd stá
lgƮxá b'lƉƮxá, tƨf do+ tof tŴ cg'nádkťs]þ æcfdƃfÆlt Ptfo klţfo Pj+ klhĕgƃf k'g æg x]jfÆlt klŋ]k]

136

st]lk æcfhĕgflx lgƮxÆlƃ Pj+ lgƮx]tƑfo]j, Pj+ clgƮx]tƑlƕ d+ lgƮŲfl;, ólb;]g kg lgƮx]g b'lƉƮlxtf do+
xád. Obflg o+ lgƮx+ ;ƈfo b'lƉƮlxtf r xádflt cjár, t+ bƧ]t'+ æxlť k'Ʈná»k]0» Ob+ t] ldŞfÆlt cfx.
Pjldb+ cg'nádklnádtá rt"lx kfkgf/ákgflx lgƮxƧ pkgLtųf pkgogrt'Ŋ+þ gfd xált.
Obflg g x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ]ltcflbs+þ lgƮdgrt'Ŋ+þ gfd xált. tŴ g x]j+ lgƮx]tƑ]lt oyfx+ tof lgƮlxtá, g
lx Pj+ lgƮx]tƑá, PtƧ lx lgƮxƧ b'lƉƮxefjá dof ;flwtá. t]g xLlt t]g sĕ/±)ëg. oƨf P; lgƮxá b'lƉƮxá,
tƨf o+ d+ lgƮŲfl;. xlť k'Ʈná»k]0» Ob+ t] ldŞflt Ob+ lgƮŲg+ tj ldŞflt cŴá. t]g lx o] st] lgƮx]lt o]g
sĕ/±)ëg Ob+ ldŞf, t]g sĕ/±)ëg oá tof lgƮxá stá, ;á b'Ŋþá. o+ dof klsƙ+ st+, tb]j ;'st+. oflk r];f
klsƙrt'Ŋĕlbj;]g syfdƮ;ƕlkfbgf stf, ;flk ;'stflt. tb]j k'Ʈná pknưtLltcflbsƧ cg'nádkťsƧ
g'knưtLltcflbsĕg+ klsƙlgƮxákgoglgƮdgrt'Ŋĕgť j;]g cg'nádkŝgLs+þ gfd lglŹŪlƃ j]lbtƑ+. Pųfjtf
;sjflbgá k'Ƒkŋ] ;lt k/jflbgá jrg;fdţdų]g %njfb]g hoá xált.
Obflg oyf k/jflbgá k'Ƒkŋ] ;lt ;sjflbgá wƙ]g]j t±yëg hoá xált, tyf jfb'ƍƸų bƧ]t'+ æk'Ʈná
g'knưtLÆlt kŝgLsĕg'nádkťs+þ cf/ź+. tŴ kŝgLs]þ k'Şf k/jflbƧ, ¿kflbe]b+ ;lŝsŪk/dŴ+ ;ƈfo klţf
;sjflbƧ, ;'ź;ƙ'lt;ŝ+ jf k/dŴldƧs+þ jf ;ƙ'lt;ŝ+ ;ƈfo æoá ;lŝsŪáÆlt k'g cg'oá±uëf k/jflbƧ, ;ƙ'ltj;]g
æk'Ʈná g'knưtLÆlt gjųƑųf ldƧsj;]g jf cg'oáuƧ ;+lsŰųf æg x]jÆlƃ klŋ]ká ;sjflbƧ, klţft+ kllŋktLlt
jrg;fdţdų]g æcfhĕgflx lgƮxÆlƃcflbjrg+ k/jflbƧ. Pjdo+ k'Ʈná g'knưtLlt b'ltojfb+ lgƧfo b'ltoá lgƮxá
xátLlt j]lbtƑá. Pj+ t]g %n]g lgƮxá cf/álktá.
Obflg wƙ]g ;d]g k/jflbklţfo cųgá jfb] ho+ bƧ]t'+ cg'nádgo] k'Şf ;sjflbƧ, cųgá nƸź lgƧfo
klţf k/jflbƧ, nlźof cásĕ;+ cbŷf k/dŴj;]g k'g cg'oá±uëf ;sjflbƧ, k/dŴj;]g k'ƮnƧ cg'knưgtá klŋ]ká
k/jflbƧ, ttá k/+ wƙ]g ;d]g cųgá hobƧgŴ+ æcfhĕgflx klsƙÆlƃcflb ;Ƒ+ ;sjflbjrgd]j xált. tŴ ;Ƒ];+
klsƙlgƮxákgoglgƮdgrt'Ŋĕg+ x]Ūf j'ųgo]g]j cŴá j]lbtƑá. Pjldb+ æk'Ʈná g'knưtLÆltcflbsƧ kŝgLskťsƧ
æpknưtLÆltcfbLg+ klsƙlgƮxákgoglgƮdgrt'Ŋĕgť j;]g kŝgLsĕg'nádkťs+þ gfd lglŹŪ+ xált. Pjd]tflg
k&d;lŝsŪ] ƀ] kťsĕlg lglŹŪflg, tŴ]t+ j'ŝlt _
ælgƮxá k/jflbƧ, ;'źá k&dkťs]þ.
c;'źá kg tƧ]j, klsƙhoá tƸxĶ
ælgƮxá ;sjflbƧ, c;'źá b'ltokťs]þ.
lj;'źá kg tƧ]j, klsƙhoá tƸxĶ
ætƨf ƀL;'lk &fg];', hoáj ;sjflbgá.
wƙ]g lx hoá gfd, cwƙ]g s'tá hoáĶ
æ;lŝsŪ] oyf r]Ŵ, kťsƀodlůt].
wƙfwƙj;]g]j, j'ųá hok/fhoáĶ
æOtá k/];' ;Ƒ];', ;lŝsŪ];' klůtá.
Pjd]j ljefj]Ɯ, peá hok/fho]ÆltĶ ‘syf0cŪ07-10’.
k&dá ;'lźs;lŝsŪá lglŪtá.
Pj+ ;'lźs;lŝsŪ+ ljŴf/]ŷf Obflg td]j ck/]lxlk cásĕ;fbLlx go]lx ljŴf/]t'+ k'g æk'Ʈná pknưtLÆltcflb
cf/ź+. tŴ k'Şf ;sjflbƧ, klţf k/jflbƧ. k'g ;ƑŴflt ;/L/+ ;ƈfo cg'oá±uëf ;sjflbƧ, ¿kƸƨ cųfg+
;dg'kƧgfbá;ť æcţ+ hËj+ cţ+ ;/L/Ælƃ cfkşgbá;ť lbƩf klŋ]ká k/jflbƧ. ;];d]Ŵ cg'nádkŝgLskťs]þ x]Ūf
j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑ+. kf±&ëf kg ;+lvųá. tŴ oƨf ;/L/+ ;ƈfo æ;ƑŴ g'knưtLÆlt j'ų] ;/L/tá alx pknưtLlt
cfkşlt, tƨf kŝgLs]þ klŋ]ká ;sjflbƧ, k&d+ cg'hĕlgŷf kŞf cjhĕgftLlt %njfbƧ j;]g klsƙ+ k/jflbƧ, ;];+
kfsd]j.
b'ltogo] ;Ƒbflt k'l/dklŞdhĕltsĕnť w/dfgkl/lgƑ'tsĕnť ;ƈfo cg'oá±uëf ;sjflbƧ, Ʃ]j vlųoá ;á
Ɣfƪ±)ëfltcfbLg+ cfklųbá;ť w/dfgkl/lgƑ'tfg+ lj;];fefjbá;ť lbƩf klŋ]ká k/jflbƧ. ;];+ k&dgo] j'ų;lb;d]j.
tltogo] ;Ƒ];"lt vƈfotgfbLlg ;ƈfo k'Şf ;sjflbƧ, ¿kƸƨ cųf, rŋ'Ƹƨ cųfltcflbbá;eo]g klŋ]ká
k/jflbƧ. ;];+ tflb;d]jflt.
Pjlddflg tLl) d'vflg cg'nádkŝgLskťs]þ cg'náddųj;]g]j tfj klkflof efh]ŷf k'g kŝgLsĕg'nádkťs]þ
kŝgLsdųj;]g]j efh]t'+ æk'Ʈná g'knưtLÆltcflb cf/ź+. tŴ x]Ūf j'ųgo]g cŴá j]lbtƑá. Pųfjtf ;'lźsƧ r]j
Od];ť ltŰlƃ rt'Ɖ+ ;lŝsŪfg+ Ps]þsƸƨ ;lŝsŪ] cg'nádkŝgLsƧ, kŝgLsĕg'nádƧ rflt lƀƉ+ lƀƉ+ kŝgLsĕg+ j;]g co+
cŪd'vf gfd jfbo'lų lglŹŪf xátLlt j]lbtƑf. of Ps]þsƸƨ d'±vë Ps]þsƧ lgƮxƧ j;]g j'ŝlt. tŴ]t+ j'ŝlt _
æPj+ rt'lƑ±wë kŤ], kťsƀoe]btá.
P;f cŪd'vf gfd, jfbo'lų ksĕl;tfĶ
æcŪ]j lgƮxf tŴ, rųf/á t];' wlƙsĕ.

137

cwlƙsĕ r rųf/á, ;ƑŴ ;sjflbgá.
hoá k/fhoá r]j, ;ƑŴ k/jflbgáÆltĶ ‘syf0cŪ014’.
co+ tfj]Ŵ cg'ųfgŴtá ;+jŰgf.
cŴljlgŞoá kg]Ŵflk dáƮlnk'ųltƧŴ]/]g stlgŹ];Ƨ god'vdųbƧgj;]g]j xált. ±yë/]g lx eujtf &lktfo
PltƧf dfltsĕo kb'źf/j;]g lgŹ];+ csŷf eujtf lbƉcŪd'vjfbo'lųgo] &ŷf ck/]lx kl/ofo]lx k'Ʈnjfb+, tbţ+
gfgƍsĕ/+ ldŞfufxť lg/fs/áƃ]gj] k'Ʈnsy+ cfƸb sŷf ;flwslƀ;tsyflx lgŹ];á stá.
tŴ k'Ʈnjfblg/fs/)Ŵ+ tfj vƈfotgwft'OlƇoj;]g ;ųkţf;fo wƙ];' Ps]þs]þg ;Ƹź æk'Ʈná pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, ¿kť pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g»k]0 k'Ʈná pknưlt ;lŝsŪk/dŴ]g, j]bgflk pknưlt
;lŝsŪk/dŴ]gfÆltcflbgf go]g k'Ʈn;+;Ɔgj;ƍjų+ ;'lźs;+;Ɔg+, oyf ¿kj]bgfboá ;ųkţf; wƙf cţdţf lj;lb;f
pknưlƃ, Pj+ ¿kfbLlx lj;lb;á k'Ʈná pknưtLlt k'Şgj;ƍjų+ cákƙ;+;Ɔg+, æ¿k+ k'Ʈná, ¿kƸƨ k'Ʈná, cţŶ
¿kf k'Ʈná, k'ƮnƸƨ ¿kÆlƃ Pj+ rt'Ŋþgo]g ;ųkţf;fo wƙ]lx k'Şgj;ƍjų+ rt'Ŋþgo;+;Ɔglƃ ltljwf ;+;Ɔggof
j'ųf. tŴ k'ƮnƧ ¿kflb;efjų] lgŝ;Ƨt'Ş]bflbƍ;śtá oyfg'¿k+ lg/fs/)+ j]lbtƑ+, cltljŴf/eo]g]Ŵ pkl/ r]t+ g
ljŴf/Lolt.
ttá æoyf ¿kfboá ;ƍŝof, cƍŝofboá jf xálƃ, Pj+ tj k'Ʈnálk ;ƍŝotflbnŋ)o'ųáÆlt k'Şgj;ƍjųf
nŋ)o'lųsyf, æk'ƮnáÆlt, æpknưtLÆlt r kbƀoflb;áwgŴ+ æoá k'Ʈná, ;á pknưlt. oá jf pknưlt, ;á
k'ƮnáÆltcflbk'Şgj;ƍjų+ jrg;áwg+, æ¿kwft'of ¿kLÆltcflb gfdkţlų;áwgj;ƍjųá kţųfg'oá±uëf r, æ;áj
k'Ʈná ;ƈfjlt cƨf násĕ k/+ nás+þ, cţá jf, g cţá jf, g]j cţá gfgţá jfÆltcflbgf ultkl/jųgd'±vëg
r'ltkl;ƈfg'oá±uëf
æ?ŋ+ pkfbfo %fofbLg+ ljo vƈfƸb pkfbfo k/dŴtá k'ƮnkţųLÆlt jfb]

clgŝ;řttflbƍ;śbLks]ĕ pkfbfkţųfg'oá±uëf, æsƠf)kfksĕg+ sƙfg+
sĕ/s]ĕ k'ƮnáÆlt jfb] tƧ
jũb'ŋĕg'kŞ]bflbƍ;śbLks]ĕ k'l/;sĕ/fg'oá±uëf
r, æoá Olźljs'Ƒs]ĕ, ;á k'ƮnáÆltcflbjfbe]bs]ĕ cleţfg'oá±uëf,
ædftflktfboá gfd clŴ, t]g k'Ʈná cŴLÆlt jfbe]bs]ĕ `ftsĕg'oá±uëf
æPj+ vlųoáÆltcflb hĕŵfg'oá±uëf, æuxŪá
kƑlhtáÆltcflb klkųfg'oá±uëf, æb]já dg'ƧáÆltcflb pkkųfg'oá±uëf, æ;átfkƉáÆltcflb klj]wfg'oá±uëf, æcŪ
k'l/;k'ƮnfÆltcflb ;Ŝfg'oá±uëf, æk'Ʈná ;řtáÆltcflbj;ƍjųá ;lŝsŪ;efufg'oá±uëf, æ;'v+ j]bg+ j]lbodfgáÆltcflb
j]bsĕg'oá±uëf, æsĕo] sĕofg'kƧLÆltcflb lsŝfg'oá±uëf, æclŴ k'Ʈná cųlxtfo klkƉáÆltcflbgf k'Ʈn;efj;fws;'ų];'
;lƉlƧt];' _
;Ƒ] wƙf cgųf ‘d0lg01=353 356 w0k0279’, b'ŋd]j pƍşdfg+ pƍşlt ‘;+0lg0 2=15’.
lsƉ' ;ųált kŝ]l;, df/ lblŪut+ g' t].
;'ź;řf/k'ŧáo+, glow ;ų"knưltĶ
b'ŋd]j lx ;Ƙált, b'ŋ+ ltŪlt j]lt r.
gfţŶ b'ŋĕ ;Ƙált, gfţ+ b'ŋĕ lg?ŢltĶ ‘;+0lg0 1=171’.
oƨf r ±vëf, cfgƆ, ;'ţ+ cų]g jf cųlgo]g jf»k]0 tƨf ;'ţá nás]ĕlt j'ŝlt ‘;+0lg0 4=85’.
æcųlg jf, leŋj], ;lt cųlgo+ d]lt cƧflt»k]0 cųlg r leŋj] cųlgo] r ;ŝtá ±yëttá
cg'knưlgodfg] olƕ t+ lblŪŪfg+, ;á nás]ĕ, ;á cųf, ;á k]ŝ eljƧfld, lgŝá w'já ;Ƨtá cljkl/)fdwƙá, ;Ƨlt;d+
t±yëj &ƧfdLlt ggfo+, leŋj], s]þjná kl/k"/á afnwƙáÆlt ‘d0lg0 1=244’, ætŶ, ;]lgo, ø−fo+ ;Ŵf lbŪ] r]j wƙ]
cųfg+ ;ŝtá ±yëttá g kţfk]lt, cle;ƕ/fo] r»k]0 co+ j'ŝlt, ;]lgo, ;Ŵf
;ƙf;Ɨ'źáÆltcflbgf
k'ƮnfefjbLks;'ų;ƆƧgj;ƍjųá ;'ų;ƆƧgfg'oá±uëf rflt Pųs]þg syfd±Ʈëg ljŴf/tá k&df k'Ʈnsyf ljeųf. tŴ
æclŴ k'Ʈná cųlxtfo klkƉáÆltcfbL;' oyf ¿kfboá wƙf kŝųnŋ);fdţnŋ)j;]g nưlƃ, g Pj+ k'Ʈná, ¿kfbL;'
kg ;lt násjáxf/dų]g æclŴ k'ƮnáÆlt j'ŝtLlt. j'ųlƕ r]t+ eujtf _ æOdf ±vëf, lrų»k]0 násjáxf/f
náskţlųoáÆlt ‘bL0lg01=440’. lƀwflk a'źfg+ syf ;ƙ'ltsyf, k/dŴsyf r. tŴ æ;ųá k'Ʈná ufdá
kƑtáÆltcflbsĕ ;ƙ'ltsyf gfd, æclgŝ+ b'ŋ+ cgųf vƈf cfotgfgLÆltcflbsĕ k/dŴsyf gfd. a'źf lx o] o] ;ųf
oyf oyf a'lŢŷf rt';ŝklj]w+ sĕt'+ ;Ŋþálƃ, t];+ t];+ tyf tyf ;ƙ'ltj;]g jf k/dŴj;]g jf jáldƧsj;]g jf b];]ŷf
gfd¿kkl/Ş]bbƧgj;]g]j cdt+ dƮ+ ksĕ;]lƃ. colŤ _
b'j] ;ŝflg cŋĕl;, ;Ɨ'źá jbt+ j/á.
;ƙ'Ƹt k/dŴť, tlto+ g'knưltĶ
tŴ _
;Ř]tjrg+ ;ŝ+, nás;ƙ'ltsĕ/)+.
k/dŴjrg+ ;ŝ+, wƙfg+ tynŋ)+Ķ
tƨf ljţ" csŷfg, Ɠŧg]lelgj];g+.
k/dŴ] kltŪfo, k'ƮnfƸb ljjşo]Ķ
kţƸų cgltŊþƙ, k/dŴá ksĕl;tá.
ljgfos]þg ;á oƨf, tƨf cţálk klůtá.
k/dŴ+ ksĕ;]ƃá, ;dţ+ gfltwfjo]ltĶ ‘syf0cŪ0237’.
138

co+ k'Ʈnsyfgoá.

kl/xflgsyflbjŰgf
k'Ʈnsyftá k/+ ækl/xfolt c/xf c/xųfÆltcflbgf c;]vf, ;átfkƉjlşt;]vf r cƮdƮmþntá
kl/xfoƃLlt kjųf kl/xflgsyf. kƑşĕ ljo klj]w;řftá Ɣƪrl/ojf;álk dg'Ƨ];' Pj ejlt, glŴ b]j];'
Ɣƪrl/ojf;ált kjųf Ɣƪrl/osyf. b'ŋbƧg]g Psb];tá lsn];f kxLolƃ, tyf ;d'bobƧgfbLxLlt Pj+
gfgfle;doj;]g cálw;á lsn];f kxLoƃLlt kjųf cálw;ásyf. ´fgnfeL k'y'şgá sĕd/fuƓfkfb] ;d'Ş]bj;]g hxlt, ;á
rt';ŝfle;dof k&dd]j cgfufdL xátLlt kjųf hxltsyf. ctLtflbe]b+ ;Ƒ+ vƈflbs+þ sĕnųo]lk vƈflb;efj]g cŴLlt
kjųf ;ƑdŴLltsyf. ctLt+, cgfutť vƈflbs+þ cŴLlt kjųf ctLtŋƈflbsyf. ctLt];' ljkfswƙwƙ];' Psŝ+
cljkŊþljkfsd]j clŴ, g Ot/lƃ kjųf PsŝdŴLltsyf. ;Ƒ] wƙf ;ltkŪfgflt kjųf ;ltkŪfgsyf.
ctLtfgfutflbj;]g glŴ, ;sefj]g jf clŴ, k/efj]g gŴLlt kjųf x]jlŴsyf. tŴ x]jŴLlt Pj+ Oldgf ksĕ/]g
cŴLlt cŴá.
clwdflgsĕg+, s'xsĕg+ jf c/xųklţfg+ ;'ŊþljƧƸŪ lbƩf df/sĕlosĕ b]jtf pk;+x/ƃLlt kjųf k¿kxf/syf.
c/xtá k/];+ gfd±uëfųfbL;' clŴ cţf)+, clŴ sřf, k/]lx `fkgLotá clŴ k/ljt/)flt ltƧá syf. ;átfklųdƮŋ±)ë
b'ŋlƃ jfrf leştLlt kjųf jrLe]bsyf. b'ŋlƃ jfr+ ef;ƃá b'ŋ] `f)+ cfx/lt, tť nás'ų/lƃ kjųf b'ŋĕxf/syf.
;dfklųo+, ejś] r lrų+ lr/+ ltŪtLlt kjųf lrųlŪltsyf. ;Ƒ] ;řf/f lgƍl/ofo]g cflbųf s'Ŋ'þńlg/o;lb;flt
kjųf s'Ŋ'þńsyf. kŝ]s+þ rt';ŝbƧgj;]g Ps]þsƧ dƮƧ rt'ŋų'+ pƍlųj;]g ;áń;lx s]ĕŪf;]lx c/xųƍųLlt kjųf
cg'k'Ƒfle;dosyf. a'źfg+ jáxf/jrg+ nás'ų/lƃ
kjųf jáxf/syf. ;'ź;ųfg+ cƍl;řfo d±Ʈëg ljgf
lsn];lg/áw;řftá cƍl;řflg/á±wëf, kl;řfo t]g d±Ʈëg lsn];lg/á±wëflt ƀ] lg/áwflt kjųf lg/áwsyf.
tyfutan+ ;fjs;fwf/)lƃ kjųf ansyf. cf;jŋo`f)lj/lxt+ gjan+ nás'ų/lƃ kjųf cl/olƃsyf.
;/fu+ lrų+ lgƑfg+ cf/ư /futá ljd'ŝtLlt kjųf ljd'lųsyf. ´fg]g ljŋƘgljd'lųof k&d+ ljd'ų+ lrų+ dƮŋ±)ë
;d'Ş]bljd'lųof ljd'ŝdfg+ gfd xátLlt kjųf ljd'ŝdfgsyf. cŪds;řftƧ ;átfklųdƮŪƧ cg'nád±uëfŶe'ŋ±)ë
lblŪljlrlsŞf kxLolƃ gfd, dƮŋ±)ë kxLgf gfdflt kjųf cŪdssyf. cŪdsƧ dƮŋ±)ë ;lźlƇofbLlg klnelƃ, g
klnźfgLlt kjųf cŪdsƧ OlƇosyf. rt'ŴŢĕgwƙ'kŴź+ d+;rŋ'd]j lbƑrŋ' gfdflt kjųf lbƑrŋ'syf. tyf d+;;át]
lbƑ;átsyf. oyfsƙ"kut`f)d]j lbƑrŋ"lt kjųf oyfsƙ"kut`f)syf. b]jƔƪfg+ kf)fltkftflbc;+j/fefjdų]g
;ƕųlj/ltof cefj]lk ;+j/á cŴLlt kjųf ;+j/syf. c;ţLglƕ r'ltkl;lƈŋ±)ë ;ţf cŴLlt kjųf c;ţsyf.
g]j;ţfgf;ţfotge"ldo+ ;ţf gƍjųtLlt kjųf g]j;ţfgf;ţfotgsyf.
c/xf luxL cƧflt kjųf lulxƧ c/xfltsyf. cgfufldgá ;'źfjf;];' kl;lƈlrų]g pkklųŋ±)ë c/xƃá
xáƃLlt kjųf pkklųsyf. c/xtá nálsowƙflk cgf;jflt kjųf cgf;jsyf. kŝ'ƍƉŋ±)ë ;dlśefj;dƉfudá r
¿kfjr/flbe"dƃ/klnfe;dƉfudá rflt ƀ] ;dƉfudf, o];+ kg Od] ƀ] ;dƉfud] &k]ŷf cţálk x]Ŵ pkklųwƙj;]g
Ps]ĕ ;dƉfudá gfd clŴ, t]g c/xf rt"lx mþn]lx ;dƉfutált kjųf ;dƉfutsyf. Oldgfj go]g c/xf %lx pk]ŋĕlx
;dƉfutált kjųf pk]ŋĕ;dƉfutsyf. dƮ`f);Ƒţ'tţf);řftaálwof ;bf ;lƉlxtefj]g a'źált kjųf aálwof
a'źáltsyf. dxfk'l/;nŋ)o'ųfj aálw;ųflt kjųf nŋ)syf. aálw;ųfglƕ dƮlgofdá cŴLlt kjųf lgofdáŊþlƃsyf.
rt'ŴdƮŪá tLlx mþn]lx ;dƉfutáltcflbgf kjųf ck/flk ;dƉfutsyf. k&ddƮfbLlx kxLg]lx ;Ƹź lgƍl/ofotá
c/xų+ ;Ƒ;+oáhgƍxfglƃ kjųf ;Ƒ;+oáhgkxfgsyf.
lgƍl/ofotá mþn+ ljd'lų gfd, ljkƧgfdƮkŝj]ŋ)`f)flg kg kl/ofotá. Pj+ kg cƮx]ŷf o+ lslť
lsn];ljƍo'ų+ `f)+ ljd'ųLlt kjųf ljd'lųsyf.
a'źflbc;]vf/ƙ)+ c;]v`f)lƃ kjųf c;]v`f)syf.
kyjLsl;)flb;dfklųoá k/dŴtá cljşdfg] kţųf/ƙ±)ë kjųųf ljk/Lt`f)lƃ kjųf ljk/Ltsyf. tŴ clgŝ]
lgŝlƃcflbgf rt'lƑ±wëf ljkƟf;á j]lbtƑá. ;Ƒ];+ k'y'şgfg+ lgofdudgfo `f)+ cŴLlt kjųf lgofdsyf. ;Ƒ+ `f)+
kl;lƘbflt
kjųf kl;lƘbfsyf. ;ƙ'ltlj;olƕ `f)+ e"tf/ƙ)d]jflt kjųf ;ƙ'lt`f)syf. r]tákl/o`f)+
lrųf/ƙ)d]j, g t+;ƕo'ų/fuflbr]tl;sĕ/ƙ)lƃ kjųf lrųf/ƙ)syf. ;ƑƸƨ cgfutwƙ] ;Ƒ];+ `f)+ cŴLlt kjųf
cgfut`f)syf. kŝ'ƍƉ] cųgá `f±)ëlk `f)+ kjųtLlt kjųf k'ƍƉ`f)syf. a'źf ljo ;fjsĕlk t]g t]g j]g]Ɯhg]g
kųƑmþn+ `ŷfj tbŴfo wƙ+ b];]ƃLlt kjųf mþn`f)syf.
;ƙųlgofdá lgodtá lgŝŪ]g c;řtált kjųf lgofdsyf. æwƙlŪttf wƙlgofdtfÆltcflbjrgtá
klŝ;d'ƍfbá c;řtált kjųf klŝ;d'ƍfbsyf. æ;ŝflg tyflg cljtyfgLÆltcflbjrgtá rt';ŝflg c;řtfgLlt
kjųf ;ŝsyf. ærųf/á cf?ƍf cfg]ŧfÆlt jrgtá c;řtflt kjųf cf?ƍsyf. lg/áw;dfklų c;řtflt kjųf
lg/áw;dfklųsyf. c;řtá cfsĕ;ált cfsĕ;syf. cfsĕ;á ;lgbƧgáltsyf. kyjLwft' ;lgbƧgfltcfƸb sŷf sĕosƙ+
;lgbƧglƃ kl/oá;fgsyf.
glŴ s]þlr wƙf s]þlxlr wƙ]lx ;ślxtf, t]g Pslj±wëg ¿k;śxáltcflb lg/Ŵslƃ kjųf ;ślxtsyf.
j]bgfboá c¿kwƙf cţdţ+ g ;ƕo'ųflt kjųf ;ƕo'ųsyf. r]tl;s+þ gŴLlt kjųf r]tl;ssyf. r]tgfwƙáj bfg+, g
b]Ɯwƙált kjųf bfgsyf. klƮfxsĕg+ kl/eáudo+ k'ţ+ cŴLlt kjųf kl/eáusyf. k]tf Otá lbƉrLj/fbLx]j
139

ofk]ƃLlt kjųf OtálbƉsyf. kyjLsƙljkfs]ĕltsyf
h/fd/)+ ljkfs]ĕltsyf. lsn];ƍxfgdųd]j ;fdţmþn+, g
lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙflt kjųf cl/owƙljkfssyf. cţdţflbkŝotfo ljkfs]ĕ ljkfswƙwƙáltsyf.
c;'/sĕo]g ;Ƹź % ultoált kjųf ultsyf. dt;ųá dft'pt';doť dftflkt';+oáuť cánásodfgá ;ųfx+,
clt/]s;ųfx+ jf oƸƨ ej] ltŪlt, ;á cƃ/fejá gfd cŴLlt kjųf cƃ/fejsyf. ¿kflbkťsĕdu')fj sĕdwft' gfd,
g t' jŴ'sĕdlsn];sĕdflt kjųf sĕdu')syf. kť]jfotgflg sĕdfltsyf. ¿kwƙfj ¿kwft"ltsyf. c¿kwƙfj
c¿kwft"ltsyf. ¿kwft'of ;ųf #fgfbLlx ;Ƹź ;ńfotlgsĕlt kjųf ¿kwft'ofcfotgsyf. cf?ƍ]lk clŴ
;'v'd¿klƃsyf. sĕojrLljţlųj;]g ¿k+ sƙlƃsyf. lrųljƍo'ųá c¿kwƙáj hËljltlƇo+, ¿khËljltlƇo+ gŴLlt kjųf
hËljltlƇosyf. cl/o'kjfbsƙ]g c/xųf kl/xfotLlt kjųf sƙx]t'syf.
clgŝflbj;]g ;řf/] cfbLgjtá cklƧŷf lgƑfg+ cflg;+;tá kƧƃƧ ;+oáhgƍxfg+
xátLlt kjųf
cflg;+;bƧfljsyf. lgƑfgf/ƙ)lƕ ;+oáhg+ cŴLlt
kjųf cdtf/ƙ)syf. ¿k+ ;f/ƙ)lƃsyf. cg';of
cgf/ƙ)fltsyf. `f)+ cgf/ƙ)lƃsyf. ctLtf/ƙ)ť cgfutf/ƙ)ť lrų+ cgf/ƙ)lƃsyfƀo+. ;Ƒ+ lrų+
ljtŊĕg'klttlƃsyf. ljtŊþljƎþf/áj ;Źá, ;á r g ;átljţ]Ɯált kjųf ljtŊþljƎþf/;Źsyf. ljgflk lrų]g jfrf
kjųtLlt kjųf goyflrųƧjfrfltsyf. ljgflk lrų]g sĕosƙ+ kjųtLlt kjųf goyflrųƧsĕosƙlƃsyf.
ctLt]lxlk ´fg]lx, cgfut]lxlk oálugá ;dƉfutflt kjųf ctLtfgfut;dƉfutsyf.
ejślrų] clg?ź] Pj s';nfs';nlrųflg pƍşlƃ, tbefj] r ;ƃltlg/á±wëf l;oflt kjųf lg/áwsyf. ;x
jfrflx ljţlų¿k+ d±Ʈëfltsyf. kťljţf);dlśƧflk dƮefjgf cŴLlt kjųf kťljţf);dlśƧdƮsyf. kťljţf)f
s';nflk cs';nfkLltsyf. kťljţf)f ;feáufltsyf. dƮŋ±)ë nálso]g, nás'ų/]g rflt ƀLlx ;Ln]lx o'ųfltsyf. ;Ln+
cr]tl;slƃsyf. ;Ln+ g lrųfg'kl/jųLltsyf. ;dfbfgx]t'lrųljƍo'ųá k'ţákroá xátLlt kjųf ;dfbfgx]t'ssyf.
ljţlų ;Lnlƃsyf. kf)fltkftfboá ljgflk ljţƸų xáƃLlt kjųf cljţlųb'ƧLƠsyf.
cg';of cƓfstf, cx]t'sĕ, lrųljƍo'ųflt ltƧálk cg';osyf. c;]vƧ `f)ljƍo'ųƍjlųof ;á `f)Llt
gjųƑált kjųf `f)syf. `f)+ lrųljƍo'ųlƃsyf dƮŋ±)ë Ob+ b'ŋlƃ `f)+ kjųlƃ kjųf Ob+ b'ŋlƃsyf. a'źf
Olźan]g cfo'sƍ+ ljgflk dxfsƍ+ ltŪƃLlt kjųf Olźansyf. lrų;ƃlt ;dflw, g Pslrųŋl)s]ĕlt kjųf
;dflwsyf. cljşĕlbklŝ;d'ƍfbś]lx cţf wƙlŪttflt kjųf wƙlŪttfsyf. ¿kfbLlx cţf clgŝtflt kjųf
clgŝtfsyf.
ljţlųoá ljgflk OlƇo;+j/á sĕojrLsƙlƃ kjųf syf. ;Ƒ+ sƙ+ ljkfshgslƃ kjųf sƙsyf. ;Źá
ljkfs]ĕlt kjųf syf. ;ńfotg+
ljkfs]ĕlt kjųf
syf. dƮ+ ljgflk ;ųŋų'k/dáltsyf. tyf
s]ĕn+s]ĕnPsaLlhsyf;'lk. lblŪ;ƕƉá hËljtf já/ák]tLltsyf. lblŪ;ƕƉƧ
ckfob'Ʈltof ;Ƹź
¿kflbtŲf;řftb'ƮltkxLgflt kjųf b'Ʈltsyf. ;ųdeljsƧ tŲf;Ƙjtá b'Ʈlt cƍxLgflt kjųf ;ųdeljssyf.
;Ŝe]bflbsƍŪ+ sƙ+ sŷf t]g dxfsƍ+ c;Lltefu+ sŷf ttá Psefudų+ sĕn+ cfo'sƍ+ lg/o] kŝƃLlt cƮx]ŷf
;sn+ dxfsƍ+ kŝlƃ, ljgƧdfg]lk sƍ] rŊþjfńƃ/];' kŝƃLlt kjųf sƍŪsyf. ;Ŝe]bs]ĕ cƍgfs';nflg ljo
sĕdfjr/s';nlƕ g klnetLlt kjųf s';nklnfesyf. cś;ƕƉfo cf)lųof cefj]lk dft'#ftflbcfgƃl/osƙkoáhs]ĕ
ldŞųlgotá Pjflt kjųf cgƃ/fko'ųsyf. clgotwƙ];'lk s]þlr s';n;ƕo'ųflgotf cŴLlt kjųf lgotƧ
lgofdsyf. gLj/±)ëlx lgj't]g klŞƉ]g]j lrų]g gLj/)+ khxƃLlt kjųf lgj'tsyf. ;ƙ'vLe"t+ ;+oáhgd]j hxtLlt
kjųf ;ƙ'vLe"tsyf. ;dfkƉá r ´fgf/ƙ)lgslƃof ´fg+ cƧfb]tLlt kjųf ;dfkƉá cƧfb]tLltsyf. b'ŋj]bgfolk
/fuƧfbj]bgf xátLlt kjųf cƧft/fusyf. wƙtŲf cƓfstfltsyf. wƙtŲf g b'ŋ;d'boáltsyf.
s';n+ jf cs';nƧ, cs';n+ jf s';nƧ cgƃ/f pƍşƃLlt kjųf s';nfs';nkl;Ɔxgsyf. uư;]Ɯsĕglƕ
aLhdų+ ;ńfotg+ kl;lƈŋ±)ë pƍştLlt kjųf ;ńfotg'ƍlųsyf. kťljţf)flg cţdţƧ cgƃ/f pƍşƃLlt kjųf
cgƃ/kŝosyf. ;ƙfjfrfsƙƃljţlųoá cl/o¿klƃsyf. sĕd/fuflbtá cţá cg';oáltsyf. lsn];kl/o'Ūfg+
lrųljƍo'ųlƃsyf. oyf sĕd/f±uëf sĕdwft'o+ kl/ofkƉá, Pj+ ¿k/fuc¿k/fuf ¿kf¿ke"ldo+ kl/ofkƉflt kjųf
kl/ofkƉsyf. ƀo+ lblŪut+ cƓfstlƃsyf. lblŪut+ ckl/ofkƉlƃsyf. oá o];+ x]t'kŝoá, ;á k'g t];+
;xhĕtflbkŝoá g xált, Pswfj PsƧ kŝoá xátLlt kjųf kŝotfsyf. cljşĕj ;řf/fg+ kŝoá, g kg ;řf/f
cljşĕoflt kjųf cţdţkŝosyf. sĕnźfgf Od] kl/lgƎþƉ]g kţlųdųflt kjųf cźfsyf. Pj+ v)nod'x'ųsyf.
cţƧ cf;jƧ cefjf cf;jf cgf;jflt kjųf cf;jsyf. nás'ų/fg+ wƙfg+ h/fd/)+ nás'ų/lƃ kjųf h/fd/)syf.
lg/áw;dfklų nás'ų/flt kjųf ;ţfj]blotsyf. ;f nálsoflt kjųf b'lto;ţfj]blotsyf. lg/áw;dfkƉálk sĕn+
s/]Ɯflt kjųf tlto;ţfj]blotsyf. lg/áw;dfklų c;ţ;ų'lksĕltsyf. sƙtá cţá lrųljƍo'ųá sƙ"kroáltsyf.
anƍųf a'źfboá Olźan]g ;ųfg+ lrų+ /fuflbcg'ƍlųof lgƮŲƃLlt kjųf lgƮxsyf. Pj+ s';n'ƍlųof
k/lrųkƮxgsyf. a'źf Olźof k/];+ ;'v+ b]ƃLlt kjųf ;'vfg'ƍbfgsyf. æ;řf/f clgŝfÆlt dgl;s/átá
ctLtflbe]bleƉ] ;Ƒ] ;řf/] cf/ƙ)j;]g Pstá clwuŲftLlt kjųf clwuƞdgl;sĕ/syf. ¿k+ x]t'slƃsyf. Pj+ ¿k+
;x]t'slƃsyf. ¿k+ s';nfs';nlƃsyf.
¿k+ ljkfs]ĕltsyf, oyf sĕdfjr/sƙ]g hĕt+ ¿k+ sĕdfjr/+, Pj+
¿kfjr/f¿kfjr/sƙ]lx hĕt+ ¿k+ ¿kfjr/f¿kfjr/lƃsyf
¿k/f±uëf ¿kwft'of, c¿k/f±uëf r c¿kwft'of
kl/ofkƉáltsyf.
clŴ c/xtá k'ţ"kroáltsyf. glŴ c/xtá csĕndŝ"ltsyf. o+ lslť pƍşlt, ;Ƒldb+ sƙtáltsyf.
OlƇoaźd]j b'ŋ+, g ;Ƒ] ;řf/flt kjųf OlƇoaźsyf. ;Ƒ] ;řf/f b'ŋĕ &k]ŷf cl/odƮlƃsyf. dƮmþnfg]j ;Ŝá
gfd, g r tflg blŋ)+ klƮŲlƃ, tƨf g jųƑ+ ;Ŝá blŋ)+ klƮŲftLltsyf. tyf g jųƑ+ ;Ŝá blŋ)+

140

lj;á±wëtLltsyf. g jųƑ+ ;Ŝá e'ŧtLltsyf. g jųƑ+ ;ŜƧ lbƉ+ dxƎþnlƃsyf. a'źf g lslť e'ŧlƃ, tƨf g jųƑ+
a'źƧ lbƉ+ dxƎþnlƃsyf. bfostá bfg+ lj;'Ţlt, g klƮfxstált kjųf blŋ)flj;'lźsyf.
a'źf t'l;tnás]þ Pj lgƑųlƃ, g dg'Ƨnás]þ. PŴ lx lglƙt¿kdų+ bƧ]ƃLlt kjųf dg'Ƨnássyf. lglƙt¿k+
wƙ+ b];]lt, g a'źált kjųf wƙb];gfsyf. /f±uëfj s?)f gfd, ttá glŴ a'źfg+ s?)fltsyf. a'źfg+ pŝf/kƧfjá
cţ] uƈhĕt] cltljo clwuŲftLlt kjųf uƈhĕtsyf. a'źf Ps]þg d±Ʈëg rųfl/ ;fdţmþnflg ;lŞs/áƃLlt kjųf
PsdƮsyf. kl/sƙfƸb ljgfj k&dflbŢĕgf b'ltoflbŢĕg+ ;ŘdtLlt kjųf ´fg;Řlƃsyf. kťsgo] cljtŊþljrf/dų+
´fg+ lj;'+ ´fg+ gfd g xált, ´fgƃl/s+þ gfd xátLlt kjųf ´fgƃl/ssyf. ;dfkƉá ;Ź+ ;')ftLltsyf. ljţf)+ ljgf
k;fbrŋ'gf ¿k+ kƧtLltsyf.
t]sĕlns]þ lsn];] khxtLlt kjųf lsn];ƍhxgsyf. lgƑfg;řftflk ;'ţtf ;řf/ŋƈkl/ofkƉflt kjųf
;'ţtsyf. c;řtd]j ;fdţmþnlƃsyf o];+ s]þ;lť wƙfg+ klnfef c;řtflt kjųf klųsyf. ;Ƒwƙfg+ ;efj;řftf
tytf c;řtflt kjųf tytfsyf. cgjşŪ]g lgƑfglƕ s';nlƃsyf. cfgƃl/ofƸb ljgflk clŴ k'y'şgƧ
cŝƃlgofdtfltsyf. nálso;źfboá g OlƇofgLlt kjųf OlƇosyf.
c;lťŝflk cfgƃl/s]ĕ xátLlt kjųf c;lťŝsyf. glŴ k'y'şgƧ `f)lƃ kjųf `f)syf. g]/losĕg+ sƙfg]j
lg/okfn¿k]g j±wëlƃ, g lg/okfnflt kjųf lg/okfnsyf. clŴ b]j];' lt/Şfgfltsyf. lj/ltųo+ lrųljƍo'ų+,
kťlśs]ĕj d±Ʈëflt kjųf dƮsyf. klŝ;d'ƍfb];' `f)+ nás'ų/lƃ kjųf `f)syf.
ltƧá ;śLltoá cf/ư ;f;g+ gj+ stlƃ kjųf ;f;gsyf. k'y'şgá Psŋ±)ë t]wft's]þlx wƙ]lx cljljųált
kjųf cljljųsyf. `]Ɯfj/)x]t's+þ lslť ;+oáhg+ cƍxfolk c/xf xátLlt kjųf ;+oáhgsyf. æ;řf/f lgŝf xáƃ',
?ŋĕ lgŝk'Ǝþmþnflbo'ųf ±vëldgá xáƃ"Æltcflbgf oyflwƍfo+ Olź kjųtLlt kjųf Olźsyf. a'źfg+ ;/L/cfo'kefj]dųtá
cţflk j]dųtf cŴLlt kjųf a'źsyf. PsƸƨ v±)ë ;Ƒnáswft";' cg]sþ] a'źf ;ƃLlt kjųf ;Ƒlb;fsyf. ;Ƒ] wƙf
lgotflt kjųf wƙsyf. ;Ƒsƙflg mþnbfg] lgotfgLlt kjųf sƙsyf.
c/xf c;Ƒţ'efj]g ;Ƒţ'lj;o] lslť ;+oáhg+ cƍxfo kl/lgƑftLlt kjųf kl/lgƑfgsyf. c/xf s';nlrųá
kl/lgƑfotLlt kjųf s';nlrųsyf. c/xf cfg]ŧ] ;lŮtá kl/lgƑfotLlt kjųf cfg]ŧsyf
clŴ uư;]Ɯfo
wƙfle;doá, clŴ uư;]Ɯfo c/xųƍlų, ;'lkgƃ] wƙfle;doá, c/xųƍlų rflt kjųf ltƧálk syf. ;Ƒ+ ;'lkglrų+
cƓfstlƃsyf. vl)stfo lrųfg+ glŴ cf;]jgkŝotfltsyf. ;Ƒ] ;řtf Pslrųŋl)sĕlt kjųf vl)ssyf.
OlŴof ;Ƹź Pstá ;ƕƸų cg'eljƧfdflt k"hĕƸb sŷf PsĕlwƍfoƍųƧ leŋ'gá d]y'gá wƙá kl;]ljtƑált kjųf
Psĕlwƍfosyf. kfkleŋ";' d]y'g+ kl;]jƃ];' c/xƃfg+ jŰ]g cdg'Ƨf d]yg' + kl;]jƃLlt kjųf c/xƃjŰsyf. s]þlr
;ųf cųgá OƧl/o]g sĕdsĕl/sĕj;]g ljlgkft+ uŞlƃ, g sƙj;]gflt kjųf OƧl/osĕdsĕl/sĕsyf. g /f±uëf
/fuklt¿ks]ĕltcflb klt¿ksyf. vƈfotgfboá ckl/lgƎþƉflt kjųf ckl/lgƎþƉsyflt ;flwslƀ;tsyf. kflńo+
cŪd'vjfbo'lųj;]g]j ;lƙltofbLg+ leƉnlźsĕg+ nlźe]bj;]g gfgfksĕ/tá ljeųf, tf kg ;Ƒsyf k'Ʈnsyfj. tf
t+t+nlźe]bj;]g ;ř]ktálk j'ŝdfgf cltefl/o+ uƅ+ s/álƃ, tƨf g ljŴfl/tf. t+ kg go+ OŞƃ]lx kflńcŪsyf;'
‘syf01cfboᶠsyf0cŪ0lgbfgsyf’ Pj ljŴf/tá ux]tƑált cod]Ŵ kflńgo]g ;Ƹź cŴljlgŞoá.
dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

syfjŴ'dfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

6= odsdfltsĕ
d"nodsdfltsŴjŰgf
Obflg
odsdfltsĕo
;+jŰgfgoá
xált.
;f
kg];f
d"nodsdfltsĕ
vƈcfotgwft';ŝ;řf/cg';olrųwƙOlƇoodsdfltsĕlt b;ljwf xált. s]þgŪ]g r]Ŵ odslƃĠ o'uńŪ]g. o'uń+ lx
æodskflxfl/o+Æ, æods;fnfÆltcfbL;' æodsÆlƃ j'ŝlt, Olt o'uń;řftfg+ odsĕg+ j;]g b]l;tųf Od];' b;;'
Ps]þslƕ, Pt];+ ljehgųf lgŹ];álk, ;Ƒ];+ ;d"xųf ks/)lƕ ods+þ gfd. Ow kg]tf lgŹ];ods+þ pkfbfo
æodsdfltsĕÆŷ]j j'ųf, tf;+ kg b;Ɖ+ odsdfltsĕg+ d"nodsdfltsĕ cflb. tŴflk æo] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t]
s';nd"nf. o] jf kg s';nd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nfÆlt Ob+ ods+þ cflb. tƧ s';nd"n;řftfg+ lƀƉ+ cŴfg+ j;]g
cŴodslƃ jf, t];ţ]j cŴfg+ cg'nádtá klnádtá kjųkflńwƙj;]g wƙodslƃ jf, cg'nádklnádtá kjųk'Şfj;]g
k'Şfodslƃ jf ltwf odsefjá j]lbtƑá. ;];];'lk P;]j goá.
Obflg Od];+ odsĕg+ j;]g b]l;tfo OldƧf d"nodsdfltsĕo tfj goodsk'ŞfcŴjf/ƍe]bj;]g kflńjjŴfg+
Pj+ j]lbtƑ+ _ s';nlųsdfltsĕo lx æs';nf wƙfÆlt Ob+ cflbkb+ lgƧfo d"ngoá d"nd"ngoá d"nsgoá d"nd"nsgoált
141

Od] rųf/á gof xálƃ. t];' Ps]þsƸƨ go] d"nods+þ Psd"nods+þ cţdţd"nodslƃ tLl) tLl) odsĕgLlt ƀfb;
odsĕlg. Ps]þsƸƨ ods]þ cg'nádklnádj;]g ƀ] ƀ] k'Şflt rt'jL;lt k'Şf, Ps]þsk'Şfo ;lƉŪfg;+;oj;]g ƀ] ƀ] cŴflt
cŪrųfnL; cŴf.
tŴ o] s]þlr s';nflt s';n];' æs';nf g' ±vëf, g s';nf g' ±vëfÆlt ;Ɔ]xfefjtá OdƸƨ kb] ;lƉŪfgŴá
j]lbtƑá. ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nflt æ;Ƒ] t] s';nf wƙf s';nd"nf g' ±vëf, g g' ±vëfÆlt Pj+ ljdltj;]g k'lŞtųf OdƸƨ kb]
;+;oŴá j]lbtƑá. ;á r ±vëf j]g]Ɯfg+ ;+;oŪfg] ;+;o+ bLk]ŷf t+ljgábgŴ+ eujtf j'ųá, tyfutƧ kg ;+;oŪfg+ gfd
glŴ. Otá k/];'lk k'Şfkb];' P;]j goá. oyf r s';nkb+ lgƧfo Od] rt'gofboá xálƃ, cs';nkb+ lgƧfolk t±yëj,
cƓfstkb+ lgƧfolk t±yëj, s';nfbLlg tLl)lk kbflg Pstá sŷf lglŹŪ+ gfdkb+ lgƧfo t±yëjflt s';nlųsdfltsĕo
rt";' kb];' ;Ƒ]lk ;áń; gof, cŪrųfnL; odsĕlg, %Ɖj'lt k'Şf, ƀfgj'lt;t+ cŴf r pŹ];j;]g j'ųflt j]lbtƑf.
Pųfjtf d"njf/á x]t'jf/á lgbfgjf/á ;Ƙjjf/á kejjf/á ;d'Ūfgjf/á cfxf/jf/á cf/ƙ)jf/á kŝojf/á ;d'bojf/ált
;Ƒ]lk b; jf/f xálƃ. tŴ d"njf/] cfutkl/Ş]b]g]j cj;];];'lk gofboá j]lbtƑf. kflń kg]Ŵ clt;+lvųf. Olt
;Ƒ];'lk b;;' jf/];' ;lŪ;t+ gof, c;Lltclwsĕlg rųfl/ ods;tflg, ;lŪclwsĕlg gj k'Şf;tflg, jL;flwsĕlg
Ps"þgjL;lt cŴ;tflg r plŹŪfgLlt j]lbtƑflg.
Pjd]Ŵ
goodsk'Şf cŴjf/ƍe]bj;]g kflńjjŴfg+ ljlbŷf Obflg
tƧf cg'ųfgkbŴfg';f/]g]j
ljeśgo;lxtá ;ř]kŴjŰgfgoá Pj+ j]lbtƑá _ tŴ o] s]þrLlt cgj;];jrg+. s';nf wƙflt cgjş;'vljkfsĕ
lgƧų;efjf. ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nflt Ƹs t] ;Ƒ]o]j s';nd"nf xáƃLlt k'Şf. Odflg kg ljƧşgdfltsĕo glŴ.
odsdfltsĕo lx ;ƑŴ k'Şfkbfg]j pźflg, g ljƧşgfgLlt. ljƧşgflg kg lgŹ];]o]j j'ųflg, tƨf ;ƑŴ
lgŹ];go]g]j ljƧşgd'v+ bƧloƧfd. OldƧfj æo] s]þlr s';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nfÆlt k'Şfo ljeśgo]g Ob+
ljƧşgd'v+. ætL±)ëj s';nd"nflg, cj;];f s';nf wƙf g s';nd"nfÆlt tƧf rfodŴá _ g t] ;Ƒ] s';nf wƙf
s';nd"nflg xálƃ, cnáefbLlg kg tL±)ëj s';nd"nfgLlt. o] jf kg s';nd"nf toá cnáefboá s';nfg+ d"nflt j'ųf,
;Ƒ] t] s';nf wƙflt Ƹs t] ;Ƒ] toálk wƙf s';nflt k'Şf. tƧf lgŹ];] æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. tƧ t];+ ltŰ+ d"nfg+
s';nefjlƕ ;ƕlŞfdLlt cŴá. co+ tfj d"ngo] d"nodsgoá.
Psd"nods]þ kg ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g Psd"nflt u)gŪ]g Psd"ns+þ cƮx]ŷf ;dfgŴ]g ux]tƑf, co+ x]Ŵ cŴá _
æ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n]g Ps+þ ;dfg+ d"n+ Pt];lƃ Psd"nfÆlt. o+ mþƧƧ d"n+, Ƹs tb]j j]bgfbLglƃ co+ k'Şf. cy g];+
tyfefj+ ;ƕlŞgj;]g æcfdƃfÆlt ljeś] ljƧşg+. o] jf kg s';nd"n]g Psd"nf, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nflt k'Şf. tƧf
kg s';nlrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+ s';nd"n]g Psd"nd]j, g s';n+, mþƧflbwƙhĕt+ kg s';nd"n]g Psd"nť]j s';nťflt Ob+
ljƧşg+. o±yëj lx mþƧfbLg+ cnáefboá ;'ƍltlŪtefj;fwg]g x]t'kŝoųf d"n+, tyf t+;d'Ūfg¿kƧfkLlt t+¿klƕ
c¿kwƙ]lx ;Ƹź ;dfgd"nlƃ j'ŝlt, g kg s';n+ cgjş;'vljkfsųfefjf. Psd"nodsgoá.
cţdţd"nods]þ kg æo] s]þlr s';nfÆlt ck'lŞŷf æo] s]þlr s';nd"n]g Psd"nfÆlt k'Şf stf. sƨfĠ
Oldgflk Ɠŧg]g tƧ]jŴƧ ;ƘjbƧgŴ+, s';n;d'Ūfg¿kƧflk ;lƕůgŴť. cţdţd"nflt ;Ƒ]j t] Ƹs cţdţƧ
x]t'kŝoŪ]g d"nflg xáƃLlt k'Şf. tƧf oflg ƀ] tLl) d"nflg Pstá pƍşlƃ, tfg]j Psd"nflg r]j cţdţd"nflg r,
cj;];f s';nd"n;xhĕtf ¿kf¿kwƙf s';nd"n]g Psd"nfj, g r cţdţd"nflt ljƧşg+. tƧ]j klnádgo] ;Ƒ] t]
cţdţd"nf cnáefboá s';nflt k'Şf. cfdƃflt ljƧşg+. d"ngoá.
oyf r d"ngo] d"nodsPsd"nodscţdţd"nodsj;]g %lƑwf k'ŞfljƧşggof j'ųf, Pj+ d"nd"ngofbL;'lk
j]lbtƑf. co+ kg]Ŵ lj;];á _ ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nd"nflt ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"n;řftf d"nf, s';nd"nd"nfŷ]j cŴá. Psd"nd"nflt
;dfgŪ]g Psd]j d"nd"n+ Pt];lƃ Psd"nd"nf, ;dfgd"nd"nfŷ]j cŴá. cţdţd"nd"nflt cţdţƧ d"n+ cţdţd"n+, t+
x]t'kŝoŪ]g d"n+ Pt];lƃ cţdţd"nd"nf, cţdţd"nd"nfŷ]j cŴá. ;];+ tflb;d]jflt. d"nd"ngoá.
d"nsgo] kg ;Ƒ] t] s';nd"nsĕlt ;Ƒ] t] s';nf x]t'kŝoŪ]g s';ne"t+ d"n+ Pt];lƃ s';nd"nsĕlt k'Şf.
cfdƃflt ljƧşg+. æo] jf kg s';nd"nsĕ, ;Ƒ] t] wƙf s';nfÆlt k'Şf. o+ ¿k+, t+ &k]ŷf ;];+ s';nlƃ ljƧşg+, ;];+
tflb;d]jflt. d"nsgoá.
d"nd"nsgo] kg s';nd"nd"nsĕlt s';nd"n;řft+ d"n+ Pt];lƃ s';nd"nd"nsĕ. ;];+ tflb;d]jflt.
co+ tfj s';nkb];' k'ŞfljƧşggoá. cs';nkbfbL;'lk P;]j goá. co+ kg lj;];á _ cs';nkbd"n];'
Psd"nods]þ æo] s]þlr cs';nf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cs';nd"n]g Psd"nfÆlt k&dk'Şfo æcx]t's+þ cs';n+ cs';nd"n]g Psd"nÆlƃ
lgŹ];] ljƧşg+ st+. tŴ cx]t's+þ cs';nlƃ ƀL;' dáxd"nlrų];' dáx+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, cƓfstkbd"n];' Psd"nods]þ æo] s]þlr
cƓfstf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nfÆlt k'Şfo æcx]t's+þ cƓfst+ &k]ŷf ;];f cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nsĕÆlt ljƧşg+.
tŴ cx]t's+þ cƓfstlƃ cŪf/;fx]t'slrų'ƍfbf, ¿k+, lgƑfgť. PŴ r lsťflk ;x]t'scƓfstlrų;d'Ūfg¿klƕ
cƓfstd"n]g Psd"nd]j, t+ kg cƑáxfl/s+þ sŷf lgŹ];] Pstá nưdfgsj;]gk]t+ ljƧşg+ stlƃ j]lbtƑ+.
gfdkbd"n];' r æo] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"nfÆlt k'Şfo ægj]j gfdd"nflg, cj;];f gfdf wƙf, g
gfdd"nfÆlt ljƧşg+. Psd"ngo] kg]Ŵ æo] s]þlr gfdf wƙf, ;Ƒ] t] gfdd"n]g Psd"nfÆlt k'Şf. æcx]t's+þ gfd+ &k]ŷf
;];+ gfdd"n]g Psd"nÆlƃ ljƧşg+. tŴ cx]t'slrų'ƍfbljlrlsŞ'źŝ;ƕo'ųdáxlgƑfgj;]g cx]t's+þ gfd+ j]lbtƑ+. ;];+
;ƑŴ s';nkb] j'ųfg';f/]g ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt. co+ d"njf/] goá.
Otá k/];' x]t'jf/fbL;' gj;' jf/];' d"njf/;lb;áj ;ƑŴ ;+jŰgfgoá. x]t'cflbkbdųd]j x]Ŵ lj;];á,
tflg r d"n-;Źkl/ofotá cnáeflbx]t'sĕg]j. cnáefboá lx ;xhĕtwƙ;řftƧ cųgá mþnƧ kltŪfgŪ]g d"n+. tƧ
lgƎþfbgŴ+ lxgált kjųtLlt x]t', æxƆ g+ uŲyfÆlt bƧ]ƃ+ ljo cųgá mþn+ lgb]tLlt lgbfg+. Ptƨf mþn+ ;ƘjtLlt

142

;Ƙjá. kejtLlt kejá. ;d'Ūflt t+ PŴ, Pt]gflt jf ;d'Ūfg+. t+ cfx/tLlt cfxf/á. ckllŋlktƑŪ]g t]g
cfnƗLotLlt cfnƗ)+. Pt+ klŝ t+ PtLlt kŝoá. Ptƨf t+ ;d'b]tLlt ;d'boá. ;Ƒ+ sĕ/)kl/ofo]g j'ųf æd"n+ x]t'
lgbfgťfÆlt ufyf b;Ɖlƕ jf/fg+ pŹfgufyf gfd. co+ d"nodsdfltsŴjŰgfgoá.

vƈodsdfltsŴjŰgf
vƈodskflńof kg kflńjjŴfg+ tfj Pj+ j]lbtƑ+ _ ækťŋƈfÆlt kb+ cfƸb sŷf ofj æg vƈf g ;řf/fÆlt
kb+, tfj kjųf co+ vƈodsdfltsĕ gfd. ;f kŰlųjf/Ƨ æpŹ];jf/áÆltlk æk'Şfjf/áÆltlk j'ŝlt. ;á r
kb;áwgjf/á kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á ;'źvƈjf/á ;'źvƈd"nrŊþjf/ált rt"lx gojf/]lx kldlůtá. tŴ æ¿k+ ¿kŋƈá,
¿kŋƈá ¿kÆlƃcflbgf go]g kbd]j ;á±wëŷf utá kb;áwgjf/á gfd. ;á cg'nádklnádj;]g b'lj±wëf xált

cg'nádjf/] æ¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, ¿kŋƈá ¿kÆlƃcfbLlg kť odsĕlg. klnádjf/]lk æg ¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g ¿kŋƈá g
¿kÆlƃcflbgf kť jf/f.
ttá k/+ t];ţ]j kb;áwgjf/] ;álwtfg+ vƈfg+ æ¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, vƈf j]bgfŋƈáÆltcflbgf go]g Ps]þsvƈd"nsĕlg
rųfl/ rųfl/ rŊĕlg alƈŷf utá kb;áwgd"nsĕg+ rŊĕg+ clŴtfo kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á gfd. ;álk cg'nádklnádj;]g
b'lj±wëf xált. tƧ cg'nádjf/] æ¿k+ ¿kŋƈá, vƈf j]bgfŋƈáÆltcfbLlg Ps]þsvƈd"nsĕlg rųfl/ rųfl/ sŷf jL;lt
odsĕlg. klnádjf/]lk æg ¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, g vƈf g j]bgfŋƈáÆltcfbLlg jL;ltd]j.
ttá k/+ æ¿k+ vƈá, vƈf ¿kÆlƃcflbgf go]g ;'źvƈj;]g]j utá ;'źvƈjf/á
gfd. ;álk
cg'nádklnádj;]g b'lj±wëf xált. tƧ cg'nádjf/] æ¿k+ vƈá vƈf ¿kÆlƃcfbLlg kť odsĕlg. klnádjf/]lk æg
¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g ¿kÆlƃcfbLlg kť]j.
ttá k/+ t];ţ]j ;'źvƈfg+ æ¿k+ vƈá, vƈf j]bgfÆltcflbgf go]g Ps]þsvƈd"nsĕlg rųfl/ rųfl/ rŊĕlg
alƈŷf utá ;'źvƈd"nsĕg+ rŊĕg+ clŴtfo ;'źvƈd"nrŊþjf/á gfd. ;álk cg'nádklnádj;]g b'lj±wëf xált. tƧ
cg'nádjf/] æ¿k+ vƈá, vƈf j]bgfÆltcfbLlg Ps]þsvƈd"nsĕlg rųfl/ rųfl/ sŷf jL;lt odsĕlg. klnádjf/]lk æg
¿k+ g vƈá, g vƈf g j]bgfÆltcfbLlg jL;ltd]j. Pjd]Ŵ rt";' gojf/];' Ps+þ ods;t+, ƀ] k'Şf;tflg, Ps]þsk'Şfo
;lƉŪfg;+;oj;]g ƀ] ƀ] cŴ] sŷf rųfl/ r cŴ;tflg plŹŪfgLlt j]lbtƑflg.
Pjd]ltƧf kflńjjŴfg+ ljlbŷf Obflg cg'ųfgkbŴfg';f/]g ljeśgo;lxt;ř]kŴjŰgfgoá Pj+ j]lbtƑá.
kťŋƈflt co+ odsj;]g k'lŞtƑfg+ vƈfg+ pŹ];á. ¿kŋƈá»k]0» ljţf)ŋƈált t];ţ]j ke]btá gfdjjŴfg+. ttá
k/+ kb;áwgjf/fboá rųf/á gojf/f. tŴ ¿k+ ¿kŋƈált o+ lslť æ¿kÆlƃ j'ŝlt, ;Ƒ+ t+ æ¿kŋƈáÆlt k'ŞtLlt
jrg;áwgŴ+ k'Şf. tƧf r ælko¿k+ ;ft¿k+ ¿k+ g ¿kŋƈá, ¿kŋƈá ¿kť]j ¿kŋƈá rfÆlt Ob+ lgŹ];go]g
ljƧşg+. tŴ lko¿k+ ;ft¿klƃcfbL;' o+ æ¿kÆlƃ j'ų+, t+ ¿kd]j g ¿kŋƈá. oá kg æ¿kŋƈáÆlt j'ųá, ;á
æ¿kÆlƃlk æ¿kŋƈáÆltlk jų'+ jũtLlt cŴá. ¿kŋƈá ¿klƃ PŴ kg æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+ ¿kŋƈƧ lgod]g ¿klƃ
jųƑųf. j]bgf j]bgfŋƈált k'Şfo, j]bgfŋƈá j]bgflt k'Şfo r æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. ;ţf;ţfŋƈált k'Şfo
ækkť;ţfÆltcfbL;' cfutf lblŪ;ţf ;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, ;ţfŋƈá ;ţf r]j ;ţfŋƈá rflt ljƧşg+. ;ţfŋƈá ;ţflt
k'Şfo r æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. ;řf/f ;řf/ŋƈált k'Şfo æclgŝf jt ;řf/fÆltcfbL;' cfutá ;řf/ŋƈá, ttá
cj;];f ;řtwƙf ;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈált ljƧşg+. ;řf/ŋƈá ;řf/flt k'Şfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. ljţf)+
ljţf)ŋƈált k'Şfo, ljţf)ŋƈá ljţf)lƃ k'Şfo r æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+.
klnádjf/] g ¿k+ g ¿kŋƈált k'Şfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. tƧ ¿k-;ŹjrgLof wƙf ¿kŋƈá g
xáƃLlt cŴá. g ¿kŋƈá g ¿klƃ k'Şfo ¿kŋƈlj/lxtf ælko¿k+ ;ft¿kÆlƃ j'ųf wƙf g ¿kŋƈá, ¿k+,
lko¿k;ft¿k¿kŋƈlj/lxtf kg wƙf g ¿kŋƈá r]j g ¿kťflt ljƧşg+. g j]bgf g j]bgfŋƈált k'Şfo, g
j]bgfŋƈá g j]bgflt k'Şfo, g ;ţf g ;ţfŋƈált k'Şfo r æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. g ;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈált k'Şfo
æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. g ;ţfŋƈá g ;ţflt k'Şfo kg lblŪ;ţf g ;ţfŋƈá, ;ţf, t+ lblŪ;ţ+, ;ţfŋƈť &k]ŷf
cj;];f g r]j ;ţf g r ;ţfŋƈált ljƧşg+. g ;řf/f g ;řf/ŋƈált k'Şfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. g ;řf/ŋƈá g
;řf/flt k'Şfo ;řf/ŋƈ+ &k]ŷf cj;];;řtwƙf g ;řf/ŋƈá, ;řf/f, c;řtf kg wft' g r]j ;řf/f g r
;řf/ŋƈált ljƧşg+. g ljţf)+ g ljţf)ŋƈált k'Şfo, g ljţf)ŋƈá g ljţf)lƃ k'Şfo r æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+.
Oldgfj go]g Otá k/];'lk ;ƑŴ ljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá, lj;];dųd]j kg jŋĕd.
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/] kg co+ lj;];á _ vƈf j]bgfŋƈált o] s]þlr vƈf, ;Ƒ] t] j]bgfŋƈált k'Şf. tƧf
æj]bgfŋƈá vƈá r]j j]bgfŋƈá r, cj;];f kg vƈf, g j]bgfŋƈáÆlt ljƧşg+. ;];];'lk P;]j goá. klnád] kg
g vƈf g j]bgfŋƈált k'Şfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. PŴ r o] kţlųlgƑfg;řftf wƙf vƈflk g xálƃ, t] oƨf
j]bgfŋƈálk g xált, tƨf æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+, ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á.
;'źvƈjf/] kg æ¿k+ vƈáÆlt k'Şfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+ lko¿kfbLgť kť;' vƈ];' ;ślxtųf. ævƈf
¿kÆlƃcfbL;' o] s]þlr vƈf, ;Ƒ] t] ¿kŋƈáltcflbgf cŴá ux]tƑá. t]g]j lxƧ lgŹ];] ævƈf ¿kÆlƃcflbgf kb+
cg'źl/ŷf ævƈf ¿kŋƈáÆltcflbgf cŴj;]g]j kb+ pźl/ŷf æ¿kŋƈá vƈá r]j ¿kŋƈá r, cj;];f vƈf, g ¿kŋƈáÆlt
ljƧşg+ st+. t]g]j r sĕ/±)ëg ;'źvƈjf/ált j'ųá. jrg;áwg] ljo lx PŴ g jrg+ kdf)+, oyf kg ;'źvƈf
nưlƃ, tyf tyf cŴáj kdf)+. k/tá cfotgodsdfltsĕbL;'lk P;]j goá. klnád] æg ¿k+ g vƈáÆlt o+ wƙhĕt+
¿k+ g xált, t+ vƈálk g xátLlt k'Şf, tƧf æ¿kŋƈlj/lxtf vƈf, g ¿k+, tyf lgƑfg+ g kg ¿kť]j g vƈá rfÆlt
143

ljƧşg+. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]j. ;'źvƈjf/á.
;'źvƈd"nrŊþjf/]lk ævƈf j]bgfŋƈáÆltcflbgf x]Ūf j'ųgo]g cŴá j]lbtƑált co+ kŰlųjf/] goá.
oƨf kg lgŹ];] OldƧf kg dfltsĕo kŰlųjf/;řft+ lgŹ];+ jŷf ttá Od+ dfltsĕŊþd+ d'lťŷf ck/]g kl/ofo]g
cţ]lk pŹ];jf/lj/lxtf ækjlųjf/á kl/ţfjf/áÆlt ƀ] dxfjf/f k'ŞfljƧşgj;]g j'ųf, tƨf t];+ lƀƉlƕ jf/fg+ goá
bƧ]tƑá. ttá kjlųjf/] tfj kflńjjŴfgk'lƑsĕ d'vdųƍsĕ;gf _ OdƸƨ lx pƍfbjf/á lg/áwjf/á pƍfblg/áwjf/ált
toá cƃ/jf/f xálƃ. tŴ pƍfbjf/] tfj ltŰ+ cźfg+ j;]g % sĕne]bf xálƃ kŝ'ƍƉá, ctLtá, cgfutá,
kŝ'ƍƉ]gftLtá, kŝ'ƍƉ]gfgfutá, ctLt]gfgfutált. Pjd]t];' %;' sĕne]b];' ø−fo+ k&dá kŝ'ƍƉá, tŴ k'Ʈntá cásĕ;tá
k'Ʈnásĕ;tált toá jf/f xálƃ.
tŴ æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍştLltĠ c;ţ;ų+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, gá r
t];+ j]bgfŋƈá pƍşlt. kťjásĕ/+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ ¿kŋƈá r pƍşlt, j]bgfŋƈá r pƍşlt. oƧ jf kg j]bgfŋƈá
pƍşlt, tƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍştLltĠ c¿k+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ j]bgfŋƈá pƍşlt, gá r t];+ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt. kťjásĕ/+
pkkşƃfg+ t];+ j]bgfŋƈá r pƍşlt, ¿kŋƈá r pƍşlt. oƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt»k]0 tƧ ljţf)ŋƈá pƍşlt»k]0
oƧ jf kg ljţf)ŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍştLlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/+ »k]0 pƍştLÆlt Pj+ ¿kŋƈd"nsĕlg rųfl/,
æoƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ ;ţfŋƈá pƍştLÆltcflbgf r j]bgfŋƈd"nsĕlg tLl), ;ţfŋƈd"nsĕlg ƀ], ;řf/ŋƈd"ns+þ
Pslƃ Pjd]tflg kŝ'ƍƉsĕn] k'Ʈnjf/] cg'nádgo] b; odsĕlg xálƃ. tŴ ¿kŋƈd"ns]þ;' rt";' cflbtá Psd]j kflńo+
ljƧlşt+, ;];flg t]g ;lb;ljƧşgfgLlt tlƃof nx'efjŴ+ ;+lvųflg.
j]bgfŋƈd"ns]þ kg ;ƑŴ æcfdƃfÆlt Ps;lb;d]j ljƧşg+. j]bgfbL;' pƍƉ];' lgod]g ;ţfbLg+ pƍşgtá
tŴ ;Ƒflg ;+lvųflg. oyf r k'Ʈnjf/] b; odsĕlg, Pj+ cásĕ;jf/]lk æoŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá
pƍştLltĠ c;ţ;ų] tŴ»k]0 kťjásĕ/] tŴ»k]0 pƍştLÆltcflbgf, k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/]lk æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ
tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍştLltĠ c;ţ;ų+»k]0 kťjásĕ/+»k]0 pƍştLÆltcflbgf. kŝ'ƍƉsĕn] tL;' jf/];' cg'nádgo] Ƹt;
odsĕ xálƃ. oyf cg'nádgo] Ƹt;, Pj+ klnádgo]lk æoƧ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍştLltĠ c¿k+
pkkşƃfg+ t];+ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, gá r t];+ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍşlt. ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfg+ t];+ ¿kŋƈá r g'ƍşlt j]bgfŋƈá r
g'ƍşlt. oƧ jf kg j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tƧ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍştLltĠ c;ţ;ų+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍşlt, gá r
t];+ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt. ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfg+ t];+ j]bgfŋƈá r g'ƍşlt ¿kŋƈá r g'ƍştLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt,
tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍştLltĠ pƍşlt. oŴ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍştLltĠ pƍştLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt,
tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍştLlt»k]0 ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfg+ tb'eo+ g'ƍştLÆltcflbgf rflt Ƹt; odsĕ. Pj+ kŝ'ƍƉsĕn] ;lŪ
odsĕlg, tlŹu')f k'Şf, tlŹu')f r cŴf j]lbtƑf.
tŴ oƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍştLlt oƧ k'ƮnƧ kl;lƈŋ±)ë ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt. tƧ j]bgfŋƈált j]bgfŋƈálk tƧ
tƸƨo]j v±)ë pƍştLlt cŴá Oldgfj go]g. tŴ c;ţ;ųlƃ c;ţųej+ kl;lƈj;]g pkkşƃfg+ t];+ pƍşgŋ±)ë
¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, gá r t];+ clrųsųf j]bgfŋƈá pƍştLlt cŴá Oldgfj go]g æoƧ jf kg j]bgfŋƈáÆltcflbs]þ;'
k'ŞfljƧşg];', ttá k/];'lk ;ƑŴ cŴá j]lbtƑá.
Ob+ kg]Ŵ pƍfblg/á±wë;' lgodnŋ)+ _ ;sn]lk lx OdƸƨ vƈods]þ tŴ tŴ pƍƉfg+ ;ųfg+ kjų] ofj d/)f
jf vƈfg+ ckl/oƃ];' pƍfblg/á±wë;' ljşdfg];'lk nx'kl/jųfg+ wƙfg+ ljlgưáu+ sŷf pƍfblg/á±wë bƧ]t'+ g ;'s/lƃ
kjlųo+ pƍfblg/á±wë cgfdl;ŷf kl;lƈpƍfbj;]g]j pƍfbjf/á, lg/áwd/)sĕn] lg/áwj;]g]j r lg/áwjf/á slytá.
Pjd]Ŵ pƍfblg/á±wë;' lgodnŋ)+ ljlbŷf kl;lƈpƍfbd]j r r'ltlg/áwd]j r ux]ŷf t];' t];' &fg];' cfutfg+
k'ŞfljƧşgfg+ cŴljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
klnádgo] kg ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfglƃ d/)lrųƧ eśŋ);dƉfutfg+. t];+ lx tŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, j]bgfŋƈá r
r'ltlrųƧ pƍlųŋ±)ë Pj pƍƉųf. æoŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍştLÆlt k'Şfo c¿kej+ ;ƈfo
æpƍştLÆlt Ob+ ljƧşg+ st+, cgƃ/k'Şfo c;lţej+ ;ƈfo æpƍştLÆlt Ob+ ljƧşglƃ j]lbtƑ+. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt
co+ kŝ'ƍƉsĕn] goá.
oyf r kŝ'ƍƉsĕn] ;lŪ odsĕbLlg, Pj+ ;];];'lk kť;' sĕne]b];' kŝ]slƃ ux]tƑ+. k'ŞfljƧşg];' kg]Ŵ
lsťflk æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşŴ, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşŴ, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá
pƍlşŴfltĠ kťjásĕ/] pƍlşŴ, gfţŴfÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşŴ, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşŴfltĠ
kťjásĕ/fg+ t];+ tŴ pƍlşŴ, gfţŴfÆltcflbgf r ctLtsĕn] cg'nádgo], æoƧ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá
g'ƍlşŴfltĠ gŴLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşŴ, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ
¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşŴfltĠ c¿kfg+ t];+ tŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşŴ, gá r t];+»k]0 ;'źfjf;fg+ t];+
tŴ tb'eo+ g'ƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf tL;' jf/];' klnádgo] r,
æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşƧlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşƧlt, tŴ
j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/] pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşƧlt, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá
pƍlşƧlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/fg+ t];+ tŴ pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf r cgfutsĕn] cg'nádgo], æoƧ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşƧlt, tƧ
j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ o] c¿k+ pkklşŷf kl/lgƑfloƧlƃ, t];+ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşƧlt, g]t/á, klŞdeljsĕg+ tb'eo+
g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşƧlt, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşƧlt,
tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ c¿kfg+ t];+ tŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşƧlt, g]t/á, klŞdeljsĕg+ tb'eo+ g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf
klnádgo] r,

144

æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá
pƍlşŴflt»k]0 kťjásĕ/] pƍştLÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşŴfltĠ ;'źfjf;+
c;ţ;ų+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ tŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, gá r t];+ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşŴ, kťjásĕ/] kg pƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf
kŝ'ƍƉ]g ctLtsĕn] cg'nádgo], æoƧ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tŴ
j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşŴfltĠ kťjásĕ/f
rjƃfg+ c¿kfgť t];+ tŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, gá r t];+ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşŴ, ;'źfjf;] kl/lgƑƃfg+ c;ţ;ųf rjƃfg+
t];+ tŴ ¿kŋƈá r g'ƍşlt j]bgfŋƈá r g'ƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf klnádgo] r,
æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLltĠ klŞdeljsĕg+ kťjásĕ/+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ ¿kŋƈá
pƍştLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLltĠ kťjásĕ/]»k]0 pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf r,
æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLlt klŞdeljsĕg+ kťjásĕ/]»k]0 pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf r
kŝ'ƍƉ]g cgfutsĕn] cg'nádgo], æoƧ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLlt kťjásĕ/] kl/lgƑƃfg+ c¿k]
klŞdeljsĕg+»k]0 g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf,
æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/] kl/lgƑƃfg+ c¿k] klŞdeljsĕg+ c;ţ;ųf
rjƃfg+ t];+ tŴ»k]0 g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf klnádgo] r,
æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşŴ, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLltĠ klŞdeljsĕg+ pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá
pƍlşŴ, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/] pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşŴ, tƧ tŴ
j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLltĠ kťjásĕ/] klŞdeljsĕg+ c;ţ;ųfg+»k]0 pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf ctLt]g cgfutsĕn] cg'nádgo],
æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍlşŴ, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá pƍlşƧtLltĠ gŴLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ ¿kŋƈá
g'ƍlşŴ, tŴ j]bgfŋƈá
g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ ¿kŋƈá g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ tŴ j]bgfŋƈá g'ƍlşƧtLlt»k]0 ;'źfjf;fg+
c¿k] klŞdeljsĕg+ t];+ tŴ ¿kŋƈá r g'ƍlşŴ j]bgfŋƈá r g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf klnádgo] r ;'źf cŴlj;];f
pknưlƃ. tyflk uƅljŴf/eo]g cgj;];tá g bƧloƧfd, blƧtgo]g]j ;ƑŴ k'ŞfljƧşg+ ;Ŋĕ klůt]g `ft'lƃ co+
pƍfbjf/] goá.
oyf r pƍfbjf/] %;' sĕne]b];' kŝ]s+þ k'Ʈnflbe]btá cg'nádklnádgo'eo]g % % jf/f, Ps]þsƸƨ jf/] b;
b; sŷf ;lŪ ;lŪ odsĕlg, ;Ƒflglk ;lŪclwsĕlg tLl) ods;tflg, ttá lƀu')f k'Şf, lƀu')f cŴf r xálƃ, Pj+
lg/áwjf/] pƍfblg/áwjf/]lk j]lbtƑf. tŴ r æoƧ ¿kŋƈá lg?Ţlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá lg?ŢtLlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/f
rjƃfg+»k]0 lg?ŢtLÆltcflbgf,
æoƧ ¿kŋƈá g lg?Ţlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá g lg?ŢtLlt»k]0 ;Ƒ];+
pkkşƃfg+»k]0 g lg?ŢtLÆltcflbgf lg/áwjf/], æoƧ ¿kŋƈá pƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá lg?ŢtLltĠ gá. oƧ
¿kŋƈá g'ƍşlt, tƧ j]bgfŋƈá g lg?ŢtLlt»k]0 c¿k+ pkkşƃfg+ c;ţ;ųf rjƃfg+ t];+ ¿kŋƈá r g'ƍşlt,
j]bgfŋƈá r g lg?ŢtLÆltcflbgf pƍfblg/áwjf/] r x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g ;ƑŴ k'ŞfljƧşggoá `ftƑált co+ kjlųjf/]
goá.
kl/ţfjf/] kg k'Ʈnjf/fbL;' tL;' k'Ʈnjf/á Ps]ĕj nưlt, g cásĕ;k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/f ;lb;ljƧşgųf. oá lx
s]ĕlr k'Ʈná ¿kfƸb kl/hĕgƃáj oŴ sŴlr lg?źálk tflb;áj xált, tƨf %;' sĕne]b];' cg'nádtá k'Ʈnj;]g ƀ] ƀ]
jf/f, Ps]þsƸƨ jf/] b; b; sŷf jL;lt jL;lt odsĕgLlt jL;+ ods;t+, tlŹu')f k'Şf, tlŹu')f r cŴf j]lbtƑf.
tŴ r æoá ¿kŋƈ+ kl/hĕgflt, ;á j]bgfŋƈ+ kl/hĕgftLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf r, æoá ¿kŋƈ+ g kl/hĕgflt, ;á
j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕgftLltĠ cfdƃfÆlt cflbgf r cg'nádklnádtá cflbtá tL;' sĕn];' ;Ƒk'Şfg+ æcfdƃf cfdƃfÆŷ]j
ljƧşg+. Ot/];' kg tL;' ldƧssĕn];' æoá ¿kŋƈ+ kl/hĕgflt, ;á j]bgfŋƈ+ kl/hĕlgŴfltĠ gá. oá jf kg»k]0
gáÆlt Pj+ Ot/sĕnƀo]lk cg'nádgo] ægá gáÆŷ]j ljƧşg+.
klnádgo] kg æoá ¿kŋƈ+ g kl/hĕgflt, ;á j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgŴfltĠ c/xf ¿kŋƈ+ g kl/hĕgflt, gá
r ;á j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgŴ. cƮdƮ;dlśť c/xƃť &k]ŷf cj;];f k'Ʈnf ¿kŋƈť g kl/hĕglƃ, j]bgfŋƈť g
kl/hĕƸg;"Æltcflbgf, æoá ¿kŋƈ+ g kl/hĕgflt, ;á j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgƧtLltĠ o] dƮ+ klnleƧlƃ, t] ¿kŋƈ+ g
kl/hĕglƃ, gá r j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgƧlƃ. c/xf o] r k'y'şgf dƮ+ g klnleƧlƃ, t] ¿kŋƈť g kl/hĕglƃ,
j]bgfŋƈť g kl/hĕlgƧƃLÆltcflbgf r, æoá ¿kŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgŴ, ;á j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgƧƃLltĠ o] dƮ+
klnleƧlƃ, t] ¿kŋƈ+ g kl/hĕƸg;', gá r j]bgfŋƈ+ g kl/hĕlgƧlƃ. cƮdƮ;dśL o] r k'y'şgf dƮ+ g klnleƧlƃ,
t] ¿kŋƈť g kl/hĕƸg;', j]bgfŋƈť g kl/hĕlgƧƃLÆltcflbgf r k'ŞfljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá.
PŴ r ctLtfgfutkŝ'ƍƉ;řftf toá cźf kjlųjf/] r'ltkl;lƈj;]g g nưlƃ, kjų] lrųŋ)j;]g]j
nưlƃ. nás'ų/dƮŋ)Ƹƨ lx lgƑfgf/ƙ±)ëg lrų]g kť;' vƈ];' kl/ţflsŝlgƎþlųof o+ slť Ps+þ vƈ+ kl/hĕgƃá Ot/lƕ
ækl/hĕgftLÆlt cg'nádkŤ];' kl/ţflsŝƧ dŴsƍų+ cƮdƮ;dƸś ;ƈfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+ j'ų+. æg kl/hĕgftLÆlt
klnádkŤ];' k'y'şgfboá ;ƈfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+ j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+. ækl/hĕlgŴfÆlt OdƸƨ kg ctLtsĕnjf/]
dƮfgƃ/] cƮmþn] l&tálk kl/ţflsŝƧ lglŪtųf kl/hĕlgŴo]j gfd. ækl/hĕgftLÆlt r cƮdƮ;dśL j'ŝlt,
ækl/hĕlgƧƃLÆlt k'y'şgfboá, tƨf oá g kl/hĕgflt, ;á kl/hĕlgŴflt jf, kl/hĕlgƧtLltcflbgf jf jų'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜtfo
æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+ st+.
klnádgo] kg æcƮdƮ;dlśť c/xƃť &k]ŷfÆlt Ob+ cƮdƮ;dlśgá æg kl/hĕgftLÆlt jrg+, c/xtá
r æg kl/hĕlgŴfÆlt jų'+ c;Ŋ'þ±)ëƜtfo j'ų+, æo] r k'y'şgf dƮ+ g klnleƧƃLÆlt Oldgf ctLt] ljo cgfut]lk
cgƃsĕn+ cd'ŝgsĕ ;ųf gfd cŴLlt bƧ]lt, t] r c/xtf lglŪtkl/ţflsŝ]g, æg kl/hĕlgƧƃLÆlt jųƑt+ jf cfkƉ]g

145

;dsĕ hĕtf, ;ƑŴ r Ps+þ vƈ+ kl/hĕgƃá
vƈodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

;Ƒ+ kl/hĕgflt, ckl/hĕgƃálk r ;Ƒ+ g kl/hĕgftLlt j]lbtƑlƃ co+

cfotgodsdfltsŴjŰgf
cfotgodsdfltsĕo kg kflńjjŴfgflbs+þ ;Ƒ+ vƈodsdfltsĕo j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑ+ cţŶ lj;];f tŶfo+
lj;];á _ æƀfb;fotgfgLÆlt kb+ cfƸb sŷf ofj ægfotgf g dgáÆlt, tfj kjųf co+ cfotgdfltsĕ gfd. tŴ
ƀfb;fotgflg plŹl;ŷf odsj;]g k'Şf;' vƈkb+ &k]ŷf rŋĕbLlg kť cŢlųsĕotgflg k&d+ j'ųflg, kŞf
¿kflbkťaflx/fotgflg, kl/oá;fg] dgfotgwƙfotgfgLlt Pj+ kflńjjŴfg] kŤ]. ljƧşg] kg ærŋ' rŋĕotglƃĠ
lbƑrŋ' kţfrŋ' rŋ'd]j, g rŋĕotg+, rŋĕotg+ rŋ' r]j rŋĕotgť. ;át+ ;átfotglƃĠ lbƑ;át+ tŲf;át+ ;átd]j, g
;átfotg+. #fg+ #fgfotglƃĠ cfdƃf»k]0 sĕoá sĕofotglƃĠ gfdsĕoá lrųsĕoáltcflb sĕoá, g sĕofotg+. ¿k+
¿kfotglƃĠ e"tflb, lko¿kflb r ¿k+j, g ¿kfotg+. ;Źá ;ŹfotglƃĠ cfdƃf. uƈá uƈfotglƃĠ ;Lnuƈfboá
uƈáj, g uƈfotg+. /;á /;fotglƃĠ cŴ/;fboá /;áj, g /;fotg+. wƙá wƙfotglƃĠ kl/olųwƙfboá wƙáj,
g wƙfotg+. wƙfotg+ wƙáltĠ cfdƃfÆlt co+ kŰlųjf/] lj;];á.
kjlųjf/] kg æoƧ rŋĕotg+ pƍşlt, tƧ ;átfotg+ pƍştLltĠ ;rŋ'sĕg+ c;átsĕg+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+
rŋĕotg+ pƍşlt, gá r t];+ ;átfotg+ pƍşlt. ;rŋ'sĕg+ ;;átsĕg+ pkkşƃfg+ t];+ rŋĕotgť pƍşlt, ;átfotgť
pƍşlt»k]0 oƧ ¿kfotg+ pƍşlt, tƧ dgfotg+ pƍştLltĠ clrųsĕg+ ¿kfotg+ pƍşlt, gá r t];+ dgfotg+
pƍşlt. kťjásĕ/] pƍfbŋ±)ë tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oƧ jf kg dgfotg+ pƍşlt, tƧ ¿kfotg+ pƍştLltĠ
c¿kejjlşt] ;ţfej] pkkşƃfg+»k]0 pƍşlt oƧ ¿kfotg+ pƍşlt, tƧ wƙfotg+ pƍştLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf
kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ c¿kejjlşt] ;ƑŴ pƍşlt. oƧ dgfotg+ pƍşlt, tƧ wƙfotg+ pƍştLltĠ cfdƃf, oƧ
jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ c;ţejjlşt] ;ƑŴ pƍştLÆlt Pj+ ;Źfotgjlştf ;];fotgdfltsĕodsoáhgf oyfg'¿k+
j]lbtƑf. ;Źfotg+ lx kl;lƈŋ±)ë g nưlt, co+ pƍfbjf/] lj;];á, Oldgf go]g lg/áwjf/fbL;', kl/ţfjf/] r
oáhgflj;];á j]lbtƑá, ;ƑŴ r vƈtá cfotgfg+ ax'tf r odsjf/ax'tf r j]lbtƑf. ;];+ tflb;d]jflt co+
cfotgodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

wft'odsdfltsŴjŰgf
wft'odsdfltsĕo kg
wft'odsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

kflńjjŴfg+

;Ƒ+

cfotgodsdfltsĕo

j'ųgo]g]j

j]lbtƑlƃ

co+

;ŝodsdfltsŴjŰgf
;ŝodsdfltsĕo kg vƈods]þ j'ųgo]g jf/e]bf, sĕnflbe]bf r j]lbtƑf, kflńjjŴfg] kg]Ŵ rt'Ɖ+ ;ŝfg+
j;]g kb;áwgjf/á kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/á ;'ź;ŝjf/á ;'ź;ŝd"nrŊþjf/ált Od];' rt";' jf/];' odsu)gf j]lbtƑf.
k'ŞfljƧşg];' kg æb'ŋ+ b'ŋ;ŝlƃĠ cfdƃf. b'ŋ;ŝ+ b'ŋlƃĠ sĕlosr]tl;s+þ b'ŋ+ &k]ŷf cj;];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+, g b'ŋ+.
sĕlosr]tl;s+þ b'ŋ+ kg b'ŋť]j b'ŋ;ŝť. ;d'boá ;d'bo;ŝlƃĠ tŲ+ &k]ŷf cj;];f ;ŝljeś] lglŹŪf s';nflbwƙf
;d'boá, g ;d'bo;ŝ+. tŲf kg ;d'boá r]j ;d'bo;ŝť. ;d'bo;ŝ+ ;d'boáltĠ cfdƃf. lg/á±wëf lg/áw;ŝlƃĠ
tbślg/áwfboá, vl)slg/á±wëf r lg/á±wëfj, g lg/áw;ŝ+. lgƑfg+ kg lg/á±wëf r]j lg/áw;ŝť. lg/áw;ŝ+
lg/á±wëfltĠ cfdƃf. d±Ʈëf dƮ;ŝlƃĠ ldŞfdƮśfboá d±Ʈëf, g dƮ;ŝ+. cl/od±Ʈëf kg d±Ʈëf r]j dƮ;ŝť. dƮ;ŝ+
d±ƮëfltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf kŰlųjf/] goá j]lbtƑá.
kjlųjf/] kg æoƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, tƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ pkkşƃfg+ kjų] tŲfljƍo'ųlrųƧ
pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, gá r t];+ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍşlt. tŲfo pƍfbŋ±)ë tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+
pƍşlt, tƧ dƮ;ŝ+ pƍştLlt»k]0 kťjásĕ/] dƮƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ c¿k]
dƮƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ dƮ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, gá r t];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt. kťjásĕ/] tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍşlt,
tƧ dƮ;ŝ+ pƍştLltĠ gá, oƧ jf kg»k]0 gáÆltcflbgf k'Ʈnjf/], æoŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, tŴ ;d'bo;ŝ+
pƍştLltĠ c;ţ;ų] tŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, gá r tŴ tbţ+, cţŴ tb'eolƕ. oŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, tŴ dƮ;ŝ+
pƍştLltĠ ckfo], c;ţ;ų] r b'ŋd]j, gá r tŴ tbţ+, cţŴ tb'eoƕLÆltcflbgf cásĕ;jf/], k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/]kLlt Pj+
cg'nádgo],
æoƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ g'ƍştLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ pkkşƃfg+
kjų] tŲfljƍo'ųlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë ;d'bo;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt, gá r t];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt. ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfg+ kjų] lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë
c¿k] dƮƧ r mþnƧ r pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ ;d'bo;ŝť g'ƍşlt, b'ŋ;ŝť g'ƍştLÆltcflbgf, æoŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt, tŴ
;d'bo;ŝ+ g'ƍştLltĠ glŴ. oŴ jf kg ;d'bo;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt, tŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ g'ƍştLltĠ pƍştLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ oŴ
b'ŋ;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ tŴ ;d'bo;ŝ+ g'ƍştLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg oŴ ;d'bo;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ tŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+
146

g'ƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ pkkşƃfg+ kjų] tŲfljƍo'ųlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ tŴ ;d'bo;ŝ+ Pj g'ƍşlt, g]t/+, ;Ƒ];+ kg
rjƃfg+ kjų] lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë c¿k] dƮƧ r mþnƧ r pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ tŴ tb'eolƕ g'ƍştLÆltcflbgf r ;ƑŴ
klnádgo] r,
æoƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ dƮ;ŝ+ pƍlşŴfltĠ
cle;d]tfjLg+ pƍlşŴ, g Ot/];Ælƃcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ tŴ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍlşŴfltĠ ;'źfjf;fg+
b'lto] lrų] jųdfg] c;ţ;ųfg+ tŴ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍlşŴ, g]t/+, Ot/];+ tb'eo+ pƍlşŴfÆltcflbgf, æoƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+
pƍlşƧlt, tƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ cƮdƮ;dśLg+ c/xƃfg+ oƧ lrųƧ cgƃ/f cƮdƮ+ klnleƧlƃ, t];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+
pƍlşƧlt, g]t/+, Ot/];+ tb'eo+ pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, tƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃf,
oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfg+ kjų] lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë c¿k] dƮmþn'ƍlųŋ±)ë t];+ ;d'bo;ŝ+ pƍlşŴ, gá r
t];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍşlt. ;Ƒ];+ pkkşƃfg+ kjų] lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë ;d'bo;ŝť pƍlşŴ b'ŋ;ŝť pƍştLÆltcflbgf r
;];sĕne]b];' r cg'nádklnádfbL;' r j'ųfg';f/]g pƍfbjf/] ;ƑŴ ljƧşggoá oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑá. æoƧ b'ŋ;ŝ+
lg?Ţlt, tƧ ;d'bo;ŝ+ lg?ŢtLlt»k]0
tŲfo eśŋ±)ë t];+ tb'eo+ lg?ŢtLÆltcflbgf lg/áwjf/],
pƍfblg/áwjf/]kLlt Pj+ kjlųjf/] ;ƑŴ oyfg'¿ktá oáhgf j]lbtƑf.
tyf æoá b'ŋ;ŝ+ kl/hĕgflt, ;á ;d'bo;ŝ+ khxtLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf kl/ţfjf/]kLlt Pjd]Ŵ kflńgoá
`ftƑá.
cŴljlgŞo] kg]Ŵ Ob+ nŋ)+ _ kjlų jf/] tfj]Ŵ lg/áw;ŝ+ g nưt]j, ;];];' kg tL;' ;ŝ];' ;d'bodƮ;ŝflg
Psƃ]g kjlųo+ Pj nưlƃ. b'ŋ;ŝ+ r'ltkl;ƈL;'lk kjų]kLlt Pjd]Ŵ o+ o+ ;ƑŴ nưlt, tƧ tƧ j;]g cŴljlgŞoá
j]lbtƑá. tlŶb+ god'v+ _ ;Ƒ];+ pkkşƃfglƃ cƃd;á ;'źfjf;fglƕ.
t]lk lx b'ŋ;ŝ]g]j pƍşlƃ.
tŲfljƍo'ųlrųƧflt Ob+ b'ŋ;ŝ;d'bo;ŝ];' Pss]ĕŪf;Ƨ pƍlųbƧgŴ+ j'ų+, tƨf kťjásĕ/j;]g]j ux]tƑ+. rt'jásĕ/] kg
tŲfljƍo'ųmþn;dfklųof pƍfbŋ±)ë Pslƕ ;ŝ+ g'ƍşlt. tb'eolƃ b'ŋ;d'bo;ŝƀo+. tƸƨ lx v±)ë tŲ+ &k]ŷf ;];+
b'ŋ;ŝ+ gfd xátLlt t+ ;ƈfo]t+ j'ų+. dƮƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë kg ¿kd]j b'ŋ;ŝ+ gfd, ;];f dƮ;xhĕtf wƙf ;ŝljlgd'ųfj.
t]g]j sĕ/±)ëg æc¿k] dƮƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ dƮ;ŝ+ pƍşlt, gá r t];+ b'ŋ;ŝ+ pƍştLÆlt j'ų+. ;Ƒ];+ pkkşƃfg+
kjų] tŲfljƍo'ųlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë. t];+ tŴflt t];+ tƸƨ pkklųŋ±)ë tŲfljƍo'ųlrų'ƍlųŋ±)ë rflt Pjd]Ŵ v)j;]g
cásĕ;á j]lbtƑá. cţ];'lk Pj¿k];' P;]j goá. cgle;d]tfjLglƃ cgle;ldt;ŝfglƃ Oldgf god'±vëg ;ƑŴ
cŴljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
kl/ţfjf/] kg `fttL/)kxfgj;]g ltƧálk kl/ţfoá nưlƃ. oƨf kg nás'ų/wƙ];' kl/ţfgfd glŴ, tƨf
Ow ƀ] Pj ;ŝflg ulxtflg. tŴ æb'ŋ;ŝ+ kl/hĕgftLÆlt `fttL/)kl/ţfj;]g j'ų+, æ;d'bo;ŝ+ khxtLÆlt
`ftkxfgkl/ţfj;]g Olt Odf;+ kl/ţfg+ j;]g ;ƑŴ cŴá j]lbtƑá. co+ ;ŝodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

;řf/odsdfltsŴjŰgf
;řf/odsdfltsĕo kg x]Ūf j'ųgo]g]j dxfjf/ƃ/flbe]bf j]lbtƑf. co+ kg]Ŵ lj;];á _ dfltsĕo tfj oyf
x]Ūf vƈfboá wƙ] plŹl;ŷf æ¿k+ ¿kŋƈáÆltcflbgf kb;áwgjf/á cf/źá, tyf cgf/leŷf æcƧf;kƧf;f
sĕo;řf/áÆltcflbgf k&d+ toálk ;řf/f ljelhŷf blƧtf. tŴ sĕoƧ ;řf/á sĕo;řf/á, cƧf;kƧf;f. æsĕlosĕ Pt]
wƙf sĕoklaźfÆlt ‘d0lg01=463 ;+0 lg0 4=348’ jrgtá sĕ/)e"tƧ s/hsĕoƧ mþne"tá P; ;řf/ált sĕo;řf/á.
ck/á goá _ ;ř/LotLlt ;řf/á. s]þg ;ř/LoltĠ sĕo]g. co+ lx jftá ljo eƣfo s/hsĕo]g ;ř/Lolt, Pjlƕ sĕoƧ
;řf/ált sĕo;řf/á, sĕo]g stá cƧf;kƧf;jftált cŴá. r]t;f ljtŊ]þŷf ljrf/]ŷf kŞf jfr+ leƆlt, tƨf
æljtŊþljrf/f jrL;řf/áÆlt ‘d0lg01=463’ jrgtá kg ;ř/átLlt ;řf/á, Ƹs ;ř/áltĠ jƸr. jlrof ;řf/ált
jrL;řf/á, jrLe]b;d'ŪfksƧ
ljtŊþljrf/ƀoƧ]t+ gfd+. æ;ţf r j]bgf r r]tl;sĕ Pt] wƙf lrųklaźfÆlt
‘d0lg01=463 ;+0lg0 4=348’ jrgtáo]j kg tltokb] ;ř/LotLlt ;řf/á, s]þg ;ř/LoltĠ lrų]g, Olt lrųƧ
;řf/ált lrų;řf/á, ;Ƒ];lƕ lrų;d'Ūfgfg+ r]tl;sĕg+ wƙfg+ Pt+ clwjrg+. ljtŊþljrf/fg+ kg jrL;řf/efj]g lj;'+
ulxtųf æ&k]ŷf ljtŊþljrf/]Ælt j'ų+.
Obflg æsĕoá sĕo;řf/áÆlt kb;áwgjf/á cf/źá, tƧ cg'nádgo] tLl), klnádgo] tL)Llt % odsĕlg.
kb;áwgd"nrŊþjf/] Ps]þs;řf/d"nsĕlg ƀ] ƀ] sŷf cg'nádgo] %, klnádgo] %flt ƀfb; odsĕlg. ;'ź;řf/jf/] kg
oyf ;'źvƈjf/fbL;' æ¿k+ vƈá, vƈf ¿kÆlƃcflbgf go]g odsĕlgj'ųflg, Pj+ æsĕoá ;řf/á, ;řf/f sĕoáÆlt cjŷf
æsĕo;řf/á jrL;řf/áÆltcflbgf go]g sĕo;řf/d"nsĕlg ƀ], jrL;řf/d"ns+þ Pslƃ cg'nád] tLl), klnád] tL)Llt %
odsĕlg j'ųflg. Ƹs sĕ/)fĠ ;'lźsPs]þskbj;]g cŴe]bfefjtá, sĕo;řf/ált kg ƀLlxlk kb]lx Ps]ĕj cŴá nưtLlt co+
lj;];áj, tƨf Ps]þskbj;]g g j'ų+, æsĕoá sĕo;řf/áÆltcflb kg jųƑ+ l;of, ;álk goá kb;áwgjf/] ljgflk cŴ]g
jrg+ o'ştLlt tŴ]j j'ųá, Ow kg sĕo;řf/fbLg+ jrL;řf/fbLlx cţųf æsĕo;řf/á jrL;řf/áÆltcflbgflk odsĕlg
j'ųflg. ;'ź;řf/d"nrŊþjf/á kg]Ŵ g ulxtált co+ tfj]Ŵ kflńjjŴfg] lj;];á.
kŤljƧşg];' kg æsĕoá sĕo;řf/áltĠ gá, sĕo;řf/á sĕoáltĠ gáÆlt jf Pj+ ;ƑŴ kl;]±wëf. ljƧşgfg+
sĕofbLg+ Pj sĕo;řf/flbgfdųf. g lx sĕofboá ljo sĕo;řf/fbLg+ gfd+ xált, klnád] kg g sĕoá g sĕo;řf/ált
oá sĕoá g xált, ;á sĕo;řf/álk g xátLlt k'Şfo cŴá, tƧf sĕo;řf/á g sĕoá sĕo;řf/ált sĕo;řf/á sĕoá g xált,
sĕo;řf/áo]j kg];á xált, sĕoť sĕo;řf/ť &k]ŷf cj;];+ ;řtf;řtflbe]b+ ;Ƒ+ g r sĕoá, g r sĕo;řf/ált
147

ljƧşg+. ;];];'lk P;]j goá, Ot/];' r cg'nádklnád];' æsĕoá sĕo;řf/áltĠ gá, ;řf/f jrL;řf/áltĠ jrL;řf/á
;řf/á r]j jrL;řf/á r, cj;];f ;řf/f, g jrL;řf/á, g ;řf/f g jrL;řf/áltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf ;ƑŴ
k'ŞfljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá.
kjlųjf/] kg æoƧ sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á pƍştLltĠ ljgf ljtŊþljrf/]lx cƧf;kƧf;fg+
pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, g]t/á, ;ljtŊþ;ljrf/lrų;dśLg+ kg sĕdfjr/;ųfg+ tb'eolƕ pƍşlt. oƧ jf
kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ¿kf¿keljsĕg+ ljtŊþljrf?ƍfbŋ±)ë jrL;řf/áj pƍşlt, g]t/á»k]0 oyfj'ųsĕdfjr/fg+ kg
tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oƧ sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, tƧ lrų;řf/á pƍştLltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLlt»k]0
cƧf;kƧf;fg+ pƍfbŋ±)ë tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oƧ jrL;řf/á pƍşlt, tƧ lrų;řf/á pƍştLltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 oŴ
sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, tŴ jrL;řf/á pƍştLlt sĕdfjr/;ųfg+ b'ltoŢĕg] tltoŢĕg] tŴ sĕo;řf/áj pƍşlt, g]t/á,
k&dŢĕgfbL;' kg tb'eo+ pƍşlt. oŴ jf kg »k]0 pƍştLltĠ sĕdfjr/] pƍşlt, g ¿kf¿kej];'. oŴ
sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, tŴ lrų;řf/á pƍştLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ sĕdfjr/;ųfg+ rt'ŴŢĕg]
¿kf¿kej] r tŴ lrų;řf/áj pƍşlt, g]t/á, Ot/ŢĕgfbL;' kg tb'eo+ pƍştLÆltcflbgf,
æoƧ sĕo;řf/á g'ƍşlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á g'ƍştLltĠ ljgf cƧf;kƧf;]lx ljtŊþljrf/fg+ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+
sĕo;řf/áj g'ƍşlt, g]t/á, ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë ljgf cƧf;kƧf;]lx cljtŊþcljrf/lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë lg/áw;dfkƉfg+
c;ţ;ųfgť tb'eolƕ g'ƍşlt»k]0 oƧ sĕo;řf/á g'ƍşlt, tƧ lrų;řf/á g'ƍştLlt»k]0 ;Ƒlrųfg+ eśŋ±)ë
lg/áw;dfkƉfg+ c;ţ;ųfgť g'ƍştLÆltcflbgf r, æoŴ sĕo;řf/á g'ƍşlt, tŴ jrL;řf/á g'ƍştLlt»k]0
rt'ŴŢĕgŋ±)ë ¿kejfbL;' g'ƍştLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ sĕo;řf/á pƍlşŴ, tƧ jrL;řf/á pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf,
æoƧ sĕo;řf/á g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų;řf/á g'ƍlşŴfltĠ gŴLÆltcflbgf, æoƧ oŴ sĕo;řf/á g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ tŴ
jrL;řf/á g'ƍlşŴflt»k]0 rt'ŴŢĕg+ ;dfkƉfg+ ;'źfjf;fg+ b'lto] lrų] jųdfg] c;ţ;ųfg+ t];+ tŴ sĕo;řf/á r g'ƍlşŴ
jrL;řf/á rfÆltcflbgf r,
æoƧ sĕo;řf/á pƍlşƧlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á pƍlşƧtLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍlşƧtLltĠ oƧ
lrųƧ cgƃ/f sĕdfjr/fg+ klŞdlrų+ pƍlşƧlt, ¿kf¿kej] klŞdeljsĕg+ jrL;řf/áj pƍlşƧlt, g sĕo;řf/á
cţ];+ kg tb'eo+ pƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ sĕo;řf/á g'ƍlşƧlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á g'ƍlşƧtLlt»k]0
klŞdlrų;dśLg+ oƧ lrųƧ cgƃ/f cljtŊþcljrf/+ klŞdlrų+ pƍlşƧlt, t];+ tb'eo+ g'ƍlşƧtLÆltcflbgf
;Ƒsĕne]b];' oyfg'¿ktá pƍfbjf/] oáhgfgoá j]lbtƑá. æoƧ sĕo;řf/á lg?Ţlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á lg?ŢtLlt»k]0
k&dŢĕg+ ;dfkƉfg+ sĕdfjr/fg+ cƧf;kƧf;fg+ eśŋ±)ë tb'eo+ lg?Ţlt. oƧ sĕo;řf/á lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų;řf/á
lg?ŢtLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf lg/áwjf/], æoƧ sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á lg?ŢtLltĠ gáÆltcflbgf
pƍfblg/áwjf/] r,
æoá sĕo;řf/+ kl/hĕgflt, ;á jrL;řf/+ kl/hĕgftLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf kl/ţfjf/] r x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g ;ƑŴ
kflńgoá j]lbtƑá.
kjlųjf/] kg]Ŵ kŝ'ƍƉsĕn] k'Ʈnjf/Ƨ cg'nádgo] sĕo;řf/d"nsĕlg ƀ], jrL;řf/d"ns+þ Pslƃ tL±)ëj odsĕlg
nưlƃ. tƧ klnádgo]lk cásĕ;jf/fbL;'lk P;]j goá. Pjd]Ŵ ;Ƒjf/];' ltŰ+ ltŰ+ odsĕg+ j;]g odsu)gf
j]lbtƑf. cŴljlgŞo] kg]Ŵ Ob+ nŋ)+ _ OdƸƨ lx ;řf/ods]þ æcƧf;kƧf;fg+ pƍfbŋ±)ë, ljtŊþljrf/fg+
pƍfbŋ±)ëÆltcflbjrgtá ‘od02=;řf/ods=19’ kŝ'ƍƉflbsĕne]bá kjlųj;]gflk ux]tƑá, g r'ltkl;lƈj;]g]j.
æb'ltoŢĕg] tltoŢĕg] tŴ sĕo;řf/á pƍştLÆltcflbjrgtá ‘od02=;řf/ods=21’ r ´fglƕ cásĕ;j;]g ulxtlƃ
j]lbtƑ+. Pjd]Ŵ o+ o+ nưlt, tƧ tƧ j;]g cŴljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. tlŶb+ god'v+ _ æljgf ljtŊþljrf/]xLÆlt
b'ltotltoŢĕgj;]g j'ų+, g rt'ŴŢĕgj;]g tŴ cƧf;kƧf;fg+ cefjtá. ælrųƧ eśŋ±)ëÆlt Ob+ sĕo;řf/Ƨ
Psƃlrų;d'Ūfgųf j'ų+, pƍşdfgd]j lx lrų+ ¿k+, c¿k+ jf ;d'Ūfk]lt, g leşdfg+, l&t+ jf. æklŞdlrų;dśLgÆlƃ
;ƑklŞd]g
cƍl;lƈslrų]g ;dśLg+ vL)f;jfg+. æcljtŊþcljrf/+ klŞdlrųÆlƃ
PŴ ¿kfjr/fg+
b'ltoŢĕlgsĕlbr'ltlrųj;]g, c¿kfjr/fgť rt'ŴŢĕlgsr'ltlrųj;]g cŴá ux]tƑá.
æoƧ sĕo;řf/á lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų;řf/á lg?ŢtLÆlt PŴ lgodtá sĕo;řf/Ƨ lrų;řf/]g ;Ƹź Psŋ±)ë
lg?Ţgtá æcfdƃfÆlt kljrg+ lbƉ+ g Pslrųŋl)sųf. lrų;řf/á lx sĕo;řf/]g ljgflk pƍşlt r lg?Ţlt r.
sĕo;řf/á kg lrų;d'Ūfgųf o]g lrų]g ;Ƹź pƍşlt, ttá kŪfo ;ų/;d]g ;Ƹź lg?Ţlt, P;f lrų;d'Ūfg¿kƧ
wƙtf. o+ kg ljeśƍs/)Ƨ ;LxńŪsyfo ælrų;d'Ūfg¿k+ ;ų/;dlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë lg?ŢtLÆlt j'ų+, t+ Odfo
kflńof lj?Ţlt. æoƧ sĕo;řf/á pƍşlt, tƧ jrL;řf/á lg?ŢtLÆlt PŴ oƨf sĕo;řf/á lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë pƍşlt,
g r tƸƨ v±)ë ljtŊþljrf/f lg?Ţlƃ, tƨf ægáÆlt kl;]±wëf stá. Oldgf god'±vëg ;ƑŴ ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá. co+
;řf/odsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

cg';oodsdfltsŴjŰgf
cg';oodsdfltsĕo kg kflńjjŴfg+ tfj Pj+ j]lbtƑ+. cg';oods]þlk vƈodsdfltsĕbL;' ljo b];g+ csŷf
cţ]g go]g kflńb];gf stf. sy+Ġ k&d+ tfj kl/Ş]bjf/á kl/lŞƉ'Ź];jf/ált ƀ] jf/f pŹ];j;]g b]l;tf, ttá
pƍlųŪfgjf/ált Ps]ĕ v'Źsjf/á. ttá cg';ojf/á ;fg';ojf/á khxgjf/á kl/ţfjf/á kxLgjf/á pƍşgjf/á
wft'jf/ált cg';o] oáh]ŷf odsj;]g kkťtá lglŹŪf ;ų dxfjf/flt cŪslgŹ];j;]g b]l;tf, Pj+ b;lx jf/]lx
148

cg';oodsb];gf stf. t];' o] Od] lx kl/Ş]bjf/áltcflbgf ƀ] jf/f pŹ];j;]g j'ųf, t] Ow cg';oodsdfltsĕlt
ux]tƑf.
tŴ lx ;ų cg';oflt co+ u)gfo kl/lŞlƆŷf cg';ofg+ b]l;tųf kl/Ş]bjf/á gfd. sĕd/fufg';oá»k]0»
cljşĕg';oált co+ kl/Ş]bj;]g kl/lŞƉfg+ gfddų+ plŹl;ŷf æOd] gfd t]Ælt b]l;tųf kl/lŞƉ'Ź];jf/á gfd. tŴ
cg'ųfgŴtá tfj cg';oflt s]þgŪ]g cg';ofĠ cg';ogŪ]g. s]ĕ P; cg';ogŪá gfdfltĠ cƍxLgŪá. sĕd/fufg';ofboá
lx cƍxLgŪ]g tƧ tƧ ;ƃfg] cg';]lƃ gfd, tƨf æcg';ofÆlt j'ŝlƃ, cg';]ƃLlt r t+ t+ cg'¿k+ sĕ/)+ nleŷf
pƍşƃLlt cŴá. cyflk l;of _ cg';ogŪá gfd cƍxLgfsĕ/á, cƍxLgfsĕ/á r g pƍşlt, tƨf cg';of g pƍşƃLlt.
tlŶb+ kljrg+ _ cƍxLgfsĕ/á cg';oá, cg';oált kg cƍxLgŪ]g yfdutlsn];á j'ŝlt, ;á lrų;ƕo'ųá ;f/ƙ±)ëf
;ƍŝoŪ]g ;x]t's]ĕ Psƃfs';náj xált syfjŴ'Ƹƨ ‘syf0554cfboá’ cg';ofg+ lrųljƍo'ųefjƧ kl;]lwtųf ;á r
ctLtálk xált, cgfutálk kŝ'ƍƉálk, tƨf pƍştLlt jų'+ o'ų+. tyf lx wƙ;śx] dáxƧ kbefhg] 317æcljşĕg';oá
cljşĕkl/o'Ūfg+»k]0 co+ tƸƨ ;do] dáxá xátLÆlt ‘w0;0390’. Odlƨť ods]þ pƍşgjf/] æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá
pƍşlt, tƧ kl#fg';oá pƍştLÆltcflb j'ų+, tƨf æcg';]ƃLlt t+ t+ cg'¿k+ sĕ/)+ nleŷf pƍşƃLÆlt o+ j'ų+, t+
;'j'ųlƃ j]lbtƑ+. sĕd/fufg';oált sĕd/f±uëf r ;á cƍxLgŪ]g cg';oá rflt sĕd/fufg';oá. ;];kb];'lk P;]j goá.
co+ tfj]Ŵ cg'ųfgŴá. cŴljlgŞoá kg]Ŵflk lgŹ];god'vbƧgj;]g]j xált, lgŹ];á r]Ŵ x]Ūf j'ųá.
pƍlųŪfgjf/fboá cŪ jf/f r, tŶfo+ kflńjjŴfgfg'k'lƑsĕd'vdųƍsĕ;gf. t];+ lx k&dá cg';ofg+
pƍlųŪfgjf/á gfd. tŴ jf/e]bá odsoáhgjf/] glŴ, Ot/];' kg ;ų;' dxfjf/];' clŴ. t];' lx k&dá cg';ojf/á
cg'nádklnádgoj;]g b'lj±wëf xált. tŴ cg'nádgo] æoƧ oŴ»k]0 cg';]tLÆlt k'Ʈnásĕ;tb'eogfdj;]g toá
cƃ/jf/f xálƃ, t];' Ps]þsƸƨ Psd"nslƀd"nsltd"nsrt'd"nskťd"ns%d"nsĕg+ j;]g odse]bf xálƃ. oyf r
cg'nádgo],
Pj+
klnádgo]lk
j]lbtƑf.
oyf
r]Ŵ
cg';ojf/],
Pj+
;fg';ojf/khxgjf/kl/ţfjf/kxLgjf/pƍşgjf/];' kť;'lk. co+ kg]Ŵ k'l/d];' tL;' jf/];' lj;];á. cásĕ;jf/] æoŴ
tŴfÆlt cjŷf æotá ttáÆlt lgƧŊþjrg]g b];gf stf. ;];+ tflb;d]j
oá kgfo+ ;ƑklŞdá wft'jf/á gfd, ;á
k'Şfjf/á ljƧşgjf/ált lƀwf l&tá. tŴ k'Şfjf/á cg'nádklnádj;]g b'lj±wëf. tƧfj;fg] k'Şfg'Ŋþd]g ljƧşg+
stlƃ. Pj+ tfj]Ŵ kflńjjŴfg+ j]lbtƑ+.
tlŶb+ cŪƉ+ jf/fg+ cflbtá kŪfo d'vdųbƧg+. æsŴ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]ltĠ sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' PŴ
sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt. sŴ kl#fg';oá cg';]ltĠ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo»k]0 dfgfg';oá sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' ¿kwft'of
c¿kwft'of r cg';]lt. lbŪfg';oá, ljlrlsŞfg';oá r ;Ƒ;Ŋĕokl/ofkƉ];' wƙ];', ej/fufg';oá ¿kf¿kwft";',
cljşĕg';oá ;Ƒ;Ŋĕokl/ofkƉ];' wƙ];' cg';]tLÆlt co+ tfj k&djf/] kflńgoá.
tŴ sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;"lt sĕdfjr/e"ldo+ ;'vfo r]j pk]ŋĕo rflt ƀL;' j]bgf;', sĕd/fufg';oá kg
;xhĕtj;]g, cf/ƙ)j;]g rflt ƀLxfsĕ/]lx cg';l] t pƍşlt, tŴ cs';nflx ;'vpk]ŋĕlx ;xhĕtálk x'ŷf tf cf/ƙ)+
sŷflk pƍşlt. cj;];f kg sĕdfjr/s';nljkfslsl/oj]bgf cf/ƙ)d]j sŷf pƍşlt, Odf;' j]bgf;' cg';odfgá r];
tflx j]bgflx ;ƕo'ų];' ;ţf;řf/ljţf±)ë;'lk cg';]lto]j. Odf;+ kg j]bgfg+ cƧfbŪ]g sĕd/fufg';o'ƍlųof ;];;ƕo'ų]lx
kwfgųf, cáńfl/sų]g j]g]Ɯfg+ ;'aáwųf r ƀL;' j]bgf;'o]j cg';]tLlt j'ų+, Pj+ pkl/lk. g s]þjnť]; cg';odfgá
Odf;' ƀL;' j]bgf;'o]j, j]bgf;ƕo'ų];' wƙ];' r cg';]lt, OŪ];' kg ¿kfbL;'lk cg';]lt Pj. j'ųlƕ r]t+ ljeśƍs/±)ë
æo+ nás]þ lko¿k+ ;ft¿k+, PŴ ;ųfg+ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]tLÆlt ‘lje0816’, PŴfg';oods]þlk j'ų+ æb'ŋĕo j]bgfo
¿kwft'of PŴ sĕd/fufg';oá gfg';]tLÆltcflb. Pt]g j'ųfj;];¿kfbL;' %;'lk cf/ƙ±)ë;' cg';]tLlt j'ų+ xált. Ow
kg t+ ;Ƒ+ cjŷf lslťb]j kwfgųflbgf sĕ/±)ëg j'ųlƃ ux]tƑ+.
b'ŋĕoflt PŴ kl#lrų;ƕo'ųf ƀ] bádgƧj]bgf, sĕoljţf);ƕo'ųf b'ŋj]bgf rflt ltƧá j]bgf, t+ ;ƕo'ųf r
wƙf, clgŪf % ¿kfboá wƙf kl#fg';o;xhĕtj;]g, cf/ƙ)j;]g r oyf/x+ cg';ogŪfg+. Ƹs kg Ot/f ƀ] j]bgf
OŪf/ƙ)+ jf kl#Ƨ cf/ƙ)+ g xáƃLltĠ gá g xálƃ. kl/xLgŢĕgƧ lx gŪ+ OŪ+ ;;ƕo'ųwƙ+ ´fgdf/ư bádgƧ+
pƍşlt, t+ kg cf/ƙ)dųd]j, gfg';ogŪfg+ OŪųf. clgŪd]j lx OŪtá klxgglgldų+, o+ kg tŴ'ƍƉ+, tƧ
kl#dųd]j xált, g kl#fg';oált. kl#fg';oá lx clgŪf/ƙ±)ë klxggj;]g pƍƉá yfdutá lsn];á, Ot/á
bádgƧ]g ;Ƹź pƍƉálk cųgá klxgglsŝƧ cs/)tá kl#fg';oá g xált, cƑáxfl/sų+ uŞlt. oyf lx
kf)fltkftr]tgfo ;Ƹź pƍƉálk Ɠfkfbá dgásƙ+ gfd g xált, cƑáxfl/sų+ uŞlt, Pjlƃ ux]tƑ+. t]g]j g]ŋƙlƧt+
bádgƧ+ ;]ljtƑ+ j'ų+. dfgfg';oƧ kg b'ŋbádgƧjlştf ;Ƒ] nálsof wƙf cg';ogŪfg+. æb'ŋĕo j]bgfo ckl/ofkƉ]
PŴ»k]0 dfgfg';oá r gfg';]tLÆlt lx j'ų+. lbŪfg';oljlrlsŞfg';ofg+ kg nás'ų/jlştf ;Ƒ]lk wƙf
cg';ogŪfg+. t]g j'ų+ æ;Ƒ;Ŋĕokl/ofkƉ];' wƙ];"Ælt. tŴ ;+;f/jũlglƧtŪ]g ;Ŋĕokl/ofkƉ];' ;Ƒwƙ];l" t cŴá.
Pj+ cljşĕg';oálk j]lbtƑá. ;ƑŴ r ;xhĕtf/ƙ)e]bá x]Ūf j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑá.
ej/fufg';oá kg lsťflk lblŪljƍo'ų];' rt";' lrų];' pƍşgtá ;xhĕtj;]g sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;'
cg';]tLlt jųƑá ej]Ɯ, ;á kg oƨf ¿kf¿kfjr/d]jf/ƙ)+ nelt, g sĕdfjr/f/ƙ)d]j, cg';ofg+ kg t+ g
cg';ogŪfg+, tƨf cf/ƙ)j;]g lgod+ csŷf æ¿kwft'of c¿kwft'of PŴ ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLÆlt j'ų+. t+ /fuj;]g
;á r ;Ƒálk /f±uëf sĕd/fufg';oá ux]tƑált co+ pƍlųŪfgjf/] goá.
Ot/];' kg ;ų;' dxfjf/];' tfj æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ kl#fg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ
jf kg kl#fg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ dfgfg';oá
cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg dfgfg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cgfufldƧ dfgfg';oá cg';]lt, gá

149

r tƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, ltŰ+ k'Ʈnfg+ dfgfg';oá r cg';]lt, sĕd/fufg';oá r cg';]lt. oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá
cg';]lt, tƧ lbŪfg';oá cg';]tLltĠ lƀƉ+ k'Ʈnfg+ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, gá r»k]0 lbŪfg';oá r cg';]lt, oƧ jf
kg»k]0 cfdƃf. oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ ljlrlsŞfg';oá cg';]tLÆlt k'Şfolk lbŪfg';o;lb;d]j ljƧşg+.
oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLlt»k]0 ltŰ+ k'Ʈnfg+
ej/fufg';oá r cg';]lt, sĕd/fufg';oá r cg';]lt. cljşĕg';o]lk P;]j goá. Oldgf go]g kl#fg';oflbd"lnsĕ;'
k'Şf;' ljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá. co+ Psd"ns]þ goá.
oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá r kl#fg';oá r cg';]lt, tƧ dfgfg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. lƀƉ+ lƀd"lnsĕ»k]0
kťd"lnsĕg+ kg Psd"n] j'ųfg';f/]g ljƧşggoá `ftƑá. tŶfo+ klŞdfg';o] oáhgf _ æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá r
kl#fg';oá r dfgfg';oá r lbŪfg';oá r ljlrlsŞfg';oá r ej/fufg';oá r cg';]lt, tƧ cljşĕg';oá cg';]tLltĠ
cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg cljşĕg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ sĕd/fufg';oá r»k]0 ej/fufg';oá r cg';]tLltĠ cgfufldƧ
cljşĕg';oá r dfgfg';oá r ej/fufg';oá r cg';]lt, g Ot/], lƀƉ+ k'Ʈnfg+
cljşĕg';oá r
sĕd/fukl#dfgej/fufg';of r cg';]lƃ, g lblŪljlrlsŞfg';of, k'y'şgƧ kg ;Ƒ]lk cg';]ƃLÆlt co+ k'Ʈnjf/] goá.
cásĕ;jf/] kg æoŴ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ kl#fg';oá cg';]tLltĠ gá. oŴ jf kg»k]0
cg';]tLltĠ gá. oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ dfgfg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg dfgfg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ
sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ ¿kwft'of c¿kwft'of PŴ dfgfg';oá cg';]lt
g sĕd/fufg';oá, sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;'
tb'eo+ cg';]lt. oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá»k]0 cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLltĠ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo ¿kwft'of
c¿kwft'of PŴ ljlrlsŞfg';oá cg';]lt, g sĕd/fufg';oá, sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' tb'eo+ cg';]lt. oŴ
sĕd/fufg';oá»k]0 cg';]lt, tŴ ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ gá. oŴ jf kg»k]0 gá. oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt,
tŴ cljşĕg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLltĠ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo ¿kf¿kwft'of PŴ cljşĕg';oá
cg';]lt, g sĕd/fufg';oá, sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' tb'eo+ cg';]lt.
oŴ kl#fg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ dfgfg';oá cg';]tLltĠ gá. oŴ jf kg»k]0 gá. oŴ kl#fg';oá
cg';]lt, tŴ lbŪfg';oá ljlrlsŞfg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLltĠ sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;'
¿kf¿kwft'of PŴ ljlrlsŞfg';oá cg';]lt, g kl#fg';oá, b'ŋĕo kg j]bgfo tb'eo+ cg';]lt. oŴ kl#fg';oá
cg';]lt, tŴ ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ gá. oŴ jf kg»k]0 gá. oŴ kl#fg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ cljşĕg';oá
cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLlt»k]0 b'ŋĕo j]bgfo tb'eo+ cg';]lt, cţŴ cljşĕg';oá r.
oŴ dfgfg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ lbŪfg';oá ljlrlsŞfg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLltĠ
b'ŋĕo j]bgfo lbŪfg';oáj, g]t/á
tbţ];' ;ƑŴ cg';]lt. oŴ dfgfg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ
sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' dfgfg';oá, g]t/á, ¿kf¿kwft'of kg tb'eo+ cg';]lt. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. oŴ
dfgfg';oá cg';]lt, tŴ cljşĕg;' oá»k]0 cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]tLltĠ b'ŋj]bg+ &k]ŷf tbţf;' ;ƑŴ
tb'eo+ cg';]lt. oŴ lbŪfg';oá, tŴ ljlrlsŞfg';oá»k]0 cfdƃf. oŴ lbŪfg';oá, tŴ ej/fufg';oá cg';]tLltĠ
sĕdwft'of tL;' j]bgf;' lbŪfg';oáj, ¿kf¿kej];' tb'eo+ cg';]lt. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. oŴ lbŪfg';oá
cg';]lt, tŴ cljşĕg';oá»k]0 cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. P; goá ljlrlsŞfd"ns]þ;'lk. oŴ ej/fufg';oá,
tŴ cljşĕg';oá cg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cg';]lt, tŴ sĕdwft'of tL;' j]bgf;' cljşĕg';oáj,
¿kf¿kej];' kg tb'eo+ cg';]tLÆlt cod]Ŵ Psd"ngoá.
æoƧ»k]0 gfg';]lt. oƧ»k]0 gfg';]lt dfgfg';oá, c/xtá kg tb'eolƕ gfg';]lt. oƧ jf kg»k]0
cfdƃf. oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá gfg';]lt, tƧ lbŪfg';oá ljlrlsŞfg';oá gfg';]tLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0
gfg';]tLltĠ lƀƉ+ k'Ʈnfg+ ljlrlsŞfg';oáj gfg';]lt, g]t/á, cgfufldc/xƃfg+ tb'eolƕ gfg';]tLÆltcflbgf go]g
k'Ʈnjf/],
æoŴ sĕd/fufg';oá gfg';]lt, tŴ kl#fg';oá gfg';]tLltĠ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo sĕd/fufg';oáj gfg';]lt, g]t/á,
¿kf¿kwft'kl/ofkƉ];' tb'eo+ gfg';]lt. oŴ jf kg»k]0 gfg';]tLlt
sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' kl#fg';oáj,
¿kf¿kkl/ofkƉ];' kg tb'eo+ gfg';]lt. oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá gfg';]lt, tŴ dfgfg';oá gfg';]tLltĠ ¿kf¿kwft";'
sĕd/fufg';oáj, b'ŋĕo kg j]bgfo, ckl/ofkƉ];' r tb'eo+ gfg';]lt. oŴ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá
gfg';]lt, tŴ lbŪfg';oá, ljlrlsŞfg';oá gfg';]tLltĠ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo ¿kf¿kwft";' sĕd/fufg';oáj, ckl/ofkƉ] kg
tb'eo+ gfg';]tLÆltcflbgf go]g cásĕ;jf/] r,
æoƧ oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá gfg';]lt, tƧ tŴ kl#fg';oá gfg';]tLltĠ ltŰ+ k'Ʈnfg+ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo
sĕd/fufg';oáj, ¿kf¿kkl/ofkƉ];' tb'eo+ gfg';]lt, lƀƉ+ k'Ʈnfg+ ;ƑŴ tb'eo+ gfg';l] t. oƧ jf kg oŴ»k]0
gfg';]tLltĠ ltŰ+ k'Ʈnfg+ sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' kl#fg';oáj, ¿kf¿kkl/ofkƉ];' tb'eo+ gfg';]lt, lƀƉ+ k'Ʈnfg+ ;ƑŴ
tb'eo+ gfg';]lt. oƧ oŴ sĕd/fufg';oá gfg';]lt, tƧ tŴ dfgfg';oá gfg';]tLltĠ ltŰ+ k'Ʈnfg+ ¿kf¿kwft'of
sĕd/fufg';oáj, g]t/á, b'ŋĕo j]bgfo, ckl/ofkƉ] r tb'eo+ gfg';]lt, cgfufldƧ sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;'
¿kf¿kwft'of sĕd/fufg';oáj, c/xtá kg ;ƑŴ tb'eo+ gfg';t] LÆltcflbgf k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/] r j'ųfg';f/]g goá `ftƑált
co+ kflńgoá.
tŴ æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cg';]lt, tƧ kl#fg';oá cg';]tLÆlt PŴ ob]t+ æcfdƃfÆlt kljrg+ lbƉ+, t+
b'lŹƉ+ ljo vfolt. sƨfĠ sĕd/fukl#fg+ Psŋ±)ë cg'ƍlųtá. oyf lx æoƧ dgfotg+ pƍşlt, tƧ wƙfotg+
pƍştLÆltcfbL;' dgfotgwƙfotgfbLlg Psŋ±)ë pƍşlƃ, g tyf sĕd/fukl#f, lj;'ţ]j pƍşgtá, tƨf PŴ ægáÆlt

150

kl;]±wëf sųƑá l;of, t+ kg csŷf æcfdƃfÆlt kljrgƧ lbƉųf x]Ūf ods]þ;' ljo PŴ v)kŝ'ƍƉj;]g jųdfgjáxf/+
cƮx]ŷf cţyf ux]tƑá. sy+ ux]tƑáĠ cƍxLgj;]g. cƍxLgt+ lx ;ƈfo co+ cg';]tLlt jųdfgjáxf/á j'ųá, g
v)kŝ'ƍƉt+, tƨf OldƧf k'Şfo oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cƍxLgá, g cg'ƍlųwƙt+ cfkflbtá, tƧ kl#fg';oá cƍxLgá, g
cg'ƍlųwƙt+ cfkflbtá, tƧ kl#fg';oá cƍxLgált PjdŴá ux]tƑá. oƨf r t];' sĕd/fukl#];' oƧ]s]ĕ cƍxLgá, tƧ
Ot/álk cƍxLgáj xált, tƨf æcfdƃfÆlt j'ų+. Otá k/];'lk Pj¿k];' pƍşltjf/flbljƧşg];' P;]j goá. ltŰ+
k'Ʈnfglƃ k'y'şg;átfkƉ;sbfufdLg+. lƀƉlƃ ;átfkƉ;sbfufdLg+. Pj+ pƍşg+ bLlkt+. cásĕ;jf/Ƨ k&db'ltok'Şf;'
oƨf sĕd/fukl#f Pslrų] g pƍşlƃ, tƨf ægáÆlt kl;]±wëf stá. b'sd"nfbL;' r oƨf sĕd/fukl#fboá PsƸƨ
&fg;řft] lrų], cf/ƙ±)ë jf g pƍşlƃ, tƨf ægŴLÆlt tŴ klŋ]ká stá, co+ k'Şf ck'Ƒf Pjflt clwƍfoá.
k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/] rt'Ɖlƃ k'y'şg;átfkƉ;sbfufldcgfufdLg+. klnád] lƀƉlƃ cgfufldc/xƃ] ;ƈfo j'ųlƃ co+ cg';ojf/]
goá.
;fg';ojf/] kg æoá sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oá, ;á kl#fg';o]g ;fg';oáltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 dfgfg';o]g
;fg';oáltĠ cfdƃf. oá jf kg dfgfg';o]g ;fg';oá, ;á sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oáltĠ cgfufdL dfgfg';o]g]j, g
sĕd/fufg';o]g, toá kg k'Ʈnf tb'eo]gflk cg';o]gfÆlt Oldgf go]g ;];];' b'sd"nfbL;' k'ŞfljƧşggoá `ftƑá, co+
k'Ʈnjf/] goá.
æotá sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oá, ttá kl#fg';o]g ;fg';oáltĠ gá»k]0 dfgfg';o]g ;fg';oáltĠ cfdƃf.
otá jf kg dfgfg';o]g ;fg';oá, ttá sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oáltĠ ¿kf¿kwft'of dfgfg';o]g]j, g]t/]g, sĕdwft'of
ƀL;' j]bgf;' tb'eo]gfkLÆltcflbgf cásĕ;jf/] r,
æoá otá sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oá, ;á ttá kl#fg';o]g ;fg';oáltĠ gáÆltcflbgf k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/] rflt Pj+
cg'nádgo] r, æoá sĕd/fufg';o]g lg/g';oá, ;á kl#fg';o]g lg/g';oáltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf klnádgo]lk ;ƑŴ
cg';ojf/] j'ųfg';f/tá k'ŞfljƧşggoá `ftƑá.
tŴ otá sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oált otá sĕ/)tá pƍƉ]g sĕd/fufg';o]g ;fg';oá, Ƹs ;á ttá sĕ/)tá
pƍƉkl#fg';o]glk ;fg';oált j'ŝlt. oƨf kg]t] ƀ] Psƨf &fgf g pƍşlƃ, tƨf ægáÆlt kl;]±wëf stá ;];+
tflb;d]jflt co+ ;fg';ojf/] goá.
khxgjf/] kg æoá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxlt, ;á kl#fg';o+ khxtLltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 dfgfg';o+ khxtLltĠ
tb]sŪ+ khxlt. oá jf kg dfgfg';o+ khxlt, ;á sĕd/fufg';o+ khxtLltĠ gá»k]0 ;á lbŪfg';o+ ljlrlsŞfg';o+
khxtLltĠ gá. oá jf kg ljlrlsŞfg';o+ khxlt, ;á sĕd/fufg';o+ khxtLlt
tb]sŪ+ khxlt. oá»k]0
ej/fufg';o+ cljşĕg';o+ khxtLltĠ tb]sŪ+ khxlt»k]0 oá sĕd/fufg';oť kl#fg';oť dfgfg';oť»k]0 khxtLltĠ
gŴLÆltcflbgf k'Ʈnjf/],
æotá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxlt, ttá kl#fg';o+ khxtLltĠ gá»k]0 otá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxlt, ttá
dfgfg';o+ khxtLltĠ cfdƃf. otá jf kg dfgfg';o+ khxlt, ttá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxtLltĠ ¿kf¿kwft'of ttá
dfgfg';od]j, sĕdwft'of kg ƀL;' j]bgf;' ttá dfgfg';o+ khxtLÆltcflbgf cásĕ;jf/] r,
æoá otá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxlt, ;á ttá kl#fg';o+ khxtLltĠ gá»k]0 dfgfg';o+ khxtLltĠ tb]sŪ+
khxlt»k]0 ljlrlsŞfg';o+ khxtLltĠ gá. oá jf kg otá ljlrlsŞfg';o+ khxlt, ;á ttá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxtLltĠ
cŪds]ĕ b'ŋĕo j]bgfo ¿kf¿kwft'of ;á ttá ljlrlsŞfg';o+ khxlt, gá r ;á ttá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxlt, Ʃ]j k'Ʈná
sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' ;á ttá ljlrlsŞfg';o+ khxlt, sĕd/fufg';o+ tb]sŪ+ khxtLÆltcflbgf k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/] rflt Pj+
cg'nádgo] r, æoá sĕd/fufg';o+ g khxlt, ;á kl#fg';o+ g khxtLltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 ljlrlsŞfg';o+ g khxtLlt
cŪds]ĕ sĕd/fufg';o+ g khxlt, g]t/+, cgfuflddƮ;dƸś, cŪdsť &k]ŷf cj;];f k'Ʈnf tb'eo+ g khxƃLÆltcflbgf
klnádgo] r ;ƑŴ k'ŞfljƧşggoá `ftƑá.
tŴ khxtLlt t]g t]g d±Ʈëg kxfgkl/ţfj;]g khxlt. tb]sŪlƃ kxfg]sŪt+ ;ƈfo j'ų+. k&ddƮflbgf
lx g s]þjn+ lbŪflbsĕ Pj wƙf kxLolƃ, cy ±vëf ckfoudlgof t]g sĕd/fukl#dfgfboálk kxLolƃ Pj. k&ddƮjŢĕ
lx sĕd/fuf, ckfoudlgof r dfgfljşĕboálk, tltodƮjŢĕlt kxfg]sŪf x'ŷf kxLolƃ Pjflt ægáÆlt c/xųdƮŪ+
;ƈfo j'ų+. ;á lx sĕd/fufg';o+o]j kxLgųf g khxtLlt. otá sĕd/fufg';o+ khxtLlt otá pƍşgs+þ sĕd/fufg';o+
khxtLlt cŴá, cŪds]ĕlt ;átfklųdƮŪá. ;á lx blŋ±)ëƜŊþd]g c/xųmþnŪtá kŪfo ul)odfgá cŪds]ĕ gfd.
klnádgo] cgfuflddƮ;dlśť cŪdsť &k]ŷf cj;];flt k'y'şg;];;]vf;]vf. t];' lx k'y'şgf kxfgkl/ţfo cefj]g
g khxlƃ, ;];f t];+ kxLgųflt Oldgf go]g ;ƑŴ ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑált co+ khxgjf/] goá.
kl/ţfjf/á kg æoá sĕd/fufg';o+ kl/hĕgflt, ;á kl#fg';o+ kl/hĕgftLÆltcflbgf khxgjf/;lb;áj.
colƕ lx khxgjf/á ljo dƮŪfgţ]j j;]g ljƧlştá. tŴ kl/hĕgftLlt tLlx kl/ţflx kl/hĕgftLlt cŴá. co+
kl/ţfjf/] goá.
kxLgjf/] kg æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá kxLgá, tƧ kl#fg';oá kxLgáltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 dfgfg';oá kxLgáltĠ
cgfufldƧ sĕd/fufg';oáj, c/xtá kg dfgfg';oálk kxLgáÆltcflbgf k'Ʈnjf/], æoŴ sĕd/fufg';oá kxLgá, tŴ
kl#fg';oá kxLgáltĠ g jųƑá kxLgált jf cƍxLgált jf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 g jųƑá»k]0 tŴ dfgfg';oá
kxLgáltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg»k]0 kxLgáltĠ ¿kf¿kwft'of PŴ dfgfg';oá kxLgá, sĕd/fufg';oá g jųƑá,
sĕdwft'of ƀL;' j]bgf;' PŴ tb'eo+ kxLgÆlƃcflbgf cásĕ;jf/], k'Ʈnásĕ;jf/]lt Pj+ cg'nádgo], æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá
cƍxLgá, tƧ kl#fg';oá cƍxLgáltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf»k]0 oƧ jf kg dfgfg';oá cƍxLgá, tƧ

151

sĕd/fufg';oá cƍxLgáltĠ cgfufldƧ dfgfg';oáj, ltŰ+ k'Ʈnfg+ tb'eo+ cƍxLgÆlƃcflbgf klnádgo] r j'ųgo]g]j
k'ŞfljƧşggoá `ftƑá.
PŴ r mþnŪj;]g]j cŴá ux]tƑá dƮŪfg+ kxLglsn];ųfefjf. t];+ lx cg';of kxLolƃ Pj, g kg
kxLgflt cgfufldcfboá mþnŪfj ux]tƑf, cásĕ;jf/] kg æg jųƑáÆlt Ob+ pleƉ+ pƍlųŪfgƧ c;fwf/)ųf j'ų+. cţ+
lx sĕd/fufg';oƧ pƍlųŪfg+, cţ+ kl#fg';oƧ. cefljtdƮƧ r oŴ cg';oá pƍşlt, d±Ʈë efljt] tŴ]j ;á kxLgá
gfd xált, tƨf ;á tŴ kxLgált jf, cƍxLgált jf g jųƑá, ;ƑŴflk kg ;o+ cefj]g tŴ cƍxLgált g jųƑá.
pleƉ+ kg ;fwf/)Ūfg+ ;ƈfo æcfdƃfÆlt j'ų+. dfgfg';oá lx sĕdwft'of j]bgfƀo;řft] ;fwf/)Ūfg] sĕd/f±uëg ;Ƹź
kxLgá gfd xált oƧ sĕd/fufg';oá cƍxLgált k'y'şgƧ, ;átfklų;sbfufldmþnŪfgť j;]g cŴá ux]tƑá. æltŰ+
k'ƮnfgÆlƃ lx j'ų+. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt co+ kxLgjf/] goá.
pƍşgjf/] kg æoƧ sĕd/fufg';oá pƍşlt, tƧ kl#fg';oá pƍştLÆltcflbgf
;ƑŴ
cg';ojf/;lb;ájflt co+ pƍşgjf/] goá.
wft'jf/] kg æsĕdwft'of r'tƧ sĕdwft'+ pkkşƃƧ slt cg';of cg';]lƃ, slt cg';of gfg';]lƃ, slt
cg';of eśfĠ sĕdwft'of r'tƧ ¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ»k]0 slt eśfĠ sĕdwft'of r'tƧ c¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ»k]0 ¿kwft'+
pkkşƃƧ g c¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ»k]0 slt eś+Ġ sĕdwft'of r'tƧ g sĕdwft'+, g c¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ»k]0 g
¿kwft'+ g c¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ. g sĕdwft'+ g ¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ slt eśfÆlt Pj+ sĕdwft'd"nsĕ gj k'Şf, tyf
æ¿kwft'of r'tƧfÆltcflbgf ¿kwft'd"nsĕ gj, c¿kwft'of gj rflt ;ųjL;lt cg'nádk'Şf, tyf æg sĕdwft'of
r'tƧfÆltcflbgf ;ųjL;lt klnádk'Şf r, tyf æg sĕdwft'of g c¿kwft'of r'tƧ sĕdwft'+ pkkşƃƧfÆltcflbgf
;ųjL;lt b'sd"nsĕ k'Şf rflt Pj+ k'Şfjf/] Psĕ;Llt k'Şf j]lbtƑf.
tŴ cg';]ƃLlt lrų;ƃfg] cg'utf x'ŷf slt cg';]lƃ, eśflt cg';]lƃ r gfg';]lƃ rflt Pj+ slt ljelhtƑflt
cŴá. g sĕdwft'+ pkkşƃƧflt sĕdwft'lj/lxtf ƀ] ¿kf¿kwft'oá pkkşƃƧ. g sĕdwft'+ g ¿kwft'lƃ c¿kwft'+
pkkşƃƧ. g sĕdwft'oflt ¿kf¿kwft"lx r'tƧ, Pj+ ;];];'lk ;ƑŴ kl;lƈj;]g, wft'j;]g r cŴá j]lbtƑált co+
pŹ];jf/] goá.
lgŹ];jf/] kgƧ æsĕdwft'of r'tƧ sĕdwft'+ pkkşƃƧ sƧlr ;ų cg';of cg';]lƃ, sƧlr kť cg';of
cg';]lƃ, cg';of eśf glŴ, sĕdwft'of r'tƧ ¿kwft'+ pkkşƃƧ sƧlr ;ų cg';of cg';]lƃ, sƧlr kť, sƧlr toá
»k]0 eśf gŴLÆlt Oldgf go]g ;ƑŴ ljƧşg+ j]lbtƑ+, co+ kg]Ŵ lj;];á _ ¿kwft'of r'tƧ sĕdwft'+ pkkşƃƧ ;ų]j
cg';of cg';]lƃ, tyf æc¿kwft'of r'tƧ sĕdwft'+ pkkşƃƧfÆltcfbL;'lk, c¿kwft'of kg r'tƧ ¿kwft'of pkklų
glŴ, x]Ūf pkkşdfgá sĕdwft'+ Pj pkkşlt, ;ų]j cg';of cg';]ƃLlt Pj+ cţ];'lk Pj¿k];' ljƧşggoá j]lbtƑált
co+ lj;];á, ;];+ j'ųgod]jflt cod]Ŵ kflńgoá.
tŴ sƧlr ;ųflt k'y'şgj;]g j'ų+, kťflt ;átfkƉ;sbfufdLg+ j;]g. t];+ lx lblŪljlrlsŞfg';of
kxLgflt, sĕdwft'of kg cgfufdLg+ pkklųcefjtá k&djf/] æsƧlr toáÆlt g j'ų+, ¿kf¿kwft";' pƍşgjf/];' Pj
j'ų+»k]0 cgfufdLg+ lx sĕd/fukl#fglƕ kxLgųf toáj cg';of cg';]lƃ, Ow r cg';ofg+ pƍlųj;]g goá,
cg';ofg+ cg';og+ cƮx]ŷf cƍxLgefj]g kl;lƈŋ±)ë clk cg';og+ ux]tƑ+. ;ų]jflt cl/o;fjsƧ ¿kf¿kwft'of r'tƧ
x]Ūf sĕdejfbL;' pkklų gfd glŴ, k'y'şgƧ]j xált, tƨf æ;ų]jfÆlt lgod]ŷf j'ų+, c¿kwft'of r'tƧ ¿kwft'of
pkklų gŴLlt. sƨf glŴĠ c¿kLg+ ¿kŢĕgƧ cefjf. t] lx ;Ƒ;á ¿k;ţfg+ ;dltŊþdg¿kwft'+ pkkƉflt. ;];+
gotá ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt co+ wft'jf/] goá. co+ cg';oodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

lrųodsdfltsŴjŰgf
lrųodsdfltsĕo+ kg kflńjjŴfg+ tfj Pj+ j]lbtƑ+. OldƧ+ lx dfltsĕo+ k'Ʈnjf/á wƙjf/á k'Ʈnwƙjf/ált
cflbtáj toá ;'lźsdxfjf/f xálƃ, tŴ æoƧ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?ŢtLÆlt Pj+ k'Ʈnj;]g lrųƧ pƍşglg?Ţgflbe]b+
bLk]ƃá utá k'Ʈnjf/á gfd. æo+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?ŢtLÆlt Pj+ wƙj;]g]j lrųƧ pƍşglg?Ţgflbe]b+ bLk]ƃá utá
wƙjf/á gfd. æoƧ o+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?ŢtLÆlt Pj+ peoj;]g]j lrųƧ pƍşglg?Ţgflbe]b+ bLk]ƃá utá
k'Ʈnwƙjf/á gfd.
ttá æoƧ ;/fu+ lrųÆlƃcfbLg+ ;áń;Ɖ+ kbfg+ j;]g ck/] ;/fuflbkblj;]l;tf ;áń; k'Ʈnjf/f, ;áń;
wƙjf/f, ;áń; k'Ʈnwƙjf/flt cŪrųfnL; ldƧsjf/f xálƃ, t] ;/fuflbkbdų+ bƧ]ŷf ;+lvųf. ttá æoƧ s';n+
lrųÆlƃcflbgf go]g %;lŪlƀ;t;řftfg+ clewƙdfltsĕkbfg+ j;]g ck/] s';nflbkblj;]l;tf %;lŪlƀ;tk'Ʈnjf/f,
%;lŪlƀ;twƙjf/f, %;lŪlƀ;tk'Ʈnwƙjf/flt cŪgj'lt;ų;tf ldƧsjf/f xálƃ, t]lk s';nflbkbdų+ bƧ]ŷf ;+lvųfo]j,
oflgk]Ŵ ;lgbƧgfbLlg kbflg lrų]g ;Ƹź g o'şlƃ, tflg dá#k'Şfj;]g ulxtfgLlt.
t];' kg tL;' jf/];' ;Ƒk&d] ;'lźsk'Ʈndxfjf/] tfj pƍfblg/áwsĕn;Ƙ]bjf/á pƍfb'ƍƉjf/á lg/áw'ƍƉjf/á
pƍfbjf/á lg/áwjf/á pƍfblg/áwjf/á pƍşdfgglg/áwjf/á pƍşdfg'ƍƉjf/á lg?Ţdfg'ƍƉjf/á pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/á
ctLtfgfutjf/á pƍƉ'ƍşdfgjf/á lg?źlg?Ţdfgjf/á cltŊþƃsĕnjf/á rflt r'Ź; cƃ/jf/f, t];' pƍfbjf/á
lg/áwjf/á pƍfblg/áwjf/ált Od];' tL;' jf/];' kŝ]s+þ jųdfgftLtƧ, jųdfgfgfutƧ, ctLtfgfutƧ rflt ltŰ+
sĕne]bfg+ j;]g cg'nádklnádtá % % sŷf cŪf/; odsĕlg, pƍƉ'ƍfbjf/] ctLtfgfutsĕnj;]g cg'nádtá ƀ],
klnádtá ƀ]lt rųfl/ odsĕlg, ;];];' cflbtá lglŹŪ];' tL;', cƃ/] lglŹŪ];' tL;', cj;fg] lglŹŪ];' rt";"lt b;;' jf/];'
152

cg'nádtá Ps+þ, klnádtá Pslƃ ƀ] ƀ] sŷf jL;lt odsĕlg, Pj+ ;Ƒ];'lk r'Ź;;' cƃ/jf/];' ƀfrųfnL; odsĕlg,
rt'/f;Llt k'Şf, cŪ;lŪcŴ;t+ xált. oyf
r PsƸƨ ;'lźsk'Ʈndxfjf/], tyf ;'lźswƙdxfjf/],
;'lźsk'Ʈnwƙdxfjf/]kLlt tL;' dxfjf/];' %ƑL;ltods;t+, ttá lbu')f k'Şf, lbu')f cŴf r j]lbtƑf, Ob+ kg
jf/ųo+ ;/fuflbj;]g ;áń;u')+, s';nflbj;]g %;lŪlƀ;tu')+ sŷf OldƧf lrųodsdfltsĕo cg]sĕlg ods;xƧflg,
tlŹu')f k'Şf, tlŹu')f cŴf r xálƃ, kf±&ëf kg ;+lvųá. Pjd]Ŵ kflńjjŴfg+ ljlbŷf Obflg cg'ųfgkbŴfg';f/]g
ljeśgo;lxtá ;ř]kŴjŰgfgoá Pj+ j]lbtƑá.
oƧ lrų+ pƍştLlt oƧ k'ƮnƧ lrų+ pƍfbŋ);dlśtfo pƍşlt. g lg?ŢtLlt lg/áwŋ)+ cƍųtfo g
lg?Ţlt. tƧ lrųlƃ Ƹs tƧ k'ƮnƧ ttá kŪfo lrų+ lg?lŢƧtLlt k'Şf, tƧf r, æklŞdlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ lrų+
pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt, lg?lŢƧlt g'ƍlşƧlt, Ot/];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt, lg?lŢƧlt r]j
pƍlşƧlt rfÆlt ljƧşg+. tŴ t];+ lrųlƃ o];+ vL)f;jfg+ klŞdlrų;řftƧ r'ltlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë jųlt, t];+ tb]j
r'ltlrų+ pƍfbƍųtfo pƍşlt gfd, eś+ cƍųtfo g lg?Ţlt gfd, Obflg kg eś+ kŷf t+ t];+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt,
ttá cƍl;lƈsųf cţ+ g'ƍlşƧlt. Ot/];lƃ klŞdlrų;dƸś vL)f;j+ &k]ŷf cj;];fg+ ;]vf;]vk'y'şgfg+ lg?lŢƧlt
r]j cţ+ kg tƸƨ jf cųefj] pƍlşƧlt rflt cŴá.
æoƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g'ƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?ŢtLÆlt OldƧf b'ltok'Şfo
klŞdlrų;dlśgá vL)f;jƧ lrų+ ;ƈfo æcfdƃfÆlt ljƧşg+. æoƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt
pƍlşƧtLÆlt k'Şfo ægáÆlt kl;]±wëfj ljƧşg+. g pƍşlt lg?ŢtLlt lx eśŋ±)ë c/xtá klŞdlrųlƕ ;];fg+
leşdfglrųlƕ k'Şlt, ttá kŪfo kg c/xtá tfj lrų+ g lg?lŢƧtLlt ;Ŋĕ jų'+, pƍlşƧtLlt kg g ;Ŋĕ, tƨf
ægáÆlt PŴ kl;]±wëf stá, æoƧ jf kg lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt lg?ŢtLÆlt k'Şfo
ægŴLÆlt klŋ]káj ljƧşg+. oƧ lx lrų+ g lg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt, ;á r k'Ʈná gŴLlt.
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf, oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë t+ lrų+
pƍƉ+, gá r pƍşlt, ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë t];+ lrų+ pƍƉť]j pƍşlt r, oƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉlƃĠ
lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë lrų+ g'ƍşlt, gá r g'ƍƉ+, lg/áw;dfkƉfg+ c;ţ;ųfg+ lrų+ g'ƍşlt r]j g'ƍƉť. oƧ jf kg»k]0
g'ƍştLltĠ cfdƃf. PŴ r pƍƉlƃ pƍfb;dlśgák]t+ gfd+, pƍştLlt r pƍfb;dlśgáj.
oƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 lg?ŢtLltĠ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ lrų+ g
lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉlƃĠ lg/áw;dfkƉfbLg+ lrų+. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf.
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë
tyf. PŴ r pƍfbƍųųf pƍlşŴ, t+ cgtLtųf pƍşlt gfdflt cŴált cŪsyfo+ v)kŝ'ƍƉj;]g cŴá j'ųá.
pƍlşŴflt kg OdƧ ctLtlrųŋ)j;]g cŴ] uƞdfg] Pj pkl/kflńof g lj?Ţlt, g cţyflt kţfolt, tƨf k'Ƒfk/+
cánás]þŷf kflńclj/á±wëg cŴá ux]tƑá.
oƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍştLltĠ glŴ. oƧ lrų+
pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ klŞdlrų;dlśvL)f;jlj/lxtfg+ lrų+ tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ pƍfbŋ±)ë
tyf. oƧ lrų+»k]0 g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ c;]vfg+ klŞdlrųƧ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍştLltĠ klŞdlrųƧ
eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ klŞdlrų;dƸś &k]ŷf ;];fg+ tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0
cfdƃf. oƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ glŴ. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴ.
oƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢŴfltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 lg?ŢtLltĠ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ
lrų+»k]0 g lg?lŢŴfltĠ lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg»k]0 glŴ. oƧ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧtLltĠ
klŞdlrų;dƸś &k]ŷf ;];fg+ lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 ;];fg+ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ lrų+»k]0 lg?lŢƧlt.
oƧ jf kg»k]0 lg?Ţlt.
oƧ lrų+ lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧtLltĠ klŞdlrųƧ eśŋ±)ë &k]ŷf ;];fg+ lrų+ tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0
cfdƃf. oƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴ, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧtLltĠ glŴ. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g lg?lŢŴfltĠ lg?lŢŴ.
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢŴfltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë
tyf. oƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢŴfltĠ lg?lŢŴ. oƧ jf kg»k]0 glŴ, oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+
lg?lŢƧtLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g
lg?lŢƧtLltĠ klŞdlrųƧ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. oƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ lg?lŢƧtLltĠ
lg?Ţdfg+ klŞdlrų+ &k]ŷf tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. oƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴ, tƧ lrų+ g lg?lŢƧtLltĠ glŴ.
oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴ.
oƧ lrų+ pƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ g lg?ŢtLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë
tyf. oƧ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, tƧ lrų+ lg?ŢtLltĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍştLltĠ cfdƃf.
oƧ lrų+ pƍşdfg+, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍşdfglƃĠ ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë
tyf. oƧ lrų+ g'ƍşdfg+, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉlƃĠ lg/áw;dfkƉfbLg+ lrų+ tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf.
oƧ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+, tƧ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 eśŋ±)ë tyf. oƧ lrų+ g lg?Ţdfg+,
tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉlƃĠ lg/áw;dfkƉfbLg+ lrų+ tyf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf.
oƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg»k]0 pƍƉlƃ lrų;dśLg+ tyf. oƧ lrų+
g'ƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴ. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍƉlƃĠ glŴ»k]0 oƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ

153

pƍlşƧlt. oƧ jf kg»k]0 g'ƍƉlƃĠ pƍƉ+.
oƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴ gá r tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ cfdƃf. oƧ jf kg lrų+ pƍlşƧlt gá r
tƧ lrų+ pƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ pƍlşŴfltĠ cfdƃf. PŴ ægá r tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉÆlƃ Ob+ c;ţflbclrųs]þ ;ƈfo j'ų+. t];+
lgod]g lrų'ƍlųof cefjtá æcfdƃfÆlt peoŴ ljƧşg+ j'ų+. coť jf/á sĕnųo] ux]ŷf ;dlŴtált ux]tƑá.
æoƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴ gá r tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ glŴ. oƧ jf kg lrų+ g'ƍlşƧlt gá r
tƧ lrų+ g'ƍƉ+, tƧ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴfltĠ pƍlşŴ.
pƍƉ+ pƍşdfglƃĠ pƍfbŋ±)ë lrų+ tyf. pƍşdfg+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf. g'ƍƉ+ g'ƍşdfglƃĠ cfdƃf.
g'ƍşdfg+ g'ƍƉlƃĠ ctLtfgfutlrų+ tyf.
lg?ź+ lg?ŢdfglƃĠ gá, lg?Ţdfg+ lg?źlƃĠ gá, glg?ź+ glg?ŢdfglƃĠ pƍfbŋ±)ë cgfutť lrų+
tyf. glg?Ţdfg+ glg?źlƃlk t±yëj.
oƧ lrų+ pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, tƧ lrųlƃĠ gá
r eśŋ)+ jLltŊþƃ,+ ctLt+ lrų+ tb'eo+ jLltŊþƃ+, oƧ jf kg lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, pƍşdfg+
v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, tƧ lrųlƃĠ ctLt+ lrųÆlƃ Oldgf go]g k'Ʈnjf/] ;ƑŴ ljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá.
tŴ pƍşdfg+ v)lƃ pƍşdfgƧ v)+, pƍfbŋ)lƃ cŴá. v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕnlƃ g lr/+ jLltŊþƃ+, td]j
kg pƍfbŋ)+ jLltŊþƃ+ x'ŷf cltŊþƃsĕnlƃ ;ř+ uŞlt, lg?Ţdfg+ v)lƃ lg?ŢdfgƧ v)+, eśŋ)lƃ cŴá. v)+ jLltŊþƃ+
cltŊþƃsĕnlƃ Ƹs tƧ lrų+ Pj+ lg/áwŋ)lƕ jLltŊþƃ+ x'ŷf cltŊþƃsĕn+ gfd xátLlt k'Şlt. oƧ eśŋ±)ë lrų+ pƍfbŋ)+
v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ x'ŷf cltŊþƃsĕn+ gfd xált, lg/áwŋ)+ jLltŊþƃ+ x'ŷf cltŊþƃsĕn+ gfd xált, ctLt+ kg lrų+ peálk v±)ë
v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ x'ŷf cltŊþƃsĕn+ gfd xátLlt ctLtlrųj;]g ljƧşg+ st+. Oldgfj pkfo]g pkl/d];' cŴwƙjf/fbL;' r
;ƑljƧşg];' cŴá j]lbtƑá. co+ cltŊþƃsĕnjf/] goá.
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt glg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ cfdƃf. o+ jf kg»k]0 cfdƃf. o+ lrų+
g'ƍşlt lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ glg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧtLltĠ gá. o+ jf kg lrų+ glg?lŢƧlt pƍlşƧlt, t+ lrų+ g'ƍşlt
lg?ŢtLltĠ glŴ.
o+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf. o+ jf kg»k]0 pƍştLltĠ pƍfbŋ±)ë lrų+ tyf, Pj+
klnádk'Şf;'lk ttá ;];f;'lk. æo+ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g'ƍƉlƃĠ ctLtfgfut+ lrų+ tyf. o+ jf kg»k]0
cfdƃf»k]0 eśŋ±)ë lrųÆlƃcflbgf, æo+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴfltĠ gá. o+ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, t+ lrų+
g'ƍlşŴfltĠ eśŋ±)ë lrų+ cgfutťfÆltcflbgf, æo+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ gá. o+ jf kg»k]0 gá, o+
lrų+ g'ƍşlt, t+ lrų+ g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ cgfut+ lrų+ g'ƍşlt, gá r t+ lrų+ g'ƍlşƧlt, eśŋ±)ë lrų+ ctLt+
lrųÆlƃcflbgf r, æo+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ gá. o+ jf kg»k]0 gá, o+ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+
g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ cgfut+ lrųÆlƃcflbgf r,
æo+ lrų+ lg?Ţlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴfltĠ gáÆltcflbgf r, æo+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢŴfltĠ
gáÆltcflbgf r, æo+ lrų+ pƍşlt, t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧtLlt cfdƃfÆltcflbgf r, æo+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ, t+ lrų+
lg?lŢƧtLltĠ gáÆltcflbgf r,
æo+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+, t+ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃf. o+ jf kg»k]0 pƍşdfglƃ»k]0 pƍfbŋ±)ë lrųÆlƃcflbgf
r, æo+ lrų+ lg?Ţdfg+, t+ lrų+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf r, æo+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍlşŴfltĠ gá. o+ jf
kg»k]0 gáÆltcflbgf r,
æo+ lrų+ pƍlşŴ gá r t+ lrų+ pƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ pƍlşƧtLltĠ gá. o+ jf kg»k]0 gá. o+ lrų+ g'ƍlşŴ gá
r t+ lrų+ g'ƍƉ+, t+ lrų+ g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf r, æpƍƉ+ pƍşdfglƃ»k]0 pƍfbŋ±)ë pƍƉť]j
pƍşdfgť. pƍşdfg+ pƍƉlƃĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf r, ælg?ź+ lg?ŢdfglƃĠ gáÆltcflbgf r,
æo+ lrų+ pƍşdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, lg?Ţdfg+ v)+ v)+ jLltŊþƃ+ cltŊþƃsĕn+, t+ lrųlƃ»k]0
ctLt+ lrųÆlƃcflbgf r wƙjf/],
æoƧ o+ lrų+ pƍşlt g lg?Ţlt, tƧ t+ lrų+ lg?lŢƧlt g'ƍlşƧtLltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf r k'Ʈnwƙjf/]
r, ;/fuflbkb]lx, s';nflbkb]lx r ldƧ];' ;Ƒjf/];' r k'Şf;' x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g ljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá. co+
lrųodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

wƙodsdfltsŴjŰgf
wƙodsdfltsĕo kg vƈods]þ j'ųgo]g]j kflńjjŴfg+ j]lbtƑ+. æoá s';n+ wƙ+ efj]lt, ;á cs';n+ wƙ+
khxtLÆlt cfutųf kg]Ŵ kl/ţfjf/á efjgfjf/á gfd. tŴ oƨf cƓfstá wƙá g]j efj]tƑá g kxftƑá, tƨf kbd]j
g pźlƃ j]lbtƑ+ k'ŞfljƧşg] kg]Ŵ æs';nfs';nf wƙfltĠ cfdƃfÆltcflbgf, æwƙf cs';nf wƙfltĠ cs';nf wƙf
wƙf r]j cs';nf wƙf r, cj;];f wƙf g cs';nf wƙfÆltcflbgf r kŰlųjf/] ljƧşggoá `ftƑá.
æoƧ s';nf wƙf pƍşlƃ, tƧ cs';nf wƙf pƍşƃLltĠ gá. oƧ jf kg»k]0 oƧ s';nf wƙf pƍşlƃ,
tƧ cƓfstf wƙf pƍşƃLltĠ kťjásĕ/] s';nfg+ pƍfbŋ±)ë»k]0 pƍşƃLÆltcflbgf r, æoŴ s';nf wƙf pƍşlƃ, tŴ
cs';nf wƙf pƍşƃLltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 tŴ cƓfstf wƙf pƍşƃLltĠ cfdƃf. oŴ jf kg cƓfstf wƙf pƍşlƃ, tŴ
s';nf wƙf pƍşƃLlt »k]0 rt'jásĕ/]»k]0 pƍşƃLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ oŴ s';nf wƙf»k]0 pƍşƃLltĠ
154

gáÆltcflbgf r,
æoƧ s';nf wƙf g'ƍşlƃ, tƧ cs';nf wƙf g'ƍşƃLlt»k]0 ;Ƒ];+ lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë cƓfstlrųƧ pƍfbŋ±)ë
lg/áw;dfkƉfg+ c;ţ;ųfg+ t];+ s';nf r wƙf g'ƍşlƃ, cs';nf r wƙf g'ƍşƃLÆltcflbgf r, æoƧ s';nf wƙf
g'ƍşlƃ, tƧ cƓfstf wƙf g'ƍşƃLlt»k]0 ;Ƒ];+ rjƃfg+ kjų] lrųƧ eśŋ±)ë cf?ƍ] cs';nfg+ pƍfbŋ±)ë r
g'ƍşƃLÆltcflbgf r, æoŴ s';nf wƙf g'ƍşlƃ, tŴ cs';nf wƙf g'ƍşƃLltĠ cfdƃf»k]0 tŴ cƓfstf wƙf
g'ƍşƃLltĠ pƍşlƃ. oŴ jf kg cƓfstf wƙf g'ƍşlƃ, tŴ cs';nf wƙf g'ƍşƃLltĠ gŴLÆltcflbgf r pƍfbjf/],
æoƧ s';nf wƙf lg?Ţlƃ, tƧ cs';nf wƙf lg?ŢƃLltĠ gáÆltcflbgf lg/áwjf/] r,
æoƧ s';nf wƙf pƍşlƃ, tƧ cs';nf wƙf lg?ŢƃLltĠ gáÆltcflbgf pƍfblg/áwjf/] r,
æoá s';n+ wƙ+ efj]lt, ;á cs';n+ wƙ+ khlxŴfltĠ gá»k]0 oá s';n+ wƙ+ g efj]lt, ;á cs';n+ wƙ+
gƍhlxŴfltĠ cƮdƮ;dlśť c/xƃť &k]ŷf cj;];f k'ƮnfÆltcflbgf efjgfjf/] r k'ŞfljƧşggoá x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g
`ftƑá.
cŴljlgŞo] kg]Ŵ Ob+ nŋ)+. OdƧ lx wƙodsƧ kjlųdxfjf/] pƍşlƃ lg?ŢƃLlt Od];' pƍfblg/á±wë;'
s';nfs';nwƙf tfj Psƃ]g kjlųo+o]j nưlƃ, g r'ltkl;ƈL;', cƓfstwƙf kg kjų] r r'ltkl;ƈL;' rflt tL;'lk
sĕn];' nưlƃ, Pjd]Ŵ o+ oŴ oŴ nưlt, tƧ j;]g tŴ tŴ ljlgŞoá j]lbtƑá.
tlŶb+ god'v+ _ s';nfs';nfg+ tfj Psŋ±)ë cg'ƍşgtá ægáÆlt kl;]±wëf stá. cƓfstf rflt Ob+
lrų;d'Ūfg¿k+ ;ƈfo j'ų+. oŴ s';nf wƙf g'ƍşƃLlt c;ţej+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, cƓfstfg+ wƙfg+ cg'ƍlųŪfgƧfefjf
ægŴLÆlt klŋ]ká stá, lg/áwjf/] s';nfs';nfg+ Pstá clg?Ţgtá ægáÆlt j'ųlƃ Oldgfj god'±vëg ;ƑŴ ljlgŞoá
j]lbtƑá. co+ wƙodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.

OlƇoodsdfltsŴjŰgf
OlƇoodsdfltsĕo+ kg vƈodsdfltsĕbL;' j'ųgo]g]j kflńjjŴfgflbs]ĕ ;Ƒá cŴ;+jŰgfgoá j]lbtƑá.
dlglƇo+ kg]Ŵ oyf rŋ'lƇoflbd"ns]þlx, t±yëj OlŴlƇoflbd"ns]þlx ;Ƹź ;ƕoáu+ uŞlt, tƨf lglŋųklkflof coáh]ŷf
;Ƒ]lxlk rŋ'lƇod"nfbLlx ;Ƹź kl/oá;fg] oálht+, rŋ'lƇo]g r ;Ƹź ;'lvlƇob'lŋlƇobádglƧlƇoflg, nás'ųl/lƇoflg r
kl;lƈo+ gŴLlt g ulxtflg. oyf r]Ŵ, Pj+ ;]l;lƇod"ns]þ;'lk oyfg'¿k+ `ftƑ+. OlƇofg+ kg ax'stfo
wft'odstálk ax't/flg odsĕlg xálƃ co+ lj;];á, ;];+ x]Ūf j'ųfg';f/]g `ftƑlƃ. co+ OlƇoodsdfltsŴ;+jŰgfgoá.
dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

odsdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

7= kŪfgdfltsŴjŰgf
Obflg kŪfgdfltsĕo cŴ;+jŰgfgoá xált. s]þgŪ]g kŪfglƃĠ gfgƍsĕ/kŝoŪ]g. k-;Źá lx gfgƍsĕ/Ŵ+
bLk]lt, &fg-;Źá kŝoŴ+. cy jf ljehgŪ]g kŪfg+. oyf lx kţfkgf kŪkgf ljj/)f ljehgf pųfgLsƙlƃ
cfutŪfg] ljehgŪá kŪfg;Ź;dfgŴá kŪkgf-;Źá lbƧlt, Pjldwflk s';nfbLg+ wƙfg+ x]t'kŝofbLlx ljehgtá
ljehgŪ]g kŪfg+ gfd. cy jf klŪtŪ]g kŪfg+, udgŪ]gflt cŴá. ;Ƒwƙ];' lx c;śudgƧ ;Ƒţ'tţf)Ƨ
x]t'kŝoflbe]bleƉ];' s';nfbL;' ljŴfl/tgonfetá lgƧśj;]g kjųudgųf udgŪ]g kŪfg+ gfd, Olt gfgƍsĕ/kŝoŪ]g,
ljehgŪ]g, udgŪ]g r ltskŪfgfbL;' rt'jL;ltof kŪfg];' Ps]þslƕ kŪfg+ gfd, t];+ kg ;d"xtá ks/)+ kŪfg+ gfd,
t];+ kŪfgfg+ dfltsĕ. ;olƕ jf kŪfge"tf dfltsĕ, ;Ƒƕ]t+ kŪfgdfltsĕ. of ;f æx]t'kŝoá, cf/ƙ)kŝoá»k]0
cljutkŝoáÆlt Pj+ ltskŪfgflbrt'jL;ltƍe]b;dƃkŪfgb];gfo d"ne"tkŝoe]bƧ j;]g eujtf ks/)Ƨ cflblƛ
&lktf, co+ Ow kŪfgdfltsĕ gfd.
tŴ cg'ųfgŴflb;lxtá ;ř]kŴljlgŞoá tfj Pj+ j]lbtƑá _ x]t'kŝoáltcfbL;' lx x]t' r ;á kŝoá rflt
x]t'kŝoá, x]t' x'ŷf kŝoá x]t'kŝoá, x]t'efj]g kŝoált j'ų+ xált. tŴ x]t"lt jrgfjojsĕ/)d"nfgd]t+ clwjrg+.
æklţfx]t"ÆltcfbL;' lx nás]þ jrgfjojá æx]t"Ælt j'ŝlt, ;f;g] kg æo] wƙf x]t'ƍejfÆltcfbL;' ‘dxfj060
ck0±yë/ 1=1=286’ sĕ/)+, ætoá s';nf x]t", toá cs';nf x]t"ÆltcfbL;' ‘w0;0 1059’ d"n+, Ob+ Ow clwƍ]t+ t+
klŝ Ptƨf PtLlt kŝoá, ckŝŋĕo g+ jųtLlt cŴá. oá lx wƙá o+ wƙ+ klŝ ckŝŋĕo ltŪlt jf pƍşlt jf, ;á
tƧ pksĕ/snŋ±)ëg kŝoá gfd. Olt d"nŪ]g x]t', pksĕ/sŪ]g kŝoált ;ř]ktá d"nŪ]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá x]t'kŝoá,
s';nfbLg+ s';nflbefj;fws]ĕlt s]þlr, Pj+ ;ƃ] kg t+;d'Ūfg¿k];' x]t'kŝotf g ;ƕşlt, cx]t'slrųfgť ljgf Pt]lx
cƓfstefjá l;źá, ;x]t'sĕglƕ r oálg;ádgl;sĕ/flbklaźá s';nflbefjá, g ;ƕo'ųx]t'klaźá. olb r l;of,
x]t";'lk s';nflbefj;fws]þg cţ]g eljtƑ+, s';nflbefj;fwgj;]g kg x]t"g+ d"nŪ+ cƮx]ŷf ;'ƍltlŪtefj;fwgj;]g

155

uƞdfg] g lslť lj?Ţlt. nźx]t'kŝof lx wƙf lj?ŃÜd"nf ljo kfbkf ly/f xálƃ ;'ƍltlŪtf, Ot/] kg
ltnaLhsĕlb;]jfnf ljo g ;'ƍltlŪtf, Olt d"nŪ]g pksĕ/s]ĕlt ;'ƍltlŪtefj;fwg]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá x]t'kŝoált
j]lbtƑá.
lgŹ];] æx]t" x]t';ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ x]t'kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt j'ų+, tŴ ælrų;d'ŪfgfgÆlƃ
cjŷf æt+;d'ŪfgfgÆlƃ Ob+ clrų;d'Ūfgfglƕ ;śŲgŴ+. kŤfjf/Ƹƨ lx ækl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfstf x]t" ;ƕo'ųsĕg+
vƈfg+ sųf r ¿kfg+ x]t'kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt cfut+, sƨf kgfo+ x]t' kl;lƈod]j sųf¿kfg+ x]t'kŝo]g kŝoá xált
g kjų]ltĠ kl;lƈo+ sƙh¿kfg+ lrųklaźj'lųtfo, ejk&dlgkfttá lrųhĕlt. Ot/¿k;ƃltpƍŴƘfefj]g Pj
b'ƑnjŴ'+ lrųd]j lgƧfo pƍşlt r]j ltŪlt r. t+ lrųlƕ lx kl;lƈŋ±)ë sƙj]ulŋųtfo r]j ck'/]hĕtjŴ'stfo r
cƍltlŪt+, kkft] klttdųs]ĕ k'l/;á g lslť l;ƍ+ sĕt'+ ljo lrųh¿k+ hg]t'+ g ;Ŋþált, td]j sųf¿k+ lgƧfo
kltŪflt. kl;lƈlrųflg lx ¿k+ g hg]lƃ, sƙh¿kd]j kg t];+ lrų;d'Ūfg¿kŪfg] ltŪlt, kjlųo+ kg
klnź'kŴƘtfo t+ ¿k+ ljgflk sƙklaźfj kjlų, x]t'kŝoƧ kg]Ŵ s';nflbe]btá, e"lde]btá r ljef±uëf x]Ūf
j'ųgo]g]j j]lbtƑált co+ x]t'kŝo] goá.
ttá k/];' cf/ƙ)efj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá cf/ƙ)kŝoá, ;á lgŹ];] æ¿kfotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of»k]0 mþáŪƑfotg+
sĕoljţf)wft'of t+;ƕo'ųsĕgť
wƙfg+»k]0 ¿kfotg+ ;Źuƈ/;mþáŪƑfotg+ dgáwft'of»k]0 ;Ƒ]
wƙf
dgáljţf)wft'of»k]0 o+ o+ wƙ+ cf/ư o] o] wƙf pƍşlƃ lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf, t] t] wƙf t];+ t];+ wƙfg+ cf/ƙ)kŝo]g
kŝoáÆlt Pj+ lglŹŪųf g s]ĕlr wƙá g xált. oyf lx b'Ƒnk'l/;á bů+ jf /ş'+ jf cfnlƗŷf pŪxlt r]j ltŪlt r,
Pj+ lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf ¿kfbL;' %;' o+ lslť cfnlƗŷf pƍşlƃ r]j ltŪlƃ r, tƨf nálsonás'ų/flbe]bf ;Ƒ]lk wƙf
oyfoáu+ lrųr]tl;sĕg+ cf/ƙ)kŝoált j]lbtƑált co+ cf/ƙ)kŝo] goá.
h]ŪsŪ]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá clwkltkŝoá, ;á lgŹ];] æ%Ɔflwklt %Ɔ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+»k]0
jLl/olrųjLd+;flwklt»k]0 clwkltkŝo]g kŝoá, o+ o+ wƙ+ u?+ sŷf o] o] wƙf pƍşlƃ lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf, t] t] wƙf
t];+ t];+ wƙfg+ clwkltkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ lƀwf lglŹŪá. tŴ %Ɔfboá ;xhĕtflwkltefj]g j'ųf, u?sĕtƑ+
cf/ƙ)flwkltefj]g. tŴ r nálsos';ne"tá cf/ƙ)flwklt nálsos';nfgť]j náe;xutlrųfgť cf/ƙ)flwklt xált,
gfţƧ, cs';ne"tá kg náe;xutlrų'ƍfbált j'ŝlt
Ot/];' u?sĕtƑtfo cefjtá, ;á
lƀx]t'sĕx]t'sĕlbnálsoljkfs¿kŋƈe"tá
r náe;xutƧ]j, gfţƧ, tyf lsl/oe"tákLlt cŪsyfo+ cfut+, t+
`f);ƕo'ųlsl/ofg+ ;Ƒţ'tţf)fleţflbk'Ƒj;ƍjųfg+ sĕdfjr/s';n]lx u?sĕtƑefjƧflj/áwefjƧ bƧgtá jLd+l;tƑ+.
nás'ų/s';nflg kg sĕdfjr/`f);ƕo'ųhjgfgd]j
cf/ƙ)flwkltkŝof xálƃ, lgƑfg+ kg t];ţ]j
nás'ų/s';nljkfsĕgťflt j]lbtƑlƃ co+ clwkltkŝo] goá.
cgƃ/efj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá cgƃ/kŝoá, ;áj ;dgƃ/kŝoá, Ɠŧgdųd]j gfg+ æpkro;ƃtLÆltcfbL;'
ljo. olƕ æcŴfgƃ/tfo cgƃ/kŝoá, sĕnfgƃ/tfo ;dgƃ/kŝoáÆlt cfrl/ofg+ dt+, t+ ælg/áwf j'ŪxƃƧ
g]j;ţfgf;ţfotgs';n+ mþn;dfklųof ;dgƃ/kŝo]g kŝoáÆltcfbLlx lj?Ţlt, t+lgŹ];] ærŋ'ljţf)wft' t+;ƕo'ųsĕ r
wƙf dgáwft'of»k]0 sĕoljţf)wft'»k]0 dgáwft'»k]0 dgáljţf)wft'of»k]0 k'l/df k'l/df s';nf wƙf klŞdfg+
klŞdfg+ s';nfg+ wƙfg+»k]0 cƓfstfg+ wƙfg+»k]0 k'l/df k'l/df cs';nf wƙf klŞdfg+ klŞdfg+ cs';nfg+»k]0
cƓfstfg+»k]0 o];+ o];+ wƙfg+ cgƃ/f o] o] wƙf pƍşlƃ lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf, t] t] wƙf t];+ t];+ wƙfg+ cgƃ/kŝo]g
kŝoáÆlt Oldgf cgƃ/kŝolgŹ];;ds]ĕ Pj ;dgƃ/kŝoá lglŹŪá cţŶ gfdgfgfųflt co+ cgƃ/;dgƃ/kŝoƀo]
goá.
pƍşdfgáj ;x pƍşdfgefj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá ;xhĕtkŝoá, ;á lgŹ];] ærųf/á vƈf c¿lkgá cţdţ+
;xhĕtkŝo]g kŝoá, rųf/á dxfe"tf cţdţ+»k]0 cáŊþlƃŋ±)ë gfd¿k+ cţdţ+»k]0 lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf lrų;d'Ūfgfg+
¿kfg+»k]0 dxfe"tf pkfbf¿kfg+»k]0 ¿lkgá wƙf c¿kLg+ wƙfg+ lslťsĕn] ;xhĕtkŝo]g kŝoá, lslťsĕn]
g;xhĕtkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ %lƑ±wëf lglŹŪá. tŴ cţdţlƃ Oldgf t];+ wƙfg+ Psŋ±)ë kŝoefjť]j kŝo'ƍƉefjť
bLk]lt, kl;lƈŋ±)ë jŴ'¿k+ ¿k+ gfd. lrųr]tl;sĕlt kjlųo+ rųf/á vƈf, kl;lƈoƕLlt s]þlr tŴ sųf¿kfglƕ
lrų;d'Ūfg] kljŪųf. t];+ lx kl;lƈlrųr]tl;sĕ ;xhĕtkŝof xálƃo]j, tflg kg jŴ'lj/lxtflg ¿kflg kjlųo+
lrų;d'Ūfgfg+ ljo lrųr]tl;sĕg+ kŝoŴ+ g mþ/lƃ, tƨf æcţdţÆlƃ g j'ų+, tyf e"tfg+ pkfbf¿k+. Pj+ lx cuƞdfg]
kl;lƈo+ sųf¿kfg+ ;xhĕtf gfd lgƧotf g j'ųflt ;xhĕtkŝolgŹ];á ckl/k'Űá Pj l;of. lslťsĕn]lt Oblƕ
cáŊþlƃŋ±)ë xbojŴ'd]j ;ƈfo j'ųųf tltos]ĕŪf;d]j ehtLlt cŴtá co+ kŝoá kťlj±wëflt co+ ;xhĕtkŝo] goá.
cţdţ+ pƍfbg'kŴƘgefj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá cţdţkŝoá ltbůs+þ ljo. ;á lgŹ];] ærųf/á vƈf c¿lkgá
cţdţkŝo]g kŝoá, rųf/á dxfe"tf»k]0 cáŊþlƃŋ±)ë gfd¿k+ cţdţkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ ltwf lglŹŪált co+
cţdţkŝo] goá.
clwŪfgfsĕ/]g, lgƧofsĕ/]g r pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá lgƧokŝoá t?lrųsƙfbLg+ kyjLkfboá ljo, ;á lgŹ];]
;xhĕtkŝo] ljo %wfj lglŹŪá. %Ūá kg]Ŵ s]ĕŪf;á
ærŋĕotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of, ;át#fglhƢfsĕofotg+
sĕoljţf)wft'of»k]0 o+ ¿k+ lgƧfo dgáwft' r dgáljţf)wft' r jųlƃ, t+ ¿k+ dgáwft'of r dgáljţf)wft'of r
t+;ƕo'ųsĕgť wƙfg+ lgƧokŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ k'/]hĕtlgƧobƧgj;]g ljeųá, ;];+ tflb;d]j. tŴ ¿klƃ xbojŴ'.
pklgƧokŝoált PŴ kgfo+ jrgŴá _ tbwLgj'lųtfo cųgá mþn]g lglƧtá, gƍllŋųált lgƧoá, oyf kg
e';á cfof;á pkfof;á, Pj+ e';á lgƧoá pklgƧoá, anjsĕ/)Ƨ]t+ clwjrg+, tƨf anjsĕ/)efj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá
pklgƧokŝoált j]lbtƑá. ;á cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá cgƃ¿klgƧoá kst"klgƧoált ltlj±wëf xált. tŴ cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá tfj

156

cf/ƙ)flwkltgf ;Ƹź gfgų+ csŷf ljeųá. tŴ o+ cf/ƙ)+ u?+ sŷf lrųr]tl;sĕ pƍşlƃ, t+ lgodtá t];+ cf/ƙ±)ë;'
anjf/ƙ)+ xált, Olt u?sĕtƑdųŪ]g cf/ƙ)flwklt, anjsĕ/)Ū]g cf/ƙ)"klgƧoált Pjd]t];+ gfgų+ j]lbtƑ+.
cgƃ¿klgƧoálk cgƃ/kŝo]g gfgų+ csŷfj ljeųá, Pj+ ;ƃ]lk cųgá cųgá cgƃ/+ cg'¿kƧ lrų'ƍfbƧ
kjųg;dŴtfo cgƃ/tf, k'l/dlrųƧ klŞdlrų'ƍfbg] anjtfo cgƃ¿klgƧotf r j]lbtƑf. oyf lx x]t'kŝofbL;'
slť wƙ+ ljgflk lrų+ pƍşlt, g Pj+ cgƃ/lrų+ ljgf lrųƧ pƍlų gfd clŴ, tƨf anjkŝoá xált, Olt
anjsĕ/)Ū]g cgƃ/áj cgƃ¿klgƧoált Pjd]t];+ gfgų+ j]lbtƑ+.
kstá pklgƧoá kst"klgƧoá, kstá gfd cųgá ;ƃfg] pƍflbtá jf ;źf;Lnflbpk;]ljtá jf
pt'eáhgflbksltofo]j jf pklgƧoá kst"klgƧoá, Olt k¿klgƧo]g cldƧált cŴá. ;á r kst"klgƧoá æ;ź+
pklgƧfo bfg+ b]lt, ;Ln+ ;dflbolt, pká;ysƙ+ s/ált, ´fg+ pƍfb]lt¶ ljkƧg+, dƮ+, cleţ+, ;dfkƸų pƍfb]lt¶
;Ln+, ;'t+, rfu+, kţ+ pklgƧfo bfg+ b]lt»k]0 ;dfkƸų pƍfb]tLÆltcflbgf Od];+ ;źfbLg+ j;]g ax'wf ljeųá, Pj+
pklgƧokŝoá ltlj±wëf. lgŹ];] kgfo+ æk'l/df k'l/df s';nf wƙf klŞdfg+ klŞdfg+ s';nfg+ wƙfg+ »k]0 cs';nfg+
s]þ;lť»k]0 cƓfstfg+ wƙfg+»k]0 k'l/df k'l/df cs';nf wƙf klŞdfg+ klŞdfg+ cs';nfg+»k]0 s';nfg+ s]þ;lť»k]0
cƓfstfg+ wƙfg+»k]0 k'l/df k'l/df cƓfstf wƙf»k]0 cƓfstfg+, s';nfg+, cs';nfg+ pklgƧokŝo]g kŝoá, k'Ʈnálk
pklgƧokŝo]g kŝoá, ;]gf;gƕLÆlt Pj+ lglŹŪá. tŴ k'l/dflt cgƃ¿klgƧo] ;dgƃ/ftLtfj nưlƃ.
cf/ƙ)"klgƧokst"klgƧo];' kg gfgfljlwj;]g k'l/dt/fjflt toálk /f;L s';n]g s';nkb] nưlƃ.
s';n]g kgfs';n] ;dgƃ/ftLtf g nưlƃ, t]gfx æs]þ;ťLÆlt. Ob+ lx æs';ná wƙá cs';nƧ wƙƧ cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá
kst"klgƧoá, cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá kg bfg+ bŷf»k]0 t+ u?+ sŷf /f±uëf pƍşlt»k]0 kst"klgƧoá ;ź+ pklgƧfo dfg+
hƍ]tLÆltcflbgf kŤfjf/] cfut+ Od+ go+ ;ƈfo j'ų+.
cs';n]g s';nkb] lx ;dgƃ/ftLtf g nưlƃ, t]gfx æs]þ;ťLÆlt. Ob+ kg æcs';ná wƙá s';nƧ wƙƧ
kst"klgƧoá. /fu+ pklgƧfo bfg+ b]lt»k]0 kf)+ xƄf tƧ kl#ftŴfo bfg+ b]tLÆltcflbgf go]g kŤfjf/] cfut+
kst"klgƧod]j ;ƈfo j'ų+. oyf lx cs';n+ s';nƧ cgƃ¿klgƧoá g xált, tyf cf/ƙ)"klgƧoálk g xált. g lx t+
u?+ sŷf s';n+ kjųlt.
cs';n]g cƓfstkb] kg cf/ƙ)"klgƧoáj g nưlt. g lx t+ cƓfstf u?+ s/álƃ, cgƃ/f kgƧ xálƃ.
t]g]j]Ŵ æs]þ;ťLÆlt g j'ų+. ;];kb];'
toálk pklgƧof nưƃ]j. æk'Ʈnálk, ;]gf;gƕLÆlt Oblƕ ƀo+
kst"klgƧoj;]g]j]Ŵ j'ų+, pt'eáhgfboá r]Ŵ ;śx]tƑf. Odlƨť kŝo] Psŝfo kţlųof ;Ƹź ;Ƒ]lk rt'e"dsĕ wƙf
;ślxtflt j]lbtƑflt co+ pklgƧokŝo] goá.
k&dt/+ pƍlşŷf jųdfgefj]g pksĕ/sĕ ¿kwƙf k'/]hĕtkŝoá, ;á k;fbtlƑ;oxbojŴ'j;]g Psĕb;lj±wëf.
lgŹ];] r ærŋĕotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of t+;ƕo'ųsĕgť wƙfg+ k'/]hĕtkŝo]g kŝoá»k]0 sĕofotg+ sĕoljţf)wft'of »k]0
¿kfotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of»k]0 mþáŪƑfotg+ sĕoljţf)wft'of»k]0 ¿kfotg+ ;Źuƈ/;mþáŪƑfotg+ dgáwft'of»k]0 o+
¿k+ lgƧfo»k]0 t+ ¿k+ dgáwft'of r dgáljţf)wft'of r lslťsĕn] k'/]hĕtkŝo]g kŝoá, lslťsĕn] g k'/]hĕtkŝo]g
kŝoáÆlt Pj+ ;Ƒyflk kťƀf/] jŴf/ƙ)j;]g, dgáƀf/] jŴ'j;]g]j rfo+ lglŹŪá. kŤfjf/] kg cf/ƙ)k'/]hĕt+ æc/xf
rŋ'+ clgŝtá b'ŋtá cgųtá ljkƧtLÆlt cfutųf dgáƀf/]lk cŪf/;Ɖ+ ¿kfg+ j;]g cf/ƙ)k'/]hĕtlƕ nưt]jflt co+
k'/]hĕtkŝo] goá.
k'/]hĕtfg+ ¿kwƙfg+ pkŴƘsŪ]g pksĕ/s]ĕ c¿kwƙá kŞfhĕtkŝoá luŢkáts;/L/fg+ cfxf/f;f r]tgf ljo.
lgŹ];]lk rƧ ækŞfhĕtf lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf k'/]hĕtƧ OdƧ sĕoƧ kŞfhĕtkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ j'ų+. tŴ OdƧ sĕoƧflt
rt';d'Ūflgslt;d'Ūflgse"t'kfbfo¿ksĕoƧ. wƙtá rfo+ &k]ŷf kl;lƈljkfs]þ cf?ƍljkfs]þ cj;];f ;Ƒ] rt'e"dsĕ
c¿kwƙflt j]lbtƑflt co+ kŞfhĕtkŝo] goá.
cf;]jgŪ]g cgƃ/fg+ ku')anjefj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá cf;]jgkŝoá uƅflbk'l/dfleoá±uëf ljo. ;á
s';nfs';nlsl/ohjgj;]g ltlj±wëf. lgŹ];] kgƧ æk'l/df k'l/df s';nf wƙf klŞdfg+ klŞdfg+ s';nfg+ wƙfg+»k]0
cs';nfg+ wƙfg+»k]0 lsl/ofƓfstfg+ wƙfg+ cf;]jgkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt lglŹŪá. tŴ k'l/df k'l/dflt ;ƑŴ
;dgƃ/ftLtfj bŪƑf, tŴflk
s';nfboá
cƓfstfbLg+ leƉhĕltsĕg+ ;dgƃ/fglƕ jf;gf;řft]g cf;]jg]g
ku')t/anjefjljl;Ū+ cųgá s';nflbefj;řftuƸt ufxfk]t'+ c;dŴtfo cf;]jgkŝof g xálƃ, e"ldtá, kg cf/ƙ)tá
r leƉflk sĕdfjr/ltx]t'ss';nlsl/of cųgf ;lb;j]bgfgd]j dxƮtnás'ų/s';nlsl/ofglƕ, ;řf/f/ƙ)ť cg'náds';n+
lgƑfgf/ƙ)Ƨ ±uëfŶe's';nƧ cf;]jgkŝof xálƃo]j. nás'ų/á kg cf;]jgkŝoá glŴ, tyf ljkfs]ĕ sƙkl/)fldtųflt
co+ cf;]jgkŝo] goá.
lrųƍoáu;řft]g lsl/oefj]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá sƙkŝoá. ;á gfgŋl)sĕo s';nfs';nr]tgfo r]j ;xhĕtfo r
;Ƒfolk r]tgfo j;]g b'lj±wëf xált. lgŹ];]lk rƧ æs';nfs';n+ sƙ+ ljkfsĕg+ vƈfg+ sųf r ¿kfg+»k]0 r]tgf
;ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ sƙkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt lƀwfj j'ųá. tŴ sƙlƃ r]tgfsƙd]j. sųf r ¿kfglƃ
sƙƧ sųf pklrtųf lgƎþflbtųf pƍƉfg+ sƙhĕg+ ¿kfg+ sųf Pj, sƙlƕ sĕnƃ/]o]j cj;];kŝo;dfoá±uë ;lt cųgá
mþn+ pƍfb]lt, g t' ljgŪųf l&tųf t+ jf l&t+ kg sƙ+ g hg]lt. Pj+ t+;d'Ūfglƃ Oldgf kl;lƈo+ sųf¿kƮx)+
bŪƑlƃ co+ sƙkŝo] goá.
lg?Ƨfx;ƃefj]g lg?Ƨfx;ƃefjfo pksĕ/s]ĕ ljkfswƙá ljkfskŝoá.
;á kjų] lrų;d'Ūfgfg+,
kl;lƈŋ±)ë sųf¿kfg+, ;ƑŴ r ;ƕo'ųwƙfg+ kŝoá xált. oyfx ;ƑkŤfjf/] _ æljkfsĕƓfstá Ps]ĕ vƈá ltŰƉ+
vƈfg+ lrų;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ kl;lƈŋ±)ë»k]0 sųf r ¿kfg+ ljkfskŝo]g kŝoáÆltcflb. lgŹ];] kgƧ æljkfsĕ

157

rųf/á vƈf c¿lkgá cţdţ+ ljkfskŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pųsd]j j'ų+. t+ kŤfjf/] j'ųljwfg+ ;ƈfo ;fj;];+ j'ųlƃ co+
ljkfskŝo] goá.
¿kf¿kfg+ pkŴƘsŪ]g pksĕ/sĕ rųf/á cfxf/f cfxf/kŝoá. lgŹ];] kg æsańLsĕ/á cfxf/á OdƧ
sĕoƧ»k]0 c¿lkgá cfxf/f ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ cfxf/kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ lglŹŪá. tŴ
rt';d'Ūfgd'kutf cáhĕ sańLsĕ/á cfxf/á gfd. ;á oƨf cfxf¿k;]jLgţ]j cŢáxfxf/pt'hĕxf¿kŴźá Pj r
sƙhĕlbcfxf/á OdƧ sĕoƧ l&ltof kjųlt, g cţyf, tƨf sańLsĕtƑpt'hjŴ';lƉlƧttfbƧgŴ+ sańLsĕ/á cfxf/ált
j'ųá. lsťflk rfo+ æOdƧ sĕoƧfÆlt clj;];]g j'ųá, lj;];tá kg cfxf/h¿kƧ hgs]ĕ r]j cg'kfns]ĕ r x'ŷf
;];lt;ƃlt;d'Ūfg¿kƧ cg'kfns]ĕ Pj x'ŷf cfxf/kŝoá xált. t+;d'Ūfgfglƃ Oldgf kl;lƈo+ sƙ;d'Ūfgflg
ulxtfg]j. kŤfjf/] lx ækl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfstf cfxf/f ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ sųf r ¿kfg+ cfxf/kŝo]g kŝoáÆlt
j'ųlƃ co+ cfxf/kŝo] goá.
clwkltoŪ]g pksĕ/sĕ OlŴlƇok'l/l;lƇojşĕ jL;lt OlƇof OlƇokŝoá. OlŴlƇok'l/l;lƇoflg lx lsťflk
OlŴk'l/;lnśfsƍfbLg+ aLhe"tflg, g]j kg t];+, g cţ];+ OlƇoflbkŝot+ mþ/lƃ. ;'ųlƃskl/ofo]g kg
t];+
kst"klgƧoefj+ mþ/ƃLlt afjL;t]j OlƇoflg. tŴ rŋ'lƇofboá kť c¿kwƙfgd]j OlƇokŝoá, ¿khËljltlƇo+
sųf¿kfgd]j, ;];f ¿kf¿kfg+. lgŹ];] ærŋ'lƇo+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of t+;ƕo'ųsĕgť wƙfg+»k]0 sĕoljţf)wft'of»k]0
¿khËljltlƇo+ sųf¿kfg+, c¿lkgá OlƇof ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ OlƇokŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ lglŹŪá.
t+;d'Ūfgfglƃ PŴflk sųf¿klƕ ;ślxt+. kŤfjf/] lx ækl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfstf OlƇof ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ sųf r
¿kfgÆlƃ j'ųlƃ co+ OlƇokŝo] goá.
pklgŢĕogŪ]g pksĕ/sĕlg &k]ŷf lƀkťljţf±)ë;' j]bgfųo+, PsƮtť ;];flg s';nflbe]bflg ;ų ´fgśflg
´fgkŝoá. lƀkťljţf)fg+ lx clelgkftdųųf t];' j]bg]sƮtf pklgŢĕogfsĕ/Ƨ cefj]g ´fgś];' g pźf, lgŹ];] kgƧ
æ´fgśflg ´fg;ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ ´fgkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt lglŹŪá. Owflk t+;d'Ūfgfglƃ Oldgf r
sųf¿klƕ ulxt+. kŤfjf/]lx ækl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfstflg ´fgśflg ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ sųf r ¿kfgÆlƃ j'ųlƃ co+
´fgkŝo] goá.
otá ttá jf lgƜfgŪ]g pksĕ/sĕlg s';nflbe]bflg ƀfb; dƮśflg dƮkŝoá. lgŹ];] kg ædƮśflg
dƮ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ dƮkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt lglŹŪá. PŴflk t+;d'Ūfgfglƃ Oldgf sųf¿kƮx)+.
kŤfjf/] lx ækl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfstflg dƮśflg ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ sųf r ¿kfgÆlƃ j'ų+, cx]t'slrų];' r]Ŵ
ljşdfgflg dƮśflg dƮkŝof g xálƃ. co+ dƮkŝo] goá.
PsjŴ'sPsĕ/ƙ)Ps'ƍfbPslg/áw;řft]g ;ƕo'ųefj]g pksĕ/sĕ c¿lkgá wƙf ;ƕo'ųkŝoá. lgŹ];] kg
ærųf/á vƈf c¿lkgá wƙf cţdţ+ ;ƕo'ųkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt lglŹŪált co+ ;ƕo'ųkŝo] goá.
PsjŴ'sĕlbefjfg'kud]g pksĕ/sĕ ¿lkgá wƙf c¿kLg+, c¿lkgá wƙf
¿kLg+ ljƍo'ųkŝoá, ;á
;xhĕtk'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtj;]g ltlj±wëf xált. j'ų+ x]t+ æ;xhĕtf s';nf vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgfg+ ¿kfg+»k]0 kŞfhĕtf s';nf vƈf
k'/]hĕtƧ OdƧ sĕoƧ ljƍo'ųkŝo]g kŝoáÆltcflb. k'/]hĕt+ kg %jŴ'j;]g]j j]lbtƑ+. lgŹ];] kgƧ æ¿lkgá wƙf
c¿kLg+»k]0 c¿lkgá wƙf ¿kLg+ wƙfg+ ljƍo'ųkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ ;fdţtá lglŹŪá. tŴ ¿lkgált Ob+ %jŴ"g+
j;]g j'ų+, ¿kfboá kg cf/ƙ)wƙf ;ƕoáuf;Řfofefj]g ljƍo'ųkŝof g j'ųf. rŋĕbLg+ lx jŴ"g+ cưƃ/tá c¿kwƙf
lgŋdƃf
ljo pƍşlƃ, tŴ ;ƕoáuf;Řf xált. kŤfjf/]lk lx æjŴ' s';nfg+
vƈfg+»k]0 rŋĕotg+
rŋ'ljţf)wft'ofÆltcflbgf % jŴ"g]j pźflg, c¿lkgá wƙf ¿kLglƃ PŴflk lgƑfg+ c¿klƕ ;dfg+ ¿kƧ ljƍo'ųkŝoá
g xált ;Ƒyf ;ƕoáuf;Řfefjtá, ært"lx ;ƕoá±uëf rt"lx ljƍoá±uëfÆlt ‘wft'03’ lx j'ųlƃ co+ ljƍo'ųkŝo] goá.
kŝ'ƍƉnŋ±)ëg clŴefj]g tflb;Ƨ]j wƙƧ pkŴƘsŪ]g pksĕ/s]ĕ wƙá clŴkŝoá, ;á lgŹ];] ærųf/á vƈf
c¿lkgá cţdţ+»k]0 rųf/á dxfe"tf cţdţ+, cáŊþlƃŋ±)ë gfd¿k+ cţdţ+, lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf lrų;d'Ūfgfg+ ¿kfg+,
dxfe"tf pkfbf¿kfg+, rŋĕotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of»k]0
¿kfotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of t+;ƕo'ųsĕgť wƙfg+»k]0
¿kfotg+»k]0 mþáŪƑfotg+ dgáwft'of»k]0 dgáwft'of r dgáljţf)wft'of r t+;ƕo'ųsĕgť wƙfg+ clŴkŝo]g
kŝoáÆlt Pj+ ;xhĕtk'/]hĕtj;]g r ax'wf lglŹŪá, kŤfjf/] kg æ;xhĕt+ k'/]hĕt+ kŞfhĕt+ cfxf/+ OlƇoÆlƃ Od];+
kťƉlƕ j;]g cfutųf kŞfhĕtsańLsĕ/cfxf/¿khËljltlƇofg+ j;]gflk clŴkŝoá ux]tƑájflt co+ clŴkŝo] goá.
cųgá cgƃ/+ pƍşdfgfg+ c¿kwƙfg+ kjlųcásĕ;bfgj;]g pksĕ/sĕ ;dgƃ/lg?źf c¿kwƙf glŴkŝoá,
lgŹ];] kg æ;dgƃ/lg?źf lrųr]tl;sĕ wƙf k'ƍƉfg+ lrųr]tl;sĕg+ wƙfg+ glŴkŝo]g kŝoáÆlt Pj+ ;fdţtáj
lglŹŪá. ;Ƒyf cgƃ/kŝo;lb;tfo tŴ lglŹŪgo]g]j]Ŵ lj;];á `ftƑált co+ glŴkŝo] goá.
glŴkŝowƙfj ljutefj]g pksĕ/sųf ljutkŝoált ;x lgŹ];]g glŴkŝo;lb;ájflt.
cljutkŝoálk ;Ƒyf clŴkŝo;lb;áj, b];gfljnf;]g, j]g]Ɯj;]g jf co+ b's]ĕ j'ųált co+ cljutkŝo]
goá.

klsŰsljlgŞoá
Od];' kg rt'jL;ltof kŝo];' `f)rf/Ƨ lj;befjŴ+ _
wƙtá sĕntá r]j, PsƧfg]skŝof.
cg]s]þ;ť wƙfg+, PskŝoefjtáĶ
158

;efuf lj;efuf r, o'uńf hgsĕlbtá.
;ƑŪfgflbe]bf r, ¿kf¿kljsƍtá.
ejtá ;śxf `]Ɯá, klsŰsljlgŞoáĶ
tŴ wƙtált Od];' lx kŝo];' x]t'kŝoá tfj gfd¿kwƙ];' gfdwƙ]sb];á, tyf ;xhĕtflwkltsƙ´fgdƮkŝof,
tyf cf;]jgljkfskŝof, rt'ŋƈ;ślxtflk ljkfswƙf cgƃ/;dgƃ/kŞfhĕt;ƕo'ųglŴljutkŝof. lgƑfgƧ c;śxtá
gfd]sb];áltlk
jų'+ jũlt. k'/]hĕtkŝoá ¿kwƙáj, ;];f oyfnfej;]g gfd¿kwƙf. tŴ
r
cf/ƙ)flwkltcf/ƙ)"klgƧokst"klgƧo];' kţlųlk ;ślxtflt co+ wƙtá ljlgŞoá.
sĕntá kg x]t';xhĕtcţdţlgƧok'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtljkfscfxf/OlƇo´fgdƮ;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųclŴcljutkŝof kƉ/;
kŝ'ƍƉfj x'ŷf cųgá mþnƧ kŝof xálƃ, cgƃ/;dgƃ/cf;]jgglŴljutkŝof kť ctLtf Pj x'ŷf, sƙkŝoá kg]s]ĕ
kŝ'ƍƉálk ctLtálk x'ŷf, ;];f cf/ƙ)clwkltpklgƧokŝof toálk t]sĕlnsĕlk, lgƑfgkţlųj;]g sĕnljd'ųflk x'ŷf
cųgá mþnƧ kŝof xáƃLlt co+ sĕntá ljlgŞoá.
PsƧfg]skŝoflt PswƙƧ, PskŝoƧ r cg]skŝoefjtá. sy+Ġ x]t'kŝo] tfj cdáxá Ps]ĕ wƙá, ;á
k'/]hĕtsƙcfxf/´fgjşĕg+ jL;ltof kŝofg+
j;]g cg]skŝoá xált, x]t'kŝoų+ cljhxƃáj
clwklt;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoljkflslƇodƮ;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųclŴcljutfg+ cţ];+ Psĕb;Ɖ+ j;]g jf cg]skŝoá xált tyf
cnáefboá, t];' kg cnáefbá;f OlƇodƮkŝof g xálƃ, t] toá cljkfse"tf náebá;dáxf ljkfskŝoflk g xálƃ, t]
kg cdáxjlştf kť clwkltkŝof g xálƃ, tyf ;];flk cljkfse"tf.
cf/ƙ)kŝo] ¿kfotg+ rŋ'ljţf)wft'of cf/ƙ)k'/]hĕtclŴcljutfg+ rt'Ɖ+ j;]g cg]skŝoá xált, tyf
dgáwft'of, cx]t'sdgáljţf)wft'of r. ;x]t'sĕo kg cf/ƙ)flwkltcf/ƙ)"klgƧofglƕ j;]g, ;ŹfbL;'lk P;]j goá.
wƙfotg+
kg lgƧoljƍo'ųfg+ j;]gflk cg]skŝoá xált, tyf cf/ƙ)kŝoų+ cljhxƃáj
cf/ƙ)flwkltlgƧopklgƧok'/]hĕtljƍo'ųclŴcljutfg+ j;]g ck/];lƕ ;ųƉ+ j;]g cg]skŝoá xátLlt cod]Ŵ
pŊþŪkl/Ş]bá. tŴ c¿kfg+ kg ¿kfg+ jf ctLtfgfutfg+ cf/ƙ)kŝoefj] ;lt cf/ƙ)flwkltpklgƧodųd]j pųl/
nưlt.
clwkltkŝo] cf/ƙ)flwklt j'ųgoáj. ;xhĕtflwktL;' lrų+ x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙ´fgdƮjşĕg+ Ps"þgjL;ltof
kŝofg+
j;]g
cg]skŝoá
xált,
clwkltkŝoų+
cljhxƃá
ck/];+
;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoljkfsĕxfl/lƇo;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųclŴcljutfg+ b;Ɖ+ j;]g]j,
tyf jLl/o+ cfxf/kŝojşĕg+
dƮkŝo;lxtfg+ j;]g, %Ɔá cfxfl/lƇojşĕg+ j;]g cg]skŝoá xált, jLd+;f x]t'kŝo] j'ųgofj.
cgƃ/kŝo] rt";' vƈ];' j]bgfŋƈá tfj x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙfxf/dƮkŝojşĕg+ Ps"þgjL;ltof j;]g ;ţfŋƈá t];'
OlƇo´fgjşĕg+ ;ų/;Ɖ+ j;]g, ;řf/ŋƈá x]t'k'/]hĕtslƙlƇo´fgdƮjşĕg+ cŪf/;Ɖ+ j;]g, tyf r]tgf sƙ;lxtfg+,
ljtŊþá x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙcfxfl/lƇojşĕg+ ´fgdƮ;lxtfg+,
ljrf/á, kLlt r cfgƃl/ofg+ dƮjşĕg+, PsƮtf
x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙfxf/jşĕg+ jL;ltof kŝofg+ j;]g, ;źf, hËljltlƇoť cgƃ/fg+ x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙfxf/´fgdƮjşĕg+ cŪf/;Ɖ+,
;lt dƮ;lxtfg+ Ps"þgjL;ltof, lxl/cáųƍsĕokƧźflb%o'uf, o]jfkgs]þ;' clwdáŋdgl;sĕ/tŶdŢųtf, s?)fd'lbtf r
x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙfxf/´fgdlƮlƇojşĕg+ ;ų/;Ɖ+, lj/ltoá kg dƮ;lxtfg+ cŪf/;Ɖ+, ldŞflblŪ ttá ljkfsjşĕg+ ;ų/;Ɖ+
j;]g, ldŞfjfrfsƙƃfhËjf t]lx r]j sƙfxf/kŝo]lx rflt Ps"þgjL;ltof kŝofg+ j;]g, clxl/s+þ cgáųƍ+ dfgá lyg+ ldź+
pźŝlƃ Od] x]t'k'/]hĕtsƙljkfsĕxfl/lƇo´fgdƮjşĕg+ ;áń;Ɖ+, ljlrlsŞf OƧfdŞl/os'Ŋ'þŝflg ttá clwkltjşĕg+ kƉ/;Ɖ+
j;]g cg]skŝof xálƃ. cgƃ/kŝoų+ cljhxƃfg+ kg]t];+ ;dgƃ/pklgƧosƙglŴljutfg+ ck/];+ %Ɖ+ j;]g r.
ljţf)ŋƈƧ clwkltkŝo]g]j cg]skŝoefjá j]lbtƑá.
;xhĕtkŝo] dxfe"tflg cf/ƙ)cf/ƙ)flwklt;xhĕtcţdţlgƧopklgƧok'/]hĕtclŴcljutfg+ gjƉ+, xbojŴ'
t];ţ]j
ljƍo'ų;lxtfg+
j;]g.
lgƧokŝo]
rŋĕotgfbLlg
cf/ƙ)cf/ƙ)flwkltlgƧopklgƧok'/]hĕtOlƇoljƍo'ųclŴcljutfg+ gjƉ+ j;]g. k'/]hĕtkŝo] ¿k;Źuƈ/;fotgfbLlg
cf/ƙ)cf/ƙ)flwkltpklgƧok'/]hĕtclŴcljutfg+
%Ɖ+
j;]g.
cfxf/kŝo]
cáhĕ
cf/ƙ)cf/ƙ)flwkltpklgƧofxf/clŴcljutfg+ %Ɖ+ kŝofg+ j;]g cg]swf kŝoá xált. t+t+kŝoų+ cljhxƃfg+ t];+
t];+ ;ƑŴ cf/ƙ)flwkltcgƃ/;dgƃ¿klgƧoflbkŝotf j'ųgo]g j]lbtƑf. ;];+ ;'ljţ]Ɯd]jflt co+ PsƧfg]skŝotá
ljlgŞoá.
cg]s]þ;ť wƙfg+, Pskŝoefjtált Pt];' lx &k]ŷf sƙkŝo+ ;];];' t]jL;ltof kŝo];' cg]s]þ cg]s]þ;+ wƙfg+
Pstá Ps]þs+þ kŝof xálƃ. sƙkŝoá kg r]tgf Pswƙájflt co+ cg]swƙfg+ Pskŝoefjtá ljlgŞoá.
;efuf lj;efuf rflt Pt];' lx cgƃ/;dgƃ/cgƃ¿klgƧof;]jgglŴljutkŝof
;efuf, tyf
cf/ƙ)cf/ƙ)flwkltcf/ƙ)"klgƧof. k'/]hĕtkŝoá kg]Ŵ kŞfhĕt]g lj;ef±uëf, tyf ;ƕo'ųá ljƍo'ų]g, clŴ glŴgf,
ljutá cljut]gflt co+ ;efulj;efutá ljlgŞoá.
o'uńflt PŴ cŴ;l/ŋtfo ;Ź;l/ŋtfo sĕnklkŋtfo x]t'mþntfo cţdţklkŋtfoflt Od]lx sĕ/±)ëlx
o'uń+ j]lbtƑ+. cgƃ/;dgƃ/f lx cŴ;l/ŋtfo Ps+þ o'uń+ gfd. lgƧo"klgƧof ;Ź;l/ŋtfo, k'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtf
sĕnklkŋtfo, sƙljkfsĕ
x]t'mþntfo, ;ƕo'ųljƍo'ųf cţdţklkŋtfo Ps+þ o'uń+, tyf clŴglŴkŝof,
ljutcljutkŝoflt co+ o'uńtá ljlgŞoá.
hgsĕlbtált hgs]ĕkŴƘstá. Pt];' lx cgƃ/;dgƃ¿klgƧokst"klgƧof;]jgkŝof, gfgŋl)s]ĕ sƙkŝoá,
glŴljutkŝof rflt Od] hgsĕ Pj, g pkŴƘsĕ. kŞfhĕtkŝoá pkŴƘs]ĕ Pj, g hgs]ĕ. ;];f hgsĕ r]j pkŴƘsĕ
159

rflt co+ hgsĕlbtá ljlgŞoá.
;ƑŪfgflbe]bflt ;ƑŪflgsc;ƑŪflgse]btá. Pt];' lx ;xhĕtlgƧoclŴcljutkŝof ;ƑŪflgsĕ. ;Ƒ];'
kŝo'ƍƉ];' OlŞtƑf. Pt]lx ljgf pƍşdfgá Pswƙálk
glŴ. ;];f c;ƑŪflgsĕ. tŴ r
cf/ƙ)cf/ƙ)flwkltcgƃ/;dgƃ/fgƃ¿klgƧokst"klgƧok'/]hĕtf;]jg;ƕo'ų
clŴglŴljutkŝof c¿kwƙfgţ]j
sĕ/)tá c;ƑŪflgsĕ. tyf kŞfhĕtkŝoá ¿kfgţ]j sĕ/)tá, ;];f Psŝfg+ ¿kf¿kwƙfg+ sĕ/)tá c;ƑŪflgsĕ. co+
;ƑŪfgflbe]btá ljlgŞoá.
¿kf¿kljsƍtált ¿k+ ¿kƧ, ¿k+ c¿kƧfltcflb ljsƍtá. Pt];' lx Ps]ĕlk kŝoá ¿kd]j x'ŷf ¿kƧ]j
kŝoá ejƃá gfd glŴ, ¿kd]j kg c¿kƧ]j clŴ, ;á k'/]hĕtkŝoá Ps]ĕ Pj. ¿kd]j x'ŷf ¿kf¿kƧ]j kŝoá gfdfltlk
glŴ, c¿kd]j x'ŷf c¿kƧ]j kŝoálk clŴ, ;á cgƃ/;dgƃ/cf;]jg;ƕo'ųglŴljutj;]g %lƑ±wëf. c¿kd]j kg
¿kƧ]j kŝoálk clŴ, ;á kŞfhĕtkŝoá Ps]ĕ Pj. c¿kd]j x'ŷf ¿kf¿kfglƕ clŴ, ;á x]t'sƙljkfs´fgdƮj;]g
kťlj±wëf. ¿kf¿kkţlų x'ŷf c¿kƧ]j kŝoálk clŴ, ;á cf/ƙ)pklgƧoj;]g b'lj±wëf. ¿kf¿k+ kg ¿kf¿kƧflk
clŴ, ;á clwklt;xhĕtcţdţlgƧofxfl/lƇoljƍo'ųclŴcljutj;]g gjlj±wëflt co+ ¿kf¿kljsƍtá ljlgŞoá.
ejtált Od];' lx kŝo];' kťjásĕ/ej] tfj g s]ĕlr kŝoá g nưlt gfd, ;Ƒ]lk nưlƃ. rt'jásĕ/ej] kg
k'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtljƍo'ųkŝo]
ckg]ŷf ;];f PsjL;ltd]j. Psjásĕ/ej] ;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoslƙlƇoclŴcljutj;]g
;ų]j. aflx/] kg clglƇoaź¿k] t];' slƙlƇojşĕ kť]j nưƃLlt co+ ejtá ljlgŞoá.
;śxflt ;Ƒ]lk lx Od] rt'jL;lt kŝof cf/ƙ);xhĕtpklgƧok'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtsƙfxfl/lƇo];' cŪ;' r kŝo];'
;śx+ uŞlƃ. sy+Ġ t];' lx x]t'cţdţljkfs´fgdƮ;ƕo'ųkŝof
% ;xhĕtkŝo] ;śx+ uŞlƃ.
cgƃ/;dgƃ/f;]jgglŴljutkŝof kť cgƃ¿klgƧo] pklgƧokŝo]. lgƧokŝoá ;xhĕtk'/]hĕte]btá b'lj±wëf. tŴ
;xhĕtá ;xhĕtkŝo], k'/]hĕtá k'/]hĕtkŝo]. clwkltkŝoálk cf/ƙ)e"tá cf/ƙ)"klgƧo], ;xhĕte"tá ;xhĕtkŝo].
ljƍo'ųkŝoálk
;xhĕtk'/]hĕtkŞfhĕte"ttfo


;śx+
uŞlt.
clŴcljutkŝoflk
;xhĕtk'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtfxfl/lƇoe"ttfo tŴ tŴ kŝo];' ;śx+ uŞlƃ. Pj+ Od];' kŝo];' ;Ƒkŝofg+ ;śxá j]lbtƑá.
t]g]j ltskŪfgkflńo+ kŝgLogo] Od];+ cŪƉ+ kŝofg+ j;]g]j sltkokŤf ljƧlştf. Od];+ kg cŪƉlƕ cţdţ;śxálk
clŴo]j. t];' lx cf/ƙ)kŝoá clwklte"tá pklgƧo] cglwklte"tá g sŴrLlt cf/ƙ)kŝoá x'ŷf lj;'ţ]j ltŪlt.
sƙkŝoálk ;xhĕtá ;xhĕt]. gfgŋl)s]ĕ kg anjf ljkfswƙfg+ pklgƧoá xátLlt pklgƧokŝo] ;śx+ uŞlt.
anjflk kg sƙh¿kfg+, b'Ƒná c¿kfg+ gfgŋl)ssƙkŝoá x'ŷf lj;'ţ]j ltŪlt. cfxf/kŝoálk c¿ke"tá ;xhĕt],
¿ke"tá g sŴrLlt lj;'ţ]j ltŪlt, OlƇokŝoálk c¿ke"tá ;xhĕt], k;flblƇof k'/]hĕt], ¿khËljltlƇo+ g sŴlr ;śx+
uŞtLlt OlƇokŝoá x'ŷf lj;'ţ]j ltŪtLlt Pjd]j+ cţdţ;śxálk cŴ]j. ;Ƒ]lk kg]t] rt'jL;lt kŝof
cf/ƙ)pklgƧosƙclŴkŝo];' rt";'lk ;śx+ uŞƃLlt co+ ;śxtá ljlgŞoá. co+ cg'ųfgkbŴ;lxtá ;ř]kŴljlgŞoá.
klsŰsljlgŞoá lglŪtá.
ljeśgo] kg]Ŵ kflńjjŴfg+ tfj ;ř]ktá Pj+ j]lbtƑ+. kŪfgkflńo+ lx æx]t'kŝoá»k]0 cljutkŝoáÆlt
kŝokbflg dfltsĕj;]g lglŋlkŷf t];+ kŝofg+ _ æx]t" x]t';ƕo'ųsĕg+ wƙfg+ t+;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+ x]t'kŝo]g
kŝoáÆltcflbgf go]g kŝoefhgLo;řftá lgŹ];jf/á k&d+ j'ųá. ;álk r cgƃ/;ř]kŴljlgŞoá tŴ tŴ blƧtá Pj.
tbgƃ/+ t];+ rt'jL;ltof kŝofg+ s';nlųsĕboá ƀfjL;ltlts]þ, x]t'b'sĕboá ;t+ b's]þ r lgƧfo gfgfgotá ljehgj;]g
rt'jL;lt;dƃkŪfg;dáwfg+ cgƃgo;dƃkŪfg+ ljeų+. sy+Ġ rt'lƑw+ lx kŪfg+ _ cg'nádkŪfg+, kŝgLskŪfg+,
cg'nádkŝgLskŪfg+, kŝgLsĕg'nádkŪfglƃ. tŴ æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf, æx]t'+
wƙ+ klŝ x]t'wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf s';nfbLg+, x]t'cfbLgť wƙfg+ cg'nádj;]g kjų+ cg'nádkŪfg+ gfd.
ægs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof»k]0 gx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t'wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf
s';nfbLg+, x]t'cfbLgť wƙfg+ kŝgLsj;]g kjų+ kŝgLskŪfg+ gfd. æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná wƙá pƍşlt
x]t'kŝof»k]0 x]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t'wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf kjų+ cg'nádkŝgLskŪfg+ gfd ægs';n+ wƙ+
klŝ s';ná wƙá»k]0 gx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ x]t'wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf kjų+ kŝgLsĕg'nádkŪfg+ gfd.
Pjd]t];' rt";' kŪfg];' o+ wƙ+ cg'nádkŪfg+ gfd, t+ tfj %lƑw+ xált _ ltskŪfg+ b'skŪfg+ b'sltskŪfg+
ltsb'skŪfg+ ltsltskŪfg+ b'sb'skŪfglƃ.
oyf r]t+, Pj+ kŝgLskŪfgfbLlglk tLl) tLl) kŝ]slƃ
rt'jL;lt;dƃkŪfg;dáwfg+ kŪfgƍs/)+ j]lbtƑ+. ;ƙf;Ɨ'ź]g lx cg'nádkŪfg] ƀfjL;ltlts]þ lgƧfo ltskŪfg+ gfd
lglŹŪ+. ;t+ b's]þ lgƧfo b'skŪfg+ gfd. ttá lts]þ b's]þ;' klŋlkŷf b'sltskŪfg+ gfd. ttá b's]þ lts]þ;' klŋlkŷf
ltsb'skŪfg+ gfd. lts]þ kg lts]þ;'o]j klŋlkŷf ltsltskŪfg+ gfd. b's]þ r b's]þ;' Pj klŋlkŷf b'sb'skŪfg+ gfd
lglŹŪ+. k&d+
tfj]Ŵ cg'nádkŪfg] ltskŪfggoá lglŹŪá. Pj+ kŝgLskŪfg], cg'nádkŝgLskŪfg],
kŝgLsĕg'nádkŪfg]lt rt'jL;lt;dƃkŪfg+ b]l;t+.
PŴ r b'ljw+ cg'nád+, kŝgLsť wƙfg'nád+ wƙkŝgLs+þ, kŝofg'nád+ kŝokŝgLslƃ. tŴ æs';n+ wƙ+
klŝ s';ná wƙáÆltcflbgf s';nfbLg+ ltswƙfg+, x]t'cfbLg+ b'swƙfgť cg'nádb];gfj;]g wƙfg'nád+ j]lbtƑ+.
ægs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná wƙáÆltcflbgf ltsb'swƙfg+
kŝgLsj;]g wƙkŝgLs+þ j]lbtƑ+. æx]t'kŝof
cf/ƙ)kŝofÆlt Pj+ rt'jL;ltof kŝofg+ cg'nádb];gfj;]g kŝofg'nád+ j]lbtƑ+. ægx]t'kŝof gf/ƙ)kŝofÆlt Pj+
kŝofg+ kŝgLsj;]g kŝokŝgLsť j]lbtƑ+. tŶ olbb+ wƙfg'nád+ wƙkŝgLsť, tƧ j;]g rt'jL;lt;dƃkŪfg+
j]lbtƑ+. kŝofg'nád+ kŝokŝgLsť cg'nádltskŪfgfbL;' rt'jL;ltof kŪfg];' Ps]þsltsb's]þ;' Pj+ nưlt. tť pkl/
160

kflńgobƧg] Pj kfs+ eljƧlt. tlŶdflg rt'jL;lt kŪfgflg Od];+ ltsb'sĕg+ j;]g lglŹŪųf ltskŪfg+»k]0
b'sb'skŪfglƃ j'ŝlt.
t];' ltsb's]þ;' Ps]þs+þ ltsb's+þ Od];+ x]t'kŝofbLg+ rt'jL;ltof kŝofg+ cg'nádflbgort'Ŋþj;]g ;ųlx ;ųlx
dxfjf/]lx ljŴf/tá ljeų+. std]lx ;ųlxĠ klŝjf/á ;xhĕtjf/á kŝojf/á lgƧojf/á ;+;Ūjf/á ;ƕo'ųjf/á
kŤfjf/ált Od]lx tŴ æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙáÆltcflbgf klŝflewfg]g j'ųá klŝjf/á gfd. æs';n+ wƙ+
;xhĕtá, s';n+ wƙ+ kŝof, s';n+ wƙ+ lgƧfo, s';n+ wƙ+ ;+;Ūá, s';n+ wƙ+ ;ƕo'ųáÆlt Pj+ ;xhĕtflbclewfg]lx j'ųf
kť jf/f ;xhĕtflbjf/flg. k/tá r ;+;Ū;ƕo'ųjf/];' ƀL;' c¿kwƙj;]g]j kŝokŝo'ƍƉf r, ;];];' rt";' jf/];',
;ųd]j kŤfjf/] r ¿kf¿kj;]g, kŝojf/], lgƧojf/] r ;xhĕtkŞfhĕtk'/]hĕtj;]g, ;];];' ;xhĕtj;]g kŝokŝo'ƍƉf
r slytflt co+ lj;];á. ;ųdjf/] kg oƨf æs';ná wƙá s';nƧ wƙƧ x]t'kŝo]g kŝoáÆltcflbgf go]g t] t] kŤ]
pźl/ŷf k'g æs';nf x]t" ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfgÆlƃcflbgf go]g ;Ƒ]lk t] kŤf lgşf, lgƮ'Ɨf r sŷf ljeųf, tƨf ;á jf/á
kŤfg+ ;fw's+þ ljeųųf kŤfjf/áŷ]j ;ř+ utá. Olt Od]lx ;ųlx dxfjf/]lx rt'jL;ltof ;dƃkŪfg];' ;Ƒ]lk ltsb'sĕ
rt'jL;ltof kŝofg+ cg'nádflbj;]g ljŴf/tá ljeųf. sy+Ġ cg'nádkŪfg] lx olbb+ ƀfjL;ltlts]þ lgƧfo ltskŪfg+
gfd ;Ƒk&d+ lglŹŪ+. tŴ s';nlųs+þ tfj Od]lx klŝjf/fbLlx dxfjf/]lx kŝofg'nádflbgort'Ŋþtá ljeų+. tŴ oá
tfj]; ;Ƒk&dá klŝjf/á gfd, ;á pŹ];lgŹ];tá b'lj±wëf xált.
tŴ pŹ];jf/á s';nfboá klŝ x]t'kŝoflbj;]g s';nfbLg+ o'ųfg+, cs';nfbLg+ co'ųsĕgť wƙfg+
pƍlųk'Şgj;]g]j kjųųf æk'Şfjf/áÆltlk, k'Şfgţ]j kţfkgtá ækŰlųjf/áÆltlk j'ŝlt. g lx tŴ ljƧşg+ clŴ.
lgŹ];jf/á kg k'Şfjf/] kl/k'lŞt];' kŤ];' æl;of cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná wƙá pƍş]ƜfÆltcflbs+þ co'ų+ kŤ+
cg'źl/ŷf nưdfgfgţ]j kŤfg+ j;]g kjųá. Ot/];' kg ;xhĕtfbL;', ;];];' r lts]þ;', ;];kŪfg];' r ;ƑŴ k'Şfjf/á
glŴ, nưdfgj;]g ;ƑljƧşgd]j blƧtlƃ Obd]Ŵ ;ř]ktá kflńjjŴfg+.
Obflg kg]Ŵ cflbtá kŪfo Pj+ ljeśgoá j]lbtƑá. cg'nádkŪfglƨlŤ ltskŪfg] s';nlųsƧ ;ų;'
dxfjf/];' k&dƧ klŝjf/Ƨ k'Şfjf/] tfj _ æl;of s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍş]Ɯ x]t'kŝof»k]0 cs';ná
wƙá»k]0 cƓfstá»k]0 s';ná r cƓfstá r»k]0 cs';ná r cƓfstá r»k]0 s';ná r cs';ná r»k]0 s';ná r
cs';ná r cƓfstá r wƙf pƍş]Ɯ'+ x]t'kŝofÆlt s';nkbd"nf ;ų k'Şf pźf.
Pj+ cs';nkbd"nf, cƓfstkbd"nf r. æl;of s';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná»k]0 l;of cs';nť
cƓfstť»k]0 l;of s';nť cs';nť»k]0 l;of s';nť cs';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝfÆlt lƀd"nsĕ, ltd"nsĕ r ;ų
;ų k'Şflt Ps"þgkţf; k'Şf x]t'kŝod"nsĕ pźf.
Oldgfj go]g æl;of s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍş]Ɯ cf/ƙ)kŝof»k]0 cljutkŝofÆlt Pj+
;];kŝod"nsĕlk k'Şfj]lbtƑf. Psd"nsgoá.
oyf r Psd"ns]þ, Pj+ æl;of s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍş]Ɯ x]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝof»k]0 x]t'kŝof
cljutkŝofÆltcflbgf lƀd"ns]þlk.
æx]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝof clwkltkŝof»k]0 x]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝof
cgƃ/kŝof»k]0 x]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝof cljutkŝofÆltcflbgf ltd"nsĕbL;' ;Ƒd"nskl/oá;fg];' jf/];' gof
j]lbtƑf. x]t'kŝod"nsgoá.
oyf r x]t'd"ns]þ, Pj+ æl;of s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍş]Ɯ cf/ƙ)kŝofÆltcflbgf ;];kŝod"ns]þ;'lk
goá `ftƑá. kŝofg'nádjf/á. Pt]g]j pkfo]g æl;of s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍş]Ɯ gx]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf
;Ƒƍsĕ/o'ųá
kŝokŝgLsjf/álk. æl;of s';n+ wƙ+»k]0
pƍşlt x]t'kŝof gf/ƙ)kŝofÆltcflbgf
cg'nádkŝgLskŝojf/álk. æl;of s';n+ wƙ+»k]0 pƍş]Ɯ gx]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝofÆltcflbgf kŝgLofg'nádjf/álk
;ƑŴ g]tƑált co+ tfj]Ŵ k'Şfjf/] goá.
lgŹ];jf/á kg pŹ];jf/] blƧtf;' k'Şf;' s';nfs';nfbLg+ ;x'ƍlųof cefjtá of Ptf æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ
s';ná wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbsĕ k'Şf ;Ƒ;á ljƧşg+ nelƃ, tf kxfo of ljƧşg+ nelƃ, tf;d]j ljƧşgj;]g kjųá.
tŶfo+ goá _ æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. s';n+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ toá vƈf. toá vƈ] klŝ Ps]ĕ
vƈá. ƀ] vƈ] klŝ ƀ] vƈf. s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. s';n] vƈ] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+.
s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná r cƓfstá r wƙf pƍşlƃ x]tk' ŝof. s';n+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ toá vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+.
toá vƈ] klŝ Ps]ĕ vƈá lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+. ƀ] vƈ] klŝ ƀ] vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿kÆlƃ Pj+ s';nkbd"nf;' ;ų;'
k'Şf;' ltƧáj nưdfgf ljƧlştf. tyf cs';nkbd"nf;'lk ltƧáj. cƓfstkbd"nf;' kg æcƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá
wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. ljkfsĕƓfst+ lsl/ofƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ toá vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+»k]0 ƀ] vƈ] klŝ ƀ]
vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+. kl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ toá vƈf sųf r ¿k+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf sųf r ¿k+.
vƈ] klŝ jŴ', jŴ'+ klŝ vƈf. Ps+þ dxfe"t+ klŝ toá dxfe"tf»k]0 ƀ] dxfe"t] klŝ ƀ] dxfe"tf. dxfe"t]
klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+ sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿kÆlƃ Psĕj. lƀd"lnsĕbL;' r æs';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá wƙá
pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. s';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃ Psĕ. tyf æcs';nť cƓfstť klŝfÆlt, Pj+
x]t'kŝod"lnsĕ;' Ps"þgkţf;fo k'Şf;' gj]j nưdfgf ljƧlştf. ;];f rųfnL; dá#k'Şflt g ljƧlştf. Pj+ pkl/
cf/ƙ)kŝofbL;' ljƧlştfj;];f dá#k'Şflt ux]tƑf. ljhĕgg;'vŴ+ kg eujtf k'Şfjf/] nưdfgf, cnưdfgf r ;Ƒflk
tf blƧtflt j]lbtƑflt.
tŴ s';n+ wƙ+ klŝflt ;xhĕt];' j]bgfŋƈflbe]b+ Ps+þ s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ kluƄf, ;x'ƍlų;řft]g ;lb;efj]g
kŷflt cŴá. ;lb;Ŵá lx PŴ kl;Źá æklk'ƮnáÆltcfbL;' ljo. s';ná wƙált ;ţfŋƈflbe]bá ;x'ƍƉá s';ná

161

wƙá. pƍştLlt kfsefjtá pź+ pƍfbfƸb kfk')flt, cųfg+ jf klnelt. x]t'kŝoflt g s]þjn+ s';nwƙdųd]j
klŝ pƍşlt, cy ±vëf s';nx]t'gf x]t'kŝot+ ;f±wëƃ]g r pƍştLlt PjdŴá ux]tƑá.
Pjldb+ æpƍş]ƜfÆlt k'Şfo æpƍştLÆlt clj;];]g ljƧşg+ jŷf Obflg o+ wƙ+ klŝ o] wƙf pƍşlƃ, t]
kŝokŝo'ƍƉ] vƈj;]g lj;];ŷ] f bƧ]t'+ æs';n+ Ps+þ vƈÆlƃcflb j'ų+. oƨf kg]Ŵ Ps]ĕ vƈá PsƧ]j, lƀƉ+o]j jf, ƀ] jf
kg PsƧ]j kŝof gfd g xálƃ, tƨf t] ksĕ/]g cgfdl;ŷf æPs+þ vƈ+ klŝ toá vƈfÆltcflbgf kŝoefj]g ulxtfj;];+
;Ƒ+ kŝo'ƍƉ+ sŷf blƧtlƃ j]lbtƑ+. Pj+ pkl/lk ;ƑŴ. lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿klƃ Ob+ klŝŴƧ ;xhĕtŴųf o+ s';n]g
;xhĕtť]j x]t'kŝoť nelt, t+ bƧ]t'+ j'ų+ æljkfsĕƓfst+ lsl/ofƓfstÆlƃ. PŴ x]t'kŝoflwsĕ/] cx]t'sĕ g ux]tƑf.
vƈ] klŝ jŴ"ltcflb sųf¿kƮx±)ëg jŴ'Ƹƨ ulxt]lk jŴ'+ klŝ c¿kŋƈfg+ pƍlųbƧgŴ+ j'ų+. Ps+þ dxfe"tlƃcflb kg
¿kfƓfst+ klŝ ¿kfƓfstƧ pƍlųbƧgŴ+. x]t'kŝo] pkŴƘsĕgd]j r]Ŵ lrųhĕg+, kl;lƈo+ sƙhĕgť cţdţ+
kŝokŝo'ƍƉtf ux]tƑf, g cx]t'slrųhpt'hĕbLg+ t];+ x]t'kŝof pƍlųof cefjtá. dxfe"t] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfglƃcflb
dxfe"t] klŝ pkfbfbLg+ pƍlųbƧgŴ+ j'ų+. Oldgf pkfo]g cf/ƙ)kŝofbL;'lk ljƧşgfg+ cŴá j]lbtƑá.
cf/ƙ)kŝo] æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍşlt cf/ƙ)kŝof. Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ] vƈ] klŝ ƀ] vƈf.
cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná wƙá»k]0 cƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá wƙá pƍşlt cf/ƙ)kŝof. ljkfsĕƓfst+
lsl/ofƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf. kl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf. jŴ'+ klŝ vƈfÆlt Pj+ ltƧá
ljƧlştf. ;];f ¿kldƧsųf, ¿kƧ r cf/ƙ)kŝo]g cg'ƍlųtá g ulxtf. t]g]j æjŴ'+ klŝ vƈfÆlt jŷf ævƈ]
klŝ jŴ"Ælt g j'ų+. PŴ r cf/ƙ)kŝoflt ;xhĕt+ s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ pƍşdfgá s';ná wƙá ttá cţ]g c;xhĕt]g
%lƑ±wëg cf/ƙ)e"t]g kŝo]gflt Pj+ cŴá ux]tƑá. g lx cųgf ;xhĕt+ cf/ƙ)+ sŷf lrųr]tl;sĕ pƍşlƃ.
clwkltkŝo] x]t'kŝo;lb;+ ljƧşg+. cgƃ/;dgƃ/];' kg ¿kfefjtá cf/ƙ)kŝo;lb;+. ;xhĕtkŝo]lk
x]t'kŝo;lb;+. cƓfst+ klŝ cƓfst'ƍlųof kg æaflx/+ Ps+þ dxfe"t+ klŝ»k]0 ƀ] dxfe"tf. dxfe"t] klŝ
pkfbf¿k+»k]0 cfxf/;d'Ūfg+ Ps+þ dxfe"t+»k]0 ƀ] dxfe"tf»k]0 pt';d'Ūfg+ Ps+þ»k]0 ƀ] dxfe"tf»k]0 c;ţ;ųfg+
Ps+þ dxfe"t+ klŝ»k]0 ƀ] dxfe"tf»k]0 sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿kÆlƃ Ob+ clws+þ. Pj+ cţdţkŝo]lk. s]þjn+ tŴ
sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿kť g ulxt+ t];+ cţdţkŝoųfefjf. lgƧokŝo]lk ;xhĕtkŝo;lb;+ ljƧşg+. klŝŴƧ kg
;xhĕtŴųf rŋĕbL;'
k'/]hĕtlgƧof Ow g ulxtflt. pklgƧokŝo]lk ¿kƧ pklgƧokŝo'ƍƉųfefjf
cf/ƙ)kŝo;lb;d]j ljƧşg+.
k'/]hĕtkŝo] kg æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍşlt k'/]hĕtkŝof. s';n+ Ps+þ»k]0 ƀ] vƈf. jŴ'+
k'/]hĕtkŝof. cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná»k]0 cƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 k'/]hĕtkŝof. ljkfsĕƓfst+
lsl/ofƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf. jŴ'+ k'/]hĕtkŝofÆlt Pj+ ltƧá k'Şf ljƧlştf. tŴ jŴ'+ k'/]hĕtkŝoflt Ob+
cf/ƙ)k'/]hĕtlgjųgŴ+ j'ų.
+ t+ lx rŋ'ljţf)fbLg+o]j k'/]hĕtkŝot+ ;fwolt, g dgáljţf)wft'oflt Ow g ulxt+.
kŞfhĕtkŝoá Ow c¿kwƙ];' g nưlt. ¿kwƙ];' r pkŴƘs]ĕj, g hgs]ĕ, tƨf æcƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ
cƓfstá wƙá pƍştLÆltcflb g jųƑájflt co+ g ulxtá. cf;]jgkŝo]lk cf/ƙ)kŝo] ljo ltƧáj k'Şf ljƧlştf.
sƙkŝo] æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná wƙá pƍşlt sƙkŝof. s';n+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 cƓfstá wƙá
pƍşlt»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+»k]0 s';ná r cƓfstá r wƙf»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃ s';nkb] ltƧá, tyf
cs';nkb]. cƓfstkb] kg æcƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 ljkfsĕƓfst+ lsl/ofƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ»k]0 dxfe"t]
klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+ sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿k+, c;ţ;ųfg+»k]0 sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿kÆlƃ Pj+ ltƧá. æs';nť cƓfstť
wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 s';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃcflbgf ;xhĕt;lb;+ ljƧşg+.
glŴljutkŝo];' cf/ƙ);lb;+.
Pj+ ;Ƒkŝo];' nưdfgkŤ] ljƧşg+ bƧ]ŷf ttá x]t'clwklt´fgdƮkŝof
Ps;lb;f.
cf/ƙ)fgƃ/;dgƃ¿klgƧof;]jgglŴljutkŝof Ps;lb;f. ;xhĕtcţdţlgƧoclŴcljutf Ps;lb;f. cf;]jgkŝo]
ljkfs]ĕ g nưlt. cţdţkŝo] lrųh¿k+, pkfbf¿kť g nưtLltcflbgf kŝofg+ cţdţ;lb;ų+ jŷf k'g t];+ æx]t'of
gj. cf/ƙ±)ë tLl). clwkltof gj. cgƃ/;dgƃ/];' tLl). ;xhĕt] gj. cţdţ] tLl). lgƧo] gj.
pklgƧo] tLl). k'/]hĕt] tLl). cf;]jg] tLl). sƙ] gj. ljkfs]þ Ps+þ. cfxf/] gj. OlƇo] gj. ´fg] gj. d±Ʈë
gj. ;ƕo'ų] tLl). ljƍo'ų] gj. clŴof gj. glŴof tLl). ljut] tLl). cljut] gjfÆlt Pj+ x]t'kŝofbLg+
Ps]þsƸƨ k'ŞfljƧşgjf/u)gf j'ųflt co+ Psd"nsgoá.
oyf r Psd"ns]þ, Pj+ æx]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝofÆltcflbgf lƀd"nsĕbL;'lk ;Ƒd"nskl/oá;fg];' oyfg'¿k+
goá g]tƑá. kflńolƕ ljŴf/go+ cbƧ]ŷf æx]t'kŝof cf/ƙ±)ë tL)LÆltcflbgf ljƧşgjf/u)ge]bá blƧtált co+
kŝofg'nád] goá.
kŝokŝgLo] kg æcs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná wƙá pƍşlt gx]t'kŝof. ljlrlsŞf;xut] pźŝ;xut] vƈ]
klŝ ljlrlsŞf;xutá pźŝ;xutá dáxá. cƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá wƙá pƍşlt gx]t'kŝof. cx]t's+þ
ljkfsĕƓfst+ lsl/ofƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+. cx]t'skl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ]
vƈf sųf r ¿k+»k]0 jŴ'+ klŝ vƈf. Ps+þ dxfe"t+ klŝ»k]0 dxfe"t] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+, sųf¿k+
pkfbf¿k+»k]0 Ps+þ dxfe"t+ klŝ»k]0 pkfbf¿kÆlƃ Odf ƀ] ljƧlştf.
gf/ƙ)kŝo] æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 s';n]»k]0 cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 cs';n]»k]0
cƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 s';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+, cs';nť cƓfstť wƙ+
klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 dxfe"t] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃ Odf kť ljƧlştf.

162

gflwkltkŝo] æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná»k]0 s';n+ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf. s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0
s';n] vƈ] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná r cƓfstá r wƙf pƍşlƃ»k]0 cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ
cs';ná»k]0 ƀ] vƈ] klŝ ƀ] vƈf, cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 cs';n] vƈ] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. cs';n+ wƙ+
klŝ cs';ná r cƓfstá r wƙf»k]0 cƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá »k]0 dxfe"t] klŝ»k]0 sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿k+.
s';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 s';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. cs';nť cƓfstť wƙ+
klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 cs';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃ gj k'Şf ljƧlştf. gfgƃ/g;dgƃ/kŝof
gf/ƙ)kŝo;lb;f.
gfţdţkŝo] æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 s';n]»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. cs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ
cƓfstá»k]0 cs';n]»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. cƓfst+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 ljkfsĕƓfst] lsl/ofƓfst] vƈ] klŝ
lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. kl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕƓfst]»k]0 sųf ¿k+. dxfe"t] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+ sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿k+.
aflx/] dxfe"t] klŝ pkfbf¿k+. cfxf/;d'Ūfg] dxfe"t] klŝ pkfbf¿k+. pt';d'Ūfg]»k]0 pkfbf¿k+. c;ţ;ųfg+
dxfe"t] klŝ sųf¿k+ pkfbf¿k+. s';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 s';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ
lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. cs';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 cs';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃ
kť ljƧlştf. tŴ ljkfsĕƓfst] vƈ] klŝ sųf¿klƃ xbojŴ'jş+ j]lbtƑ+. gpklgƧokŝoá gf/ƙ)kŝo;lb;á.
gk'/]hĕtkŝo] æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná»k]0 c¿k] s';n+»k]0 ƀ] vƈf. s';n+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0
lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃ s';nkb] ƀ], tyf cs';nkb]lk. æcƓfst+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 c¿k] ljkfsĕƓfst+
lsl/ofƓfst+»k]0 aflx/+»k]0 pkfbf¿k+. s';nť cƓfstť wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá. s';n] vƈ] r dxfe"t] r klŝ
lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. cs';nť cƓfstť»k]0 cs';n]
vƈ] r»k]0 ¿kÆlƃ Odf ltƧált ;ų ljƧlştf.
gkŞfhĕtgf;]jgkŝof gflwkltkŝo;lb;f. tŴ s';nfs';nlsl/ofg+ k&dhjgj;]g gf;]jgkŝoƍjlų j]lbtƑf.
gsƙkŝo] æs';n+ klŝ s';ná, s';nf r]tgf. cs';n+ klŝ cs';ná, cs';nf r]tgf. cƓfst+ klŝ
cƓfstá, ljkfslsl/of r]tgf. aflx/+, cfxf/;d'Ūfg+, pt';d'ŪfgÆlƃ ltƧá ljƧlştf.
gljkfskŝo] æs';n+ klŝ s';ná, cƓfstá. s';ná r cƓfstá rfÆlt s';nkb] ltƧá, tyf
cs';nkb]lk. æcƓfst+ klŝ cƓfstá»k]0 aflx/+ cfxf/;d'Ūfg+ pt';d'Ūfg+ c;ţ»k]0 pkfbf¿k+»k]0 cs';nť
cƓfstť cƓfstáÆlt Odf ltƧált gj ljƧlştf.
gfxf/kŝo] æcƓfst+ klŝ cƓfstá. aflx/+ pt';d'Ūfg+, c;ţ»k]0 pkfbf¿kÆlƃ Psĕj.
gOlƇokŝo] æcƓfst+ klŝ cƓfstá. aflx/+ cfxf/;d'Ūfg+»k]0 pt';d'Ūfg+»k]0 c;ţ;ųfg+ dxfe"t]
klŝ ¿khËljltlƇoÆlƃ Psĕj.
g´fgkŝo] æcƓfst+ klŝ cƓfstá. kťljţf);xut+»k]0 aflx/+ cfxf/pt'c;ţpkfbf¿kÆlƃ Psĕj.
gdƮkŝo] æcƓfst+ klŝ cƓfstá. cx]t's+þ ljkfsĕƓfst+ lsl/ofƓfst+»k]0
lrų;d'Ūfg+»k]0
cx]t'skl;lƈŋ±)ë ljkfsĕ»k]0 sųf r ¿k+»k]0 aflx/+ cfxf/pt'c;ţpkfbf¿kÆlƃ Psĕj.
g;ƕo'ųkŝoá gf/ƙ)kŝo;lb;á.
gljƍo'ųkŝo] æs';n+ klŝ s';ná. c¿k] s';náj. cs';n+»k]0 c¿k] cs';ná. cƓfst+ klŝ
cƓfstá, c¿k] ljkfslsl/ofƓfst+. aflx/+ c;ţ»k]0 pkfbf¿kÆlƃ Odf ltƧáj k'Şf ljƧlştf. gáglŴgáljutkŝof
gf/ƙ)kŝo;lb;f. g;xhĕtglgƧogáclŴgácljutkŝof kg]Ŵ rųf/álk g nưƃLlt.
Pj+ kŝgLs]þ nưdfgkŤljƧşg+ bƧ]ŷf ttá ægx]t'of ƀ]. gf/ƙ±)ë kť. gflwkltof gj. gfgƃ/]
g;dgƃ/] gfţdţ] gpklgƧo] kť. gk'/]hĕt] ;ų. gkŞfhĕt] gf;]jg] gj. gsƙ] tLl). gljkfs]þ gj. gfxf/]
gOlƇo] g´fg] gd±Ʈë Ps+þ. g;ƕo'ų] kť. gljƍo'ų] tLl). gáglŴgáljut];' kťfÆlt ljƧşgjf/u)gf j'ųflt co+
Psd"nsgoá.
Oldgfj go]g lƀd"nsĕbL;'lk oyfg'¿k+ goá g]tƑá, kflńo+ kg ægx]t'kŝof gf/ƙ±)ë PsÆlƃcflbgf
ljƧşgjf/u)gfj blƧtflt co+ kŝokŝgLogoá.
Oldgf j'ųfg';f/]g]j æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof gf/ƙ)kŝofÆltcflbgf
cg'nádkŝgLogo], æcs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná wƙá pƍşlt gx]t'kŝof cf/ƙ)kŝofÆltcflbgf kŝgLofg'nádgo]
kŤljƧşggoá j]lbtƑá kflńo+ kg]Ŵ ljƧşgjf/u)gfj blƧtflt co+ cg'nádkŝgLos';nlųs]þ klŝjf/goá.
;xhĕtjf/fbL;'lk %jf/];' klŝjf/] j'ųfg';f/]g ;ƑŴ goá g]tƑá. o] kg tŴ tŴ kflńlj;];f, cŴlj;];f
r pknưlƃ, t] kŪfgkflńcŪsyf;' Pj ;Ƒfsĕ/tá ux]tƑf. Ow kg t] ;Ƒ] ;ř]kgotá blƧodfgflk uƅefl/o+
s/áƃLlt g blƧtf.
t];' kg jf/];' æs';n+ wƙ+ ;xhĕtá s';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. s';n+ wƙ+ kŝof» s';n+ wƙ+ lgƧfo»
s';n+ wƙ+ ;+;Ūá» s';n+ wƙ+ ;ƕo'ųá s';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆlt Pj+ cflbtá kť;' jf/];' kflńult `ftƑf.
t];' r klŝ;xhĕtf PsŴf, kŝolgƧof PsŴf, ;+;Ū;ƕo'ųf PsŴf. tŴ æs';n+ wƙ+ ;xhĕtáÆltcfbL;' s';n+ wƙ+
klŝ t]g ;xhĕtá x'ŷfltcflbgf oyfg'¿k+ cŴá j]lbtƑá. klŞd] kg kŤfjf/] æs';ná wƙá s';nƧ wƙƧ x]t'kŝo]g
kŝoá. s';nf x]t" ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ x]t'kŝo]g kŝoá. s';ná cƓfstƧ»k]0 s';nƧ r cƓfstƧ r»k]0 s';nf x]t"
;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ lrų;d'ŪfgfgťfÆltcflbgf x]t'kŝo],
æs';ná wƙá s';nƧ wƙƧ cf/ƙ)kŝo]g kŝoá. bfg+ bŷf ;Ln+ ;dflbloŷf pká;ysƙ+ sŷf t+ kŝj]ŋlt.
k'Ƒ] ;'lrŰflg»k]0 ´fgf j'Ūlxŷf ´fg+» ;]vf ±uëfŶe'+ jábfg+ dƮ+ kŝj]ŋlƃ. ;]vf jf k'y'şgf jf s';n+ clgŝtá b'ŋtá

163

cgųtá ljkƧlƃ. r]tákl/o`f±)ëg s';nlrų;dlśƧ lrų+ hĕglƃ
cfsĕ;fgťfotgs';n+ ljţf)ťfotgs';nƧ
cf/ƙ)kŝo]g kŝoá. cflsťţfotgs';n+ g]j;ţfgf;ţfotgs';nƧ»
s';nf vƈf Olźljw`f)Ƨ
r]tákl/ok'Ƒ]lgjf;oyfsƙ"kucgfut+;`f)Ƨ cf/ƙ)kŝo]g kŝoá.
s';ná cs';nƧ»k]0 bfg+ bŷf»k]0 sŷf t+ cƧfb]lt clegƆlt. t+ cf/ư /f±uëf pƍşlt. lblŪ
ljlrlsŞf pźŝ+ bádgƧ+ pƍşlt. k'Ƒ] ;'lrŰflg cƧfb]lt »k]0 bádgƧ+ pƍşlt. ´fgf j'Ūlxŷf ´fg+ cƧfb]lt»k]0
pźŝ+ pƍşlt. ´fg] kl/xLg] ljƍl;fl/Ƨ bádgƧ+ pƍşlt.
s';ná cƓfstƧ»k]0 kŝoá. c/xf dƮ+ kŝj]ŋlt. k'Ƒ] ;'lrŰflg» s';n»k]0 ljkƧlt»k]0 ljkfs]ĕ
tbf/ƙ)tf pƍşlt. cfsĕ;fgťfotgs';n+ ljţf)ťfotgljkfsƧ»k]0 lsl/oƧ. cflsťţfotg»k]0 ljkfsƧ r
lsl/oƧ r. s';nf vƈf r]tákl/o»k]0 cgfut+;`f)Ƨ cfjşgfo.
cs';ná cs';nƧ»k]0 kŝoá. /fu+ cƧfb]lt»k]0 pźŝ+ pƍşlt. cs';ná s';nƧ»k]0 kŝoá. ;]vf
kxLg] lsn];]»k]0 cgfut+;`f)Ƨ. cs';ná cƓfstƧ» c/xf kxLg] lsn];]»k]0 cfjşgfo.
cƓfstá cƓfstƧ» c/xf mþn+ kŝj]ŋlt. lgƑfg+, rŋ'+»k]0 mþáŪƑ+ ljkƧlt. lbƑ]g rŋ'gf ¿k+
kƧlt»k]0 cflsťţfotglsl/o+»k]0 lsl/oƧ. ¿kfotg+ rŋ'ljţf)Ƨ»k]0 cfjşgfo. cƓfstá s';nƧ» ;]vf
mþn+»k]0 cgfut+;`f)Ƨ. cƓfstá cs';nƧ» rŋ'+ cƧfb]tLÆltcflbgf cf/ƙ)kŝo] r,
æs';ná s';nƧ clwkltkŝo]g kŝoá. cf/ƙ)flwklt, ;xhĕtflwklt. cf/ƙ)flwklt _ bfg+
bŷfÆltcflbgf clwkltkŝo] r,
æs';ná s';nƧ cgƃ/kŝo]g kŝoáÆltcflbgf ljŴf/tá cgƃ/;dgƃ/;xhĕtcţdţlgƧokŝo];' r,
æs';ná s';nƧ pklgƧokŝo]g kŝoá. cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá cgƃ¿klgƧoá kst"klgƧoá. cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá _
bfg+ bŷfÆltcflbgf cf/ƙ)kŝo] j'ųgo]g, æcgƃ¿klgƧoá _ k'l/df k'l/df s';nf vƈf klŞdfg+ klŞdfgÆlƃcflbgf
cgƃ/kŝo] j'ųgo]g]j, ækst"klgƧoá _ ;ź+ pklgƧfo»k]0 pká;ysƙ+ s/ált. ´fg+, ljkƧg+, dƮ+, cleţ+,
;dfkƸų pƍfb]lt. ;Ln+, ;'t+, rfu+, kţ+ pklgƧfo»k]0 k&dƧ ´fgƧ kl/sƙ+ k&dƧ ´fgƧ pklgƧokŝo]g
kŝoá»k]0 cflsťţfotg+ g]j;ţfgf;ţfotgƧ»k]0 oyfsƙ"ku`f)+ cgfut+;`f)Ƨ»k]0 k&dƧ dƮƧ kl/sƙ+
k&dƧ»k]0 tltoá d±Ʈëf rt'ŴƧ. d±Ʈëf ;]vfg+ cŴkl;lƘbfo»k]0 &fgf&fgs]ĕ;ƟƧ pklgƧo. s';ná cs';nƧ»k]0
cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá. kst"k»k]0 kst"klgƧoá _ ;ź+ pklgƧfo dfg+ hƍ]lt. lbƸŪ uŲflt»k]0 ;źf ;Ln+ ;'t+ rf±uëf
kţf /fuƧ, bá;Ƨ, dáxƧ, dfgƧ, lblŪof. kŴgfo»k]0 s';ná cƓfstƧ»k]0 cf/ƙ)"klgƧoá. cgƃ¿klgƧoá.
kst"k»k]0 kst"klgƧoá _ ;ź+ pklgƧfo cųfg+ cftfk]lt»k]0 sĕlosƧ ;'vƧ, b'ŋƧ, mþn;dfklųof. s';n+ sƙ+
ljkfsƧ»k]0 d±Ʈëf c/xtá cŴkl;lƘbfo kŝoá.
cs';ná cs';nƧ»k]0 kst"klgƧoá _ /fu+ pklgƧfo kf)+ xglt»k]0 ;Ɩ+þ knklt»k]0 ;Ŝ+ leƆlt.
bá;+, dáx+, dfg+, lbƸŪ, kŴg+ pklgƧfo»k]0 ;Ŝ+ leƆlt»k]0 kf)fltkftá kf)fltkftƧ»k]0 ;Ŝe]bsƙƧ»k]0
kŝoá.
cs';ná s';nƧ»k]0 kst"klgƧoá _ /fu+ pklgƧfo bfg+ b]lt»k]0 dƮ+ pƍfb]lt»k]0 ;dfkƸų pƍfb]lt.
/f±uëf»k]0 kŴgf. ;źfo, ;LnƧ»k]0 kţfo pklgƧo. kf)+ xƄf tƧ kl#ftŴfo bfg+ b]tLÆltcflbgf r
pklgƧokŝo] r,
æcƓfstá cƓfstƧ k'/]hĕtkŝo]g kŝoá»k]0 cf/ƙ)k'/]hĕt+ _ c/xf rŋ'+»k]0 mþáŪƑ], jŴ'+ ljkƧlt»k]0
lbƑ]g rŋ'gf ¿k+ kƧlt»k]0 ¿kfotg+ rŋ'ljţf)Ƨ»k]0 jŴ'k'/]hĕt+ _ rŋĕotg+ rŋ'ljţf)Ƨ»k]0 jŴ'
ljkfsĕƓfstfgÆlƃcflbgf k'/]hĕtkŝo] r,
æs';ná cƓfstƧ»k]0 kŞfhĕtf s';nf vƈf k'/]hĕtƧ OdƧ sĕoƧfÆltcflbgf kŞfhĕtkŝo] r,
æs';ná s';nƧ»k]0 k'l/df k'l/df s';nf vƈfÆltcflbgf cf;]jgkŝo] r,
æ;xhĕtf gfgfŋl)sĕ, ;xhĕtf s';nf r]tgf»k]0 ;ƕo'ųsĕg+ vƈfg+ lrų;d'Ūfgfgť ¿kfg+. gfgfŋl)sĕ
ljkfsĕg+ vƈfg+ sųf r ¿kfgÆlƃcflbgf sƙkŝo] r,
æcƓfstá cƓfstƧ»k]0 Ps]ĕ vƈá ltŰƉÆlƃcflbgf ljkfskŝo] r,
æs';ná s';nƧfÆltcflbgf cfxf/kŝofbL;' r, æs';ná cƓfstƧ, ;xhĕt+, kŞfhĕt+, ;xhĕtf lrų;d'Ūfgfg+
¿kfg+. kŞfhĕtf OdƧ sĕoƧ»k]0 cƓfstá s';nƧ»k]0 k'/]hĕt+ jŴ' s';nfg+ vƈfg+ ljƍo'ųkŝo]g kŝoáÆltcflbgf
ljƍo'ųkŝofbL;' r kflńult j]lbtƑf.
tŴ s';nwƙá gfd]; oƨf pƍşƃá &k]ŷf kŞfhĕtkŝo+, ljkfskŝoť ;];]lx ƀfjL;ltof kŝo]lx pƍşlt.
s';nƧ r kŝoá xáƃá &k]ŷf k'/]hĕtkŞfhĕtljkfsljƍo'ųkŝo] ;];]lx jL;ltof kŝo]lx kŝoá xált. Pj+ s';ná
s';nfbLg+, cs';ná r cs';nfbLg+ oyfg'¿k+ kŝof xálƃ, tƨf s';nfbLg+ t+t+kŝo'ƍƉljefu+ bƧ]t'+ kŤfjf/á j'ųá. tŴ
;]vf ±uëfŶe'lƃ ;átfkƉ+ ;ƈfo j'ų+, jábfglƃ ;sbfufldcgfufldgá. t];+ lx ±uëfŶe'lrų+ jábfg+ gfd. dƮf j'Ūlxŷflt
dƮjLlytá j'Ūfo. g lx dƮfgƃ/f kŝj]ŋ)f gfd cŴLlt co+ cg'nádkŪfg] s';nlųsgoá.
j]bgflųsĕbL;' æ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ wƙ+ klŝ ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. ;'vfo
j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ ƀ] vƈf. ƀ] vƈ] klŝ Ps]ĕ vƈáÆltcflbgf s';nlųs]þ j'ųfg';f/]g klŝjf/fbL;'
kŤfjf/kl/oá;fg];' ;ų;' jf/];' Ps]þsƸƨ kŝofg'nádfbLlx r Psd"nfbLlx go]lx r ;Ƒlųs]þ;' nưdfgkbj;]g u)gfgoá
oáh]ŷf `ftƑá. tŴ j]bgflųs]þ j]bgfŋƈƧ cnưgtá æPs+þ vƈ+ lgƧfo ƀ] vƈfÆltcflb j'ų+. ;ƑŴ lj;];á
kflńcŪsyfg';f/]g]j `ftƑált co+ cg'nádklnád] ltskŪfggoá.

164

b'skŪfg] kg æx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ x]t' wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. cnáe+ klŝ cbá;á. cdáxá. cbá;+ cdáx+
klŝ cnáeá. cbá;á. náe+ klŝ dáxá. dáx+ klŝ náeá. bá;+ klŝ dáxá. dáx+ klŝ bá;á. kl;lƈŋ±)ë
x]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t' wƙá pƍşlt»k]0 x]t" r gx]t" r. gx]t'+ klŝ gx]t' wƙá g»k]0 x]t" r gx]t" rfÆltcflbgf
x]t'b's]þ,
æ;x]t's+þ wƙ+ klŝ ;x]t's]ĕ wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. ;x]t's+þ Ps+þ vƈ+»k]0 ;x]t's+þ wƙ+ klŝ.
cx]t's]ĕ»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿k+. kl;lƈŋ±)ë»k]0 ;x]t's]ĕ r, cx]t's]ĕ r»k]0 cx]t's+þ vƈ+ klŝ cx]t's]ĕ.
ljlrlsŞf;xut+ pźŝ;xut+ dáx+ klŝ ;ƕo'ųsĕ vƈf»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfg+. cfxf/;d'ŪfgÆlƃcflbgf ;x]t'sb'sĕbL;' r
s]þglrljţ]Ɯb'sjlşt];' ;Ƒb's]þ;' kŝ]s+þ klŝjf/fbL;' ;ų;' dxfjf/];' Ps]þsƸƨ kŝofg'nádfbL;' rt";' go];' Psd"nsĕbLlx
;Ƒjf/]lx s';nlųs]þ j'ųfg';f/]g oyfg'¿k+ ljeśgoá oáh]ŷf `ftƑá. ;Ƒlƨlƕ lx kŪfg] s]þglrljţ]Ɯb's+þ g nưtLlt co+
b'skŪfggoá.
b'sltskŪfg] kg æx]t'+ s';n+ wƙ+ klŝ x]t' s';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf x]t'b's]þg ;Ƹź
s';nlųs]þ s';n+ kb+ oáh]ŷf klŝjf/fbL;' ;ų;' jf/];' kŝofg'nádfbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g nưdfgskŝof
Psd"nsĕlbgo]lx blƧtf
oyf r s';n+ kb+, Pj+ cs';n+ kb+, cƓfstť x]t'b's]þg oáh]ŷf j'ųgo]g bƧ]ŷf
x]t's';nb'sltslƃ &lkt+. kflń kg clt;+lvųf. oyf s';nlųs+þ, Pj+ æx]t'+ ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ wƙ+ klŝ x]t'
;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf nưdfgskbj;]g j]bgflųsĕboálk x]t'b's]þg oáh]ŷf
x]t'j]bgb'sltsĕbLlg PsjL;ltb'sltsĕlg blƧtfgLlt. oyf r x]t'b's]þg ;Ƹź nưdfgskbj;]g ƀfjL;ltltsĕ oálhtf,
Pj+ ;x]t'sb'sĕbLlx ;Ƒ]lx ;Ƹź kŝ]s+þ ƀfjL;ltltsĕ oáh]tƑf. kflń kg]Ŵ Otá k/];'lk ;ƑŴ clt;+lvųf. Pj+
ƀfjL;ltlts]þ ux]ŷf b's;t] klŋlkŷf b'sltskŪfg+ b]l;tlƃ co+ b'sltskŪfggoá.
ltsb'skŪfg]lk æs';n+ x]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná x]t' wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf s';nlųs]þg ;Ƹź x]t'kb+
oáh]ŷf klŝjf/fbL;' ;ų;' dxfjf/];' kŝofg'nádflbgort'Ŋþj;]g nưdfgskŝof Psd"nfbLlx ;Ƒjf/]lx blƧtf. oyf
x]t'kb+, Pj+ gx]t'kblƕ s';nlųs]þg ;Ƹź oáh]ŷf s';nx]t' ltsb'slƃ &lkt+. oyf r s';nlųs]þg ;Ƹź x]t'b's+þ, Pj+
æ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ x]t'+ s';n+ wƙ+ klŝfÆltcflbgf j]bgflųsĕbLlxlk
t+ oáh]ŷf j]bgflųsb'sĕbLlg
PsjL;ltltsb'sĕbLlg blƧtflg. oyf r x]t'b's+þ, Pj+ ;x]t'sĕboálk ;Ƒ] kŝ]s+þ ƀfjL;ltof lts]þlx nưdfgkbj;]g]j
oálhtf. Pj+ b's;t+ ƀfjL;ltof lts]þ;' klŋlkŷf ltsb'skŪfg+ b]l;tlƃ co+ ltsb'skŪfggoá.
ltsltskŪfg]lk æs';n+ ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ wƙ+ klŝ s';ná ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá wƙá pƍşlt
x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf s';nlųs+þ j]bgflųsĕbLlx ;Ƒlųs]þlx, j]bgflųsĕboá r s';nlųsĕbLlx j'ųgo]g oáh]ŷf kŝof
blƧtf. Pj+ lts]þ;' Pj lts]þ klŋlkŷf ltsltskŪfg+ b]l;tlƃ co+ ltsltskŪfggoá.
b'sb'skŪfg]lk æx]t'+ ;x]t's+þ wƙ+ klŝ x]t' ;x]t's]ĕ wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf x]t'b's+þ ;x]t'sĕbLlx,
;x]t'sť x]t'b'sĕbLlx oáh]ŷf x]Ūf j'ųgo]lx kŝof blƧtf. Pj+ b's]þ;' Pj b'sþ] klŋlkŷf b'sb'skŪfg+ b]l;tlƃ co+
b'sb'skŪfggoá. Pj+ tfj cg'nádkŪfg] _
æltsť kŪfgj/+ b's'ųd+,
b'sltsť]j ltsb'sť.
ltsltsť]j b'sb'sť,
% cg'nádlƛ gof ;'uƘL/fÆltĶ _
j'ųf % gof j]lbtƑf. kŝoj;]g kg]t];' %;' Ps]þsƸƨ kŪfg] kŝofg'nádfbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g Pt]g kl/ofo]g
rt'jL;ltgokldlůtldb+ wƙfg'nádkŪfglƃ j]lbtƑ+. co+ cg'nádkŪfggoá.
kŝgLokŪfg] kg ægs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. cs';n+ cƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ»k]0
ƀ] vƈf, lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿kÆlƃcflbgf ltskŪfg], ægx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t' wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. gx]t'+ Ps+þ vƈ+
klŝ»k]0 lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿kÆlƃcflbgf b'skŪfg] r, ægx]t'+ gs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t' gs';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof.
gx]t'+ gs';n+ cƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+ klŝ toá vƈfÆltcflbgf b'sltskŪfg] r, ægs';n+ gx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná gx]t'
wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf ltsb'skŪfg] r, ægs';n+ g;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná g;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá
wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf ltsltskŪfg] r, ægx]t'+ g;x]t'sþ+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t' g;x]t's]ĕ wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf
b'sb'skŪfg] rflt %;' kŝgLokŪfg];' cg'nádltskŪfgfbL;' %;' kŪfg];' j'ų]g ;Ƒ]g ksĕ/]g kflńgoá j]lbtƑá. Obť
s';nfbLg+, x]t'cfbLgť wƙfg+ kŝo'ƍƉefjklŋ]kj;]g kjųųf wƙkŝgLokŪfg+ gfd hĕt+. tŴ lx gs';n+ wƙ+
klŝflt s';nƧ kŝoklŋ]ká. gs';ná wƙá pƍştLlt s';nƧ kŝo'ƍƉefjklŋ]ká. tyf æcs';n+ cƓfst+ Ps+þ vƈ+
klŝ»k]0 cs';nf, cƓfstf vƈf lrų;d'Ūfgť ¿k+ pƍştLÆlt Pjdflbgf go]g]Ŵ cŴá j]lbtƑá. Pjd]Ŵ
kŝgLokŪfg] _
æltsť kŪfgj/+ b's'ųd+,
b'sltsť]j ltsb'sť.
ltsltsť]j b'sb'sť,
% kŝgLolƛ gof ;'uƘL/fÆltĶ _
j'ųf % gof j]lbtƑf. kŝoj;]g kg]Ŵflk Ps]þsƸƨ kŝofg'nádfbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ rt'Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g rt'jL;ltgokldlůtldb+
165

wƙkŝgLokŪfglƃ j]lbtƑlƃ co+ kŝgLokŪfggoá.
cg'nádkŝgLokŪfg] kg æs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝof. s';n] vƈ] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+
¿kÆlƃcflbgf ltskŪfg], æx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t' wƙá pƍşlt x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf b'skŪfg] r, æx]t'+ s';n+ wƙ+
klŝ gx]t' gs';ná wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf b'sltskŪfg] r, æs';n+ x]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná gx]t' wƙá
pƍştLÆltcflbgf ltsb'skŪfg] r, æs';n+ ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ wƙ+ klŝ gs';ná g;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá wƙá
pƍştLÆltcflbgf ltsltskŪfg] r, æx]t'+ ;x]t's+þ wƙ+ klŝ gx]t' g;x]t's]ĕ wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf b'sb'skŪfg] r
x]Ūf j'ųgo]g ;Ƒ]g ksĕ/]g
kflńgoá j]lbtƑá. Ob+ s';nfbLg+ wƙfg+ kŝoų+ cƍllŋlkŷf kŝo'ƍƉfg+
s';nflbefjklŋ]kj;]g kjųųf wƙfg'nádkŝgLokŪfg+ gfd hĕt+. tŴ lx s';n+ wƙ+ klŝflt s';nƧ kŝoefjljwfg+.
gs';ná wƙá pƍştLlt s';nƧ kŝo'ƍƉefjlgjf/)+, tƨf æs';n] vƈ] klŝ lrų;d'Ūfg+ ¿kÆlƃcflbgf ljƧşg+ j'ųlƃ
j]lbtƑlƃ Pjd]Ŵ cg'nádkŝgLokŪfg] _
æltsť kŪfgj/+ b's'ųd+,
b'sltsť]j ltsb'sť.
ltsltsť]j b'sb'sť,
% cg'nádkŝgLolƛ gof ;'uƘL/fÆltĶ _
j'ųf % gof j]lbtƑf. kŝoj;]g kg]Ŵflk Ps]þsƸƨ kŝofg'nádfbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ rt'Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g rt'jL;ltgokldlůtldb+
wƙfg'nádkŝgLokŪfglƃ j]lbtƑlƃ co+ cg'nádkŝgLokŪfggoá.
kŝgLofg'nádkŪfg] ægs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná wƙá»k]0 gs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ cƓfstá wƙá pƍşlt
x]t'kŝofÆltcflbgf ltskŪfg], ægx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ x]t' wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf b'skŪfg] r, ægx]t'+ gs';n+ wƙ+ klŝ
x]t' cs';ná wƙá»k]0 x]t' cƓfstá wƙá pƍştLltÆcflbgf b'sltskŪfg] r, ægs';n+ gx]t'+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná x]t'
wƙá»k]0 cƓfstá x]t' wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf ltsb'skŪfg] r, ægs';n+ g;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ų+ wƙ+ klŝ cs';ná
;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá wƙá»k]0 cƓfstá ;'vfo j]bgfo ;ƕo'ųá wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf ltsltskŪfg] r, ægx]t'+
g;x]t's+þ wƙ+ klŝ x]t' ;x]t's]ĕ wƙá pƍştLÆltcflbgf b'sb'skŪfg] r, x]Ūf j'ų]g ksĕ/]g kflńgoá j]lbtƑá. Obť
s';nflbwƙfg+ kŝoų+ kllŋlkŷf t];+ kŝo'ƍƉefjcƍlŋ]kj;]g kjųųf wƙkŝgLofg'nádkŪfg+ gfd hĕt+. tŴ gs';n+
wƙlƃ s';nƧ kŝoefjlgjf/)+. cs';ná wƙá pƍştLlt cs';nƧ pƍlųljwfg+. s';n+ kg klŝ s';nƧ
pƍlųcefjtá æs';ná wƙá pƍştLÆlt cjŷf æcs';ná wƙá pƍştLÆlt nưdfgkbj;]g j'ų+. s';n+, lx cs';n+,
cƓfst+ jf ;xhĕtkŝo+ sŷf pƍşdfgá s';ná gfd glŴ, tƨf cs';nƧ r cƓfstƧ r j;]g b];gf stf. PjdţŴ.
Pjd]Ŵ wƙkŝgLofg'nádkŪfg] _
æltsť kŪfgj/+ b's'ųd+,
b'sltsť]j ltsb'sť.
ltsltsť]j b'sb'sť,
% kŝgLofg'nádlƛ gof ;'uƘL/fÆltĶ _
j'ųf % gof j]lbtƑf. kŝoj;]g kg]Ŵflk ltskŪfgfbL;' Ps]þsƸƨ kŝofg'nádfbLg+ rt'Ɖ+ rt'Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g Ps]þg
kl/ofo]g rt'jL;ltgokldlůtldb+ wƙkŝgLofg'nádkŪfglƃ j]lbtƑlƃ co+ kŝgLofg'nádkŪfggoá.
Pjldb+ eujtf cg'nádkŪfgfbL;' rt";' Ps]þsƸƨ kŪfg] ltsb'sĕbLgţ]j
%Ɖ+ %Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g
rt'jL;ltgokldlůt+ ;dƃkŪfgdxfks/)+ b]l;t+. kŝoj;]g kg]t];' rt'jL;ltof kŪfg];' Ps]þsƸƨ kŝofg'nádfbLg+
rt'Ɖ+ rt'Ɖ+ gofg+ j;]g]t+ %Ɖj'ltgokldlůt+ xált, wƙj;]g]j r]t+ ks/)+ rt'jL;lt;dƃkŪfg+ j'ųlƃ cod]Ŵ
ljeśgoá.
dáxljŞ]blgof clewƙdfltsŴjŰgfo

kŪfgdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

lgudgsyf
Pųfjtf r _
1= dfltsĕoflewƙƧ, cf/źf cŴjŰgf.
dáxljŞ]bgL gfd, of ;f lgŪd'kfutfĶ

166

2= lgŪ+ oyfo+ ;ƕųf, nşËlx cleklŴtf.
;Ƒ] lgŪ+ tyf ;ƃf, ;d]ƃ' ;'dgá/yfĶ
3= oá uƘL/á ;;fbLg+, ;d'Źáj eofjxá.
sĕn]Ƹƨ wLdtťflk, clk uƅfjnásg]Ķ
4= k&dƃ/wfgƧ, clewƙƧ tƧ o+.
l;nfn]vf lgwLg+j, wƙŴfg+ ksĕl;sĕĶ
5= gfjf ljo ;d'ŹƧ, ;'±vëft/)kźlt.
kflńcŪsyf r];f, kl/;'źf cgfs'nfĶ
6= gotálk cljlŊþŰf, c;+lsŰf lgsĕotá.
otá ;Ŋþŝ ;átƑf, ;źƙlŪltof ;tfĶ
7= ;źƙlŪltsĕd]g, cgų'Ŋ+þ;gflbtá.
doflk jŰoƃ]g, /lrtf ;'źr]t;f.
t]Ƹų;ef)jf/fo, kl/df±)ëg tlƃofĶ
8= dfltsĕjŰgf of ;f, ofj lgŪ+ oyfan+.
;ƑŴ;śxf P;f, cgfs'nkbŊþdfĶ
9= o+ kų+ s';n+ t]g, kŷf ;Ɨálwd'ųd+.
lgŪ+ kfk]Ɯdlvn], kfl)gá lxtr]t;fĶ
10= gfgfhgflw/d)Lot/Ƨ,
ráń/ŪƧ ef/dlwjfxs'nƈ/Ƨ.
sĕj]l/k"t;lnn]g lxtfnoƧ,
/fhĕlw/fhj/j+;;'kLl)tƧĶ
11= dŢlƛ ráńssnŘlge]g dƮ+,
k"/+ lj;fnljej]lx dxfs'n]lx.
kfsĕ/rŊþkl/vflx r ±uëfk'/]lx,
o'ų+ hgfs'n;';lşt/fhdƮ+Ķ
12= ;Ƒ"keáukl/eáuwg]lx gfgfjŰ]lx k'Űljljwfkl)s]þlx ;áe+.
ráńflwgfuk'/gƆggfye"t+,
o] tŴ ;áutljxf/j/fle/fdfĶ
13= t];+ d'±vë hgdgáx/;Ŵ'laƗ;Ƙfljt] dxlt ;şgdfggLo].
ljşĕno]lx pbofrn;lƉe]lx,
s]þnf;s"þl;v/ákdr]lto]lxĶ
14= kf;fbxlƙoj/]lx r důk]lx,
hƗƗtfnkg;flbt/fjnLlx.
gƆákgƆe'huƧ j/Ƨ eáurŊĕjnL;d;'wfst±uëfk'/]lxĶ
15= o'ų] lj;fnl;stfl;tdfńs]þlx,
o'ų] ;';Lnolt;Ŝlg;]ljtlƛ.
sƠf)sƙlg/t]lx x"kxf/],
gfuş'gƢoljxf/j/] j;ƃáĶ
16= gfd]g oá w'tw/Ʈ;dfggfdá,
rƆáj kfsgeálbtjLtkţá.
;Ŵƃ/];' lgk'±)ëf lksųo] r,
jfbLeo"yljlkg] ldu/fhnLnáĶ
17= oá ;fu/áj g ljnŜlt ;Lnj]ndlƍŞtflbu');f/lje"l;tųá.

167

h]ĕt]lt ;f;gdn+ lglvn+ hxƃá,
;Ŋþŝ wƙljgo+ kl/bLkoƃáĶ
18= t]gflewƙlksŰjljƍlsŰ;f/Ŵ/Tœlgs/]j ;d'źl/ŷf.
;ƙfkhĕguńnŘ/)fo dáxljŞ]bgL lj/lrtf /tgfjnL ofĶ
19= ;fo+ kef;t' ;'lslųlj/fhdfgf,
wƙ];' dáxltld/+ ljlgxŝ ;ƙf.
cfeft' tfj lhg;f;gh]ĕlt ofj,
jlųƧltƧ hgtflxtdfjxƃLĶ
Olt ráń/Ū] dxfsƧkŴ]/]g lj/lrtf
dáxljŞ]bgL gfd
clewƙdfltsŴjŰgf lglŪtf.

168

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful