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Sharon DWT|Views: 89|Likes: 3

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/40398111/Sharon-DWT

10/12/2012

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Presented by

Sharon Shen

UMBC

Overview

Introduction to Video/Image Compression DWT Concepts Compression algorithms using DWT DWT vs. DCT DWT Drawbacks Future image compression standard References

**Need for Compression
**

Transmission and storage of uncompressed video would be extremely costly and impractical.

Frame with 352x288 contains 202,752 bytes of information Recoding of uncompressed version of this video at 15 frames per second would require 3 MB. One minute 180 MB storage. One 24-hour day 262 GB Using compression, 15 frames/second for 24 hour 1.4 GB, 187 days of video could be stored using the same disk space that uncompressed video would use in one day

Principles of Compression

Spatial Correlation

Redundancy among neighboring pixels Redundancy among different color planes Redundancy between adjacent frames in a sequence of image

Spectral Correlation

Temporal Correlation

Transform coding . Lossy Compression Lossless Digitally identical to the original image Only achieve a modest amount of compression Lossy Discards components of the signal that are known to be redundant Signal is therefore changed from input Achieving much higher compression under normal viewing conditions no visible loss is perceived (visually lossless) Predictive vs.Classification of Compression Lossless vs.

Classification of Compression Predictive coding Information already received (in transmission) is used to predict future values Difference between predicted and actual is stored Easily implemented in spatial (image) domain Example: Differential Pulse Code Modulation(DPCM) .

Classification of Compression Transform Coding Transform signal from spatial domain to other space using a well-known transform Encode signal in new domain (by string coefficients) Higher compression. but requires more computation (apply quantization) Split the frequency band of a signal in various subbands Subband Coding . in general than predictive.

The output of each decimated subbands quantized and encoded separately .Classification of Compression Subband Coding (cont.) The filters used in subband coding are known as quadrature mirror filter(QMF) Use octave tree decomposition of an image data into various frequency subbands.

Discrete Wavelet Transform The wavelet transform (WT) has gained widespread acceptance in signal processing and image compression. which has been based upon DWT. JPEG-2000. . Because of their inherent multi-resolution nature. wavelet-coding schemes are especially suitable for applications where scalability and tolerable degradation are important Recently the JPEG committee has released its new image coding standard.

These basis functions are called wavelets Wavelets are obtained from a single prototype wavelet y(t) called mother wavelet by dilations and shifting: t b 1 ] a .Discrete Wavelet Transform Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a set of basis functions. b (t ) ! ]( ) a a (1) where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting parameter .

Discrete Wavelet Transform Theory of WT The wavelet transform is computed separately for different segments of the time-domain signal at different frequencies.e. Multi-resolution analysis: analyzes the signal at different frequencies giving different resolutions MRA is designed to give good time resolution and poor frequency resolution at high frequencies and good frequency resolution and poor time resolution at low frequencies Good for signal having high frequency components for short durations and low frequency components for long duration.g. images and video frames .

) Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a set of basis functions. These basis functions are called wavelets Wavelets are obtained from a single prototype wavelet y(t) called mother wavelet by dilations and shifting: t b 1 ] a . b (t ) ! ]( ) a a (1) where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting parameter .Discrete Wavelet Transform Theory of WT (cont.

Discrete Wavelet Transform The 1-D wavelet transform is given by : .

Discrete Wavelet Transform The inverse 1-D wavelet transform is given by: .

..Discrete Wavelet Transform Discrete wavelet transform (DWT). x1. into one high-pass wavelet coefficient series and one low-pass wavelet coefficient series (of length n/2 each) given by: . it converts an input series x0. which transforms a discrete time signal to a discrete wavelet representation.xm.

[n/2]-1. In practice. . such transformation will be applied recursively on the low-pass series until the desired number of iterations is reached.Discrete Wavelet Transform where sm(Z) and tm(Z) are called wavelet filters. K is the length of the filter. .. and i=0...

This leads to the wavelet implementation by means of banded-matrix multiplications .Discrete Wavelet Transform Lifting schema of DWT has been recognized as a faster approach The basic principle is to factorize the polyphase matrix of a wavelet filter into a sequence of alternating upper and lower triangular matrices and a diagonal matrix .

Discrete Wavelet Transform Two Lifting schema: .

. {ti(z)} and K are admissible.Discrete Wavelet Transform where si(z) (primary lifting steps) and ti(z) (dual lifting steps) are filters and K is a constant. As this factorization is not unique. several {si(z)}.

Discrete Wavelet Transform 2-D DWT for Image .

Discrete Wavelet Transform .

Discrete Wavelet Transform 2-D DWT for Image .

registers and etc.Discrete Wavelet Transform Integer DWT A more efficient approach to lossless compression Whose coefficients are exactly represented by finite precision numbers Allows for truly lossless encoding IWT can be computed starting from any real valued wavelet filter by means of a straightforward modification of the lifting schema Be able to reduce the number of bits for the sample storage (memories.) and to use simpler filtering units. .

) .Discrete Wavelet Transform Integer DWT (cont.

Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression algorithms using DWT Embedded zero-tree (EZW) Use DWT for the decomposition of an image at each level Scans wavelet coefficients subband by subband in a zigzag manner Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPHIT) Highly refined version of EZW Perform better at higher compression ratio for a wide variety of images than EZW .

) Zero-tree entropy (ZTE) Quantized wavelet coefficients into wavelet trees to reduce the number of bits required to represent those trees Quantization is explicit instead of implicit. make it possible to adjust the quantization according to where the transform coefficient lies and what it represents in the frame Coefficient scanning.Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression algorithms using DWT (cont. tree growing. and coding are done in one pass Coefficient scanning is a depth first traversal of each tree .

Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT vs. DCT .

Discrete Wavelet Transform Disadvantages of DCT Only spatial correlation of the pixels inside the single 2-D block is considered and the correlation from the pixels of the neighboring blocks is neglected Impossible to completely decorrelate the blocks at their boundaries using DCT Undesirable blocking artifacts affect the reconstructed images or video frames. (high compression ratios or very low bit rates) .

followed by brief periods of sharp transitions .) Scaling as add-on additional effort DCT function is fixed can not be adapted to source data Does not perform efficiently for binary images (fax or pictures of fingerprints) characterized by large periods of constant amplitude (low spatial frequencies).Discrete Wavelet Transform Disadvantages of DCT(cont.

Allows good localization both in time and spatial frequency domain. it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking artifacts.Discrete Wavelet Transform Advantages of DWT over DCT No need to divide the input coding into non-overlapping 2-D blocks. Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent scaling Better identification of which data is relevant to human perception higher compression ratio .

500:1) . Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent scaling Better identification of which data is relevant to human perception higher compression ratio (64:1 vs.) Higher flexibility: Wavelet function can be freely chosen No need to divide the input coding into non-overlapping 2D blocks. it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking artifacts.Discrete Wavelet Transform Advantages of DWT over DCT (cont.

Discrete Wavelet Transform Performance Peak Signal to Noise ratio used to be a measure of image quality The PSNR between two images having 8 bits per pixel or sample in terms of decibels (dBs) is given by: ¨ 255 ¸ PSNR = 10 log10 © MSE ¹ ¹ © º ª 2 mean square error (MSE) Generally when PSNR is 40 dB or greater. then the original and the reconstructed images are virtually indistinguishable by human observers .

Discrete Wavelet Transform Improvement in PSNR using DWT-JEPG over DCT-JEPG at S = 4 PSNR Difference vs. Bit rate 2.5 0.4 0.5 DWT-JPEG 1 0.5 0 0.6 Bit rate (bps) . (dBs) 2 1.3 0.5 PSNR diff.2 0.

Discrete Wavelet Transform .

20 26.50 25.60 29.90 Comparison of image compression results using DCT and DWT . Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression ratios used for 8-bit 512x512 Lena image. PSNR (dBs) performance of W6 filter bank using FLC on Lena image. PSNR (dBs) performance of Zero-tree coding using arithmetic coding on Lena image.80 37.90 35.00 34.00 30.70 22.70 26.90 32. 8 16 32 64 128 38.60 32. PSNR (dBs) performance of bi-orthogonal filter bank using VLC on Lena image.00 2. PSNR (dBs) performance of bi-orthogonal filter bank using FLC on Lena image. PSNR (dBs) performance of baseline JPEG using on Lena image.90 29.00 35.00 39.00 32.00 27.80 31.50 28.00 29.90 27. PSNR (dBs) performance of W6 filter bank using VLC on Lena image.90 33.50 31.70 27.00 25.00 34.20 33.50 33.images.00 23.

24-BitRGB (b) JPEG (DCT) Compressed with compression ratio 43:1(c) JPEG2000 (DWT) Compressed with compression ratio 43:1 .Discrete Wavelet Transform Visual Comparison (a) (b) (c) (a) Original Image256x256Pixels.

EZW. which is at least one multiplication per coefficient.Discrete Wavelet Transform Implementation Complexity The complexity of calculating wavelet transform depends on the length of the wavelet filters. SPHIT use floating-point demands longer data length which increase the cost of computation Lifting scheme a new method compute DWT using integer arithmetic DWT has been implemented in hardware such as ASIC and FPGA .

Discrete Wavelet Transform Resources of the ASIC used and data processing rates for DCT and DWT encoders Type of encoders using ASIC No. of Logic gates of the ASIC used 34000 Amount of on chip RAM used by the encoders Data processing rates of the encoders using ASIC 210 MSa/sec DCT 128 byte DWT 55000 55 kbyte 150 MSa/sec .

C o m p r e s s io n te ch n iq u e No. of logic gates us ed C o m p r e s s io n te ch n iq u e . o f lo g ic g ate s u s e d vs .Discrete Wavelet Transform Number of logic gates No . of logic gates 60000 used 40000 20000 0 DCT DWT No.

Discrete Wavelet Transform Processing Rate .

The use of larger DWT basis functions or wavelet filters produces blurring and ringing noise near edge regions in images or video frames Longer compression time Lower quality than JPEG at low compression rates .Discrete Wavelet Transform Disadvantages of DWT The cost of computing DWT as compared to DCT may be higher.

Discrete Wavelet Transform Future video/image compression Improved low bit-rate compression performance Improved lossless and lossy compression Improved continuous-tone and bi-level compression Be able to compress large images Use single decompression architecture Transmission in noisy environments Robustness to bit-errors Progressive transmission by pixel accuracy and resolution Protective image security .

G. Masera .Discrete Wavelet Transform References http://www. Martina.pdf http://www. 2000.ee. http://www.metu.polito..ii.vub.pdf M.pdf http://www. Politecnico diTor i no. VLSI Lab.be/Members/munteanu.ee.adrian/_private/ Conferences/WaveletLosslessCompression_IWSSIP1998. A novel VLSI architecture for integer wavelet transform via lifting scheme.vlsi.tr/em2003/EM2003_presentations/DSD/b enderli.edu. unpublished.vt. Jan. Internal report.edu/~ha/research/publications/islped01.gr/~sklavos/Papers02/DSP02_JPEG2 00.it/Articles/mwscas00.upatras.etro.vlsilab.ac.pdf .pdf http://www.

Discrete Wavelet Transform THANK YOU ! Q&A .

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