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basics-of-trigonometry-|Views: 247|Likes: 18

Published by Manish Bisht

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/40403238/basics-of-trigonometry

03/16/2013

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What Is Trigonometry?

y Trigonometry is the ratio of

one side to another in a rightangled triangle. y There are three basic trigonometric functions: sine, cosine and tangent, each of which is a ratio of one side to another. y Trigonometry is often shortened to just trig , as it is easier to say.

**How to Use Trigonometry
**

y Take the right-angled

triangle to the right. y Notice there is an angle labelled x. This is important for trigonometry to determine which sides are used for trigonometry.

x

**First, Label the Sides
**

Each side is given a label in relation to angle x. There is the hypotenuse, adjacent and opposite side. y Labelling the three sides before continuing is best practice.

y

x

opposite

**First, Label the Sides
**

y The hypotenuse is the side

x

opposite the right angle. It is also always the longest side of the right angled triangle.

opposite

**First, Label the Sides
**

y The adjacent is the

side next to angle x : adjacent means next to . y Don t confuse it with the hypotenuse: remember that the hypotenuse is opposite the rightangle.

x

opposite

**First, Label the Sides
**

y The opposite is, as it s

x

**name suggests, opposite to angle x.
**

opposite

**So, Now the Trigonometry
**

y As previously

mentioned, the trigonometric functions: sine, cosine and tangent are ratios of the sides in relation to angle x.

x

opposite

Firstly, Sine

y On calculators, sine is

shortened to sin .

y sine x = opposite /

hypotenuse

x

y Possible values of sine x

are between 0 and 1. y e.g. sine 30° = ½

y This means that for a 30

degree angle, the opposite side is always ½ as big as the hypotenuse.

opposite

Now Cosine

y On calculators, cosine is shortened to cos .

y cosine x = adjacent /

hypotenuse

x

**y As with sine x, possible values of cosine x are between 0 and 1. y e.g. cosine 45° = 0.707
**

y

This means that for a 45 degree angle, the adjacent side is always 0.707 times as big as the hypotenuse.

opposite

**And Finally Tangent
**

y On calculators, tangent is shortened to tan .

y tangent x = opposite / adjacent

**y Any value for tangent x is possible, both positive and negative. y e.g. tangent 15° = 0.267
**

y

x

This means that for a 45 degree angle, the opposite side is always 0.267 times as big as the adjacent.

opposite

Uses of Trigonometry

y Trigonometry can be

used to find out an angle of a right-angled triangle if you know two sides. y Or it can be used to find out a side if you know another side, and an angle (other than the right angle, of course).

? 4

5

30°

4

?

**Finding Out an Unknown Side
**

y In this example to the

right, we know an angle, and the opposite side. y We want to know the hypotenuse. y Which function uses the opposite and the hypotenuse? (scroll back if necessary)

30° 4

?

**Finding Out an Unknown Side
**

y We need sine. y The unknown side is now

labelled a so we can refer to it later, but it can be labelled any letter of the alphabet, if you like. y We can now put the information into the formula: sine x = opposite / hypotenuse sine 30° = 4 / a

30° 4

a

**Finding Out an Unknown Side
**

y Now for the maths-y

**bit to rearrange the equation to find a.
**

y

y sine 30° = 4 / a

Multiply both sides by a

30° 4

a

y

y y

a sine 30° = 4

y Then divide both sides by sine 30°

a = 4 / sine 30°

y Now put it into the calculator

4 sine 30° = 8

**Finding Out an Unknown Side
**

y Therefore, we have

worked out that the hypotenuse is 8. y You can do exactly the same if you know a different side, and want to know an unknown side you just need to choose the right function for the job.

30° 4

8

**Finding the Angle
**

y Finding an angle is a

little more difficult. y In this example, we know the hypotenuse and the adjacent but we don t know the angle. y Which function uses the hypotenuse and the adjacent?

4

?°

5

**Finding the Angle
**

y We must use cosine. y Let s substitute the

**information into the formula.
**

y cosine x = adjacent /

4

x°

5

hypotenuse

y cosine x° = 4 / 5

**Finding the Angle
**

y Now this is where it

gets difficult. We now have to find the INVERSE of cosine in order to find the angle, which is found on calculators as cos-1.

x° = cos-1 4 / 5 cos-1 4 / 5 = 36.87 °

4

x°

5

y cosine x° = 4 / 5

y

y

**Only the Start
**

y This, of course, is

only the start of trigonometry, and there are many more functions and ways to find other information out. y It even extends beyond right-angled triangles!

THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION

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