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Sonderdruck aus:

DAS OFFENTLICHE RECHT DER GEGENWART



JAHRBUCH DES OFFENTLICHEN RECHTS DER GEGENW ART

NEUE FOLGE I BAND 35

HERAUSGEGEBEN VON

PETER HABERLE

ARTIBUS IN(jI.!!lN

. .

I· 8·0·1

1986

J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TUBINGEN

Dieser Sonderdrucle ist im Buthhandel nicht erhiiltlich

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Abhandlungen

NEIL MACCORMICK: Spontaneous Order and Rule of Law: Some Problems ...

GEORGES VLACHOS: Les Fondements du Droit et de l'Etat dans Ie Mode de Production

Capitaliste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

HANS MAIER: Aspekte des Poderalismus in Deutschland und Frankreich ..

RUPERT STETTNER: Not und Chanceder grundgesetzlichen Gewaltenteilung .. MEINHARD SCHRODER: Rundesstaatliche Erosionen im Prozef der europaischen Integra-

tion .

HER.BERT BETHGE: Zur Frage einer staatlichen Bestands- und Entwicklungsgarantie filr

den Offent1ich-rechtlichen Rundfunk .

Die Staatsrechtslehre in Selbstdarstellungen

HERMANN ]AHRREISS: Sich muhen urn Recht und Gesetz .....

Vgl. NF 32*,31: v. Simson; NF 33, 151: Burdeau; NF 34,71: Klinghoffer

Richterbilder

HANs-:J USTUS HINCK: In memoriam Gerhard Leibholz .

Vgl. NF 32, 55: Ritterspach (Hopker Aschoff); NF 32, 63: Fromme (Geiger), NF 33, 167: Maunz (Wintrich); NF 34, 89: Wand (Gebh. MUller)

Berichte

Entwicklung des Verjassungsrechts im Europ aiscnen Raum

I.

SANCHEZ MOR6N: Le Systemc de Protection des Droits Fondarncntaux et Liberti's

Publiques en Espagne .

Vgl. NF 34, 195: Villalon Ill. w.N.

* Diese und die folgcnden Zahlcn verweisen auf einschlagige Beirrage in den fruheren Banden;

z. B. bedeutct NF 5: Baud S der Neuen Polge des Jahrbuchs; 2: Band 2 der ersteu Folgc des jahrbuchs.

Eirie Grundrechtscharta fur Siidafrika?

von

Andre Thornashausen *

15 47 57

Am 21.Januar 1986 hat der Dachverband der siidafrikanischen Industrie (»FCIFederated Chamber of Industries«) der bffentlichkeit den Entwurf cincr Grundrechtscharta fiir Siidafrika vorgelegt-. Die Initiative der FCI ist unter drei Gesichtspunkten beachrlichj Zurn einen weil die Initiative von nahezu der gesamten siidafrikanischen Privatwirtschaft unterstiitzt wird, zum anderen wei! der Entwurf aus einer bereits fest verankbrten Entwicklung hin zum verfassungsrechtlich abgesicherten Grundrechtsschutzim siidlichen Afrika entspringt und schliefllich weil der zwei fell os angesehenste siidaftikanischc Staatsrechtlehrer, Professor Marinus Wiechers, der Autor der Grundrechtscharta ist.

In der 1917 gegriindeten »Pederated Chamber of Industries« sind 9 region ale Industrieverbande,,22 Arbcitgcbervercinigungen und 50 einzelne Vereinigungen und Handelsgesellschaftcn sowie knapp 1000 Einzelmitglieder zusammengeschlossen. Insgesamt vertritt die FCI iiber 10000 Betriebe, die zusammengenornmen 26% des siidafrikanischen Bruttosozialprodukts erwirtschaften und 1,5 Millionen Arbeitnehmer (20% der werktatigen Bevolkerung) beschaftigen. Die Zielsetzungen der FCI sind im wesentlichen: Die Interessenvertretung der verarbeitenden Industrie in Sudafrika, die Porrnulierung einer einheitlichen Politik fur die verarbeitende lndustrie, die Einfluflnahrne :iuf politische Entscheidungen, die die Interessen der Mitglieder beriihren und die Vertretung der verarbeitenden Industrie gegeniiber Gewcrkschaften und Gewerkschaftsverbanden.

Zusammen mit dern am 2LJanuar 1986 von der FCI vorgelegten Entwurf einer siidafrikanischen Grundrechtscharta hat die Fcr noch zwei Grundsatzerklarungen abgegeben, ein Aktionsprogramm fiir die Siidafrikanische Wirtschaft (»Actioll Programme of So uth African Business«) und das Memorandum iiber Eine Positive und Konstruktive Rolle der Wirtschaft im Siidafrikanischen Reformprozef ("A Positive and Constructive Role for Business in the Reform Process in South Africa«).

In dem Aktionspiogramm ruft die FCI zur Schaffung einer Vertrauensbasis auf, urn der Wirtschaft eine Vermittlerrolle in Verhandlungen iiber die Zukunft Siidafrikas zu

83

103

125

133

143

* Professor Dr. jur. (Kiel), Direktor des »Instirute of Foreign and Comparative Law, University of South Africa, Pretoria (SUdafrika).

1 Siehe Text im Anhang abgedrtlckt.

686

Andre Thomashausen

Eine Grundrerhtstharta for Siidaftika?

687

ermoglichen. Hierzu miiBte die Regierung die bestehenden rassendiskriminierenden Gesetzesbestimmungen aufheben, eine einheitliche slidafrikanische Staatsangehorigkeit fiir aIle Burger wiederherstellen, cine Teilhabe an der Rcgierungsmacht fiir alle Burger in einem einheitlichen ,:"erfassungso:gan er~oglic~en, den Notzustand a~fheben, politische Gefangene freilassen und sich zu emcr Ruckkehr zu d~n Grundsatzen des siidafrikanischen Gemeinen Rechts (»common law«) und darnit zu Rechts-

staatlichkeit (»rule oflaw«) bekennen. .

Das wesentlich umfangreichere »Memorandum iiber die Rolle der Wutschaft« fiihrt die Moglichkeiten einer Vermittlerrolle der Wirtschaft naher aus. Insbesondere werde die siidafrikanische Wirtschaft durch Selbstbindung an die von der FCI vorgelegtc Grundrechtscharta eine Vorbildfunktion zu erfullen trachten: unter anderen: urn die Entfremdung Siidafrikas von den Wertordnungen der westlichen Staaten uberwinden zu helfen.

Der vorgelegte Entwurf einer Grundrechtseharta selbst besteht aus einer Praambel, dem Teil I: Soziale und kulturelle Rechte und Grundsatze (Art. 1-5); Tell II: Wutschaftliche Rechte und Grundsatze (Art. 6-9); Teil III: Blirgerliche und politische Rechte und Grundsatze (Art. 10-22); Teil IV: Pf1ichten der Person und der offentlichen Gewalt (Art. 23-25) sowie einer absehlieBenden Absiehts- und Verpflichtungs-

erklarung. .

Inhalt und Diktion der Grundreehtscharta sind deutlich an den U'N-Konventionen von 1966 orientiert. Bemerkenswert sind jedoch die gesetzten Akzente. Das Bekenntnis zur gleichen und freien Wiirde aller Menschen fi~det sieh in/~rt. 1 im TeiI ».SoziaIe und kuIturelle Reehte und Grundsatze«, eben so wie das traditionclle Freihcitsrccht der Gedanken- Gewissens- und Meinungsfreiheit (Art. 3). Ein Bezug auf den grundrechtliehen Schutz von Minderheiten und Bevolkerungsgruppen findet sieh lediglich ansatzweise und etwas schiichtern versteekt in Art. 5, der eine Ausfiihrung des Grundrechts aufBildungsfreiheit ist (Art. 4). Eine ebenfalls recht »stumpfe« Bezugnahme auf einen m6gIicben Minderheitsscbutz findet sieh ansonsten noeb in ArL 19 Abs. 4. Dies mag aIs realitatsfremd erscheinen, wenn man bedenkt, daB die weilie Minderheit allenfalls dann zu einer Aufgabe ihrer politis chen Vorherrschaft bewegt werden kann, wenn dies im Tausch gegen eine angemessene Garantie ihrer kulturellen Autonomie und politischen Minderheitsrechte erfolgt. Aber auch im ubrigen ist der den »sozialen und kulturellen Rechten« gewidmete TeiI iiberraschend zuriickhaltend, vor allem wenn man ihn mit den moderncn Verfassungen vergleicht, in denen dem Anliegen der » Kulturverfassung« breiter Raum eingeraurnt wird", .. .

-......._ Die wirtschaftlichen Rechte und Grundsatze (Teil II) iiberraschen im gegenwartlgen siidafrikanischen Zusammenhang. Ko~promiBlos werden. Bekenntnis~e zur freien Marktwirtschaft und Unternehmerfreiheit verankert, die sich kaum mit dem sozialstaatliehen Ansatz, wenn nieht gar der sozialistischen Botschaft des alte~ten siidafrikanischen Grundrechtsentwurfs, der »Freedorn Charta« des ANC (»Afncan National Congress«) yom 26. Juni 1955 werden vereinbaren lassen". Eine der ersten

kritischen Stellungnahmen zu dem von der FCI vorgelegten Entwurfbemerkte dies sogleich und meinte, man miisse kein Marxist oder Befiirworter der »Desinvestierungskampagne« sein, um nicht MiBtrauen gegeniiber einer solchen Demonstration von »vested interests « zu ernpfinderr',

Teil III zu den biirgerlichen und politis chen Frciheiten IaIlt das Bemiihen erkennen, einen verfassungsrechtlichen Entwurfmit allgemeinen Wertbekenntnissen zu verbinden, so Z. B. die Erklarung in Art. 10, derzufolge »Jedes menschliche Wesen das Recht auf Anerkennung als Person vor dem Gesetz hat«. Hierin kommt die bittere siidafrikanische Erfahrung zurn Ausdruck, daB der einzelne, vor allem aufgrund der veralteten englischen Vcrwaltungsreehtstradition, immer wieder »Objekt« und nicht »Subjekt« hoheitlichen Handelns gewesen ist. Die »biirgerlichen und politis chen Rechte« fiihren die traditioriellen Freiheitsrechte auf, verankern ausfiihrliche Verfahrensgarantien, ein nur aufgrund der slidafrikanischen Geschichte verstandliches Recht auf Staatsangehorigkeir nach dem Grundsatz des jus soli (Art. 19) und cin Bekenntnis zu tradition ellen » europaischen « Regierungsprinzipien der reprasentativen Demokratie, der Cewaltenteilung und dcr Rechtsstaatlichkeit (Art. 20 und 21). Art. 22 schlieBt mit einem verhaltenenBekenntnis zur Souveranitat anderer Staaten, der fricdlichcn Beilegung von internationalen Konflikten und dem » Recht anderer Volker aufU nabhangigkeit und Selbst~estimmung als Grundlage zwischenstaatlicher Zusaml11enarbei~« abo Fur weite Kreise der weiBen Bcvolkerungsgruppen; aber aueh fiir manche traditionelle und kleinete schwarze Stamme in Slid afrika, die seit Jahren ihr innerstaatliches »Recht auf Selbstbcstimmung- betonen, dlirfte vor allern dieser Teil des Entwurfs enttauschend sein, wahrend er zugleieh fur die revolutionaren »Befreiungsidcologien« des ANC und seiner Biindnispartner unbefriedigend bleiben wird.

Der vierte und letzte Teil des FCI-Entwurfs regelt die Bindung der staatlichen GewaIt und die Zulassigkeit von Grundrechtseinschrankungen. Art. 23 wiederholt in dies em Zusammenhang den bereits in Art. 11 verankerten GIeichbehandlungsgrundsatz. Art. 24 entlialt die allgemeine Einschrankungscrmachtigung, wobei als »Schranken-Schrariken « forrnell der Vorbehalt des Gesetzes und materiell die Z weekbin dung »zum Schtitze der Rechte anderer« und des »Erfordemisses in einer demokratischen Gesellschaft« genannt werden. Letzteres scheint in Afrika besonders bedenklich. Auf welchen MaBstab einer »demokratischen Gesellschaft« soIl Bezug genommen werderi, auf den afrikanischen, anglo-amerikanischen oder europa is chen Mallstab-? Die Bezugnahrne auf »Erfordernisse der in der siidafrikanischen Vcrfassung errichteten Verfassungs- oder Grundordnung« ware verfassungsrechtlich die bess ere Losung". Eine Wesensgchaltsgarantie fehlt, so gar im Zusammenhang mit der Verankerung weitergehender Einschrankungsmoglichkeirsn im Notstandsfall (Art. 25 Abs. 2). I

Zur Vertcidigung der FCI-Grundrechtscharta muB jedoch angefiihrt werden, daB

4 D. Innes, »Cearing for Peace: Two charters, two visions of rcform«, Weekly Mail, 28. Februar-

6. Marz 1986, S. 17; AJGM Sanders, »Thc Bill-of-Rights Issue- Good Government First«. in: XII2 (1985) Journal of Juridical Science (in print).

S S. hierzu zuletzt: O. M. Garibaldi, »On the Ideological Content of Human Rights Instruments: The Clause »In a Democratic Society«, in: T. Buergenthal, ed., Essays in Honour of Louis B. Sohn, Strasbourg (Engel Publisher) 1984. S. 23 If.

6 Wie Z. B. irn deutschen Grundgesetz, Art. 20 A_bs .. 3, 21 Abs. 2.

2 So Z. B. die portugiesische Verfassung von 1976/82, S. A. Thomashausen, Die revidierte Verfassung der Republik Portugal von 1976. ]oR Bd. 32 (1983), S. 443 If.

3 T. Karis/G. M. Carter, From Protest to Challenge, 4. Bd .• Stanford (California) 1973 (Hoover Institute Press), Bd, 3; S. auch I: Lodge, Black Politics in South Africa since 1945, Johannesburg (Ravan Press) 1983, 301 If.; siehe auch Text im Anhang abgedruckt.

688

Andre Thomashousen

sie nicht als Gesetzesentwurf, sondern vor aHem als ein politisches Dokument vorgelegt worden ist, durch das die sudafrikanische Wirtschaft in einem Bekenntnis zum modernen Verfassungsrecht und zur positiven, zukunftsorientierten » Offnung« geeinigt werden soll, Als AnstoD in dem gcgenwartig noch unstrukturierten und allein von der »offenen Gesellschaft der Verfassungsintcrpreten« getragenen, sudafrikanischen VerfassungsgebungsprozeD, ist die Bedeutung des FCI-Entwur£5 nicht zu untcrschatzcn. Der Entwurf zwingt die hcrrschende wirtschaftliche und politische Fiihrungsschicht, sich mit der verfassungsrechtlichen Wertfrage und Zukunft auseinanderzusetzen,

Ein erster unverkennbarer Erfolg ist dem FCI-Entwurfbereits vergonnt gewescn.

Noch im Januar 1986 hat die Regierung ihre traditionelle Ablehnung einer verfassungsrechtlich zwingenden Verbiirgung von Grundrechten aufgegeben", Begriindet war diese Ablehnung vor allem irn englischen Verfassungsdenken, das die Juristen Sudafrikas entscheidend pragt8. Der Minister fUr Fragen der Verfassungsreform, Chris Heunis, erklarte bereits am 22.Januar 1986, daf er den FCI-Entwurf grundsatzlich begrufle und befurworte, wahrend der Staatsprasidcnt Pieter Willem Botha in seiner Ansprache zur Eroffnung des Parlaments am 31. J anuar 1986 sich ausdrucklich zu der Notwendigkeit gleichen Menschenrechtsschutzes fiir aile Siidafrikaner bekannte". Am 23. April 1986 beauftragte die Regierung die »South African Law Commission" mit einer umfassenden Untersuchung der gesamten Grundrechtsproblcmatik und mit der Ausarbcitung cines moglichcn Gesetzesentwurfs fiir die Verabschiedung einer Grundrechtscharta. Ein Unterausschuf der amtlichen »Law Commission« unter dem Vorsitz von Berufungsrichter P.].]. Olivier begann imJuni mit einem allgemeinen »hearing«, das Ende November 1986 abgeschlossen wird. Dcr AbschluDbericht sol1 noch in der ersten Halfre 1987 der Regierung vorge1egt werden. Parallel zu den Arbeiten der »Law Comrnission« isr aber auch noch eine weitere »private« Initiative zu verzeichnen: Am 10 Juli 1986 legte die »KwaZulu Natal Indaba«, ein Diskussionsforum iiber die staatsrechtliche Vereinigung des »homelauds« KwaZulu von Ministerhauptling G. Buthelezi und der Proviuz Natal, den Entwurf einer weiteren Grundrechtscharta vor. Da wiederum Prof 111. Wiechers maBgeblich an der Ausarbeitung beteiligt war, foIgt der »Indaba«-Entwurf irn wesentlichen dem der FCr. Die wichtigen Neuerungen gegeniiber dem FCI-Entwurf sind jedoch eine ausdruckliche Wesensgehaltsgarantie (Art. 14), Verfahrensbestimmungen iiber die gerichtliche Geltendmachung der Grundrechte (Art. 15), eine ausfiihrlichere Verankerung von Mindcrhcits- odcr »Cruppcnrcchtcn« (Art. 8) sowie die sehr bemerkenswerten Rechte fiir das Verwaltungsverfahren (Art. 5).

Die Entwiirfe folgen einer irn Ausland wenig beachteten siidafrikanischen Grundrechtstradition. Die bereits erwahnre und lange Jahre hindurch verbotene »Freedom

7 So z, B. nochJustizminister Kobie Coetzee im Parlament am 21. September 1985: »In South Africa the rights of people exist by virtue of the common law; a Bill of Rights is unnecessary«, s. Pretoria News vom 21. September 1985, S. 3.

8 Fur England s. z. B. :J.Jaconelli, »The European Convention on Human Rights - The Text of a British Bill of Rights?«, in Public Law 1976, S. 226; Colin Campbell, Hrsg., Do We Need A Bill of Rights?, London 1980.

9 S. Heunis, »Government Committed to Equality for All«, The Citizen, 22. Januar 1986; Pretoria News,!. Februar 1986.

Ei1le Grundreihtscharta .fur Sadafrika?

689

Charta« des ANC ist im wesentlichen eine Menschenrechtserklarung, angereichert durch die Forderung nach gleicher Verrnogcnsverteilung und Verstaatlichung des Grund und Bodens, der Schliisselindustrien und des Versicherungs- und Bankenwesens!", Zwei der vier von Siidafrika seit 1976 in die Unabhangigkeit entlassenen fruheren Selbstvcrwaltungsgebiete (»homelands«), Bophuthatswana und Ciskei, haben in ihren Verfassungen Grundrechtskataloge aufgenornmen!". In Bophuthatswana sind die Crundrechtsgaranrien sogar uneingeschrankt geriehtlich vom einzcInen erzwingbar, was in wenigenJahren zu einer fiir Gesamtafrika vorbildlich freiheitlichen und von Rassendiskriminierung befreiten Rechtsordnung geftihrt hat12•

Piir Siidafrik:l wurde zwar 1983 die urspriinglich vom Prasidialrat (s President's Council«) vorgcschlagene Verabschiedung einer Grundrechtcharta schlieBlich abgelehnt, vor allcrn untcr dem Eindruek eines extrem schrankenfeindlichcn Urteils, das zu einer Grundrechrsbestimmung in der Verfassung von Bophuthatswana ergangen war!", Dennoch legte die neue siidafrikanische Verfassung von 1983 in ihrer Praambel cin wichtiges drundrechtsbekenntnis ab, das im Verwaltungsrecht als verbindliche Auslegungsrichtlinie seither Bedeutung gewonnen hat14.

!

Die neueste 'Grundrechtscharta, die unter siidafrikanischem Einf1uB ins Leben

gerufen warder\. ist, ist am 17.Juni 1985 in Namibia als Teil der neuen Ubergangsverfassung in Kraft gctreten-". »Annexure I« der Ubergangsverfassung enthalt einen umfassenden drundrechtskatalog, der bemerkenswerterweise die Frage der Grundrechtsschranken iiberhaupt nicht regelt und sie damit als »immanente Schranken« allein der gerichtlichen Auslegung anvertraut. GemiW Section 38 isr es dem siidafrikanischen Staatsprasidenten oder seinem Generaladministrator in Windhoek in Ausiibung seiner Stellung als vorlaufiges Staatsoberhaupt fiir Namibia verwehrt, »irgendein Geset~ zu verabschieden, das eines der in der Anlage zur Proklamation (d. h. der Ubergangsverfassung) verankerten Grundrechte einschrankt oder aufhebt«. Section 11 Abs. 1 sieht vor, daB der »Standige Verfassungsausschufl« cine systematische Rechtsbereinigung irn Hinblick auf die Grundrechtsvereinbarkeit von friiherem Recht durchzufiihren hat. Laut Section 27 Abs. 4 (a) kann jeder Minister die Aussetzung von Entscheidungen der Ubergangsrcgierung verlangen, wenn durch sie eine Grundrechtsverletzung zu befiirchten ist. Dber die Frage der Grundrechtskonformitat soIcher Ka~inettsentscheidllngen befindet von Amts wegen der »Supreme Court of South West!Africa «, dcr auch im konkreten Normenkontrollverfahren auf Antrag einesjeden BUrgers entscheidet (Section 19 Abs. 1).

1. Siehe Abs. 4 der Freedom Charta, op. cit. (Fn. 3).

11 S. M. P. Vorster, M. Wierhers, D. J. van Vuuren, Constitutions of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei, Durban 1985.

12 A, Thomashausen, » Human Rights in Southern Africa: The Case of Bophuthatswana«, South African Law Journal Bd. 101 (1985), S. 467-481; W. H. B, Dean, A new Constitution for South Africa?,JoR Bd. 33 (1984), S. 459 ff.;J. L. Pretorius, South Africa's New Constitution, joR Ed. 33 (1984), S. 517 ff.

13 Thomas/wlSen, aaO. (Fn. 12), S. 474.

14 Republic o(South Africa Constitution Act, Act No. 110,1983, in:J6R Bd, 33 (1984), S. 546ff.

15 Proclamatidn No. 101, 1985 (Rep. of South Africa Government Gazette No. 9790); s. auch Act No, 8 of1985, Official Gazette of South West Africa, 30. September 1985, s. A. TllOmast.aUsCft, Sicherung der Menschenrcchte, der Grundrechte und Volksgruppenbeteiligung in einer kiinftigen Verfassung Narnibias, in: G. Ress, Hg., Verfassungsreforrn in Sudafrika und Verfassungsgebung fiir Namibia/Siidwestafrika, Heidelberg 1986, S. 171 ff.

690

Textanhang

South African Federal Chamber oJlndustries

691

tion and assistance should be accorded to the family, which is the natural and fundamental group in society.

3. Everyone has i the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; this right includes the freedom to change his religion or belief, and the freedom alone orin community with others and in public or in private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, ~eaching, practice and observ-

ance. !

4. Everyone has the right to equal educational opportunities, and in the exercise of any functions which the State or private institutions assume in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the rights of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions.

5. (1) All ethnic, religious, linguistic and other cultural groups have equal rights.

(2) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the nation, to enJoy the arts, and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

(3) Persons belonging to ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities shill not be denied the right to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, ot to use their own language.

I

Die Staatsrechtslehre in Siidafrika ist sich seit langem darin einig, dal3 ein verfassungsrechtlich abgesicherter Grundrechtsschutz unerlafllich fiir den Minderheitenschutz und das friedliche Zusammenleben im Viclvolkerstaat Siidafrika sein wird, Offen bleibt, wie die kiinftige Grundrechtscharta Siidafrikas die Brucken zwischen traditionellem europaischern Grundrechtsliberalismus und afrikanischer Kulturverfassung schlagen mag.

Von mal3geblicher Bedeutung fiir den jungsten Entwurf einer Grundrechtscharta durch die FCI und fiir das » U mdenken « der siidafrikanischen Regierung zum Grundrechtsschutz in Siidafrika selbst war cin von dem Institute of Foreign and Comparative Law an der University of South Africa am 19. August 1985 veranstaltetes Symposium unter Mitwirkung von Bundesverfassungsgerichtsprasident Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Zeidler. Zeidlers offentliche Vorlesung iiber "Civil Rights and Basic Values in Law« hat eine anhaltende und intensive Debatte, vor allern in der Regienmg, ausgelost. Der Einflull dieses Beitrags der deutschen Verfassungsrechtstradition diirfte fiir die Zukunft Siidafrikas eine entscheidendere Rolle spielen als die offizielle Sudafrikapolitik der EG-Staaten und der USA zusammengenomtnen.

Textanhang

1. South African Federated Chamber ofIndustries

South African Business Charter of Social, Economic and Political Rights (1986)

PREAMBLE

WHEREAS WE,

members of organized commerce and industry and of business generally in South Africa;

Mindful

of our important role in promoting human rights and the dignity of man, and in acknowledging the concomitant obligations on and duties of everyone to respect the rights and freedoms of others;

Accepting

OUf responsibility to strive for economic growth, wealth-creation, and the generation of work opportunities in an en vironment that encourages entrepreneurial endeavour, and constantly mindful of the dignity of all people;

Willing

to contribute to the processes of ongoing reform, and to create the necessary conditions of peace,

stability and prosperity for all South Africans on the foundations of democracy;

, Part II

Economic Rights and Principles

6. (1) Everyone has the right to own property, alone as well as in association with others, including communal ownership as found in traditional

communities. . i

(2) No one shall be deprived of his property without due process "flaw.

7. Everyone has the 'right to the rewards of his endeavours, and this 'right shall be subject only to such limitations as ate prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the public interest and the promotion of the public weal and

well-being. '

8. (1) Everyone has the right freely to employ labour and to own or manage a business in accordance with the rightsiand principles set out in this

Charter. '

(2) Everyone has the right to work and to free choice of employment.

(3) Everyone, without discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

(4) Everyone who! works has the right to fair remuneration.

(5) Everyone has the right to form or join trade unions, or commercial, industrial or other associations of his choice for the furtherance or protection

Recognizing

the need for South Africa to take up its rightful place in the international community as a land of justice, equal rights and opportunities, and to fulfil its duties in the community offree and peace-seeking nations, and with a deep sense of patriotism for our country;

AGREE UPON AND SUPPORT THE FOLLOWING RIGHTS AND PRINCIPLES

Part I

Social and Cultural Rights and Principles

1. All human heings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

2. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life; and the widest possible protec-

of his economic interests; however, no one may be compelled to join such a union or association.

9. The people may, themselves for their own ends or through the institutions of democratic government, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without any prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic cooperation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit and international law; in no case maya person be deprived of his own means of subsistence.

Part III

Civil and Political Rights and Principles 10. Every human being has the right to recognition as a person before the law.

11. Everyone is equal before the law, and is entitled to equal protection of the law without any discrimination on the basis of race, colour, language, sex, religion, ethnic or social origin, age, property, birth, political or other opinion, or econornic or other status.

12. (1) Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of these rights

(3) No one shall be deprived of his liberty merelyon the grounds of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation.

13. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile, and everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal in the determination of his rights and of any obligations and of any criminal charges against him.

14. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

15, No one shall be held in slavery or servitude, and no one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.

16. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of the State.

(2) Everyone has the freedom to leave the country and, if having the right of permanent residence, to return.

17. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media, regardless offrontiers.

(2) Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

692

18. Everyone has the right to freedom of association and freedom of peaceful assembly.

19. (1) Everyone born in South Africa or the independent or national states, or naturalised in accordance with law has the right to South African citizenship.

(2) Every citizen has the right to take part in public affairs, directly or throngh freely chosen representatives.

(3) Everyone has the right of equal access to the public service.

(4) Due regard being given to the protection of the rights of minorities, the will of the people is the basis of the authority of the government, and this will shall be expressed by way of periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

20. The institutions of democratic government. and in particular, the separation of state powers, the independence of the judiciary, and the supremacy of the legal system, the freedom of the press and the free formation of political parties shall be the foundations of South African statehood.

21. The State shall not be above the law, bnt shall be, through decentralisation and devolution of state powers, close to the people and responsive to their needs.

22. (1) South Africa, as a sovereign state, shall respect the rights and independence of all nations and shall strive to maintain world peace and the settlement of all international disputes by negotiation, not war.

(2) The right of other peoples to independence and self government shall be recognised and shall be the basis of close cooperation.

Part IV

Personal and Public Responsibilities

23. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms identified in this Charter, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, language, sex, religion, political or other opinion, ethnic or social origin, age, property, birth, or economic or other status.

24. Everyone's exercise of his rights and freedoms, shall be subject to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others, and for meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

25. (1) Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as a denial of the right and duty of the State to compel any person or group to desist in any

Textanhang

activity Of to refrain from any act aimed at th~ abrogation of any of the rights and freedoms of others as set forth herein.

(2) In times of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation or the democratic institutions of the State, or when individuals or groups act or plan to act in a manner aimed at the abrogation or destruction of any of the rights and freedoms of others as identified herein, the State may take such measures to the extent strictly required to meet the exigencies of the situation; provided that such measures are consistent with the la ws which provide for such emergency powers, as well as with other obligations under international law; and further provided that they do not involve unlawful discrimination.

WE THEREFORE UNDERTAKE TO PROMOTE, PROPAGATE AND IMPLEMENT THE ABOVEMENTIONED RIGHTS AND PRINCIPLES BY

1. Urging

all members of industry) COI1lInerCe and business generally to adhere to these rights and principles

2. Influencing

government and all political parties and groups to abide by the abovementioned rights and principles and in this respect, assuming an active role to scrutinise all discriminatory laws, measures and practices

3. Working

towards the termination of turmoil, unrest and conditions of elllergency

4. St,riving

for the release of political prisoners as defined in the context of the Charter

5. Exploring

means of and supporting social, economic and political debate and constitutional negotiation towards the realization of the abovementioned rights and principles

6. Supporting

education and training programmes as well as social and welfare schemes

7. Undertaking

measures to abolish racial discrimination and injustice within business organizations

The Freedom Charter

8. Launching

programmes for better public understanding ofhuman rights and freedoms

693

9. Aiming

at peace and stability in the Southern African region

10. Seeking international understanding and cooperation.

II. The Freedom Charter

adopted at the Congress of the People on 26 June 1955

PREAMBLE

We the people of South Africa declare for all our country and the world to know:

That South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, arId that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of the

people; .

That our people have been robbed of their birthright to land, liberty and peace by a form of government founded on injustice and inequality;

That our country will never be prosperous or free until all our pebple live in brotherhood, enjoying equal rights and opportunities;

That only a democratic state, based on the will of the people, can secure to all their birthright without distinction of colo ur, race, sex or belief;

And therefore We the people of South Africa, black and white, together equals, countrymen and brothers, adopt this FREEDOM CHARTER. And we pledge ourselves to strive together, sparing nothing of our strength and courage, until the democratic changes hereset our have been won.

!

THE PEOPLE SHALL GOVERN! i

Every man and 'woman shall have the right to vote for and stand as a candidate for all bodies which make laws. i

All the people shall be entitled to take part in the administration of the country.

The rights of the people shall be the same regardless of race, colour Or sex.

All bodies of minority rule, advisory boards, councils and authorities shall be replaced by democratic organs of self-government.

I

ALL NATIONAL GROUPS SHALL HAVE fQUAL RIGHTS!

There shall be equal status in the bodies of state, in the courts and in the schools for all national groups and races.,

All national groups shall be protected by law against insults to their race and national pride.

All people shall have equal rights to use their own language and to develop their own folk culture and

customs.

The preaching and practice of national, race or colour discrimination and contempt shall be a punishable crime.

All apartheid laws and practices shall be set aside.

THE PEOPLE SHALL SHARE IN THE COUNTRY'S WEALTH!

The national wealth of our country, the heritage of all South Africans, shall be restored to the people.

The mineral wealth beneath the soil, the banks and monopoly industry shall be transferred to the ownership of the people as a whole. All other industries and trade shall be controlled to assist the wellbeing of the people.

All people shall have equal rights to trade where they choose, to manufacture and to enter all trades, crafts and professions.

THE LAND SHALL BE SHARED AMONG THOSE WHO WORK IT!

Restriction of land ownership on a racial basis shall be ended and all the land re-divided amongst those who work it, to banish famine and land hunger.

The state shall help the peasants with implements, seed, tractors and dams to save the soil and assist the tillers.

Freedom of movement shall be guaranteed to all who work on the land. All shall have the right to occupy land wherever they choose. People shall not be robbed of their cattle, and forced labour and farm prisons shall be abolished.

694

ALL SHALL BE EQUAL BEFORE THE LAW!

No one shall be imprisoned, deported or restricted without fair trial. No one shall be condemned by the order of any Government official. The courts shall be representative of all the people.

Imprisonment shall be only for serious crimes against the people, and shall aim at re-education, not vengeance.

The police force and army shall be open to all on an equal basis and shall be the helpers and protectors of the people.

All laws which discriminate on the grounds of race, colour or belief shall be repealed.

ALL SHALL ENJOY HUMAN RIGHTS!

The law shall guarantee to all their right to speak, to organize, to meet together, to publish, to preach, to worship and to educate their children.

The privacy of the house from police raids shall be protected by law. All shall be free to travel without restriction from countryside to town, from province to province, and from South Africa abroad.

Pass laws, permits and all other laws restricting these freedoms shall be abolished.

THERE SHALL BE WORK AND SECURITY!

All who work shall be free to form trade unions, to elect their officers and to make wage agreements with their employers.

The state shall recognize the right and duty of all to work, and to draw full unemployment benefits.

Men and women of all races shall receive equal pay for equal work. There shall be a forty-hour working week, a national minimum wage, paid annual leave, and sick leave for all workers, and maternity leave on full pay for all working mothers.

Miners, domestic workers, farm workers and civil servants shall have the same rights as all others who work.

Child labour, compound labour, the tot system and contract labour shall be abolished.

THE DOORS OF LEARNING AND CULTURE SHALL BE OPENED!

The government shall discover, develop and encourage national talent for the enhancement of our cultural life.

All the cultural treasures of mankind shall be

Textanhang

open to all, by free exchange of books, ideas and contact with other lands.

The aim of education shall be to teach the youth to love their people and their culture, to honour human brotherhood, liberty and peace. Education shall be free, compulsory, universal and equal for all children. Higher education and technical training shall be opened to all by means of state allowances and scholarships awarded on the basis of merit. Adult illiteracy shall be ended by a mass state education plan.

Teachers shall have all the rights of other citizens. The colour bar in cultural life, in sport and in education shall be abolished.

THERE SHALL BE HOUSES, SECURITY AND COMFORT!

All people shall have the right to live where they choose, to be decently housed, and to bring up their farnilies in comfort and security.

Unused housing space to be made available to the people.

Rent and prices shall be lowered, food plentiful and no one shall go hungry.

A preventive health scheme shall be run by the state.

Free medical care and hospitalisation shall he provided for all, with special care for mothers and young children.

Slums shall be demolished and new suburbs built where all shall have transport, roads, lighting, playing fields, creches and social centres.

The aged, the orphans, the disabled and the sick shall be cared for by the state,

Rest, leisure and recreation shall be the right of all.

fenced locations and ghettoes shall be abolished and laws which break up families shall be repealed.

THERE SHALL BE PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP!

South Africa shall be a fully independent state, which respects the rights and sovereignty of all nations.

South Africa shall strive to maintain world peace and the settlement of all international disputes by negotiation not war.

Peace and friendship amongst all OUI people shall be secured by upholding the equal rights, opportunities and status of all.

The people of the protectorates Basutoland. Bechuanaland and Swaziland shall be free to decide for themselves their own future.

The rights of all the peoples of Africa to indepen-

KwaZulu Natal Indaba

dence and selfgovernment shall bc recognized, and shall be the basis of close cooperation.

Let all who lovb their people and their country now say, as we say here:

695

THESE FREEDOMS WE wrr.r. FIGHT FOR, SIDE BY SIDE, THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES UNTIL WE HA VE WON OUR LIBERTY.

III. KwaZulu Natal Indaba Bill of Rights (1986)

Guarantees

to everyone the equal protection of the law, without regard to race, colour, ethnic origin, political opinion or economic status and, in particular

!

I Enshrines the right to life an4 liberty

the right to own add occupy property anywhere the principle of administrative justice

the right of public kducation

ethnic, linguistic a~d cultural rights

Will be

part of the constitution of the new Province of

Natal I

binding on provincial and local government in

Natal ,

enforced by the Supreme Court of South Africa

Human i:lignity and equality before the law

.(1) All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

(2) Everyone is equal before the law, and shall be entitled, to equal protection of the law, without any distinction on the basis of race, colour, lariguage, sex, religion, ethnic or social origin, property, birth, political or other opini;on, or economic or other status.

Right to life

2.(1) Everyone's right to life shall be protected by law, anClno one may be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a ~rime for which this penalty is provided by law.

(2) Deprivation of life shall not constitute a contravention of this article when it results from the use of such force as is absolutely

necessary and justified in the circumstances

(i) in defence of any person against unlawful violence;

(ii) to effect a lawful arrest in order to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained for a serious offence;

(iii) in action lawfully taken for the purposes of quelling a riot or insurrection.

Punishment

3. No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Right of liberty

4. (1) No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.

(2) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour: Provided that this does not include-

(a) any normal work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention under the provisions of subsection (3) or during conditional release from such detention;

(b) any service of a military character in terms of a law requiring citizens to undergo military training;

(c) any service exacted in case of emergency or calamity threatening the existence or well-being of the Province;

(d) any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations imposed bylaw

(3) Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person and no one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law which does not deny his basic rights to physical and mental health and integrity

(a) the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;

696

(b) the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court;

(c) the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before a competent legal authority on reasonable gronnds of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;

(d) the lawful detention of a person for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of a person of unsound mind, an alcoholic or drug addict;

(e) the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the Province or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.

(4) Everyone who is arrested shall bc informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.

(5) Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of subsection (3)(c) shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial, which may be COnditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.

(6) In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and pnblic hearing within a reasonable tinie by an independent and impartial court established by law; judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public ma y be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interests of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where the publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.

(7) Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

(8) Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right-

(a) to be informed promptly, ill a language of his choice which he under-

'Textanhang

stands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;

(b) to have adequate and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

(c) to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it at no cost to himself when the interests of justice so require;

(d) to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against hirn;

(e) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in the court, or ifhe so requests.

(9) Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be informed promptly in a language of his choice which he understands, and in detail, the reasons for his arrest and detention, and shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the la wfulness of his detention is decided speedily by a court, and to be released if the detention is not lawful: Provided that if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, he will be given it at no cost to himself.

(10) Everyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

(11) No one who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

(12) No one who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence~f which he could have been convicted at the trial for the offence, save upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

(13) No one shall be found guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omrnission which did not constitute a penal offence at the time when it was committed.

Right to administrative justice

5.(1) All administrative tribunals, public authorities and officials shall follow rules of fundamental fairness in coming to their de-

KwaZ"I" Natal lndabo

cisions and they shall, unless inappropriate, be required to furnish reasons for such decisions.

(2) Delegated legislation shall be drafted with a reasonable allowance for public comment and participation.

(3) Everyone who has suffered damage as a result of unlawful action by public authorities shall have all enforceable right to compensation.

Right of privacy and protection of the family

6.(1) No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or communications, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.

(2) The widest possible protection and assistance shall be accorded to the family, which is the natural and fundamental group in society, and the care and upbringing of children are recognised as a natural right of, and a duty primarily incumbent on, the parents.

Right of property

7.(1) Everyone has the right to lawfully own and occupy property anywhere in the Province.

(2) No one is to be deprived of his property without due process oflaw, and expropriation may only be authorised in terms of a law if it is for the public benefit and if equitable and fair compensation is promptly paid .. :

(3) Land and natural resources shall not be expropriated except for the common good and in accordance with laws providing for equitable compensation.

Ethnic, religious, linguistic, cultural and educational rights

8.(1) A person belonging to an ethnic, religious or linguistic group shall not be denied the right to enjoy his own culture, to profess and practise his own religion or to use his own language.

(2) Everyone shall have the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the Province, to enjoy the arts, to share in scientific advancement and its benefits, and to the free and full development of his personality.

(3) In all proceedings involving customary law followed by persons in the Province, such law may be applied except insofar as the court find~ that it has fallen into disuse or is

697

contrary to the principles of natural justice and morality.

(4) Every person shall have the same right to public education in an institution that will cater for his interests, aptitudes and abilities and the Province shall make provision for this right without discrimination: Provided that, notwithstanding the provisions of section 1(2), it may, in providing facilities, dinstingnish between persons on grounds ofJanguage or Sex.

Freedom of movement

9. Everyone lawfully present in the Province, shall be entitled to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of the Province.

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

10.(1) Everyone shall be entitled to freedom of thought, conscience and religion and to change his religion or belief, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance, whether alone or in community with others, in public Or in private.

(2) No one shall be compelled against his religious convictions to render military service involving the use of arms but shall be required to perform national service as required by law in lieu thereof

Freedom of opinion and expression

11.(1) Everyone shall be entitled to freedom of opinion and expression, which includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart inforrnation and ideas.

(2) Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred and aggression between groups that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility, violence or political animosity is prohibited.

Freedom of as sod at ion

12.(1) Everyone shall be entitled to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests, and 110 One may be compelled to belong to an association.

(2) Everyone shall be free to form or to join political parties in order to participate in periodic and free elections, which shall be held by secret ballot or by equivalent free voting procedures.

698

Freedom of work and freedom of contract

13.(1) Everyone shall be entitled to equal work opportunities and to free choice of employment.

(2) Everyone with legal capacity shall have freedom to contract and to conclude agreements with others in the voluntary exercise of his rights and freedoms and generally for the promotion of his interests.

Restriction of rights and freedoms

14.(1) The rights and freedoms recognised under the provisions of this Bill of Rights may be restricted by a law of the Provinciallegislature which has general application, for reasons which are necessary in a free and democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health and morals, for the protection of the rights, freedoms and reputation of others, for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary and for the social, moral and economic well-being of all the inhabitants of the Province.

(2) Everyone's exercise of his rights and freedoms shall be subject to such limitations as are legally determined for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others; and groups which by reason of their aims and the behaviour of their adherents, seek to impair or abolish the free democratic order

Textanhano

Inhidf{I'(Tzric!/liis

or to endanger the security of the Province, are prohibited.

(3) A fnndamcnral right and freedom protected in this Bill of Rights may not be abolished or in its essence be encroached upon by a law of the Province.

Enforcement of rights and freedoms

15. (1) The rights and freedoms protected in this Bill of Rights are binding on the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and all government institutions in the Province insofar as the fall within the purview of and flow from the powers and functions devolved on the Province and any person may forthwith apply to the Supreme Court or to other competent authorities provided for in the Constitution by appropriate proceedings or by petition to enforce these rights and freedoms.

(2) The Supreme Court shall have the power to make all such orders as may be necessary and appropriate to secure to the applicant the enjoyment of any of the rights conferred by the provisions of this Bill of Rights:

Provided that if at the commencement of this Constitution there are laws in existence in the Province which fall within the purview of the powers and functions bestowed on the Province and which are inconsistent with this Rill of Rights, such laws may, after the lapse of one year after the COI11- mencement of this Constitution and on application to the Supreme Court he declared void to the extent of such inconsistency.

LmllAR SClIUJ.U:: Die Rcformcn des ncucn Partcifiihrcrs M. Gorbaccv im politischcn,

wirtschaftlich-sozialcn und aulicnpolitischcn Bereich 1(,'1

Vgl. i': r 22, 1i!1. l\1c-iSSIlC·I III. iv. N., N F 27, .121. Mcixsurr; NF 2'1, 2'J:lIli;,"kcnagci; NP 31, 1 t!.l:

Luchtcrhandt

II.

FRANK J. HENNECKE: Die vcrfassuuusrcchtlichc Entwick lung in Rheinland-Pfalz VOIl

1\171 bis I \IRS 1 R 1

Vgl. NF s. 15'1: Schur.ck: NF 20,241 Schunrk

WALTEH STIEIlELER: Die Rcchtsprerhung des l lamburg ischcn Vcrfassungsgerichts VOIl

1 \16\1 bis lcm4 229

Vgl. NF (,,223: Glatz/ILlas; NF 25,27: Freitag/llo;]s

1. Amcrika

IV!JCIIAEL BClTIIF: La protection des droits fondanu-nraux 311 Camel;, 267

Vg1. NF 32,625: McWhinlley Ill. w.N.

JULIANE KOKoTr: Die Entwicklung des Eigelltul11sschutzcs ill dcr Rechtsprechung des

Supreme Court dcr USA. 3."\'1

Vg1. NF 33,367: Mcngcl m.w.N.

ROLf KUIlNm: Executive Agreements im Vcrfassungsrccht der Vercinigtcn Sraatcn 3(,5

S. die Nachwcise zum vorigcn Beitrag

JOSE RUBENS COSTA: Finanzvcrfassungsrcchtlichc Problcmc des Fodcralismus und der

kornmunalen Selbstvcrwaltung ill Hrasilicn 399

Vgl. NF 7,353: de SOliS": NF 211,517: de Sousa

JOCHEN fUUIS: Dic Vcrfassung dcr Rcpublik Costa Rica 425

Textallhallg· Die Verfassung von Costa Rica (1949)

481

II. Asicn

GUWAIl!) MOLTMANN: I )ic Vcrfassungsentwicklung Afghanistans von 1901 his 198G. SOl)

](_'x/!1I11!t1l1g: Die grundlegcndcll Prinz ipicn der Demokratischcn Republik Afghanistan \"0111

21. April 19HIl. 56'1

HYt>-:JHlN KIM: Hundcrt jah rc Verfossungsrccht ill Korea und Deutschland. bnlleitrag

zur Rczcptionsgcsrhichte dcutschcr: Rcchts in Korea. 575

Vgl. NF 12. 461: YUIl; NF 24,619: Kwon: NF 27, (,(t.l: Kang

7;xt,,"h,l1I_~: Vcrfassung dCI Rcpuhlik Korea (1 Y80) Gil,!

Yxo LI-I\1ING: Die Fragc der Vcrfa ssuugsdur chbrcchung in dcr Vcrfassungswirklichkcit

Nat ioualrhinns (j I ')

Vgl. NF 21 639: WCIlg; NF 27,535: Wcng

1£',Yfillf!1111lg' Die vorlallfigc Hcstuu mung des nntronalchmesischcn Verfassllngsrechts (\'0111

10. MJi 1948 mir sp itcrcn AndcrungcJ1) . . . . . . . ()42