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A SEMINAR REPORT ON
AUTOMATED HIGHWAY SYSTEM
Shimpi Tanmay R.
Department of Automobile Engineering Academic year 2009-2010 Affiliated to North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (NAAC Accredited ****)
It is my privilege to acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude to my Seminar report Guide Prof. M.S.Singh for their valuable suggestion & guidance throughout my course of study & timely help given to me in the completion of this Seminar report.
I am highly obliged to the our respected Principal Dr. A. J. Patil, H.O.D of Automobile Dept. Prof. S. J.Chaudhari and entire staff of Automobile Dept. for their kind help & co-operation. I also take this opportunity to thank all my colleagues for offering all possible helps.
Shimpi Tanmay R.
Shimpi Tanmay R has successfully presented the Seminar report on AUTOMATED HIGHWAY SYSTEM And submitted in satisfactory manner.S.B. Jalgaon (M. Shirsoli Road. Jalgaon (M. This Seminar report is submitted in partial fulfillment for the Final year in Automobile Engineering affiliated to North Maharashtra University.E Automobile Certificate Shrikrishna Educational & Cultural Mandal’s Shri Sureshdada Jain College of Engineering.S.) DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING This is certify that Mr.) SEMINAR GUIDE HOD .
A. Chaudhari Dr.Prof. Patil .S. M. S.Singh PRINCIPAL Prof. J. J.
INDEX 1. ADVANTAGES 7. Theory i) Implementation ii) Methodology 6. Background 3. Objectives of Automated highway systems 4. Future scope 8. Conclusion . Introduction 2. How it Works 5.
Figure Figure no 1 Figure no 2 Figure no 3 Figure no 4 Figure no 5 Figure no 6 Figure no 7 Figure no 8 Figure no 9 .
transport systems in the present-day European city are mostly of a traditional type. These new transport systems will be the answer to the new mobility demands of the future society. Background Every major city suffers from the problems that are related to increasing mobility demands. With the exception of some automatically operated metro systems (Paris. the urban mobility will be greatly supported by new transport system concepts. In future mobility scenarios. automated highway system will contribute to innovative solutions that will allow increased mobility in a well-controlled manner. using technologies with low pollution. It is most often touted as a means of traffic congestion relief. which are able to improve the efficiency of road transport in dense areas while at the same time help to reach the zero accident target and minimize nuisances. London and Lille) and some recently introduced automated buses and people-movers (Clermont-Ferrand. Cities have to deal with pollution. . In our vision. such new transport systems will be part of the urban environment. using either a separate infrastructure or existing roads. Eindhoven and Capelle aan de IJssel). congestion and safety problems caused by increasing traffic. Traditional transport systems are not sufficient anymore to cope with these increasing problems. since it drastically reduces following distances and thus allows more cars to occupy a given stretch of road.Introduction:An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Road is a proposed intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. high safety levels and a much increased efficiency.
now and in the future. . To survey and document automated highway system with pedestrian safety systems on roads. For instance.Objectives Automated highway system’s ambitious goals can be achieved by: Developing advanced concepts for advanced road vehicles for passengers and goods. methods and tools developed in AUTOMATED HIGHWAY SYSTEM in European cities. video cameras. Most of the earlier projects addressed isolated aspects of the mobility problems of cities. but will also contribute to a sustainable solution for the city’s mobility problems. Some of these barriers are of a technological nature. AUTOMATED HIGHWAY SYSTEM will develop tools that can help cities to cross the thresholds that are preventing them from introducing innovative systems. which effectively prohibits driverless vehicles from using public roads. studies will be carried out to show that an automated transport system is not only feasible. some are of a legal or administrative nature: for example. These systems include crossing control arms. Validating and demonstrating the concepts. whereas AUTOMATED HIGHWAY SYSTEM focuses on the overall urban transportation problem Introducing new tools for managing urban transport. Taking away barriers that are in the way of large-scale introduction of automated systems. In a number of other cities. the legal requirement for vehicles using public roads where the driver is responsible for the vehicle at all times. the absence of certification procedures and the lack of suitable business models will be addressed. radar and acoustic detection systems. skirts. and collision avoidance systems.
1 intelligent vehicle with sensors and actuators . The distance between platoons is the conventional braking distance. the spikes can have either magnetic north or magnetic south facing up. The roadway thus has small amounts of digital data describing interchanges. the roadway has magnetized stainless-steel spikes driven one meter apart in its center The car senses the spikes to measure its speed and locate the center of the lane. Fig no. etc. so that air resistance is minimized. Furthermore. The cars organize themselves into platoons of eight to twenty-five cars. The cars have power steering and automatic speed controls. the maximum number of harmed cars should be one platoon. which are controlled by a computer. The platoons drive themselves a meter apart.How it works In one scheme. If anything goes wrong. recommended speeds.
ATMS require relevant information about the actual system performance on the entire road infrastructure under consideration. To achieve a system optimum. the authorities strive to alleviate the prevailing car-caused problems by means of coordinating physical flows of road traffic.g. Shorter distances between the detectors would make such a network-wide monitoring system financially prohibitive. ATMS aim at an optimal traffic performance at system level. which might be expressed as serving as many cars on the concerning road network. which are also responsible for the road infrastructure. infrastructure based traffic detectors (e. an ATMS monitoring system is obviously based on fixed traffic detectors that are mounted in. above or along the road infrastructure. estimating expected delay. dissipating a minimum total travel time. we distinguish two classes of involved information systems • • Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traffic Control Systems (ATCS). inductive loops) is characterized by rather large detector spacing’s (typically of 5 to 10 kilometers. We will refer to this type of detectors as infrastructure based traffic detectors. . As far as the abovementioned aims are concerned. An important characteristic of ATMS applications is that decisions are made and measures are (seen to be) implemented by traffic managers in the traffic center. The traffic performance on the remaining (parts of the) road networks are considered to be of less interest for ATMS. Only in this way. in time intervals of 1 to 5 minutes) and concerns traffic data that is aggregated to a certain extent. A typical example of an ATMS application is Incident Management. These processes take place at a given demand for road traffic that is assumed to be fixed in time and place (i. For the concerning area. determining spare capacity of the remaining road links and proportionally distributing traffic over the entire network. which deals with swiftly detecting disturbances in the traffic flows.g. ATMS strive for a system optimum. which complete the collected external data collections with know-how gathered by training and experience.Theory In order to achieve an optimal utilization of the existing transportation system.e. no demand management). congregated sections of the freeway network or parts of the urban or the rural network). The information about the actual status of the traffic (and the infrastructure) should be available in real-time (e. In addition.g. ATMS can dynamically adjust or distribute the actually offered traffic to or over the available infrastructural capacity by means of traffic management measures. they take into account preserving accessibility and environment as well as enhancing road safety.. As a consequence of the network-wide oriented nature of ATMS. In this way. an ATMS monitoring system using fixed. Since the administrators of ATMS applications are the road authorities. Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) The class of Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) is area-oriented and concentrates on a (certain part of a) road network (e.
The complexity of computer models and the calculation speed of computers restrict area-wide application of ATCS. an ATCS monitoring system exclusively concerns the direct vicinity of the corresponding (ATCS) traffic control system and basically only provides traffic data for this control system.. these detector spacings are financially affordable. tunnels and on/off ramps). Moreover. A typical example of an ATC system application is ramp metering. in intervals of several seconds to 1 minute). according to the definition of information systems given before. The data collections for ATCS should be very accurate. The instruments belonging to the class of ATCS are more or less rigid standard operations. for instance by adjusting certain parameters.g. As a consequence of the local oriented nature of ATCS. ATCS aim at an optimal traffic performance at local level.g. ATCS are local-oriented and concentrate on certain parts of the road infrastructure (i. so dissipating a minimum total time loss. which can be fully automated and need no human intervention. ATCS constitute no true information system (the component 'persons' is not involved). This might be expressed as serving as many of the offered cars as possible in a time period that is as short as possible. Longer distances between the detectors.e. infrastructure based traffic detectors (e. inductive loops) with very small detector spacings (typically of some hundreds of meters) will be suitable.Advanced Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) Advanced Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) serves as 'executive complement' to the class of Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS). ATCS strive for a local optimum. because computations and actions need to be performed in real-time. The exact objectives of the particular ATCS can be modified by the corresponding ATMS. Almost all traffic systems that are currently employed belong to the class of ATCS applications. or utilization of non-infrastructure based traffic detectors is not eligible as this can only provide data with a accuracy and a reliability that will be too low for ATCS. critical or notorious bottlenecks. possibly relate to individual vehicles and be directly available in real-time (e. For these local sites. Hence. such as bridges. only fixed. depending on the proportion between the actual flow and capacity of the freeway. which deals with gradually allowing vehicles on the on-ramp to enter the freeway. Since ATCS applications concern only a very limited geographical area. . In this way.
the class of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). an ATIS monitoring system should preferably be independent of an ATMS monitoring system and preferably be based on anything but infrastructure based traffic detectors exploited by government or state. This implies that specific parts of different networks (urban. These characteristics are in sharp contradiction to the information requirements of ATMS applications. This might be expressed in a minimal travel time (or a minimal generalized time. one can use a monitoring system based on non-infrastructure based detectors. requiring extremely short detector spacing’s due to the close-meshed urban road infrastructure. about the travel time on alternative routes and about alternative ways of available transport. Hence. with information about delays on routes at the moment they will actually be used (requiring short term predictions) instead of instantaneous information. In this way. Hence.Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) Where the road authorities aim at achieving an optimal utilization of 'their' transportation system. i. ATIS strive for several individual users optima. . both area-wide and concerning several networks that cover each entire route. in consideration of the opposite objectives of ATMS and ATIS. at the moment of passage. supports the road user in achieving this task. The third class of applications of transportation telematics that we distinguish. For these specific ATIS purposes. such as probe vehicles. so comprising the actual or perceived travel time. ATIS require information about complete routes from origin to destination.e. For the purpose of supporting and achieving several individual users' optima.e. an ATIS monitoring system can not always practically be based on fixed. within the limiting conditions dictated by the various ATMS and ATCS applications. road users may be assumed to be predominantly interested in accomplishing an optimal route from their origin to their destination over this infrastructure (user optimum). rural and state) that are relevant during a specific trip are of interest. the regular traffic information to be obtained for ATIS purposes may become available every rather long time interval of for instance 5 to 15 minutes (incidents should be reported more swiftly). would be unrealistic. but entire network. Furthermore. In particular installing fixed traffic detectors in an entire urban road network. infrastructure based traffic detectors. traveled distance. about delays on the regular route. in general. These are normal vehicles that participate in the traffic flow. are equipped with a location and communication device and accordingly transmit experienced traffic data to a traffic center. et cetera) for their entire trip. real-time) information about one. As a consequence of the established characteristics of ATIS information. which demand predominantly actual (i. the core objective of ATIS is to provide each road user with the information he or she needs to achieve his or her specific travel objectives.
2. The trial tested the following components of the system: .000 drivers. Fig no. It also provides drivers with fastest-route information with Nissan’s probe server collecting city –wide traffic data from the mobile phones of Nissan’s CARWINGS navigation service subscribers. run from Oct. and vehicle data collected by mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo.1) Implementation:We are set to begin testing an intelligent transportation system in Japan that allows vehicle. 2006 until the end of March 2009 in Kanagawa Prefecture. Screen shots and diagrams here.Actual Smart vehicle system The test. 1. participated in the test. which is being conducted to evaluate the receptivity of drivers to such a system. taxi services. This information is then sent to the driver’s navigation screen where it is displayed as real-time maps showing the traffic flow and density.infrastructure communication to help reduce traffic accidents and ease congestion. who must be subscribers to Nissan’s CARWINGS navigation service. The system uses information obtained from nearby vehicles and roadside optical beacons to wirelessly alert drivers to potential danger from approaching vehicles. about 25 kilometers southwest of Tokyo. About 10.
including taxi owners.” At the same time. a buzzer will sound and a voice recording will call out: “Car approaching from left. a public service providing similar information via FM multiplex broadcasting. For example. a buzzer will sound and a voice recording will warn: “School ahead. As soon as a driver passes the speed limit in the area. All of the data is sent to Nissan’s probe server where it is collectively processed into traffic information.Vehicle alert This system alerts drivers to the presence of vehicles moving too fast at blind intersections. an image of an approaching vehicle will appear on the driver’s CARWINGS navigation screen. as well as vehicle data collected by mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo. as well as radio wave and infrared beacons . Speed alert This system warns drivers when they are speeding in a school zone. The data is then sent to the driver’s navigation screen where it is displayed in the form of real-time maps showing the traffic flow of a greater coverage of roads compared to VICS (Vehicle Information and Communications System).” An image of a school zone sign will also appear on the driver’s navigation screen. Watch your speed. Dynamic route finder This system informs drivers of the quickest route to their destination using probe data collected from mobile phones of CARWINGS subscribers. The system will also alert a driver when is detects that he or she approaching a stop sign or red traffic light too fast. if the system determines that a car is approaching a driver too fast from the left.
Fig no. Traffic data can be collected from the employee cars and shuttle buses without any on-board vehicle-modification. each with multiple intersections and crosswalks. several hundred employee cars will be equipped with the Vehicle Information and Communications System units. The new advanced traffic system is designed to reduce accidents as well as ease traffic congestion. is about to begin the next test-phase. The vehicle-data input and corresponding traffic-signal output from the intersections is computed by an advanced traffic light system specifically installed for the test program. Nissan has installed standard traffic lights and roadside optical beacons along these test-roads.Vehicle alert The test-phase conducted within Nissan’s premises is representative of real-world traffic conditions. .2) Methodology:Nissan’s intelligent transportation system (ITS) . where relevant data from vehicles can be collected and analyzed under a closelymonitored environment. leading to improved onthe-road fuel consumption. Nissan is installing the advanced traffic signal infrastructure within its Nissan Technical Center in Kanagawa to collect real-world vehicle data from several hundred employee cars participating in the project.4. one running east-west for two kilometers and the other running north-south for one kilometer. Two intersecting main roads. provide the basic parameters for the ITS experiment. However. for specific data to support the development of the navigation program under testing. which employs vehicle-to-infrastructure communication to enable synchronized communication between vehicles and traffic light signals.
The system is able to determine the distance to the car in front. an indicator will appear on the instrument panel and a buzzer will sound simultaneously. The Distance Control Assist System is the latest innovation developed under Nissan’s Safety Shield concept.diagrametic view of implementation of sensors A new Distance Control Assist System. using a radar sensor in the front bumper.Fig no. The accelerator pedal then automatically moves upwards to assist the driver in switching to the brakes. the system automatically applies the brakes. and revolves around Nissan’s aims to help create a safe motorized society in which there are no traffic accidents. The Safety Shield concept was introduced in 2004. as well as the relative speed of both cars. The new system is especially useful in heavy traffic when frequent braking is required. If the system determines that braking is required. The company is continuously working to design and engineer safer vehicles and has set a goal of halving by 2015 the number of fatal and serious injuries involving Nissan vehicles as compared to the 1995 level. If the driver releases the accelerator pedal or is not pressing the accelerator pedal. an electronic system that helps drivers control the distance between themselves and the vehicle in front. and accident prevention and management approach based on the idea of "vehicles that help protect people".5. .
the Kanagawa Prefectural Police Headquarters and the Universal Traffic Management Society of Japan (UTMS). and Xanavi Informatics. school zones. The navigation system can also recommend faster route calculations. Nissan’s ongoing development and trials of Intelligent Transportation Systems in Japan. a maker of vehicle navigation systems and software. In this system. Nissan's advanced ITS employs the next 3G cellular communications system. but a new development is the use of cell phone technology to help reduce accidents involving pedestrians. consumer electronics maker Matsushita Electric. Fig no. Matsushita Electric developed the roadside optical beacons for the test in conjunction with Japan’s National Police Agency. The company is launching an automotive navigation system that uses intelligent transportation system (ITS) infrastructure and other advanced technology to warn drivers of low-visibility intersections.Use of CELL Phone:Nissan’s intelligent transportation system test is being implemented in cooperation with NTT DoCoMo. Nissan is researching the pedestrian-related communication involving the transmitting of pedestrian position data to vehicles via the Global Positioning System (GPS). which can lead to fuel savings. and navigation-linked speed control.use of cell phone for addressing vehicle We’ve written before about Intelligent Transportation Systems in general and in particular. just launched in Japan. location data transmitted from the pedestrian's cellular phone and vehicle . Nissan's new enhanced on-board navigation system will provide drivers with more information to make safer and greener driving decisions. where the GPS function is used as the basis to provide location information of the cellular phone.6.
The ITS project allows Nissan to test various technology concepts and develop the most suitable technology solution for wide-scale application.is fed to the ITS to allow the system to determine the corresponding positions between the pedestrian and the vehicle. The research will investigate a variety of factors influencing the pedestrian-vehicle's relative positions. helping to reduce road accidents particularly in a blind-spot situation. The received data is then computed to determine the corresponding location of the vehicle relative to the pedestrians on the road. in which pedestrians and the vehicle are moving. are also under study. Nissan is studying and developing the ITS with technical collaboration from NTT DoCoMo Inc. This current research aims to join and contribute to the ITS project. the system wirelessly collects probe data from the vehicle (such as position and speed) and position data from pedestrians. employing the W-CDMA system. The next 3G cellular communications system uses digital cellular phones that meet the International Telecommunication Union's MT-2000 specification. The world's first 3G service. and the corresponding speeds and distances between them. which is a Nissan experimental program conducted in Kanagawa Prefecture that begun in October 2006. Mercedes-Benz E-class and Audi A6. The program is aimed at efforts to help reduce traffic accidents and congestion utilizing real-time driving-data collected from the vehicles. A pedestrian alert will appear onboard the vehicle to warn the driver. including sound. FOMA is a registered trademark of NTT DoCoMo Inc. allowing high-speed data transfers and delivery of high-volume multi-media information. will be included on the next generation Nissan Fuga late in 2009 in Japan. Toyota Crown. such as the directions. This advanced ITS research consists of the following process: 1) Via cellular packet communications. BMW 5 series. . Various driver alerts. which became available in October 2001. which the company says is the world’s first to incorporate ITS information in a production vehicle. The new navigation system. Nissan is studying what types of pedestrian data are most relevant to help prevent accidents. images and video. on cellular communications technology. allowing a singular line to be shared among many users and increasing efficiency in telecommunications. was FOMA by NTT DoCoMo. The Nissan Fuga is a full-sized luxury car pitched against the Honda Legend. and send a warning alert to the driver at the event of a potential conflict. Cellular packet communications is a method of data transfer where the data to be sent and received are divided into packets of a specific size. such as visual warnings or audible alarms. 2) The ITS detects pedestrians ahead of the vehicle.
it provides audible and display warnings to direct driver attention. reduces traffic congestion and promotes greener driving.). Faster route searches Using probe data (wireless) traffic information from individual vehicles sent to the Carwings Center. drivers can receive audible and display warnings when approaching some low-visibility intersections. fuel efficiency and safety. braking. Safety features Intersection and signal warning Using information transmitted from the Driving Safety Support System (DSSS). based on real-time vehicle information (speed. a line of greener cars released in Japan in April. School zone alerts When the vehicle enters an elementary school zone and the system determines that a safety warning is appropriate. such as waiting times at intersections and traffic signals and delivers it to other vehicles in the area. Nissan's new navigation system will include four advanced features in addition to the standard functions: • • • • intersection/signal warning elementary school-zone alerts navigation-linked speed control enhanced route search and calculation The goal of the enhanced navigation system is to help prevent accidents at intersections and raise awareness for safer driving. It is also viewed as one method of reducing traffic congestion by advising motorists of traffic hazards and alternate routes.ITS technology capitalizes on modern communication and information technology networks and can be incorporated into existing transportation management systems in order to optimize vehicle life. if it determines the car is traveling too fast for the sharpness of a corner or is approaching a tollgate too quickly. this system supplies information for roads. etc. Using this information for route calculation makes route searches more precise. This feature is currently in use on the Nissan Eco series. for instance. Navigation-linked speed control The system can slow the vehicle’s speed through engine braking. acceleration. This feature is already available in the recently-released Nissan Skyline Crossover. moves traffic faster. This can also make driving more fuel efficient. .
which will appear as a warning alert to speeding vehicles on its on-board navigation display. When a vehicle approaches and stops at the light. which then allows the signal to switch to green.School proximity sensors In principle. Fig no. At times.ADVANTAGES:1. Help reduce pedestrian accidents: Traffic signals place priority on crossing pedestrians Based on the traffic-volume conditions. the pedestrian signal remains on green while the driver signal is maintained on red. the vehicle-system communicates with the traffic light beacon. The current test program will contribute to Nissan’s research findings on ways to avoid such accidents. thus improving on-the-road fuel consumption under citydriving conditions. which is a common cause of accidents. This system emphasizes the safety of the pedestrians by ensuring the pedestrian has the right-of-way each time. the system will calculate to optimize the timing lapse between crossing pedestrians and the change in traffic-signal. the system again synchronizes the timing of the green signal with the approaching vehicle to minimize the need for repeated stops and acceleration. The test program will also include a virtual school zone*2. pedestrians tend to ignore prohibitive red traffic signals at road-crossings when they do not observe any vehicles within sight.7. . When a driver slows down accordingly on approaching an intersection. when traffic conditions are lighter in the daytime.
To help minimize accidents due to traffic-signal oversights. 2) Reduce congestion caused by red traffic signals and right-turn queues Fig no.2) Help reduce collisions due to traffic-signal oversights: Have traffic-signal alerts on-board vehicles Fig no.fig shows graphically alert for other vehicle The traffic-signal alert system automatically appears on the navigation display as a vehicle enters within a specified distance to an approaching traffic light. This alert system is already being tested on public roads under the ITS project in Kanagawa.09.08.right turn signal and vehicle detector .
Under the Nissan Green Program 2010. The advanced system is able to detect and respond to right-turning vehicles. Nissan is developing its ITS system to optimize the timing intervals between changing traffic signals to correspond with real-time traffic volume and flow in order to ease traffic congestion. thus reducing the queuing time and improve traffic flow at intersections.Traffic congestion is often caused by red traffic signals and vehicles queuing to take a right turn from one lane streets. This next phase of Nissan’s ITS research aims to optimize communication between vehicles and traffic signals to create an advanced traffic system where traffic signals operate in tandem with the vehicle-data input according to varying traffic conditions. Nissan is working to develop new technologies to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions from its vehicle line-up and global operating facilities. . announced in December 2006. Current research is moving forward on methods to synchronize groups of traffic signals to facilitate smooth traffic flow over a wider scope of traffic conditions. The ITS project in Kanagawa contributes to the NGP 2010 objectives by reducing traffic congestion and vehicle CO2 emissions through improved on-the-road fuel consumption. Looking ahead. Nissan hopes to help reduce traffic accidents and road congestion. the company will continue working closely with the relevant government agencies in bringing the current experiment onto public roads under the existing ITS project in Kanagawa.
pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom. most ETC systems were based on using radio devices in vehicles that would use proprietary protocols to identify a vehicle as it passed under a gantry over the roadway. a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point. or tolling device. At the same time. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option.11. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident. there has been a broad push toward vehicle infrastructure integration around the 5. ERTICO and ITS Japan. eCall is expected to be offered.APPLICATIONS:Electronic toll collection:-Electronic toll collection (ETC) makes it possible for vehicles to drive through toll gates at traffic speed. infrared communication systems. . Via its National Electronic Tolling Committee representing all jurisdictions and toll road operators. ITS Australia also facilitated interoperability of toll tags in Australia for the multi-lane free flow tolls roads. including time. an integrated eCall device.9 GHz frequency (802. and Radio Frequency Identification Tags. it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an in-vehicle interface). by the end of 2010. Other systems that have been used include barcode stickers. While communication frequencies and standards do differ around the world. at earliest. precise location. but more recent innovations have used ETC to enforce congestion pricing through cordon zones in city centers and ETC lanes. and vehicle identification. The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. Emergency vehicle notification systems:-The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of invehicle sensors after an accident. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system. Until recent years. More recently there has been a move to standardize ETC protocols around the Dedicated Short Range Communications protocol that has been promoted for vehicle safety by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America. license plate recognition. or a functionality of a broader system like navigation. the direction the vehicle was traveling. reducing congestion at toll plazas and automating toll collection. When activated. Originally ETC systems were used to automate toll collection. PSAP). Telematics device.x WAVE).
multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme. Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses.Automatic road enforcement A traffic enforcement camera system. The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements. Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red. Collision avoidance systems Japan has installed sensors on its highways to notify motorists that a car is stalled ahead. The simulation has shown that. is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number. Applications include: • • • • • • • Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle. the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas. Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road. In some jurisdictions. which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. Traffic tickets are sent by mail. It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column. consisting of a camera and a vehicle-monitoring device. . Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally. Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing.
Remember that we designed the Automated Highway System’s to solve the problem of Traffic congestion. for commercial vehicle. . Hence we see that the automated highway system is very helpful in traffic. on congested roads.CONCLUSION:Automated Highway System’s did not replace people. for lonely road transport by helping the driver and reducing chances of accident helping users a better driving. they just allowed another market to evolve. on right turns.
presumably desired by a user population with a high percentage of automation-capable vehicles. The system is slated to begin service this year. automatic guidance is a key component of the Bus Rapid Transit concept being advanced by the Federal Transit Administration. offering the high levels of per-lane capacity achievable through closeheadway operations. with traffic flow benefits achieved through vehicle-cooperative systems as well as vehicle-infrastructure cooperation. serving transit needs at a major theme park in Japan. Now. Once this level of functionality is proven and in broad use. Conn. networks of automated vehicle lanes would develop. First generation vehicle-highway automation for passenger cars is at least 10 years away. all under automated control. But if you have the inclination. the IMTS uses AHS technology to operate several buses in close-headway platoons. in which automated vehicles operate on today's roads with no extensive infrastructure modifications required. and several are actively considering automated guidance for precision docking (to improve efficiency in passenger loading) and exclusive lane operation in narrow. With growing use. and Cleveland. The vehicles may cluster in 'designated lanes' which are also open to normal vehicles. which has developed the Integrated Multimodal Transport System (IMTS). a first-generation of vehicle-highway automation is coming into focus. . confined corridors. Implementation of automated guidance is underway in Las Vegas and is expected to begin soon in Eugene.FUTURE SCOPE:From discussions with experts around the world. depending on who you talk to. or may be allowed on high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes to increase their proximity to one another and therefore get the benefits of cooperative operations (access to HOV lanes also creates a powerful incentive for consumers to invest in these systems). Ohio Another pioneer in automated public transport is Toyota. Stabilization of traffic flow and modest increases in capacity are seen as the key outcomes. Although many years away. Over a dozen US transit agencies are involved in the BRT Consortium. In the states. Hartford. with estimates for second generation implementation hovering around 2025. These vehicles would operate at spacing’s a bit tighter than commuter flows of today. a vehicle with automated capability could be available from a car dealer near you much sooner. Demonstrated at Demo 2000 last December in Japan. this type of evolution could take a while. Early co-pilot systems would evolve to autopilots gradually. Semi-automated bus systems are now being developed for Eindhoven in the Netherlands and the French cities of Clermont-Ferrand and Rouen. Oregon. a second generation scenario comes into play which expands to dedicated lanes. this time horizon is definitely not too far out for transportation planners to consider the advent of such capability in their long-range planning processes.
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