9.

3 The Importance of Proper Management of Development Activities and the Ecosystem
1. Sustainable development is the balance between the demands for resources with the need to conserve the resources. 2. Human activities that are harmful to the environment have a serious environmental impact. Implementation of laws Laws are created to protect the environment. a) Environmental Quality Act, 1974, 1985  Prevents and controls pollution. b) National Forestry Act, 1984  Protects and preserves our forests and wildlife. c) Pesticides Act, 1974  Controls the use of pesticides. d) Protection of Wildlife Act, 1972  Protects wildlife. e) Fisheries Act, 1985  Controls marine pollution. Use of technology 1. Modern technology can be used to reduce pollution and prevent further damage of the environment. 2. Rubbish can be sorted into recyclable materials and non-recyclable materials. Non-recyclable materials can be burnt in incinerators where heat produced can be reclaimed and used in heating or to generate electricity. 3. Catalytic converters are used to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted and to convert harmful gases released during combustion if fossil fuels into less harmful products. 4. Unleaded petrol can be used to replace leaded petrol. 5. Filters are fixed on chimneys of factories to reduce the amount of pollutants. 6. Sewage is treated before it discharged into water. 7. Bacteria can be used to breakdown oil which is spilled in the sea.

3R concept ad introduced to reduce the pollution to the environment

Education 1. Education is the best way to educate the public on the need to maintain a balanced ecosystem. In Malaysia, environmental education is one aspect of the National Education Philosophy. 2. Environmental education is carry out to:  Increase the awareness towards the environment and its problem.  Impart the knowledge to society on the environment, problems of the environment as well as their duty and responsibility. 3. Formal education is carried out in schools, colleges, universities and other institution. Preservation and conservation Preservation involves efforts to protect the ecosystem to maintain its dynamic equilibrium.

1. Conservation involves efforts to return an affected ecosystem back to its dynamic equilibrium. 2. Measure that are taken include: a) Control of grazing by animals b) Farming along contours c) Crop rotation d) Cultivation on terraces e) Proper use of fertilizers f) Effective irrigation and drainage 4. Water sources must be preserved to ensure clean water supply. 5. Mangrove swamps are rich in biodiversity. Mangrove swamps are important in flood control, nutrient retention, sediment control and prevention of coastal erosion. Efforts must be made to preserve and conserve the mangrove swamps. 6. Forests are conserved by adopting selective harvesting (only mature trees are removed), reforestation, restoration programmes (restore damaged habitats) and establish forest reserves to ensure that the genetic diversity of flora and fauna is maintained. Biological control 1. Biological is the use of natural predators to control the population of pest species. 2. Biological control is better than chemical control which uses pesticides 3. The advantage of the use of biological control: Cheaper than chemical control Selectivity, it does not intensify or create new pest problems The pest is unable (or very slow) to develop a resistance Does not affect the ecosystem equilibrium It is a safe and effective method that is environmentally friendly Renewable energy 1) Renewable energy is the energy flow that occurs naturally in the environment and be harnessed for the benefit of humans. 2) It is inexhaustible and does not pollute the environment. 3) Renewable energy are:  Solar energy  Wind energy  Geothermic energy  Hydroelectric energy  Biomass energy  Wave energy 4) Non-renewable energy like fossil fuels will be exhausted and cannot be renewed if its usage is not controlled. 5) Use natural gas and reduce combustion of fossil fuels. 6) Invention of the hybrid and electric cars can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.

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Solar panels used to generate electricity with solar energy

Activities related to the management of the ecosystem 1) Human activities can cause an imbalanced ecosystem or even destroy an imbalanced ecosystem or even destroy an ecosystem. 2) We should be aware of all the activities which can threaten the ecosystem equilibrium. 3) Many activities can be carried out to encourage the students to care for the ecosystem, such as build a fish pond, caring and keeping the school garden or house garden beautiful and clean and getting people to recycle materials. 4) Campaign such as “Environment Day”, “Recycling Day” and “Earth Day” can also been carried out.

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