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HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE
Submitted by YADBIR SINGH STUDENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BHABHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KANPUR (DEHAT) firstname.lastname@example.org
This is to certify that seminar report entitled “Hybrid synergy drives” being submitted by Yadbir Singh (0725440058) to Mechanical Engineering Department of Bhabha Institute of Technology Kanpur Dehat India, in partial fulfillment for the award for degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech), is a record of bonfire work carried under my supervision and guidance.
is a record of bonfire work carried under my supervision and guidance.Tech).CERTIFICATE This is to certify that seminar report entitled “Hybrid synergy drives” being submitted by Yadbir Singh (0725440058) to Mechanical Engineering Department of Bhabha Institute of Technology Kanpur Dehat India. .AKHIL KUMAR . in partial fulfillment for the award for degree of Bachelor of Technology (B. HEAD OF DEPARTMENT MR .
I would also like to express my thanks to Er. Bupendra Singh. Kanpur. 0725440058 Mechanical Engineering Bhabha Institute of Technology. Yadbir Singh Roll no.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks and deep sense of gratitude to all those who helped me to writing this Report. First. This most sincere and important acknowledgement and gratitude is due to my parents. India . who have given their moral boosting support and encouragements at some stage of this endeavor.
.........3 Type chapter title (level 1)...............................................................................................4 Type chapter title (level 2)......................................................Table of Contents A brief introduction of hybrid synergy drives..........................................................1 Principle (HSD)...............................................2 MG1-MG2...............................................................................................................................6 ....................................5 Type chapter title (level 3)...
the HSD-derived systems used in Lexus vehicles were termed Lexus Hybrid Drive since 2006). Highlander Hybrid. and Lexus HS 250h automobiles. it also combines an electric drive and a planetary gear set which performs similarly to a continuously variable transmission. The second generation system THS II first appeared on the redesigned Prius.HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in the company's Prius. The name was changed in anticipation of its use in vehicles outside the Toyota brand (Lexus. By May 2007 Toyota sold one million hybrids and by the end of August 2009 had sold a total of two million. Camry Hybrid. HSD technology produces a full hybrid vehicle and allows the car to perform on the electric motor only as opposed to most other brand hybrids which cannot and are considered mild hybrids. Lexus GS 450h. . HSD is a refinement of the original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) used in the 1997–2003 Toyota Prius. The Lexus Hybrid Drive system has since been touted for its increase in vehicle power as well as environmental and efficiency benefits. It is also used in the Nissan Altima Hybrid. Toyota hybrids make up approximately 75% of United States hybrid sales. Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h. Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal/accelerator and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer.
The alternator is used to recharge the battery and run the accessories when the engine is running. When higher speeds. Toyota describes HSD-equipped vehicles as having ECVT (Electronically-controlled Continuously Variable Transmission). faster acceleration or more power for charging the batteries is needed the . A battery is used only to start the car's internal combustion engine and run accessories when the engine is not running.PRINCIPLE The Toyota HSD replaces a normal geared transmission with an electromechanical system. The motor-generator uses power from the battery pack to propel the vehicle at startup and at low speeds or under acceleration. and a battery pack that serves as an energy reservoir. Because an internal combustion engine (ICE) delivers power best only over a small range of torques and speeds. alternator and starter motor with a pair of powerful motor-generators (designated MG1 and MG2. When required to classify the transmission type of an HSD vehicle (such as in standard specification lists or for regulatory purposes). a mechanical power splitter that acts as a second differential. ~60 Hp total) with a computerized shunt system to control them. HSD replaces the gear box (transmission). the crankshaft of the engine is usually attached to an automatic or manual transmission by a clutch or torque converter that allows the driver to adjust the speed and torque that can be delivered by the engine to the torque and speed needed to drive the wheels of the car. In the "standard" car design the alternator (AC generator) and starter (DC motor) are considered accessories that are attached to the internal combustion engine (ICE) which normally drives a transmission to power the wheels propelling the vehicle. The ICE may or may not be running at startup.
MG1 effectively controls the transaxle's continuously variable transmission. MG1 also serves as the engine starter. In this way the forward momentum regenerates (or converts) much of the energy used to accelerate the vehicle back into stored electrical energy) Harder braking action engages standard front disk and rear drum brakes which are also provided for faster stops and emergency use. including smooth start-off and acceleration. by regulating the amount of electrical power generated (thus varying MG1's internal resistance and rpm). MG1 and MG2 MG1 (motor generator 1) generates electrical power. In addition. which is then stored in the EV battery. MG1 recharges the EV battery and supplies electrical power to drive MG2. TRANSMISSION . This wastes energy which could have been recovered and is discouraged for normal use.ICE is started by the motor-generator (acting as a starter). MG2 and the engine work together to drive the wheels. These features allow the ICE to normally be turned off for traffic stops—accessory power (including air conditioning if needed) is normally provided by the battery pack. MG2 converts kinetic energy into electrical energy. The additions of MG2's strong torque characteristics help achieve excellent dynamic performance. MG2 (motor generator 2) drives the vehicle. During regenerative braking. When a moving vehicle operator wants the vehicle to slow down the initial travel of the brake pedal engages the motor-generator(s) into generator mode converting much of the forward motion into electrical current flow which is used to recharge the batteries while slowing down the vehicle.
except that the torque/speed conversion uses an electric motor rather than a direct mechanical gear train connection. One of the motor-generators (MG2 in Toyota manuals. with MG1 used to absorb the difference between wheel and engine speed. sometimes "MG-S" for "Speed"). sometimes called "MG-T" for "Torque") is mounted on the drive shaft.The mechanical gearing design of the system allows the mechanical power from the ICE engine to be split three ways: extra torque at the wheels (under constant rotation speed). The differential relates the rotation speed of the wheels to the rotation speeds of the engine and MG1. The differential is an epicyclical gear set (also called a "power split device"). In practice. Special couplings and sensors monitor rotation speed of each shaft and the total torque on the drive shafts. An HSD transaxle contains a planetary gear set that adjusts and blends the amount of torque from the engine and motor(s) as it’s needed by the front wheels. battery pack and motor-generators. though in principle it could operate while missing the internal combustion engine. and thus couples torque into or out of the drive shafts: feeding electricity into MG2 adds torque at the wheels. It is a sophisticated and complicated combination of gearing. The engine end of the drive shaft has a second differential. as an emergency measure to reach a gas station. A computer program running appropriate actuators controls the systems and directs the power flow from the different engine + motor sources. and power for an electric generator. power electronics. An HSD car cannot operate without the computer. electrical motor-generators and computer controlled electronic controls. extra rotation speed at the wheels (under constant torque). HSD equipped cars can be driven a mile or two without gasoline. that and the two motor-generators are all contained in a single transaxle housing that is bolted to the engine. for feedback to the control computer. OPERATIONS . This power split achieves the benefits of a continuously variable transmission (CVT). one leg of this differential is attached to the internal combustion engine and the other leg is attached to a second motor-generator (MG1 in Toyota manuals.
turning the engine off for traffic stops. The combination of efficient car design. In steady state. The smaller internal combustion engine can be designed to run more efficiently. significant electrical energy storage and efficient internal combustion engine design give the HSD powered car significant efficiency advantages—particularly in city driving. economy. producing power that is fed to MG1 acting as a motor to increase the wheel speed. Engine start can occur while stopped or moving. PHASES OF OPERATION The HSD operates in distinct phases depending on speed and demanded torque. High gear (equivalent): When cruising at high speed. Furthermore. Because of the size of the motor generators. starting the engine requires relatively little power from MG1 and the conventional starter motor sound is not heard. MG2 then runs as a generator to remove the excess engine torque. during normal operation the engine can be operated at or near its ideal speed and torque level for power. The output of MG1 is fed to MG2. the engine turns more rapidly than the wheels but does not develop sufficient torque. During traffic stops the internal combustion engine can even be turned off for even more economy. The extra engine speed is fed to MG1 acting as a generator. the ICE can be down sized to match only the average load on the car. power is applied to MG1 to act as a starter. the engine provides all of . with the battery pack absorbing or supplying power as appropriate to balance the demand placed by the driver. Low gear (equivalent): When accelerating at low speeds in normal operation. or emissions. Since a power boost from the electrical motors is available for periods of rapid acceleration. to even out the load on the internal combustion engine. acting as a motor and adding torque at the driveshaft. running off the battery pack. regenerative braking.The HSD drive works by shunting electrical power between the two motor generators. rather than sized by peak power "needs" for acceptable acceleration. Here are a few of them: Engine start: To start the engine. the engine turns more slowly than the wheels but develops more torque than needed.
or driving up a steep incline at high speed). . so the conventional brakes on HSD vehicles are undersized compared to brakes on a conventional car of similar mass. while MG1 freewheels so no power is dissipated. Neutral gear: Most jurisdictions require automotive transmissions to have a neutral gear that decouples the engine and transmission. causing the sun gear to rotate as well (the engine inertia will keep the carrier gear stationary unless the speed is large). the battery quickly balances the power budget. the car can be driven in this silent mode for some miles even without gasoline. although this will reduce available reverse torque at the wheels. This is popularly known as "Stealth Mode. applying negative torque to the wheels. the power to propel the car unless the engine is unable to supply it (as during heavy acceleration. if the vehicle wheels are turning. Under this condition. Early models did not supply enough torque for some situations: there have been reports of early Prius owners not being able to back the car up steep hills in San Francisco. Lexus Hybrid Drive Regenerative braking: By drawing power from MG2 and depositing it into the battery pack. The problem has been fixed in recent models. Reverse gear: There is no reverse gear as in a conventional gearbox: the computer feeds negative voltage to MG2. the system can simultaneously run the engine and draw power from MG1. If the battery is low. allowing the engine to change power relatively slowly. The HSD "neutral gear" is achieved by turning the electric motors off. The regenerative brakes in an HSD system absorb a significant amount of the normal braking load. the ring gear will rotate. Silent operation: At slow speeds and moderate torques the HSD can drive without running the internal combustion engine at all: electricity is supplied only to MG2. In this case. allowing MG1 to rotate freely (and thus decoupling the engine from the wheels). Whenever the required propulsion power changes. the HSD can simulate the deceleration of normal compression braking while saving the power for future boost. the planetary gear is stationary (if the vehicle wheels are not turning). the battery supplies the difference." Provided that there is enough battery power.
Not all of the extra efficiency of the Prius is due to the HSD system: the Atkinson cycle engine itself was also designed specifically to minimize engine drag via an offset crankshaft to minimize piston drag during the power stroke. especially for extended drives at modest speeds (a longer drive allows the engine to warm up fully). Compression braking: The HSD system has a special transmission setting labeled 'B' (for Brake). This can be manually selected in place of regenerative braking. speeding the engine with throttle closed to absorb energy and decelerate the vehicle. by running the engine and extracting electrical power from MG1. The power gets shunted into the battery. The computer manages the energy level stored in the battery. 55 mpg is not uncommon. Electric boost: The battery pack provides a reservoir of energy that allows the computer to match the demand on the engine to a predetermined optimal load curve. providing engine braking on hills. drawing power from MG2 and shunting it to MG1. This is approximately twice the fuel efficiency of a similarly equipped four-door sedan with a conventional power train. and a unique intake system to prevent drag caused by manifold vacuum versus the normal Otto cycle in most engines. PERFORMANCE The Toyota Prius has modest acceleration but has extremely high efficiency for a midsized four-door sedan: Usually significantly better than 40 mpg (US) is typical of brief city jaunts. so as to have capacity to absorb extra energy where needed or supply extra energy to boost engine power. that takes the place of a conventional automatic transmission's 'L' setting. the Atkinson cycle recovers . Furthermore. Battery charging: The HSD can charge its battery without moving the car. During braking when the battery is approaching potentially damaging high charge levels. and no torque is supplied to the wheels. rather than operating at the torque and speed demanded by the driver and road. the electronic control system automatically switches to conventional compression braking.
2 seconds. The downside of the Atkinson cycle is much reduced torque. particularly at low speed. In the Prius. but it does not recover additional energy. The Highlander Hybrid (also sold as the Kluger in some countries) offers better acceleration performance compared to its non-hybrid version. Use of "B" constantly is . hard braking wastes the energy as heat. just as for a conventional car. trimming almost a second off the conventional version's time. but cannot absorb energy as fast as conventional brakes. they are more sensitive than conventional cars to driving style. which requires: Extended drives. acceleration. Moderate acceleration: Because hybrid cars can throttle back or completely shut off the engine during moderate. Cutaway display of the HSD The HSD mileage boost depends on using the gasoline engine as efficiently as possible. but not rapid. and will not start it again until the generator reaches a maximum speed. Gradual braking recovers energy for re-use. Hard acceleration forces the engine into a high-power state while moderate acceleration keeps the engine in a lower power. A conventional Highlander is rated by the EPA with 19 cities. The hybrid version goes from 0–60 mph in 7. Top speed for all Highlanders is limited to 112 mph (180 km/h). This effect is most pronounced by turning the climate control (heater) off when at a stop when the engine is running. The HSD is designed to generate as little waste heat as possible. In a conventional car. high efficiency state (augmented by battery boost). 25 highway mpg. Gradual braking: Regenerative brakes re-use the energy of braking. running the heater will then require the engine to continue running to generate cabin-usable heat.more energy per cycle than the Otto because of its longer power stroke. this waste heat in winter is usually used to heat the internal cabin. Net hp is 268 hp (200 kW) compared to the conventional 215 hp (160 kW). boosting mileage. especially in winter: Heating the internal cabin for the passengers runs counter to the design of the HSD. Use of the "B" (braking) selector on the transmission control is useful on long downhill runs to reduce heat and wear on the conventional brakes. Normally the HSD control system will shut the engine off as it is not needed. Typical fuel economy for the Highlander Hybrid rates between 27 and 31 mpg. but the HSD has enormous low-speed torque available from MG2.
. the battery can be completely exhausted. The schematic diagrams illustrate the paths of power flow between electric motor-generator 1 (MG1). The Hybrid Synergy Drive adds a DC to DC converter boosting the potential of the battery to 500 V or more. but after about 2. This allows smaller battery packs to be used. if there is more demand. The Toyota Hybrid System relied on the voltage of the battery pack: between 276 and 288 V. C: planetary carrier. but there have been a number of refinements. Then the system reverts to just the power available from the engine. There has been a continuous. This results in a large decline in performance under certain conditions: an early-model Prius can achieve over 90 mph (140 km/h) on a 6 degree upward slope. The original Prius used shrinkwrapped 1. and all subsequent THS/HSD vehicles have used custom 7.000 feet (610 m) of altitude climb the battery is exhausted and the car can only achieve 55–60 mph on the same slope  (until the battery is recharged by driving under less demanding circumstances).2 volt D cells.2 V battery modules mounted in a carrier. R: outer ring) and motor-generator 2 (MG2). and more powerful motors. o Subsequent developments First-Generation (G1) Toyota hybrid: Toyota Hybrid System (THS) The basic design of the Toyota Hybrid System / Hybrid Synergy Drive has not changed since its introduction in the 1997 Japanesemarket Toyota Prius.discouraged by Toyota as it may promote excessive wear on certain gears. planetary gear set "power split device" elements (S: central "sun". gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE). gradual improvement in the specific capacity of the traction battery. so that this extra torque boost is not available. o Most HSD systems have batteries that are sized for maximal boost during a single acceleration from zero to the top speed of the vehicle.
The electrical path is only about 70% efficient. instead of the conventional engine-driven type. two of which can be held still alternatively by a brake/clutch. thus decreasing the power flow there increases the overall performance of the transmission. The latest addition to the family of Hybrid Synergy drive train is used in the Lexus GS 450h / LS 600h. This removes the need to continuously run the engine when cabin cooling is required. and there is no mechanical link between the engine and the rear wheels. This system uses two clutches (or brakes) to switch the second motors gear ratio to the wheels between a ratio of 3. In this system. The second planetary gear set is extended with a second carrier and sun gear to a ravigneaux-type gear with four shafts. This decreases the power flowing from MG1 to MG2 (or vice versa) during higher speeds. all HSD vehicles from the 2004 Prius onwards have been fitted with an electric air-conditioning compressor. for low and high speed driving regimes respectively. Two positive temperature coefficient heaters are fitted in the heater core to supplement the heat provided by the engine. In addition. thereby making it possible to increase the power density of the motor. the motor (MG2) is linked to the front wheel transaxle by means of a second planetary gear set.9 and 1. This also permits regenerative braking on the rear wheels.9. the rear axle is purely electrically powered. .Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Although not part of the HSD as such. Second-Generation (G2) Toyota hybrid: Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) Vehicles such as the Lexus RX 400h and Toyota Highlander Hybrid added four-wheel drive operation by the addition of a third electric motor ("MGR") on the rear axle.
List of vehicles with HSD Toyota Prius with THS: December 1997–October 2003 with THSII: October 2003–present Lexus RX 400h¹ / Toyota Harrier Hybrid (March 2005–) Toyota Highlander/Kluger Hybrid . but cost more. raising safety concerns. and operate at higher temperatures. Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy capacity-to-weight ratio.Third generation Third-Generation (G3) Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) In this system will feature lithium-ion batteries in later years. don't last as long as NiMH. and are subject to thermal instability if not properly manufactured and controlled.
gooogle. with THSI: July 2005–September 2008 with THSII: October 2008-Present Lexus GS 450h¹ (March 2006–) Toyota Camry Hybrid (May 2006–) Lexus LS 600h/LS 600hL¹ (April 2007–) Toyota A-BAT (concept truck) Nissan Altima Hybrid 2007 Lexus RX 450h 1 2009 Lexus HS 250h 1 2009- Bibliography Most of data collected from Toyota hybrid synergy source Some images copy from websites www. Text material copy and edit from the sites http://en.wikipedia.com/images/hybrid+synergy+drives.org/wiki/Main_Page .
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