Movement Rule : (active) NP1 V NP2 NP2 be V -ed by NP1(passive


Examine the following list of sentences. a. Write out the sentences that you can form passives from them, using the rule. b. What prevent the rule from working in the other sentences? Write out the sentences which cannot be changed and give a short explanation for each of them. Answers: (a.) Active 1. The dog chased the cat. 2. He loves them. 3. Tom borrows some money from Dila. 4. The Argentina team played badly. 5. The chef laugh loudly. 6. They have three children. 7. Someone mentioned that you played tennis. 8. He was fixing the roof. 9. They have been studying the picture for a long time. Passive The cat was chased by the dog. They are loved by him. Some Dila¶s money is borrowed by Tom. The game was played badly by the Argentina team. You played tennis were mentioned by someone. The roof was fixed by him. The picture has been studied by them for a long time.

By using the movement rule.(b) The sentences which cannot be changed : y The chef laugh loudly. y They have three children. Therefore. there is no object. In this sentence. Laugh is an adjective while loudly is the adverb. µHave¶ in this sentence is a stative verbs. µhave¶ explains about the condition of µthey¶ not the action µthey¶ did to the µthree children¶.In this context. The object of the active sentences becomes the subject of the passive sentences. sentences which do not have an object cannot be changed into the passive. we can¶t change this sentence into passive because it doesn¶t has µverb-to-be¶ or action verb such as is/am/was/were/be/being/. It is impractical to form the passive voice except the author uses a " to be" verb .

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