JIGS AND FIXTURES DESIGN

DEFINITIONS
JIG A Jig may be defined as a device which holds and locates a work piece, guides and controls one or more cutting tools. FIXTURE A Fixture may be defined as a device which holds and locates a work piece during an inspection or for a manufacturing operation. The Fixture does not guide the tool.

ADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYING JIGS AND FIXTURES
The following are the advantages of employing Jigs and Fixtures in mass production work. (1) It eliminates the marking out, measuring, and other setting methods before machining. (2) It increases the machining accuracy, because the work piece is automatically located and the tool is guided without making any manual adjustment. (3) It enables production of identical parts which are interchangeable. This facilitates the assembly operation.

(4) It increases the production capacity by enabling a number of work pieces to be machined in the single set up (5) It reduces the operator's labour and consequent fatigue as the handling operations are minimised and simplified. . This saves labour cost. (6) It enables semi-skilled operator to perform the operations as the setting operation of the tool and the works are mechanised. (8) It reduces the overall cost of machining by fully or partly automatising the process. (7) It reduces the expenditure on the quality control of the finished products.

Reaming or Tapping operations. .DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIXTURE WITH JIG The following are the fundamental differences between a Fixture with a Jig (1) A Fixture holds and position the work but does not guide the cutting tool. locates and as well as guides the tool. whereas the Jigs are used for holding the work and guiding the tool particularly in Drilling. (3) The fixtures are employed for holding work in Milling. or Turning operations. and clamping with the table is often unnecessary. Planning. whereas a Jig holds. whereas the Jigs are made lighter for quicker handling. Grinding. (2) The Fixtures are generally heavier in construction and are bolted rigidly on the machine table.

(5) Clamping arrangement. (16) Methods of manufacture of the jig base. (6) Power devices for operating the clamping elements. (14) Table fixing arrangement. (9) Tool guiding and cutter setting elements. (2) Type and Capacity of the machine. (12) Swarf removal arrangement. (8) Indexing devices. (4) Loading and unloading arrangement. body or frame. (15) Safety devices.PRINCIPLES OF JIGS AND FIXTURES DESIGN The following are the essential factors which must be considered in designing a Jig or a Fixture Study of the (1) Study of the component/work piece. (13) Rigidity and vibration problem. (3) Locating elements. . (7) Clearance required between the Jig and the component. (10 Fool-proofing arrangement. (11) Ejecting devices.

e. TOOL GUIDING AND SETTING ELEMENTS: These aids are used in guiding or setting of the tools in correct position with respect to the work pieces. all the jigs and fixtures consist of LOCATING ELEMENTS: These position the work piece accurately with respect to the tool guiding or setting elements in the fixture. drill bushes guide the drills accurately onto the work piece.ELEMENTS OF JIGS AND FIXTURES Generally. CLAMPING ELEMENTS: These hold the work piece securely in the located position during the operation. .g.

CLAMPS A clamp is a force-actuating mechanism of a fixture. all Jigs / fixtures consist of the following elements LOCATORS A locator is usually a fixed component of a fixture. a locator can also be adjustable. For work pieces of greater variability in shapes and surface conditions.ELEMENTS OF JIGS AND FIXTURES Generally. . It is used to establish and maintain the position of a part in the fixture by constraining the movement of the part. The forces exerted by the clamps hold a part securely in the fixture against all other external forces.

viz. is the major structural element of a fixture.ELEMENTS OF JIGS AND FIXTURES SUPPORTS A support is a fixed or adjustable element of a fixture. locators. . supports. and the machine tool on which the part is to be processed. or tool body. clamps. supports are added and placed below the work piece so as to prevent or constrain deformation. It maintains the spatial relationship between the fixturing elements mentioned above.. FIXTURE / BASE BODY Fixture body. Supports in excess of what is required for the determination of the location of the part should be compatible with the locators and clamps. When severe part displacement/deflection is expected under the action of imposed clamping and processing forces.

if any  Type of locators  Type of clamps  Type of supports  Clamping forces and sequence .FIXTURE / JIG DESIGN The following outputs are included in the jig / fixture plan  Fixture / Jig type and Complexity  Number of work pieces per fixture  Orientation of work piece within Jig / fixture  Locating datum faces  Clamping surfaces  Support surfaces. if any The following outputs are included in the fixture / Jig layout  Positions of locators  Positions of clamps  Positions of supports.

if any .FIXTURE DESIGN  Detailed design of locators  Detailed design of clamps  Detailed design of supports.

JIGS AND FIXTURE DESIGN FLOW CHART .

DEGREES OF FREEDOM OF A WORK PIECE Three rectilinear displacements along the mutually orthogonal co-ordinate axes Three angular displacements with respect to the same axes .

3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION .

As shown in figure. This restricts axial movement downward. .3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION Y X Z+ Rotation Y + - Rotation X + - Three supports restricting five degrees of freedom. are placed under the work piece. The three locators are usually positioned on the primary locating surface. three locators. or supports. along the z axis (+) and radially about the x (+ and -) and y axes (+ and -).

. They restrict an additional three degrees of freedom by arresting the axial movement along the y-axis (+) and the radial movement about the z-axis (+ and -). The next two locators are normally placed on the secondary locating surface.3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION Y Y+ X Rotation Z + - Two supports restricting three degrees of freedom.

3-2-1 PRINCIPLE OF LOCATION
Y

X+

X

Final One support restricting one degree of freedom.

Total Six locators restricts nine degrees of freedom, completing 3-2-1 locations. The final locator, is positioned at the end of the part. It restricts the axial movement in one direction along the x-axis (+). Together, these six locators restrict a total of nine degrees of freedom. The remaining three degrees of freedom (-x, -y, and -z) will be restricted by the clamps.

TYPES OF LOCATORS
Based on the surface from which the work piece is located, the locators are classified in to three groups

PLANE SURFACE  Adjustable locator.  Spring loaded pad.  Equalizer rocker locator. PROFILE SURFACE  Six point locator.  Profile location by pins.  Eccentric locator.  Nest & cavity locator.

CYLINDRICAL SURFACE  Conical locator.  Cylindrical locator.  Female locator.  Diamond locator.  Mandrel locator.  Collet locator.  Vee locator - Screw adjusted V locator. Cam operated V locator. Quick action V locator.

ADJUSTABLE LOCATORS
Adjustable locators require less precision to mount on the tool body. For a typical work holder, they are mounted at approximately the correct position and then adjusted to the exact location. In the design of an adjustable locator, four factors should be considered : 1) the stability and precision of the location; 2) the ability to compensate for variance in work piece sizes and locating areas 3) the ability to compensate for wear on the locating element 4) the ability to maintain the fixed location points. The main disadvantage of adjustable locators is that the operator has the most responsibility of ensuring accuracy and precision, not the tool builder.

SPRING-LOADED LOCATORS Spring-loaded locating help ensure the correct by pushing the work piece against the fixed locating SIX POINT LOCATOR .

. the other side raises the same amount to maintain part contact.EQUALIZING SUPPORTS Equalizing supports are a form of adjustable support used when a compensating support is required. As one side of the equalizing support is depressed. Although these supports can be fixed in position. in most cases equalizing supports float to accommodate work piece variations. In most cases adjustable and equalizing supports are used along with solid supports.

PROFILE LOCATION BY PINS .

a nesting locator can also be cast from plastic compounds or low-meltingpoint alloys. .NESTING Nesting locator completely locates the outside surface of a work piece. it can be machined if the part shape is simple. For regular or complex shapes.

as illustrated in the figure This vertical height variation must be considered in the design of the work holder. The locating hole can contact the locator at any point on its conical surface.CONICAL LOCATORS The main problem with using this type of locator is in the position of the work piece relative to the work holder. So slight differences in the hole diameter affect the work piece height. .

Here. For external location. For internal location. and are readily available.ROUND LOCATING PINS Round pins can be used for both internal and external work piece location. the size of the locating pin is not as critical as internal. the diameter of the pin must match the size of the locating hole. The purpose of the shoulder is to prevent the pin from being pushed into the tooling plate Unlike the plain pins. These pins have a shank larger than the head. shoulder-type pins are made in two styles Press-fit type and lock screw type. These locators come in many standard sizes. a standard pin size strong enough to resist machining forces is the best choice. .

VEE LOCATORS Vee locators are a specialized form of locating element. Vee pads are well suited for corner mounting a square or rectangular work piece. Vee locators can be used to locate a variety of part shapes . The two basic styles of Vee locators are the Pad and the Vee Block as shown in the figure. They are used mainly for round or cylindrical work pieces.

The diamond pin is positioned to restrict the radial movement of the part. or relieved locating pin. Here the diamond pin acts as a radial locator to restrict movement of the work piece around the concentric locator. as shown in figure. To limit the pin's contact area. Since a diamond pin locates in only one axis. Diamond pins are generally used as shown in figure. . diamond pins are available in either the plain or shoulder-type. Like round locating pins. the contact areas of the pin must be positioned as shown in the figure. the diamond locating pin is made with four machined flats. These locating pins are the mostcommon form of relieved locating pin in work holders. and is usually equal to one-third of the diameter on each side. Positioning the pin any other way would allow the part to move about the concentric locator.DIAMOND LOCATING PINS Another style of locating pin frequently seen in Jig-and-Fixture design is the diamond. The exact width of the contact area varies with the size of the pin. shown by the round-pin locator.

DIAMOND PIN CALCULLATION G B F -0.008 H .

The part at (a) shows how a flat surface can be redundantly located. The example at (b) points out the same problem with concentric diameters. within their tolerances. Redundant locators restrict the same degree of freedom more than once. . but not both. Since the sizes of parts can vary. The work pieces in figure. show several examples. the likelihood of all parts resting simultaneously on both surfaces is remote. Either diameter can locate the part. The part should be located on only one not both side surfaces.REDUNDANT LOCATION Another condition to avoid in work holder design is redundant or duplicate location.

The simplest way to foolproof a work holder is to position one or two pins in a location that ensures correct orientation. With some work pieces. The problem is most prevalent with parts that are symmetrical or located concentrically.FOOL PROOFING Fool proofing prevents improper loading of a work piece. more-creative approaches to fool proofing must be taken as shown in figure Fool proofing the locating prevents improper work piece loading . however.

simple or complex. 3) when subjected to vibration.CLAMPING BASIC PRINCIPLE OF CLAMPING Once a work piece is located. which means the clamping device must be quick-acting. all clamps must fulfill four essential requirements: 1) The work piece must be held rigidly while the cutting tools are in operation. the clamping must be positive. or heavy pressure. The tool designer refers to this action as Clamping and the mechanisms used for this action are known as Clamps. 4) The clamp must not damage the work piece. chatter. 2) The time required for loading and unloading the tool must be as short as possible. it is necessary to press it against the locating surfaces and hold it there against the forces acting upon it. However. .

TYPES OF CLAMPS: STRAP CLAMPS .

Eccentric cams should usually not be used for clamping because they do not provide positive locking. The most common forms of Cam Clamps are the Eccentric Cam and Spiral Cam. these cams can be used as Direct pressure Clamps or Indirect pressure Clamps. Depending on their arrangement. Spiral cams have a continious rise to lock positively at any point in the clamping range .CAM CLAMPS : Cam clamps are also based on the principle of the inclined plane.

.A toggle action locks positively because one of the pivots moves past the center line of two other pivots. against a stop.

latch squeeze action.The four basic Toggle actions are as shown below hold-down push/pull. .

The work is gripped by the spring fitted to the leaf.Difficult to secure rigid clamping. . 2. The leaf is closed on the job and is kept in position by the Latch. ADVANTAGE : The main advantage is the ease and speed of manipulation . DISADVANTAGE : 1.Construction is limited to relatively light work.LATCH CLAMPS : The Latch Clamp is employed to clamp a job by a Latch. To unload the work piece the laid end of the latch is pushed by the hand to cause the leaf to swing open as shown in the Figure. A pivoted latch and leaf is used for this.

SCREW CLAMPS : Screw clamps are among the simplest and least-expensive. QUICK ACTING SCREWS AND KNOBS : Quick-acting knobs are another variation of quick-acting threaded fastener. . screw clamps make excellent work holders as shown in the figure23a. For clamping effectiveness and size/force ratio. their inherently slow clamping speed limit their use in high-production Jigs and Fixtures. Screw clamps offer the designer more clamping options than many other clamps. But they also have a drawback.

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The fixed renewable bush is intended for single step applications such as Drilling or Reaming. (Fixed and Renewable) and Liner Bush FIXED BUSH : Fixed bushes are most common and least expensive. Slip Bush. The bushings are pressed directly into the jig plate. They are held in plates by the force of press fit as shown in the figure FIXED RENEWABLE BUSH : Fixed renewable bushings are typically employed in long production runs where bushing changes are needed. There are three different types of Jig bushes. permanent bushes. The tools are guided in Jigs by Drill Bushes which are fitted on the jig plates. Fixed renewable bushings are held in space with a lock screw which prevents any movement of the bush during machining cycle as shown in the figure. These bushings are changed only when the bushings wear. .These are press fitted and are designed for one step operation such as Drilling or Reaming.TOOL GUIDING ELEMENTS The cutter is set relative to the work in a fixture by adjusting the machine or by using the cutter Setting Block.

The first Slip Renewable bush is installed and the hole is drilled. One example is Drilling and Reaming the same hole. The bush is rotated clockwise to lock it in place and rotated counterclockwise for removal as shown in figure .SLIP RENEWABLE BUSH: These are convenient for applications when multiple operations are performed in same hole. The Slip Renewable side allows rapid change over. Then the reaming bush is installed and the hole reamed to size. The drill bush is removed.

Templates are the least expensive and simplest type of Jig to use. when bushings are not used.TEMPLATE JIG : Template Jigs are normally used for accuracy rather than speed. This type of Jig fits over.DRILL JIGS 1. . They may or may not have bushings. the whole jig plate is normally hardened. on. or into the work and is not usually clamped.

The only difference is that Plate Jigs have built-in-drive clamps to hold the work. This style is called a Table Jig. . PLATE JIG : Plate Jigs are similar to Templates.2. Plate Jigs are sometimes made with legs to raise the jig off the table for large work. depending on the number of parts to be made. These Jigs can also be made with or without bushings.

. SANDWICH JIGS : Sandwich Jigs are a form of plate jig with a back plate. This type of jig is ideal for thin or soft parts which could bend or warp. the use of bushings is determined by the number of parts to be made. in other type of Jig. Here again.3.

. ANGLE-PLATE JIGS : Angle-Plate Jigs are used to hold parts which are machined at right angles to their mounting locators. This jig is used for machining angles other than 90 degrees as shown in the figure.4. A variation of this jig is the modified Angle-Plate Jig. Pulleys. collars and gears are some of the parts which use this type of Jig as shown in the figure.

06. BOX JIG or TUMBLE JIGS: These usually totally surround the part. In some cases. CHANNEL JIGS : Channel Jigs are the simplest form of Box Jig. the work can be machined on three sides.05. where jig feet are used. The work is held between two sides and machined from the third. This style of jig allows the part to be completely machined on every surface without repositioning the work in the Jig. .

or from other holes in the part. .Button 11. The location of the holes may be taken from the first hole drilled. Leaf Jigs are usually equipped with a handle for easier movement.07. 08. 14.Work 03.Set screw 13. The main differences between Leaf and Box Jigs are size and part location.Drill bush 10.Hinge pin 12. INDEXING JIGS : Indexing Jigs are used for circular hole patterns in which the part is indexed successively to the different positions under a single bushing. 01. Leaf Jigs are normally smaller than Box Jigs. Sometimes an indexing plate or device is incorporated in the Jig.Leaf. LEAF JIGS : Leaf Jigs are small box jigs with a hinged leaf to allow for easier loading and unloading. Sometimes they are made so that they do not completely surround the part.Leaf clamping screw.

a great deal of time is saved by using this Jig. Since the tool is already made and only needs to be modified. heavy parts which must be machined with several separate Plate-Type Jigs.09. PUMP JIGS: Pump Jigs are commercially made Jigs which must be adopted by the user. The part is first put into a box-type carrier and then loaded on precision bearing mounts called Trunnions. 10. TRUNION JIGS : Trunion Jigs are a form of rotary Jig for very large or oddshaped parts. Trunnion jigs allow easily turning a large part to work on all sides. This Jig is well suited for large. The lever activated plate makes this tool very fast to load and unload. .

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almost any Jig may be used with a multistation arrangement. In most cases. . The unique feature of a Multistation Jig is the way the Jigs are mounted and arranged with respect to the machining stations. #3 is the Reaming station. MULTISTATION JIGS : Multistation Jigs. In this example. An indexing arrangement is also included with this Jig to accurately position the jigs at each station.11. #2 is for Drilling. #4 is where the work piece is counter bored. are for repetitive simultaneous operations on several identical parts. the jig has four stations: #1 is the load/unload station.

Right-angle Plate Fixtures. are constructed at 90 degrees to the base. All locators. A complete plate fixture can be built using only standard. Plate fixtures usually hold a work piece parallel to the machine table ANGLE-PLATE FIXTURES : Angle-Plate Fixtures are a variation of the basic Plate Fixture. The Plate Fixture is built with a mill fixture base. T-cast sections. They are useful when the locating surface is at an angle to the machine table. or similar plate material. . off-shelf components. cast flat section. or any comparable material. tooling plate. L-cast sections. supports and clamps are mounted directly to the plate. The right-angle plate fixtures can be built with tooling blocks.FIXTURE PLATE FIXTURE : The Plate Fixture is the most-basic and mostcommon fixture. The two main variations of Angle-Plate Fixtures are the right angle and modifiedangle plate fixtures. Adjustable angles or sine plates may be used to build the modified-angle plate fixtures. angle brackets.

It carries the work piece location and clamping system. Face Plate etc. the balancing weight may be incorporated. A setting face machined relative to the location system and a typical hardened setting piece is used to set the depth of the tool.TURNING FIXTURE: Commonly used work holding devices as fixtures in Turning are Soft Jaws. The Fixture body is located on the machine spindle and bolted in position. Sometimes the work piece is located and clamped to a separate shaft that projects from the fixture body. When the weight of the work piece and the fixture are imbalanced. Chucks. A pilot bush may be used to guide the boring bar. .(as Three Jaw and Four Jaw Chuck). Turning Fixtures are used for complicated work pieces and are in effect simplification of the technique of butting the work piece to a Face Plate.

. is located relative to the fixture location system and retained in position by screws. this arrangement gives maximum convenience for the operator during setting. the clamping forces must be big. The table setting is done with a 0. interrupted. it has two hardened setting faces. hexagonal nuts are usually used to clamp the work piece rather than hand nuts. The location and clamping systems are similar to those used for drill jigs. The work piece is located on the Fixture base and then clamped in position.25 mm feeler between the cutter and the setting face so that the block will not be damaged by the cutter during machining. so that the table can be positioned both horizontally and vertically (note that the table is located from one side of the cutter only). but as the cutting forces are high. the table is positioned relative to the cutter or cutters with the aid of the Setting Block.MILLING FIXTURE : A Milling Fixture is located accurately on the machine table and then bolted in position. and tend to lift the work piece. The details that are peculiar to Milling Fixtures are the Setting Block and the Location Tenons. The cutter is not guided during cutting. Setting Block : The setting block as shown in the figure. The setting block is positioned so that the cutter is between the vertical face of the block and the operator during setting.

.Tenons : The two Tenons (as shown in the figure) are made from case hardened steel and are located on the underside of the fixture base. The Fixture is bolted to the table by two or four tee bolts that are placed in the tee slots (these bolts are not called up as part of the fixture). these two tenons sit in one of the tee slots that run along the length of the machine table so that the fixture is located relative to the table feed. to produce maximum accuracy. the two Tenons should be as far apart as possible.

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1 .Example .

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