High Level Petri | Function (Mathematics) | Conceptual Model

High-level Petri Nets - Concepts, Definitions and Graphical Notation Final Draft International Standard ISO/IEC

15909 Version 4.7.1 October 28, 2000

Contents
Introduction 1 Scope 1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 18

2 Normative References 3 Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Symbols 3.1 3.2 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Conventions and Notation 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets 5.1 5.2 5.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking of HLPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-level Petri Net Graph Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Graphical Concepts and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditionals in Arc Expressions, and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

7.2 7.3 7.4

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 7.4.2 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26

7.5

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Markings and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs 10 Conformance 10.1 PN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 HLPN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex A: Mathematical Conventions (normative) A.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Multisets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 Sum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.3 Empty Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.6 Multiset Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

A.3.2 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.3 Boolean Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.5 Many-sorted Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.6 Assignment and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B: Net Classes (normative) B.1 Place/Transition nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex C: High-level Petri Net Schema (informative) C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D: Tutorial (informative) D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2 Net Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.1 Places and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.2 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.3 Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.4 The Net Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3 Transition Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 Net Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5 Flow Control Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E: Analysis Techniques (informative) Bibliography

27 27 27 28 28 30 30 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 35 35 35 37 38 41 42

4

The conformance clause is given in clause 10. or used by application developers or Petri net tool vendors or users. Clause 8 further describes syntactical conventions. while the main concepts behind the graphical form are informally introduced in clause 6.Introduction This International Standard provides a well-defined semi-graphical technique for the specification. Specifications written in the technique may be subjected to analysis methods to prove properties about the specifications. and is the usual term used in the Petri net community. This International Standard provides an abstract mathematical syntax and a formal semantics for the technique. Annex D is a tutorial on the High-level Petri Net Graph. The main mathematical apparatus required for defining the standard is developed in normative Annex A. such as the use of complex structured data as tokens. Three informative annexes are included: Annex C defines a High-level Petri Net Schema. This International Standard may be cited in contracts for the development of software (particularly critical software). It is also an executable technique. The use of high-level to describe these Petri nets is analogous to the use of high-level in high-level programming languages (as opposed to assembly languages). For example. 5 . allowing specification prototypes to be developed to test ideas at the earliest and cheapest opportunity. and may thus be used to provide unambiguous specifications and descriptions of applications. Clause 2 provides normative references (none at present). Petri nets have been used to describe a wide range of systems since their invention in 1962. The basic level of conformance is to the semantic model. design and analysis of systems. High-level Petri Nets. first introduced in 1979 and developed during the 1980s. Two of the early forms of high-level nets that this standard builds on are Predicate-Transition Nets and Coloured Petri Nets. Conformance to the standard is possible at several levels. Clause 7 defines the Highlevel Petri Net Graph. and using algebraic expressions to annotate net elements. A problem with Petri nets is the explosion of the number of elements of their graphical form when they are used to describe complex systems. It also uses some of the notions developed for Algebraic Petri nets. first introduced in the mid 1980s. The basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets is given in clause 5. and referred to in clause 4. the form of the standard intended for industrial use. The inscriptions are defined at a meta level allowing many different concrete syntaxes to be used. before implementation commences. The technique is particularly suited to parallel and distributed systems development as it supports concurrency. The technique promises to have multiple uses. The technique. areas of application and the intended audience of this International Standard. Normative Annex B defines Petri nets (without capacities) as a restriction of the definition of Clause 7. The level of conformance depends on the class of high-level net supported. It is believed that this standard captures the spirit of these earlier developments (see bibliography). is mathematically defined. High-level Petri Nets were developed to overcome this problem by introducing higher-level concepts. it may be used directly to specify systems or to define the semantics of other less formal languages. It may also serve to integrate techniques currently used independently such as state transition diagrams and data flow diagrams. while clause 3 provides a glossary of terms and defines abbreviations. thus saving on testing and maintenance time. and also the degree to which the syntax is supported. Clause 1 describes the scope. Clause 9 relates the graphical form to the basic semantic model. which allows classes of systems to be described at a syntactic level.

legal processes. This International Standard does not provide a concrete syntax nor a transfer syntax and it does not address techniques for modularity (such as hierarchies). including air traffic control. fault-tolerant systems. and development of Petri net support tools. Generic fields of application include: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ requirements analysis. descriptions of existing systems prior to re-engineering.2 Field of Application This International Standard is applicable to a wide variety of concurrent discrete event systems and in particular distributed systems. business processes. This International Standard will also facilitate the development and interoperability of Petri net computer support tools. avionics. banking systems. This International Standard. modelling business and software processes. an abstract mathematical syntax for inscriptions and a graphical notation for High-level Petri Nets. manufacturing systems. designs and test suites. space. music. development of specifications. telecommunications and workflow. to ensure a common understanding of the technique and of the specifications written using the technique. defence command and control. security systems. This International Standard may be applied to a broad range of systems. metabolic processes. formal analysis of the behaviour of critical systems.and Annex E provides pointers to analysis techniques for High-level Petri Nets. including its syntax and semantics. chemical processes. It provides a reference definition that can be used both within and between organisations. 1 Scope 1. control systems. A bibliography concludes this International Standard. electronic commerce. communication protocols. augmentation of High-level Petri Nets with time. providing the semantics for concurrent languages. nuclear power systems. 1. called High-level Petri Nets. transport systems (including railway control). internet protocols and applications. operating systems. hospital procedures.1 Purpose This International Standard defines a Petri net technique. computer hardware architectures. databases. and methods for analysis which may become the subject of future standardisation efforts. 6 . defines a mathematical semantic model. information systems. simulation of systems to increase confidence.

7 Concurrency: The property of a system in which events may occur independently of each other. Abbreviations and Symbols For the purpose of this International Standard. parameter values.2 Arity: The input sorts and output sort for an operator.1. 3. the following definitions.1. designers. The expression must evaluate to a multiset over the type of the arc’s associated place.3 Arc annotation: An expression that may involve constants. 3. Any ambiguity in the definitions is resolved by the mathematically precise definitions in the body of this International Standard.1.1. 3. 3. maintainers and procurers. and hence are not ordered (see also Step and Concurrent Enabling).3 Audience This International Standard is written as a reference for systems analysts.5 Binding: See Assignment. the association of a value (of correct type) to each variable. 3.1. abbreviations and symbols apply. constants. 2 Normative References None. 3. 3.6 Carrier: A set of a many-sorted algebra. typed variables and functions required for defining the inscriptions on a High-level Petri Net Graph. and for Petri net tool designers and standards developers.1.1. 3.1 Glossary 3.8 Declaration: A set of statements which define the sets.1 Arc: A directed edge of a net which may connect a place to a transition or a transition to a place. developers.9 Enabling (a transition): A transition is enabled in a particular mode and net marking.1.1. 3. Definitions.4 Basis set: The set of objects used to create a multiset. 3.1 Input Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from a place to the transition. when the following conditions are met: 7 .2 Output Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from the transition to a place. 3 Terms. variables and operators used to annotate an arc of a net.1. 3.1.1.1. Normally represented by an arrow.1.1. 3.3 Assignment: For a set of variables.1.

defined with the high-level net. 3.10 Concurrent Enabling (of transition modes): A multiset of transition modes is concurrently enabled if all the involved input places contain enough tokens to satisfy the sum of all of the demands imposed on them by each input arc annotation evaluated for each transition mode in the multiset. and an Initial Marking of the net. 3.1. 3.e. 3. 3. 3.2 Initial Marking of a place: A special marking of a place. and their corresponding definitions in a set of Declarations.15.15 Multiset: A collection of items where repetition of items is allowed.. Transition Conditions.14.16 Net: A general term used to describe all classes of Petri nets. and an initial marking.1.1 Net graph: A directed graph comprising a set of nodes of two different kinds.1.1. 3.16.14. including the initial marking. 3. a function associating a type to each place. 3. 3.1.1. nor places to places.14 Marking (of a net): The set of the place markings for all places of the net. non-negative integer) which describes the number of repetitions of an item in a multiset. Post function determining output tokens (multisets of tokens) for places for each transition mode. and their interconnection by directed edges.1. 8 ..14.14. NOTE: The determination of transition modes guarantees that the Transition Condition is satisfied (see Transition Mode). Pre function imposing token demands (multisets of tokens) on places for each transition mode. 3. a place or a transition).1.1. such that only places can be connected to transitions. but never transitions to transitions.1.1.16. and a set of modes (a type) to each transition. a set of transitions.1. a set of types.14.3 Marking of a place: A multiset of tokens associated with (‘residing in’) the place. 3.2 Multiset cardinality (cardinality of a multiset): The sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset. 3.1. called arcs. The demand is satisfied when the place’s marking contains (at least) the multiset of tokens indicated by the evaluated arc annotation. 3.2 Node (of a net): A vertex of a net graph (i.1. 3.The marking of each input place of the transition satisfies the demand imposed on it by its arc annotation evaluated for the particular transition mode.5 Reachability Set: The set of reachable markings of the net.15.e.1.4 Reachable Marking: Any marking of the net that can be reached from the initial marking by the occurrence of transitions.1.11 High-level Net (High-level Petri Net): An algebraic structure comprising: a set of places. and transitions to places.12 High-level Petri Net Graph: A net graph and its associated annotations comprising Place Types.1 Multiplicity: A natural number (i. 3.1 Initial Marking (of the net): The set of initial place markings given with the highlevel net definition.13 Many-sorted Algebra: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sets and a set of functions taking these sets as domains and co-domains. Arc Annotations. called places and transitions.

25 Token: A data item associated with a place and chosen from the place’s type.1 Enabling Tokens: The multiset of values obtained when an input arc annotation is evaluated for a particular binding to variables. normally represented by an ellipse in the net graph. 3. and named after their inventor.1.3 Petri Net: An algebraic structure with two sets.1 Input Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an input arc.3.1.1.23.1.20.20 Place: A node of a net.1.23.1.4 Place/Transition Net: A Petri net comprising a net graph with positive integers associated with arcs and an initial marking function which associates a natural number of simple tokens (‘black dots’) with places. and any simplifications performed (such as gathering like terms to obtain the symbolic sum representation of a multiset). 3.25. 3. It is instantiated as a constant. 3. 3.2 Output Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an output arc.1.16.1.3 Place Type: A non-empty set of data items associated with a place. 3. 3.1.1. where the nodes correspond to reachable markings. 3.22 Signature/Many-sorted signature: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sorts and a set of operators. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra.23.20.1. 3.1. and the edges correspond to transition occurrences.2 Input sort: The same as an argument sort. 9 .1. 3.1 Closed term: A term comprising constants and operators but no variables.23. one called places and the other called transitions. 3.1.1. variables and operators built from a signature and a set of sorted variables.22.19 Parameterized High-level Net Graph: A high-level net graph that contains parameters in its definition.1 Argument sort: The sort of an argument of an operator.1. 3. (This set can describe an arbitrarily complex data structure.20.18 Parameter: A symbol that can take a range of values defined by a set.1.1.24. together with their associated relations and functions.4 Range sort: The same as an output sort.17 Operator: A symbol representing the name of a function. and one of the constants is ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ corresponding to the value true in the algebra.2 Term evaluation: The result obtained after the binding of variables in the term.1. 3.21 Reachability Graph: A directed graph of nodes and edges.1.23 Sort: A symbol representing the name of a set.1. 3. 3. taken from the place kind. 3.1.1 Boolean signature: A signature where one of the sorts is ÓÓÐ.24 Term: An expression comprising constants. 3. A place is typed. Carl Adam Petri. 3.16.24.3 Output sort: The sort of an output of an operator. the computation of the results of the associated functions. 3. 3.) 3.

3.2 HLPNG: High-level Petri Net Graph. and the annotations of arcs surrounding the transition. it may occur in that mode. a mode may be derived from an assignment of values to the transition’s variables that satisfies the transition condition.3 Transition occurrence (Transition rule): If a transition is enabled in a mode.3 HLPNS: High-level Petri Net Schema. 3.25.1.3.1.1. 4 Conventions and Notation This International Standard uses the notation for sets.1. 3.2.1.2. 3. which should not be confused with arithmetic addition.26. These are the transition condition. normally represented by a black dot.2 Transition mode: A pair comprising the transition and a mode. 3. 3.1 HLPN: High-level Petri Net.26.2.26. 3. taken from the transition kind. multisets and universal algebra defined in Annex A. 3.1 Mode: a value taken from the transition’s type. When considering a High-level Petri Net Graph.26.2. and used in Place/Transition nets (as opposed to high-level nets).26.1.27 Type: A set. and represented by a rectangle in the net graph.2 Abbreviations 3.5 PNG: Petri Net Graph. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking. the following actions occur indivisibly: 1.1. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens of the evaluated output arc expression is added to the marking of the output place.2. and 2.26 Transition: A node of a net. (using the ‘·’ symbol). 3. 3.2 Simple Token: A valueless token.26. 3. The notion of multisets is required for clauses 10 .4 PN: Petri Net.2. On the occurrence of the transition.1.5 Transition Variables: All the variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition. 3. Annex A also defines the concept of multiset addition.1.1 Transition condition: A boolean expression (one that evaluates to true or false) associated with a transition. 3.4 Step: The simultaneous occurrence of a multiset of transition modes that are concurrently enabled in a marking.

8 and 9. Å Ì Å ¼ is used to denote that a new marking. sorted variables and many-sorted algebras provided in Annex A is required for clauses 7 and 9 and Annexes B and C. section A. È Ä 11 (see Annex A. An understanding of many-sorted signatures. 5.2). which may be a subset of the associated place’s type. This is necessary as an arc annotation when evaluated must be a multiset over the associated place’s type.5. and similar notation is used in clause 7. 6. if an arc expression evaluates to an element of the place’s type. By convention. Å ¼ . This notation is defined in clause 5. is the set of multisets over the set. 7. is called a ¯ Ì ÝÔ È Ì transition modes. The graphical notation used in clause 6 is that defined in clause 8.   is a function used to assign types to places and to determine ¯ È Ö È Ó×Ø Ì Ê ÆË   ÈÄ ÈÄ are the pre and post mappings with Ì Ê ÆË ´Ø ѵ Ø ¾ Ì Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ ¯ Å ¾ ÈÄ ¼ is a multiset called the initial marking of the net. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets This clause provides the basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets (HLPN). The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. ¯ Ì is a finite set of elements called Transitions disjoint from È (È Ì ). Ì . an arc may be annotated by a variable or constant (or combination) of the same type as the arc’s place. ¯ is a non-empty finite set of non-empty domains where each element of type. is created on the occurrence of a multiset of transition modes. with corresponding multiplicities of zero and one. when in the marking Å .1 Definition A HLPN is a structure ÀÄÈ Æ ´È Ì Ì ÝÔ È Ö È Ó×Ø Å¼ µ where ¯ È is a finite set of elements called Places. In high-level nets. An instance of notation specific to Petri nets is when a marking of the net is transformed to a new marking. NOTE: ÈÄ . This is interpreted as a multiset over the place’s type. A similar convention applies when an arc expression evaluates to a set. Wherever possible standard mathematical notation has been used.

is enabled at a marking Å . Ì ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . ØÖ ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . Å ¾ ÈÄ .4 Transition Rule Given that a finite multiset of transition modes.3. i.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes A finite multiset of transition modes.5.2 Marking of HLPN A Marking of the HLPN is a multiset.e. or any number of concurrently enabled transition modes. 5. Ì Å ¼ or Å   Å ¼ . Also if then this reduces to the definition in the previous subclause. then a step may occur resulting in a new marking Å ¼ given by ż A step is denoted by Å Å   È Ö ´Ì µ · È Ó×Ø´Ì µ Ì where the linear extension of È Ó×Ø is used.3. NOTE: A step may comprise the occurrence of: a single transition mode. there are enough tokens on the input places to satisfy the linear combination of the pre maps for each transition mode in Ì . 12 . Ì . Ì ½. This definition allows a transition mode to be concurrently enabled with itself.3 Enabling of Transition Modes 5. 5. is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´Ì µ Å where the linear extension of È Ö is given by È Ö ´Ì µ ØÖ¾Ì Ê ÆË Ì ´ØÖµÈ Ö ´ØÖµ All transition modes in Ì are said to be concurrently enabled if Ì is enabled.1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition mode. is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´ØÖµ Å 5.

. Ü Ý ) and function images (e. consisting of sets of nodes of two different kinds. The collection may have repetitions. When an arc’s expression is evaluated.1 Introduction High-level Petri Nets can be defined in a number of ways. The variables are typed. as it is the graphical form of HLPNs that is most appropriate for industrial use. This approach is taken. Place Types. One type is associated with each place. The graphical form is referred to as a High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG).g. This clause introduces the concepts that are needed in the definition of the High-level Petri Net Graph. Ü ¯ ¯ Ý ) inscribing a transition. Transition Condition: A boolean expression (e. 13 . A collection of elements (data items) chosen from the place’s type and associated with the place. ´Üµ). High-level Petri Nets are normally represented using a graphical form which allows visualisation of system dynamics (flows of data and control). variables (e. The items associated with places are called tokens. These are non-empty sets.. Place Marking. Repetition of items is allowed. Readers interested in a tutorial exposition on High-level Petri Net Graphs are referred to Annex D.g. Clause 5 provides the definition of the basic mathematical semantic model. and transitions to places. Declarations: comprising definitions of place types. 6. and arcs connecting places to transitions. It provides a graphical notation for places and transitions and their relationships. typing of variables. and determines the inscriptions of the graphical elements. NOTE: A collection of items which allows repetitions is known in mathematics as a multiset. The expressions are evaluated by assigning values to each of the variables. The concepts of enabling and transition rule are also introduced for the graphical form to demonstrate how the net may be executed to show system dynamics. and function definitions.g. it must result in a collection of items taken from the type of the arc’s place. Arc Annotations: Arcs are inscribed with expressions which may comprise constants. The basic semantic model is not what is used by practitioners.6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6..2 High-level Petri Net Graph Components A High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG) comprises: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ A Net Graph. called places and transitions.

and 14 . If a transition is enabled in a mode. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking. and the annotations of arcs involving the transition.1 Enabling A transition is enabled with respect to a net marking. it may occur in that mode. tokens are removed from its input places. Key concepts governing this execution are enabling of transitions and the occurrence of transitions defined by the Transition Rule. then the transition is enabled in that mode. Two transition modes are concurrently enabled for a particular marking. This can illustrate flow of control and flow of data within the same model. Each input arc expression is evaluated for the transition mode. An arc that leads from a transition to a place (an output place of the transition) is called an output arc of the transition. if for the associated transitions.6. Enabling a transition involves the marking of its input places. each input place’s marking contains at least the sum of the enabling tokens (with respect to both modes) of each input arc associated with that input place. An output place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc directed from the transition to the place. A transition is also enabled in a particular transition mode. The input arc’s multiset of tokens resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in a specific mode is called the input arc’s enabling tokens. An input place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc leading from that place to the transition.3.. An example is given in subclause 6. 6. resulting in a multiset of tokens of the same type as that of the input place. A net marking comprises the set of all place markings of the net. 6. for a particular net marking. that satisfies the transition condition (i. allowing the flow of tokens around the net to be visualised. On the occurrence of the transition in a specific mode.3. A transition is enabled in a specific mode. A transition mode is an assignment of values to the transition’s variables. and tokens are added to its output places. These are the transition condition. The transition’s variables are all those variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition.2 Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode Enabled transitions can occur. the transition condition is true). If each input place’s marking contains at least its input arc’s multiset of tokens (resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in the specific mode).e. with respect to that mode. the following actions occur atomically: 1.4. An arc that leads from an input place to a transition is called an input arc of the transition.3 Net Execution HLPNGs are executable. When a transition occurs.

and t1 to p2. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition.7 x: A. is added to the marking of the output place. t1. 6. while arc (t1. using the sum representation of multisets of clause A.p2) is annotated with y. named p1 and p2.4 Graphical Concepts and Notation The graphical representation of the net graph is introduced by the simple example of a HLPNG given in figure 1. Place p2 is typed by . that is in one atomic action. that are different subsets of the positive integers.2. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. Variable x is of type . For example. This states that associated with the place p1 are the value ½ and two instances of the value ¿. The declarations define two types. and the arcs by arrows. This example comprises two places. and is empty representing the empty multiset.4. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. the transition by a rectangle (in this example. as described above. the value associated with 15 .3. ż (p2) .1.t1) is annotated with the variable x. The places are represented by ellipses (in this case. where the less than operator is defined in the declarations.5. resulting from the evaluation of the output arc expression for the mode. y: B ¢ ÓÓÐ Ò arithmetic ‘less than’ Figure 1: HLPNG with a Transition Condition. A convention adopted in high-level nets. and variable y is of type .3 Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes Several concurrently enabled transition modes may occur in one step.2. and . By convention. for x bound to ½. Place p1 is typed by and has an initial marking Å ¼ (p1) ½ ½ · ¾ ¿. Arc (p1.3.A B x x<y t1 y p2 ½ ½·¾ ¿ p1 A = 1.4 B = 3. a square). circles). and arcs from p1 to t1. An example is given in subclause 6.4. is that arcs may be annotated by variables or constants of the same type as the arc’s place. one transition. and y bound to ¿. 2. The change to the marking of the net when a step occurs is given by the sum of all the changes that occur for each transition mode. 6. The transition is inscribed with the boolean expression x y.

interpreted as ½ ¯) when Enter occurs in a single mode. ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ. t1 can be enabled in the following modes ´½ ¿µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ where the first element of each pair represents a binding for x. then the resultant marking would be: Alternatively.g. and m e ¼. which could then be executed. is concurrently enabled. It has been assumed that the initial state is when all the agents are waiting to gain access to the shared resource (with no queueing discipline assumed). In this example. both of which are positive integers. 6. (That is the separator ‘ ’ is dropped where there is no ambiguity.) An agent can obtain access in one of two modes: if shared (m=s). In the initial marking.. and exclusive (e). writing). the annotation on the arc (p1. a binding for y which satisfies x y. the multiset conversion operator ‘ ’ should be used. It can be seen that the multiset of modes. and Parameters The HLPNG of figure 2 uses a variant of the readers/writers problem to illustrate many of the features of a HLPNG including the use of parameters and conditionals in arc expressions. where each of the multiplicities of the agents is one. if the multiset of modes marking would be ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ occurred concurrently.5 Conditionals in Arc Expressions. Where there is any possibility of ambiguity.p2) is ¿. No assumptions are made regarding scheduling.t1) would be ½ x. A number (N) of agents (processes) wish to access a shared resource (such as a file). The marking of place Wait is given by the set . which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ¿. more formally. the initial markings are given in the declaration.g. If transition t1 occurred in mode ½ ´¿ Å (p1) ½ ½ · ½ ¿ Å (p2) ½ . In a similar convention. Each instantiation of N and L would produce a HLPNG. rather than x.arc (p1. which is interpreted to be a multiset over . L and N. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ½. the Control place contains L simple tokens (represented by a black dot ¯) and Access is empty. Place Wait is marked with all agents. Access can be in one of two modes: shared (s). A HLPNG model of figure 2 illustrates the use of two parameters. This is therefore a parameterized HLPNG. then all L tokens are removed preventing further access until the resource is released (transition Leave). µ. which represents infinitely many readers/writers systems. where up to L agents may have access at the same time (e. which is interpreted as the multiset L ¯. if exclusive (m=e). Another example of the concurrent enabling of modes is the multiset ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ and yet another is ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ · ½ ´¿ µ. the marking of Control is given by L¯. reading). where only one agent may have access (e. For example. and similarly the value associated with arc (t1. the resultant Å (p1) Å (p2) ½ ¿ · ¾ . and the second.. Shared 16 .t1) is ½. then a single token is removed from Control (as m=e is false. and thus the arc expression evaluates to ¯.

e Control: C = ¯ Positive integer constants: N.m) A¢M ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ C Control Access x (x.Enter x A Wait (x.m) ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ Leave Set of Agents:A = a½ aÆ Set of Access Modes: M = s. m: M Function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ where ØÖÙ ½ and Ð× ¼ ż ´Waitµ A ż ´Controlµ L¯ ż ´Accessµ Figure 2: HLPNG of Resource Management. 17 . L Variables x: A.

Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. known as the flow – relation. . called Transitions.2 Definition A HLPNG is a structure ÀÄÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is called a net graph. 7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7. for all bindings « ΠЫ ´ ´Ô صµ ΠЫ ´ ´Ø¼ Ôµµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. The concepts of marking. It is assumed that multiset addition. ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ is a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë È ËÀ is a function which assigns types to places. defined in Annex A. 7. It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for the graphical form of high-level nets.access is limited to a maximum of L agents as transition Enter is disabled when Control is empty. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë À Ì ÝÔ Æ – ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. Outfix notation has been used for the function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ . enabling and transition rule are also formally defined for the graphical form. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. defined in Annex A. integer subtraction. and – Ì a finite set of nodes. called Places. is a function that annotates each arc with a term that when evaluated (for any binding) results in a multiset over the associated place’s type. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ « and ΠЫ are 18 . disjoint from Ç. the equality predicate and a tupling operator are primitive and do not need to be defined in the declaration. with È a finite set of nodes. This is the notation for conditionals in arc expressions. ).

a variable. 7. and an associated many sorted algebra. and the many-sorted algebra. or a powerset. markings become (appropriately sorted) ground terms of the signature. is removed. a sort (rather than a type) is associated with each place. the places become Ë -sorted.e. a set of sorted variables. may be typed by a set of multisets. NOTE 5: In defining HLPNGs.g. Arcs are annotated by terms. i. Å È Ë Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that for all Ô ¾ È .. where is the basis set. a type has been intentionally associated with each place.– Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ Ô¾È expressions. Terms are built from the signature and variables. Also. this allows there to be multiterms and conditionals in arc expressions. the terms for arc annotations are of the same sort as that associated with the arc’s place. is the initial marking A HLPNG comprises an annotated net graph. defined in the algebra (e. allows terms which evaluate to multisets over subtypes of the place’s type to be used in the annotations. so that Ü ). which must evaluate to a multiset over the associated place’s type. For example. À× . for example. NOTE 3: The carriers (sets) of the algebra may be arbitrarily complex. A typing function associates a set of the many-sorted algebra with each place.. known as its type.3 Marking A marking. This type is a carrier (set) of the many-sorted algebra. The approach provides a great deal of flexibility in defining the syntax required for arc inscriptions. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Å È ¼ Ë function which associates a multiset of tokens (of the correct type) which each place. NOTE 1: Arbitrarily complex terms can be generated for the arc inscriptions. This leads us to the notion of a HLPN schema which is included in informative Annex C and may be considered for future standardisation. NOTE 2: The evaluation of an arc term may result in an empty multiset. À×¾ À×½ . Å . The schemas are also useful for analysis (see bibliography). Transitions are annotated by Boolean terms. NOTE 4: The restriction on the arc annotations (evaluating to a multiset over the place’s type). 19 . Ü× . Many applications will require the definition of an operator which will convert (in the algebra) an element of a set to a singleton multiset. There is also a need for a more abstract or syntactic form that allows classes of systems to be specified. À . Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that Ô ¾ È . In this case. and others will need a multiset addition operator (and its counterpart in the algebra). ż ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. This allows us to specify concrete systems where the sets and functions have already been determined. À . Å ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. and may be related. of the HLPNG is defined in the same way as the initial marking. The annotations are derived from a many sorted signature. A place can only hold tokens of the same type as the place and hence the initial marking is a multiset over the place’s type. by defining the appropriate signature (operators and sorts) and sorted variables.

for a particular assignment. When Ø occurs in mode «Ø . if is enabled. . Î Ð ÓÓÐ ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ . 7.5 Transition Rule If Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in mode «Ø . for marking Å .7. of transition modes is enabled in a marking. the marking of the net is transformed to a new marking Å ¼ .2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes Let «Ø be an assignment for the variables of transition Ø ¾ Ì which satisfies its transition condition and denote the set of all assignments (which satisfy its transition condition) for transition Ø. Å . « Ø . denoted Å Ø «Ø Å ¼ . then the sum is reduced to a single term so that the enabling condition is the same as that of the previous subclause.4 Enabling 7. for ´Ù Úµ ¾ where ΠЫ ´¨µ ¨ is a symbol that represents the empty multiset at the level of the signature. Å . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ ¯ Ù Ú ¨. iff Ô¾È ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Thus all of the transition modes in are concurrently enabled. known as a mode of Ø. so that . by ×× ÒØ .1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in a marking. Ø may occur in mode «Ø . 7. If comprises a single transition mode. to its variables. ¯ Ù Ú ´Ù Úµ. Define the set of all transition modes to be ÌÅ A step ´Ø «Øµ Ø ¾ Ì «Ø ¾ ×× ÒØ and a step to be a finite non-empty multiset over Ì Å . according to the following rule: Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 20 .4. iff Ô¾È where for ´Ù Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Ú µ ¾ ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ. that satisfies the transition condition.4.

8. where Å ¼ is given by denoted Å Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8.2 Places Places are represented by ellipses (often circles).3 Transitions A transition is represented by a rectangle and is annotated by a name and a boolean expression. There needs to be a visual association between an inscription and the net element to which it belongs. then it may be omitted. defining all the types. and its name and type outside. If the initial marking is empty.1 General The graphical form comprises two parts: a Graph which represents the net elements graphically and carries textual inscriptions. colour and patterns of the lines used to draw the graph are not mandated by this standard. and A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct place. then the step can occur resulting in a new marking. ´Ôµ) associated with the place. or the name of the place could be included inside the ellipse. The width. If the Transition Condition is true (Ì ´Øµ ØÖÙ ). Å ¼ . For example. The position of the annotations with respect to places is not mandated. 21 . and a Declaration. ż ´Ôµ. Å ¼ .If a step is enabled in marking Å . For example. the name of the type (Ì ÝÔ the initial marking. the initial marking could be shown inside the ellipse. The declaration may also include the initial marking and the typing function if these cannot be inscribed on the graph part due to lack of space. 8. Three annotations are associated with a place Ô: ­ ¯ ¯ ¯ the place name. variables. constants and functions that are used to annotate the Graph part. it may be omitted. the Transition Condition. and the type and initial marking outside.

The position of the annotations with respect to transitions is not mandated.1). 8. x y. of domains is given by 22 . then this may be shown by a single arc with an arrowhead at both ends and annotated by a single inscription. The notation for terms is not mandated by this International Standard. 3. For example.6). Set of Types: The set of modes for a transition is determined by the types of the variables occurring in the surrounding arc annotations restricted by its transition condition. An arc is represented by an arrow:   8. Transitions: Ì is the set of transitions in the HLPN. Places: È is the set of places in the HLPN. Arcs are annotated with terms. or the name of the transition could be included inside the rectangle. . If ´Ô ص and ´Ø Ôµ have the same annotations (Ô is a side place of Ø). are defined in the declarations. and the transition condition outside.x y t1 represents a transition with a name t1. Thus the set Ì ÝÔ ´Üµ Ü ¾ È Ì .5 Markings and Tokens A token is a member of Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. Let ÎØ Î be the set of variables associated with transition Ø. and the operator less than. ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ. A Marking of the net may be shown graphically by annotating a place with its multiset of tokens Å ´Ôµ using the symbolic sum representation (see clause A. and a transition condition. A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct transition. but usual mathematical conventions should be adopted where possible. 1. and its name outside. Ë 9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs The HLPNG may be given an interpretation as a HLPN (see clause 5) in the following way.4 Arcs For ´Ô ص ¾ .3. where both the types of the variables. an arrow is drawn from place Ô to transition Ø and vice versa for ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . the transition condition could be shown inside the rectangle (as in the example). 2. Define « Ø as an assignment for À and ÎØ (cf A.2. then Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ «Ø Î Ð ÓÓÐ «Ø ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ The types of places are obtained directly from the HLPN graph definition. x and y.

5. ż ´Ôµ is as defined in the HLPNG. ¯ (i. The lowest level is for the Place/Transition net class and the highest at the level of the HLPNG. È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ . Thus for all Ø ¾ Ì and for all Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ È Ö ´Ø ѵ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ È Ó×Ø´Ø Ñµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ where È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ 6. 10 Conformance Conformance to this International Standard is according to net class. 10. È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ and for ´Ø Ôµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. The pre and post maps are given. Within a class. by the following family of È Ö ´Ô ص Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ For ´Ô ص ¾ and Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ.4.1 Level 1 To claim PN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. such as ¯ .. 23 . will be specialised by the restriction that consists of one set with one element. ÆË and Ì . The Typing Function: The typing function restricted to places is defined in the HLPNG and Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ is given above. If the semantics are adhered to. then the next level is with respect to syntax. The definition of the semantic model (clause 5). for all mappings: ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . the lowest conformance level is to the semantics. The initial marking determines the number of black dots allocated to each place initially. Each place is typed by and È .1 PN Conformance 10. Pre and Post Maps. ¾ and Ñ ¾ Î Ð«Ø Ñ´ ´Ô صµ and È Ó×Ø Ô Ø ´Ñµ Î Ð«Ø Ñ ´ ´Ø Ôµµ ´ µ For all Ô ¾ È . Initial Marking.1. This has the following consequences.e. there is only one token represented by a black dot). ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ There is a one to one mapping between È Ä There is a one to one mapping between Ì Ê Each transition has a single mode.

24 . 10.2 Level 2 To claim HLPN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of HLPN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the HLPNG defined in clause 7 and the notational conventions of clause 8.2 HLPN Conformance 10.1 Level 1 To claim HLPN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5.2 Level 2 To claim PN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of PN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the PNG defined in Annex B.e. there is no need for place typing. 10. nor a declaration.2. section B.2.1 and the relevant notational conventions of clause 8. i.10.. as these are trivial. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9.1.

conversely if ´ µ ¾ .2. ¼. . ´µ ¾ A. The set of multisets over is denoted by . A set is a special case of a multiset. is a function A multiset. Æ Ò ¼ .Annex A (normative) Mathematical Conventions This annex defines the mathematical conventions required for the definition of High-level Petri Nets. A.1 Sum Representation A multiset may be represented as a symbolic sum of basis elements scaled by their multiplicities (sometimes known as co-efficients).2.2 the integers. then ¾ ¾ is a member of . with each of the basis elements. . is given by ´ µ. NOTE: For notions of basic set theory including sets.2 Membership Given a multiset. functions and relations. possibly zero. and 25 . The multiplicity of ¾ in . see the book by Truss in the Bibliography.1 Sets Æ Æ· ¼½ the natural numbers. A. ØÖÙ Ð× Multisets .   Æ which associates a multiplicity. (also known as a bag) over a non-empty basis set. where the multiplicity of each of the basis elements is either zero or one. if ´µ ¼. the positive integers.  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò A. denoted ¾ .

3 Empty Multiset The empty multiset. is the ¾ . This clause introduces the concepts of signatures. ½´ µ ¾´ µ. associate where ¢ is arithmetic multiplication. are equal. ½ ¾ ¾ ½ is less than or equal to (or contained in) A.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . ¾. arcs are annotated by terms and transitions by Boolean expressions. Many-sorted signatures provide an appropriate mathematical framework for this representation. Ë . Ò ½ « ¾ ½¾ ´ µ Ò ¢ ½´ µ .3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification In order to define the HLPNG. ¾.2. of a multiset . A. variables. ½´ µ ¾´ µ. ´ µ ¼. the multiset is called a finite multiset. . Ò ¾ Æ . by a natural number.3. A. The cardinality sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset.1 Signatures A many-sorted (or S-sorted) signature. ½ Two multisets. concepts from algebraic specification are required. Signatures provide a convenient way to characterise many-sorted algebras at a syntactic level.6 Multiset Operations The addition operation and subtraction partial operation on multisets. to the left and are defined as follows: ½ · ¾ iff ¾ ´ µ ½´ µ · ¾´ µ ¾ ( ½´ µ ¾´ µµ ´ ´ µ ½´ µ   ½   ¾ iff Scalar multiplication of a multiset. iff ¾ .A.2. In the HLPNG. has no members: A.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset Multiset cardinality is defined in the following way.2. ´µ ¾ When is finite. iff ¾ . ½ ¾. ½ ¾¾ ¾´ µµ . is defined as A. is a pair: Ë where ´Ë ǵ 26 . terms and many-sorted algebras that are required for the definition of the HLPNG.2.

for all Ó´ ×µ 2. then an integer variable would be Ú´ ÁÒص or ÚÁÒØ . For × ¾ Ë 1. For example. if Ë ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ . if ½ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×½ 3. the sequence of input sorts will define a cartesian product as the domain of the function corresponding to the operator and the output sort will define its co-domain – c.e.3 Boolean Signatures The term Boolean Signature is used to mean a many-sorted signature where one of the sorts is Bool.) For example. then Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ´ ½ 27 Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× . the sort of a constant may be .4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables ´Ë ǵ and an S-sorted set of variables.3. (In the algebra.¯ Ë is a set of sorts (the names of sets.2 Variables Let Î be a set of sorted variables. called an Ë -sorted set of variables. declared by letting A. Using a standard convention. ¾ Ç. such as equality ( ) or less than ( ). For example an integer constant is denoted by Ó ´ ÁÒص or simply ÓÁÒØ .5. from the set of variable names to ¢ Ë.. A. Ú ¾ Î× iff ×). is an operator. over Ë . e. clause A. Thus every operator in Ç is indexed by a pair ´ ×µ. for ×½ Ò ¾ sorted terms and Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç . if ÁÒØ ¾ Ë . ÁÒØ for the integers).3. then Ó´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе represents a binary predicate symbol.3.f. where Ë £ is the set of finite sequences. A Boolean signature will also include the constant ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ .3. . A variable in Î of sort × ¾ Ë would be denoted by Ú ´ ×µ or more simply by Ú× . Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò are Ò µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Î× ×Ò ¾ Ë (Ò ¼). in the following way. and ¯ Ç is a set of operators (the names of functions) together with their arity in Ë which specifies the names of the domain and co-domain of each of the operators. Î may be partitioned according to sorts. ¾ Ë £ and × ¾ Ë denoted by Ó´ ×µ. Denote the set of terms of sort × by Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ × . A. Terms of sort × ¾ Ë may be built from a signature Ë Î . and generate them inductively as follows. and . corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra..g. Ó ´ ×µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×. where Î× denotes the set of variables of sort × (i. and × the output or range sort of operator Ó. ¾ Ë £ is called the input or argument sorts. including the empty string. It is assumed that Ë and Ç are disjoint. Arity is a function from the set of operator names to Ë £ ¢ Ë . The sort of a variable may also be declared in the same way as that of constants.

× ¾ Ë . which may À where ËÀ ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ À× × ¾ Ë is the set of carriers. À× . À¾ It could also be ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ Ð× ××Ø Ò Æ ¢ Æ ÓÓÐ Ò. Thus Thus if ÁÒØ is a sort. there is a corresponding set. NOTE: In the algebra. then there is a corresponding element ÓÀ be considered as a function of arity zero. Definition: A many-sorted Algebra. also called ground terms). For example.Let Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ denote the set of all terms and Ì ÊÅ ´Ç µ the set of all closed terms (those not containing variables.5 Many-sorted Algebras ×¾Ë Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× A many-sorted algebra. is a pair ¾ À×. For every sort. and Ð A. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ A. and operators (with appropriate arguments) of output sort ÁÒØ are terms of sort ÁÒØ. known as a carrier and for every operator Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç. with for all × ¾ Ë À× and £ ÇÀ ÓÀ Ó´ ×µ ¾ Ç ¾ Ë Ò × ¾ Ë the set of corresponding functions. (or Ë -Algebra).3. Ë -sorted variables are typed by the carrier corresponding to the sort.6 Assignment and Evaluation Given an Ë -sorted algebra. 28 .3. Ó× . provides an interpretation (meaning) for the signature Ë . there is a corresponding function ÓÀ À×½ ¢ ¢ À×Ò À× In case an operator is a constant. comprising an assignment function for each sort × ¾ Ë . À . ´Æ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ where Æ is the set of non-negative integers: ¼ ½ À and Î is a «× Î× 1 À× The terms binding and valuation are also used in this context. À . if Ë ´ ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ ´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе µ then a corresponding many-sorted algebra would be where and Ð is the set of integers: À½ ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ ××Ø Ò ¢ Ð× ´ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò is the usual integer comparison function. integer constants and variables. À and Ë -sorted variables in Î . an assignment 1 for family of functions «.

Ó× 2. and For ¾ Ë £ Ò .This function may be extended to terms by defining the family of functions Î for each sort × ¾ Ë : Ð « comprising. For a constant. ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ. and ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Ó ×´ Ò ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò . Î Ð× « ´Ú× µ «× ´Ú× µ. Ú× ¾ Î× . if Ò µ. For × ¾ Ë 1. For a variable. 3. ¾ Ç. with × ×Ò ¾ Ë . ½ ¾ ½ ½ ½ ´ µ ½ ½ ½ 29 . Î Ð× «´Ó×µ ÓÀ ¾ À×. Î Ð× « Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× À× The values are determined inductively as follows. ×× ×Ò . then Î Ð× « ´ µ ÓÀ ´Î Ð× « ´ µ Î Ð×Ò « ´ Ò µµ ¾ À×.

30 . (By convention this is omitted from the graphical representation. Currently it defines Place/Transition nets (without capacities) which is a common form of Petri nets where tokens are simply ‘black dots’. – where ½Æ Ø ¯ ÓØ ¾Æ د ÓØ – Ì constant ØÖÙ .Annex B (normative) Net Classes The purpose of this Annex is to define various classes of nets as a subclass of the HLPNG. ÈÆ where ´Æ Ï Å µ ¼ ¯Æ ´È Ì µ is a net graph. Ç ¯ ÓØ ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ ½Æ Ø ¾Æ Ø À ´ ÓØ ÓÓÐ Ò Æ ¯ ØÖÙ ½ ¾ µ a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë . PNG. ¯ Æ ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. Æ ØÀ Æ . B. ¯ Ì ÝÔ È ÓØ is a function which assigns the type ÓØ to all places. ´¯ ÓØ µÀ ¯. ´½Æ Ø µÀ ½ etc. where ÓØ ¯ and the obvious correspondences are made ( ÓØÀ ÓØ. ÓÓÐÀ ÓÓÐ Ò. Other subclasses may include Elementary Net systems and other high-level nets. Although this is a rather baroque definition of Place/Transition nets.).) Ì ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates every transition with the Boolean ¯Å È ¼ ÓØ. ´ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ µÀ ØÖÙ . is a special HLPNG ÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Æ Ë Î ´È Ì µ is a net graph ´Ë ǵ with Ë ÓØ ÓÓÐ Æ Ø .1 Place/Transition nets A Place/Transition net graph (without capacity). it can be seen to be in one to one correspondence with a more usual definition given below.

and given by a single value ¯. and the number of dots (¯) associated with each arc (Weight function). ¯ Å È Æ is the initial marking assigning a natural number of tokens to each place. the number of dots (¯) associated with each place (marking) are in one to one correspondence with the Naturals. · ¼ This is because: ¯ ¯ ¯ the transition condition is true for each transition. These are represented by dots (¯). and hence doesn’t need to be considered. the type of each place is the same.¯Ï Æ is the weight function. 31 . assigning a positive integer to each arc. are in one to one correspondence with the positive integers. and hence there is no need for typing places.

with È a finite set of nodes. disjoint from Ç. is a function that ´ µ Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ terms. – ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. known as the flow – relation.Annex C (informative) High-level Petri Net Schema C. and allows classes of systems to be specified an an abstract level. called Transitions. and – Ì a finite set of nodes. ËÓÖØ È Ò – annotates each arc with a term of the same sort as that of the associated place. called Places. is the initial ¼ marking function which associates a ground term which each place.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for a high-level net schema. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . C. The ground term has the same sort as the place. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µËÓÖØ Ô . ). Ë is a function which assigns sorts to places. 32 .2 Definition HLPNS is a structure given by ÀÄÈÆË ´Æ Ë Î ËÓÖØ Ò Ñ µ ¼ where ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is a net graph. It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. Ѽ ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´ÇµËÓÖØ´Ôµ . Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ is defined in Annex A. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Ñ È Ì ÊÅ ´Çµ such that Ô ¾ È .

2. irrespective of varying contents.. Arrows. It is assumed that the collections considered have some permanent identity. the collection of coins in someone’s purse. A discrete event system comprises ¯ ¯ collections of real or abstract objects and discrete actions which . D. The contents (i. several instances of the same object can be contained in a collection. Places and transitions are called the nodes of a net graph. The 33 . Arcs never connect a place with a place nor a transition with a transition. called arcs.2 Net Graphs In HLPNGs.create objects in other collections. A collection is modelled by a place. The created objects may be related to objects that are consumed. The graphical representations of components of a net graph are shown in figure D. for example.1: Graphic conventions. Tokens reside in places. show which places a transition operates on.1. the tokens) of a place is called the marking of the place. D.1 Places and Tokens The objects of the system are modelled by (arbitrarily complex) data items called tokens.Annex D (informative) Tutorial D. which is graphically represented by a rectangle. which is graphically represented by a circle or an ellipse. an action is modelled by a transition.e. place arc transition Figure D.1 Introduction High level Petri net graphs (HLPNGs) are used to model discrete event systems. Take. Generally.modify or consume objects from some collections and . Each arc connects a place and a transition in one direction. or a data base.

because other markings will usually evolve. several instances of the same token can reside in the place. Example B is also a net. D. The number of each of the coins in the purse.2 Transitions Example B in figure D. 5c. three 10 cent and two 50 cent coins. 50c 10c 1c 10c 50c 1c 10c Coins AlicesPurse Coins = 1c. When a particular instance of a HLPNG is defined. Alice’s present coin collection can be written as the initial marking. We need to distinguish between two 5c coins and a 25c coin. ż (AlicesPurse) = 2 1c + 3 10c + 2 50c and the net graph is then drawn (admittedly in a less illustrative way) without tokens. nothing ever happens and nothing ever changes in this system. It has neither transitions nor arcs. This means that only coins (belonging to Coins) can reside in Alice’s purse. The place. to avoid any confusion (for example when the values are themselves integers). 2c. Thus. called the initial marking. As no actions are modelled. even though it has neither places nor arcs. i. For example. AlicesPurse. Example A is a net graph. in some currencies there may be both a 5c and a 25c coin. Coins. The set of coins is defined in a textual part of the HLPNG called the Declarations. 20c. each place is defined with a special marking. A marking of a net consists of the markings of each place. the initial marking may be declared textually instead of pictorially. is typed by the set.2. the notation 25c would be ambiguous.3 models the dripping of a tap. If there was no separator.2 consists of a single place.2: Example A. 34 .3: Example B. once a net is executed. which models that Alice’s purse contains two 1 cent. Transition Drip can always happen. Example A in figure D. any number of times. As a place can be marked with a large number of tokens. AlicesPurse. is separated from the value of the coin by a backprime ( ).e.. the tokens correspond to coins.tokens form a collection (known in mathematics as a multiset). 10c. 50c Figure D. Drip Figure D. In this example.

Spend) Traditionally. one transition. and all her coins in one transaction. and F denotes the set of arcs. transitions. She may spend any number of coins at a time.4: Example C. although often important for readability. Arc annotations determine the kinds and numbers of tokens that are produced or consumed. a fifty cent coin. However. Transition.D. it has to be declared in the textual part of Example C that x denotes a variable for coins. i. the net graph. the net has one place. and one arc from AlicesPurse to Spend. a ten cent and a fifty cent coin. Here. that is by the occurrence of transition spend. An arc in the opposite direction indicates that this transition produces tokens on the place. Each arc is thus described as the pair consisting of its origin node and its target node.2. Informally.3 Arcs An arc from a place to a transition indicates that this transition consumes objects from the place.3 Transition Conditions Example D in figure D. two fifty cent coins.. are irrelevant to the mathematical description of a net. but in this International Standard we use P (since it is written in English). 2c. as well as the size and shape of the arcs. Alice could spend: a ten cent coin. D. In figure D. and arcs of the net. 20c. Coins AlicesPurse x Spend Coins 1c. one might say. Example C. D. 5c. S denotes the set of places.5 models that Bob starts with an empty purse and collects 10 cent coins.2. 10c. Example D does not model where the coins may come from. the places.4 The Net Graph The size and position of the nodes. Flussrelation. It only shows what happens to Bob’s purse as a consequence of an arbitrary number of occurrences of Receive.e. These letters are the initials of the German words Stelle. the annotation x indicates that any coin (from Alice’s purse) can be spent. Spend. T denotes the set of transitions. Formally this can be expressed as: P T F AlicesPurse Spend (AlicesPurse.4. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c Figure D. 35 . called AlicesPurse. Alice has a smaller coin collection comprising one ten cent and two fifty cent coins.

The transition.5: Example D. Bob. however. Example F in figure D. Coins x AlicesPurse x=10c Donate 10c Coins BobsPurse Coins 1c.6.Coins BobsPurse 10c Receive Coins 1c. accepts only 10c coins from Alice. If there are no appropriate (i. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. 5c. In a more realistic variant of Example D. requiring that x 10c. N n+1 n n<200 Receive 10c Coins NumberOfCoins BobsPurse N set of natural numbers Coins 1c. A transition condition has been added. 36 .6: Example E. 10c) tokens in AlicesPurse.7: Example F. Donate. 5c. 5c. Bob cannot put arbitrarily many coins into his purse. can occur only with such variable values as fulfill the condition. 10c. 2c. 50c n :N N¢N ÓÓÐ usual ‘less than’ predicate · N¢N N arithmetic addition ż (BobsPurse) ż (NumberOfCoins) ½ ¼ Figure D. depicted in figure D.e.7 limits the number of 10 cent coins that Bob can receive to 200. In the next example. 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. 10c. 2c. Alice is ready to give Bob any of her coins.. then Donate cannot occur. 10c. 2c.

37 .{(x. or if she does it in the reverse order. with x having the value 10c. appearing in the arc annotations around the transition. In this case only x appears.8.10c)}) Figure D.{(x. and is bound to 10c.10c)}) (AlicesPurse. A different marking would be reached by Alice spending a fifty cent coin.{(x. In her first action. (x. (x. The dynamics of Example C.½ ½¼c·½ (Spend. Let her spend a 10 cent coin.e. This indicates which transition occurs (Spend)..{(x. Spend occurs. ¯ ¯ the markings reachable in Example C. one can read.10c)}) ¼c) (Spend.D.10c) ) a new marking of the net is created: Ž (AlicesPurse) ¾ 50c. and to which value each of the variables. as well as the transition occurrences performed to reach each one. i.10c) ).50c)}) (AlicesPurse. is bound.½ (Spend. In the net.8: Reachability graph of Example C. then she will have 50 cents left. As long as Alice’s purse contains coins.¾ ¼c) (Spend. Then in the net. as long as AlicesPurse is marked with a non-empty multiset of tokens. From this diagram. Spend can occur with x bound to any one of the tokens in the marking of AlicesPurse.½ ½¼c·¾ ¼c) (Spend.{(x.50c)}) (AlicesPurse.50c)}) (AlicesPurse.{(x. she can spend any of them. (AlicesPurse. for example. are depicted in the reachability graph in figure D.4 Net Dynamics Example C can be used to illustrate the modelling of system dynamics in HLPNs. ) (Spend. This occurrence of Spend is denoted by (Spend. By the occurrence (Spend.{(x.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. The new marking is called a reachable marking of Example C.½ ½¼c) ¼c) (Spend. Markings reachable from reachable markings are also called reachable. Alice can spend any number of her coins. the following facts about the dynamics of Example C: ¯ If Alice spends first 10 cents and then 50 cents.

No sequence of actions (save.10. 38 .) wherever usually an entire set appears in this position. ) does not mean that Bob receives no coins. All of this holds. The store room of B Co can only hold a certain number. Generally there are sets of place markings and sets of variable bindings to be described. In order to avoid being forced either to leave crates in the street or to rent another store room..9. of these crates. D. Crates may be taken from the store room for processing (e. (BobsPurse.g.¯ ¯ ¯ Alice can perform at most three actions. ) (Receive.. The people from B Co have a problem.5 Flow Control Example Two companies. Figure D. B Co has a room where the crates are stored. trivially... MAX. set braces . ) etc. It just happens that in our very simple example these are one-element sets and the (.. distributed to retailers.¾ ½¼c) (Receive. A Co packs and sends big crates of equal size to B Co. A Co and B Co. The occurrence (Receive.. ) (BobsPurse. In the reachability graph. or opened and the contents consumed – it does not matter here).½ ½¼c) (Receive. B Co agrees with A Co on a ‘flow control protocol’.) looks unnecessarily complicated. the empty sequence) will allow Alice to restore the contents of her purse. one by one.9: Reachability graph of Example D. The reachability graph for Example D consists of a single infinite chain.. only within the range of actions considered in Example C. This procedure is modelled in figure D. of course. Every sequence of 3 actions ends with an empty purse. but that no variable is assigned a value. reside in different cities. say. ) (BobsPurse. are written around the pair parentheses (. as indicated in figure D.

To implement the protocol. it increases SendingCredits by the number written in it. A Co keeps a record of SendingCredits. while B Co keeps a record of empty ‘slots’ available for placing crates in the store. the store room is empty. and all slots are empty and unreserved. and processing a crate raises the number of empty and hence unreserved slots by one. substituted for MAX instantiates Example G to an ‘ordinary’ HLPNG without parameters. there is no sending credit. Whenever A Co receives such a letter. Sending a crate.11. It is a parameterized HLPNG with a parameter.10: Crate procedure. Each such value val. 39 . that may take any natural number as a value. the situation is as follows: no crate or letter is in transit. Note that this net models infinitely many different systems. Example G(val). Initially. MAX. This distributed system is modelled by figure D. B Co does this by sending a letter with this number to A Co and setting the number of unreserved slots to 0. Any time that there are empty slots. which is only possible if SendingCredits is 1 or more.SendCrate Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate Figure D. B Co may reserve them and give the number of reserved (and empty) slots as sending credits for crates to A Co. lowers SendingCredits by 1.

2. 1.SendCrate sc>0 Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate sc sc-1 sc+new new sc n n n>0 SendLetter 0 n n+1 N N N SendingCredits ReceiveLetter LettersInTransit UnreservedSlots Crates Cr N 0. sc : N MAX : N · Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic addition   Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic substraction ż (CratesInTransit) ż (LettersInTransit) ż (SendingCredits) ½ ¼ ż (UnreservedSlots) ½ MAX Figure D. Z is the set of integers n. . new. . ż (StoreRoom) 40 .11: Example G. .

including reachability analysis (with several state space reduction techniques and using model checking). The Petri net community has publish a 2 volume set in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volumes 1491 and 1492) as a handbook on Petri nets in 1998. structural analysis and invariants analysis that may be used to investigate properties of systems modelled by nets. for example. Readers are also referred to the bibliography. 41 .Annex E (informative) Analysis Techniques There are a large number of analysis techniques for Petri nets. This annex is just to alert readers of this standard to these possibilities. the second volume of Kurt Jensen’s book on Coloured Petri Nets.

SpringerVerlag. invited paper in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. 1991. J. Part I. 1992. A. Second Edition. 1995. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp 207-247. Volume 3: Practical Use. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. 1990. Vol. Reisig. Prentice Hall. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets and their Application to Protocols”. September1986. Cambridge University Press. Springer-Verlag. B. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. Fernandez. 11-13 December. 11. Petri Nets: Central Models and Their Properties Advances in Petri Nets. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report No. “Predicate/Transition Nets”. Coloured Petri Nets. E. 1987.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. 1998. 6. Genrich. K. “Flexibility in Algebraic Nets”. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science 40. Desel and J. 10. Applications of Petri Nets in Manufacturing Systems: Modelling. Proceedings of an Advanced Course. 2. “Many-sorted High-level Nets”. Jensen. IEEE Press. 1986. SpringerVerlag. Mannheim. G. 1995. 1420. pp. K. Jensen. Jensen. Kyoto. 1997. Baumgarten. 12. Coloured Petri Nets. 15. Rozenberg (eds). Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Billington. 61-70. Volume 2: Analysis Methods. A. J. Wissenschaftsverlag. 8. W. W. Brauer. Best and C. Al’Jaar. 4. K. 345-364. G. Kyoto. Springer-Verlag.Y. Vol. Control and Performance Analysis. 254. V¨ lzer. Desrochers and R. R. 3. Rozenberg (Eds. Springer-Verlag.Bibliography 1. Kindler and H. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets”. David and H.J. H. Second Edition. E. 222. 42 . Rozenberg (Eds. Springer-Verlag. Alla. Esparza. Bad Honnef. 166-179. J. Volume 1: Basic Concepts. Billington. 1997. 1989. 1989. May 1991. Springer-Verlag.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. G. 7. Volume 254 (and 255 for Part II). Jensen. 1991. 1987. 1997. Petri-Netze. Japan. Notations and Terminology on Petri Net Theory. J. 9. 14. Coloured Petri Nets. Japan. 5. 13. Free Choice Petri Nets. Petri Nets and Grafcet. March 1987. 11-13 December. SpringerVerlag. Billington. Jensen. also reprinted in K. pp. K. Arbeitspapiere der GMD 195. Lecture Notes in Computer o Science.

Schmidt. 1994. A. Petri Nets. 18. Lakos and S. L. 21. TCS. Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists. K. J. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications. Springer Verlag. Vol. 17. “Parameterized Reachability Trees for Algebraic Petri Nets”. Christensen. 1998. W. 1998. 22. 1-34.16. W. Reisig. 20.A. An Introduction. Distributed Algorithms. 1991. Vol. pp. W. Analysis and Applications”. “A General Systematic Approach to Arc Extensions for Coloured Petri Nets”. 541-580. Reisig and G.J. 815. Prentice-Hall.. 1991. No. Reisig. 338-357. Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. Rozenberg. Springer-Verlag. 1995. Salomaa (Eds. EATCS. May. 1985. Peterson. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 392-411. G. W. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4. Truss. 80. 1989. pp. Volume 77. Springer-Verlag. W. Berlin. pp. Volume 935. 19. Modeling and Analysis with Petri Nets.). Lectures in Petri Nets.K. T. J. pp. Murata. Addison-Wesley. 1981. C. Reisig. 24. SpringerVerlag. “Petri Nets: Properties. Springer-Verlag.Brauer. 23. Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. 43 . N. Proc IEEE. Volumes 1491 and 1492. Rozenberg (eds).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful