High-level Petri Nets - Concepts, Definitions and Graphical Notation Final Draft International Standard ISO/IEC

15909 Version 4.7.1 October 28, 2000

Contents
Introduction 1 Scope 1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 18

2 Normative References 3 Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Symbols 3.1 3.2 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Conventions and Notation 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets 5.1 5.2 5.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking of HLPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-level Petri Net Graph Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Graphical Concepts and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditionals in Arc Expressions, and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

7.2 7.3 7.4

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 7.4.2 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26

7.5

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Markings and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs 10 Conformance 10.1 PN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 HLPN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex A: Mathematical Conventions (normative) A.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Multisets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 Sum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.3 Empty Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.6 Multiset Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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A.3.2 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.3 Boolean Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.5 Many-sorted Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.6 Assignment and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B: Net Classes (normative) B.1 Place/Transition nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex C: High-level Petri Net Schema (informative) C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D: Tutorial (informative) D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2 Net Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.1 Places and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.2 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.3 Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.4 The Net Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3 Transition Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 Net Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5 Flow Control Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E: Analysis Techniques (informative) Bibliography

27 27 27 28 28 30 30 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 35 35 35 37 38 41 42

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and also the degree to which the syntax is supported. and may thus be used to provide unambiguous specifications and descriptions of applications. This International Standard may be cited in contracts for the development of software (particularly critical software). For example. Clause 7 defines the Highlevel Petri Net Graph. Normative Annex B defines Petri nets (without capacities) as a restriction of the definition of Clause 7. The technique is particularly suited to parallel and distributed systems development as it supports concurrency. 5 . The use of high-level to describe these Petri nets is analogous to the use of high-level in high-level programming languages (as opposed to assembly languages). Three informative annexes are included: Annex C defines a High-level Petri Net Schema. The level of conformance depends on the class of high-level net supported. thus saving on testing and maintenance time. areas of application and the intended audience of this International Standard. Clause 1 describes the scope. The conformance clause is given in clause 10. first introduced in 1979 and developed during the 1980s.Introduction This International Standard provides a well-defined semi-graphical technique for the specification. Petri nets have been used to describe a wide range of systems since their invention in 1962. the form of the standard intended for industrial use. while the main concepts behind the graphical form are informally introduced in clause 6. Conformance to the standard is possible at several levels. It is believed that this standard captures the spirit of these earlier developments (see bibliography). Clause 2 provides normative references (none at present). It also uses some of the notions developed for Algebraic Petri nets. The main mathematical apparatus required for defining the standard is developed in normative Annex A. and is the usual term used in the Petri net community. High-level Petri Nets. and referred to in clause 4. Annex D is a tutorial on the High-level Petri Net Graph. such as the use of complex structured data as tokens. The technique promises to have multiple uses. first introduced in the mid 1980s. The basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets is given in clause 5. Two of the early forms of high-level nets that this standard builds on are Predicate-Transition Nets and Coloured Petri Nets. The basic level of conformance is to the semantic model. The inscriptions are defined at a meta level allowing many different concrete syntaxes to be used. it may be used directly to specify systems or to define the semantics of other less formal languages. This International Standard provides an abstract mathematical syntax and a formal semantics for the technique. Clause 8 further describes syntactical conventions. is mathematically defined. A problem with Petri nets is the explosion of the number of elements of their graphical form when they are used to describe complex systems. Clause 9 relates the graphical form to the basic semantic model. It may also serve to integrate techniques currently used independently such as state transition diagrams and data flow diagrams. or used by application developers or Petri net tool vendors or users. while clause 3 provides a glossary of terms and defines abbreviations. It is also an executable technique. and using algebraic expressions to annotate net elements. Specifications written in the technique may be subjected to analysis methods to prove properties about the specifications. which allows classes of systems to be described at a syntactic level. High-level Petri Nets were developed to overcome this problem by introducing higher-level concepts. design and analysis of systems. The technique. allowing specification prototypes to be developed to test ideas at the earliest and cheapest opportunity. before implementation commences.

1 Scope 1. internet protocols and applications. legal processes. banking systems. Generic fields of application include: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ requirements analysis. This International Standard does not provide a concrete syntax nor a transfer syntax and it does not address techniques for modularity (such as hierarchies). This International Standard will also facilitate the development and interoperability of Petri net computer support tools. designs and test suites. nuclear power systems. This International Standard may be applied to a broad range of systems. information systems. This International Standard. defines a mathematical semantic model. It provides a reference definition that can be used both within and between organisations. security systems. metabolic processes. operating systems. defence command and control. business processes. including air traffic control. and methods for analysis which may become the subject of future standardisation efforts. communication protocols. development of specifications. including its syntax and semantics. modelling business and software processes. telecommunications and workflow. 6 .and Annex E provides pointers to analysis techniques for High-level Petri Nets. to ensure a common understanding of the technique and of the specifications written using the technique. simulation of systems to increase confidence. A bibliography concludes this International Standard. computer hardware architectures. formal analysis of the behaviour of critical systems. descriptions of existing systems prior to re-engineering. fault-tolerant systems. providing the semantics for concurrent languages. hospital procedures. and development of Petri net support tools. called High-level Petri Nets. manufacturing systems.2 Field of Application This International Standard is applicable to a wide variety of concurrent discrete event systems and in particular distributed systems. databases. music.1 Purpose This International Standard defines a Petri net technique. 1. transport systems (including railway control). chemical processes. space. an abstract mathematical syntax for inscriptions and a graphical notation for High-level Petri Nets. control systems. augmentation of High-level Petri Nets with time. electronic commerce. avionics.

1.1.1. 3 Terms. abbreviations and symbols apply.2 Arity: The input sorts and output sort for an operator. parameter values. 3.1.3 Arc annotation: An expression that may involve constants. 3.3 Assignment: For a set of variables.1.1 Glossary 3. 3. developers.1. 2 Normative References None.6 Carrier: A set of a many-sorted algebra.1.1. 3. and hence are not ordered (see also Step and Concurrent Enabling).1.1.1 Input Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from a place to the transition. 3. 3. The expression must evaluate to a multiset over the type of the arc’s associated place.1.1.4 Basis set: The set of objects used to create a multiset. Normally represented by an arrow. Abbreviations and Symbols For the purpose of this International Standard. 3.3 Audience This International Standard is written as a reference for systems analysts.1.9 Enabling (a transition): A transition is enabled in a particular mode and net marking. maintainers and procurers.7 Concurrency: The property of a system in which events may occur independently of each other. Definitions. when the following conditions are met: 7 . constants. variables and operators used to annotate an arc of a net. 3.8 Declaration: A set of statements which define the sets.1 Arc: A directed edge of a net which may connect a place to a transition or a transition to a place. 3.1. Any ambiguity in the definitions is resolved by the mathematically precise definitions in the body of this International Standard. typed variables and functions required for defining the inscriptions on a High-level Petri Net Graph. 3. and for Petri net tool designers and standards developers. 3.1.1.5 Binding: See Assignment. the association of a value (of correct type) to each variable. designers. 3.2 Output Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from the transition to a place. the following definitions.

a place or a transition). 3.5 Reachability Set: The set of reachable markings of the net. nor places to places.1.1. 3.The marking of each input place of the transition satisfies the demand imposed on it by its arc annotation evaluated for the particular transition mode.15.14.15.1.1.1. 3. non-negative integer) which describes the number of repetitions of an item in a multiset.12 High-level Petri Net Graph: A net graph and its associated annotations comprising Place Types. but never transitions to transitions.16 Net: A general term used to describe all classes of Petri nets. and their interconnection by directed edges.1. 3.2 Multiset cardinality (cardinality of a multiset): The sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset. and an initial marking.14 Marking (of a net): The set of the place markings for all places of the net. The demand is satisfied when the place’s marking contains (at least) the multiset of tokens indicated by the evaluated arc annotation. 3. 3.16. a set of transitions.e.15 Multiset: A collection of items where repetition of items is allowed.2 Initial Marking of a place: A special marking of a place. and their corresponding definitions in a set of Declarations.1. 3.16. Arc Annotations. 8 . Post function determining output tokens (multisets of tokens) for places for each transition mode.1.e. such that only places can be connected to transitions.. and an Initial Marking of the net.14.1. a function associating a type to each place.4 Reachable Marking: Any marking of the net that can be reached from the initial marking by the occurrence of transitions.1. 3. called arcs.1.14. 3.10 Concurrent Enabling (of transition modes): A multiset of transition modes is concurrently enabled if all the involved input places contain enough tokens to satisfy the sum of all of the demands imposed on them by each input arc annotation evaluated for each transition mode in the multiset. and a set of modes (a type) to each transition. including the initial marking.14.1. 3. called places and transitions. Pre function imposing token demands (multisets of tokens) on places for each transition mode. 3.1 Initial Marking (of the net): The set of initial place markings given with the highlevel net definition.2 Node (of a net): A vertex of a net graph (i. 3.1 Multiplicity: A natural number (i. NOTE: The determination of transition modes guarantees that the Transition Condition is satisfied (see Transition Mode).1.1 Net graph: A directed graph comprising a set of nodes of two different kinds.13 Many-sorted Algebra: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sets and a set of functions taking these sets as domains and co-domains. defined with the high-level net. and transitions to places. 3.11 High-level Net (High-level Petri Net): An algebraic structure comprising: a set of places.. 3.1.1.1. Transition Conditions.14. a set of types. 3.3 Marking of a place: A multiset of tokens associated with (‘residing in’) the place. 3.

It is instantiated as a constant. normally represented by an ellipse in the net graph.1. 3.17 Operator: A symbol representing the name of a function.2 Output Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an output arc.1 Boolean signature: A signature where one of the sorts is ÓÓÐ. 3. taken from the place kind.3.1 Closed term: A term comprising constants and operators but no variables.1.20. 3.18 Parameter: A symbol that can take a range of values defined by a set.24.23.1. 3.24 Term: An expression comprising constants.24.4 Place/Transition Net: A Petri net comprising a net graph with positive integers associated with arcs and an initial marking function which associates a natural number of simple tokens (‘black dots’) with places. 3.1. one called places and the other called transitions.1.1. 3.23. 3.1. 3. variables and operators built from a signature and a set of sorted variables. where the nodes correspond to reachable markings.1. 3. and one of the constants is ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ corresponding to the value true in the algebra.1. 3.1.3 Petri Net: An algebraic structure with two sets.1. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra.2 Input sort: The same as an argument sort.2 Term evaluation: The result obtained after the binding of variables in the term.1 Input Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an input arc. 3. A place is typed.25.1. and named after their inventor.20.1.4 Range sort: The same as an output sort.1.23.1. and any simplifications performed (such as gathering like terms to obtain the symbolic sum representation of a multiset).1. 3.1.21 Reachability Graph: A directed graph of nodes and edges. 3.22. 3. 9 .1.20 Place: A node of a net.23.16. and the edges correspond to transition occurrences.1.20. (This set can describe an arbitrarily complex data structure. 3.25 Token: A data item associated with a place and chosen from the place’s type. together with their associated relations and functions.1 Argument sort: The sort of an argument of an operator.22 Signature/Many-sorted signature: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sorts and a set of operators.3 Place Type: A non-empty set of data items associated with a place. Carl Adam Petri.16. 3. 3.1. 3.23 Sort: A symbol representing the name of a set.19 Parameterized High-level Net Graph: A high-level net graph that contains parameters in its definition.1.1. the computation of the results of the associated functions.3 Output sort: The sort of an output of an operator. 3.) 3. 3.1 Enabling Tokens: The multiset of values obtained when an input arc annotation is evaluated for a particular binding to variables.

1.1 HLPN: High-level Petri Net.1.26. 3.5 Transition Variables: All the variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. which should not be confused with arithmetic addition.1.2. the following actions occur indivisibly: 1.1. 3.25.2 Simple Token: A valueless token.2. 3.26. When considering a High-level Petri Net Graph. 3.2 Abbreviations 3.3.2.2.2 Transition mode: A pair comprising the transition and a mode.26. taken from the transition kind. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition.1 Transition condition: A boolean expression (one that evaluates to true or false) associated with a transition.26. 3.3 HLPNS: High-level Petri Net Schema. 3.2. normally represented by a black dot.1. Annex A also defines the concept of multiset addition. and 2.1.26 Transition: A node of a net.26.1. it may occur in that mode. 3. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking.5 PNG: Petri Net Graph. 3. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens of the evaluated output arc expression is added to the marking of the output place.4 PN: Petri Net.2.27 Type: A set.1.2 HLPNG: High-level Petri Net Graph. and used in Place/Transition nets (as opposed to high-level nets). and the annotations of arcs surrounding the transition. 4 Conventions and Notation This International Standard uses the notation for sets. (using the ‘·’ symbol). The notion of multisets is required for clauses 10 . multisets and universal algebra defined in Annex A. On the occurrence of the transition. 3. 3.3 Transition occurrence (Transition rule): If a transition is enabled in a mode. 3.26.4 Step: The simultaneous occurrence of a multiset of transition modes that are concurrently enabled in a marking. a mode may be derived from an assignment of values to the transition’s variables that satisfies the transition condition. These are the transition condition. 3.1 Mode: a value taken from the transition’s type. 3.1. and represented by a rectangle in the net graph.

Å Ì Å ¼ is used to denote that a new marking. if an arc expression evaluates to an element of the place’s type. Ì .   is a function used to assign types to places and to determine ¯ È Ö È Ó×Ø Ì Ê ÆË   ÈÄ ÈÄ are the pre and post mappings with Ì Ê ÆË ´Ø ѵ Ø ¾ Ì Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ ¯ Å ¾ ÈÄ ¼ is a multiset called the initial marking of the net. 8 and 9. Wherever possible standard mathematical notation has been used. when in the marking Å . with corresponding multiplicities of zero and one. section A. The graphical notation used in clause 6 is that defined in clause 8. An instance of notation specific to Petri nets is when a marking of the net is transformed to a new marking.2). an arc may be annotated by a variable or constant (or combination) of the same type as the arc’s place. which may be a subset of the associated place’s type. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. This is necessary as an arc annotation when evaluated must be a multiset over the associated place’s type. ¯ Ì is a finite set of elements called Transitions disjoint from È (È Ì ). This is interpreted as a multiset over the place’s type. In high-level nets. sorted variables and many-sorted algebras provided in Annex A is required for clauses 7 and 9 and Annexes B and C. is called a ¯ Ì ÝÔ È Ì transition modes. 7. A similar convention applies when an arc expression evaluates to a set. is the set of multisets over the set. Å ¼ . By convention. 6. ¯ is a non-empty finite set of non-empty domains where each element of type. 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets This clause provides the basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets (HLPN). This notation is defined in clause 5. 5.5.1 Definition A HLPN is a structure ÀÄÈ Æ ´È Ì Ì ÝÔ È Ö È Ó×Ø Å¼ µ where ¯ È is a finite set of elements called Places. An understanding of many-sorted signatures. and similar notation is used in clause 7. È Ä 11 (see Annex A. NOTE: ÈÄ . this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. is created on the occurrence of a multiset of transition modes.

is enabled at a marking Å .4 Transition Rule Given that a finite multiset of transition modes. Also if then this reduces to the definition in the previous subclause. Ì ½. NOTE: A step may comprise the occurrence of: a single transition mode. Ì Å ¼ or Å   Å ¼ . is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´ØÖµ Å 5.5. 12 . Ì .3.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes A finite multiset of transition modes. Å ¾ ÈÄ . 5. Ì ¾ Ì Ê ÆË .2 Marking of HLPN A Marking of the HLPN is a multiset. then a step may occur resulting in a new marking Å ¼ given by ż A step is denoted by Å Å   È Ö ´Ì µ · È Ó×Ø´Ì µ Ì where the linear extension of È Ó×Ø is used. is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´Ì µ Å where the linear extension of È Ö is given by È Ö ´Ì µ ØÖ¾Ì Ê ÆË Ì ´ØÖµÈ Ö ´ØÖµ All transition modes in Ì are said to be concurrently enabled if Ì is enabled.1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition mode. there are enough tokens on the input places to satisfy the linear combination of the pre maps for each transition mode in Ì .e. ØÖ ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . This definition allows a transition mode to be concurrently enabled with itself.3. 5. or any number of concurrently enabled transition modes. i.3 Enabling of Transition Modes 5.

Declarations: comprising definitions of place types. The expressions are evaluated by assigning values to each of the variables. The items associated with places are called tokens. A collection of elements (data items) chosen from the place’s type and associated with the place. as it is the graphical form of HLPNs that is most appropriate for industrial use. called places and transitions. Ü ¯ ¯ Ý ) inscribing a transition.1 Introduction High-level Petri Nets can be defined in a number of ways. This approach is taken. Ü Ý ) and function images (e.. and arcs connecting places to transitions. Readers interested in a tutorial exposition on High-level Petri Net Graphs are referred to Annex D. It provides a graphical notation for places and transitions and their relationships. Transition Condition: A boolean expression (e.g.g. These are non-empty sets.6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6. High-level Petri Nets are normally represented using a graphical form which allows visualisation of system dynamics (flows of data and control). consisting of sets of nodes of two different kinds. it must result in a collection of items taken from the type of the arc’s place. Repetition of items is allowed. variables (e. ´Üµ). When an arc’s expression is evaluated. and transitions to places. and determines the inscriptions of the graphical elements. typing of variables.g. The basic semantic model is not what is used by practitioners. One type is associated with each place. Place Types.. Arc Annotations: Arcs are inscribed with expressions which may comprise constants. The graphical form is referred to as a High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG). The concepts of enabling and transition rule are also introduced for the graphical form to demonstrate how the net may be executed to show system dynamics. and function definitions. This clause introduces the concepts that are needed in the definition of the High-level Petri Net Graph.2 High-level Petri Net Graph Components A High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG) comprises: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ A Net Graph. Clause 5 provides the definition of the basic mathematical semantic model. 13 .. The collection may have repetitions. NOTE: A collection of items which allows repetitions is known in mathematics as a multiset. The variables are typed. Place Marking. 6.

3 Net Execution HLPNGs are executable.. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking. An output place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc directed from the transition to the place. An input place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc leading from that place to the transition. If a transition is enabled in a mode.1 Enabling A transition is enabled with respect to a net marking. A transition is also enabled in a particular transition mode.e. if for the associated transitions. then the transition is enabled in that mode. and 14 . resulting in a multiset of tokens of the same type as that of the input place. Enabling a transition involves the marking of its input places. An arc that leads from a transition to a place (an output place of the transition) is called an output arc of the transition. for a particular net marking. If each input place’s marking contains at least its input arc’s multiset of tokens (resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in the specific mode). These are the transition condition. each input place’s marking contains at least the sum of the enabling tokens (with respect to both modes) of each input arc associated with that input place. The transition’s variables are all those variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. On the occurrence of the transition in a specific mode. Each input arc expression is evaluated for the transition mode. and tokens are added to its output places. A net marking comprises the set of all place markings of the net. Two transition modes are concurrently enabled for a particular marking. This can illustrate flow of control and flow of data within the same model. When a transition occurs.6.4. An arc that leads from an input place to a transition is called an input arc of the transition. tokens are removed from its input places. An example is given in subclause 6. the following actions occur atomically: 1. the transition condition is true). that satisfies the transition condition (i. A transition is enabled in a specific mode. it may occur in that mode.2 Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode Enabled transitions can occur.3. Key concepts governing this execution are enabling of transitions and the occurrence of transitions defined by the Transition Rule. A transition mode is an assignment of values to the transition’s variables. 6.3. and the annotations of arcs involving the transition. The input arc’s multiset of tokens resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in a specific mode is called the input arc’s enabling tokens. with respect to that mode. allowing the flow of tokens around the net to be visualised. 6.

Arc (p1.1. and is empty representing the empty multiset. By convention.2. using the sum representation of multisets of clause A. named p1 and p2.4 Graphical Concepts and Notation The graphical representation of the net graph is introduced by the simple example of a HLPNG given in figure 1. t1. Place p2 is typed by . The transition is inscribed with the boolean expression x y. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens. This states that associated with the place p1 are the value ½ and two instances of the value ¿. resulting from the evaluation of the output arc expression for the mode. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition. is that arcs may be annotated by variables or constants of the same type as the arc’s place. one transition. while arc (t1. and variable y is of type . a square).t1) is annotated with the variable x. as described above. for x bound to ½. and y bound to ¿. Variable x is of type .3. The declarations define two types.p2) is annotated with y. Place p1 is typed by and has an initial marking Å ¼ (p1) ½ ½ · ¾ ¿.5.3 Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes Several concurrently enabled transition modes may occur in one step. and t1 to p2. 6.A B x x<y t1 y p2 ½ ½·¾ ¿ p1 A = 1.7 x: A. that are different subsets of the positive integers. the transition by a rectangle (in this example. where the less than operator is defined in the declarations. and .4 B = 3. 6. The places are represented by ellipses (in this case.4. A convention adopted in high-level nets. ż (p2) . 2.4. and arcs from p1 to t1. y: B ¢ ÓÓÐ Ò arithmetic ‘less than’ Figure 1: HLPNG with a Transition Condition. the value associated with 15 .3.2. For example. This example comprises two places. The change to the marking of the net when a step occurs is given by the sum of all the changes that occur for each transition mode. is added to the marking of the output place. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. circles). An example is given in subclause 6. and the arcs by arrows. that is in one atomic action.

where up to L agents may have access at the same time (e. and similarly the value associated with arc (t1. and thus the arc expression evaluates to ¯. reading). where only one agent may have access (e. the Control place contains L simple tokens (represented by a black dot ¯) and Access is empty.g. if the multiset of modes marking would be ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ occurred concurrently. A HLPNG model of figure 2 illustrates the use of two parameters. It has been assumed that the initial state is when all the agents are waiting to gain access to the shared resource (with no queueing discipline assumed). This is therefore a parameterized HLPNG. (That is the separator ‘ ’ is dropped where there is no ambiguity. L and N. the initial markings are given in the declaration. rather than x. No assumptions are made regarding scheduling. 6. and Parameters The HLPNG of figure 2 uses a variant of the readers/writers problem to illustrate many of the features of a HLPNG including the use of parameters and conditionals in arc expressions. then the resultant marking would be: Alternatively. In a similar convention. more formally. a binding for y which satisfies x y. which is interpreted as the multiset L ¯. If transition t1 occurred in mode ½ ´¿ Å (p1) ½ ½ · ½ ¿ Å (p2) ½ . Place Wait is marked with all agents.p2) is ¿. Each instantiation of N and L would produce a HLPNG. is concurrently enabled. the multiset conversion operator ‘ ’ should be used. which could then be executed. In this example. which is interpreted to be a multiset over . ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ. and m e ¼. For example. and the second.arc (p1. then a single token is removed from Control (as m=e is false. then all L tokens are removed preventing further access until the resource is released (transition Leave).5 Conditionals in Arc Expressions. writing). Where there is any possibility of ambiguity. Another example of the concurrent enabling of modes is the multiset ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ and yet another is ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ · ½ ´¿ µ. It can be seen that the multiset of modes. where each of the multiplicities of the agents is one. the annotation on the arc (p1...t1) is ½. Access can be in one of two modes: shared (s). In the initial marking. the marking of Control is given by L¯. interpreted as ½ ¯) when Enter occurs in a single mode. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ½. Shared 16 . t1 can be enabled in the following modes ´½ ¿µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ where the first element of each pair represents a binding for x. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ¿. A number (N) of agents (processes) wish to access a shared resource (such as a file). µ. The marking of place Wait is given by the set . the resultant Å (p1) Å (p2) ½ ¿ · ¾ . which represents infinitely many readers/writers systems.) An agent can obtain access in one of two modes: if shared (m=s). both of which are positive integers.g. and exclusive (e).t1) would be ½ x. if exclusive (m=e).

m: M Function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ where ØÖÙ ½ and Ð× ¼ ż ´Waitµ A ż ´Controlµ L¯ ż ´Accessµ Figure 2: HLPNG of Resource Management.Enter x A Wait (x.m) A¢M ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ C Control Access x (x. 17 . L Variables x: A.e Control: C = ¯ Positive integer constants: N.m) ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ Leave Set of Agents:A = a½ aÆ Set of Access Modes: M = s.

. ).1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for the graphical form of high-level nets. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ « and ΠЫ are 18 . 7. the equality predicate and a tupling operator are primitive and do not need to be defined in the declaration. known as the flow – relation. ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. called Places. with È a finite set of nodes. It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë À Ì ÝÔ Æ – ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. and – Ì a finite set of nodes. ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ is a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë È ËÀ is a function which assigns types to places. defined in Annex A. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. disjoint from Ç. for all bindings « ΠЫ ´ ´Ô صµ ΠЫ ´ ´Ø¼ Ôµµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. defined in Annex A. The concepts of marking. It is assumed that multiset addition. enabling and transition rule are also formally defined for the graphical form. 7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7.access is limited to a maximum of L agents as transition Enter is disabled when Control is empty. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. integer subtraction. called Transitions. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . This is the notation for conditionals in arc expressions. Outfix notation has been used for the function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ . is a function that annotates each arc with a term that when evaluated (for any binding) results in a multiset over the associated place’s type.2 Definition A HLPNG is a structure ÀÄÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is called a net graph.

and the many-sorted algebra. The schemas are also useful for analysis (see bibliography). NOTE 2: The evaluation of an arc term may result in an empty multiset. is removed. À . the terms for arc annotations are of the same sort as that associated with the arc’s place. Many applications will require the definition of an operator which will convert (in the algebra) an element of a set to a singleton multiset. Å . which must evaluate to a multiset over the associated place’s type. Ü× . In this case. a set of sorted variables. ż ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. A typing function associates a set of the many-sorted algebra with each place. 7. À×¾ À×½ . is the initial marking A HLPNG comprises an annotated net graph. this allows there to be multiterms and conditionals in arc expressions. and an associated many sorted algebra.e. defined in the algebra (e. A place can only hold tokens of the same type as the place and hence the initial marking is a multiset over the place’s type. Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that Ô ¾ È . may be typed by a set of multisets. 19 . NOTE 1: Arbitrarily complex terms can be generated for the arc inscriptions. for example. NOTE 3: The carriers (sets) of the algebra may be arbitrarily complex. Transitions are annotated by Boolean terms. For example. a type has been intentionally associated with each place. a variable. There is also a need for a more abstract or syntactic form that allows classes of systems to be specified. This leads us to the notion of a HLPN schema which is included in informative Annex C and may be considered for future standardisation. of the HLPNG is defined in the same way as the initial marking.– Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ Ô¾È expressions. or a powerset.g. markings become (appropriately sorted) ground terms of the signature. À× . Terms are built from the signature and variables. À . a sort (rather than a type) is associated with each place.3 Marking A marking. Å È Ë Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that for all Ô ¾ È . and others will need a multiset addition operator (and its counterpart in the algebra). allows terms which evaluate to multisets over subtypes of the place’s type to be used in the annotations. where is the basis set. known as its type.. Arcs are annotated by terms. Å ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. NOTE 4: The restriction on the arc annotations (evaluating to a multiset over the place’s type). NOTE 5: In defining HLPNGs. The annotations are derived from a many sorted signature. the places become Ë -sorted.. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Å È ¼ Ë function which associates a multiset of tokens (of the correct type) which each place. so that Ü ). and may be related. i. Also. The approach provides a great deal of flexibility in defining the syntax required for arc inscriptions. This type is a carrier (set) of the many-sorted algebra. by defining the appropriate signature (operators and sorts) and sorted variables. This allows us to specify concrete systems where the sets and functions have already been determined.

4 Enabling 7. by ×× ÒØ . the marking of the net is transformed to a new marking Å ¼ . 7.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes Let «Ø be an assignment for the variables of transition Ø ¾ Ì which satisfies its transition condition and denote the set of all assignments (which satisfy its transition condition) for transition Ø.4. of transition modes is enabled in a marking. for a particular assignment. « Ø . so that . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ where ΠЫ ´¨µ ¨ is a symbol that represents the empty multiset at the level of the signature. for marking Å . ¯ Ù Ú ´Ù Úµ. If comprises a single transition mode.5 Transition Rule If Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in mode «Ø . Define the set of all transition modes to be ÌÅ A step ´Ø «Øµ Ø ¾ Ì «Ø ¾ ×× ÒØ and a step to be a finite non-empty multiset over Ì Å .4. When Ø occurs in mode «Ø . iff Ô¾È ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Thus all of the transition modes in are concurrently enabled.1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in a marking. to its variables.7. that satisfies the transition condition. 7. then the sum is reduced to a single term so that the enabling condition is the same as that of the previous subclause. Î Ð ÓÓÐ ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ . Ø may occur in mode «Ø . according to the following rule: Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 20 . Å . Å . . denoted Å Ø «Ø Å ¼ . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ ¯ Ù Ú ¨. iff Ô¾È where for ´Ù Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Ú µ ¾ ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ. if is enabled. known as a mode of Ø.

For example. If the Transition Condition is true (Ì ´Øµ ØÖÙ ). Å ¼ . it may be omitted. There needs to be a visual association between an inscription and the net element to which it belongs. The declaration may also include the initial marking and the typing function if these cannot be inscribed on the graph part due to lack of space. variables. Å ¼ . and a Declaration. The width. and the type and initial marking outside.If a step is enabled in marking Å . 21 . Three annotations are associated with a place Ô: ­ ¯ ¯ ¯ the place name. where Å ¼ is given by denoted Å Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8. the name of the type (Ì ÝÔ the initial marking. If the initial marking is empty. and A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct place. ż ´Ôµ.1 General The graphical form comprises two parts: a Graph which represents the net elements graphically and carries textual inscriptions. defining all the types. the Transition Condition. or the name of the place could be included inside the ellipse. then the step can occur resulting in a new marking. and its name and type outside. then it may be omitted. 8. ´Ôµ) associated with the place.3 Transitions A transition is represented by a rectangle and is annotated by a name and a boolean expression. colour and patterns of the lines used to draw the graph are not mandated by this standard. 8.2 Places Places are represented by ellipses (often circles). constants and functions that are used to annotate the Graph part. the initial marking could be shown inside the ellipse. For example. The position of the annotations with respect to places is not mandated.

but usual mathematical conventions should be adopted where possible. ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ. and the operator less than. Thus the set Ì ÝÔ ´Üµ Ü ¾ È Ì . 8.3. x and y. an arrow is drawn from place Ô to transition Ø and vice versa for ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . 3. Ë 9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs The HLPNG may be given an interpretation as a HLPN (see clause 5) in the following way. are defined in the declarations. Define « Ø as an assignment for À and ÎØ (cf A. 1. The notation for terms is not mandated by this International Standard. For example.x y t1 represents a transition with a name t1. then this may be shown by a single arc with an arrowhead at both ends and annotated by a single inscription. An arc is represented by an arrow:   8. x y.2. and the transition condition outside. A Marking of the net may be shown graphically by annotating a place with its multiset of tokens Å ´Ôµ using the symbolic sum representation (see clause A.4 Arcs For ´Ô ص ¾ . or the name of the transition could be included inside the rectangle. Let ÎØ Î be the set of variables associated with transition Ø.6). Arcs are annotated with terms. If ´Ô ص and ´Ø Ôµ have the same annotations (Ô is a side place of Ø). . and its name outside. then Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ «Ø Î Ð ÓÓÐ «Ø ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ The types of places are obtained directly from the HLPN graph definition. of domains is given by 22 . A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct transition. and a transition condition. Transitions: Ì is the set of transitions in the HLPN. where both the types of the variables.5 Markings and Tokens A token is a member of Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. Set of Types: The set of modes for a transition is determined by the types of the variables occurring in the surrounding arc annotations restricted by its transition condition. The position of the annotations with respect to transitions is not mandated. Places: È is the set of places in the HLPN. the transition condition could be shown inside the rectangle (as in the example).1). 2.

10. there is only one token represented by a black dot). such as ¯ . 10 Conformance Conformance to this International Standard is according to net class. If the semantics are adhered to. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ There is a one to one mapping between È Ä There is a one to one mapping between Ì Ê Each transition has a single mode. ÆË and Ì . The definition of the semantic model (clause 5).4. ¯ (i. 5. Within a class. Thus for all Ø ¾ Ì and for all Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ È Ö ´Ø ѵ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ È Ó×Ø´Ø Ñµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ where È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ 6.1 PN Conformance 10. ż ´Ôµ is as defined in the HLPNG. The lowest level is for the Place/Transition net class and the highest at the level of the HLPNG. then the next level is with respect to syntax. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. ¾ and Ñ ¾ Î Ð«Ø Ñ´ ´Ô صµ and È Ó×Ø Ô Ø ´Ñµ Î Ð«Ø Ñ ´ ´Ø Ôµµ ´ µ For all Ô ¾ È . This has the following consequences.1. The Typing Function: The typing function restricted to places is defined in the HLPNG and Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ is given above.. for all mappings: ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ . the lowest conformance level is to the semantics. by the following family of È Ö ´Ô ص Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ For ´Ô ص ¾ and Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. The pre and post maps are given. 23 . Each place is typed by and È . Initial Marking.e. The initial marking determines the number of black dots allocated to each place initially. È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ and for ´Ø Ôµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. will be specialised by the restriction that consists of one set with one element.1 Level 1 To claim PN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. Pre and Post Maps.

e..2 Level 2 To claim HLPN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of HLPN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the HLPNG defined in clause 7 and the notational conventions of clause 8.1.2 Level 2 To claim PN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of PN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the PNG defined in Annex B.2. nor a declaration.10.2. i. as these are trivial.2 HLPN Conformance 10. 10. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9.1 and the relevant notational conventions of clause 8. section B.1 Level 1 To claim HLPN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. 10. 24 . there is no need for place typing.

(also known as a bag) over a non-empty basis set.   Æ which associates a multiplicity. then ¾ ¾ is a member of .Annex A (normative) Mathematical Conventions This annex defines the mathematical conventions required for the definition of High-level Petri Nets. ØÖÙ Ð× Multisets .1 Sum Representation A multiset may be represented as a symbolic sum of basis elements scaled by their multiplicities (sometimes known as co-efficients). and 25 . . functions and relations. see the book by Truss in the Bibliography. possibly zero. ¼. ´µ ¾ A. . conversely if ´ µ ¾ . The multiplicity of ¾ in . is a function A multiset.2.1 Sets Æ Æ· ¼½ the natural numbers. where the multiplicity of each of the basis elements is either zero or one. the positive integers. with each of the basis elements.2 the integers. if ´µ ¼. The set of multisets over is denoted by . Æ Ò ¼ .2.2 Membership Given a multiset. is given by ´ µ. A. denoted ¾ . NOTE: For notions of basic set theory including sets. A set is a special case of a multiset. A.  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò A.

´ µ ¼. ¾. ½ ¾¾ ¾´ µµ . iff ¾ . Signatures provide a convenient way to characterise many-sorted algebras at a syntactic level.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset Multiset cardinality is defined in the following way. is the ¾ . by a natural number.2. A. Many-sorted signatures provide an appropriate mathematical framework for this representation. has no members: A. ½ ¾. Ò ¾ Æ . ´µ ¾ When is finite. iff ¾ . associate where ¢ is arithmetic multiplication. ½ Two multisets. the multiset is called a finite multiset.2. are equal. Ò ½ « ¾ ½¾ ´ µ Ò ¢ ½´ µ .3 Empty Multiset The empty multiset.6 Multiset Operations The addition operation and subtraction partial operation on multisets.2. This clause introduces the concepts of signatures.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . terms and many-sorted algebras that are required for the definition of the HLPNG. of a multiset . arcs are annotated by terms and transitions by Boolean expressions. ½ ¾ ¾ ½ is less than or equal to (or contained in) A. variables.1 Signatures A many-sorted (or S-sorted) signature. . concepts from algebraic specification are required.2.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification In order to define the HLPNG. In the HLPNG. to the left and are defined as follows: ½ · ¾ iff ¾ ´ µ ½´ µ · ¾´ µ ¾ ( ½´ µ ¾´ µµ ´ ´ µ ½´ µ   ½   ¾ iff Scalar multiplication of a multiset. ½´ µ ¾´ µ. is a pair: Ë where ´Ë ǵ 26 .A. A. Ë . ¾. is defined as A.3. ½´ µ ¾´ µ. The cardinality sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset.

Using a standard convention. for ×½ Ò ¾ sorted terms and Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç .3. the sequence of input sorts will define a cartesian product as the domain of the function corresponding to the operator and the output sort will define its co-domain – c. Ó ´ ×µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×. A variable in Î of sort × ¾ Ë would be denoted by Ú ´ ×µ or more simply by Ú× .. Terms of sort × ¾ Ë may be built from a signature Ë Î . from the set of variable names to ¢ Ë.3. where Î× denotes the set of variables of sort × (i. A. For example an integer constant is denoted by Ó ´ ÁÒص or simply ÓÁÒØ .e.¯ Ë is a set of sorts (the names of sets. over Ë .3. Denote the set of terms of sort × by Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ × . It is assumed that Ë and Ç are disjoint. Î may be partitioned according to sorts.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables ´Ë ǵ and an S-sorted set of variables.5. where Ë £ is the set of finite sequences. Thus every operator in Ç is indexed by a pair ´ ×µ. and . ÁÒØ for the integers). Ú ¾ Î× iff ×). A. Arity is a function from the set of operator names to Ë £ ¢ Ë . for all Ó´ ×µ 2. and generate them inductively as follows. For example.. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò are Ò µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Î× ×Ò ¾ Ë (Ò ¼). the sort of a constant may be . in the following way. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. ¾ Ç. For × ¾ Ë 1. if ÁÒØ ¾ Ë . declared by letting A. then Ó´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе represents a binary predicate symbol. if ½ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×½ 3. The sort of a variable may also be declared in the same way as that of constants. and × the output or range sort of operator Ó. clause A. such as equality ( ) or less than ( ). ¾ Ë £ and × ¾ Ë denoted by Ó´ ×µ. including the empty string. . A Boolean signature will also include the constant ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ .g. then Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ´ ½ 27 Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× . e.2 Variables Let Î be a set of sorted variables.3. if Ë ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ . is an operator.f.3 Boolean Signatures The term Boolean Signature is used to mean a many-sorted signature where one of the sorts is Bool.) For example. (In the algebra. called an Ë -sorted set of variables. ¾ Ë £ is called the input or argument sorts. then an integer variable would be Ú´ ÁÒص or ÚÁÒØ . and ¯ Ç is a set of operators (the names of functions) together with their arity in Ë which specifies the names of the domain and co-domain of each of the operators.

For example. (or Ë -Algebra). provides an interpretation (meaning) for the signature Ë .Let Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ denote the set of all terms and Ì ÊÅ ´Ç µ the set of all closed terms (those not containing variables. ´Æ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ where Æ is the set of non-negative integers: ¼ ½ À and Î is a «× Î× 1 À× The terms binding and valuation are also used in this context. Definition: A many-sorted Algebra. if Ë ´ ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ ´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе µ then a corresponding many-sorted algebra would be where and Ð is the set of integers: À½ ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ ××Ø Ò ¢ Ð× ´ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò is the usual integer comparison function.3. then there is a corresponding element ÓÀ be considered as a function of arity zero. À× . and operators (with appropriate arguments) of output sort ÁÒØ are terms of sort ÁÒØ. À¾ It could also be ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ Ð× ××Ø Ò Æ ¢ Æ ÓÓÐ Ò. À and Ë -sorted variables in Î . Ó× . there is a corresponding set. À . an assignment 1 for family of functions «. 28 . and Ð A. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ A. there is a corresponding function ÓÀ À×½ ¢ ¢ À×Ò À× In case an operator is a constant. also called ground terms). For every sort. À .5 Many-sorted Algebras ×¾Ë Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× A many-sorted algebra. integer constants and variables. comprising an assignment function for each sort × ¾ Ë . NOTE: In the algebra. is a pair ¾ À×. × ¾ Ë . which may À where ËÀ ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ À× × ¾ Ë is the set of carriers. Ë -sorted variables are typed by the carrier corresponding to the sort.3. known as a carrier and for every operator Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç.6 Assignment and Evaluation Given an Ë -sorted algebra. with for all × ¾ Ë À× and £ ÇÀ ÓÀ Ó´ ×µ ¾ Ç ¾ Ë Ò × ¾ Ë the set of corresponding functions. Thus Thus if ÁÒØ is a sort.

For × ¾ Ë 1. ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ. ½ ¾ ½ ½ ½ ´ µ ½ ½ ½ 29 . Î Ð× « ´Ú× µ «× ´Ú× µ. ×× ×Ò . with × ×Ò ¾ Ë . and ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Ó ×´ Ò ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò . if Ò µ. Ú× ¾ Î× . For a constant. and For ¾ Ë £ Ò . then Î Ð× « ´ µ ÓÀ ´Î Ð× « ´ µ Î Ð×Ò « ´ Ò µµ ¾ À×.This function may be extended to terms by defining the family of functions Î for each sort × ¾ Ë : Ð « comprising. Ó× 2. 3. Î Ð× « Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× À× The values are determined inductively as follows. For a variable. Î Ð× «´Ó×µ ÓÀ ¾ À×. ¾ Ç.

30 .Annex B (normative) Net Classes The purpose of this Annex is to define various classes of nets as a subclass of the HLPNG. ÓÓÐÀ ÓÓÐ Ò. (By convention this is omitted from the graphical representation. ÈÆ where ´Æ Ï Å µ ¼ ¯Æ ´È Ì µ is a net graph.) Ì ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates every transition with the Boolean ¯Å È ¼ ÓØ. Other subclasses may include Elementary Net systems and other high-level nets. PNG. where ÓØ ¯ and the obvious correspondences are made ( ÓØÀ ÓØ. ¯ Æ ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. it can be seen to be in one to one correspondence with a more usual definition given below. Although this is a rather baroque definition of Place/Transition nets. – where ½Æ Ø ¯ ÓØ ¾Æ د ÓØ – Ì constant ØÖÙ . Ç ¯ ÓØ ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ ½Æ Ø ¾Æ Ø À ´ ÓØ ÓÓÐ Ò Æ ¯ ØÖÙ ½ ¾ µ a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë . Currently it defines Place/Transition nets (without capacities) which is a common form of Petri nets where tokens are simply ‘black dots’. B. Æ ØÀ Æ .1 Place/Transition nets A Place/Transition net graph (without capacity).). is a special HLPNG ÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Æ Ë Î ´È Ì µ is a net graph ´Ë ǵ with Ë ÓØ ÓÓÐ Æ Ø . ´ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ µÀ ØÖÙ . ´¯ ÓØ µÀ ¯. ´½Æ Ø µÀ ½ etc. ¯ Ì ÝÔ È ÓØ is a function which assigns the type ÓØ to all places.

· ¼ This is because: ¯ ¯ ¯ the transition condition is true for each transition. and the number of dots (¯) associated with each arc (Weight function). ¯ Å È Æ is the initial marking assigning a natural number of tokens to each place. and given by a single value ¯. These are represented by dots (¯). and hence doesn’t need to be considered. and hence there is no need for typing places. are in one to one correspondence with the positive integers. 31 . the number of dots (¯) associated with each place (marking) are in one to one correspondence with the Naturals.¯Ï Æ is the weight function. assigning a positive integer to each arc. the type of each place is the same.

´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µËÓÖØ Ô . The ground term has the same sort as the place. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. ËÓÖØ È Ò – annotates each arc with a term of the same sort as that of the associated place. called Transitions. with È a finite set of nodes. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ is defined in Annex A.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for a high-level net schema. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . and – Ì a finite set of nodes. ). and allows classes of systems to be specified an an abstract level. 32 . It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. disjoint from Ç. Ѽ ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´ÇµËÓÖØ´Ôµ .2 Definition HLPNS is a structure given by ÀÄÈÆË ´Æ Ë Î ËÓÖØ Ò Ñ µ ¼ where ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is a net graph. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. Ë is a function which assigns sorts to places. – ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. is the initial ¼ marking function which associates a ground term which each place. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. called Places. is a function that ´ µ Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ terms. C. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Ñ È Ì ÊÅ ´Çµ such that Ô ¾ È .Annex C (informative) High-level Petri Net Schema C. known as the flow – relation.

. or a data base. The created objects may be related to objects that are consumed. which is graphically represented by a rectangle. the tokens) of a place is called the marking of the place. for example. several instances of the same object can be contained in a collection. place arc transition Figure D. an action is modelled by a transition.modify or consume objects from some collections and . A collection is modelled by a place. Arcs never connect a place with a place nor a transition with a transition. The graphical representations of components of a net graph are shown in figure D. Arrows.1 Introduction High level Petri net graphs (HLPNGs) are used to model discrete event systems. The contents (i.1 Places and Tokens The objects of the system are modelled by (arbitrarily complex) data items called tokens.2 Net Graphs In HLPNGs. Each arc connects a place and a transition in one direction. called arcs. Places and transitions are called the nodes of a net graph. the collection of coins in someone’s purse. Take.create objects in other collections.1. Tokens reside in places. D. A discrete event system comprises ¯ ¯ collections of real or abstract objects and discrete actions which .Annex D (informative) Tutorial D. irrespective of varying contents.2.1: Graphic conventions.e. D. which is graphically represented by a circle or an ellipse. It is assumed that the collections considered have some permanent identity. Generally. The 33 . show which places a transition operates on.

If there was no separator. is separated from the value of the coin by a backprime ( ). ż (AlicesPurse) = 2 1c + 3 10c + 2 50c and the net graph is then drawn (admittedly in a less illustrative way) without tokens. is typed by the set. A marking of a net consists of the markings of each place.2: Example A. AlicesPurse. It has neither transitions nor arcs. each place is defined with a special marking. Example A in figure D. Transition Drip can always happen. This means that only coins (belonging to Coins) can reside in Alice’s purse. in some currencies there may be both a 5c and a 25c coin. Coins. 20c. D. to avoid any confusion (for example when the values are themselves integers).3 models the dripping of a tap. three 10 cent and two 50 cent coins.. Drip Figure D.e. which models that Alice’s purse contains two 1 cent. i. In this example. 50c 10c 1c 10c 50c 1c 10c Coins AlicesPurse Coins = 1c. For example. 5c. Thus.3: Example B. Example B is also a net.2 Transitions Example B in figure D. Alice’s present coin collection can be written as the initial marking. 10c. 50c Figure D. The set of coins is defined in a textual part of the HLPNG called the Declarations. even though it has neither places nor arcs. the notation 25c would be ambiguous. The number of each of the coins in the purse. once a net is executed. several instances of the same token can reside in the place. nothing ever happens and nothing ever changes in this system.tokens form a collection (known in mathematics as a multiset). As a place can be marked with a large number of tokens. The place. the initial marking may be declared textually instead of pictorially. because other markings will usually evolve. any number of times. Example A is a net graph. We need to distinguish between two 5c coins and a 25c coin. 34 . When a particular instance of a HLPNG is defined.2. called the initial marking.2 consists of a single place. the tokens correspond to coins. AlicesPurse. As no actions are modelled. 2c.

Flussrelation. and arcs of the net.3 Arcs An arc from a place to a transition indicates that this transition consumes objects from the place. but in this International Standard we use P (since it is written in English). the places. it has to be declared in the textual part of Example C that x denotes a variable for coins. i. that is by the occurrence of transition spend. She may spend any number of coins at a time. Arc annotations determine the kinds and numbers of tokens that are produced or consumed. as well as the size and shape of the arcs. In figure D.4 The Net Graph The size and position of the nodes. 35 . 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c Figure D. Transition. one transition. called AlicesPurse.2. the net has one place. D. transitions. two fifty cent coins. Spend. and F denotes the set of arcs. the net graph. Alice has a smaller coin collection comprising one ten cent and two fifty cent coins. It only shows what happens to Bob’s purse as a consequence of an arbitrary number of occurrences of Receive. one might say. Formally this can be expressed as: P T F AlicesPurse Spend (AlicesPurse. are irrelevant to the mathematical description of a net.4. Each arc is thus described as the pair consisting of its origin node and its target node.4: Example C. An arc in the opposite direction indicates that this transition produces tokens on the place. a ten cent and a fifty cent coin. Informally. Example D does not model where the coins may come from. 20c. These letters are the initials of the German words Stelle.5 models that Bob starts with an empty purse and collects 10 cent coins. although often important for readability. Alice could spend: a ten cent coin. a fifty cent coin.. Example C.D. D. and one arc from AlicesPurse to Spend. 5c.e. and all her coins in one transaction. S denotes the set of places. T denotes the set of transitions. Coins AlicesPurse x Spend Coins 1c. the annotation x indicates that any coin (from Alice’s purse) can be spent.3 Transition Conditions Example D in figure D. However. 2c. 10c. Here. Spend) Traditionally.2.

Coins BobsPurse 10c Receive Coins 1c. 5c. requiring that x 10c. 10c. A transition condition has been added.e. Bob cannot put arbitrarily many coins into his purse.6. 5c. then Donate cannot occur. Coins x AlicesPurse x=10c Donate 10c Coins BobsPurse Coins 1c.. The transition. Bob. 10c. depicted in figure D. 2c.7: Example F. 10c. 50c n :N N¢N ÓÓÐ usual ‘less than’ predicate · N¢N N arithmetic addition ż (BobsPurse) ż (NumberOfCoins) ½ ¼ Figure D.5: Example D. Donate.6: Example E. Example F in figure D. can occur only with such variable values as fulfill the condition. 10c) tokens in AlicesPurse. 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. accepts only 10c coins from Alice. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. 5c. however.7 limits the number of 10 cent coins that Bob can receive to 200. Alice is ready to give Bob any of her coins. 36 . If there are no appropriate (i. 2c. 2c. In a more realistic variant of Example D. In the next example. N n+1 n n<200 Receive 10c Coins NumberOfCoins BobsPurse N set of natural numbers Coins 1c.

Then in the net.¾ ¼c) (Spend. 37 . Markings reachable from reachable markings are also called reachable.4 Net Dynamics Example C can be used to illustrate the modelling of system dynamics in HLPNs. From this diagram. In this case only x appears. as long as AlicesPurse is marked with a non-empty multiset of tokens.½ ½¼c) ¼c) (Spend.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. is bound. as well as the transition occurrences performed to reach each one. are depicted in the reachability graph in figure D.{(x.{(x.. the following facts about the dynamics of Example C: ¯ If Alice spends first 10 cents and then 50 cents. This indicates which transition occurs (Spend). for example. one can read. and to which value each of the variables.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. By the occurrence (Spend. or if she does it in the reverse order.8. (x.{(x. Spend occurs. ) (Spend.50c)}) (AlicesPurse.10c) ). In her first action.10c)}) (AlicesPurse. As long as Alice’s purse contains coins. with x having the value 10c.8: Reachability graph of Example C.{(x. i.e. ¯ ¯ the markings reachable in Example C.10c) ) a new marking of the net is created: Ž (AlicesPurse) ¾ 50c. then she will have 50 cents left. The dynamics of Example C. In the net.½ ½¼c·½ (Spend. she can spend any of them.D.{(x.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. and is bound to 10c. (AlicesPurse. Alice can spend any number of her coins. The new marking is called a reachable marking of Example C. This occurrence of Spend is denoted by (Spend.{(x. Let her spend a 10 cent coin.{(x.½ (Spend. (x. Spend can occur with x bound to any one of the tokens in the marking of AlicesPurse.½ ½¼c·¾ ¼c) (Spend. A different marking would be reached by Alice spending a fifty cent coin.10c)}) ¼c) (Spend. appearing in the arc annotations around the transition.10c)}) Figure D.

This procedure is modelled in figure D. Figure D. say.½ ½¼c) (Receive. of course. Generally there are sets of place markings and sets of variable bindings to be described. distributed to retailers.. A Co packs and sends big crates of equal size to B Co. The people from B Co have a problem. 38 . ) etc. Every sequence of 3 actions ends with an empty purse.. In the reachability graph. or opened and the contents consumed – it does not matter here). the empty sequence) will allow Alice to restore the contents of her purse. ) (Receive. No sequence of actions (save.9. ) (BobsPurse.) wherever usually an entire set appears in this position. B Co has a room where the crates are stored. ) does not mean that Bob receives no coins. D.10.. The occurrence (Receive. Crates may be taken from the store room for processing (e. In order to avoid being forced either to leave crates in the street or to rent another store room. All of this holds.¾ ½¼c) (Receive. only within the range of actions considered in Example C.. as indicated in figure D. B Co agrees with A Co on a ‘flow control protocol’. MAX. but that no variable is assigned a value. of these crates. one by one. are written around the pair parentheses (.. set braces . reside in different cities. It just happens that in our very simple example these are one-element sets and the (.5 Flow Control Example Two companies. The reachability graph for Example D consists of a single infinite chain. trivially.¯ ¯ ¯ Alice can perform at most three actions.g.) looks unnecessarily complicated.9: Reachability graph of Example D.. The store room of B Co can only hold a certain number.. A Co and B Co. ) (BobsPurse. (BobsPurse.

Any time that there are empty slots. MAX. substituted for MAX instantiates Example G to an ‘ordinary’ HLPNG without parameters. Each such value val. while B Co keeps a record of empty ‘slots’ available for placing crates in the store. Example G(val). Whenever A Co receives such a letter. and all slots are empty and unreserved. it increases SendingCredits by the number written in it. B Co does this by sending a letter with this number to A Co and setting the number of unreserved slots to 0. that may take any natural number as a value. the store room is empty. Sending a crate. which is only possible if SendingCredits is 1 or more. Note that this net models infinitely many different systems.SendCrate Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate Figure D. there is no sending credit. A Co keeps a record of SendingCredits. It is a parameterized HLPNG with a parameter. 39 . B Co may reserve them and give the number of reserved (and empty) slots as sending credits for crates to A Co. the situation is as follows: no crate or letter is in transit.11. and processing a crate raises the number of empty and hence unreserved slots by one. lowers SendingCredits by 1. To implement the protocol. Initially. This distributed system is modelled by figure D.10: Crate procedure.

ż (StoreRoom) 40 . . Z is the set of integers n. sc : N MAX : N · Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic addition   Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic substraction ż (CratesInTransit) ż (LettersInTransit) ż (SendingCredits) ½ ¼ ż (UnreservedSlots) ½ MAX Figure D. new. . . 2.11: Example G.SendCrate sc>0 Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate sc sc-1 sc+new new sc n n n>0 SendLetter 0 n n+1 N N N SendingCredits ReceiveLetter LettersInTransit UnreservedSlots Crates Cr N 0. 1.

The Petri net community has publish a 2 volume set in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volumes 1491 and 1492) as a handbook on Petri nets in 1998. including reachability analysis (with several state space reduction techniques and using model checking). structural analysis and invariants analysis that may be used to investigate properties of systems modelled by nets. the second volume of Kurt Jensen’s book on Coloured Petri Nets.Annex E (informative) Analysis Techniques There are a large number of analysis techniques for Petri nets. 41 . for example. Readers are also referred to the bibliography. This annex is just to alert readers of this standard to these possibilities.

K. Cambridge University Press. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Fernandez. Japan. “Flexibility in Algebraic Nets”. 1997. “Many-sorted High-level Nets”. March 1987. V¨ lzer.Y. invited paper in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. Prentice Hall. SpringerVerlag. 12. Billington. Petri Nets: Central Models and Their Properties Advances in Petri Nets. pp. Al’Jaar. J. 1989. Jensen. B. Second Edition. 3.Bibliography 1. 1997. Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Part I. Vol. 1991. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Kindler and H. G. Notations and Terminology on Petri Net Theory.J. J. Bad Honnef. Volume 1: Basic Concepts. Billington. September1986. Springer-Verlag. 6. 13. Desel and J. K. Lecture Notes in Computer o Science. W. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets”. 11. Proceedings of an Advanced Course. 1987. Arbeitspapiere der GMD 195. 61-70. K. Coloured Petri Nets. Springer-Verlag. Kyoto.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. David and H. 14. Kyoto. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. K. H. 1987. R. 1990. IEEE Press. 1995. 222. Genrich. Billington. Jensen. SpringerVerlag. A. Control and Performance Analysis. 1995. 11-13 December. E. Coloured Petri Nets. J. pp. pp 207-247. 11-13 December. 1986. 345-364. pp. E. 166-179. G. “Predicate/Transition Nets”. G. Coloured Petri Nets. 1420. W. 42 . Rozenberg (eds). Mannheim. Second Edition. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report No. Rozenberg (Eds. 4. Petri Nets and Grafcet. Reisig. Vol. Jensen. Volume 2: Analysis Methods. 2. Baumgarten. Brauer. 5. 1989. Applications of Petri Nets in Manufacturing Systems: Modelling. 254. Alla. 1997. May 1991. Wissenschaftsverlag. Free Choice Petri Nets. Rozenberg (Eds. Volume 254 (and 255 for Part II). 1998. Jensen. Volume 3: Practical Use. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets and their Application to Protocols”. Jensen. Desrochers and R. 9. Springer-Verlag. Best and C.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. Springer-Verlag. 1992. Petri-Netze. Esparza. SpringerVerlag. A. J. 7. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science 40. 8. Springer-Verlag. 10. 1991. 15. Japan. also reprinted in K.

1981. G. Springer-Verlag. 1985. pp. Lectures in Petri Nets. T.K. 20. Springer-Verlag. Truss. pp. 4. 1998. C. Murata. An Introduction. TCS. Prentice-Hall. Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications. L. 21. 1995. W. Reisig. 22. A.16. May. 17. 815. 23. K. W. Distributed Algorithms. Christensen. Volume 935. Rozenberg (eds). “Petri Nets: Properties. SpringerVerlag. J. Lakos and S. 18.J. Schmidt. Springer Verlag. “Parameterized Reachability Trees for Algebraic Petri Nets”. 19. J. Berlin. Volume 77. Vol. 541-580. 338-357. pp. 1998. 1991. 80. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 1-34. 1994. pp.).A. Springer-Verlag. Vol. W. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 1989. Reisig.Brauer. Rozenberg. Reisig and G. Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists. 43 . Petri Nets. “A General Systematic Approach to Arc Extensions for Coloured Petri Nets”.. W. N. Volumes 1491 and 1492. Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. Reisig. No. 1991. Analysis and Applications”. Modeling and Analysis with Petri Nets. Salomaa (Eds. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 392-411. Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. Addison-Wesley. W. 24. Proc IEEE. EATCS. Peterson.

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