High-level Petri Nets - Concepts, Definitions and Graphical Notation Final Draft International Standard ISO/IEC

15909 Version 4.7.1 October 28, 2000

Contents
Introduction 1 Scope 1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 18

2 Normative References 3 Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Symbols 3.1 3.2 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Conventions and Notation 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets 5.1 5.2 5.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking of HLPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-level Petri Net Graph Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Graphical Concepts and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditionals in Arc Expressions, and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

7.2 7.3 7.4

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 7.4.2 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26

7.5

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Markings and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs 10 Conformance 10.1 PN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 HLPN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex A: Mathematical Conventions (normative) A.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Multisets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 Sum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.3 Empty Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.6 Multiset Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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A.3.2 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.3 Boolean Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.5 Many-sorted Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.6 Assignment and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B: Net Classes (normative) B.1 Place/Transition nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex C: High-level Petri Net Schema (informative) C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D: Tutorial (informative) D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2 Net Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.1 Places and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.2 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.3 Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.4 The Net Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3 Transition Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 Net Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5 Flow Control Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E: Analysis Techniques (informative) Bibliography

27 27 27 28 28 30 30 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 35 35 35 37 38 41 42

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The technique. It is also an executable technique. The technique promises to have multiple uses. 5 . first introduced in 1979 and developed during the 1980s. The basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets is given in clause 5. is mathematically defined. This International Standard may be cited in contracts for the development of software (particularly critical software). Conformance to the standard is possible at several levels. and also the degree to which the syntax is supported. and using algebraic expressions to annotate net elements. Clause 7 defines the Highlevel Petri Net Graph. Annex D is a tutorial on the High-level Petri Net Graph. Petri nets have been used to describe a wide range of systems since their invention in 1962. Clause 9 relates the graphical form to the basic semantic model. before implementation commences. which allows classes of systems to be described at a syntactic level. Clause 1 describes the scope. High-level Petri Nets were developed to overcome this problem by introducing higher-level concepts. it may be used directly to specify systems or to define the semantics of other less formal languages. The conformance clause is given in clause 10. Clause 2 provides normative references (none at present). The main mathematical apparatus required for defining the standard is developed in normative Annex A. Three informative annexes are included: Annex C defines a High-level Petri Net Schema. the form of the standard intended for industrial use. For example. first introduced in the mid 1980s.Introduction This International Standard provides a well-defined semi-graphical technique for the specification. and may thus be used to provide unambiguous specifications and descriptions of applications. The inscriptions are defined at a meta level allowing many different concrete syntaxes to be used. Two of the early forms of high-level nets that this standard builds on are Predicate-Transition Nets and Coloured Petri Nets. design and analysis of systems. while clause 3 provides a glossary of terms and defines abbreviations. Specifications written in the technique may be subjected to analysis methods to prove properties about the specifications. The technique is particularly suited to parallel and distributed systems development as it supports concurrency. The use of high-level to describe these Petri nets is analogous to the use of high-level in high-level programming languages (as opposed to assembly languages). Normative Annex B defines Petri nets (without capacities) as a restriction of the definition of Clause 7. This International Standard provides an abstract mathematical syntax and a formal semantics for the technique. and is the usual term used in the Petri net community. such as the use of complex structured data as tokens. The basic level of conformance is to the semantic model. allowing specification prototypes to be developed to test ideas at the earliest and cheapest opportunity. High-level Petri Nets. while the main concepts behind the graphical form are informally introduced in clause 6. or used by application developers or Petri net tool vendors or users. and referred to in clause 4. A problem with Petri nets is the explosion of the number of elements of their graphical form when they are used to describe complex systems. Clause 8 further describes syntactical conventions. It also uses some of the notions developed for Algebraic Petri nets. It may also serve to integrate techniques currently used independently such as state transition diagrams and data flow diagrams. It is believed that this standard captures the spirit of these earlier developments (see bibliography). The level of conformance depends on the class of high-level net supported. thus saving on testing and maintenance time. areas of application and the intended audience of this International Standard.

telecommunications and workflow. to ensure a common understanding of the technique and of the specifications written using the technique. music. legal processes. development of specifications. This International Standard. descriptions of existing systems prior to re-engineering. banking systems. This International Standard does not provide a concrete syntax nor a transfer syntax and it does not address techniques for modularity (such as hierarchies). formal analysis of the behaviour of critical systems. This International Standard may be applied to a broad range of systems.1 Purpose This International Standard defines a Petri net technique. providing the semantics for concurrent languages. space. an abstract mathematical syntax for inscriptions and a graphical notation for High-level Petri Nets. business processes. This International Standard will also facilitate the development and interoperability of Petri net computer support tools. avionics. internet protocols and applications. hospital procedures. defence command and control. called High-level Petri Nets. and development of Petri net support tools. 1. designs and test suites. modelling business and software processes. simulation of systems to increase confidence. defines a mathematical semantic model. fault-tolerant systems. metabolic processes. including air traffic control. chemical processes. augmentation of High-level Petri Nets with time. including its syntax and semantics. 6 . A bibliography concludes this International Standard. 1 Scope 1. transport systems (including railway control).and Annex E provides pointers to analysis techniques for High-level Petri Nets. Generic fields of application include: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ requirements analysis. It provides a reference definition that can be used both within and between organisations. security systems. electronic commerce. control systems. operating systems. computer hardware architectures. nuclear power systems. communication protocols. information systems.2 Field of Application This International Standard is applicable to a wide variety of concurrent discrete event systems and in particular distributed systems. databases. manufacturing systems. and methods for analysis which may become the subject of future standardisation efforts.

1. 3.3 Audience This International Standard is written as a reference for systems analysts. 3. constants. maintainers and procurers.4 Basis set: The set of objects used to create a multiset. Normally represented by an arrow. 3.1 Glossary 3. parameter values. 3.7 Concurrency: The property of a system in which events may occur independently of each other.1.1.1.1. the following definitions.1. Definitions. designers.8 Declaration: A set of statements which define the sets. developers.1 Arc: A directed edge of a net which may connect a place to a transition or a transition to a place.5 Binding: See Assignment.1. Abbreviations and Symbols For the purpose of this International Standard.1. 3.6 Carrier: A set of a many-sorted algebra. 3.1. and for Petri net tool designers and standards developers. 3. 3 Terms. abbreviations and symbols apply. typed variables and functions required for defining the inscriptions on a High-level Petri Net Graph.3 Arc annotation: An expression that may involve constants.1. the association of a value (of correct type) to each variable. and hence are not ordered (see also Step and Concurrent Enabling). 3.1. when the following conditions are met: 7 .1 Input Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from a place to the transition.3 Assignment: For a set of variables.9 Enabling (a transition): A transition is enabled in a particular mode and net marking. 3.1.1. variables and operators used to annotate an arc of a net.1.1.2 Arity: The input sorts and output sort for an operator. 2 Normative References None. 3. 3.2 Output Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from the transition to a place. Any ambiguity in the definitions is resolved by the mathematically precise definitions in the body of this International Standard.1. The expression must evaluate to a multiset over the type of the arc’s associated place. 3.

5 Reachability Set: The set of reachable markings of the net..12 High-level Petri Net Graph: A net graph and its associated annotations comprising Place Types.1.e. 3.1.11 High-level Net (High-level Petri Net): An algebraic structure comprising: a set of places.2 Initial Marking of a place: A special marking of a place..14. such that only places can be connected to transitions.3 Marking of a place: A multiset of tokens associated with (‘residing in’) the place.14. called places and transitions.1.The marking of each input place of the transition satisfies the demand imposed on it by its arc annotation evaluated for the particular transition mode. and their corresponding definitions in a set of Declarations.1.14.1. 3. defined with the high-level net. and their interconnection by directed edges. 3.1. and an initial marking. 3.1.13 Many-sorted Algebra: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sets and a set of functions taking these sets as domains and co-domains. a set of transitions.1 Multiplicity: A natural number (i.1 Initial Marking (of the net): The set of initial place markings given with the highlevel net definition.e. a function associating a type to each place. 3. 8 .16 Net: A general term used to describe all classes of Petri nets. 3.1. but never transitions to transitions. called arcs. nor places to places.10 Concurrent Enabling (of transition modes): A multiset of transition modes is concurrently enabled if all the involved input places contain enough tokens to satisfy the sum of all of the demands imposed on them by each input arc annotation evaluated for each transition mode in the multiset.15 Multiset: A collection of items where repetition of items is allowed.1. 3.1.1. 3.1. 3.1. Pre function imposing token demands (multisets of tokens) on places for each transition mode. and transitions to places.15.1.1. Arc Annotations. 3.14. 3. a set of types. 3.2 Node (of a net): A vertex of a net graph (i. and an Initial Marking of the net. non-negative integer) which describes the number of repetitions of an item in a multiset.14 Marking (of a net): The set of the place markings for all places of the net. including the initial marking. The demand is satisfied when the place’s marking contains (at least) the multiset of tokens indicated by the evaluated arc annotation. 3.2 Multiset cardinality (cardinality of a multiset): The sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset.16. a place or a transition). NOTE: The determination of transition modes guarantees that the Transition Condition is satisfied (see Transition Mode).1 Net graph: A directed graph comprising a set of nodes of two different kinds. Transition Conditions. 3. Post function determining output tokens (multisets of tokens) for places for each transition mode.16.4 Reachable Marking: Any marking of the net that can be reached from the initial marking by the occurrence of transitions.1.14. 3.15. and a set of modes (a type) to each transition. 3.

normally represented by an ellipse in the net graph. A place is typed.1. taken from the place kind.3 Output sort: The sort of an output of an operator.1. and the edges correspond to transition occurrences.1. 3.19 Parameterized High-level Net Graph: A high-level net graph that contains parameters in its definition.22. 3. 3.1 Input Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an input arc.1.1. 3. one called places and the other called transitions.16. 3.24. 3.4 Place/Transition Net: A Petri net comprising a net graph with positive integers associated with arcs and an initial marking function which associates a natural number of simple tokens (‘black dots’) with places.23. 3. 3.1. 3. and named after their inventor. 3.16.23 Sort: A symbol representing the name of a set. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. 9 .1.1.20.25. It is instantiated as a constant.1 Closed term: A term comprising constants and operators but no variables. and one of the constants is ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ corresponding to the value true in the algebra.23.1.1.1.20 Place: A node of a net. Carl Adam Petri.3. (This set can describe an arbitrarily complex data structure. 3.1.25 Token: A data item associated with a place and chosen from the place’s type.1. 3. and any simplifications performed (such as gathering like terms to obtain the symbolic sum representation of a multiset). 3.2 Output Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an output arc. 3.1.3 Place Type: A non-empty set of data items associated with a place.21 Reachability Graph: A directed graph of nodes and edges.20.1. the computation of the results of the associated functions.1 Boolean signature: A signature where one of the sorts is ÓÓÐ.1 Enabling Tokens: The multiset of values obtained when an input arc annotation is evaluated for a particular binding to variables.2 Term evaluation: The result obtained after the binding of variables in the term. together with their associated relations and functions.24 Term: An expression comprising constants.17 Operator: A symbol representing the name of a function.2 Input sort: The same as an argument sort.24.23.20.1.18 Parameter: A symbol that can take a range of values defined by a set.1.23. 3. 3.) 3. variables and operators built from a signature and a set of sorted variables. 3.4 Range sort: The same as an output sort.1.22 Signature/Many-sorted signature: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sorts and a set of operators. where the nodes correspond to reachable markings.1.3 Petri Net: An algebraic structure with two sets. 3. 3. 3.1.1.1.1 Argument sort: The sort of an argument of an operator.

4 PN: Petri Net.26.1 Transition condition: A boolean expression (one that evaluates to true or false) associated with a transition. These are the transition condition.1 HLPN: High-level Petri Net. Annex A also defines the concept of multiset addition.3 Transition occurrence (Transition rule): If a transition is enabled in a mode.2.1 Mode: a value taken from the transition’s type. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition. and used in Place/Transition nets (as opposed to high-level nets).2. and represented by a rectangle in the net graph. 3. 3. 3. 3.2. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking. 3. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens of the evaluated output arc expression is added to the marking of the output place. 3. 3.2 Abbreviations 3. the following actions occur indivisibly: 1.2. it may occur in that mode.5 PNG: Petri Net Graph. (using the ‘·’ symbol).1. taken from the transition kind. 3.1.2 Simple Token: A valueless token. and 2.5 Transition Variables: All the variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. On the occurrence of the transition.27 Type: A set.26.26.25. The notion of multisets is required for clauses 10 . and the annotations of arcs surrounding the transition. 4 Conventions and Notation This International Standard uses the notation for sets.1.1.1. 3.1.1.1.26. multisets and universal algebra defined in Annex A. 3.1. which should not be confused with arithmetic addition.4 Step: The simultaneous occurrence of a multiset of transition modes that are concurrently enabled in a marking.26. When considering a High-level Petri Net Graph. 3. 3.26 Transition: A node of a net.2.2 HLPNG: High-level Petri Net Graph.3.3 HLPNS: High-level Petri Net Schema.2.2 Transition mode: A pair comprising the transition and a mode. a mode may be derived from an assignment of values to the transition’s variables that satisfies the transition condition. 3.26. normally represented by a black dot.

In high-level nets. if an arc expression evaluates to an element of the place’s type. with corresponding multiplicities of zero and one. Ì .1 Definition A HLPN is a structure ÀÄÈ Æ ´È Ì Ì ÝÔ È Ö È Ó×Ø Å¼ µ where ¯ È is a finite set of elements called Places. Wherever possible standard mathematical notation has been used. 8 and 9. This notation is defined in clause 5. This is interpreted as a multiset over the place’s type.5. 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets This clause provides the basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets (HLPN). section A. An understanding of many-sorted signatures. sorted variables and many-sorted algebras provided in Annex A is required for clauses 7 and 9 and Annexes B and C. ¯ is a non-empty finite set of non-empty domains where each element of type. and similar notation is used in clause 7. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. Å ¼ . this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. an arc may be annotated by a variable or constant (or combination) of the same type as the arc’s place. when in the marking Å . 5. which may be a subset of the associated place’s type. An instance of notation specific to Petri nets is when a marking of the net is transformed to a new marking. È Ä 11 (see Annex A. NOTE: ÈÄ . This is necessary as an arc annotation when evaluated must be a multiset over the associated place’s type.2). 7. is called a ¯ Ì ÝÔ È Ì transition modes. The graphical notation used in clause 6 is that defined in clause 8. is the set of multisets over the set. is created on the occurrence of a multiset of transition modes. Å Ì Å ¼ is used to denote that a new marking.   is a function used to assign types to places and to determine ¯ È Ö È Ó×Ø Ì Ê ÆË   ÈÄ ÈÄ are the pre and post mappings with Ì Ê ÆË ´Ø ѵ Ø ¾ Ì Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ ¯ Å ¾ ÈÄ ¼ is a multiset called the initial marking of the net. 6. A similar convention applies when an arc expression evaluates to a set. ¯ Ì is a finite set of elements called Transitions disjoint from È (È Ì ). By convention.

Ì . i.3.1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition mode.2 Marking of HLPN A Marking of the HLPN is a multiset. This definition allows a transition mode to be concurrently enabled with itself. is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´ØÖµ Å 5. 5. is enabled at a marking Å .3 Enabling of Transition Modes 5. NOTE: A step may comprise the occurrence of: a single transition mode. 12 .e. ØÖ ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . Also if then this reduces to the definition in the previous subclause. Ì ½. Å ¾ ÈÄ .4 Transition Rule Given that a finite multiset of transition modes. Ì ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . then a step may occur resulting in a new marking Å ¼ given by ż A step is denoted by Å Å   È Ö ´Ì µ · È Ó×Ø´Ì µ Ì where the linear extension of È Ó×Ø is used. or any number of concurrently enabled transition modes.3.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes A finite multiset of transition modes.5. 5. there are enough tokens on the input places to satisfy the linear combination of the pre maps for each transition mode in Ì . is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´Ì µ Å where the linear extension of È Ö is given by È Ö ´Ì µ ØÖ¾Ì Ê ÆË Ì ´ØÖµÈ Ö ´ØÖµ All transition modes in Ì are said to be concurrently enabled if Ì is enabled. Ì Å ¼ or Å   Å ¼ .

variables (e.. typing of variables. called places and transitions. 6.6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6. Place Types. The graphical form is referred to as a High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG). ´Üµ). The concepts of enabling and transition rule are also introduced for the graphical form to demonstrate how the net may be executed to show system dynamics. The variables are typed. Ü ¯ ¯ Ý ) inscribing a transition..g. Clause 5 provides the definition of the basic mathematical semantic model. Ü Ý ) and function images (e.. and function definitions. Arc Annotations: Arcs are inscribed with expressions which may comprise constants.g. The collection may have repetitions. and determines the inscriptions of the graphical elements.2 High-level Petri Net Graph Components A High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG) comprises: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ A Net Graph. Declarations: comprising definitions of place types.g. it must result in a collection of items taken from the type of the arc’s place.1 Introduction High-level Petri Nets can be defined in a number of ways. Readers interested in a tutorial exposition on High-level Petri Net Graphs are referred to Annex D. 13 . One type is associated with each place. The basic semantic model is not what is used by practitioners. and arcs connecting places to transitions. This approach is taken. The items associated with places are called tokens. These are non-empty sets. When an arc’s expression is evaluated. It provides a graphical notation for places and transitions and their relationships. High-level Petri Nets are normally represented using a graphical form which allows visualisation of system dynamics (flows of data and control). A collection of elements (data items) chosen from the place’s type and associated with the place. This clause introduces the concepts that are needed in the definition of the High-level Petri Net Graph. and transitions to places. Place Marking. consisting of sets of nodes of two different kinds. Repetition of items is allowed. Transition Condition: A boolean expression (e. as it is the graphical form of HLPNs that is most appropriate for industrial use. The expressions are evaluated by assigning values to each of the variables. NOTE: A collection of items which allows repetitions is known in mathematics as a multiset.

if for the associated transitions. The transition’s variables are all those variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. A transition is enabled in a specific mode. tokens are removed from its input places. Each input arc expression is evaluated for the transition mode. An arc that leads from an input place to a transition is called an input arc of the transition. The input arc’s multiset of tokens resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in a specific mode is called the input arc’s enabling tokens.e. If a transition is enabled in a mode. These are the transition condition. resulting in a multiset of tokens of the same type as that of the input place. On the occurrence of the transition in a specific mode. If each input place’s marking contains at least its input arc’s multiset of tokens (resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in the specific mode). with respect to that mode. When a transition occurs. 6.3. A transition is also enabled in a particular transition mode. Enabling a transition involves the marking of its input places. A net marking comprises the set of all place markings of the net.6. allowing the flow of tokens around the net to be visualised. Key concepts governing this execution are enabling of transitions and the occurrence of transitions defined by the Transition Rule. An input place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc leading from that place to the transition.1 Enabling A transition is enabled with respect to a net marking. 6. the following actions occur atomically: 1. then the transition is enabled in that mode.3. the transition condition is true). each input place’s marking contains at least the sum of the enabling tokens (with respect to both modes) of each input arc associated with that input place.4. that satisfies the transition condition (i. This can illustrate flow of control and flow of data within the same model. and tokens are added to its output places.2 Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode Enabled transitions can occur. and the annotations of arcs involving the transition. for a particular net marking. An output place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc directed from the transition to the place. it may occur in that mode. An example is given in subclause 6.3 Net Execution HLPNGs are executable. An arc that leads from a transition to a place (an output place of the transition) is called an output arc of the transition. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking.. Two transition modes are concurrently enabled for a particular marking. A transition mode is an assignment of values to the transition’s variables. and 14 .

Arc (p1.1. For example. a square). one transition. ż (p2) . For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens. This example comprises two places.3.p2) is annotated with y. and t1 to p2. and y bound to ¿. y: B ¢ ÓÓÐ Ò arithmetic ‘less than’ Figure 1: HLPNG with a Transition Condition. using the sum representation of multisets of clause A. Variable x is of type . where the less than operator is defined in the declarations.5. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition. This states that associated with the place p1 are the value ½ and two instances of the value ¿.3 Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes Several concurrently enabled transition modes may occur in one step.2.4. the value associated with 15 . that are different subsets of the positive integers. Place p2 is typed by . The change to the marking of the net when a step occurs is given by the sum of all the changes that occur for each transition mode. By convention. circles).2. that is in one atomic action. and .4 Graphical Concepts and Notation The graphical representation of the net graph is introduced by the simple example of a HLPNG given in figure 1. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. The declarations define two types. 6. as described above. An example is given in subclause 6.t1) is annotated with the variable x. for x bound to ½.A B x x<y t1 y p2 ½ ½·¾ ¿ p1 A = 1. the transition by a rectangle (in this example. and variable y is of type . and arcs from p1 to t1.4 B = 3. is that arcs may be annotated by variables or constants of the same type as the arc’s place. named p1 and p2. and the arcs by arrows.7 x: A.3. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. t1. The transition is inscribed with the boolean expression x y. 6. 2. and is empty representing the empty multiset.4. while arc (t1. Place p1 is typed by and has an initial marking Å ¼ (p1) ½ ½ · ¾ ¿. A convention adopted in high-level nets. The places are represented by ellipses (in this case. resulting from the evaluation of the output arc expression for the mode. is added to the marking of the output place.

the initial markings are given in the declaration. the multiset conversion operator ‘ ’ should be used. Access can be in one of two modes: shared (s). and thus the arc expression evaluates to ¯. the annotation on the arc (p1. the resultant Å (p1) Å (p2) ½ ¿ · ¾ .. If transition t1 occurred in mode ½ ´¿ Å (p1) ½ ½ · ½ ¿ Å (p2) ½ .) An agent can obtain access in one of two modes: if shared (m=s). where only one agent may have access (e. if exclusive (m=e). L and N. 6. It can be seen that the multiset of modes. then the resultant marking would be: Alternatively. Place Wait is marked with all agents. and exclusive (e). In a similar convention.p2) is ¿. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ½. a binding for y which satisfies x y. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ¿. then all L tokens are removed preventing further access until the resource is released (transition Leave). then a single token is removed from Control (as m=e is false. where each of the multiplicities of the agents is one. No assumptions are made regarding scheduling. µ. In the initial marking. where up to L agents may have access at the same time (e. Shared 16 . Another example of the concurrent enabling of modes is the multiset ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ and yet another is ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ · ½ ´¿ µ. both of which are positive integers. which represents infinitely many readers/writers systems.g. the marking of Control is given by L¯. (That is the separator ‘ ’ is dropped where there is no ambiguity. It has been assumed that the initial state is when all the agents are waiting to gain access to the shared resource (with no queueing discipline assumed). rather than x. and the second. more formally..g. writing). which could then be executed.t1) is ½. The marking of place Wait is given by the set .arc (p1. reading). and Parameters The HLPNG of figure 2 uses a variant of the readers/writers problem to illustrate many of the features of a HLPNG including the use of parameters and conditionals in arc expressions. if the multiset of modes marking would be ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ occurred concurrently. Each instantiation of N and L would produce a HLPNG. A HLPNG model of figure 2 illustrates the use of two parameters. and similarly the value associated with arc (t1. t1 can be enabled in the following modes ´½ ¿µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ where the first element of each pair represents a binding for x. A number (N) of agents (processes) wish to access a shared resource (such as a file). which is interpreted to be a multiset over . This is therefore a parameterized HLPNG. Where there is any possibility of ambiguity. is concurrently enabled. For example.t1) would be ½ x. which is interpreted as the multiset L ¯. ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ. In this example. the Control place contains L simple tokens (represented by a black dot ¯) and Access is empty. interpreted as ½ ¯) when Enter occurs in a single mode. and m e ¼.5 Conditionals in Arc Expressions.

Enter x A Wait (x. m: M Function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ where ØÖÙ ½ and Ð× ¼ ż ´Waitµ A ż ´Controlµ L¯ ż ´Accessµ Figure 2: HLPNG of Resource Management. 17 .e Control: C = ¯ Positive integer constants: N.m) A¢M ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ C Control Access x (x. L Variables x: A.m) ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ Leave Set of Agents:A = a½ aÆ Set of Access Modes: M = s.

for all bindings « ΠЫ ´ ´Ô صµ ΠЫ ´ ´Ø¼ Ôµµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. called Transitions. ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ is a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë È ËÀ is a function which assigns types to places. ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. ). 7. known as the flow – relation. disjoint from Ç. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. enabling and transition rule are also formally defined for the graphical form. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ « and ΠЫ are 18 . It is assumed that multiset addition. with È a finite set of nodes. This is the notation for conditionals in arc expressions. The concepts of marking. 7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . is a function that annotates each arc with a term that when evaluated (for any binding) results in a multiset over the associated place’s type. the equality predicate and a tupling operator are primitive and do not need to be defined in the declaration.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for the graphical form of high-level nets. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë À Ì ÝÔ Æ – ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. . It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. defined in Annex A. and – Ì a finite set of nodes.2 Definition A HLPNG is a structure ÀÄÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is called a net graph. defined in Annex A. called Places. Outfix notation has been used for the function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ .access is limited to a maximum of L agents as transition Enter is disabled when Control is empty. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. integer subtraction.

À . the places become Ë -sorted. and others will need a multiset addition operator (and its counterpart in the algebra). this allows there to be multiterms and conditionals in arc expressions. or a powerset. for example. a type has been intentionally associated with each place.g. may be typed by a set of multisets. Terms are built from the signature and variables. There is also a need for a more abstract or syntactic form that allows classes of systems to be specified.3 Marking A marking. À× . À×¾ À×½ . In this case. 19 . and an associated many sorted algebra. is removed. Transitions are annotated by Boolean terms. Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that Ô ¾ È . Many applications will require the definition of an operator which will convert (in the algebra) an element of a set to a singleton multiset. the terms for arc annotations are of the same sort as that associated with the arc’s place. À . a set of sorted variables. ż ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ.. a sort (rather than a type) is associated with each place.. A typing function associates a set of the many-sorted algebra with each place. NOTE 1: Arbitrarily complex terms can be generated for the arc inscriptions. so that Ü ). Å . Å È Ë Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that for all Ô ¾ È . The annotations are derived from a many sorted signature. NOTE 4: The restriction on the arc annotations (evaluating to a multiset over the place’s type). The schemas are also useful for analysis (see bibliography). allows terms which evaluate to multisets over subtypes of the place’s type to be used in the annotations. where is the basis set.– Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ Ô¾È expressions. defined in the algebra (e. a variable. NOTE 2: The evaluation of an arc term may result in an empty multiset. Ü× . and the many-sorted algebra.e. is the initial marking A HLPNG comprises an annotated net graph. The approach provides a great deal of flexibility in defining the syntax required for arc inscriptions. i. NOTE 3: The carriers (sets) of the algebra may be arbitrarily complex. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Å È ¼ Ë function which associates a multiset of tokens (of the correct type) which each place. Å ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. NOTE 5: In defining HLPNGs. which must evaluate to a multiset over the associated place’s type. Also. Arcs are annotated by terms. This leads us to the notion of a HLPN schema which is included in informative Annex C and may be considered for future standardisation. of the HLPNG is defined in the same way as the initial marking. A place can only hold tokens of the same type as the place and hence the initial marking is a multiset over the place’s type. This type is a carrier (set) of the many-sorted algebra. This allows us to specify concrete systems where the sets and functions have already been determined. known as its type. 7. For example. markings become (appropriately sorted) ground terms of the signature. and may be related. by defining the appropriate signature (operators and sorts) and sorted variables.

¯ Ù Ú ´Ù Úµ. known as a mode of Ø. « Ø . denoted Å Ø «Ø Å ¼ . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ where ΠЫ ´¨µ ¨ is a symbol that represents the empty multiset at the level of the signature. Î Ð ÓÓÐ ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ .1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in a marking. the marking of the net is transformed to a new marking Å ¼ . to its variables. by ×× ÒØ . 7.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes Let «Ø be an assignment for the variables of transition Ø ¾ Ì which satisfies its transition condition and denote the set of all assignments (which satisfy its transition condition) for transition Ø. 7. When Ø occurs in mode «Ø . according to the following rule: Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 20 . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ ¯ Ù Ú ¨. if is enabled.4 Enabling 7. iff Ô¾È ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Thus all of the transition modes in are concurrently enabled. that satisfies the transition condition. for a particular assignment. so that . Define the set of all transition modes to be ÌÅ A step ´Ø «Øµ Ø ¾ Ì «Ø ¾ ×× ÒØ and a step to be a finite non-empty multiset over Ì Å . of transition modes is enabled in a marking.7. . Å . Å .4. If comprises a single transition mode. Ø may occur in mode «Ø . then the sum is reduced to a single term so that the enabling condition is the same as that of the previous subclause. for marking Å .5 Transition Rule If Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in mode «Ø . iff Ô¾È where for ´Ù Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Ú µ ¾ ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ.4.

and A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct place. 8. then it may be omitted. colour and patterns of the lines used to draw the graph are not mandated by this standard. ż ´Ôµ. For example.If a step is enabled in marking Å . 8. If the Transition Condition is true (Ì ´Øµ ØÖÙ ). defining all the types. the Transition Condition. The position of the annotations with respect to places is not mandated. The width. 21 . The declaration may also include the initial marking and the typing function if these cannot be inscribed on the graph part due to lack of space. and the type and initial marking outside.1 General The graphical form comprises two parts: a Graph which represents the net elements graphically and carries textual inscriptions. and a Declaration.3 Transitions A transition is represented by a rectangle and is annotated by a name and a boolean expression. the initial marking could be shown inside the ellipse. it may be omitted. Å ¼ . constants and functions that are used to annotate the Graph part. Three annotations are associated with a place Ô: ­ ¯ ¯ ¯ the place name. the name of the type (Ì ÝÔ the initial marking. ´Ôµ) associated with the place. where Å ¼ is given by denoted Å Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8. There needs to be a visual association between an inscription and the net element to which it belongs. Å ¼ . or the name of the place could be included inside the ellipse.2 Places Places are represented by ellipses (often circles). For example. and its name and type outside. then the step can occur resulting in a new marking. variables. If the initial marking is empty.

x y. 1. A Marking of the net may be shown graphically by annotating a place with its multiset of tokens Å ´Ôµ using the symbolic sum representation (see clause A. and the transition condition outside.1). or the name of the transition could be included inside the rectangle. 8. where both the types of the variables. Ë 9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs The HLPNG may be given an interpretation as a HLPN (see clause 5) in the following way.4 Arcs For ´Ô ص ¾ .2. are defined in the declarations. Let ÎØ Î be the set of variables associated with transition Ø. If ´Ô ص and ´Ø Ôµ have the same annotations (Ô is a side place of Ø). and a transition condition.6).3.5 Markings and Tokens A token is a member of Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. Thus the set Ì ÝÔ ´Üµ Ü ¾ È Ì . A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct transition. the transition condition could be shown inside the rectangle (as in the example). ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ. then this may be shown by a single arc with an arrowhead at both ends and annotated by a single inscription. . Transitions: Ì is the set of transitions in the HLPN. Places: È is the set of places in the HLPN. The notation for terms is not mandated by this International Standard. x and y. Arcs are annotated with terms. 2.x y t1 represents a transition with a name t1. of domains is given by 22 . but usual mathematical conventions should be adopted where possible. An arc is represented by an arrow:   8. Set of Types: The set of modes for a transition is determined by the types of the variables occurring in the surrounding arc annotations restricted by its transition condition. The position of the annotations with respect to transitions is not mandated. and the operator less than. and its name outside. Define « Ø as an assignment for À and ÎØ (cf A. then Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ «Ø Î Ð ÓÓÐ «Ø ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ The types of places are obtained directly from the HLPN graph definition. 3. For example. an arrow is drawn from place Ô to transition Ø and vice versa for ´Ø Ôµ ¾ .

È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ and for ´Ø Ôµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. Pre and Post Maps. Each place is typed by and È . ¯ (i. 23 . then the next level is with respect to syntax. will be specialised by the restriction that consists of one set with one element. Within a class.4. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ There is a one to one mapping between È Ä There is a one to one mapping between Ì Ê Each transition has a single mode. for all mappings: ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . Thus for all Ø ¾ Ì and for all Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ È Ö ´Ø ѵ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ È Ó×Ø´Ø Ñµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ where È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ 6. 10 Conformance Conformance to this International Standard is according to net class. 10.1 Level 1 To claim PN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. This has the following consequences. ¾ and Ñ ¾ Î Ð«Ø Ñ´ ´Ô صµ and È Ó×Ø Ô Ø ´Ñµ Î Ð«Ø Ñ ´ ´Ø Ôµµ ´ µ For all Ô ¾ È .. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. The Typing Function: The typing function restricted to places is defined in the HLPNG and Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ is given above. the lowest conformance level is to the semantics. 5. È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ . by the following family of È Ö ´Ô ص Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ For ´Ô ص ¾ and Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. ÆË and Ì . there is only one token represented by a black dot). The definition of the semantic model (clause 5). If the semantics are adhered to. Initial Marking. The lowest level is for the Place/Transition net class and the highest at the level of the HLPNG.1 PN Conformance 10. such as ¯ . The pre and post maps are given. The initial marking determines the number of black dots allocated to each place initially. ż ´Ôµ is as defined in the HLPNG.e.1.

1. 10.1 Level 1 To claim HLPN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9.e.1 and the relevant notational conventions of clause 8. 24 .2 Level 2 To claim PN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of PN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the PNG defined in Annex B. there is no need for place typing.2.. as these are trivial.2. i. 10.2 Level 2 To claim HLPN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of HLPN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the HLPNG defined in clause 7 and the notational conventions of clause 8.10. nor a declaration.2 HLPN Conformance 10. section B.

functions and relations.1 Sum Representation A multiset may be represented as a symbolic sum of basis elements scaled by their multiplicities (sometimes known as co-efficients).   Æ which associates a multiplicity. NOTE: For notions of basic set theory including sets. ´µ ¾ A. possibly zero.2. the positive integers. is given by ´ µ. see the book by Truss in the Bibliography. . denoted ¾ . where the multiplicity of each of the basis elements is either zero or one. The multiplicity of ¾ in .2 Membership Given a multiset. is a function A multiset. ØÖÙ Ð× Multisets . then ¾ ¾ is a member of . .Annex A (normative) Mathematical Conventions This annex defines the mathematical conventions required for the definition of High-level Petri Nets. and 25 . A.2. conversely if ´ µ ¾ . The set of multisets over is denoted by . A set is a special case of a multiset. ¼. A.2 the integers. with each of the basis elements. if ´µ ¼.  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò A. (also known as a bag) over a non-empty basis set. Æ Ò ¼ .1 Sets Æ Æ· ¼½ the natural numbers.

3 Empty Multiset The empty multiset. is defined as A. associate where ¢ is arithmetic multiplication.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification In order to define the HLPNG. iff ¾ . ½´ µ ¾´ µ. . arcs are annotated by terms and transitions by Boolean expressions.2. are equal. The cardinality sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset. ¾.6 Multiset Operations The addition operation and subtraction partial operation on multisets. Many-sorted signatures provide an appropriate mathematical framework for this representation. is the ¾ . Signatures provide a convenient way to characterise many-sorted algebras at a syntactic level. ´ µ ¼. A. the multiset is called a finite multiset. ´µ ¾ When is finite.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . Ò ¾ Æ . ¾. has no members: A.A. This clause introduces the concepts of signatures. terms and many-sorted algebras that are required for the definition of the HLPNG. concepts from algebraic specification are required.1 Signatures A many-sorted (or S-sorted) signature. is a pair: Ë where ´Ë ǵ 26 . A. ½ ¾ ¾ ½ is less than or equal to (or contained in) A. of a multiset . Ë . ½´ µ ¾´ µ. Ò ½ « ¾ ½¾ ´ µ Ò ¢ ½´ µ . to the left and are defined as follows: ½ · ¾ iff ¾ ´ µ ½´ µ · ¾´ µ ¾ ( ½´ µ ¾´ µµ ´ ´ µ ½´ µ   ½   ¾ iff Scalar multiplication of a multiset.2. ½ ¾. ½ ¾¾ ¾´ µµ . variables.2.3.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset Multiset cardinality is defined in the following way. In the HLPNG. by a natural number.2. iff ¾ . ½ Two multisets.

Arity is a function from the set of operator names to Ë £ ¢ Ë . the sequence of input sorts will define a cartesian product as the domain of the function corresponding to the operator and the output sort will define its co-domain – c. if ½ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×½ 3. for ×½ Ò ¾ sorted terms and Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç .. Using a standard convention. is an operator. where Ë £ is the set of finite sequences. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. Ú ¾ Î× iff ×). ¾ Ç. and × the output or range sort of operator Ó.3. For × ¾ Ë 1.e. such as equality ( ) or less than ( ). and ¯ Ç is a set of operators (the names of functions) together with their arity in Ë which specifies the names of the domain and co-domain of each of the operators. then an integer variable would be Ú´ ÁÒص or ÚÁÒØ .3.¯ Ë is a set of sorts (the names of sets. ÁÒØ for the integers). Denote the set of terms of sort × by Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ × . . (In the algebra. e. ¾ Ë £ and × ¾ Ë denoted by Ó´ ×µ.5. if Ë ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ .f. including the empty string. then Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ´ ½ 27 Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× . A Boolean signature will also include the constant ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ . Thus every operator in Ç is indexed by a pair ´ ×µ. Î may be partitioned according to sorts. ¾ Ë £ is called the input or argument sorts.3 Boolean Signatures The term Boolean Signature is used to mean a many-sorted signature where one of the sorts is Bool. A variable in Î of sort × ¾ Ë would be denoted by Ú ´ ×µ or more simply by Ú× . For example an integer constant is denoted by Ó ´ ÁÒص or simply ÓÁÒØ . where Î× denotes the set of variables of sort × (i.. The sort of a variable may also be declared in the same way as that of constants. called an Ë -sorted set of variables. clause A.) For example. if ÁÒØ ¾ Ë . For example. for all Ó´ ×µ 2. A. and . the sort of a constant may be . and generate them inductively as follows.3.g. declared by letting A.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables ´Ë ǵ and an S-sorted set of variables.2 Variables Let Î be a set of sorted variables.3. from the set of variable names to ¢ Ë. Terms of sort × ¾ Ë may be built from a signature Ë Î . It is assumed that Ë and Ç are disjoint. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò are Ò µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Î× ×Ò ¾ Ë (Ò ¼). over Ë . in the following way. Ó ´ ×µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×. A. then Ó´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе represents a binary predicate symbol.

´Æ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ where Æ is the set of non-negative integers: ¼ ½ À and Î is a «× Î× 1 À× The terms binding and valuation are also used in this context. and operators (with appropriate arguments) of output sort ÁÒØ are terms of sort ÁÒØ. also called ground terms). Ë -sorted variables are typed by the carrier corresponding to the sort. (or Ë -Algebra). Thus Thus if ÁÒØ is a sort. × ¾ Ë . if Ë ´ ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ ´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе µ then a corresponding many-sorted algebra would be where and Ð is the set of integers: À½ ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ ××Ø Ò ¢ Ð× ´ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò is the usual integer comparison function. 28 .6 Assignment and Evaluation Given an Ë -sorted algebra. then there is a corresponding element ÓÀ be considered as a function of arity zero. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ A. For example. À and Ë -sorted variables in Î . there is a corresponding function ÓÀ À×½ ¢ ¢ À×Ò À× In case an operator is a constant. is a pair ¾ À×. Ó× . Definition: A many-sorted Algebra. known as a carrier and for every operator Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç. an assignment 1 for family of functions «.5 Many-sorted Algebras ×¾Ë Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× A many-sorted algebra. À . For every sort. there is a corresponding set. provides an interpretation (meaning) for the signature Ë . which may À where ËÀ ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ À× × ¾ Ë is the set of carriers. À . comprising an assignment function for each sort × ¾ Ë . À¾ It could also be ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ Ð× ××Ø Ò Æ ¢ Æ ÓÓÐ Ò.Let Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ denote the set of all terms and Ì ÊÅ ´Ç µ the set of all closed terms (those not containing variables. with for all × ¾ Ë À× and £ ÇÀ ÓÀ Ó´ ×µ ¾ Ç ¾ Ë Ò × ¾ Ë the set of corresponding functions.3. and Ð A. integer constants and variables. NOTE: In the algebra.3. À× .

¾ Ç. Î Ð× « ´Ú× µ «× ´Ú× µ. 3.This function may be extended to terms by defining the family of functions Î for each sort × ¾ Ë : Ð « comprising. Î Ð× « Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× À× The values are determined inductively as follows. ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ. with × ×Ò ¾ Ë . ×× ×Ò . For a variable. if Ò µ. For × ¾ Ë 1. Ú× ¾ Î× . ½ ¾ ½ ½ ½ ´ µ ½ ½ ½ 29 . and ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Ó ×´ Ò ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò . Î Ð× «´Ó×µ ÓÀ ¾ À×. then Î Ð× « ´ µ ÓÀ ´Î Ð× « ´ µ Î Ð×Ò « ´ Ò µµ ¾ À×. and For ¾ Ë £ Ò . Ó× 2. For a constant.

– where ½Æ Ø ¯ ÓØ ¾Æ د ÓØ – Ì constant ØÖÙ .). Other subclasses may include Elementary Net systems and other high-level nets. is a special HLPNG ÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Æ Ë Î ´È Ì µ is a net graph ´Ë ǵ with Ë ÓØ ÓÓÐ Æ Ø . 30 . ´½Æ Ø µÀ ½ etc. (By convention this is omitted from the graphical representation. ¯ Ì ÝÔ È ÓØ is a function which assigns the type ÓØ to all places. Æ ØÀ Æ . Ç ¯ ÓØ ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ ½Æ Ø ¾Æ Ø À ´ ÓØ ÓÓÐ Ò Æ ¯ ØÖÙ ½ ¾ µ a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë . ´¯ ÓØ µÀ ¯. Although this is a rather baroque definition of Place/Transition nets.) Ì ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates every transition with the Boolean ¯Å È ¼ ÓØ. B. where ÓØ ¯ and the obvious correspondences are made ( ÓØÀ ÓØ. Currently it defines Place/Transition nets (without capacities) which is a common form of Petri nets where tokens are simply ‘black dots’. it can be seen to be in one to one correspondence with a more usual definition given below. ÓÓÐÀ ÓÓÐ Ò.Annex B (normative) Net Classes The purpose of this Annex is to define various classes of nets as a subclass of the HLPNG. PNG. ÈÆ where ´Æ Ï Å µ ¼ ¯Æ ´È Ì µ is a net graph. ´ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ µÀ ØÖÙ . ¯ Æ ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations.1 Place/Transition nets A Place/Transition net graph (without capacity).

¯Ï Æ is the weight function. ¯ Å È Æ is the initial marking assigning a natural number of tokens to each place. and given by a single value ¯. These are represented by dots (¯). the number of dots (¯) associated with each place (marking) are in one to one correspondence with the Naturals. · ¼ This is because: ¯ ¯ ¯ the transition condition is true for each transition. and hence there is no need for typing places. 31 . and hence doesn’t need to be considered. the type of each place is the same. are in one to one correspondence with the positive integers. assigning a positive integer to each arc. and the number of dots (¯) associated with each arc (Weight function).

is a function that ´ µ Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ terms. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. and allows classes of systems to be specified an an abstract level. – ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for a high-level net schema. ËÓÖØ È Ò – annotates each arc with a term of the same sort as that of the associated place. It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. Ë is a function which assigns sorts to places.2 Definition HLPNS is a structure given by ÀÄÈÆË ´Æ Ë Î ËÓÖØ Ò Ñ µ ¼ where ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is a net graph. with È a finite set of nodes. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Ñ È Ì ÊÅ ´Çµ such that Ô ¾ È . The ground term has the same sort as the place. ). 32 . C. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . Ѽ ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´ÇµËÓÖØ´Ôµ . disjoint from Ç. known as the flow – relation. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ is defined in Annex A. is the initial ¼ marking function which associates a ground term which each place. and – Ì a finite set of nodes. called Transitions.Annex C (informative) High-level Petri Net Schema C. called Places. ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µËÓÖØ Ô . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables.

Annex D (informative) Tutorial D. Generally.1. which is graphically represented by a rectangle.e. Tokens reside in places. It is assumed that the collections considered have some permanent identity. an action is modelled by a transition.. irrespective of varying contents.1 Introduction High level Petri net graphs (HLPNGs) are used to model discrete event systems. A collection is modelled by a place.2 Net Graphs In HLPNGs.1: Graphic conventions. The created objects may be related to objects that are consumed. which is graphically represented by a circle or an ellipse. The 33 . The graphical representations of components of a net graph are shown in figure D.2.1 Places and Tokens The objects of the system are modelled by (arbitrarily complex) data items called tokens. The contents (i. place arc transition Figure D. D. several instances of the same object can be contained in a collection. Arrows. Take. the collection of coins in someone’s purse. D.create objects in other collections. the tokens) of a place is called the marking of the place. Places and transitions are called the nodes of a net graph. or a data base. called arcs. show which places a transition operates on. Each arc connects a place and a transition in one direction. for example. Arcs never connect a place with a place nor a transition with a transition. A discrete event system comprises ¯ ¯ collections of real or abstract objects and discrete actions which .modify or consume objects from some collections and .

2 consists of a single place. 34 . several instances of the same token can reside in the place. Transition Drip can always happen. i. It has neither transitions nor arcs.2 Transitions Example B in figure D..2: Example A. Example A in figure D. As a place can be marked with a large number of tokens. in some currencies there may be both a 5c and a 25c coin. As no actions are modelled. three 10 cent and two 50 cent coins.2. is typed by the set. A marking of a net consists of the markings of each place. any number of times. 20c. even though it has neither places nor arcs. which models that Alice’s purse contains two 1 cent. In this example. Coins. each place is defined with a special marking. called the initial marking. once a net is executed. 2c.tokens form a collection (known in mathematics as a multiset). This means that only coins (belonging to Coins) can reside in Alice’s purse. the notation 25c would be ambiguous.3: Example B. 5c. If there was no separator. 50c Figure D. ż (AlicesPurse) = 2 1c + 3 10c + 2 50c and the net graph is then drawn (admittedly in a less illustrative way) without tokens. When a particular instance of a HLPNG is defined. because other markings will usually evolve. AlicesPurse. The place. The set of coins is defined in a textual part of the HLPNG called the Declarations. Alice’s present coin collection can be written as the initial marking. 10c. is separated from the value of the coin by a backprime ( ).e. The number of each of the coins in the purse. Drip Figure D. Example B is also a net. Example A is a net graph. For example. nothing ever happens and nothing ever changes in this system.3 models the dripping of a tap. AlicesPurse. the initial marking may be declared textually instead of pictorially. 50c 10c 1c 10c 50c 1c 10c Coins AlicesPurse Coins = 1c. D. We need to distinguish between two 5c coins and a 25c coin. Thus. to avoid any confusion (for example when the values are themselves integers). the tokens correspond to coins.

D. transitions. S denotes the set of places. but in this International Standard we use P (since it is written in English).4: Example C. i. the annotation x indicates that any coin (from Alice’s purse) can be spent. Example C. Arc annotations determine the kinds and numbers of tokens that are produced or consumed. These letters are the initials of the German words Stelle. the net graph. Example D does not model where the coins may come from. as well as the size and shape of the arcs. Transition. Flussrelation.5 models that Bob starts with an empty purse and collects 10 cent coins. the net has one place. 35 . two fifty cent coins.2. 10c.3 Arcs An arc from a place to a transition indicates that this transition consumes objects from the place. a ten cent and a fifty cent coin. and F denotes the set of arcs. 20c.4. are irrelevant to the mathematical description of a net. one might say. 2c. and all her coins in one transaction. D.2. It only shows what happens to Bob’s purse as a consequence of an arbitrary number of occurrences of Receive. She may spend any number of coins at a time. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c Figure D. Alice could spend: a ten cent coin. it has to be declared in the textual part of Example C that x denotes a variable for coins.. although often important for readability. T denotes the set of transitions. Informally.4 The Net Graph The size and position of the nodes. and arcs of the net. Coins AlicesPurse x Spend Coins 1c. Each arc is thus described as the pair consisting of its origin node and its target node.D. the places.3 Transition Conditions Example D in figure D. Spend. Formally this can be expressed as: P T F AlicesPurse Spend (AlicesPurse. Here. that is by the occurrence of transition spend. In figure D. However. a fifty cent coin. Spend) Traditionally. and one arc from AlicesPurse to Spend. Alice has a smaller coin collection comprising one ten cent and two fifty cent coins.e. 5c. called AlicesPurse. An arc in the opposite direction indicates that this transition produces tokens on the place. one transition.

however. The transition. Alice is ready to give Bob any of her coins. Example F in figure D.Coins BobsPurse 10c Receive Coins 1c. 2c. 2c. Donate.5: Example D. N n+1 n n<200 Receive 10c Coins NumberOfCoins BobsPurse N set of natural numbers Coins 1c. 10c. In the next example. 5c. 10c. If there are no appropriate (i. 50c n :N N¢N ÓÓÐ usual ‘less than’ predicate · N¢N N arithmetic addition ż (BobsPurse) ż (NumberOfCoins) ½ ¼ Figure D. 36 .e. A transition condition has been added. Bob cannot put arbitrarily many coins into his purse. 5c. 5c.6: Example E. 10c. 2c. depicted in figure D. In a more realistic variant of Example D.7 limits the number of 10 cent coins that Bob can receive to 200. Bob. 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. Coins x AlicesPurse x=10c Donate 10c Coins BobsPurse Coins 1c.6. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. requiring that x 10c.. can occur only with such variable values as fulfill the condition.7: Example F. 10c) tokens in AlicesPurse. then Donate cannot occur. accepts only 10c coins from Alice.

with x having the value 10c. This occurrence of Spend is denoted by (Spend. Markings reachable from reachable markings are also called reachable.10c)}) (AlicesPurse.{(x. A different marking would be reached by Alice spending a fifty cent coin. and is bound to 10c.8.D.50c)}) (AlicesPurse.{(x. The dynamics of Example C. (x.8: Reachability graph of Example C. one can read. she can spend any of them. and to which value each of the variables.. In this case only x appears.10c)}) Figure D. Spend can occur with x bound to any one of the tokens in the marking of AlicesPurse.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. for example. Then in the net. By the occurrence (Spend.{(x. then she will have 50 cents left.10c)}) ¼c) (Spend. the following facts about the dynamics of Example C: ¯ If Alice spends first 10 cents and then 50 cents.10c) ). as long as AlicesPurse is marked with a non-empty multiset of tokens.4 Net Dynamics Example C can be used to illustrate the modelling of system dynamics in HLPNs. (x.½ (Spend. Let her spend a 10 cent coin.{(x.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. (AlicesPurse. From this diagram. 37 . Spend occurs. ) (Spend.{(x.e. This indicates which transition occurs (Spend). i. In her first action.{(x.½ ½¼c·½ (Spend.½ ½¼c) ¼c) (Spend.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. is bound.10c) ) a new marking of the net is created: Ž (AlicesPurse) ¾ 50c. as well as the transition occurrences performed to reach each one.¾ ¼c) (Spend. ¯ ¯ the markings reachable in Example C.½ ½¼c·¾ ¼c) (Spend. appearing in the arc annotations around the transition. Alice can spend any number of her coins. are depicted in the reachability graph in figure D. In the net.{(x. As long as Alice’s purse contains coins. The new marking is called a reachable marking of Example C. or if she does it in the reverse order.

No sequence of actions (save.g. This procedure is modelled in figure D. MAX. as indicated in figure D. the empty sequence) will allow Alice to restore the contents of her purse.9: Reachability graph of Example D.) wherever usually an entire set appears in this position.¯ ¯ ¯ Alice can perform at most three actions. The reachability graph for Example D consists of a single infinite chain. ) does not mean that Bob receives no coins. ) (BobsPurse. B Co has a room where the crates are stored. one by one.½ ½¼c) (Receive. say. Generally there are sets of place markings and sets of variable bindings to be described. are written around the pair parentheses (. 38 .. The people from B Co have a problem. reside in different cities. In order to avoid being forced either to leave crates in the street or to rent another store room. of course. ) (BobsPurse. Figure D... The store room of B Co can only hold a certain number. A Co packs and sends big crates of equal size to B Co.. In the reachability graph... ) etc. Crates may be taken from the store room for processing (e. D. Every sequence of 3 actions ends with an empty purse. but that no variable is assigned a value.10. A Co and B Co.¾ ½¼c) (Receive. distributed to retailers.. only within the range of actions considered in Example C. All of this holds. The occurrence (Receive. trivially.) looks unnecessarily complicated.5 Flow Control Example Two companies. set braces . ) (Receive. B Co agrees with A Co on a ‘flow control protocol’. (BobsPurse. of these crates. It just happens that in our very simple example these are one-element sets and the (.9. or opened and the contents consumed – it does not matter here).

Each such value val. Example G(val). Sending a crate.11. and processing a crate raises the number of empty and hence unreserved slots by one. A Co keeps a record of SendingCredits. that may take any natural number as a value. it increases SendingCredits by the number written in it. which is only possible if SendingCredits is 1 or more. lowers SendingCredits by 1.10: Crate procedure. To implement the protocol. substituted for MAX instantiates Example G to an ‘ordinary’ HLPNG without parameters. there is no sending credit. Initially. the store room is empty. the situation is as follows: no crate or letter is in transit. Whenever A Co receives such a letter. Any time that there are empty slots. B Co does this by sending a letter with this number to A Co and setting the number of unreserved slots to 0. 39 . while B Co keeps a record of empty ‘slots’ available for placing crates in the store. Note that this net models infinitely many different systems.SendCrate Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate Figure D. B Co may reserve them and give the number of reserved (and empty) slots as sending credits for crates to A Co. and all slots are empty and unreserved. MAX. It is a parameterized HLPNG with a parameter. This distributed system is modelled by figure D.

SendCrate sc>0 Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate sc sc-1 sc+new new sc n n n>0 SendLetter 0 n n+1 N N N SendingCredits ReceiveLetter LettersInTransit UnreservedSlots Crates Cr N 0. 1. ż (StoreRoom) 40 . . 2. . new.11: Example G. Z is the set of integers n. sc : N MAX : N · Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic addition   Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic substraction ż (CratesInTransit) ż (LettersInTransit) ż (SendingCredits) ½ ¼ ż (UnreservedSlots) ½ MAX Figure D. .

the second volume of Kurt Jensen’s book on Coloured Petri Nets.Annex E (informative) Analysis Techniques There are a large number of analysis techniques for Petri nets. including reachability analysis (with several state space reduction techniques and using model checking). structural analysis and invariants analysis that may be used to investigate properties of systems modelled by nets. The Petri net community has publish a 2 volume set in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volumes 1491 and 1492) as a handbook on Petri nets in 1998. for example. 41 . This annex is just to alert readers of this standard to these possibilities. Readers are also referred to the bibliography.

W. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets and their Application to Protocols”. Coloured Petri Nets. A. invited paper in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. Esparza. 8. pp 207-247. Cambridge University Press. 14. David and H. G. 1998. May 1991. K. 11. H. Part I.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. 1986. 1987. Notations and Terminology on Petri Net Theory. Vol. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science 40. Prentice Hall. 6. Kyoto. Genrich. 1991.J. pp. J. Rozenberg (Eds. Jensen. Japan. Billington. 1990. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets”. Coloured Petri Nets. 11-13 December. J. W. K. B. G. K. SpringerVerlag. V¨ lzer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 15.Y. Billington. Rozenberg (eds). Applications of Petri Nets in Manufacturing Systems: Modelling. Baumgarten. 1987. J. Volume 1: Basic Concepts. 1995. 12. R. Jensen.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. 5. 13. Petri Nets: Central Models and Their Properties Advances in Petri Nets. Petri Nets and Grafcet. Springer-Verlag. Springer-Verlag. E. Al’Jaar.Bibliography 1. Arbeitspapiere der GMD 195. 11-13 December. 9. K. Japan. 7. “Flexibility in Algebraic Nets”. pp. E. 1997. 1989. A. “Many-sorted High-level Nets”. 10. Rozenberg (Eds. 4. G. Grundlagen und Anwendungen. 222. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Second Edition. Alla. 61-70. 2. Vol. Best and C. Volume 2: Analysis Methods. SpringerVerlag. 1992. Kindler and H. Jensen. 254. Jensen. Desel and J. J. SpringerVerlag. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. Springer-Verlag. Control and Performance Analysis. IEEE Press. 166-179. 42 . Desrochers and R. 1991. “Predicate/Transition Nets”. Volume 254 (and 255 for Part II). Springer-Verlag. September1986. Second Edition. Volume 3: Practical Use. Kyoto. Bad Honnef. 1420. March 1987. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report No. 3. pp. Lecture Notes in Computer o Science. Wissenschaftsverlag. Springer-Verlag. Jensen. Brauer. Proceedings of an Advanced Course. Coloured Petri Nets. Mannheim. Petri-Netze. 1997. Billington. Fernandez. also reprinted in K. 1995. 1997. Free Choice Petri Nets. 1989. Reisig. 345-364.

Murata. L. 20. 17. Volume 935. W. J. Springer Verlag. 1998. 1991. J. Peterson.Brauer. TCS. 1-34. “Parameterized Reachability Trees for Algebraic Petri Nets”. pp.J. Volume 77. Berlin. Volumes 1491 and 1492.A. No. 541-580. 1985. 1995. Schmidt. EATCS. Addison-Wesley. 18. T. Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications. W. Reisig and G. Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists. pp. Christensen. C. “A General Systematic Approach to Arc Extensions for Coloured Petri Nets”. Analysis and Applications”. Distributed Algorithms. Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. 1989. 1981. Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. N. 23. 21. Springer-Verlag. 19. Springer-Verlag. 1998. 4.K. Truss.16. May. pp. SpringerVerlag. Proc IEEE. 22. 815. W. Rozenberg (eds). 43 . Rozenberg. 338-357. Reisig. W. 1991. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.). K. A. “Petri Nets: Properties. Petri Nets. Reisig. Lakos and S. pp. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 80. Reisig. Prentice-Hall. 1994. Modeling and Analysis with Petri Nets. G. An Introduction. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Salomaa (Eds.. Lectures in Petri Nets. Springer-Verlag. 392-411. 24. Vol. Vol. W.

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