High-level Petri Nets - Concepts, Definitions and Graphical Notation Final Draft International Standard ISO/IEC

15909 Version 4.7.1 October 28, 2000

Contents
Introduction 1 Scope 1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 18

2 Normative References 3 Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Symbols 3.1 3.2 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Conventions and Notation 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets 5.1 5.2 5.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking of HLPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-level Petri Net Graph Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Graphical Concepts and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditionals in Arc Expressions, and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

7.2 7.3 7.4

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 7.4.2 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26

7.5

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Markings and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs 10 Conformance 10.1 PN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 HLPN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex A: Mathematical Conventions (normative) A.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Multisets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 Sum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.3 Empty Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.6 Multiset Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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A.3.2 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.3 Boolean Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.5 Many-sorted Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.6 Assignment and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B: Net Classes (normative) B.1 Place/Transition nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex C: High-level Petri Net Schema (informative) C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D: Tutorial (informative) D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2 Net Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.1 Places and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.2 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.3 Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.4 The Net Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3 Transition Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 Net Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5 Flow Control Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E: Analysis Techniques (informative) Bibliography

27 27 27 28 28 30 30 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 35 35 35 37 38 41 42

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before implementation commences. It also uses some of the notions developed for Algebraic Petri nets. The inscriptions are defined at a meta level allowing many different concrete syntaxes to be used. This International Standard provides an abstract mathematical syntax and a formal semantics for the technique. such as the use of complex structured data as tokens. The basic level of conformance is to the semantic model. first introduced in the mid 1980s. and using algebraic expressions to annotate net elements. Clause 9 relates the graphical form to the basic semantic model. It may also serve to integrate techniques currently used independently such as state transition diagrams and data flow diagrams. Clause 2 provides normative references (none at present). areas of application and the intended audience of this International Standard. High-level Petri Nets. The level of conformance depends on the class of high-level net supported. Clause 7 defines the Highlevel Petri Net Graph. Conformance to the standard is possible at several levels. which allows classes of systems to be described at a syntactic level. Petri nets have been used to describe a wide range of systems since their invention in 1962. High-level Petri Nets were developed to overcome this problem by introducing higher-level concepts. The technique promises to have multiple uses. and may thus be used to provide unambiguous specifications and descriptions of applications. This International Standard may be cited in contracts for the development of software (particularly critical software). first introduced in 1979 and developed during the 1980s. The conformance clause is given in clause 10. The main mathematical apparatus required for defining the standard is developed in normative Annex A. Three informative annexes are included: Annex C defines a High-level Petri Net Schema. it may be used directly to specify systems or to define the semantics of other less formal languages. It is believed that this standard captures the spirit of these earlier developments (see bibliography). The use of high-level to describe these Petri nets is analogous to the use of high-level in high-level programming languages (as opposed to assembly languages). and also the degree to which the syntax is supported. For example. Specifications written in the technique may be subjected to analysis methods to prove properties about the specifications. The technique. Annex D is a tutorial on the High-level Petri Net Graph. thus saving on testing and maintenance time. A problem with Petri nets is the explosion of the number of elements of their graphical form when they are used to describe complex systems. and referred to in clause 4. The basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets is given in clause 5. Two of the early forms of high-level nets that this standard builds on are Predicate-Transition Nets and Coloured Petri Nets. while clause 3 provides a glossary of terms and defines abbreviations. allowing specification prototypes to be developed to test ideas at the earliest and cheapest opportunity.Introduction This International Standard provides a well-defined semi-graphical technique for the specification. and is the usual term used in the Petri net community. Clause 1 describes the scope. It is also an executable technique. the form of the standard intended for industrial use. while the main concepts behind the graphical form are informally introduced in clause 6. is mathematically defined. design and analysis of systems. Normative Annex B defines Petri nets (without capacities) as a restriction of the definition of Clause 7. The technique is particularly suited to parallel and distributed systems development as it supports concurrency. Clause 8 further describes syntactical conventions. 5 . or used by application developers or Petri net tool vendors or users.

and Annex E provides pointers to analysis techniques for High-level Petri Nets. nuclear power systems. manufacturing systems. information systems. internet protocols and applications. metabolic processes. including air traffic control. called High-level Petri Nets. defines a mathematical semantic model. modelling business and software processes. to ensure a common understanding of the technique and of the specifications written using the technique. 1 Scope 1. fault-tolerant systems. business processes. space. It provides a reference definition that can be used both within and between organisations. 1. transport systems (including railway control). and methods for analysis which may become the subject of future standardisation efforts. an abstract mathematical syntax for inscriptions and a graphical notation for High-level Petri Nets. 6 . banking systems. telecommunications and workflow. simulation of systems to increase confidence. descriptions of existing systems prior to re-engineering. defence command and control. development of specifications. operating systems. including its syntax and semantics. This International Standard may be applied to a broad range of systems. communication protocols. This International Standard. hospital procedures. Generic fields of application include: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ requirements analysis. control systems. designs and test suites. and development of Petri net support tools. augmentation of High-level Petri Nets with time.2 Field of Application This International Standard is applicable to a wide variety of concurrent discrete event systems and in particular distributed systems. computer hardware architectures. music. A bibliography concludes this International Standard. This International Standard will also facilitate the development and interoperability of Petri net computer support tools. security systems. databases.1 Purpose This International Standard defines a Petri net technique. providing the semantics for concurrent languages. chemical processes. legal processes. electronic commerce. This International Standard does not provide a concrete syntax nor a transfer syntax and it does not address techniques for modularity (such as hierarchies). formal analysis of the behaviour of critical systems. avionics.

when the following conditions are met: 7 . constants. 3 Terms. parameter values.1. Normally represented by an arrow. 3. 3. 3.1. 3. 3. 3. Any ambiguity in the definitions is resolved by the mathematically precise definitions in the body of this International Standard.1. developers.1.5 Binding: See Assignment. The expression must evaluate to a multiset over the type of the arc’s associated place.1. and for Petri net tool designers and standards developers.1.1. and hence are not ordered (see also Step and Concurrent Enabling).1.8 Declaration: A set of statements which define the sets.1. the following definitions. Definitions. 3. 3.3 Arc annotation: An expression that may involve constants.4 Basis set: The set of objects used to create a multiset. abbreviations and symbols apply. 3.6 Carrier: A set of a many-sorted algebra. the association of a value (of correct type) to each variable.7 Concurrency: The property of a system in which events may occur independently of each other. Abbreviations and Symbols For the purpose of this International Standard.1.1 Input Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from a place to the transition.9 Enabling (a transition): A transition is enabled in a particular mode and net marking. 3.2 Arity: The input sorts and output sort for an operator.3 Audience This International Standard is written as a reference for systems analysts. designers. 3.1 Glossary 3. maintainers and procurers.1.1 Arc: A directed edge of a net which may connect a place to a transition or a transition to a place.3 Assignment: For a set of variables.1.1.1. 3. typed variables and functions required for defining the inscriptions on a High-level Petri Net Graph. 2 Normative References None.2 Output Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from the transition to a place. variables and operators used to annotate an arc of a net.1.1.

15.16 Net: A general term used to describe all classes of Petri nets. Pre function imposing token demands (multisets of tokens) on places for each transition mode.1.1. 3. 3.2 Multiset cardinality (cardinality of a multiset): The sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset.1. 3. a set of transitions. 3. 3.e. 3.1.4 Reachable Marking: Any marking of the net that can be reached from the initial marking by the occurrence of transitions.14. 3.11 High-level Net (High-level Petri Net): An algebraic structure comprising: a set of places. 3.3 Marking of a place: A multiset of tokens associated with (‘residing in’) the place.The marking of each input place of the transition satisfies the demand imposed on it by its arc annotation evaluated for the particular transition mode.1 Net graph: A directed graph comprising a set of nodes of two different kinds. NOTE: The determination of transition modes guarantees that the Transition Condition is satisfied (see Transition Mode).1 Initial Marking (of the net): The set of initial place markings given with the highlevel net definition. called arcs. Transition Conditions. 3. a function associating a type to each place. including the initial marking..15. The demand is satisfied when the place’s marking contains (at least) the multiset of tokens indicated by the evaluated arc annotation. nor places to places.1. Arc Annotations.12 High-level Petri Net Graph: A net graph and its associated annotations comprising Place Types. a set of types. called places and transitions.1. but never transitions to transitions.2 Node (of a net): A vertex of a net graph (i. Post function determining output tokens (multisets of tokens) for places for each transition mode. defined with the high-level net.14.1.1.1. 3. 3.10 Concurrent Enabling (of transition modes): A multiset of transition modes is concurrently enabled if all the involved input places contain enough tokens to satisfy the sum of all of the demands imposed on them by each input arc annotation evaluated for each transition mode in the multiset. 3.14. and their interconnection by directed edges. 3.14 Marking (of a net): The set of the place markings for all places of the net. 3.2 Initial Marking of a place: A special marking of a place. a place or a transition). and their corresponding definitions in a set of Declarations.1 Multiplicity: A natural number (i.1.16.5 Reachability Set: The set of reachable markings of the net. and an initial marking.14. 8 .1. and an Initial Marking of the net.15 Multiset: A collection of items where repetition of items is allowed. non-negative integer) which describes the number of repetitions of an item in a multiset.14. such that only places can be connected to transitions.1.1. and a set of modes (a type) to each transition.e.13 Many-sorted Algebra: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sets and a set of functions taking these sets as domains and co-domains.1.1. 3. and transitions to places.16..1. 3.

variables and operators built from a signature and a set of sorted variables.2 Input sort: The same as an argument sort.1 Enabling Tokens: The multiset of values obtained when an input arc annotation is evaluated for a particular binding to variables. and one of the constants is ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ corresponding to the value true in the algebra.) 3.24. A place is typed. one called places and the other called transitions.1.1 Closed term: A term comprising constants and operators but no variables.17 Operator: A symbol representing the name of a function.20 Place: A node of a net. 3. 3.19 Parameterized High-level Net Graph: A high-level net graph that contains parameters in its definition.23.20.1 Argument sort: The sort of an argument of an operator.16.23.23 Sort: A symbol representing the name of a set.4 Range sort: The same as an output sort.1. 3.2 Term evaluation: The result obtained after the binding of variables in the term.1 Boolean signature: A signature where one of the sorts is ÓÓÐ. 3.1. where the nodes correspond to reachable markings.20.1.1.24.1.1.1. 3. and named after their inventor.20. and any simplifications performed (such as gathering like terms to obtain the symbolic sum representation of a multiset).1. 3. together with their associated relations and functions.1.4 Place/Transition Net: A Petri net comprising a net graph with positive integers associated with arcs and an initial marking function which associates a natural number of simple tokens (‘black dots’) with places. It is instantiated as a constant.1.3 Petri Net: An algebraic structure with two sets.25.1. 3.1.1.16. normally represented by an ellipse in the net graph.1. 3.1.1.23. 3. 9 .18 Parameter: A symbol that can take a range of values defined by a set. taken from the place kind.21 Reachability Graph: A directed graph of nodes and edges.1.3 Output sort: The sort of an output of an operator. 3.1. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. 3. 3.22.3 Place Type: A non-empty set of data items associated with a place.1.22 Signature/Many-sorted signature: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sorts and a set of operators. 3. 3. 3. Carl Adam Petri. the computation of the results of the associated functions.2 Output Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an output arc. 3.1.24 Term: An expression comprising constants. 3. 3.1 Input Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an input arc. 3.1.25 Token: A data item associated with a place and chosen from the place’s type.23. (This set can describe an arbitrarily complex data structure. 3. and the edges correspond to transition occurrences.3.

4 Conventions and Notation This International Standard uses the notation for sets. 3.2.1 HLPN: High-level Petri Net.2. On the occurrence of the transition.2 Abbreviations 3. and used in Place/Transition nets (as opposed to high-level nets).1.2 Simple Token: A valueless token.4 Step: The simultaneous occurrence of a multiset of transition modes that are concurrently enabled in a marking.27 Type: A set. 3.1.26. 3.26. 3. and represented by a rectangle in the net graph. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens of the evaluated output arc expression is added to the marking of the output place.1. normally represented by a black dot. 3. 3.26. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition. Annex A also defines the concept of multiset addition. (using the ‘·’ symbol).1. The notion of multisets is required for clauses 10 . 3. 3.1 Mode: a value taken from the transition’s type.3 Transition occurrence (Transition rule): If a transition is enabled in a mode.26. 3. When considering a High-level Petri Net Graph. taken from the transition kind. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking.2 Transition mode: A pair comprising the transition and a mode. a mode may be derived from an assignment of values to the transition’s variables that satisfies the transition condition. and the annotations of arcs surrounding the transition. 3.2. the following actions occur indivisibly: 1.26.2.1 Transition condition: A boolean expression (one that evaluates to true or false) associated with a transition.2.3.4 PN: Petri Net.5 Transition Variables: All the variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition.5 PNG: Petri Net Graph. which should not be confused with arithmetic addition.2 HLPNG: High-level Petri Net Graph.26.1. and 2. 3.26 Transition: A node of a net. 3. 3.25.2.1. it may occur in that mode.1.1. multisets and universal algebra defined in Annex A.1. These are the transition condition.3 HLPNS: High-level Petri Net Schema.

È Ä 11 (see Annex A. Ì . Wherever possible standard mathematical notation has been used. an arc may be annotated by a variable or constant (or combination) of the same type as the arc’s place. 6. ¯ is a non-empty finite set of non-empty domains where each element of type. This is interpreted as a multiset over the place’s type. Å ¼ . This is necessary as an arc annotation when evaluated must be a multiset over the associated place’s type. section A. is the set of multisets over the set. An understanding of many-sorted signatures. is created on the occurrence of a multiset of transition modes. which may be a subset of the associated place’s type. is called a ¯ Ì ÝÔ È Ì transition modes. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. By convention. 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets This clause provides the basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets (HLPN). ¯ Ì is a finite set of elements called Transitions disjoint from È (È Ì ).2). 7. This notation is defined in clause 5. 5. 8 and 9. sorted variables and many-sorted algebras provided in Annex A is required for clauses 7 and 9 and Annexes B and C. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. if an arc expression evaluates to an element of the place’s type. NOTE: ÈÄ . when in the marking Å . Å Ì Å ¼ is used to denote that a new marking. The graphical notation used in clause 6 is that defined in clause 8.5.   is a function used to assign types to places and to determine ¯ È Ö È Ó×Ø Ì Ê ÆË   ÈÄ ÈÄ are the pre and post mappings with Ì Ê ÆË ´Ø ѵ Ø ¾ Ì Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ ¯ Å ¾ ÈÄ ¼ is a multiset called the initial marking of the net.1 Definition A HLPN is a structure ÀÄÈ Æ ´È Ì Ì ÝÔ È Ö È Ó×Ø Å¼ µ where ¯ È is a finite set of elements called Places. A similar convention applies when an arc expression evaluates to a set. and similar notation is used in clause 7. An instance of notation specific to Petri nets is when a marking of the net is transformed to a new marking. In high-level nets. with corresponding multiplicities of zero and one.

3. i. Ì ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . Å ¾ ÈÄ . there are enough tokens on the input places to satisfy the linear combination of the pre maps for each transition mode in Ì . 12 . ØÖ ¾ Ì Ê ÆË .1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition mode. 5. then a step may occur resulting in a new marking Å ¼ given by ż A step is denoted by Å Å   È Ö ´Ì µ · È Ó×Ø´Ì µ Ì where the linear extension of È Ó×Ø is used.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes A finite multiset of transition modes.2 Marking of HLPN A Marking of the HLPN is a multiset.5. or any number of concurrently enabled transition modes.3 Enabling of Transition Modes 5. This definition allows a transition mode to be concurrently enabled with itself. Ì ½. is enabled at a marking Å . 5. Ì .e. Also if then this reduces to the definition in the previous subclause.4 Transition Rule Given that a finite multiset of transition modes.3. Ì Å ¼ or Å   Å ¼ . is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´ØÖµ Å 5. is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´Ì µ Å where the linear extension of È Ö is given by È Ö ´Ì µ ØÖ¾Ì Ê ÆË Ì ´ØÖµÈ Ö ´ØÖµ All transition modes in Ì are said to be concurrently enabled if Ì is enabled. NOTE: A step may comprise the occurrence of: a single transition mode.

1 Introduction High-level Petri Nets can be defined in a number of ways. 13 . as it is the graphical form of HLPNs that is most appropriate for industrial use. Clause 5 provides the definition of the basic mathematical semantic model. NOTE: A collection of items which allows repetitions is known in mathematics as a multiset. Arc Annotations: Arcs are inscribed with expressions which may comprise constants. and arcs connecting places to transitions.g. and function definitions. This approach is taken. This clause introduces the concepts that are needed in the definition of the High-level Petri Net Graph.g. High-level Petri Nets are normally represented using a graphical form which allows visualisation of system dynamics (flows of data and control). The expressions are evaluated by assigning values to each of the variables.g. Place Marking. Ü Ý ) and function images (e. The concepts of enabling and transition rule are also introduced for the graphical form to demonstrate how the net may be executed to show system dynamics. The collection may have repetitions.. 6.. Repetition of items is allowed. The items associated with places are called tokens.6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6. variables (e. The basic semantic model is not what is used by practitioners. typing of variables. When an arc’s expression is evaluated. Readers interested in a tutorial exposition on High-level Petri Net Graphs are referred to Annex D. It provides a graphical notation for places and transitions and their relationships. Ü ¯ ¯ Ý ) inscribing a transition. The variables are typed. Place Types. Declarations: comprising definitions of place types. ´Üµ). consisting of sets of nodes of two different kinds. and determines the inscriptions of the graphical elements. The graphical form is referred to as a High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG).. called places and transitions. One type is associated with each place. and transitions to places. Transition Condition: A boolean expression (e.2 High-level Petri Net Graph Components A High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG) comprises: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ A Net Graph. These are non-empty sets. A collection of elements (data items) chosen from the place’s type and associated with the place. it must result in a collection of items taken from the type of the arc’s place.

3. if for the associated transitions. On the occurrence of the transition in a specific mode. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking. and 14 . A transition is also enabled in a particular transition mode. If a transition is enabled in a mode. the transition condition is true). the following actions occur atomically: 1.2 Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode Enabled transitions can occur. resulting in a multiset of tokens of the same type as that of the input place.4.6. Each input arc expression is evaluated for the transition mode. it may occur in that mode. A transition is enabled in a specific mode. A transition mode is an assignment of values to the transition’s variables. An example is given in subclause 6. tokens are removed from its input places. then the transition is enabled in that mode. with respect to that mode. These are the transition condition. An output place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc directed from the transition to the place. 6. and the annotations of arcs involving the transition. that satisfies the transition condition (i. If each input place’s marking contains at least its input arc’s multiset of tokens (resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in the specific mode). The input arc’s multiset of tokens resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in a specific mode is called the input arc’s enabling tokens.1 Enabling A transition is enabled with respect to a net marking.3 Net Execution HLPNGs are executable. allowing the flow of tokens around the net to be visualised. An arc that leads from an input place to a transition is called an input arc of the transition.3. When a transition occurs. Two transition modes are concurrently enabled for a particular marking. and tokens are added to its output places. for a particular net marking. An input place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc leading from that place to the transition.e. Enabling a transition involves the marking of its input places. This can illustrate flow of control and flow of data within the same model. 6. The transition’s variables are all those variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. An arc that leads from a transition to a place (an output place of the transition) is called an output arc of the transition. A net marking comprises the set of all place markings of the net.. Key concepts governing this execution are enabling of transitions and the occurrence of transitions defined by the Transition Rule. each input place’s marking contains at least the sum of the enabling tokens (with respect to both modes) of each input arc associated with that input place.

where the less than operator is defined in the declarations.2. 6. 6. Variable x is of type . The change to the marking of the net when a step occurs is given by the sum of all the changes that occur for each transition mode. Place p1 is typed by and has an initial marking Å ¼ (p1) ½ ½ · ¾ ¿. the transition by a rectangle (in this example. This states that associated with the place p1 are the value ½ and two instances of the value ¿.5. t1. the value associated with 15 . and t1 to p2. The declarations define two types. and y bound to ¿. a square). Place p2 is typed by .3. is added to the marking of the output place. circles). A convention adopted in high-level nets. y: B ¢ ÓÓÐ Ò arithmetic ‘less than’ Figure 1: HLPNG with a Transition Condition. using the sum representation of multisets of clause A. The transition is inscribed with the boolean expression x y. that is in one atomic action. This example comprises two places. and variable y is of type . NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition. 2. Arc (p1. ż (p2) . that are different subsets of the positive integers. By convention.4.4 Graphical Concepts and Notation The graphical representation of the net graph is introduced by the simple example of a HLPNG given in figure 1. is that arcs may be annotated by variables or constants of the same type as the arc’s place.3 Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes Several concurrently enabled transition modes may occur in one step. while arc (t1.1.p2) is annotated with y. one transition.A B x x<y t1 y p2 ½ ½·¾ ¿ p1 A = 1.4. and is empty representing the empty multiset.t1) is annotated with the variable x.7 x: A.3. and . For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens. as described above. The places are represented by ellipses (in this case. resulting from the evaluation of the output arc expression for the mode. for x bound to ½.4 B = 3. An example is given in subclause 6.2. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. and arcs from p1 to t1. named p1 and p2. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. For example. and the arcs by arrows.

6. writing). rather than x. Place Wait is marked with all agents.. the resultant Å (p1) Å (p2) ½ ¿ · ¾ . No assumptions are made regarding scheduling. t1 can be enabled in the following modes ´½ ¿µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ where the first element of each pair represents a binding for x.g. where up to L agents may have access at the same time (e. a binding for y which satisfies x y. L and N. Shared 16 . and Parameters The HLPNG of figure 2 uses a variant of the readers/writers problem to illustrate many of the features of a HLPNG including the use of parameters and conditionals in arc expressions. then all L tokens are removed preventing further access until the resource is released (transition Leave).. In a similar convention. which represents infinitely many readers/writers systems. It has been assumed that the initial state is when all the agents are waiting to gain access to the shared resource (with no queueing discipline assumed). then the resultant marking would be: Alternatively. if the multiset of modes marking would be ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ occurred concurrently.) An agent can obtain access in one of two modes: if shared (m=s). Another example of the concurrent enabling of modes is the multiset ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ and yet another is ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ · ½ ´¿ µ. the initial markings are given in the declaration.g. where each of the multiplicities of the agents is one. is concurrently enabled. which is interpreted as the multiset L ¯.t1) is ½. and thus the arc expression evaluates to ¯. A number (N) of agents (processes) wish to access a shared resource (such as a file). In this example. interpreted as ½ ¯) when Enter occurs in a single mode.t1) would be ½ x. Access can be in one of two modes: shared (s). reading). In the initial marking. both of which are positive integers. If transition t1 occurred in mode ½ ´¿ Å (p1) ½ ½ · ½ ¿ Å (p2) ½ . the multiset conversion operator ‘ ’ should be used.p2) is ¿. µ. where only one agent may have access (e. It can be seen that the multiset of modes.5 Conditionals in Arc Expressions. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ½. and the second. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ¿. the Control place contains L simple tokens (represented by a black dot ¯) and Access is empty. then a single token is removed from Control (as m=e is false. This is therefore a parameterized HLPNG. and m e ¼. which could then be executed. the annotation on the arc (p1. if exclusive (m=e). The marking of place Wait is given by the set .arc (p1. the marking of Control is given by L¯. ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ. For example. which is interpreted to be a multiset over . and similarly the value associated with arc (t1. (That is the separator ‘ ’ is dropped where there is no ambiguity. more formally. Where there is any possibility of ambiguity. A HLPNG model of figure 2 illustrates the use of two parameters. and exclusive (e). Each instantiation of N and L would produce a HLPNG.

m: M Function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ where ØÖÙ ½ and Ð× ¼ ż ´Waitµ A ż ´Controlµ L¯ ż ´Accessµ Figure 2: HLPNG of Resource Management.m) A¢M ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ C Control Access x (x. L Variables x: A.m) ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ Leave Set of Agents:A = a½ aÆ Set of Access Modes: M = s.e Control: C = ¯ Positive integer constants: N. 17 .Enter x A Wait (x.

defined in Annex A. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . for all bindings « ΠЫ ´ ´Ô صµ ΠЫ ´ ´Ø¼ Ôµµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ is a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë È ËÀ is a function which assigns types to places. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ « and ΠЫ are 18 . defined in Annex A.2 Definition A HLPNG is a structure ÀÄÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is called a net graph. known as the flow – relation. Outfix notation has been used for the function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ . called Transitions. ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. integer subtraction. and – Ì a finite set of nodes. The concepts of marking. is a function that annotates each arc with a term that when evaluated (for any binding) results in a multiset over the associated place’s type. 7.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for the graphical form of high-level nets. disjoint from Ç. It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. . the equality predicate and a tupling operator are primitive and do not need to be defined in the declaration. 7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7. with È a finite set of nodes. enabling and transition rule are also formally defined for the graphical form. This is the notation for conditionals in arc expressions. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. called Places. It is assumed that multiset addition.access is limited to a maximum of L agents as transition Enter is disabled when Control is empty. ). ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë À Ì ÝÔ Æ – ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A.

is the initial marking A HLPNG comprises an annotated net graph. NOTE 3: The carriers (sets) of the algebra may be arbitrarily complex. A place can only hold tokens of the same type as the place and hence the initial marking is a multiset over the place’s type. may be typed by a set of multisets. i. À× . This allows us to specify concrete systems where the sets and functions have already been determined. or a powerset. by defining the appropriate signature (operators and sorts) and sorted variables. the places become Ë -sorted.. À . so that Ü ).e. NOTE 5: In defining HLPNGs. This leads us to the notion of a HLPN schema which is included in informative Annex C and may be considered for future standardisation. À .. For example. NOTE 4: The restriction on the arc annotations (evaluating to a multiset over the place’s type). known as its type. NOTE 2: The evaluation of an arc term may result in an empty multiset. is removed.3 Marking A marking. Transitions are annotated by Boolean terms. Å . the terms for arc annotations are of the same sort as that associated with the arc’s place. a set of sorted variables. where is the basis set. and the many-sorted algebra. for example. NOTE 1: Arbitrarily complex terms can be generated for the arc inscriptions. allows terms which evaluate to multisets over subtypes of the place’s type to be used in the annotations. Also. The approach provides a great deal of flexibility in defining the syntax required for arc inscriptions. Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that Ô ¾ È . The schemas are also useful for analysis (see bibliography). this allows there to be multiterms and conditionals in arc expressions. Many applications will require the definition of an operator which will convert (in the algebra) an element of a set to a singleton multiset. À×¾ À×½ . There is also a need for a more abstract or syntactic form that allows classes of systems to be specified. Arcs are annotated by terms. a type has been intentionally associated with each place. 7. which must evaluate to a multiset over the associated place’s type. ż ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. a sort (rather than a type) is associated with each place. In this case.– Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ Ô¾È expressions. The annotations are derived from a many sorted signature. Ü× . and may be related. defined in the algebra (e.g. and an associated many sorted algebra. Å ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. This type is a carrier (set) of the many-sorted algebra. a variable. 19 . and others will need a multiset addition operator (and its counterpart in the algebra). Terms are built from the signature and variables. of the HLPNG is defined in the same way as the initial marking. markings become (appropriately sorted) ground terms of the signature. A typing function associates a set of the many-sorted algebra with each place. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Å È ¼ Ë function which associates a multiset of tokens (of the correct type) which each place. Å È Ë Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that for all Ô ¾ È .

4. ¯ Ù Ú ´Ù Úµ. iff Ô¾È ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Thus all of the transition modes in are concurrently enabled. then the sum is reduced to a single term so that the enabling condition is the same as that of the previous subclause. Ø may occur in mode «Ø . Define the set of all transition modes to be ÌÅ A step ´Ø «Øµ Ø ¾ Ì «Ø ¾ ×× ÒØ and a step to be a finite non-empty multiset over Ì Å . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ ¯ Ù Ú ¨. known as a mode of Ø. Å .4. for marking Å . Å . by ×× ÒØ .7.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes Let «Ø be an assignment for the variables of transition Ø ¾ Ì which satisfies its transition condition and denote the set of all assignments (which satisfy its transition condition) for transition Ø. 7. of transition modes is enabled in a marking. 7. iff Ô¾È where for ´Ù Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Ú µ ¾ ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ. for a particular assignment.5 Transition Rule If Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in mode «Ø . to its variables.1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in a marking. . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ where ΠЫ ´¨µ ¨ is a symbol that represents the empty multiset at the level of the signature.4 Enabling 7. If comprises a single transition mode. Î Ð ÓÓÐ ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ . « Ø . denoted Å Ø «Ø Å ¼ . When Ø occurs in mode «Ø . according to the following rule: Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 20 . if is enabled. so that . the marking of the net is transformed to a new marking Å ¼ . that satisfies the transition condition.

8. and its name and type outside. the initial marking could be shown inside the ellipse. If the Transition Condition is true (Ì ´Øµ ØÖÙ ). The width. then the step can occur resulting in a new marking. the Transition Condition. it may be omitted. Three annotations are associated with a place Ô: ­ ¯ ¯ ¯ the place name. the name of the type (Ì ÝÔ the initial marking. then it may be omitted. The declaration may also include the initial marking and the typing function if these cannot be inscribed on the graph part due to lack of space.1 General The graphical form comprises two parts: a Graph which represents the net elements graphically and carries textual inscriptions.3 Transitions A transition is represented by a rectangle and is annotated by a name and a boolean expression. and the type and initial marking outside. variables. For example. and A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct place. 8. ´Ôµ) associated with the place. There needs to be a visual association between an inscription and the net element to which it belongs. defining all the types. 21 . Å ¼ . If the initial marking is empty. and a Declaration. Å ¼ .If a step is enabled in marking Å . or the name of the place could be included inside the ellipse. colour and patterns of the lines used to draw the graph are not mandated by this standard. constants and functions that are used to annotate the Graph part.2 Places Places are represented by ellipses (often circles). ż ´Ôµ. The position of the annotations with respect to places is not mandated. where Å ¼ is given by denoted Å Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8. For example.

Arcs are annotated with terms. Transitions: Ì is the set of transitions in the HLPN.x y t1 represents a transition with a name t1. A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct transition. x and y. and the operator less than. For example. 8. or the name of the transition could be included inside the rectangle. . and a transition condition. If ´Ô ص and ´Ø Ôµ have the same annotations (Ô is a side place of Ø). 1.1). A Marking of the net may be shown graphically by annotating a place with its multiset of tokens Å ´Ôµ using the symbolic sum representation (see clause A. ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ. then this may be shown by a single arc with an arrowhead at both ends and annotated by a single inscription. The notation for terms is not mandated by this International Standard.6). The position of the annotations with respect to transitions is not mandated. An arc is represented by an arrow:   8. then Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ «Ø Î Ð ÓÓÐ «Ø ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ The types of places are obtained directly from the HLPN graph definition.3. Ë 9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs The HLPNG may be given an interpretation as a HLPN (see clause 5) in the following way. Places: È is the set of places in the HLPN. but usual mathematical conventions should be adopted where possible. Define « Ø as an assignment for À and ÎØ (cf A. and the transition condition outside. and its name outside. 2. Thus the set Ì ÝÔ ´Üµ Ü ¾ È Ì . Set of Types: The set of modes for a transition is determined by the types of the variables occurring in the surrounding arc annotations restricted by its transition condition. Let ÎØ Î be the set of variables associated with transition Ø. 3. x y.2.5 Markings and Tokens A token is a member of Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ.4 Arcs For ´Ô ص ¾ . are defined in the declarations. of domains is given by 22 . the transition condition could be shown inside the rectangle (as in the example). an arrow is drawn from place Ô to transition Ø and vice versa for ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . where both the types of the variables.

1. 10. ¯ (i. The lowest level is for the Place/Transition net class and the highest at the level of the HLPNG.e. will be specialised by the restriction that consists of one set with one element. 5. such as ¯ . ż ´Ôµ is as defined in the HLPNG. ¾ and Ñ ¾ Î Ð«Ø Ñ´ ´Ô صµ and È Ó×Ø Ô Ø ´Ñµ Î Ð«Ø Ñ ´ ´Ø Ôµµ ´ µ For all Ô ¾ È . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ There is a one to one mapping between È Ä There is a one to one mapping between Ì Ê Each transition has a single mode. for all mappings: ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ . Initial Marking.1 Level 1 To claim PN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. ÆË and Ì . This has the following consequences.. Each place is typed by and È . by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. Within a class. The Typing Function: The typing function restricted to places is defined in the HLPNG and Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ is given above. The initial marking determines the number of black dots allocated to each place initially. 23 . there is only one token represented by a black dot). Thus for all Ø ¾ Ì and for all Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ È Ö ´Ø ѵ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ È Ó×Ø´Ø Ñµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ where È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ 6.1 PN Conformance 10. then the next level is with respect to syntax. the lowest conformance level is to the semantics. The definition of the semantic model (clause 5). The pre and post maps are given.4. È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ and for ´Ø Ôµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. Pre and Post Maps. by the following family of È Ö ´Ô ص Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ For ´Ô ص ¾ and Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. 10 Conformance Conformance to this International Standard is according to net class. If the semantics are adhered to.

e.1.1 and the relevant notational conventions of clause 8. 24 . 10. i.2 HLPN Conformance 10..1 Level 1 To claim HLPN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. 10. section B.10.2.2 Level 2 To claim PN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of PN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the PNG defined in Annex B. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. there is no need for place typing.2. as these are trivial.2 Level 2 To claim HLPN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of HLPN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the HLPNG defined in clause 7 and the notational conventions of clause 8. nor a declaration.

The multiplicity of ¾ in .2 Membership Given a multiset.  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò A. The set of multisets over is denoted by . is a function A multiset. conversely if ´ µ ¾ .1 Sum Representation A multiset may be represented as a symbolic sum of basis elements scaled by their multiplicities (sometimes known as co-efficients). where the multiplicity of each of the basis elements is either zero or one.2 the integers. then ¾ ¾ is a member of . NOTE: For notions of basic set theory including sets. (also known as a bag) over a non-empty basis set. denoted ¾ . . with each of the basis elements.Annex A (normative) Mathematical Conventions This annex defines the mathematical conventions required for the definition of High-level Petri Nets. A. see the book by Truss in the Bibliography. ´µ ¾ A. A set is a special case of a multiset.   Æ which associates a multiplicity. and 25 . ØÖÙ Ð× Multisets .1 Sets Æ Æ· ¼½ the natural numbers. . if ´µ ¼. A. is given by ´ µ. the positive integers. Æ Ò ¼ .2. functions and relations.2. possibly zero. ¼.

iff ¾ .2. variables. The cardinality sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset.2. of a multiset . ½ ¾.2.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification In order to define the HLPNG. ½ ¾¾ ¾´ µµ . Ò ½ « ¾ ½¾ ´ µ Ò ¢ ½´ µ . Ò ¾ Æ . ½´ µ ¾´ µ. is a pair: Ë where ´Ë ǵ 26 .5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . ´µ ¾ When is finite. ¾. associate where ¢ is arithmetic multiplication. terms and many-sorted algebras that are required for the definition of the HLPNG. A.3. is the ¾ .2. ½ Two multisets.3 Empty Multiset The empty multiset. A.6 Multiset Operations The addition operation and subtraction partial operation on multisets. ¾. iff ¾ . ´ µ ¼.1 Signatures A many-sorted (or S-sorted) signature. by a natural number. concepts from algebraic specification are required. are equal. In the HLPNG. arcs are annotated by terms and transitions by Boolean expressions. has no members: A. ½ ¾ ¾ ½ is less than or equal to (or contained in) A. the multiset is called a finite multiset.A. This clause introduces the concepts of signatures. is defined as A. . Ë . ½´ µ ¾´ µ. to the left and are defined as follows: ½ · ¾ iff ¾ ´ µ ½´ µ · ¾´ µ ¾ ( ½´ µ ¾´ µµ ´ ´ µ ½´ µ   ½   ¾ iff Scalar multiplication of a multiset. Many-sorted signatures provide an appropriate mathematical framework for this representation.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset Multiset cardinality is defined in the following way. Signatures provide a convenient way to characterise many-sorted algebras at a syntactic level.

¯ Ë is a set of sorts (the names of sets. ¾ Ç. and ¯ Ç is a set of operators (the names of functions) together with their arity in Ë which specifies the names of the domain and co-domain of each of the operators. including the empty string. For × ¾ Ë 1. Î may be partitioned according to sorts. Ó ´ ×µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×. A. e. (In the algebra.3 Boolean Signatures The term Boolean Signature is used to mean a many-sorted signature where one of the sorts is Bool.3.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables ´Ë ǵ and an S-sorted set of variables. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò are Ò µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Î× ×Ò ¾ Ë (Ò ¼). then an integer variable would be Ú´ ÁÒص or ÚÁÒØ . if ½ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×½ 3. such as equality ( ) or less than ( ). where Ë £ is the set of finite sequences. called an Ë -sorted set of variables. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. Denote the set of terms of sort × by Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ × . clause A. Using a standard convention.g. Arity is a function from the set of operator names to Ë £ ¢ Ë . where Î× denotes the set of variables of sort × (i.e. A. and × the output or range sort of operator Ó.3. then Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ´ ½ 27 Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× . Thus every operator in Ç is indexed by a pair ´ ×µ.3. if Ë ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ .2 Variables Let Î be a set of sorted variables.. in the following way. For example an integer constant is denoted by Ó ´ ÁÒص or simply ÓÁÒØ .3. ÁÒØ for the integers). if ÁÒØ ¾ Ë . then Ó´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе represents a binary predicate symbol. A variable in Î of sort × ¾ Ë would be denoted by Ú ´ ×µ or more simply by Ú× . for all Ó´ ×µ 2. ¾ Ë £ and × ¾ Ë denoted by Ó´ ×µ. The sort of a variable may also be declared in the same way as that of constants. is an operator. the sequence of input sorts will define a cartesian product as the domain of the function corresponding to the operator and the output sort will define its co-domain – c. ¾ Ë £ is called the input or argument sorts.f. . and generate them inductively as follows. over Ë . For example. for ×½ Ò ¾ sorted terms and Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç .5. the sort of a constant may be . A Boolean signature will also include the constant ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ . and . Terms of sort × ¾ Ë may be built from a signature Ë Î . from the set of variable names to ¢ Ë. Ú ¾ Î× iff ×).. declared by letting A. It is assumed that Ë and Ç are disjoint.) For example.

Definition: A many-sorted Algebra. (or Ë -Algebra). Ó× . Thus Thus if ÁÒØ is a sort. comprising an assignment function for each sort × ¾ Ë . 28 . there is a corresponding function ÓÀ À×½ ¢ ¢ À×Ò À× In case an operator is a constant. À and Ë -sorted variables in Î . À . À¾ It could also be ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ Ð× ××Ø Ò Æ ¢ Æ ÓÓÐ Ò. For example. and Ð A.3. there is a corresponding set. For every sort. ´Æ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ where Æ is the set of non-negative integers: ¼ ½ À and Î is a «× Î× 1 À× The terms binding and valuation are also used in this context. and operators (with appropriate arguments) of output sort ÁÒØ are terms of sort ÁÒØ. if Ë ´ ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ ´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе µ then a corresponding many-sorted algebra would be where and Ð is the set of integers: À½ ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ ××Ø Ò ¢ Ð× ´ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò is the usual integer comparison function. × ¾ Ë . which may À where ËÀ ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ À× × ¾ Ë is the set of carriers. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ A. integer constants and variables.5 Many-sorted Algebras ×¾Ë Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× A many-sorted algebra.3.Let Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ denote the set of all terms and Ì ÊÅ ´Ç µ the set of all closed terms (those not containing variables. NOTE: In the algebra. Ë -sorted variables are typed by the carrier corresponding to the sort. then there is a corresponding element ÓÀ be considered as a function of arity zero. À . provides an interpretation (meaning) for the signature Ë . with for all × ¾ Ë À× and £ ÇÀ ÓÀ Ó´ ×µ ¾ Ç ¾ Ë Ò × ¾ Ë the set of corresponding functions.6 Assignment and Evaluation Given an Ë -sorted algebra. an assignment 1 for family of functions «. also called ground terms). known as a carrier and for every operator Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç. À× . is a pair ¾ À×.

Ú× ¾ Î× . and ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Ó ×´ Ò ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò . ½ ¾ ½ ½ ½ ´ µ ½ ½ ½ 29 . Î Ð× «´Ó×µ ÓÀ ¾ À×. then Î Ð× « ´ µ ÓÀ ´Î Ð× « ´ µ Î Ð×Ò « ´ Ò µµ ¾ À×. with × ×Ò ¾ Ë . ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ. if Ò µ. Î Ð× « ´Ú× µ «× ´Ú× µ. For × ¾ Ë 1. Î Ð× « Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× À× The values are determined inductively as follows.This function may be extended to terms by defining the family of functions Î for each sort × ¾ Ë : Ð « comprising. ×× ×Ò . For a variable. 3. Ó× 2. For a constant. ¾ Ç. and For ¾ Ë £ Ò .

¯ Æ ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. Currently it defines Place/Transition nets (without capacities) which is a common form of Petri nets where tokens are simply ‘black dots’. Other subclasses may include Elementary Net systems and other high-level nets. ´¯ ÓØ µÀ ¯. – where ½Æ Ø ¯ ÓØ ¾Æ د ÓØ – Ì constant ØÖÙ .). B. 30 . where ÓØ ¯ and the obvious correspondences are made ( ÓØÀ ÓØ. ´ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ µÀ ØÖÙ . (By convention this is omitted from the graphical representation.Annex B (normative) Net Classes The purpose of this Annex is to define various classes of nets as a subclass of the HLPNG. Æ ØÀ Æ . Although this is a rather baroque definition of Place/Transition nets. ¯ Ì ÝÔ È ÓØ is a function which assigns the type ÓØ to all places. Ç ¯ ÓØ ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ ½Æ Ø ¾Æ Ø À ´ ÓØ ÓÓÐ Ò Æ ¯ ØÖÙ ½ ¾ µ a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë . ÈÆ where ´Æ Ï Å µ ¼ ¯Æ ´È Ì µ is a net graph. ÓÓÐÀ ÓÓÐ Ò. ´½Æ Ø µÀ ½ etc. it can be seen to be in one to one correspondence with a more usual definition given below. PNG.) Ì ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates every transition with the Boolean ¯Å È ¼ ÓØ.1 Place/Transition nets A Place/Transition net graph (without capacity). is a special HLPNG ÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Æ Ë Î ´È Ì µ is a net graph ´Ë ǵ with Ë ÓØ ÓÓÐ Æ Ø .

31 . · ¼ This is because: ¯ ¯ ¯ the transition condition is true for each transition. These are represented by dots (¯). ¯ Å È Æ is the initial marking assigning a natural number of tokens to each place. assigning a positive integer to each arc. the type of each place is the same. and hence there is no need for typing places. and hence doesn’t need to be considered. are in one to one correspondence with the positive integers. and the number of dots (¯) associated with each arc (Weight function). and given by a single value ¯.¯Ï Æ is the weight function. the number of dots (¯) associated with each place (marking) are in one to one correspondence with the Naturals.

called Transitions. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ is defined in Annex A.Annex C (informative) High-level Petri Net Schema C. known as the flow – relation. disjoint from Ç. ËÓÖØ È Ò – annotates each arc with a term of the same sort as that of the associated place. Ѽ ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´ÇµËÓÖØ´Ôµ . Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. is the initial ¼ marking function which associates a ground term which each place. – ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. 32 . ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µËÓÖØ Ô . ). with È a finite set of nodes. C. It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. is a function that ´ µ Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ terms. and – Ì a finite set of nodes. and allows classes of systems to be specified an an abstract level.2 Definition HLPNS is a structure given by ÀÄÈÆË ´Æ Ë Î ËÓÖØ Ò Ñ µ ¼ where ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is a net graph. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Ñ È Ì ÊÅ ´Çµ such that Ô ¾ È . disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. called Places.1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for a high-level net schema. Ë is a function which assigns sorts to places. The ground term has the same sort as the place.

several instances of the same object can be contained in a collection. which is graphically represented by a rectangle. Take.Annex D (informative) Tutorial D..create objects in other collections. the tokens) of a place is called the marking of the place. an action is modelled by a transition. D. Arrows. Tokens reside in places.1. It is assumed that the collections considered have some permanent identity. Each arc connects a place and a transition in one direction.1: Graphic conventions.2. A collection is modelled by a place. D.e. A discrete event system comprises ¯ ¯ collections of real or abstract objects and discrete actions which . the collection of coins in someone’s purse. which is graphically represented by a circle or an ellipse. The graphical representations of components of a net graph are shown in figure D. called arcs.modify or consume objects from some collections and .2 Net Graphs In HLPNGs.1 Introduction High level Petri net graphs (HLPNGs) are used to model discrete event systems. The contents (i. Places and transitions are called the nodes of a net graph. The created objects may be related to objects that are consumed. or a data base. The 33 . for example. Generally. show which places a transition operates on. irrespective of varying contents.1 Places and Tokens The objects of the system are modelled by (arbitrarily complex) data items called tokens. place arc transition Figure D. Arcs never connect a place with a place nor a transition with a transition.

any number of times. We need to distinguish between two 5c coins and a 25c coin. AlicesPurse.e. Drip Figure D. the tokens correspond to coins. It has neither transitions nor arcs. Example A is a net graph. in some currencies there may be both a 5c and a 25c coin. even though it has neither places nor arcs.2. Transition Drip can always happen.2 consists of a single place. AlicesPurse. several instances of the same token can reside in the place. As a place can be marked with a large number of tokens. Example A in figure D.3: Example B. called the initial marking. Example B is also a net. 10c. is typed by the set. A marking of a net consists of the markings of each place. because other markings will usually evolve. 34 . 50c 10c 1c 10c 50c 1c 10c Coins AlicesPurse Coins = 1c. 5c. The set of coins is defined in a textual part of the HLPNG called the Declarations. The number of each of the coins in the purse. When a particular instance of a HLPNG is defined.3 models the dripping of a tap. once a net is executed.2 Transitions Example B in figure D. to avoid any confusion (for example when the values are themselves integers). D. the initial marking may be declared textually instead of pictorially. Alice’s present coin collection can be written as the initial marking. i. If there was no separator. The place. Coins. three 10 cent and two 50 cent coins. the notation 25c would be ambiguous. This means that only coins (belonging to Coins) can reside in Alice’s purse. In this example. Thus.2: Example A. is separated from the value of the coin by a backprime ( ). each place is defined with a special marking. which models that Alice’s purse contains two 1 cent. ż (AlicesPurse) = 2 1c + 3 10c + 2 50c and the net graph is then drawn (admittedly in a less illustrative way) without tokens. 50c Figure D. For example. As no actions are modelled.tokens form a collection (known in mathematics as a multiset). nothing ever happens and nothing ever changes in this system. 2c.. 20c.

the places. one transition. T denotes the set of transitions.3 Arcs An arc from a place to a transition indicates that this transition consumes objects from the place. 2c. Here. two fifty cent coins. 10c.2. as well as the size and shape of the arcs. Example D does not model where the coins may come from. Spend) Traditionally. Alice could spend: a ten cent coin.4 The Net Graph The size and position of the nodes. Arc annotations determine the kinds and numbers of tokens that are produced or consumed. However. Informally. S denotes the set of places. Spend. Example C. transitions. a ten cent and a fifty cent coin. the net graph. These letters are the initials of the German words Stelle.2. it has to be declared in the textual part of Example C that x denotes a variable for coins. and arcs of the net. In figure D. An arc in the opposite direction indicates that this transition produces tokens on the place. and one arc from AlicesPurse to Spend. and F denotes the set of arcs. 20c. called AlicesPurse. Each arc is thus described as the pair consisting of its origin node and its target node.4: Example C. are irrelevant to the mathematical description of a net. D. a fifty cent coin. She may spend any number of coins at a time.4.3 Transition Conditions Example D in figure D.5 models that Bob starts with an empty purse and collects 10 cent coins. 35 . but in this International Standard we use P (since it is written in English). Coins AlicesPurse x Spend Coins 1c. Formally this can be expressed as: P T F AlicesPurse Spend (AlicesPurse.. Alice has a smaller coin collection comprising one ten cent and two fifty cent coins. i. D.e. one might say. that is by the occurrence of transition spend. It only shows what happens to Bob’s purse as a consequence of an arbitrary number of occurrences of Receive. 5c. Transition. the net has one place. and all her coins in one transaction. although often important for readability. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c Figure D. Flussrelation.D. the annotation x indicates that any coin (from Alice’s purse) can be spent.

6: Example E. however. 2c. 36 . A transition condition has been added.7 limits the number of 10 cent coins that Bob can receive to 200. In a more realistic variant of Example D. The transition. accepts only 10c coins from Alice. can occur only with such variable values as fulfill the condition. In the next example. 50c n :N N¢N ÓÓÐ usual ‘less than’ predicate · N¢N N arithmetic addition ż (BobsPurse) ż (NumberOfCoins) ½ ¼ Figure D.7: Example F. N n+1 n n<200 Receive 10c Coins NumberOfCoins BobsPurse N set of natural numbers Coins 1c. Bob cannot put arbitrarily many coins into his purse. 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. 5c.. 5c. 10c) tokens in AlicesPurse. requiring that x 10c. Coins x AlicesPurse x=10c Donate 10c Coins BobsPurse Coins 1c. 10c.5: Example D.Coins BobsPurse 10c Receive Coins 1c. Donate. 2c. 5c.e. If there are no appropriate (i. Bob. 2c. depicted in figure D. then Donate cannot occur. 10c. 10c. Alice is ready to give Bob any of her coins. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D.6. Example F in figure D.

10c)}) Figure D. By the occurrence (Spend. In her first action. and is bound to 10c.8. i.{(x.½ (Spend.10c) ).4 Net Dynamics Example C can be used to illustrate the modelling of system dynamics in HLPNs. 37 . as long as AlicesPurse is marked with a non-empty multiset of tokens. As long as Alice’s purse contains coins. The dynamics of Example C. or if she does it in the reverse order.{(x. Let her spend a 10 cent coin.10c)}) ¼c) (Spend..50c)}) (AlicesPurse.½ ½¼c·¾ ¼c) (Spend.10c)}) (AlicesPurse. then she will have 50 cents left.¾ ¼c) (Spend.{(x. as well as the transition occurrences performed to reach each one.10c) ) a new marking of the net is created: Ž (AlicesPurse) ¾ 50c.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. one can read. Markings reachable from reachable markings are also called reachable. (x. is bound. Then in the net. This indicates which transition occurs (Spend). she can spend any of them. The new marking is called a reachable marking of Example C. the following facts about the dynamics of Example C: ¯ If Alice spends first 10 cents and then 50 cents. with x having the value 10c. (AlicesPurse. A different marking would be reached by Alice spending a fifty cent coin. for example. Spend occurs.D.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. In the net.e. ¯ ¯ the markings reachable in Example C. From this diagram. appearing in the arc annotations around the transition.½ ½¼c·½ (Spend. This occurrence of Spend is denoted by (Spend.8: Reachability graph of Example C.{(x. Spend can occur with x bound to any one of the tokens in the marking of AlicesPurse. Alice can spend any number of her coins.{(x. and to which value each of the variables.{(x.{(x. are depicted in the reachability graph in figure D.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. In this case only x appears. (x.½ ½¼c) ¼c) (Spend. ) (Spend.

. set braces . ) (Receive.10. It just happens that in our very simple example these are one-element sets and the (. one by one.½ ½¼c) (Receive. the empty sequence) will allow Alice to restore the contents of her purse. ) (BobsPurse. of these crates.. The people from B Co have a problem. (BobsPurse.. Generally there are sets of place markings and sets of variable bindings to be described. The occurrence (Receive. ) does not mean that Bob receives no coins.5 Flow Control Example Two companies.) looks unnecessarily complicated.¾ ½¼c) (Receive. All of this holds. This procedure is modelled in figure D. trivially. Figure D. as indicated in figure D. 38 . say. ) etc. of course. A Co packs and sends big crates of equal size to B Co. B Co agrees with A Co on a ‘flow control protocol’.9. Crates may be taken from the store room for processing (e.. Every sequence of 3 actions ends with an empty purse.g.9: Reachability graph of Example D. ) (BobsPurse. B Co has a room where the crates are stored. The store room of B Co can only hold a certain number. MAX. distributed to retailers. are written around the pair parentheses (.. In the reachability graph. A Co and B Co. No sequence of actions (save. or opened and the contents consumed – it does not matter here). but that no variable is assigned a value. D. In order to avoid being forced either to leave crates in the street or to rent another store room.) wherever usually an entire set appears in this position.. only within the range of actions considered in Example C. The reachability graph for Example D consists of a single infinite chain. reside in different cities.¯ ¯ ¯ Alice can perform at most three actions..

It is a parameterized HLPNG with a parameter. Note that this net models infinitely many different systems. B Co does this by sending a letter with this number to A Co and setting the number of unreserved slots to 0. Example G(val). MAX.10: Crate procedure. This distributed system is modelled by figure D. while B Co keeps a record of empty ‘slots’ available for placing crates in the store. Sending a crate. the store room is empty. lowers SendingCredits by 1. there is no sending credit. and all slots are empty and unreserved. which is only possible if SendingCredits is 1 or more. Each such value val.11. Initially. substituted for MAX instantiates Example G to an ‘ordinary’ HLPNG without parameters. and processing a crate raises the number of empty and hence unreserved slots by one. To implement the protocol. Any time that there are empty slots. A Co keeps a record of SendingCredits. Whenever A Co receives such a letter. B Co may reserve them and give the number of reserved (and empty) slots as sending credits for crates to A Co.SendCrate Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate Figure D. 39 . it increases SendingCredits by the number written in it. that may take any natural number as a value. the situation is as follows: no crate or letter is in transit.

ż (StoreRoom) 40 .11: Example G. 1. Z is the set of integers n.SendCrate sc>0 Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate sc sc-1 sc+new new sc n n n>0 SendLetter 0 n n+1 N N N SendingCredits ReceiveLetter LettersInTransit UnreservedSlots Crates Cr N 0. . . . new. 2. sc : N MAX : N · Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic addition   Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic substraction ż (CratesInTransit) ż (LettersInTransit) ż (SendingCredits) ½ ¼ ż (UnreservedSlots) ½ MAX Figure D.

including reachability analysis (with several state space reduction techniques and using model checking). for example.Annex E (informative) Analysis Techniques There are a large number of analysis techniques for Petri nets. structural analysis and invariants analysis that may be used to investigate properties of systems modelled by nets. Readers are also referred to the bibliography. 41 . This annex is just to alert readers of this standard to these possibilities. The Petri net community has publish a 2 volume set in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volumes 1491 and 1492) as a handbook on Petri nets in 1998. the second volume of Kurt Jensen’s book on Coloured Petri Nets.

also reprinted in K. Bad Honnef. Free Choice Petri Nets. 1997. G. “Predicate/Transition Nets”. Mannheim. 11. Volume 1: Basic Concepts. Alla. 1986. Kindler and H. Reisig. Billington. 1989. Second Edition. 1991. Part I. Fernandez. 8. 1989. 222. Vol. 14. 7. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets and their Application to Protocols”. Al’Jaar. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets”. 4. David and H. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 1997. W. V¨ lzer. 345-364. 13. Petri-Netze. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. B. Volume 3: Practical Use. Coloured Petri Nets. Best and C. Baumgarten. Desrochers and R. Volume 2: Analysis Methods. 3. May 1991. 1995. Springer-Verlag. Grundlagen und Anwendungen. 6. 254. pp. K. 2. SpringerVerlag. September1986. SpringerVerlag. IEEE Press. Rozenberg (eds). Coloured Petri Nets. Cambridge University Press. 61-70. Jensen. J. pp. Jensen. Prentice Hall. Notations and Terminology on Petri Net Theory. 1998. 9. A.Y. J. Applications of Petri Nets in Manufacturing Systems: Modelling. Jensen. Springer-Verlag. Rozenberg (Eds. Arbeitspapiere der GMD 195. Kyoto. Coloured Petri Nets. Genrich. 15. Desel and J. R. E.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. H. K. Japan. J. Kyoto. K. Rozenberg (Eds. 10. 5. Esparza. Springer-Verlag. Control and Performance Analysis. “Many-sorted High-level Nets”. Petri Nets: Central Models and Their Properties Advances in Petri Nets. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science 40. 1987. G. Proceedings of an Advanced Course. SpringerVerlag. A. Japan. 166-179. J. Billington. 11-13 December. 12. Brauer.J. 1997. pp. Springer-Verlag. Wissenschaftsverlag. Billington. Lecture Notes in Computer o Science. Petri Nets and Grafcet. Volume 254 (and 255 for Part II). Jensen. Vol. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report No. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. “Flexibility in Algebraic Nets”. March 1987. Jensen. invited paper in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. Second Edition. W. 11-13 December. E. 1987.Bibliography 1. pp 207-247. K. Springer-Verlag. 42 . 1420.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. G. 1991. 1995. 1990. 1992.

18. 43 . pp. Addison-Wesley. Springer-Verlag. Springer-Verlag. W. Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists. Reisig. Modeling and Analysis with Petri Nets. 1994. K. Vol. 20. “Petri Nets: Properties.16. EATCS. Prentice-Hall. Volume 935. 4.Brauer. Proc IEEE. Analysis and Applications”. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. C. Vol. 815. A. Reisig. Christensen. Petri Nets.A. No. N. Springer Verlag. 23.. Rozenberg. L. 1991. 1-34. Reisig. W. T. 24. 1995. 392-411. 1991. Lakos and S. W. Volume 77. SpringerVerlag. 21. Murata. Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. 22.J. Springer-Verlag.K. 80. “A General Systematic Approach to Arc Extensions for Coloured Petri Nets”. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Schmidt. J. Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. Rozenberg (eds). J. Truss. An Introduction. Distributed Algorithms. G. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 1998. 1998. 338-357. Lectures in Petri Nets. 1989. Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications. Salomaa (Eds. pp.). 1981. pp. pp. 19. W. Berlin. Peterson. “Parameterized Reachability Trees for Algebraic Petri Nets”. 1985. 17. Reisig and G. W. May. Volumes 1491 and 1492. 541-580. TCS.