High-level Petri Nets - Concepts, Definitions and Graphical Notation Final Draft International Standard ISO/IEC

15909 Version 4.7.1 October 28, 2000

Contents
Introduction 1 Scope 1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 18

2 Normative References 3 Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Symbols 3.1 3.2 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Conventions and Notation 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets 5.1 5.2 5.3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking of HLPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-level Petri Net Graph Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Graphical Concepts and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditionals in Arc Expressions, and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

7.2 7.3 7.4

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 7.4.2 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26

7.5

Transition Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Markings and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs 10 Conformance 10.1 PN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 HLPN Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex A: Mathematical Conventions (normative) A.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2 Multisets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 Sum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.3 Empty Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.6 Multiset Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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A.3.2 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.3 Boolean Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.5 Many-sorted Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.6 Assignment and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B: Net Classes (normative) B.1 Place/Transition nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex C: High-level Petri Net Schema (informative) C.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C.2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D: Tutorial (informative) D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2 Net Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.1 Places and Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.2 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.3 Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2.4 The Net Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3 Transition Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.4 Net Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.5 Flow Control Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E: Analysis Techniques (informative) Bibliography

27 27 27 28 28 30 30 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 35 35 35 37 38 41 42

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The technique promises to have multiple uses. The main mathematical apparatus required for defining the standard is developed in normative Annex A. and also the degree to which the syntax is supported. The technique is particularly suited to parallel and distributed systems development as it supports concurrency. allowing specification prototypes to be developed to test ideas at the earliest and cheapest opportunity. Specifications written in the technique may be subjected to analysis methods to prove properties about the specifications. This International Standard may be cited in contracts for the development of software (particularly critical software). Petri nets have been used to describe a wide range of systems since their invention in 1962. while clause 3 provides a glossary of terms and defines abbreviations. first introduced in 1979 and developed during the 1980s. A problem with Petri nets is the explosion of the number of elements of their graphical form when they are used to describe complex systems. 5 . areas of application and the intended audience of this International Standard. High-level Petri Nets were developed to overcome this problem by introducing higher-level concepts. first introduced in the mid 1980s. before implementation commences.Introduction This International Standard provides a well-defined semi-graphical technique for the specification. Two of the early forms of high-level nets that this standard builds on are Predicate-Transition Nets and Coloured Petri Nets. Conformance to the standard is possible at several levels. The use of high-level to describe these Petri nets is analogous to the use of high-level in high-level programming languages (as opposed to assembly languages). Normative Annex B defines Petri nets (without capacities) as a restriction of the definition of Clause 7. Clause 1 describes the scope. the form of the standard intended for industrial use. such as the use of complex structured data as tokens. and is the usual term used in the Petri net community. and may thus be used to provide unambiguous specifications and descriptions of applications. The inscriptions are defined at a meta level allowing many different concrete syntaxes to be used. Three informative annexes are included: Annex C defines a High-level Petri Net Schema. Clause 2 provides normative references (none at present). High-level Petri Nets. Clause 7 defines the Highlevel Petri Net Graph. thus saving on testing and maintenance time. Annex D is a tutorial on the High-level Petri Net Graph. The technique. which allows classes of systems to be described at a syntactic level. It is believed that this standard captures the spirit of these earlier developments (see bibliography). and using algebraic expressions to annotate net elements. Clause 8 further describes syntactical conventions. while the main concepts behind the graphical form are informally introduced in clause 6. is mathematically defined. It also uses some of the notions developed for Algebraic Petri nets. The basic level of conformance is to the semantic model. The level of conformance depends on the class of high-level net supported. The conformance clause is given in clause 10. design and analysis of systems. This International Standard provides an abstract mathematical syntax and a formal semantics for the technique. It is also an executable technique. The basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets is given in clause 5. It may also serve to integrate techniques currently used independently such as state transition diagrams and data flow diagrams. or used by application developers or Petri net tool vendors or users. For example. it may be used directly to specify systems or to define the semantics of other less formal languages. Clause 9 relates the graphical form to the basic semantic model. and referred to in clause 4.

control systems. space. development of specifications. chemical processes. A bibliography concludes this International Standard. called High-level Petri Nets. manufacturing systems. This International Standard does not provide a concrete syntax nor a transfer syntax and it does not address techniques for modularity (such as hierarchies). and methods for analysis which may become the subject of future standardisation efforts. This International Standard. business processes. an abstract mathematical syntax for inscriptions and a graphical notation for High-level Petri Nets.2 Field of Application This International Standard is applicable to a wide variety of concurrent discrete event systems and in particular distributed systems. metabolic processes. modelling business and software processes. hospital procedures. legal processes. communication protocols. It provides a reference definition that can be used both within and between organisations. This International Standard may be applied to a broad range of systems. formal analysis of the behaviour of critical systems. information systems. including its syntax and semantics. to ensure a common understanding of the technique and of the specifications written using the technique. electronic commerce. 1. music.and Annex E provides pointers to analysis techniques for High-level Petri Nets. descriptions of existing systems prior to re-engineering.1 Purpose This International Standard defines a Petri net technique. including air traffic control. avionics. 6 . internet protocols and applications. nuclear power systems. providing the semantics for concurrent languages. fault-tolerant systems. banking systems. transport systems (including railway control). augmentation of High-level Petri Nets with time. security systems. Generic fields of application include: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ requirements analysis. computer hardware architectures. defines a mathematical semantic model. telecommunications and workflow. operating systems. simulation of systems to increase confidence. designs and test suites. This International Standard will also facilitate the development and interoperability of Petri net computer support tools. defence command and control. databases. 1 Scope 1. and development of Petri net support tools.

2 Arity: The input sorts and output sort for an operator.1 Glossary 3. 3. constants.7 Concurrency: The property of a system in which events may occur independently of each other. Any ambiguity in the definitions is resolved by the mathematically precise definitions in the body of this International Standard.3 Audience This International Standard is written as a reference for systems analysts.1. designers.1 Input Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from a place to the transition.1. typed variables and functions required for defining the inscriptions on a High-level Petri Net Graph.1.1.1.3 Assignment: For a set of variables.1. 3.1. when the following conditions are met: 7 . 3.8 Declaration: A set of statements which define the sets.5 Binding: See Assignment.2 Output Arc (of a transition): An arc directed from the transition to a place.1.4 Basis set: The set of objects used to create a multiset. 3.1. 3 Terms.1. 3. maintainers and procurers.3 Arc annotation: An expression that may involve constants. and hence are not ordered (see also Step and Concurrent Enabling). abbreviations and symbols apply. 3. the following definitions. developers. variables and operators used to annotate an arc of a net.1. 3.1. and for Petri net tool designers and standards developers.1 Arc: A directed edge of a net which may connect a place to a transition or a transition to a place.9 Enabling (a transition): A transition is enabled in a particular mode and net marking. the association of a value (of correct type) to each variable.1. parameter values. 3.1. 2 Normative References None. Definitions. Normally represented by an arrow. The expression must evaluate to a multiset over the type of the arc’s associated place. Abbreviations and Symbols For the purpose of this International Standard.6 Carrier: A set of a many-sorted algebra.1. 3. 3. 3. 3.1.

8 .1.4 Reachable Marking: Any marking of the net that can be reached from the initial marking by the occurrence of transitions. 3. a place or a transition).1 Initial Marking (of the net): The set of initial place markings given with the highlevel net definition. including the initial marking. 3. Pre function imposing token demands (multisets of tokens) on places for each transition mode.1.15 Multiset: A collection of items where repetition of items is allowed.1.3 Marking of a place: A multiset of tokens associated with (‘residing in’) the place. 3. 3. 3.1. 3.14 Marking (of a net): The set of the place markings for all places of the net..1. NOTE: The determination of transition modes guarantees that the Transition Condition is satisfied (see Transition Mode).2 Node (of a net): A vertex of a net graph (i.10 Concurrent Enabling (of transition modes): A multiset of transition modes is concurrently enabled if all the involved input places contain enough tokens to satisfy the sum of all of the demands imposed on them by each input arc annotation evaluated for each transition mode in the multiset. Transition Conditions. 3. and transitions to places. defined with the high-level net.1.14.1. 3.2 Initial Marking of a place: A special marking of a place. 3.15. but never transitions to transitions. called places and transitions. and their corresponding definitions in a set of Declarations.16. nor places to places.e.1.The marking of each input place of the transition satisfies the demand imposed on it by its arc annotation evaluated for the particular transition mode. such that only places can be connected to transitions. Arc Annotations.16. 3. The demand is satisfied when the place’s marking contains (at least) the multiset of tokens indicated by the evaluated arc annotation. 3.14.16 Net: A general term used to describe all classes of Petri nets.1. a set of types.1. 3.14.1. and an initial marking.1.14. non-negative integer) which describes the number of repetitions of an item in a multiset.1. and an Initial Marking of the net. 3. Post function determining output tokens (multisets of tokens) for places for each transition mode.1.. called arcs. a function associating a type to each place.15.14.11 High-level Net (High-level Petri Net): An algebraic structure comprising: a set of places.5 Reachability Set: The set of reachable markings of the net. and their interconnection by directed edges. 3.1.12 High-level Petri Net Graph: A net graph and its associated annotations comprising Place Types.e. 3.1 Multiplicity: A natural number (i.1 Net graph: A directed graph comprising a set of nodes of two different kinds. 3. a set of transitions.13 Many-sorted Algebra: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sets and a set of functions taking these sets as domains and co-domains.1.2 Multiset cardinality (cardinality of a multiset): The sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset. and a set of modes (a type) to each transition.

22.24. 3. 3. 3.3 Petri Net: An algebraic structure with two sets.20. 3. where the nodes correspond to reachable markings.1 Boolean signature: A signature where one of the sorts is ÓÓÐ. normally represented by an ellipse in the net graph. 3.23 Sort: A symbol representing the name of a set.1.1. taken from the place kind.3. 3.20.1. and the edges correspond to transition occurrences.1 Enabling Tokens: The multiset of values obtained when an input arc annotation is evaluated for a particular binding to variables.25 Token: A data item associated with a place and chosen from the place’s type.17 Operator: A symbol representing the name of a function.) 3.4 Place/Transition Net: A Petri net comprising a net graph with positive integers associated with arcs and an initial marking function which associates a natural number of simple tokens (‘black dots’) with places.16.1.20.1.1.23.1. and one of the constants is ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ corresponding to the value true in the algebra. variables and operators built from a signature and a set of sorted variables. A place is typed. 3. 3.1. 3. 3.23. and named after their inventor. 9 .23.1.24.1.1. Carl Adam Petri.1. 3. 3. (This set can describe an arbitrarily complex data structure.3 Place Type: A non-empty set of data items associated with a place.1. 3.1.1.2 Output Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an output arc. the computation of the results of the associated functions.2 Input sort: The same as an argument sort.1 Closed term: A term comprising constants and operators but no variables.4 Range sort: The same as an output sort. 3.18 Parameter: A symbol that can take a range of values defined by a set. 3.23.1 Argument sort: The sort of an argument of an operator. together with their associated relations and functions. 3. It is instantiated as a constant.1.1.1.1 Input Place (of a transition): A place connected to the transition by an input arc.2 Term evaluation: The result obtained after the binding of variables in the term. 3.19 Parameterized High-level Net Graph: A high-level net graph that contains parameters in its definition.16.1.22 Signature/Many-sorted signature: A mathematical structure comprising a set of sorts and a set of operators.1. and any simplifications performed (such as gathering like terms to obtain the symbolic sum representation of a multiset). 3.24 Term: An expression comprising constants.1.25. one called places and the other called transitions.21 Reachability Graph: A directed graph of nodes and edges. 3.3 Output sort: The sort of an output of an operator.1.20 Place: A node of a net. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. 3.

2 Transition mode: A pair comprising the transition and a mode.1.1. 4 Conventions and Notation This International Standard uses the notation for sets.1. and represented by a rectangle in the net graph. multisets and universal algebra defined in Annex A.1. which should not be confused with arithmetic addition.4 PN: Petri Net.2. 3.26. and the annotations of arcs surrounding the transition.26.27 Type: A set. On the occurrence of the transition. 3.26. Annex A also defines the concept of multiset addition. When considering a High-level Petri Net Graph.2.26.1.2. the following actions occur indivisibly: 1.26. 3.2. and 2.1 HLPN: High-level Petri Net. 3.3. normally represented by a black dot.2 Simple Token: A valueless token. and used in Place/Transition nets (as opposed to high-level nets).1.1 Mode: a value taken from the transition’s type. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition.1. it may occur in that mode. 3.5 PNG: Petri Net Graph.26.2.5 Transition Variables: All the variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. 3. These are the transition condition. 3. 3.4 Step: The simultaneous occurrence of a multiset of transition modes that are concurrently enabled in a marking. 3.1. (using the ‘·’ symbol).3 Transition occurrence (Transition rule): If a transition is enabled in a mode.2 Abbreviations 3. For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens of the evaluated output arc expression is added to the marking of the output place.2 HLPNG: High-level Petri Net Graph.25.1. 3.3 HLPNS: High-level Petri Net Schema.26 Transition: A node of a net. 3. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking. The notion of multisets is required for clauses 10 .2. taken from the transition kind. 3.1 Transition condition: A boolean expression (one that evaluates to true or false) associated with a transition. a mode may be derived from an assignment of values to the transition’s variables that satisfies the transition condition. 3.

Ì . ¯ Ì is a finite set of elements called Transitions disjoint from È (È Ì ). 5. an arc may be annotated by a variable or constant (or combination) of the same type as the arc’s place. 5 Semantic Model for High-level Petri Nets This clause provides the basic semantic model for High-level Petri Nets (HLPN). when in the marking Å . An understanding of many-sorted signatures. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type.   is a function used to assign types to places and to determine ¯ È Ö È Ó×Ø Ì Ê ÆË   ÈÄ ÈÄ are the pre and post mappings with Ì Ê ÆË ´Ø ѵ Ø ¾ Ì Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ ¯ Å ¾ ÈÄ ¼ is a multiset called the initial marking of the net.2). NOTE: ÈÄ . which may be a subset of the associated place’s type. Å ¼ . An instance of notation specific to Petri nets is when a marking of the net is transformed to a new marking. sorted variables and many-sorted algebras provided in Annex A is required for clauses 7 and 9 and Annexes B and C.1 Definition A HLPN is a structure ÀÄÈ Æ ´È Ì Ì ÝÔ È Ö È Ó×Ø Å¼ µ where ¯ È is a finite set of elements called Places. By convention. is created on the occurrence of a multiset of transition modes. Wherever possible standard mathematical notation has been used. 7. if an arc expression evaluates to an element of the place’s type. and similar notation is used in clause 7. 8 and 9. 6. È Ä 11 (see Annex A. is called a ¯ Ì ÝÔ È Ì transition modes. A similar convention applies when an arc expression evaluates to a set. This is interpreted as a multiset over the place’s type. In high-level nets. ¯ is a non-empty finite set of non-empty domains where each element of type. with corresponding multiplicities of zero and one. This is necessary as an arc annotation when evaluated must be a multiset over the associated place’s type. this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. is the set of multisets over the set.5. section A. This notation is defined in clause 5. Å Ì Å ¼ is used to denote that a new marking. The graphical notation used in clause 6 is that defined in clause 8.

or any number of concurrently enabled transition modes. is enabled at a marking Å . Ì .4 Transition Rule Given that a finite multiset of transition modes. Also if then this reduces to the definition in the previous subclause. Ì Å ¼ or Å   Å ¼ .3 Enabling of Transition Modes 5. Ì ½. Å ¾ ÈÄ .1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition mode. ØÖ ¾ Ì Ê ÆË .e. there are enough tokens on the input places to satisfy the linear combination of the pre maps for each transition mode in Ì . is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´ØÖµ Å 5.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes A finite multiset of transition modes. i. then a step may occur resulting in a new marking Å ¼ given by ż A step is denoted by Å Å   È Ö ´Ì µ · È Ó×Ø´Ì µ Ì where the linear extension of È Ó×Ø is used. is enabled at a marking Å iff È Ö ´Ì µ Å where the linear extension of È Ö is given by È Ö ´Ì µ ØÖ¾Ì Ê ÆË Ì ´ØÖµÈ Ö ´ØÖµ All transition modes in Ì are said to be concurrently enabled if Ì is enabled.5. Ì ¾ Ì Ê ÆË . NOTE: A step may comprise the occurrence of: a single transition mode. 5. This definition allows a transition mode to be concurrently enabled with itself. 12 . 5.3.3.2 Marking of HLPN A Marking of the HLPN is a multiset.

. Arc Annotations: Arcs are inscribed with expressions which may comprise constants. and function definitions.2 High-level Petri Net Graph Components A High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG) comprises: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ A Net Graph. NOTE: A collection of items which allows repetitions is known in mathematics as a multiset. Place Types.1 Introduction High-level Petri Nets can be defined in a number of ways. This clause introduces the concepts that are needed in the definition of the High-level Petri Net Graph. Clause 5 provides the definition of the basic mathematical semantic model. These are non-empty sets.6 Concepts Required for High-level Petri Net Graphs 6. The expressions are evaluated by assigning values to each of the variables. Transition Condition: A boolean expression (e. Ü ¯ ¯ Ý ) inscribing a transition.g. The graphical form is referred to as a High-level Petri Net Graph (HLPNG). as it is the graphical form of HLPNs that is most appropriate for industrial use. called places and transitions. Repetition of items is allowed. 6. Declarations: comprising definitions of place types. The basic semantic model is not what is used by practitioners. ´Üµ). It provides a graphical notation for places and transitions and their relationships. Readers interested in a tutorial exposition on High-level Petri Net Graphs are referred to Annex D. One type is associated with each place. 13 . The items associated with places are called tokens. The collection may have repetitions. This approach is taken. variables (e. When an arc’s expression is evaluated. Place Marking. The concepts of enabling and transition rule are also introduced for the graphical form to demonstrate how the net may be executed to show system dynamics. A collection of elements (data items) chosen from the place’s type and associated with the place. The variables are typed.. it must result in a collection of items taken from the type of the arc’s place.g. and arcs connecting places to transitions. consisting of sets of nodes of two different kinds. typing of variables. and determines the inscriptions of the graphical elements..g. and transitions to places. High-level Petri Nets are normally represented using a graphical form which allows visualisation of system dynamics (flows of data and control). Ü Ý ) and function images (e.

then the transition is enabled in that mode.2 Transition Rule for a Single Transition Mode Enabled transitions can occur.4. 6. A transition mode is an assignment of values to the transition’s variables. An example is given in subclause 6. if for the associated transitions. This can illustrate flow of control and flow of data within the same model. A net marking comprises the set of all place markings of the net. the transition condition is true). Two transition modes are concurrently enabled for a particular marking. An input place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc leading from that place to the transition. A transition is also enabled in a particular transition mode. If a transition is enabled in a mode. resulting in a multiset of tokens of the same type as that of the input place. the following actions occur atomically: 1. Key concepts governing this execution are enabling of transitions and the occurrence of transitions defined by the Transition Rule. it may occur in that mode.3. The input arc’s multiset of tokens resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in a specific mode is called the input arc’s enabling tokens.3 Net Execution HLPNGs are executable. that satisfies the transition condition (i. An arc that leads from an input place to a transition is called an input arc of the transition. The transition’s variables are all those variables that occur in the expressions associated with the transition. An output place of a transition is a place which is connected to the transition by an arc directed from the transition to the place. On the occurrence of the transition in a specific mode. If each input place’s marking contains at least its input arc’s multiset of tokens (resulting from the evaluation of the input arc’s expression in the specific mode). with respect to that mode. and the annotations of arcs involving the transition. and tokens are added to its output places.6. and 14 . An arc that leads from a transition to a place (an output place of the transition) is called an output arc of the transition. tokens are removed from its input places. These are the transition condition. 6. Each input arc expression is evaluated for the transition mode. A transition is enabled in a specific mode. for a particular net marking.e. allowing the flow of tokens around the net to be visualised. For each input place of the transition: the enabling tokens of the input arc with respect to that mode are subtracted from the input place’s marking.. When a transition occurs. each input place’s marking contains at least the sum of the enabling tokens (with respect to both modes) of each input arc associated with that input place.1 Enabling A transition is enabled with respect to a net marking. Enabling a transition involves the marking of its input places.3.

By convention.4. and is empty representing the empty multiset. that is in one atomic action. and variable y is of type . Arc (p1. as described above.3. that are different subsets of the positive integers.7 x: A.5. The change to the marking of the net when a step occurs is given by the sum of all the changes that occur for each transition mode. for x bound to ½. named p1 and p2. ż (p2) . this is interpreted as the corresponding singleton multiset over the place’s type. An example is given in subclause 6.3 Step of Concurrently Enabled Transition Modes Several concurrently enabled transition modes may occur in one step. the value associated with 15 . For each output place of the transition: the multiset of tokens. This example comprises two places.3. Place p2 is typed by . resulting from the evaluation of the output arc expression for the mode. while arc (t1.1. The declarations define two types.4 Graphical Concepts and Notation The graphical representation of the net graph is introduced by the simple example of a HLPNG given in figure 1.4. The places are represented by ellipses (in this case.4 B = 3. and the arcs by arrows. 2. Place p1 is typed by and has an initial marking Å ¼ (p1) ½ ½ · ¾ ¿.2. is added to the marking of the output place.A B x x<y t1 y p2 ½ ½·¾ ¿ p1 A = 1. one transition. The evaluation of the arc expression is thus an element of the place’s type. Variable x is of type . This states that associated with the place p1 are the value ½ and two instances of the value ¿. and . The transition is inscribed with the boolean expression x y. and arcs from p1 to t1. y: B ¢ ÓÓÐ Ò arithmetic ‘less than’ Figure 1: HLPNG with a Transition Condition. circles). a square).t1) is annotated with the variable x. the transition by a rectangle (in this example. using the sum representation of multisets of clause A.2. is that arcs may be annotated by variables or constants of the same type as the arc’s place. A convention adopted in high-level nets. and y bound to ¿. where the less than operator is defined in the declarations. 6. t1. and t1 to p2. For example. NOTE: A place may be both an input place and an output place of the same transition.p2) is annotated with y. 6.

then all L tokens are removed preventing further access until the resource is released (transition Leave). if the multiset of modes marking would be ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ occurred concurrently. a binding for y which satisfies x y. Access can be in one of two modes: shared (s). the marking of Control is given by L¯. Another example of the concurrent enabling of modes is the multiset ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ and yet another is ½ ´½ µ · ½ ´¿ µ · ½ ´¿ µ.g. µ. A HLPNG model of figure 2 illustrates the use of two parameters. the annotation on the arc (p1. In this example.. Place Wait is marked with all agents. which is interpreted to be a multiset over . No assumptions are made regarding scheduling. L and N. and m e ¼. writing). more formally. and similarly the value associated with arc (t1. reading).) An agent can obtain access in one of two modes: if shared (m=s). which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ¿. interpreted as ½ ¯) when Enter occurs in a single mode.t1) is ½. which is interpreted to mean the multiset ½ ½.arc (p1. where only one agent may have access (e. and Parameters The HLPNG of figure 2 uses a variant of the readers/writers problem to illustrate many of the features of a HLPNG including the use of parameters and conditionals in arc expressions. It has been assumed that the initial state is when all the agents are waiting to gain access to the shared resource (with no queueing discipline assumed). then a single token is removed from Control (as m=e is false. For example. where each of the multiplicities of the agents is one. Each instantiation of N and L would produce a HLPNG. In a similar convention. the Control place contains L simple tokens (represented by a black dot ¯) and Access is empty. It can be seen that the multiset of modes. where up to L agents may have access at the same time (e. then the resultant marking would be: Alternatively. 6. This is therefore a parameterized HLPNG. and exclusive (e). which represents infinitely many readers/writers systems. ½ ´½ ¿µ · ¾ ´¿ µ. if exclusive (m=e). the resultant Å (p1) Å (p2) ½ ¿ · ¾ . (That is the separator ‘ ’ is dropped where there is no ambiguity.. the multiset conversion operator ‘ ’ should be used.5 Conditionals in Arc Expressions.g. If transition t1 occurred in mode ½ ´¿ Å (p1) ½ ½ · ½ ¿ Å (p2) ½ . rather than x.p2) is ¿. and the second. Shared 16 . both of which are positive integers. Where there is any possibility of ambiguity. t1 can be enabled in the following modes ´½ ¿µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´½ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ ´¿ µ where the first element of each pair represents a binding for x. which is interpreted as the multiset L ¯. A number (N) of agents (processes) wish to access a shared resource (such as a file).t1) would be ½ x. is concurrently enabled. In the initial marking. the initial markings are given in the declaration. which could then be executed. The marking of place Wait is given by the set . and thus the arc expression evaluates to ¯.

m) A¢M ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ C Control Access x (x.m) ¯· m e ´L ½µ¯ Leave Set of Agents:A = a½ aÆ Set of Access Modes: M = s.e Control: C = ¯ Positive integer constants: N. 17 .Enter x A Wait (x. L Variables x: A. m: M Function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ where ØÖÙ ½ and Ð× ¼ ż ´Waitµ A ż ´Controlµ L¯ ż ´Accessµ Figure 2: HLPNG of Resource Management.

and – Ì a finite set of nodes. . Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. for all bindings « ΠЫ ´ ´Ô صµ ΠЫ ´ ´Ø¼ Ôµµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. with È a finite set of nodes. This is the notation for conditionals in arc expressions. integer subtraction. ). It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. The concepts of marking. defined in Annex A. called Places. enabling and transition rule are also formally defined for the graphical form. the equality predicate and a tupling operator are primitive and do not need to be defined in the declaration. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë À Ì ÝÔ Æ – ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. It is assumed that multiset addition. called Transitions. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. known as the flow – relation. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ « and ΠЫ are 18 . defined in Annex A.2 Definition A HLPNG is a structure ÀÄÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is called a net graph. is a function that annotates each arc with a term that when evaluated (for any binding) results in a multiset over the associated place’s type. Outfix notation has been used for the function ÓÓÐ ¼ ½ .1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for the graphical form of high-level nets. 7 Definition of High-level Petri Net Graphs 7. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ is a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë È ËÀ is a function which assigns types to places.access is limited to a maximum of L agents as transition Enter is disabled when Control is empty. 7. disjoint from Ç.

and others will need a multiset addition operator (and its counterpart in the algebra).3 Marking A marking. Many applications will require the definition of an operator which will convert (in the algebra) an element of a set to a singleton multiset. Also. Ü× . the terms for arc annotations are of the same sort as that associated with the arc’s place. Arcs are annotated by terms. is removed.– Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ Ô¾È expressions. and may be related. or a powerset. The annotations are derived from a many sorted signature. NOTE 3: The carriers (sets) of the algebra may be arbitrarily complex. a variable. ż ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. where is the basis set. The schemas are also useful for analysis (see bibliography). a type has been intentionally associated with each place. a sort (rather than a type) is associated with each place. This leads us to the notion of a HLPN schema which is included in informative Annex C and may be considered for future standardisation. Å È Ë Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that for all Ô ¾ È . There is also a need for a more abstract or syntactic form that allows classes of systems to be specified. known as its type. À× . by defining the appropriate signature (operators and sorts) and sorted variables. this allows there to be multiterms and conditionals in arc expressions. NOTE 2: The evaluation of an arc term may result in an empty multiset. Transitions are annotated by Boolean terms. a set of sorted variables. À×¾ À×½ . For example. allows terms which evaluate to multisets over subtypes of the place’s type to be used in the annotations. 7. defined in the algebra (e. NOTE 1: Arbitrarily complex terms can be generated for the arc inscriptions. A place can only hold tokens of the same type as the place and hence the initial marking is a multiset over the place’s type. and the many-sorted algebra. Å . of the HLPNG is defined in the same way as the initial marking.. A typing function associates a set of the many-sorted algebra with each place. NOTE 5: In defining HLPNGs. which must evaluate to a multiset over the associated place’s type.g. The approach provides a great deal of flexibility in defining the syntax required for arc inscriptions. This allows us to specify concrete systems where the sets and functions have already been determined. 19 . i. This type is a carrier (set) of the many-sorted algebra.e. NOTE 4: The restriction on the arc annotations (evaluating to a multiset over the place’s type). the places become Ë -sorted. Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ such that Ô ¾ È . À . is the initial marking A HLPNG comprises an annotated net graph. markings become (appropriately sorted) ground terms of the signature. In this case. so that Ü ). À . may be typed by a set of multisets. for example. ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Å È ¼ Ë function which associates a multiset of tokens (of the correct type) which each place. Å ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. Terms are built from the signature and variables.. and an associated many sorted algebra.

according to the following rule: Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 20 . Å . known as a mode of Ø. Å .4. the marking of the net is transformed to a new marking Å ¼ . for a particular assignment.1 Enabling of a Single Transition Mode A transition Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in a marking. ¯ Ù Ú ´Ù Úµ. Î Ð ÓÓÐ ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ . Ø may occur in mode «Ø .4. Define the set of all transition modes to be ÌÅ A step ´Ø «Øµ Ø ¾ Ì «Ø ¾ ×× ÒØ and a step to be a finite non-empty multiset over Ì Å .4 Enabling 7. then the sum is reduced to a single term so that the enabling condition is the same as that of the previous subclause.2 Concurrent Enabling of Transition Modes Let «Ø be an assignment for the variables of transition Ø ¾ Ì which satisfies its transition condition and denote the set of all assignments (which satisfy its transition condition) for transition Ø. by ×× ÒØ . for marking Å . denoted Å Ø «Ø Å ¼ . iff Ô¾È where for ´Ù Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Ú µ ¾ ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ. if is enabled.5 Transition Rule If Ø ¾ Ì is enabled in mode «Ø . that satisfies the transition condition. iff Ô¾È ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص Å ´Ôµ Thus all of the transition modes in are concurrently enabled. If comprises a single transition mode. When Ø occurs in mode «Ø . to its variables. for ´Ù Úµ ¾ ¯ Ù Ú ¨. 7.7. . of transition modes is enabled in a marking. so that . 7. « Ø . for ´Ù Úµ ¾ where ΠЫ ´¨µ ¨ is a symbol that represents the empty multiset at the level of the signature.

variables. The width. the name of the type (Ì ÝÔ the initial marking. then the step can occur resulting in a new marking. then it may be omitted. There needs to be a visual association between an inscription and the net element to which it belongs.1 General The graphical form comprises two parts: a Graph which represents the net elements graphically and carries textual inscriptions. it may be omitted. 8. and the type and initial marking outside. and A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct place. Three annotations are associated with a place Ô: ­ ¯ ¯ ¯ the place name. and a Declaration. defining all the types. The position of the annotations with respect to places is not mandated. the initial marking could be shown inside the ellipse. 21 . and its name and type outside. the Transition Condition. For example. If the Transition Condition is true (Ì ´Øµ ØÖÙ ). The declaration may also include the initial marking and the typing function if these cannot be inscribed on the graph part due to lack of space. where Å ¼ is given by denoted Å Ô¾È Å ¼ ´Ôµ Å ´Ôµ   ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ô ص · ´ Ø «Ø µ¾ Î Ð«Ø ´Ø Ôµ 8 Notation for High-level Petri Net Graphs 8. colour and patterns of the lines used to draw the graph are not mandated by this standard. Å ¼ . If the initial marking is empty. 8.If a step is enabled in marking Å . For example. constants and functions that are used to annotate the Graph part. or the name of the place could be included inside the ellipse. ´Ôµ) associated with the place. ż ´Ôµ.3 Transitions A transition is represented by a rectangle and is annotated by a name and a boolean expression. Å ¼ .2 Places Places are represented by ellipses (often circles).

where both the types of the variables.4 Arcs For ´Ô ص ¾ . An arc is represented by an arrow:   8. 8. x y. an arrow is drawn from place Ô to transition Ø and vice versa for ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . then this may be shown by a single arc with an arrowhead at both ends and annotated by a single inscription. For example. Arcs are annotated with terms. The notation for terms is not mandated by this International Standard. Transitions: Ì is the set of transitions in the HLPN. Set of Types: The set of modes for a transition is determined by the types of the variables occurring in the surrounding arc annotations restricted by its transition condition. The position of the annotations with respect to transitions is not mandated.1). A mechanism must be provided to remove any ambiguity regarding the association of these annotations with the correct transition. of domains is given by 22 . If ´Ô ص and ´Ø Ôµ have the same annotations (Ô is a side place of Ø). A Marking of the net may be shown graphically by annotating a place with its multiset of tokens Å ´Ôµ using the symbolic sum representation (see clause A. 3. x and y. Let ÎØ Î be the set of variables associated with transition Ø. Ë 9 Semantics of High-level Petri Net Graphs The HLPNG may be given an interpretation as a HLPN (see clause 5) in the following way.5 Markings and Tokens A token is a member of Ô¾È Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ. and a transition condition. 1. 2. the transition condition could be shown inside the rectangle (as in the example).2. . but usual mathematical conventions should be adopted where possible. ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ. and the operator less than. then Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ «Ø Î Ð ÓÓÐ «Ø ´Ì ´Øµµ ØÖÙ The types of places are obtained directly from the HLPN graph definition. Places: È is the set of places in the HLPN. are defined in the declarations.x y t1 represents a transition with a name t1. Define « Ø as an assignment for À and ÎØ (cf A. Thus the set Ì ÝÔ ´Üµ Ü ¾ È Ì .6). or the name of the transition could be included inside the rectangle. and its name outside.3. and the transition condition outside.

1 Level 1 To claim PN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5. 5. È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ . ¾ and Ñ ¾ Î Ð«Ø Ñ´ ´Ô صµ and È Ó×Ø Ô Ø ´Ñµ Î Ð«Ø Ñ ´ ´Ø Ôµµ ´ µ For all Ô ¾ È . If the semantics are adhered to. Each place is typed by and È . This has the following consequences.1 PN Conformance 10. The definition of the semantic model (clause 5). The initial marking determines the number of black dots allocated to each place initially. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. The pre and post maps are given. The lowest level is for the Place/Transition net class and the highest at the level of the HLPNG. Thus for all Ø ¾ Ì and for all Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ È Ö ´Ø ѵ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ È Ó×Ø´Ø Ñµ ´Ô µ Ô ¾ È ¾ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ ´Ñµ where È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ 6. 10. the lowest conformance level is to the semantics. ¯ (i. there is only one token represented by a black dot). ÆË and Ì . 10 Conformance Conformance to this International Standard is according to net class. will be specialised by the restriction that consists of one set with one element. Initial Marking. by the following family of È Ö ´Ô ص Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ È Ó×Ø´Ô Øµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ   Ì ÝÔ ´Ôµ For ´Ô ص ¾ and Ñ ¾ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. Within a class.e. then the next level is with respect to syntax. È Ö ´Ô ص ´Ñµ and for ´Ø Ôµ Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ There is a one to one mapping between È Ä There is a one to one mapping between Ì Ê Each transition has a single mode. Pre and Post Maps. ż ´Ôµ is as defined in the HLPNG. 23 ..1.4. for all mappings: ´Ô ص ´Ø Ôµ ¾ . The Typing Function: The typing function restricted to places is defined in the HLPNG and Ì ÝÔ ´Øµ is given above. such as ¯ .

e. there is no need for place typing.2.1 Level 1 To claim HLPN Level 1 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall demonstrate that it has the semantics defined in clause 5.2.1. 10.2 HLPN Conformance 10. by providing a mapping from the implementation’s syntax to the semantic model in a similar way to that defined in clause 9. 24 . section B.2 Level 2 To claim PN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of PN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the PNG defined in Annex B. nor a declaration.10.2 Level 2 To claim HLPN Level 2 conformance to this International Standard an implementation shall have satisfied the requirements of HLPN Level 1 conformance and in addition shall include the syntax of the HLPNG defined in clause 7 and the notational conventions of clause 8.1 and the relevant notational conventions of clause 8. i.. as these are trivial. 10.

´µ ¾ A.1 Sum Representation A multiset may be represented as a symbolic sum of basis elements scaled by their multiplicities (sometimes known as co-efficients).   Æ which associates a multiplicity. if ´µ ¼.2.1 Sets Æ Æ· ¼½ the natural numbers. then ¾ ¾ is a member of .2 Membership Given a multiset. Æ Ò ¼ . the positive integers. (also known as a bag) over a non-empty basis set. ¼.2 the integers. A. The multiplicity of ¾ in . see the book by Truss in the Bibliography. is a function A multiset.Annex A (normative) Mathematical Conventions This annex defines the mathematical conventions required for the definition of High-level Petri Nets. A. and 25 . A set is a special case of a multiset. possibly zero.  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò A. The set of multisets over is denoted by . ØÖÙ Ð× Multisets . where the multiplicity of each of the basis elements is either zero or one. denoted ¾ . is given by ´ µ. with each of the basis elements. NOTE: For notions of basic set theory including sets. . conversely if ´ µ ¾ . . functions and relations.2.

are equal. ½´ µ ¾´ µ.1 Signatures A many-sorted (or S-sorted) signature. In the HLPNG.2.5 Multiset Equality and Comparison . ½ ¾¾ ¾´ µµ . is the ¾ . Signatures provide a convenient way to characterise many-sorted algebras at a syntactic level. variables. Ò ½ « ¾ ½¾ ´ µ Ò ¢ ½´ µ . to the left and are defined as follows: ½ · ¾ iff ¾ ´ µ ½´ µ · ¾´ µ ¾ ( ½´ µ ¾´ µµ ´ ´ µ ½´ µ   ½   ¾ iff Scalar multiplication of a multiset. ½ ¾ ¾ ½ is less than or equal to (or contained in) A. . Ë . A. terms and many-sorted algebras that are required for the definition of the HLPNG. ½´ µ ¾´ µ. ½ Two multisets.3. A. iff ¾ .3 Empty Multiset The empty multiset. the multiset is called a finite multiset. concepts from algebraic specification are required. ¾. is a pair: Ë where ´Ë ǵ 26 . ½ ¾. This clause introduces the concepts of signatures. has no members: A. by a natural number. ´ µ ¼. ´µ ¾ When is finite.2.3 Concepts from Algebraic Specification In order to define the HLPNG.4 Cardinality and Finite Multiset Multiset cardinality is defined in the following way.2. ¾. arcs are annotated by terms and transitions by Boolean expressions. The cardinality sum of the multiplicities of each of the members of the multiset.A. associate where ¢ is arithmetic multiplication. is defined as A.6 Multiset Operations The addition operation and subtraction partial operation on multisets. iff ¾ . Ò ¾ Æ .2. of a multiset . Many-sorted signatures provide an appropriate mathematical framework for this representation.

3. Thus every operator in Ç is indexed by a pair ´ ×µ. the sort of a constant may be .3. is an operator. then an integer variable would be Ú´ ÁÒص or ÚÁÒØ . ÁÒØ for the integers).4 Terms built from a Signature and Variables ´Ë ǵ and an S-sorted set of variables.3. ¾ Ë £ is called the input or argument sorts. if ½ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×½ 3. clause A. A. and .g.5. For × ¾ Ë 1. Î may be partitioned according to sorts.2 Variables Let Î be a set of sorted variables. over Ë . The sort of a variable may also be declared in the same way as that of constants. where Î× denotes the set of variables of sort × (i. and ¯ Ç is a set of operators (the names of functions) together with their arity in Ë which specifies the names of the domain and co-domain of each of the operators. if ÁÒØ ¾ Ë . then Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ´ ½ 27 Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× . for ×½ Ò ¾ sorted terms and Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç .3 Boolean Signatures The term Boolean Signature is used to mean a many-sorted signature where one of the sorts is Bool. for all Ó´ ×µ 2. such as equality ( ) or less than ( ). including the empty string. corresponding to the carrier Boolean in any associated algebra. It is assumed that Ë and Ç are disjoint. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò are Ò µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Î× ×Ò ¾ Ë (Ò ¼).f.¯ Ë is a set of sorts (the names of sets. For example an integer constant is denoted by Ó ´ ÁÒص or simply ÓÁÒØ . e.. called an Ë -sorted set of variables. the sequence of input sorts will define a cartesian product as the domain of the function corresponding to the operator and the output sort will define its co-domain – c. declared by letting A. (In the algebra. For example. . ¾ Ç. Using a standard convention. Ú ¾ Î× iff ×). Terms of sort × ¾ Ë may be built from a signature Ë Î .) For example.e. Arity is a function from the set of operator names to Ë £ ¢ Ë .3. then Ó´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе represents a binary predicate symbol. Ó ´ ×µ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×. if Ë ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ . where Ë £ is the set of finite sequences. A.. and generate them inductively as follows. Denote the set of terms of sort × by Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ × . from the set of variable names to ¢ Ë. and × the output or range sort of operator Ó. A variable in Î of sort × ¾ Ë would be denoted by Ú ´ ×µ or more simply by Ú× . in the following way. A Boolean signature will also include the constant ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ . ¾ Ë £ and × ¾ Ë denoted by Ó´ ×µ.

6 Assignment and Evaluation Given an Ë -sorted algebra. with for all × ¾ Ë À× and £ ÇÀ ÓÀ Ó´ ×µ ¾ Ç ¾ Ë Ò × ¾ Ë the set of corresponding functions. À and Ë -sorted variables in Î . is a pair ¾ À×. and operators (with appropriate arguments) of output sort ÁÒØ are terms of sort ÁÒØ. × ¾ Ë . 28 . À . À× . Definition: A many-sorted Algebra.Let Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ denote the set of all terms and Ì ÊÅ ´Ç µ the set of all closed terms (those not containing variables. Ë -sorted variables are typed by the carrier corresponding to the sort.3. and Ð A. ´Æ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ where Æ is the set of non-negative integers: ¼ ½ À and Î is a «× Î× 1 À× The terms binding and valuation are also used in this context. which may À where ËÀ ´ËÀ ÇÀ µ À× × ¾ Ë is the set of carriers. provides an interpretation (meaning) for the signature Ë . if Ë ´ ÁÒØ ÓÓÐ ´ÁÒØ ÁÒØ ÓÓе µ then a corresponding many-sorted algebra would be where and Ð is the set of integers: À½ ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ ××Ø Ò ¢ Ð× ´ ÓÓÐ Ò Ð ××Ø Òµ  ½ ¼ ½ ÓÓÐ Ò is the usual integer comparison function. À¾ It could also be ÓÓÐ Ò ØÖÙ Ð× ××Ø Ò Æ ¢ Æ ÓÓÐ Ò.5 Many-sorted Algebras ×¾Ë Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× A many-sorted algebra. Ó× . Thus Thus if ÁÒØ is a sort. integer constants and variables. À . comprising an assignment function for each sort × ¾ Ë . then there is a corresponding element ÓÀ be considered as a function of arity zero. For every sort. there is a corresponding function ÓÀ À×½ ¢ ¢ À×Ò À× In case an operator is a constant. NOTE: In the algebra. there is a corresponding set. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ A. For example. an assignment 1 for family of functions «. also called ground terms). (or Ë -Algebra).3. known as a carrier and for every operator Ó´×½ ×Ò ×µ ¾ Ç.

×× ×Ò . and For ¾ Ë £ Ò . if Ò µ. Ó× 2. then Î Ð× « ´ µ ÓÀ ´Î Ð× « ´ µ Î Ð×Ò « ´ Ò µµ ¾ À×. ¾ Ç. For a variable. Î Ð× « Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× À× The values are determined inductively as follows. ½ ¾ ½ ½ ½ ´ µ ½ ½ ½ 29 . Î Ð× «´Ó×µ ÓÀ ¾ À×. For a constant. ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ.This function may be extended to terms by defining the family of functions Î for each sort × ¾ Ë : Ð « comprising. Î Ð× « ´Ú× µ «× ´Ú× µ. 3. For × ¾ Ë 1. Ú× ¾ Î× . and ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ× Ó ×´ Ò ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ×Ò . with × ×Ò ¾ Ë .

1 Place/Transition nets A Place/Transition net graph (without capacity). Other subclasses may include Elementary Net systems and other high-level nets. is a special HLPNG ÈÆ where ´Æ Ë Î À Ì ÝÔ Æ Å¼ µ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Æ Ë Î ´È Ì µ is a net graph ´Ë ǵ with Ë ÓØ ÓÓÐ Æ Ø .Annex B (normative) Net Classes The purpose of this Annex is to define various classes of nets as a subclass of the HLPNG.). PNG. Ç ¯ ÓØ ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ ½Æ Ø ¾Æ Ø À ´ ÓØ ÓÓÐ Ò Æ ¯ ØÖÙ ½ ¾ µ a many-sorted algebra for the signature Ë . ÈÆ where ´Æ Ï Å µ ¼ ¯Æ ´È Ì µ is a net graph. ´ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ µÀ ØÖÙ . Æ ØÀ Æ . (By convention this is omitted from the graphical representation. 30 . – where ½Æ Ø ¯ ÓØ ¾Æ د ÓØ – Ì constant ØÖÙ . Although this is a rather baroque definition of Place/Transition nets. ¯ Æ ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. ´¯ ÓØ µÀ ¯. B. ´½Æ Ø µÀ ½ etc. ÓÓÐÀ ÓÓÐ Ò. where ÓØ ¯ and the obvious correspondences are made ( ÓØÀ ÓØ. ¯ Ì ÝÔ È ÓØ is a function which assigns the type ÓØ to all places.) Ì ØÖÙ ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates every transition with the Boolean ¯Å È ¼ ÓØ. it can be seen to be in one to one correspondence with a more usual definition given below. Currently it defines Place/Transition nets (without capacities) which is a common form of Petri nets where tokens are simply ‘black dots’.

· ¼ This is because: ¯ ¯ ¯ the transition condition is true for each transition. These are represented by dots (¯). and given by a single value ¯.¯Ï Æ is the weight function. are in one to one correspondence with the positive integers. and hence doesn’t need to be considered. and the number of dots (¯) associated with each arc (Weight function). and hence there is no need for typing places. 31 . the number of dots (¯) associated with each place (marking) are in one to one correspondence with the Naturals. ¯ Å È Æ is the initial marking assigning a natural number of tokens to each place. assigning a positive integer to each arc. the type of each place is the same.

– ´ Ì µ is a pair of net annotations. 32 . ÓÓÐ is a function that annotates transitions with Boolean ¯Ñ È Ì ÊÅ ´Çµ such that Ô ¾ È . ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µËÓÖØ Ô . It provides an abstract mathematical syntax for inscribing the graphical elements. Ѽ ´Ôµ ¾ Ì ÊÅ ´ÇµËÓÖØ´Ôµ .1 Introduction This clause provides a formal definition for a high-level net schema. disjoint from È (È Ì ´È ¢ Ì µ ´Ì ¢ È µ a set of directed edges called arcs. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ such that for all ´Ô ص ´Ø¼ Ôµ ¾ . with È a finite set of nodes. called Places. and allows classes of systems to be specified an an abstract level. ËÓÖØ È Ò – annotates each arc with a term of the same sort as that of the associated place.2 Definition HLPNS is a structure given by ÀÄÈÆË ´Æ Ë Î ËÓÖØ Ò Ñ µ ¼ where ¯Æ – ´È Ì µ is a net graph. Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ is defined in Annex A. is the initial ¼ marking function which associates a ground term which each place. disjoint from Ç. Î is an Ë -indexed set of variables. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ë ´Ë ǵ is a Boolean signature defined in Annex A. ). C. called Transitions. known as the flow – relation. is a function that ´ µ Ì Ì Ì ÊÅ ´Ç Î µ terms. and – Ì a finite set of nodes.Annex C (informative) High-level Petri Net Schema C. Ë is a function which assigns sorts to places. The ground term has the same sort as the place.

several instances of the same object can be contained in a collection. which is graphically represented by a circle or an ellipse. which is graphically represented by a rectangle. the tokens) of a place is called the marking of the place. A collection is modelled by a place. The graphical representations of components of a net graph are shown in figure D. the collection of coins in someone’s purse.. Each arc connects a place and a transition in one direction.1. show which places a transition operates on.1 Introduction High level Petri net graphs (HLPNGs) are used to model discrete event systems. The contents (i. Take.2.1: Graphic conventions. D. for example. Arrows.1 Places and Tokens The objects of the system are modelled by (arbitrarily complex) data items called tokens. Tokens reside in places. The 33 . irrespective of varying contents.Annex D (informative) Tutorial D.create objects in other collections. It is assumed that the collections considered have some permanent identity.2 Net Graphs In HLPNGs. or a data base. place arc transition Figure D.modify or consume objects from some collections and . Places and transitions are called the nodes of a net graph. an action is modelled by a transition. Generally. D.e. Arcs never connect a place with a place nor a transition with a transition. called arcs. The created objects may be related to objects that are consumed. A discrete event system comprises ¯ ¯ collections of real or abstract objects and discrete actions which .

several instances of the same token can reside in the place.tokens form a collection (known in mathematics as a multiset). 34 . even though it has neither places nor arcs. For example. 50c Figure D. because other markings will usually evolve. in some currencies there may be both a 5c and a 25c coin. AlicesPurse.3: Example B. the initial marking may be declared textually instead of pictorially. The number of each of the coins in the purse. The place. D.2: Example A. three 10 cent and two 50 cent coins. The set of coins is defined in a textual part of the HLPNG called the Declarations. If there was no separator. called the initial marking. 50c 10c 1c 10c 50c 1c 10c Coins AlicesPurse Coins = 1c. ż (AlicesPurse) = 2 1c + 3 10c + 2 50c and the net graph is then drawn (admittedly in a less illustrative way) without tokens. Drip Figure D.2. each place is defined with a special marking. the notation 25c would be ambiguous. to avoid any confusion (for example when the values are themselves integers). 10c. the tokens correspond to coins. 2c. We need to distinguish between two 5c coins and a 25c coin.2 Transitions Example B in figure D. Example B is also a net. which models that Alice’s purse contains two 1 cent. A marking of a net consists of the markings of each place.e. once a net is executed. As no actions are modelled. nothing ever happens and nothing ever changes in this system. When a particular instance of a HLPNG is defined. AlicesPurse.. In this example. is typed by the set.3 models the dripping of a tap. i. Transition Drip can always happen. As a place can be marked with a large number of tokens. Thus. 5c. It has neither transitions nor arcs. Alice’s present coin collection can be written as the initial marking. Coins. This means that only coins (belonging to Coins) can reside in Alice’s purse.2 consists of a single place. Example A is a net graph. any number of times. Example A in figure D. 20c. is separated from the value of the coin by a backprime ( ).

20c. i. Informally. Coins AlicesPurse x Spend Coins 1c. called AlicesPurse. It only shows what happens to Bob’s purse as a consequence of an arbitrary number of occurrences of Receive. An arc in the opposite direction indicates that this transition produces tokens on the place.4 The Net Graph The size and position of the nodes. Alice could spend: a ten cent coin.e. the net graph. Spend) Traditionally. Alice has a smaller coin collection comprising one ten cent and two fifty cent coins.3 Arcs An arc from a place to a transition indicates that this transition consumes objects from the place.5 models that Bob starts with an empty purse and collects 10 cent coins. D. T denotes the set of transitions.D. D. 5c.2. a fifty cent coin. a ten cent and a fifty cent coin. the net has one place. Example C. Here. one transition.3 Transition Conditions Example D in figure D. transitions. 10c. Spend. and F denotes the set of arcs. 2c. S denotes the set of places. the places. the annotation x indicates that any coin (from Alice’s purse) can be spent. it has to be declared in the textual part of Example C that x denotes a variable for coins. Formally this can be expressed as: P T F AlicesPurse Spend (AlicesPurse. Each arc is thus described as the pair consisting of its origin node and its target node. She may spend any number of coins at a time. Flussrelation. although often important for readability. that is by the occurrence of transition spend. are irrelevant to the mathematical description of a net. two fifty cent coins. and arcs of the net. These letters are the initials of the German words Stelle. and all her coins in one transaction. Example D does not model where the coins may come from. Transition. Arc annotations determine the kinds and numbers of tokens that are produced or consumed. and one arc from AlicesPurse to Spend.4.. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c Figure D. one might say. as well as the size and shape of the arcs.4: Example C.2. In figure D. However. 35 . but in this International Standard we use P (since it is written in English).

Coins BobsPurse 10c Receive Coins 1c. 5c.6. 2c. can occur only with such variable values as fulfill the condition.e. Bob cannot put arbitrarily many coins into his purse. N n+1 n n<200 Receive 10c Coins NumberOfCoins BobsPurse N set of natural numbers Coins 1c. In the next example. 10c) tokens in AlicesPurse.5: Example D. 5c. A transition condition has been added.7: Example F. Coins x AlicesPurse x=10c Donate 10c Coins BobsPurse Coins 1c. 36 . 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. 10c. Bob. 5c. accepts only 10c coins from Alice.. 10c. then Donate cannot occur. 50c x : Coins ż (AlicesPurse) ½ 10c·¾ 50c ż (BobsPurse) Figure D. In a more realistic variant of Example D.6: Example E. The transition. 2c. Example F in figure D. Donate. 50c n :N N¢N ÓÓÐ usual ‘less than’ predicate · N¢N N arithmetic addition ż (BobsPurse) ż (NumberOfCoins) ½ ¼ Figure D.7 limits the number of 10 cent coins that Bob can receive to 200. 2c. requiring that x 10c. If there are no appropriate (i. however. depicted in figure D. 10c. Alice is ready to give Bob any of her coins.

8. In her first action. (x. are depicted in the reachability graph in figure D.½ (Spend. Markings reachable from reachable markings are also called reachable. Spend occurs.½ ½¼c·¾ ¼c) (Spend. the following facts about the dynamics of Example C: ¯ If Alice spends first 10 cents and then 50 cents. and to which value each of the variables.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. As long as Alice’s purse contains coins. i.4 Net Dynamics Example C can be used to illustrate the modelling of system dynamics in HLPNs. Then in the net. Spend can occur with x bound to any one of the tokens in the marking of AlicesPurse. The new marking is called a reachable marking of Example C. This occurrence of Spend is denoted by (Spend.{(x.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. she can spend any of them.½ ½¼c) ¼c) (Spend.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. In the net. ¯ ¯ the markings reachable in Example C. ) (Spend. (AlicesPurse.8: Reachability graph of Example C.{(x. for example..½ ½¼c·½ (Spend. In this case only x appears.{(x.10c)}) ¼c) (Spend.10c) ) a new marking of the net is created: Ž (AlicesPurse) ¾ 50c.{(x. and is bound to 10c.{(x. then she will have 50 cents left.10c)}) Figure D.{(x. (x. Let her spend a 10 cent coin.10c)}) (AlicesPurse. This indicates which transition occurs (Spend). From this diagram. as long as AlicesPurse is marked with a non-empty multiset of tokens. with x having the value 10c.{(x.¾ ¼c) (Spend. Alice can spend any number of her coins. By the occurrence (Spend. The dynamics of Example C.10c) ). is bound. or if she does it in the reverse order.50c)}) (AlicesPurse. 37 .D. appearing in the arc annotations around the transition. A different marking would be reached by Alice spending a fifty cent coin. as well as the transition occurrences performed to reach each one. one can read.e.

10.. No sequence of actions (save. trivially.. This procedure is modelled in figure D. MAX.g. In order to avoid being forced either to leave crates in the street or to rent another store room. B Co has a room where the crates are stored. D. the empty sequence) will allow Alice to restore the contents of her purse.¯ ¯ ¯ Alice can perform at most three actions. A Co packs and sends big crates of equal size to B Co. Generally there are sets of place markings and sets of variable bindings to be described. are written around the pair parentheses (. Every sequence of 3 actions ends with an empty purse. ) (BobsPurse. ) does not mean that Bob receives no coins. ) (BobsPurse. It just happens that in our very simple example these are one-element sets and the (. or opened and the contents consumed – it does not matter here). set braces . (BobsPurse. Figure D. ) (Receive. only within the range of actions considered in Example C. but that no variable is assigned a value. one by one. say..¾ ½¼c) (Receive. A Co and B Co. The reachability graph for Example D consists of a single infinite chain. The people from B Co have a problem. In the reachability graph.. Crates may be taken from the store room for processing (e. of these crates.. distributed to retailers..5 Flow Control Example Two companies.. reside in different cities. of course. 38 .) wherever usually an entire set appears in this position. as indicated in figure D. B Co agrees with A Co on a ‘flow control protocol’. All of this holds.9.) looks unnecessarily complicated.½ ½¼c) (Receive. The occurrence (Receive. The store room of B Co can only hold a certain number. ) etc.9: Reachability graph of Example D.

SendCrate Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate Figure D. A Co keeps a record of SendingCredits. MAX. To implement the protocol. Each such value val. It is a parameterized HLPNG with a parameter. This distributed system is modelled by figure D. while B Co keeps a record of empty ‘slots’ available for placing crates in the store. substituted for MAX instantiates Example G to an ‘ordinary’ HLPNG without parameters. Initially. lowers SendingCredits by 1. the situation is as follows: no crate or letter is in transit.11. and processing a crate raises the number of empty and hence unreserved slots by one. and all slots are empty and unreserved. B Co may reserve them and give the number of reserved (and empty) slots as sending credits for crates to A Co. which is only possible if SendingCredits is 1 or more.10: Crate procedure. there is no sending credit. 39 . Any time that there are empty slots. Sending a crate. the store room is empty. that may take any natural number as a value. Example G(val). Whenever A Co receives such a letter. B Co does this by sending a letter with this number to A Co and setting the number of unreserved slots to 0. it increases SendingCredits by the number written in it. Note that this net models infinitely many different systems.

.SendCrate sc>0 Cr CratesInTransit Cr Crates ReceiveCrate Cr StoreRoom Cr Crates ProcessCrate sc sc-1 sc+new new sc n n n>0 SendLetter 0 n n+1 N N N SendingCredits ReceiveLetter LettersInTransit UnreservedSlots Crates Cr N 0. ż (StoreRoom) 40 .11: Example G. 1. sc : N MAX : N · Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic addition   Z ¢ Z Z is arithmetic substraction ż (CratesInTransit) ż (LettersInTransit) ż (SendingCredits) ½ ¼ ż (UnreservedSlots) ½ MAX Figure D. . new. Z is the set of integers n. 2. .

the second volume of Kurt Jensen’s book on Coloured Petri Nets. including reachability analysis (with several state space reduction techniques and using model checking). structural analysis and invariants analysis that may be used to investigate properties of systems modelled by nets. The Petri net community has publish a 2 volume set in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (volumes 1491 and 1492) as a handbook on Petri nets in 1998.Annex E (informative) Analysis Techniques There are a large number of analysis techniques for Petri nets. 41 . This annex is just to alert readers of this standard to these possibilities. Readers are also referred to the bibliography. for example.

pp. Kindler and H. K. Vol. 1992. 11. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 1995. H. 5.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. Lecture Notes in Computer o Science. pp 207-247. “Many-sorted High-level Nets”. Coloured Petri Nets. Springer-Verlag. J. David and H. 4. Coloured Petri Nets. 254. 1987. Bad Honnef. K.Bibliography 1. pp. B. Second Edition. Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Billington. Jensen. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report No. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets and their Application to Protocols”. 1995. May 1991. Volume 3: Practical Use. V¨ lzer.Y. 15. Esparza. R. March 1987. “Extensions to Coloured Petri Nets”. J. Control and Performance Analysis. 42 . Arbeitspapiere der GMD 195. Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science 40. K. also reprinted in K. 1989. Jensen. Desrochers and R. Japan. 11-13 December. 12. 1997. Springer-Verlag. 10. Billington. Volume 1: Basic Concepts. 1998. J. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. Vol. Wissenschaftsverlag. invited paper in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models. Cambridge University Press. Genrich. E. W. G. Best and C. Springer-Verlag. Springer-Verlag. 1986. 6. Reisig. 1990. Al’Jaar. Free Choice Petri Nets. 8. Rozenberg (eds). September1986. 345-364. 1997. 166-179. 11-13 December. Billington. 9. Volume 254 (and 255 for Part II). 1991. Jensen. Coloured Petri Nets. 1997. Petri Nets and Grafcet. 61-70. 1987. Jensen. SpringerVerlag. A. Japan. Prentice Hall. 1991. 1989. 1420. G. “Predicate/Transition Nets”. Mannheim. Volume 2: Analysis Methods. 2. A. SpringerVerlag. Fernandez. 7. J. 13. Petri Nets: Central Models and Their Properties Advances in Petri Nets. pp. Desel and J. Rozenberg (Eds. 14. Alla. Baumgarten. E. SpringerVerlag. IEEE Press. 3. Second Edition. Rozenberg (Eds.) High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. “Flexibility in Algebraic Nets”. Jensen. 222. Applications of Petri Nets in Manufacturing Systems: Modelling. Brauer. Springer-Verlag. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Kyoto. Kyoto. W. Notations and Terminology on Petri Net Theory. Part I. K.J. G. Proceedings of an Advanced Course. Petri-Netze.

Truss. pp. 80. 1981. pp. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Peterson. Lectures in Petri Nets. Springer-Verlag. EATCS. Christensen. “Parameterized Reachability Trees for Algebraic Petri Nets”. Analysis and Applications”. May. W. 392-411. 1991. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. TCS. Vol. Volume 935. No. Murata. pp. L. 1994. Volume 77. 815. G. 21. Schmidt. 20.A. J. 24. Modeling and Analysis with Petri Nets. 541-580. C. T..K. W. 1998. K. Prentice-Hall. Reisig. 23. Rozenberg (eds). Springer-Verlag. Lakos and S. pp. Reisig. An Introduction. W. Distributed Algorithms. Proc IEEE. W. W. Reisig. Rozenberg. Springer Verlag. 1985. Reisig and G. 1-34. Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. 4.J. SpringerVerlag. 17. 1998. 22. 1989. N. “A General Systematic Approach to Arc Extensions for Coloured Petri Nets”.16.Brauer. 338-357.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Salomaa (Eds. Volumes 1491 and 1492. Addison-Wesley. Discrete Mathematics for Computer Scientists. Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications. 1991. 1995. Springer-Verlag. A. Berlin. Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems. Vol. Petri Nets. 43 . “Petri Nets: Properties. 18. 19. J.

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