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o. S. S. Confidential

Copy No. 3 of 30

~nalysis of

The Personality of Adolph Hitler

With Predictions of His Future Behavior

and

Suggestions for Dealing With Him

Now and After

Germany's Surrender

By HENRY A. MURRAY, M. D.

Harvard Psychological Clinic

OCTOBER, 1943

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ANALYSIS OF THE PERSONALITY OF ADOLF HITLER

with predictions o£ his future behavio~

and

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suggestlona' for dealing with him

now and after Germany's surrender

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Henry A. liiurray 1 M. D ..

IIt?rva:rd PsychoJ.o~ical·Clinic

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FOREWORD

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The aiJl1 of this memorandum i8. (1) to present an analy~is o~ Ad.olf ~tlerls personality w.1than hl'Pothetlcal tormulation ot the manner of its development; (2)" on the basis of !~this,_ to make a tew predictions as to bis conduct when contronted by the mounting successes ot the Allies; and (3)

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to ofter 'some suggestions as to how the U. 8..' .

Government might now influence his mental condition and behavior '(assuming it sees fit to do so), and

. might d~al with him, if taken into custody, atter

Germany 1 S 8~r9nder.

The. prcpe:o i:lterpretatlon or Hitler'.s personality is ~portsnt &3 & step. in und9rstanding the P3yoh21.o_li.L.2f.J!h.E!.~tti>i~el Ns~!., and - since the typ~oal.Naz1 exhibits a strain that has, tor a

. long time, besn p~evalont a~ong Germans - as a

st~p in understand!cg the psychology of the German p~01'18. Hitler'z"~'l'pr$cl3dented appeal, the eleva .... tiOD of this man to the status ofe. dem .• god, can beexpllilined only on the h:ypothes13 that he and his ideology have almost exactly met the ne eda, longings, ~pd sent1Daents of the' majority of. Germans.

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The atta1Dment"ot a clear impression ot the

psychology ot the G$rmari people is essentlal"lt, after 8urrende~~ they are to be converted Into a peace-loving nation thAt is wl1ling to take Its proper place In a world soclety. '

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Saurc8aot" :tn"format1on for" thj.s 'Analjsis; - As is well khown, there are no~ thoroughlY' reliable souree8-0~ informat1on about Hltler's ea~11 life and wbat 'Is' known about him since 1918 Is In many: respects Insufflcient or contradlctory.

This analysis," bas been based, for the most part, on the tollowing material:

1. ,Da~a supplied by the Oftice of Strateglc servlces

2. Hi tIer's DIN KAMPF, New York, ReYn.al & Hitchcock, 1939

3. Hltler's MY NEW ORDER, New York, Re'ynal & Hitchcock, 1941

4. "He"iden, K .. ~HITLER, A BIOGRAPHY,

London, 1936 "

5. Rauscbning, H., VOICE OF DESTRUCTION, Hew York"

6 •• Baynes, H. G., GERMANY POSSESSED, London, 1941

It is general17 agresd that MEIN KAMPF Is not to be -relied on as a:t'act'.lql document, but as the translators say in th~ in~roduction to the American "edition,

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this work "is probably the" best written evidence

ot the character, the mind, and the spl~1t of Adolf Hitler." An: analysiS of the metaphor,s used In

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KEIN. ~MPF has pr9ved.rewarding in the attempt to

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disc-over the underlying forces of his personality.

)(Y NEW ORDER, edited by RouSsy de Sales, has also

been utilized extensively •

. A paper p'ublished by W.H.D. Vernon, HITLER THE .

J4Alf _ NOTES FOR. A CASE HISTORY ·(Jour.ot Abn. &: Soc. P31chol. ~ 1942, 37, 295-308), was written under my general superTislon and contains most of the ideas of pr9fessot: G" \'I. Allport and myself on this topic

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so far&~ ther were crystallized in the fall of 1941.

Tn1.s.art~eie ~y Vernon is included in toto as an Introdt.r.d;1.on, there'by relleving ms ot the nece'ss.ity of ,..est~t!ng (lh the det.e.iled analysis that follows)

all thtt t.\o~o~lY· bown facts .•

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Section l'

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summarY,ot the,Entire Memorandum.

BItt.EN THE MAN - ,NOTES FOR A CASE HISTORY bOy w; ,H.'D. ,Vernon (the b~st available

'ahort' outline of Hitler's personality).

(S~umnary, Part'A) Detailed Analysts of ,aitler's Personality {written especially . for psychologists, psychiatrists).

,(Sunnr.ary, Part B) Predictions ot Hitler's

Bsh,vior in the Comlng'~~ture.

'(Summary, part C) Suggestions tor the Treatment of Hitler, Ho~ and Atter G$~anyts Surrender.

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, Section' $~., .($ummarY'~ Part nl sugg~stiona tor the ", ,~Batll"ent', of Oer1'iJ$ny.

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S~C}tON.t

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CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUK·

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. cont~i~lng: '

A.> BrIef Analyels'9t Hitler's Personality. B .: predictions ot Hitler's Behavior-.-

C. 'Suggestlonstol' ~he "Trestmentot Hitler.

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D~· Sugge~tlona tor :th e . Treatment ot the .. _: . ·G8l'UJAn Pe0l>le •.

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&~bm1.tte(t by Henry A. Murra,., )I.D.

. . . Ea~rd P~yoholog1cal 'Olin1,.o,

. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Comm1tt'tM tor ·National·14ora1e., _ N~w York.

A. ~rief Ana1lsis of Hitler's Personalitl

. I. ±!1!!am~c::.al· PattE'rn, Counteract.! va' Tpe. "" The!'" i& I1tt"le disagreement aDlQI\g professional, or eTen smQng a~teu~, psychologists that Hitler's personalit1. i~ an example of the counteractive type, a type that is marked by intense and stubborn efforts (1·) to overcoma ea!'ly diaabilitien, weaknesses and humiliations (wounds to sslf'-astsE'r.), and sometimes also by e.rforts (11) to l'l3ven.ge 1.i1~Ul":·.t1t: arH' 1neults to pr1de.· TW.s is ach1~ved by·m~R::3 of an

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Idealegoo Reaction FormattOb whieh involves (i) the

repression and denial ot the interior portions ot . the s~l.f'. and (ii) atr1v1ng.~ to become (or to 1magine oile ba~ become) the' exact ~ppos~te, represented by an idealego.or image of a superior selt ~uccesstul11 accomplishing the once-impossible teats and thereby curing the wounds of' pride andw1nn1rig general

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. respect,,· prestige,tame.

This 1s a ysrloeOmDtonofo!"rinila, not'D1al (w1thin limits) and widely admired in'Weste~ncultures, but in Hltler'$ cl!~e'all the oonstituent toroelJ ot the

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patte!'Il a~e ~_#ul~!ve17' extr~me" and b'asedo on a ..

weak neurot1~' strUctural foundatiori. The cb,ief' trends are these: (1) Countera6tive )leed t.or

. Domlnanc.!'~~rior1ti; (2)~ Counteraotiye Aggres!!..2!l, ~Reveilf3.~J {3 )~~_ss1~n ot Q_£)nsc1ence, Comp.:1..1ance, Love_.; (4) pr~j_!~t1on ot Ori tlcj.zable ~!ement3 ·of'. the S!.!!..

1. Counterf!..O_~lve Beed tor Dom.!nance~ Sup'!rlorltl.- The developmental fo~la forth1s is AS followss (i) lntoler~ble fqe11ngs o.f in .... fer1orlty' (partly bacauae of yielrJ.:i.ng to themll

of a ~r!,h and unj'llf't p9~SO:"), le~od"llfJ t~ (1.1) contempt ot O"A'll in~er1ox- tpalte (""p.kr.:.al!~, timidity,

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submissiveness) and the fixed determination to repress them in onaae I'f and to coldemn them in others, $cco~panied by (iii) ~dm1ration and envy of power

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in o.thers and a vision of sel:!, aa ultimatel,. superior

. (idealego) leading to (lv) repeated efforts to become

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~uper10r (count.eract1'on out of wounded pride), eo'couraged by moments of extreme self-confidenoe in wblch one believes oneself the equal of one's vision.

This, as ~e have said, Is' a very common form

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of development, but in Hitler the t:rend 18 so intense

and "';hec')t:Inor.ly ba Lancf.ng forces (affection, conacf.encaj self-cr1_'ticls:1.l, humor) are so weak that

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we :.n'f3 ~'~CJtiris~ in speqking 1n speaking of megal6-

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~~~~i (d~lusion3 of omni~oten~e), despite the fact

t~9t the. man has sucoeeded in getti,ng a la'rge propor'tilon cf tt.3 GerD'1f'.:l pe cp Le to bellev~ that he $s sl. ... perior: (i) that he" ha a been di vlnely apPointed to lead them to power and glory, and (il) that he

1s ~ev~x- wX'6~8. and henoe muo t 'be' fcllowed with blind

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.obdlenoa, oomewhat -:::Jato

Hitler1s ul'lderly:1.ng lnfer:1orlty i'eel!ngs, his basic self-contell!pt 9.re shown by hI3 ~hoo8ing a8 ~.!:I?e""ia of' aun~t:.\£:r.:t1;l (t;raits at :I(lo~:l~g,,) attributes and capacd t1es that. are. the ~tLc:rE:'D1..~~ or what he

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• Is h1ms~lf or once was., This may be illustrated by his fervent eu1~gy of (~) bru~e'strength; (~) ~ritl'of'blood; and (e) tertil1tt_

. 1. (al Admiration of' Brute"Strength, Contempt' of' We!mes'a.- Hitler has always worshipped physIcal torce, mI1Ital'Y conquest, and ruthless domination, •. He has respected~' eriv1ed~ and emulated the tec~i9.iies' or poweJr, even when' manifested bY' I.

'hated enemy. From' first to last he has expresaiJed 'c6ntem~t'o!,'weakrless, indecision, lack or energy, fear of consciencej

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RitleX" hal! 'man:irVieamesses ~ - There is a

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In:;_'ge feminine component in bis oon~titution. As

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a ohild, he was frail' 9:ti~_!.~cJl'J...,t, !..l!l0t1onall:Y: dependent.

on his mother. He peve~' did~ari..L~~ual 'work, never enga.ged in athletics, WqS turned down 'as to~ever.

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Uiitf~ for oonscription in the Austrian A rmy. Afraid

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ot his father, h1~behavior was o~~jnirdlY'subDilsIH.ve,

a.nd later he was annoYinglj' s~beerv1erit to his' supel'1or OttfC'EU~13 • Four ,.'!;}e.ra in the, ,Army, he never ros8 above the ,rank: or'oorponl. Attbe end he broke dow with,

a wa~'Mur6s~_!,&I!_t.erlce.l'blfEdn<it1i. Ev~n late!')" 1n'a1l Ms'glol-y, he suffers !requer.,t'em~t1on81

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-c'ollapsGs in. which h~ yells and weeps. He has night ... mares troin a .1:)a'd consoie'nee;' and he has' long spell. -when. energ11' conf'id~nce and, the powe~ of' decision

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abandol) Mm •.. SexUally he is -a full-fledged. tn8.sochist,

" 1 .. (b) Ai1m1ration' of' ~e NQble' German

.. Blood, Contempt of' Jewish, Slav and othe~ BloOd.-

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. Hitler bas alwais ext9lled the 8uperiol' q:ual:1tles ~ot pure, \UlID1xed. and uncorrupted Gf3rmanb)_o·Qd. He Ooncurrentl,. he. haa nevel'

:admirea the arlstocrac1."

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r' ,ceased expressing his contempt of' t~ lO"(lsr olasses and his aversion to ac:lm1xtures of' the blood ot other

race., ot Jewish blood especially;

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. H1tlerts' oim' Orif;iiui . are 'Not Noble' or . &lyond neproaen._ 'Hitler comes from illiterate

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pure German. among them.. Bis :rather was ~llegit1mate', was married three t1mqa, and ls sald to have been

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oonsp1cuo\ls to%' ,.sexual promiscuity_ Hitler's mother

_8 a domel·t10 servant. It is said that Hitler's t.a,tbel' 'a f •. tller ,_ .. a Jew. and It is certain. tba t

bis .&.odta.tJlei'· ft,; fa' Jew; and that one of' h1a8i.te~ managed. a restalU'ant'for Jewish stuQents in VIenna

, and another .a,a, for..& t1;me, the mistress of a Jew •.

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• . Hitlerfs appefi~8nceJ· when' .he wore a long beaX'd dur~g his outcast Vienna' Q$YS; 'Waft said to be very Jewi.sh. Of these tacts be 1s evidently as~ed. Unlike

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napoi~on, be bas 'rejected. 'all his rela·tiona.

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As a part.!al explanatton .. ot his .compl~x. about . impuri t,. of blood it may be said, that' aa a boy ot

. twelve,' H1t1e~wail caught engaging in some se,fual, .... experiDleot with a llttle gi'1'l: and late!, he se~m8

: tobave developed a syPhilophobia,. with adittu8.8. r' £eal-:'ol' c&ntam1natlori tit the blood througb con~ac~.

w1th·~;woman. Xt i8 almost certa'in that this i~rational dl'q" was partly due to the a •• oeiation 1n his mind

.. of sexuality and excretion. He thought ot sexual 'relations as something exceedingl,. f'1l~_1!t-

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1. (e)' .Advocae;t ot :pe.rt1litt. - Fert111ty,

the .rami~,. as the bi-eeding ground otwarl"lor8, multi", p11cat1on ot the German raoe -' theso have been cardinal

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po1n~1!I in Hitler's ideology; and'jet -

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Hi tIer h1mselt is Impotent. - He 1$ unmarried

and his old aC~8intances say that he is. lnca~e.b1e: ot cons'WDIIl8tlng the sexual act in a normal fashion'. This intirm1tywe must rec~gnize as an 'instigation toexhorbitant cravings for superiority. Unable to

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,: demonst~te _1& po .. er before a woman, he is impelied

tocompenaate -b1 '~b1b1 tingunsurpass,ed power before men in th$' "orld. at ,large.. . : .

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" . '1. (4)· K Aohievement or Power t1U'6Usn oratorl~"

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U1tlerco\\.ld ne1tqer ohange ~is origins nor decree

his PQtenoy" and Unlike. 1I\1ss01101 he bas'never tried

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'. to develop h1mselt physi:cally, but be beoametor It

.hile tbe' ,JDost 'po:werful lpd1vidual in thf) world, pri-

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mari1y by the use of mass-iilittoat1nS wor'!!._ Aristotle

bat' said that the ~eta.phor .1S the' mos,t . potent· torce

. on earth, and Hitler, master of cr-ude metaphor, haa·' 90nt:!rined the diotum.in this generation. By seducing the masses with his eloquenoe. and gettin~ them to accept him as their 'divinely appointed guide. he oo~ ~elled. the. smaller ciroles of 1ndustrialists, politi ... ,. '" cians and military leaders to fall into line also.'

H1~ler speaking before a large audienoe is a man possessed. oompareb~e to a primitive medicine

man, ,or- ahaman .•.

He is the inca.t'nation·ot·the·orowdfs

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Unspoken needs' and cravlng~; and in this sense he has been created, and to a large extent invented, 'by the people ot Germany.

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Hitlet- has compared the masses to a womah who

must be courted with the arts and skIlls known to passion onlY;,8r1d it 1s pot unlikely that the emotional source of his ~rg~~s~.c. speeches were childhood tan,tr~

. by which he : successro.l~1' appealed to his ever-indulgent mother.

1. (&) Signi.ficance of the Counteractive Pattern .... coUnteraction is essential to the develop:" ment or strength,'bu~ in Hitler's case it has been extravagent and frantic. He has not ascended step by step~ 'b~lding the structure of his char~eter

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t: . solidly ~ he '1f8nt; but instead has rushed forward

with 'panting haate, pretentiously. As a result, there is a great dis tence between Hi tlar at his bes~ . ,and Bitler at. h!.,,~.o,rst; which means~that when he i21 overcome at la.t by • greater fOrce he will collapse suddenly and eo!tPlete1t - and as an utter ,wreck.

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2. Courtteract~~ Agsr~~on, Revenge. - That

the will to poweJ',:an4. the craving tor supe:f"lority , can not aCCOUl1ttor the whole ot Hitler's psychology is evidenced by bis 1ntne8aurp::.~~atred, hatred ex-

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pressed. in the absence ot an adeq_uate at1muiu8,' an incessant need tof1nd some object on which to vent

his' pent-up wrath. This can be traced back with rela~ ~ tive'certa1nty to experiences of insult, humiliation

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'and wounded pride in childhood. The source of such insults, ,.,e have many reasons to believe, was Hitler's father, a coarse boasttulman who ruled his wife

'. (twenty-thr~ years younger than himself) and his ohil~renwith tyrannical severity and lnjus tice.,

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. 2. (a) Explanation. - The hypothesis is advanced,' ,supported by much evi1_~noe,t~t as a boy

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B1tler'wa~ seve~ely shocked (as, it were, blinded)

. by' wIt,nessing 'sexual intercourse between 'his parents,

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Bnd his reaction to this trauma was to swear revenge,

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·to dream of himself as reestablishing the lost glory

of ~s >-mother by ovef.~oming and humllla ting his fElther •. The boy's relative weakness made this aetion

impo8~lbl~, &Q9 so the drive-.and passion of revenge f.'l~:I'~g!eSSed_. ~pd . locked , up· w~thin him. utt~er,tenslon. On1J much late~ when a som~wba_t silJ'li1ar stimulus occurred -i-. the subjugation and humiliation of his motherlapd (Hitler'. term-for Germany) in 1918-

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- ,was this .: !~~~~',ef¥.~ ... .,nge rel~a_sed, after eshort

period. of shpek' ~~1!.~Pt~U'ical. blindness.

This. would eXf)l.~~ th~ fact that Hitler

e~hibited

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no energetic ambi tlous . drive .pt' his own frOm the age

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of 13 years (when hi.s. father,-t):le. enetny, died) tp the age of 2~ years (when 8 n~w enemy, the conqueror·'

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ot the'motherland, appeared} .It also helps to account

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, for Hit1er's :relentless devotion to the rehBbl1itatlon

of Germany. a.fact which-is hard to explain in a man who is, so 'extremelle60o~ntric in other relations. In Mein'Kampf aitle:r repeate~ll speaks of permany

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a8 a beloved woman.

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(}J()1:e-, In this connection it may be said that t,he evidence .i8 in :raVOl' of Hitler'~ baiting exper1~nced tbe common Oedipus C~plei (love of mother, hate- ot tather), but that in his case this pattern

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was repressed and submergedPl anptber pattern: profOUnd'admiration, 'envy'and emulation othis'ttither':j iDBscullne power and a' contempt ot::.~s mother's tem1nl11e',fttibrid$s1veneiQ~tlnd.,"eakne8$·.' Thus both

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f)areilts '1rere - amb1~ale:tlt' ttt him: . his, father Was , ...... hlted'and're$peeted; h1s'mothe,ito .as loved and'depreciated. Hitler's ,conspiCUOUS actions have all

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been in lm1.t8~ion ot his' tathe1', n'ot his mo'the,r~)

whether this gel'le~~~'l btpothesis is'oorreot

01', ~ot, it l$() • .rtain~lllt. th~re 1s. a vast reserVoir of rese"ntmei1tandreverJge 1n,Hitler's make,-up.,Wh1eh accounts ,~or h!a:c;ul't of ''brutill1t:taild bla mint acta of inexcusable destruotlVel'les8 ,an4:cruelt'~:; H&~t. possessed by what amounts to a"·bomt'61daj.~·abmpiilSfQri·

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which has ,no vent in a "weak piping time of peaoe" (unless he, beCame an o~tright criminal), and there":'

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fore he: has' constantly pushed events toward war, or

scapegoating •

2. ' (b) Signltipance ,of Revenge. - As 'Q result 'of the fs,ct that' resentment is the ~alnspring' of Hitler's career, it is forever impo'sslble ,to

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hope for any mercy or humane treatment from him. His re.venget'ulness 'can be .aa tisttedonly by the

extermination of his countless enemies.

'5. ltepression' ofCoJ:'lscience, Compliance, Love,._

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Unlike Gpering and other a~sociates, Hitler is no healthy amoral brut&. He is a hive ot' secret neurotic, compunctions 'arid 'teminine sentimentalities,wh1olt'htiYs'

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had to be stubb'ornly're,pressed ever since he emb'j't~Idiat:

on his career of ruthless dominance and revenge _ (instigated by rea,l or supposed insults). Every

new act of unusual cruelt.y, such, as the purge of

1934, has been followed b:y a pe~iod of anxiety'and depletion, asitated,' dejeetlon 'and' nightmares, which

,can be interpreted only as the Unconscious' operation of' a 'bad' conscience. Hitler- wants nothing so 'D1lich

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alitio arrive at the state where he can coDlIlli~ c~ilnes

without gui:lt feelings; but despite his boasts of having transcended Good and Evil this had not been

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,possible. The ~ulcldal trend in his personalitt

1s ·.eloquent testiD1O~" ot 8 repress.ed Sflf-condemning tendencY'~

, In conjunction With the repression of conscience :and- the- advance ot hate .: t~ere has 'been a repression

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'ot af'f'ec.tion .and sympa't1;iy, as' if' "his spirit seemed

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to chide such weakness 'as unworthy of its pride,,"

B reaction'whi~h sometimes' occurs in childl100d after

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an experIence 'ot unbearable disillusionment occasioned.

by the f'6lt't~eachery of a beloved person. One may find'"a vigilance of grief that would compel the

soul to hate for hav~ngloved too well."

Hitler's

Ei~fil1atlv! tend~n6ies'h3ve always been'very weak; he has never had 'any close personal friends; he f.,", entirely incapable of nOI1'!al human relationships. This is due, in par~, to the cessation in early life ot sexua1 o.evelopment.

3'. (a) Self-Vindicating Cr-1m1nallty. _ Paradoxical. as it may 'seem, Hitler's repeated crimes are partly causedby'cori~cilence an~~he n~~sBlty ot'appeasing it. For having once set out on a life, of crime, the man can not turn back without reversing his entire ground for pride and taking the humiliating path at selt-abasement and atone~ent. The only method

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he: -baSI . 'cd. ~u.bduing h1.s mO'Wlting unconscious guilt

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18 to CQllild .: b ,atlotheXw aC?t .of aggression, and so to .

. !t.'QW·$I!·,lt wer$, by thecjoiterlon otsuccess,that

.

.. b1~ l?,O)"1-¢l;!·s ta~p,t'pd ·B~.:f'ortune.and ·therefore .11l8.ti ...

!~e(l' E'n,d r!k1!.'* 'i"ai~ur~, is the only wrong ..

.: , 3. Cb) Signi'! cari'ca of the Re 2-"a.8 9_~.E~ C1'

eon:lc:1.!n~0 b;(e\t6cesi1f.ul·,.crim~oal:t tt. - As soon as th.a tlItia O'E>lJlelll when rep~ated' o!,fensive actions end in .failure,. l!:t tIer w111 16s9' f,f. th !ri b~!"Jsel!' and

. .. .._ ..... .........,.__ .. _-_. - .; .. __ ---

. \

t'errss$9d COiHJcte~ceJ. with sUicide or mental breakdown

as the most likely' out~ome.

4. pr~jet}t1~ Crlt:fc1zabl~El'3~ents' of 'the ,self .. - Hitler perceives in other people the traits or tendencies .tr..at are criticizable in himself. Thus, instead .of be ing devoured by the vulture of his own conda~ing conscience or of his own disdain, he can attack'what he apperceives as evil or contemptible 1n the external worl<l, and so remain unconscious {most of the time} of h1~ own guilt or

his own inferiority. This'mechan1~m'wherebY_~~ri sees his 'own '~icked'1mpulses'or'weakne3sesiriothers, 1s'called·p~ojectlori. It is one way, the'paranoid way, of Dui1ntaining' self'~esteeni. The mechanism

,.' ~ .

f

t _.

t

c'

- l~ ..

oco~e GO_. COtlst'.t:lt,1.y in IIi t~er toot 1 t is possible

~, .

, tE> pt· Ii .e%', .. good ~tt s : ot .·tne ,re·pudiated portions

•. .' • .... - '. I' I' : '

of b1$ O'h. perSOrto:l1tr bY', noticing.hat he oondemns

. .

1ft O~~~~tI ~,t~e~~iutt'r, . lying) co~ruptl.on" wa~-mon~,e~

1PS. ~tc. . t~8 m.em.niptn wou~d have had more ,','

.~

,41 •• str,QWI COnaequeri.e.es. tor, 'b;!.s $llni ty if he had

'. ..' ,f, •••

not pu_atd. 8~ g()"at'na~e~,()\ter'!t by conscio\lely

. ,- ~ ,

... ,i ,. ,

adoptln& ,(a. toOd.politica:~. st,riltElgy) t he pr-a c tdce

of bliimLng his opponenbs,

0,

"

, . , .

. 5.; , Pnrtij1£!~ttn~t_~rila·. ~ H1tJ,er-t.;; cyn9rnical pa bbez-n ,

e,s dEtscr1.'bedJj corre~pcij:lt:l~ ',clceely to :that. of paranoid insanity., tn~'el9d he h13.9,'Bzhlbltod .• at one time o.!'

. . \ . .

another, .a1l D:f~the:' cl!:?sf:i~!~al' ftW?~".~~_~L_pl:~:~~c!

sohi7.oph~Em1a : hypersensi tivi ty" panics of alV'iety. irr8tion.l·~je81ouS1,. delusions' of pe r-aecut t.on, de ....

~ lusi.ons Of ,om~:!.potenc9< and. me.as Lahshfp ,

H()W 1s it .. 'then, that Hitler has escaped confinement as s. dangerous' psychopath? Thls i~terestlng question w111 be considered later.

Opposition is the stimulus whi~h a-i::artlea Hi1 .. 1er·

into lif'e. In the face of it his powers e.re gathered and augnenbed •. When opposition becomes stronger resulting in seVere frustration, his reaction has

J: ...

-· ... 15 ..

J

, ,

otten b&tb' as f011.o.w8.! (i.), emotional outburst,.

, .

tant~, Of ,rage .1)4 accttsatoty indignation epding

'. • .1-

'in" ~eai-$' a.q4.·s~lt~p1 t'~i .s\i~.ceededb1 (il) periods

. ' .

EU,,,,,:o;wt1!!J $xl'i&uettion" melanc,holy and indecisi ve-

. - .' ~

ness Ca4Qc:nnplnilIId sonietl~es by hours' of acute dejec ...

tion ancl,41.qu1et1ng'n1ghtmsres) leading to reaupera ... ,tiODj an4 tttJally (lii) conf'ittent 'and' resolute de-

. \ --_'_

~sio~ to: clounterattabk With great force and ruth-

--:- .

,

lesnness _' 'rbe entire cycle mat rti!). its o our ae in !

. .

24, houti8" Of! it may be week$ before the 'aggressive

. .'

<ieclsi-OQ ot thathird stage is'reached.

, ,

,"

, ,

c

Fo~ ye'ar~ this' pattern 'of reaction to frustra- • t10n has m$t with Elucceasj ea~h 'counterattack has

. brought Hitler nearer to his goal. 'Since the turn

. ' ,

or fortune on the Rtlsf!ian front, however, the number

" '

" .

ot frustrations have. increased and Hitler's counter-

attacks' have failed, at times disastrously., There 1s no structure fot-defense in Hitler's personality: he can only strike when iriflated'with confidence, or,collapse wnen:con.f'ldence'abandons'h1Iri.

As time goes on, therefore, we can anticipate an increase in the intensity, frequency and duration of H1tler'~ periods of collapse, and a decrease in the~onfldence and power of his retaliations.

- 16 ":'

.

>

"

A point to'be 'remembe~ed' about H1tler 1s that

..

',~e .B~arted li.1s carae~ at sc~at'ch" a nonentity wi ttl:

. . . - ' ...

. Doth1n8..!?~.:loB~. and ·he ,4eleoted a 'fanatical path

. t.2r l'-...imEelf which requIres -.IH? ~ndil'lg - Coll'1P~ ~ueeees (omnipotence) or litter failure (death).

No . compromise, ,IS' posslbl"e., Since 1 t . ie not he perSonally .'he, has .to, do the:' ,fighting, his collapses can

occur 1.b p~1va!;'a at Berehte~ged9n;. wb.ar-e he can re-

Qupezaate, and then once again 'come baok '.7ith some new and ai.ays 'more " desperateplen to destroy the enemy. Thel:-e. is a powe~.t:?l compulsion 1n him to

, .' • I

s8.crifice h1mj.~r· and 'a11_=')1' 'GermRnv to'the revenge-

ful' anI11h.1.lat16n· of. western cultur~., .to gie, cragging,t,' all of Europe with 'him 1nto the abyss. This he would feel was the last resource'ot'an insulted'and u.nendur-

able' existence.'

.' ,

German state, Legerd otSelt.- We surmise that

Hitler's early enthusiasm' for painting was due to

the fact (i) that 'this was the one exercise at which he excelled in school (and thus it offered a compensatory form 01' achievement); (ii) that it provided an acoeptable o'\ltlet fpr a destructive soiling tendency repressed in infancy; and (iii) that painting, and

....

~' ..

'!" 1'7 ...

,especia11y arch1tep,ture late~, also called for much

• .) r

i _. , ,.' .•

·,ConfJtructl~na$s, .. h1ch served ,to balance (operate

, ,

.ae a re.~etl'o~ tOri'latlon' t~,' ~d atonement for) the

, ' .

, pl'imltiv$ .: ttndette.;1 to dsstrol •. H1.~ler has always

enjoyed' 'the pa1ut1ng of rUined teIJlples (just as ,he

=' ~ ~

has iike' ~o ·~orlt.mp·late the destruc·tion of c1 ties inhabite4)1 h.11,nemies); but he has likewis~ taken

. .. ~ .

,p.lee.sure '.t\ 'pI11nt1.ng immense cast:!.es (jua t as he has ~occupied' htirleelt .'designing building& fo:r:· nhe Third Reich) •.

...

Acare!'ul ntudy of Hitler"a w:ritings·and conduct

bas con.inced U3 ths.t 'he ig' not ent:'relydevot9d to destru.ctian, as BOIJJ.8ny cla.!.m.· In his nature. there is a dee~ valid.strain of creatlvenes~ (lacking,

. .

, ~o' be sure~'the ·necessary talent)·. His creativity

~a b~en engaged in combining elements for an·ideology, ~~ or~anizing· .. the :National Socialist ,arty, an~ in .. campoaingthe al1egor1 of his cwnlife. He is the author 'and leading actor -of a great drama.

Un1i~e other politiciana, Hitlel" has conducted

his life at certain seasons as a Romantd e ar"';~.st

does" believing that' it is the fu..Y.lotion of a nation's tlr5t statesman to furnish creative ideas, new poliCies, and plans.

- 18 -

., ..... ~

• :,8., Repre'saed Nead' foi" Passivity and' Abs$ement,

,. S

.asochisri1~ ... Hitlerts 10tlg .. conc8aled secret hetero-

... .

seXualfal\t""r· has been exposed by the systematio"

. ... . .

ana1.Y31s ,and: ct_;):rrelatlon o.f the three thousand odd metaphors b& uses in Melri'ICamp:f'" ' The results of' thld

. ......

study were later conf'1rmed 'by the testimony of ons

',who "claim.s 'to know". It' is not necessary to describe its peculiar fe,a'ttl!'es here; s"tf':'lcs it t:~ gay that

. "

, .

the sexu!ll, pattern has ra-BulteG f'r0!rt tl:e .fusion' of'

(il a-/priDt1t1ve~xci:·a_tor;(s~'_f!nS··te'rideri£,!., and (il) , .. 'a, ,passive liJ!i3~_chiSt1 .. ~_ tEi~l"en£i. (hypertrophy of' the feminine component in his r.1uke-~p).. 'The second element (masochism)' der-Lve s m~ch of its strength

\ #. '..

':from an uncons'cious 'need' foi'" pun1erunent, a ,tendency

which maybe expected in one who has assiduously repressed, out of swollen' prIde, the submissive reactions (compllanc~; cooperatIon, ps'yment of debts, expressIon ot gratitude,'scknowledgment of errors, apology, oonfession, atonement) "hich are' required or" every~ body who wQuld adaptlvely partiCipate In socla1 life. While Hitler consci,.ously overstri1testo assert his in.finlte superiorItY', nature '1iultinotivel;( ooioreota

the balanoe ',by imposing an erotic pattern t,M tcalls tot' lilrinite·sel:r,:,aoasement.

'"

;:

:~.,:; -. ';.,.

II~;')· ..

-

- 19 - ,

This 'erotic pattern, however, is not a strong force in Hitler's personality, nor does it comprise his entire ,11biQinal inve,stment. It alternates with other patterns -;represse~(or as some claim overt) homosexuality, f'or example.

What is important to recognize here is that the purpose of' Hitler's prolonged counteractive ef'f'orts is not solely to rise above h!shl.:JCble crigins, to

overcome his we~knesses and ineptltudeE, but rather

to check and conque:o; by means of' a vigorous idealego reaction' fo~t:lori, ~ ·':1l1C_Elrl.iing J2.~8i~JV~~'yiriPl.

for 'passlvlt:(and' ~ubriti5SJ?i!. Th~re is no spa ce

here for the mass cr evidenco be ar-Lng en thi~i point ... but a f'ew example~ can be brief'ly listed: (i) the large f'eminine component in Hitler's physical constitu-

"

tion~ also his feminine tastes and sensibilities;

(ii) his initial id~ntif'ication with his mother; (iii) his exaggerated subservien~e, in the past, to

masterf'ul sup~riors (army officers, Ludendorff, Gtc.); (iv) attraction to Roehm and other domineering ~or.lO-: sexuals; (v) Hitler's nightmares which, as described

by severe'l informants, are very suggestive of homose4ual panic; '(vi) some of Hitler's interpretations

of human nature, such as when he says that the people "want ;3omeope to frighten them and make them shudde!'ingly

.

\_ . ,

t

:s... - ..

- 20-

8ubm1ss1~e";.·(v11) -Hitler's repeated assertions that

. '. .

he 1ntend$j like Sulla~ to abdicate powe~ (after a~. orgt of conquest 1titli'f1ill catharsis of his hate)

. .

and live qUietly by himself' ;_[psinting and designing

buIldings; and finally. (viii)' recurrent s1.ucidal

I ..

. threats •.

II. i~s~' !de_Pcaritr.!c1ty; . Dedication 'to the ·lriak~~_ . . o:f'·8n:.ideally_~p"er·tul·G~;;'~1[i~i,- r.:t'\ tI"I.J.5 J<31~~an, f'rieqd or foe, has e ve r claimeJ ti:.g c H:!.t.i.a~" is not·

·sincere in his devotion' to' the Pr- ..... e·slan 31i11 tarists'

.-----~--

ideal 'fot- ·q.e~~tiY... Thus"'3 can say that he has been

" . ~

Ideocentric (ds.dicated to an idea) for the La s t twenty

ye.rs.· Because the idea consists c!' a plan for a society 'from which the maj~rity of his fellow countl'y~ men will supposedly benefit, we .oan speak of him as aociocentt'ic (8) also. But since this interest in

...

hia countrJlD~n is' clearly ae conda.r y to his personal ambi tion - fame, immortality - "We put egocentricity (:8) first; and so write ... E. 8. Ideocehtriclty. It ~8 rare to find so much ideocentricity in a ~arcistic pel'sonalitY"; but only those who are Lncapab.Le ot such dedioational'e likely to doubt the reality of it in BItler •

.1.> Insoclatlon 'In' GernulnY. _ Sinoe Hltlar and

".

21-

8 larg~ body of.the German people are mutually agx-e,es·ble.J we ,can speak of him as insociated, accepting. and accepbed , It is Hitler's intense affection, :for the· Ire.~ch (pel_'~,ps felt to this extent only by a nationalist born outside its boundaries) that

.. .'. . .

.

has acted asa decis,ive factor in (L) his winning' the

~ -- .. -

support, ()t· tb~ "people and so. s.atisfying, his will to power; (il) d8iv-tnS him ·the 'feel:!.nw-:P v2:,~_Il{;i~A, the senae of m:issi:m; ,(iii) E.ioovidln.B~~t):;,a~,:,~.~at~f1ca ti6ri (in' his· own mind) f!:>:o many ll1egnl. af.}t~; and (tv) ~ing himr~lstlv~~E~rie, by bringing him into

. '. - . .

association .wi tb a group (';~ like-,:ni~jed men and. a o delivering bim .from the pel':!.ls of psyche.logical isolation.

(N'.6te .... The supposition that in Hitl'3rfs mind

-

Germany is identified ",ith bis mother belps to,explain the fervor of bios ded i ca tion. )

III. eentiments _ -

Host of Hitler's sentiments ere well known and

have already been listed': his bigh va Iuat.Lon cof

Power, Glory~ Dictator~hip, Nationeli8~, Milltari~:n, and Brutality'; and his'low valuation of V'eaknass, Ipdeciaion,'Tolerance,Compossion, Peaco , Rational Debate, Democracy, BolsheVism, Materialism', Capitalism,

'22 -

','

'. ,

the Jewish Race, Christianity. A simplification

would be thflt of regarding him 8S the advocate of the agsressive . ins-tinct '(war, P01re,t. and Glory) . vs.

. '-

the' acqUisitive instinct '(BUsiness; Peace and

}\i-oaperltl). I Two ·i:iuestl,-:>~s deserv'e sps'oial consld~~tion: ',(1) Why, when he Was 'living as an outcast in Vienna, did Hi~ler not be:come a Communlst? and

, '

(2) Whet is the e·xplanation ot Hitler's ext~eme

Anti-Semitism?

.1. , :oeterxnlriliult3' ot:iI1tler-f~ Ant1~60mmunism..:.

1., (a) Hltler's father 'was an upwa.rd mobile in~ividual., startl~ ~s a ,peasant, he worked his 7IIay into the ~o.er middle c~ass, establis'hing'

a boundary between. himself and those below him. fl

Both ,parents' respeoted their social ,superiors. Thus

. .

Hltle,%' instlnctively retreated from too close a8soela-

,tion with the workmen of Vienna.

1. (b) Hftlet- 'was t'oo frail for construction work, W88 unable to hold a Job; and therefore had little op,portunlty to become eS,soeiated" with a

~100. ~

1. (e) Having been an ardent n'atlonallst

since the age at 12, Hftler's lin-e 'of .c.ls8vage (contll'ct' between natlons) did not conform to the communists'

line of cleavage (conflict between olasses).

"

23 -

o -l • .:. (d)" Hitler has always been an advocate ,of the h1:e ra#ol'dcEll' px:inoiple : gove rnment by the fittest, -rigorousl,. t,:r:ained and proved in action. The ideal' bt·Ctumnun1sm, 011. the otber hand, calls for , a wIde dls-tributlon o,t power among those untrained

o •

to rule.

'1. '(e) , Hitlerfs sentlJ1lents have been wIth mill tarism fr·om earliest youth. The materialism of

, Communism never appealed to b,1m ....

1. (fl 0 Lacking' sympathy for the underdog, :~he humanitariaD;aepeotof Communismd1d nQt attract .' him. H1tler has always been a bully •

.2. Deteiominarits' 6f om tIer,' 8 Arit~.: Semi t18rir~, "" 2.- (a) The influenoe of wide .. spread AntiSemitic sentiments(~epresented especially 'by euch

..

men as Lueger and Feder), traditional in Germany.

2. (b) Hitler's personal frustrations requ1,red a acapagoab as focus for. his repressed a.ggres-

-

slon. The Je1f 1s the classio,scapegoat because he

I , - .

dOfJ' Q.ot fight back with fists sndweepons:.

02. (c) The Jew was an objeot, UPOn whom Hitler could suitably project his own infer1o~ self (his sens1.tivenesfJ, weakness, tlmldlty~ IJ1QSQcbi.tic, ae'XUslIty) •

_..... .,' .. ., .. ~ ·::~·Y:f~"~·.:'::.·~"~(J~,~~

, .,,', \ ~~-:\

24 ..

2. (d) After the Versailles Treaty the 'German,people also needed a ,scape-goat~ Hitler offered

, ,

them the Jewish race .as an act of political strategy.

2~' (e) Having assembled a veritable army of gangster~ (Na'zl troopers) and aroUsed their fighting splrltj lt Was necessary f~rHltie~ to find some object uponwbomthsse men.could vent the1r brutish pas,slons, to, canali~e anger aw~y tromhimselt,;

2, (f) Jews'; belng non-milit~ristlc, could only impede his program on conquest. In

.

elimlnating them be lost no sizeable support.

2" (g') Jews we~e associated with seTeral of Hitleris pet antipathies: business, mater~a11smJ" democracy, capltalism,o.ommunlsm.

, ""

. 2. (h) SODle :rews were very ,rieh and Hitle-rneeded an excuae for dispossessing them.

.

IV. f'ormal . Structure; 'llisteria,'Scihf.,zopbre'pla.-

Hi.tler has' a relatively weak cbera-cter (ego strUctl1re); hls great strength ceme s from anemotionalaompls:J! which drives h~ periodically. Usuall,. be cannot vo'lunta%iily 1"orce himself to stick to a routine of ~l'kJ he must be compelled from· inside, lifted 'on a, wave' of passion.. His ~d (inatinct~a~ forces) and ego (voluntar1 o~n,trol) are 1n league;

his superego (con:science) 1s repressed.

1 ~ Hysteria. - m tler has exhibited various forms of hysterical dissociation, most,notably in, the two

, . .'.

s~p'toms waich constituted his war neurosis in 1918,

, ,

namely blindness, and aphonia (mutism). He experiences

periods of' marked abstraction, violent emotional outb~sts, visions ot halluc1natoryclarity. In speaking before croJrds he is v1rtually possessed.

He clearly be.longs to the sensational company ot history-making hysterics, combining, as he does,

, ,

same of the attributes of tbe primitive shaman; the

religious ~isionary,. andtbe crack-brained demagogue,consUmmate actors, one and all.-

It is important to note, however, that Hitler

,

has a 'large' measu're . of' control: over' his' comp1exee.

, ' ,

.He uses an emotional outburst to get his own way,

turning it on or off as the' occasion requitoes. As Erikaon says, be "knows how to· exploit his hysteria ••• Oh the stage of German hlstor,;' Hitler senses to what

. extent it is safe and expedient to let his own personality represent with .hysterical abandon wbat lives

in every German listener and r!3ader."

2'., SchizoPhrenia .~. PS1~~atrfsts are not' un-

o

famil:ial' with borde:r~;tne state~8i;~J.1i.ng· b~twean bysteria

~

and s~h1,zophrenia. In '$ome cases the former develops

'C ~">""'f~"':·~":"~;:·''lI)~~~\''''"r'''iV~f;:~~.:f:t~;;::~~r;.~i't~"~;~~:'1~?ii;~l'I"?"",>~,,,"'ti:'1:;::'~~:*~~~~~~~~~

~1[i

,".'

25 ..

. '

into the latter (a serio~s Variety of insanity). Since Hitler,. aa noted above, has exh~bi ted all the symptoms of par8~Oid'sob1zophren18; the, possibility

, ,

ot a complete ~ent81 breakdown i8 not remote.

pere 8f9.i_1n,' h01fe~er, it, should be observed that . paranoid . djr!8li)1C8 CaD' be 'used ',very' effect! ve It' iri

'. ? . . .' . ,- ,. .. : ~ , .. ' .

, . -. '. . .

rousing' and tocu8sioS' the' toi'Qes 'or a Ud.rioi'itj,' part:

It ." J - _ . , . . ._. • \.,. .

,or ol'a defeated natiori. The stra~eg, consists chiefly

in' (i) pa1nt1ng viv'_d and exaggerated word-pict\U'es

ot the ct'1mes and tlteacherous eV,i1 purposes of Y,our powertu~, opponents, (delus'_ons of persecution); ,O.i) persuading your own group of its innate superioritv

,. . . .

and glorious' destiny (delusions of grandeur);, (iil)

. '

.aubdud.ng conecf enee by asserting tha~ your common

r

end just.ifies,'the means, that youX' oppo~ents have

,used the most dastnrdly means in the past; and (1v) . blaming JOur ,oneDdes tor every frustration, every

" .

disaster that occurs. In oonsciously employing these

tactlc,s Hitler has exploited his own' pnranoid trends

and retained some governance over them.

Thus the ans.wor to the question,' How hssRitler f:lscaped veritable insanity? might 'be this: '(i). he

, .

he.s gained a iarge: measure' ot' control' over' his

~ . Q ..

hysterioal ',end 'pEr~n.o1d trends by Ufi!ingthem

;

27 -

consc1ous,lf and successfully 1n the achievement

of his'a1ms; (1i) he has identified himself witb and

. ,

dedicated' himself "to 8' sooiocentric purpose, the creation 'Of an ideal Germany; 'which has served to " diminish the p,ains and perilsot an isolated egocentrism; . and (iil)-.' ~e has been supremely'suocessful

in imposing his vlsions and' del1,lsiona (confo'~ing,

i

as they did, with existent 'trends) upon the German

.

peo~le, and so oonvinoing them of bis unparalleled

superiority. "Thus his irrea.1 wen-ld'ms 'become 'reel, inssn'ity is ,sanity.,

v.

1.

Abilities

',:) au4beas has depended -to 'e"1arge exten~ upon his own pecuiiar abilities and traits: '

'.' .

,1. (9.) The abill ty to expl"{tss. wi th passion

the deepest needff Bnd longings of

the people.

1. (b) The abil_ity to appeal to the most primitive as well BS to the ~ost ideal tend~ncies. in men.'

1. (c) The abl1tt1':to simpii.fy oomplex prolS:tliil~::: and arrive at the quickest solution,

1. (d) ~he ability to use rnetapho~ and draw ozttraditi,onal imagery al'l<\'t:.th in speaking arid writing.

... "

. ,

,,'

2. ,

"

... 28-

-1. ($1, 'The ~bl~ity to evoke the sympathy

and protectiveness ot his people. '1'h~'leader'sl'elfare becomes 8 matter of concern to them.

1. (t), Comp1e,te dedication to his' mission;

, abundant se1t-confidEm~e; and stupborn ad~erence to a tew principles.

1. (g) Mastery of the art ot political organlzatlon.

1. (h) Tactical genius; precise timing. 1. (i) Mas~ery 01' the art of propaganda. principles ot'Politloal'Actiori.-

,

,

'Among the guiding prInciples ot Hitler's

, , I

'pol,_tical ph110spb1 the fol10willg are worth listing: 2. (a) Success depends on winning the

, support or.,the masses.

2. (b)

.

The leader of a now movement must

appeal to youth.

2. (c') The masses 'need a sustaining ideology; it is the fUnction of the leader to

provide One.

2 • (d), People) do not act if their emotlons

are not roused. '

i

2 •. (e) Artistry ,and drama are nec~ssary to

the total effect of political rallies a~dmeetings.

.. 29 -

2. (f) The leading st~tesman must bea

... ~

. '

• < ~ •

creator of ideas and, plans. 2.. (g) Success justifies any means.

2_ (h) A new movement can ~ot triumph without tlie effective use of 'terroristic methods

. ;.

B.'

pxtediQtlon$of H1tler's Behavior

WhateVer ~ls& happens it can be confidently predicted tbat Hltler's neurotic spells will increase

., ii. ," . ..- ,- .

in tre'quency IilIld d\1P~tlon and his .ettectiveness as a

.-1 '.' .• , •.• (.. t. c

, leadel' will q1m1nisk:

, ' '

,

respon$ibili ty will tall to a

"

greater' or less ext~mt on otner. shoulders. Indeed

there 1s some ev1denoe that his mental powers have

. been, dete~16~atlng sj"noe--last November, 1942. Only once or, twice 'has he appeared before ~s people to

I. 'enlighten or encourage them. Aside .. frc::>m the increase

, ,

,'in neurotic, sylnptoms the followIng things might happen:

, "

1. ,Hitler may ~e forcefully sefzed by the

M11.i ~arl Command or by s o~ reyolutionary faction in

, ,

. Germany and be immured in same prison fortress. '

. - .' ifF .'

This event is hard to envisage in view of ,.-hat we know of the widespread reverence for the man and the pr.o~ection that' 'is afforded him. But if this were to occur the myth 01'- the invincible her-o would: end

30 -

--rather ignominiously, and Hitler should eventually be delivered into our be,nds., The General Staff

will no doubt become the rulers of Germany it Hitler's mental c9ridltiO~ deteriorates much further (Option #5).

· .

'·_n ·be·s teare4 this e"e.ntuali ty f'or many ,.~ar$ and toa81 he ~, p~ot8cted ~a nev.er petore. Germans are not inelin,4 to aboot their. leaders. This 18 possible .

.

· but not .. vO!'1 11ke11~

J. H1tlel'" . "arrange' to 'Q.ave . himself" shot 'bj

.t •. ·• c~".,,;:s .. lj ..... ;s. i., .. " .•. ' ". • . . ... . i; . .

· s~m~.·.~~a.n~ ·pe.it~~!I'~t '~.' !e~. ~ This would Qomplete

. . ' ~ . . ". '. . . .. -:

themrth,ot the berQ "!' death at the ba.!)ci of "ome

truatedfollower: Sles.tX'+ed stapbed 1n the back by ~H(lgen, yae,ar by Brutus, Chri;:tt ~et;r8yed by' Judas.

It might 1ncr-ease the ~8nat1c1.8Dt of' t~e soldiers

I

fol' a while and .create 8 legend in conform1ty with

ttle ancient pattern! It Hitler could arr8~ge to have a Je., ISOlDe paranpld li~e, himself, kill 'him, then He could dle inthebei1ef' that his 'fellow countrymen would r1s6 1n their wrath and massacre every remaining Jew in; Germany.. Tbu8 he might try to indulgo h1s

insa tiable revengefulness. for the .last t'ime.

4,

a1tle~ 'mat' get' h1IDs.Eilt'-lC11led·leading his

.' . . ,

,

"

Q11,tEt~ t.rooe~ .in battle, - Tlius be would live on as a

, '

- 31 -

. "

hel:o in the hearts of his countrymen. It is not unlikely. that he w111 choose, tbis course, wbicb would be yery undesirable from 'our point of vi,ew, firs·t because his, ,~eath would serve . as an example to all b1s follo,rer$ to fight with fanatical death-defying

) ,

e~erg1 to the 'b1tter end, . and second, because it would inaU%'e ~tler's IDU1lortality - the Siegfried who led .the Ar.yan hoBt~ against Bolshevism, and t~e Slav.

This is Qn$ of H1tler'sfavorite poses.

I

5, H~t~.e~"m~jY Pi.~"lri,s8rie.~ The man has been on the' veJ'ge 01." paraIlol<1 sch1'zophren1.a for years and

with themountlng load of- frust~atton and failu:re

he Inay yield tUs will tp tt\e turbulept forces of the un90nsolo~s. This 1foul~ not be undesIrable frOm our standpoint, because, even if tbe fact were 'hidden'

.' ~rom the people, mprale would. r,apldly deteriorate as i'umorS,spread, and the legend of the hero would

/

be severely damaged by the outcome. If Hitler became

insane, he should eventually :rall into the hands of

·the Al11ed Nations.'

s. Hitler may com! t: . suicide " - IT_! tler has often vowed t~a.t he would commit suioide if his'plans miscarried; but if he choo,es this COUI'se he will do

it at tbe last moment and in the most dramatic possible

<.'

_' 32 -

manne~. He wil~' retreat, let ,us say, to the imp~egnable little refuge thBt was built for him on the top of the'mountain behind the Barghof (Berchtesgaden). There'aloh4$ he 1fill ,-mit 'until trQops come to take him

prlsoner~ As a grand climax he will either (i) blow ,up ·the mountain end himself with dynamite; or (ii) make a funeral pyre at his dwelling,and throw himself on it (& titting G~tterdl1~l'ung; 'or .(iil). kill him-

. se1t' with 8 silver bullet' (Emperor· Christophe); or

,(iv) thtow himself otf the parapet. This outcome, .,undesirabl.e for us! 1s not at all unl1.1rely,.'

'.7. ~~t.1.~~;·f~~:Z'·' ~!e' o~.·,~~t~,r~l· ~auses.-

e. Hit;lGX"may seek'rofuSc'lo'a 'neutral oountry._

...... : ,_ ..... '. .. '. . .. ', .,' .- .. - .. ' . ' .... - '.'

This is not llkely, but one of his assoclates might drug him end teke him to Sw;tt~erland in a plane and then persuade him th£t he should stay there to write his long-planned Bible for the German folk. Since tho Hero's des3rtlon o.t hl~ people wO\1ld seriously damage. the logend, this out-come TJould be ~ore desirable .than some. of the other possibilities.

9. Sitler'maY'fall irito . the hands of 'the

,

Uriited Natioris .... 'l'hia is perhaps the least likely, but the most desirablo, outcome.

- 33 ....

In making these predictions we have been sws'yed most by the supposition tha't Hitler's chlef concern

\

is the immortality oth1s 'leg9rid and consequently

he w111 endeavor to p1s~ his .own ond according to the most herole, tJ'egic end dramatic pet:tern.

Opt1Qns #5 (1psanity to some extent) an~ #S (drsmat1c suicide), Qr #4 (death at tho front)~ strike us as

.

most Pfobsble 'todey.

Propegande mee.*,ures Should, if possible, be devised to prevent #4 and #'3.

c

c.

Sus.scstlons tor the''1'reetmerit;ot''Hitlcr

. J... • ¥~. .~..., . h .j ," ' .. t.. : .;'. ' . .' t • - •

i , At.t~rt.he, ~ete~r o~,~e~El,nlf ,if ,Hi ~lGr is taltep'into'c\l~tody'bl the,United'N~:t16ri8.- Anyone

• ' .. f. . ': '." '. .: . .\ "" . ... . . ': ,', ._ .. t .•.• " .. . . •. . .• •

or the conventional 'pUnl~hri1(~n~a .. a trial followed

o " . i... ."' s., ii", J, ,.S .•. '. , ':. _ , ., •. '_ £.J '.

'by oxeoutio~, by l1fe imp~isQnment or by exile ~

1'1111 providc's'tras!c 'cnding fo~ the drama of Y-ltler's

. • . . ." ._ -. :; # i:S:*:.~ .. .' i' .. I . .

aensa tional career; and thus contribute 'the elemont

.' . ~ .... ~.".' .

.

that Isnocessn:rY to tho resurrectiori and perpetuation

, .:. . l ' . " .• ,...... t • _, ,_ i.E_...· ,

of thE!,H~t,lcffen ,legO,nd. whet cen the Allios do tho.t will sp'ol'l the tragedy and thus kill the legend?

As on answer to thi~ question, the, following plen is augge abod., It should wo:rk if properly executed.

. " ::'i.~.

-0'

j

34 -'

.1. (&) Bring the NaEi leaders to trial; condemn the chief culprits the death, but' prqelaim Hitler mentally unbalanced.

1. (b) Commit Bitler to an insane asylum

... (such as st. Elizabeth's. Washington, D. e.l and house

· him 1n a comfortable dwelling spec'ia1ly built for his occupanCl.. Let the ."rld know that he i8 being well treated •

. .

l. (0) ~p~oln~ a committee of psychiatrists and p8yeholog1.ts to etamine him and test his faculties at r,esuleX' tntel'Vala~' Unknown to 111m, have sound-. f1~teken of h~~ 'beiulvi,or, 'l'he, will show hi:! tits

. ... . . '..~. . ....

· and tlX'8~e~ End Qot\Cle:mQe.t1.on~ <'t ever1o~c in the world, j,PQlu~.!ng tt¥l. qe~n peopl.e.

1-. (d)' ~h1.b1; l'EtgUle"lyto- the ~l'u~liO

· ot the entire world se1eC).te(i se~nt. ot these 80una- . 1'6.81",. 8.0 tbe-t it Qen be .,een hOw unba l.anced he ~s I QOw m~d~ocJ'e his performanoE;t on tbe customary tests.

·It taken in a rO'\ltine, scientific.and und'ramatic manner the) plot~e8 will becO!qc q'qi~e tiresome after a while and tM people w111 get bored w1 til Hitler in ayeer 0·1' a.o~ (Trust ~c16nce to take the 4X'Om8 out ot anything.)

1. (.6!l . HltleJ" 8 Qa8~ ab..Qulc! bo pr-e senbed to 'the wo~ld·as a lesson: "Thts 1;5 whet happens to

- 35 ~

crack-brained fsnatics who try: to dominate the world." As such it could serve as a powerful deterrent to .0thert;1with fantasies of world domination.

1 •. (f) A thorough s'tudy C?f Hitler's personal·Ity would be of 'considerable .importance to psychiatry; "and the publication of Q' care;f'ully documented book

.:o~ t~e' subJect· wou.1Q not; only act aa a deterrent

. .

.. (publl~he4~n popula~ fo~) to ~ture would-be Hitlers,

. but woul.d Q" a .~gn,1..fiQant oontribution to sCIence.

2. B~tt~?~Jl'.~~~ .~n~ \~~,.'.P.~ss~tfon,.~f·.~.o·sr.il1tles.th~ afm shoul~ be eitner (1) to Dccelercte Hitler's

mental deterioration, to dr'-ve him :l.nsane; or (ii)

--.

to prevent h!JIl fX'o~ 1p,sur1..ng tpepe~petuat~on of his legend bY' ~n41.ng h11i,l1fq drams.t1callY and tragicaily.

There are verious pSYQhoiog~cal techniq'l,les available for acoelerat,-ng Hitler'" nervous breikdown,

but they ~ll not be QQDsidoreq here. None could be so certeiply efte·ctive as repeeted m+l'-tery ae bbac ka ,

We'abell limit ourselves to a few measures which

might serve (2 •. (a» to det~r Hltle~ frqm crranging

~ :

'S hero's .of' a mcrty:r's death tor b~el£, end, (2. (b» to melee l'Uln beliove thet the 1tutnortnUty ot his legend will not ~ufte~ It hQ t.alls into tpe bands of tho

/

Unlteq Nations~

··';~i

.' :<\~1~

- "36 -

,: .... ~

.,~ .

,2. (a ) Flood Germany with communications (leaflets, short-wave,long-wnve, orri~ial speeches, underground transmission from Sweden, SWitzerland, Turkey) telling the .people that H1t;le;t' cannot be

. trusted, .t~t he is planning (quoting Hess, strasser.

.. .

Hantstaengel, lta~schn1ng and other Ne~is in England

and Mier1ca) to l~~ve thelli treacherou~11 to their tate by gett11l8 h1m~elf killed. This will be a sly t:rlck of his to ~n"ure his own prestige and future

tSI1l6 •. Be Qoes not 'care tor. the German people; he caret! only .fQr his owp ~o~y. He 1~ no better tnana ses~ capta1n·whoquits his aMp, leny+ng his crew to

. :. .

<trown. . Drop vi,,~d oel'toons' ot 1I1 tie·r rua.hing ludlcraualy forward to h1~ death on theRu~sian front (out ~fa gul1~y consc1epce .over the noble Germans he has condemned to. ole there for his glory); also c~rtoons 01' ~is arrl1ng1Dg'to have himself shot, and othell's of his comln1ttlng suici,de. Interpret this os tbe ea81 Wa'1 out,s oo"a1'dly betraya;t of his people,

the aot of a bad oonscience,· the quintessence of vsn~ty. Warn the pe~ple agaill~t him •. the fal~o

. .

p:rophet,· the Judas Iaon:rlot ot tho .German Rovolution,

etC)etero.. If hundreqas of tho·so leaflets, pamphlets i

37 -

. . " .

• treamers.$1"e dropped over Berchtesgeden, the chances Cire tbet $oin~' of' thclD will 1'011 in p1eces where H1t1er twnseit .i8·1:J.kely: to cpme Oil th~m. He is very sus-

. eeptib1e to r1dicule, e~d it the cnrtoons are clever . ""enough tom~ke. suicide seem cowardly, grotesquc, or

. I·· . .

ridiculous', !t may be (7)noughto deter him. Predic ... tIon. .. ll,l $p~11 the stel"t+ing effect.

2. (b) Flood Germany '111 tb another series oE: qQ~1catlor;1~ tn whj.ch the p~ople are told that -tbe Naz! lea4,eX,';I wht) lea them 1nto this disastrous ... ~ a;re go.lng to be e~~~\lte" ~ ~~r ~.~~eJZt 'E:itl~l",

, .bo· wi.l1 be. eX1led to .Sa~n1f ReJ-ena where he -can pro04 • ove:~ h~a 81q~ tor. ~lle :rest Qf bta l~te. write DS

'I

11' ~a tl:lo~8ii.t tbet thl. lf8~ th.e IQost terrIble of all p1,lni~~ents. ~t 8ctu~11~ thll!1 Idee 8ho~ld appeal toH1tler., who greet~J a~lr.es Nepoieon and knows thnt the. ~Ja~oleonic legend W8S fostered by the man's la~t years at .Saint aelena~ Th~s treatment would

be ~etter t~an ;'sny he o'ould new be hoping to receive ·troDl Jlis eilemiQs. It ll1igllti p0!51t1.vely attra~t hi.m •. "He woul~ iJQ8g1ne'lUlll~elf paint1ns :tandscapes, writing ~s new 5lbl~; ena making p+an~ to~ an evon groater

Ge~n~"tevolut~db· t~ ·'be (H~rriec1 out in his name thir·ty

.!

yeors henoe r

. t - 38 -

._

By ,the repeated and not.too obvious use of these two ~essages Hitler wo~d be faced by a conflict between (1) a self-8lUlihilation which might be Ln-

., .terpt'eted as a, oowardly betrayal,. and (2) a peaceful

. old age at &a!nt Helena. He might choose the latter and so al,lo~ lUmselt to be t$kenby the Allies,_

Only latel\ trQulQ. be discover that ther~ was to be

no Sa~t Helena tor~. This t~1ck ot Q~S is

. ... .' . .. ...

, -

... jua1(i.t!.~ Ql' t~. ne()e~~lt1 ot preventing the reaur:r:-ec-

t1QIl of the me~ol''1 of Hi tlei' a..a a supeI'lD,B,ll to ;rouse rut~e gf)ne;ratlons ot c;t'1riJ1nals an:1 revolutionaries.

. ,

r,

s~ee~:i~B:,~; .. ,~;~;&.~:;!m~ft. ,o.t tne

lIasten1ns the Breudo*'n:"Or Get~fiiEjnt1 s Fa1 th in

. : ..... (~ i , .. ". .....,' : 4 .. ,. . is... • u J;. .). .:' ' :.: . ,

Hitler.- the GeJ'man people have 'pu~ their- .ho·le-trust in ·Hi tler _ lie 1, :tb~!J' ~man~ '1;.*,' ~6 .~li tar,. cormttander representing''''. 8pec1a~ ~18,s8 coUld be their man.

Having taken the entire respo~~~bl~lty .tor the· conduct

. ~

or ar~al:r:-s, he has Qeo~~ ~b.~~r.o~nsc~enc~ and so

relieved t.he~ teJD}20rl1l'ilZ .or wilt:' ·.The :-p2'itl~';',..:."" ..

. .. .... . .. :., ',.. ' ... ' '.:1-:\, . .

system and securit1-syste~ of eac~ individual Ger~n

is tnus baaed on Hltlel'''.' g~n!u$'and succeaa _ The

,. ,

bulk of the people' will not easily be persuaded of

"" .. '.' ; - ,~ _,- _. '-', . .

39 ...

his'incompetence and falsene.ss. They will cling as long as'possible to the illusion of his omniscience because without this they', have nothing. Vihen it

comes, the disenchantment will be sudden and catas- .

. .......,_ . -". . .'

tl.'Oph1c to ~German .~r.ale- 8~nerallI.

~eA~ltes oan rely on the march of physical eve.nts to b~lng about the eventual disenc~antment

ot t~e ~~rmAA people; ~ut since events will march taate;r &A4. tlle W~ YI~llend 'sooner if this d::l,senchanta'l8~t c.a:n be hastened by otp.er means, the Allies should no~ ov~r~oo~ the powe~ or wards to ohange sentiments and a.tt.~ tud.ea. 'l'h~ f?~loW1ng sugges:tions may prove

ot ~~e "{8.+U$o

l .. (a) T~Q~.;:iV~ ~~ ~;P$~1?a7ion.- One errect:J. v~ lnethQd lIo~d be. tl\"t o·t 1a:r~nttn6 .leaflets conta~~~s, t~e Pre.lnes, r~, ;~9"re~~~~nt~ of' German

• • ,I' . .' '. .' •

soldie:rs~'e¢elltllt~eri 2risone:r, The Gestapo could

.' .. ,5. ...•... _ . , " " •..•• _ '- , ,i .. ,. ,j, ,

hardly sUQceed in p~even~'~ious parents from

picking up these leaflets to obta~n the latest news

of theli" sons at tbe ~l'ont.' COllUllunications of tbi S sortm.1Sht. start' sOlJ1$wha t· as follows: NEViS FROM THE FRON~, 4mQng the 20~OOO Ge~ soldiers who surrendered to the Viorl,d A.r!rny in Sicily the following were happy

at the prospect of going to America, the land of free

..

speech and tree a¢tl.on: Corp. Hans Schmidt, Capt. Helnr1ch·Wlttels:-; et·c. ete. "Why are you laughing?" they were asked.. "Because; ~ they answered, "we' are golng to the, Unlted States; whe~eas 'you ere golng 'to the land 01' -the False Prophet and the Gestapol"

etc., etc.

We suggest that NEWS FRo},( THE FRONT be d;lstributed 'at'remler'weeklj ,1nte,:.val$, i"ke n newspaper; in

Ii '..~ .. _. .> .., t. :' .. 4 ." 4,

order th.ot t;l\e GemBne w11~ looJ'n to expe ef ~t,. and

. . . .~

look to~r4 to ltt $.~nce l~ W11;L eonteln news that they can ""t obta~ in apy other way,

'M~ed In with the 'lle.ts o~ German prisoners could be pr1.nted the mes~ag~, thtl~ 'we ,.,,~h t.G l,mpart to the; people.

1. (b )Nn~e foX' 'lU .. tIer .... In tQe minds ot Plany Germans ~l'.le wo~"IU tie~tt 1.s ~tl11 surrounded

, by slayer o~ l'everc·ntia1, t,eellngs whiQb protect his

lmag~ tr~ att~Q~.

Theretol'e ;l.t woul~ be better not

. ~ ~." '.'

to refer to h1m (except,oQeaf:\ionally) by name. Much more e;~bt11 cttectivo wQuld. be the ~se of another term; Falso pr_ophet oX' Fal=so Meas1,ah. Later more doroga.t'?X'Y tenas ... ,tb.e Anu:i teu);' Btl'a teg1.st J Corporal

~atnn, \11'01'14 Crlmi,nel No. ;l. .. m!snt po effective.

.... ,',- ..•... -.- .. ':

- 41 ~

/

, ,

1. (el ,Su1:l'S~ltUtlon' ota. Higher' Sy!bcil ...

The Gennan ~bI;lreetEl~!'i'ls~~cturt 'ls IOPrked by a strQng

.. n~ed t'o .or.h1,p~ Ql>e,l,' :a~d ·a~cr1ttQe. ''hen this can'

~. _ . . .....

. .

bt 't9C'i,Uu,ed.,on flom$ .ntltr .. ~odt th.e· Apsolute; the;

. .

~~D. $tatEl. the Fu.e,Qrfar if{! , t.n." al.'e happl' end b.$$ll tby ..

c.onaequeptil:-l, 1. t .• ~·l.l""bEt_ et..l.'~ t'o brealt tJl,EJir pl.'B.elent

~ '; • of' • •

al..ltg1enoe to liitle,.. 1t •. B~t1.'fs.Qtory subst1tut~ 1.$'

'.. ." ~ .

p"aEUi~$d.'l'hO ()tffJD.fltls wl11' not .read1ly accept a. \

" ( .

valu. tba~ 1', ld~ntified in thelr minds with. tb~

.. '.' .

,-

&spocial p~.t~rencea ,Of an enemr~nat1on (DemQcrac;y,

et4.1 ;"'1l'tirtlat 'be " $Pm~tb1rig':hl~hei';' something 'supra ...

_' .. ,;C, .. - '. -,,:

oa1;,!oli.aI tbll't .... 11' e%o1ttl the respe~t. er all peoples

. :. ,--. ..'. - , . .'

$.11k$ .... ~b.er •. '1~ • :'gre~t need, rio". rather tl.lan 14t'er, for '80l'!1' tOM otY.Torlt\' :Federat!on. e~t lO<?king 'th1$; the j.111e$- in thel~Dlessttge to 'GerllWny; .(l1:W\11~ lUI.$

1;(Jl"IDS tbDt suggest J.t;P, s.plxoit •. · !g~ln8t H1.tle,f.', tQ$

. .'. . ,. ...

P4lJ.se P:rol'he·tf ~be p:r~~agend1ats. sbould speck ot th$

Wo.rld','Conscierice (the 'name of God .can' nQt be Used

. .... . , . .-- .

wlt.hout 'hypocrisy), El~d should speak' of tbe forces

ot RUssia, Great; Britain, France, and the Amerions as

.

the World Armt., eN.B. Sugge~tlon fo~ one lenflet:

QUestlon:WhQ hEl,s seduced ,the Go:rmen people from

I •

. .

their tru.e· potb?Who has turned their hearts. agoln.t .

the Conscience of the World? ".Tho '!s responsible

thls t111le tOli Germany's encirclement by the World Army?).. . To. \)~, effective ,t~e terms "World Conscience"

. '

,

.. 42'~

~,.' ~1fOl'1ct Ar.b,i(·~~t 'b.~ tepeate<t frequ~ntlY.~'orld

. .

Pol;'oo' Po!' t&itt" 4i.~ . h. u804.

, "

1," Cd) A 'co11ect{OH" $h6~1c1 b~'mnde of

l!ns§ftse' "tJ:6m' tbe '111'*st ,illlexetil'gti-e6d,' o6111ftiri 'ot

.~ , . . ' .

, I&~t"':ld~~ de~U)~sttA~!ns •. ~$t'.· crnl,~al ~ontEil1iPt

; ,tilth" .... ea.' a~h' '_',,!mOll fa PlWN'l' "shQuld end

- • . . ;. J •

tr1 ttl'btl" ,~, th(UHt ~ qu:ota tteDs, ' ' ;

. ". .. .

, ' 1,. ($rt.etlt1tf«hi~~6t\.,'9>t·,n.lcr~·1dtli

.. i· " ._, ...

lIl'l,lJ j,611ft", .... Mi1# &~ltftt," pt'Oii 14et! the; l'itOde I, ~t)l' tfio'

'd~~e~:~en~' ot"th4 if 1 11; "Artf tlrtd' t1t~e~Pttb1t~1y.

. . ...

'Etzp-,oiilaG4 M$t;~mlt'tlt1.otf tot the t~lte.n l¢,nCi:dr.

. . ,

(~$: wd1'd$, 011 tMs paini7 t!'-hould bt)tcJ'p:1nte'd.)

Mu4do1:1ni'8 toll"will. do Di\1ch. to underruine Germa'n mox-aole, one! n,Q op~orttiJ:'Utt,' shOuld be 3ft1ssed", too ,', sti-6;'''th4J ,'C6ilrie6f;lo11 'bo~ween 'H1tirii'fei:dest1riy 'arica,

.0;. c.. i.. 5

'.

MUS$ollni t ~ 'd~t9~' ~ ',~~ !)oc~1n6. tInct 1.l'811 ,o~ ,the ,',

~h.1, A111tlbCt'I" '.

:r:..' (r)' ,~he·C6ncept1on'of·nestlril. '_ CMNinfU' b011eV:e' 'l"~,rede'stltuitio~, (the~; WflVC3l or t-he

.

tuwre) .. 'and a~U.' CODmrUil'1cat1ons Qdd~esaec1' to thelfi $hOUld \.

be written ns: it til. defoat of tho Fe1se prophet

.a" a ,foreton6 conclusion. Some meaaagea should

. '

COMOfrota tb4 'Voioe' of J{1storyt, '

1_ (.ell ,''l'Qldng ",Advantage , ot 'Hi tloi> tit'

'- ".,,,..; .

- 43 -

, \

Wan1rig,' ,~~ ri i ow. !1t.1J~,~" I pt:o 01's c p tc tus end rOl e in

'(le ~i!f" ~e11tl tUI a.t tbtt"- D1omont) ". nO', dcttn1 t;¢ 1T krH::>wt'l; ~t. t~ :4eCfCti$1ng t,ol\uoncf 'ot td~; ttPpes.~~Ot!3S la. '

~ ,

,p~()1)tlbl.l' aUG tQ Q' growiog '1ilt;gp$cUd~1 to fulfill, h~s

t01"Jnei" 1'unetlonJJ Hta ll1anttl,l. Gte.te' is' ev140ntly ctoter1.orat1ng.·' 'TWit should be 'r.:ssWnQd ln' talking

". .... • 'of

to' ,tho (kj~afi', pci6pl.o .. ' ' ,For 'example: \1N~ that

", '.. . . '

. " .. . .

l4u$$Qlln1 bQ$ C,oliapaec1, ancl Hi tlel1 1$ 1n the bands

, .'

, ( ,

ot Ulental spec.d.al1$t$~ wbnt has baeomo of the SpU;t1t

, , . .. ~ .

Q,t :Fas Q!tU1i"II , .Q~ tt~ lOU stlll bel:1.0vetho,ta man wbose se.,nlby .. Ms' boen' eompldtoll.' undel'XD1nad. by Gu1l t

• . ",' <, " ' :.. , . ~ .'.

Ct'ltile~d' tho' Get'Ulfln,'peopte to "lo.tot'y il'g~inst tho'

.' ~' ..

" W~rid -r It, '

... . ~ . _, . .

1'. (h)' GerutE'.Dr' So,' Onc 'remoil[lins 'All;:, 'Jop!s:t! e:

, ,'.,,' " i ' " ',', " ,,' ','" "

~.he N~z~ ro~lMa sh~uld' be (\0l'istant~1 coupled with

Japan in . .tIl ironical or sbt1r-ical MDnner. For QXamplElt

. . '. .

"Tho Naz!'s Qod, the1r bl~od~ brothers; tho JnpDnose; baV:e both ctcmonstroted' tb.~1r Wl111~gnoS$ to dio for

4

Satt-,n ... ~ this summer' one million of them hove thrown

, '

a:'W'BY tbqll' 11~o8 ttl a.f~tl1oattompt to destroy clvl11zatlot1." "Who lstospons1bla :for this ignoble

, ;

iongue of Germany and Jopanngai'nst theConsclonce

.,

of tho World?" "A fact to be oxp1ained: Goruio.ns

~i'e, dy1..g ev~ry do~ flght:!ng .ith Japanese, rigri1rist' Gormtln.~el'1c.nns .. ' Whr' 1$, tl:$t? V'lb.o 1$ responsible. tt

-44-

1 •. (1) . Munich Student Manifesto. - In

. planning .me.sa'sea tQ ·.G.rman1' hinta for one line ot . prop~.ndffcan be· Dbttl1ned tl'otn tb$ t~volu.tlonBr1

, .

manifesto dIstributed 18~t yeaI' bystudenta at the

. . ,

Unive~$lt, ot' t.tunl~h~· .

. "

2., Pe.i"-'t.~, ·'.ttfi.t.l·~t·~Wi1Jo··Cit1minal$.i"

_.' 4 i

'. ."...

2 ... hi) 'l,cl\o1oS!ea:l1, ·111 14 'impOrtant .

thatffttle»-; 'of' .tbt la.depot bb.. 'l1z1 Pel'tt~ '\:>I the c)ft. t,,· iUrJt&fid8ft and sign th~ peace tt'$st,.

'be '111$~ 'shO'tlld 1i1si$U oii ~h1t", $~d\t1d ,d'N!g tp$ gtUlsatef's. wi thttut cei'fJl1tOrty :f'~om thetr b~dil'lg pla,cGs ana force t.heift ttl algI!. (A. i1 tt.1e t,ickery at th1$

PG1nts. ;;o1Ud be ju.st:tt!e(1~) The.tems should be 'iEtve~(!i ·.t··t1rstM Lateto' whan a moro taprcsente.tiV'e

. .

g01te1'1Utl6nt has' been established the_'terms can be made

mOrEt·. lenient.' Thus in the fut1,U"o the dicttltors" Will.'

b~ recalled' in ·corinect10ti··W:i.th ·the··humiliation ot, tincondlt16n81'su~render; whereas tbo democratic gove~ttt 'will ~et the credit'or securing milder' terms.

. .

2. (b) A World Cour.t,at least one member

of which is a. SWiSS and one a ~1fedo. should irimu3diritelj Eubllsh:alist of' war oriminals, ell complete as possiblo, and neUtft.al countries should bit officially werned

I

\

,

;: '~'.: "'~ ::-~ ~.,.: .

, , .o:'~:r~'~:"";,~"'7"<~"TC::' .t: '£'" .-,.,;; '7''''~::: ,.~ '·7~<r" .. "'" ~.~ii'~'K\(';:~') '~':l'::;"7,,:,;,,:;.;:;~:.),1"~ '.<, i~'''~'':'<'-:' ,=;;'.;:, ".::- -:l

~-~

)

_' 45-

Tbs Al11es "boule be prepared to invade any oountry

I '

tba t hsi'hol'$, $ world' criminal.

' .. '

2.. (0) I The t,r1el ot the lifer crim1:nals

SQOUld ,btl, eQ~r1.ed o~t wIth' the' utmost de apabch , It

,. " " \' " ,

muat' 'not; b$- allowed 'to' drag on f'o~ months, as this

~:. i' .

.. ould.-g1~e the. GerJllQI'lS '. conv1nQlng impression, of 'our

.oral. .$akne$$ _a11Q lJ:?coiDpete.ncs. and postpone their l'$.setul;ratlQn~ In' conneQtlon with toe tria+ a short

. ~ . -,

r$~dable·bOQk'eQ.ouiu-be publfs~ed in Gel:'mSn explaining

# .- •

~he rUl,'t~e ot l~t:e:r.na.tlonal law (thEJ brotherhood

. ' .

'ot"n.,tions) ,and exposing the crimeS '6onmd tt-ed by the

t . ",' " ..

1a$~'1~t$' In A.,B.C:" language ..

. '. A pamphlet 'coml'e:r1ngthe terms of the Versailles,

. '

Treaty With G<3rmany!s method of dealing with oonquer~d

-CQu.ntries,should.be' given. wide oiroulation.

. o_... . .

, . ~'

Treatment of the German'people after the Cessation of HostilIties. ,-

X," t, ""\UU8d \b.at Ge~nf' will be invaded e,p~

. .

Oo4upl$Q '1,A..l.l1ed,toroes;tbAt a~tanlilously tho~

w111,b$ uptls.1ngs of slave labol' and of civilians in Qtoupie4 terr1~(jries;' \hat mUchG,r.rnan. blood will be

·""'illed' "".r" ' •

This 1:s' as it should be '_. a f1,. tt1,.ng Nemesis.

T~e'All1ed troops w111 ma~oh in and eventually resta~e.· ?rd,~ f This function of re,storing otder will make tbeir presenoe more aooeptabl. tfi 1;b.$'Qermans.

; ,

•. .• . ~.. .. - •. ~ .'. ,..-- - ot;'""".

-:.: ..... '=:t-- '~.

- 46-

. ' <, .; ".

, p80plEl :Pl'Otoutl(l1r ·~liet.4,-, ltE}tJtftttul, dl'en(lhnnted,

.' .. _" ,.

,de •• otd mO~8. ·MSpatl''U1- ot tbe t\lt~1i' MC'Wi 'hCQf1(i1d

• .. • ~, . I. _....... . 9'.

. . . ~ .

to o~e1Ln' art a1i~tHt" e.xt.i'Da:1 aU~borit;1f tIhey' will

... ba .. e no 4epenc1ab~Q 'llline",·_'SUlde:i be) CCJl1t',ol ~bav1"".

. ' .

"'lhel'fi : w1.11 ,be 4 .... 'VEl of' c:r!ttte and au1cidt.. 'Ape tby

\ r '. • "

". ~ll be' w14e.sp rce ad .• · , aav~rt. 11$$ •• 4 thrr:7U"b. It period

. .

at lntetna., tQ.1 • .ld._'11lnc& OQD,el'dttQu. GaJ'.Ul, ae ,f!

. .... .' . . .

. a~cl.1, .1Std 1Iill ,tall $.,..'r~~ etitth Dirut ta ·1fui'te,..

r , ,.tfi ~1'1d' lftot't1tlctt-tJiQlt Ut 'priftte.

,r11dO~ • .n1z.U(ln: _'nd Ci:i?~tuston w111bo g~net'al, ()ti'$ttt1irga '~.~n& '''Q~dt()fi c~tl ot .x~'rilme . '!ndl:v14ua 11 III 4 A OCulBtdet'aolle t>ar't at, the' pOpU:tatlon

. -. . . ~ . .. .

will bEt wefghtld dOd by 4. heaV', .·~eQ8Et ot. guilt.· which

,Sh'Ould.laad uc"l',reV'1val at Mb. __ Oll .. · TtlEl_Oll w1,11

\. .' ~". . . . . . . , - . .. '. '. . . . .

b$ latd ·to¥- A. tJPlrit\1$l ~g~nerQ t1on; and p(Jttbtlp •

. - . _.... "'. . .

, , '

.~b.e ~.lUI81 .~G' .,frt· will' £nbfJKU bite fut'tUte ~

,

. ,

.:' XU I. •.•• uttUl84 'th$t1, 1dm ,A.l,U$af wt.:U. demtUtai'ta..

i Ge'ra1'1Y,' 1111:\ 11\81 .... Q.t1 ~tt1dt~U:tti ~tl\ntee. against

. . .' .' .

~tiUrEf ;.crortal'trlllo!;fJ,; ~11 take IItep. tollqtd.b~«·

Ult& J~. Cla~~:t -.1.11 pl'eveht ~tU"DIaDlet1t and the

..

nd.$us.e of. ra,w metenala.· As Dr. F'6erste~ has said':

. ~ . . . . .

fa' .6fi peace ',fO~ "Ge~n;y will 'be: a 'veri 'hard 'peace

, tortt)$; German people, doliverlifg'them to the Prussiar1

. I

caste who led them a$t~,.. t

, .

":f'~: .• "l

~ ..

t.·

, '

f~ .

.. ".

r ·i~

I

47 -

.. ·.Qt~bC pti.rJfUUi4l'1is. hO-WCVQt?-, CU" achieved by ."~b. .$t\$\U'$At Q.1o~e. Wbat La 1'.q~S'G~. 1. Q._lF'ofoun,. 4M"orI1"., !to G<t.~btti: •. ttS.hQ~h ab.n<l()n~8t1t Of the

.: .' .. ' . ,- - '. -_. l j., .,'. . s

,1~~Ul (1) . that' .thEfY S~. lnrlil~olt tlu_pert.or: <,t tti$i$

.tb6lf8l'"$ ·4est1044 t.o gover.n t~ ear-th; (-3 )t~t t~ere

,. '

.. 1s 'nQ ~ti l$.W Ot1 &'Il1(hol."l tv ,b1gha~ t'hatt ,1\$ I!tQ04

, . • . .~ 01

':' 1)t' tb~ Germstl Stab. f (4) . tba t p.0"".'. 1$· to be ~411i1J;ted

·~bo:t·e. e~aprth1t1gJ ami' ($.}tbatr ~1gtit II111kea ~cbtli

. . iC tl'oet'{na tJ:ie.ck~a "$.lobt'11ogl4allt 1ft tn\1st

'. -

l'flf(lUze tbet· .•• Q~$ de.ling 'fltn.s 'n&tl~n sut:t'oltlng.

. . . .

. .

fltolll paXta1\~1d .trfln.c1, t 4$ 111$1 on: .. '0£ gr:andau»; ·delus.ions

'" . ~ '. . .. .

. . '

at pf1rie~u~tIO.Q: g.tlotc>\1d. ba~~(i~ of $t~Cl\g ot'-PQtlet1ta

,

ad :o6niempt ot wQQicoPll'QO(Ult.; ~f:rog~nCe I Buap1.<lt~sne$a;

f. . ~. •

.. .,.

and 'tit'!v, ~ ell 0# .b1olt 10..$ ,'bsei\ b\l11~ up il.a'-" I.'eact1ofi

t.o.·an .ag~~Q14 ·1.Atqt.1Q~i;t;.·¢:ct>1iu!l.e*,· a.*.' ... ·4elilr •. t.~.

• ..' .. . -x

I

~ ~jlZt$'O t.~.!~p,~ .

Pos.lb1", the tlt-a-t lour a~ep$ in tM troatnisnt

'.. . .

01: a st~~1()<, p~i"Qti(jut pGtsQti!lj.tf ~':ttG acl&pte4 to th6J

" ot)n"~l'.i()i1 of QCii~' •. It.tabt~m.pt1tlg this ,,$ 1JlUst ' . ftQ', tQ"'.~· tbAt1 Ulla (lOUi'C' of, tlctl" psy¢h1<J :d-c-~ess. 1$.i~Aa~' Sid! •.

First Step.- The'physician must gc.ln tho 'rospectof the patIent.

J

(1) lridi~idlAal paranoid .... Pat'ano1dft

, cap- not ~, t~et'tQd Q\\o~~HUlf1l11y 'it' ther e.r·s not Unpl'Cl$$od

, .. \

48 -

" '

(00n'l,,101181, 61' uneonsctously) by the ability, knowledge,

, ~, . '. .

. trtt4pl1h . ~x':"'l'bapa 1iG.,. Of8cPetic fo~cEt¥ at the physiCian.

'.' I . ..' . ,

'S~.Cst.f eU.b •• at s~t1ilthi 'bEl' mart. to "6blE1V~ .

~.' ';

. this' encl" $~nc. p .. ran.ot~. J' betti" tull . r:tI .ct>tn I aX'1

hot 8,.'1 be) lm~'II •

. , ; .'

" .

. . (11) ~~nl'''' 1'h6 bagtmtnta that

.' "

OO&u" C.l'ibaft,. ·.h6uld-' :1>8' tbe :tine $t tlia t 'th. 'Obi ted '. .

.1· /'

. .

I. ts. ati't' CAli ,$ s'iGiIlbl.·.·... PI! g~lrIet\t.. wi ~h I M $tot', ()t"

> ,

".tct~l't$a. ~.poled ';,;t ,ta!11.' w)t.cULtOlpltne«, _oldia!'$

! .

, i "

No.dlne~$ and'dX'Uhkeri'"

Q01'lli>Ell1sd t-o A91t = "TheS$ aM' splEttidld m~l\, not the:' weak d,gei'i~rti'tEu .. (~emo~rat·1c.' 801<11eI'8) ot' barbari41tltl (tti1~.a1Ih~· eoidtet'.)· ",e" wel"e'led to expect. ft ~he~ Get'"" .

, .

." .

,

'~.""tbl . Seo'ond star.- The'l'0terit1al woiotti or the pat ent should be tully I

.. ... ackriowlOdgod.

~ .' .

(1) . lrid1 vidual paranoid., .... 'lihe 1n ..

, ., '

dW(tll1ftg, 'buMl1ng hunger -'()f the ~~ra~o~c! i$ :fbI" recognl-

, .• ...-J' .'

.tton.: poWet· and glolt1 ... praise 'from th6S0 whom be

- ~ ,

l'espects, , ~s '~ger I!Iho~14 be appeased' as soon

, .

Is posa1b14,'eo' that the,parBn~id thinks to himsel,f:

ftil'h$, ,great ':rnln. tl,p~Qciates me ~ TOgether "e can :faoe the."orla." tt.ts as if'hO thought: ~tJe itl,God the l,i'athelt and I aIll 1'11$ ohosen son.'

~. . .

"

.,:_

",

i:

'(J

···~-";;';t., <,.~~.~.'~ .... ..,.-:. """",,:.. ::';-;'1." ",:4'.::,L/'!: '.:.~'. ,.- ; -:t "i:> .. :_(,... _ :;~ ". ::_ .. "

, '

- 49 -

,

'(11), German'.... Germany's country-

" S4..4e" 1,t,s" mUsic, btstor.ic culture and mOnuments of'

. , .

'be«utr $b.Oul,d bQ apPl'ocla to4:' and, 'prai$ed~. 'Tho army,

ot 'C)ccu":d~tlon' shoUld .nltest· -1ntonsp 1btare-at in the

., . .

c:ultU1:':Got Old Germ~nl and 'OOltlplcte: 1nd1fterebO$ to

. . '. '. . - . .-

ail :ree~~t'_ develoPJ21artt$'. The' ,tt:OOP$' should. be Initruqte,d a.~ct ooache'cf bY"le'ct~es' a,nd ,gU1de .. bboks" cQvattlng thea

. . , ,

districtJthey Will oetluPY. 'TheY' ahould bo,told that,

thE! wr, -is 'not woo, urit~i "th~ hQart at tb..a, Gennaxl'

" . (

, peopl~ bas. been won •

.

, '(]or.nans· of tbe old'~chQ~l ahould be hired. to

teach," thQ German; '+anguag~; to guido tho ~ol(U .. ers

... . .. .

, I, t' " ,

on to'Ul.'$ 0 ,thG aoun,tl."y and of ?J1U$OUlnS, I to teeo~,

I , ,

'native'.arts and skills. Conc.ert.sshgu14 bQ arx-aDsed"

~ - .

om1t'tl,ng, p1:'eo6s t~~ l¥lv~ been specially' favored by

. '

the 'NaziS'. Ed1t:1,ooG of" books ~ned' by 'the Nazis

. '.' . . ~. -

.should. 'b~ pu'bl1$h~d Eln(1 put on silla :1,mmad1tltelr. ' .,

, '

All thi. .1il, ,$efvE') Q' double pu.~pesa. :!t. will

proV'i.dij', edu.eQ t1"'oll tOll ou.t' tt'Oop$ and occupy their 'titaa;. thu. htiI'lping to maintain morale. Also the $u'biJ),rged 1nfc::rlol"'i ty t~el~ne$' and re-SQntmont$ of

. '

the aermafi.~'wll1 00 allevie\ed. "

. \ "

" .

..

50 -

.... ',

3. (0) Third' Stop.;- Insight· shou1d be tactfully .-··PX'ov1aed, a 11tt10 at a timo.

i . .

. ~

·.s to hie 0_ paranoid ~chet:l1$iilS.· ttX-ld$ 1ft baing .

..., • • I •

~crlt101,eb.16 and e.~W$f$ 1A til& t1.ght miUt~ :'be Sl'adu ...

allt ~p18oed "1 Pl:'14t in ~G1.nll··a:b14 .to risli above

. . ,

bts .: own: -oba~lelba $nd ·.crt t1C!te.· tdlt1$olt;: prt~$ ,-n' '

. .

'. -. - . -. . '- ' .. ', ,. . _. -. ., . ", -' . . - .. ,"

being _trong ',enottgb to ~dmlt $0$6 .e,$kneuu~e, aDO erros ~

. . . .

}{t .~tJu,J4.·bEl .~E; ~~ ~d.t.tan4 that b, ,bett 'been

t "

v.te~ls.e4 .1>.; .,@'()9tl~H;tt.'rQ.$· gorCe$ which S$inad control

. ' -; .

o~~~ ·hi, pt't)pe·).' self" . During the OOU1'ae of these t~'lk$ th(9. phlstcif!n ShQuld fX"delV contEJ$$ his own

<;

we,a~ne8ses end errol's', the patient be-in.it. treated

as ari equal.

'.'

'" .. ' (11) Germany_ .. Tht1 last ten years

. o~G~X'Diart· h1$·tOtt,'-· ~hOulc!r be' ·i~te.rpre'ted as ~ violent . l~C1ctlQUSf$"~"rt,; PR$Q~B$1on~Qt,t~ spirt t; .blch

, to~k' .bo14 ~t the ~~·ople. as soon 'as they ~ve' oa~ to

.' .

. the taii~ prophet,' of F$sc:lsDh

• l' ~

\ . A $e~1e. of atot101ed, aditorials. 'e~$n1s and short b·OOkS·"h9'!14 ... :p$·:~itt(!it· no" br GGrlnani, in tbls oountry ('t!iQl!l$d Jial'1t'l, ttettibold.N1ebu~, FQoroatet', f1fid other.);'

. . ~

( ~l9.od possibly PY' suggesttol1$ t~Ota pS'1ob!atristll,'

t~ '0$ pUbl1$hlJd in G~Nnn rtetlapapsrs Drill .d·1atr1buf}ed

. .

.. ..

.....

'f

:' ...

.... ,

,=,;

~:': .

-, 'f .

. ":'" .,~ ,...r ~.- ~. :"'-:.... ." ~~'l":"'" :-.~,,;.'.. • c .. -t; : ..•• ,,...~ ._ .. ,: •.•. "'!.; ;:..~ _~

- 51 -

. "

, .. ooi· at-ttl' ,t,b.¢ oooupo.tiOn.. 'rh0Y', tlM\Ua, DO' tllc:t'apeutle

. .. . . ~ ..

. '~·$t.~l.\fa o'~ntlall1. .... p~"'b&P.' a!$fi04' ~fQ;' '~etq. de pl~e

,'0\ '". • .. I '. •

~·S It on! t.t~n bl a$ttli . .{lt4.r I. _p.bJ$.!ol.n·, ."". 1N5. t.tt

.t.n .G4_ri;.

" ,

NQ.-'1f~Q DtUoh S;h.Qu1d: be. sald l'n en, onQ' pape~1·

w~~ ln t,.mei t)b.e 11011, ·_del.~to.ntll tl"e:$ohe1"l·~I:· ~nd Ct'l~$: ot thO Na~$.· S'~~14, p.. ~(lv14tVt.ccl' (ibj()ettllie11 ~~,li£.tQ~~l. .equei1C).E;. ,~~' G4l1flAi\ ~op.l(i $.bplild be

. ' .

tUn'. ta. upLStlratlilnQ; tlaattbti .Qv~4· iie.MEf bh~tti: Q,~

, ,

. . . .

.~tt1.ag' and unhClpprv.1e,tUta 'Cit 1n$tln~tul1' faM.es;;

. .

TM·.ll1:Qssbould 1)$ magilt'tiimO'\;i.$ et)6i1gb to' admit

tholJ;"o'Wll errore and 'm1tid0odS oj" •

p'ourth' step .... The' pti t1ent'jihould .t)Q Ipsoc1ated in'~ ,group.

"

(1 )

, , ,

atta:llU)d. a me~sv.re ot satisfaction by wtnid.1'1g tb.e

;' • r .

• ' •. ' • I

~QPo~t and,' friendship ()t lita. phfs1c1nn and thea having

ga~o4, $OttlO '1.n$~SJl.t a~d contl'ol, tit?, prtlC)nt ~a': :r~9dt

. .." .

,tOl' g}.'0up tb.o~$.P1.· tatE1P; he can be p<3rsua4od to

, . . .'.'

. '.. .

jQi~ o:~te14" ~oupa4 Cl:~dliQl1t b.E;i MUst lo~rtl to ~Qke .

h1$ plnC6 and c:t()0poliflt~ 0,,0 an oqual belJ1~ W1t.h. ot'hc:N3: •

. " . i, . • J

Tlul group b$ . j·Q1na sb0\110 1:1$"ir0 Q ioQ.l •

• r

. '

"

.. .' I

.,.,Q,\' ,-

v-: 't

':'.,.-,

'::'·:,~"k;?~'i;~

. .,'

(ii) Germanl.- If Germany is to

• l i .,'

be. converted, it, is 'of the utmo,st importance that

some strong end efficient super-government 'be esta~,' -:,~ lished as soon r1spossible, provid~ng a 'new world conscience, that he:r people can reapecb , : As said above, Germans must, have someth1fig to look up to - a God,

a Fuehrer, an Absolute, a national ideal. It can

, '

not be a rival nation, or a' ·temporary alliance of

" -

'nations.' It must be a body - a strong body with

fa p.olice.force ... which stands above any single state • ,A supranational symb,ol would .eventually attract .bhe

, ,

deference that is now focussed upon Hitler. Lacking such e symbol, meny Germe.ns will ~ert~inly tall into a state of profound disll1usi~nment and despair.

. ' . ' .

At'the proper time Ge1'many shoul~ be insocieted as

an equal in whatever l.e~'gue or fed$ration of nations b8's. been, established.

, F't'om her,S oD,.the'therapy of a lfingle paranoid pe~sonalit1 feils as an onalogy; principally because the German people will not be in ~he position of a patient .. ho, comes willingly to ,the physiciat:l's office.

, The Nazis 1'1l~ be in no mood to be educated 'by their, eneDiies., Furthermore it would be very presumptuous of us to try it. The most that the'Allies could do

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~ir.

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53 -

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,·1rc>u.14 'b$ tQ ol.oSe ,nIl schoo.ls and universlties,until

n •• o..ntt.!&sclsU' 'tencher~ :and faculties had been

. .. .' '. ~

H.Q~ltil.l~·.'lbil,·s.reatest problem will be' 1n dealing

. .

wita ~ .liol$ "tlertAtionot b~talize9 .and ~rdened

t. • ~ . ". .

..... . .

10lUlg N~_:a. (P$rbSpsexlUbl~1on games of' soccer;

,footbal.l, lact()$s6t'nd baseball between ,American. , an~.Eng118h regtments would serve to introduce ideas ot· ~aitt ',tay _flO sportsmanship; but much else must be 400 a . ~.·Pi"·.ge,rnien educators.)'

'. 'Q~,tb$' conversion of Germany the. most effective ~aenc1. will. 'b$ $ome·form_o1:.,,-orld·f'ederet16ri. Witb.:

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JApoX't&.nt C<Ui8eq\lences it

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History

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. ~ -- ::';:-\ /?~:~r11i~:=r~.::-·i)}.~;; . >:: ,,:f.~~: r~~ ~'~'-:' ': -:/"!:;r- ~ .~~ :

.' -. ", \ .'. ..• :.: .• ~.- .... ,:: .. <.:>. ' .• '.:. .

':., .

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by ,

". 11 .. 1) .. 'fet'non (Iarva;r~' . 'I1n1 '{f.~a1 t., ,

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.' .

. . ';1;'1\_. PUJ'l)O$ti Ot- tb1a l,)ape~ 18 to bring togetheJi . in bt*1et' t~~xa wti$ t~ iakno.n. a_out~dolt' Hi tle~ alS

1.\ man;' FO»~ it al1:'«4 8t~t\t.ectsts could peer "i~8ide

. . . -. . '. '.

ltttle¥tft al1q adap~,"~hett: tthU.gY,to what they. t1~.

tbet'<t, ~t '~. lt~~1i 'tbat the.Winning at tbe war would" . 'be apeedsci,; rt· ~It ,. 'adal~ted, to begin lfith, that thd" lntr14."olt!t' Qt:~,.o 6 QllPl ••. I personality would

'be diffl~t 6n~sh:~a ~.,,$~~ .~re . the a.ubject preaent . and oQ:ol;lerti ting itl th~ tatl~'~ ltit there are two turtbflr ¢liff1eul t1" ·btl be' 'flU~tcl i,', Ottt IrlU3t' attempt both to

, .

seleet- out o.t t,b- •. · grea'b: 1t!ltJa of material which has

'. ,

b'e;enwrltten about,' !Ut1$:tf; that-"whioh appears to be'

. '1

objeotitie. reporting an4 'hen .t'urthe rto reconstruot

his personality o.n, the basis of' this verY' inadequate

,

·psyohological'data.' We bsve, of counse , as primary

source material, Hitler 's" own writings and speeches and these tell us a good deal .• ' Though weun.lst admit,

. ' . " . ~

therefore, at its beginnln~ that the nature ot our

, '

analysis 'is ve~1 tentative and that 1n many 1nstances

. ',:; ~ , '

''''~7''~''''(;:'t''~:~''<~'?::9:':':\:'t·''1.':'':~''-J''f~: :,,' ";

r.:

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onl, 1.~tec·~o~t' ocn 'bEl g1 'feft tot' tJ;l.8 inferenCes

,~ , wb1cll are 4rfl'lm_ 1~ i.sfte 1IIoN tentative t~l\ the

.. .

P81Cho10g1~1.·.peft l'iCtUl-08 '1;htch the '1I'czia ,t;h~triselve.

~:'~~ , be.. ,to(ttl4 IJ" u. ElM C 3 ) ..

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~'8 ORIGntSAND !ARty Lm

In all, c,Ree stud1 one must begin by tlskin,8 who

:; the sub-jeo'b 1.8,' .000 hl~riJne i_ho were his i'orbonrs.

. ,

, .: ', ...... :

"ntl~~'a tll~~~l't A10S.,_ .~s born the illegitimate, son 'ot .ria AtlQ.: SQMckl~be~ in 1837 ,ln .the villnge'

, ,I', '

ot Spltal. ',S. _0 'juppose4, to be ,the son ot Johnnn Georg B1edler. How$.er, to his tortieth yep~; Al01. bote th. neine ot his tDother SQhiQklgruber. On11 then. whenaeorg li1e'dlet:' wns' (it stille-llve)2 el.ghty-t1ve 1eerlf or ,oge, nnd thiJ't1-f1ve :rears. nfte%' the death ot: his mother. did he tr-ke tho'n~mo Hitler;

. '

the meidon nome ot ~s lSlother-1n-lnw •. As Heiden SElys, "In the lite history ~t Adolf Hitler no mention is, ever mndo or', the grt'nd~~()nta. on bis, t~th<3l" s $i(1o,

. , . \.

1 Jenunry 5', 187'1

2 There'seems to bo no rocord ot hiD donth.

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- fu, C.tl1J.ls lft,:varlali'lr "t •• oAl, 'Q bLa _ther'. "1I\,~'OPlt, Tt:wl'~" Il~ -~t, ~~ .. , tic) ',~gest that

, .

A~lt lttt~'~t .. p'~n4ttil~l)t~ w.ea rll~' JOl:vlnn Georg ·B1e~i.~._

\ill' 'U) ~knl>._ IIifln~ (8,&). TM .ft434Iltor8 on both

alAes (Jt the tem1.1j' Wt'VEI p$Q.cult , • .,1, of the d1.Vt~t

. Qf WJ1.1""I1ertf1~,. h1,blr tlllte.rete and .tJt:'1 inbt-ed ('i, 81.,

. '

. . 'Alo1$"K1~,J$r, at tl~.ts a Qobblel-, had b7 the ,as'

. . ,. .,. ,

'It fortt, 'aob.1~'V84 tba PQ.ltion O£.n AU$trian c~t(>ml

ottio1.tll. 'l'-bel aduo.t$.o. tor t1il1a position wt'a the .

'. • I

.ontr~b\lt.lfn ~t 1118 ti.r.' 1dfe j A.na Glnsl, who, tl~oen

lO$~a', bia.- "4~lQ~, ,d1$4 ttl 18~. I1sspcond wite, \

. whD~ be _r.-le4 8,1xwoek' l..n,e~i died l.n a. yel'!r, 004

. .~ . .'

three ntoe~n. lll,e'J', oil .r.#l:uaX'J '"" leas (5)_ he marti-.el

lUCll"a P041,1. a g'atf)lJlt' IO\ls1n,

til nPPCll).ltano$ ne1deQ has' ,corupe.red Alois to

I . .,'

llindenbUl·g., (i) .. ' Gunther (5) describes his picturo

, . '

,as showing a big!, round; heirless skull; small,

' ..

shnrP, wickode1es j b1g bicyclo-handle moustnchio's;

and heavy chin. 'H~ was a hersh, stern, ambitious, and punctilious men (5; 8).

Alois' wife, Klora, is describod (5) as being

a tall, nervous young woman, not as strong as most ;; , peasant stock, 'who 'ron otf to Vienna 08 a girl to

'_ ..

i 't

·.~;:,f:,';:,7!fY;':,~;lt'~re~':~; :,~'~~, ':' ,

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- 57 -,

return att.,· un ,..~. (6 d.Sting eiUJapad. to%' one in' her s "1.1 .tt1l11').·.· 1'. lit do4'bOl' (1) deseri be s bel'

. .

tn 11e t . eat-1, fo.t1. it •• tall, ~ tlt bt-ownlsb ha.il'

., '

.etl': plaited •• IGn, O'If.IIl tUf ersd beautifully exPres.1ft ~ • ., 'blu ""8'41 , A 'Itlftp1t,moclest, kindly

WOJIBil •.

\

Adolt lU~l.t-. bort$ i,,'188', es fei' 8'S can be,

a~certal_4~ ft. 'Aloi., -filth ''Child,' the' third ot

..' . .' -,

his own mothel' but' thl t'1:t.'. to· live more than two'

,ears.4 . fa1. '1~ ~14 'fun. '1ft'" I large tactor in cbannell1ftg tbe ssre'~t ett.et1oft, fo1.- Adolf' which all

"

the e.idoDc,,' s.81II1 to $hO" sM Dore him. In return;

...

, Adolt, wbo t .. re4~an<S opposed his tather ..... as he h1mseitadmib'~. ga1fe .11.his attectiQr1' tOh1s Jbothet-, tild· 'waft she died ot cence. i1'l 1905 he waa pl'()S~r8t.d 1t11;b It-'lef (,S; 9, 1).

Adolf as a boy and touth was samewhat tall, .

, -

,sallow and ,old for his ege, 'tr1thlarge melancholy

thoughttu~ eyes.," He !Bs neither robust nol' sickly, and 'with but the. usus I. infJ'oqu~mj; 1111JD~Jlt8' »t 8, , ,

:5 Hei~en points out that the uneertain details at Hitler's tamily have had to be colle~ted rrom stray publications, that Hitler is retioent to the point ot aroustng suspicion. ~bout his lito story ,<S}. '

4 Alois' children we~e Alois, 1882 (son by first wite); Angela, 1883' (daughter by aecond wite);'Gustav, 1885- 1887; a daughter, l88e-l88~; Adolt, 1889; Edmund, 1894-1900;' Paula, 1895 or 1896 (children by thir~ wIte).

.. : ... .:., .

.. _ 58 •

, .

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ctmot1 ~.cl li.~al nUet '(9) ht b.la. ~~tOl' ee78

,tt110" . (1) .,' ila I'Goreatioa •. weH_ub ep "lera h'~e "-.

, '

\'f¥ll;.~. U\ tat, mouato.""", ".t_1 •• 1&1 the J)enube. ead .

'.flq,1ng J'e.D1mo:~ 'o.oc)J4tt$IlQ Karl IlAl.5 A quiet,;'

....., .

.,eil ... mell~er.4 _tOut. ,ho' ,lLV$d .. '1f1 til b4Jnselr. 6

. ,:" About A4f)lt·':~':eQrl,.a~c.tl01'1 .• $ kn~ little

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e~cept wbe1a 1:1$ b:titelt .~.ll. 111 - ... that. he 8$rly

, ~ .. . .

~~1;ed to ,1>$ aD. artle't J'."tbattht8. outraged hi. tather,

. , ~ ... . ..

whQ s~8l"l.l11 d.t.e_Il8.d' to. J:bBk$ .• good civIl so~ant

~ him; 'tl;W't' tlltHlIe, a ,..'rpetv.al struggle betw~on

..... .

t~ two. Wttb. hi .. JlU)tliler .,ding wi tb .dolt .and finall,.

J $ending him"ort to V1eQna t,o eO!Dplete his art 'education ",ben his f'ath.l! 4ted.. E'&tGPJ;' f'or history and geogroph,. ,.,h1ch caught h~.' UI.gitU~tlt)n be neglected h1s studies,

v .

to t'ind in Vianna, _beg be .. f'['11ed }U.s art examination. th£!t his lack of' forme.l oducation _s n barrier to

, .

entering the architeotural $chool.

, ... ~t the age of' nineteen" when his mother died,

he went t~ Vienna to spend there three lonelr and Di1aerable yeers ~ living in, "f'lop-housesft (7), akins ou~ a living by begging, shoveling snow, peddling

5 A Gorman author of Indian stories.

S'This in contrast to Hitler's own account ot himself as a bIt of' a young tough (9).

t '

.. sf.

'b,is 0_ poatc .. t-ds, W01"k1rt& as a bod-carrial' 0;.. c8iJU.1 1.~"" &t- aft, $6~t e : U!peliiil i46til 'ba~n:ttt '41'f.tal. 11 •••. hi .. ~~t4.-S8tld. ti •• and ~ftt~Slt!lvl51f1,' his antl-

. ; $4 ••• ,.t *1~ .tWt.:~ tft 1912' he. _rtf) io' Mtin!~h an4 '

. t.h.H "I'. '!_t4t~C61~. '-.rtist.i Jtictute pos1)carct' painter" tec~ie.l 'draftsmall .nd o'C()asl0iUll !louse .... painter

'iitl',r 'menaced '-~o tam flome, sort at 8 living" (8, 25). Ii, 1914 ',he en1iated itl the arm1 ~1th great enthusiasm, p~~tormed bta' dut1a.·wltb. d1s~1notlon and bray~r",'1 wsa

• _ . • ".. f' .

wo\Ulded, sent homat01'8COV8r,' an~ 1fi ,!«arch, 1917, .

. _8 back at the tront.

lIe .as aloof trom comrs.des 1

~e.lou4 11'1 his duty, and very lonely. Through al,1 the. weI' ~ reeeivedno letter or pal"cel (8).

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The .al', ove.%" and with no ho~ togo to, Hitler

in 1919 .... PPo!rlted·sD eSp'ion~g. ~gent of the;

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insurgent Relcb4wehPwh1eh bed j~st put "down the

Soviet Republ~c in Vunich.

",

Shortlt th$~e8fter he

cpme in contnct with Anton Drexler snd what wes to " , becOme leter the :aaz1. part,. had its beginning •

. ~ther than this 1 t is ilot l'le'cessary to follow Hitler*s political history_ It ~s too wo11 known

~nd the basic structur~ of his pereona1ity ~~s slready

7 111,11 t~r,. aWllrds were: Regj,mente] D1pl(\mtl tQr Conspicuous Bravery, Jlilitsry Cross fo'1.' D1stinguished Servico,Th1rd Closs, The Black Wounded Badge, ond· The Iron Cross, First C1.ass. (8) ..

~f,;G'~:' ",

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'f''()rmed~ " .Leter YBars ·heve orily broug~t to fru1tlop ·latent·. tendenei.as and lef.d the' finnl product open tor ttle world· to wonder at.. We Dmat' now turn to "n aloser e~aD1inntloQ of this stl'uctw-e.

,

H~TLER 'S PERSONAL ,AP.PEARANCE AND MANNER

por~raits,or moving pictures of Hitler ore common

~

enough, yet it is well to draw attention to.various

aspects of his physique. To most nOD-Nazis Hitler MS no parti.cular attraction. He resembles a seoond~ rate waiter. He is a.smallish man, slightly under average height. H1s forehend is slightly receding end his nose somawb,a't incoDgtt:P1S witb the l;'8st ot

his face. The latter 1s sODlawbat soit, his lip.

, I

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thin" end the whole tao$ expressionless. The 8y8S ar.~ a 'neutral gr~y which tend to take on the colQ1". o~' theik' momentary sux:roundings_8 The look tend. to be storlngor deed ,pnd lecking in sparkle. There i. aa ·eli·sQntl.$11y tem1JU.l'ls qiual.i ty about his paraOe wh1.·Qb. 18 portl:'aysd particularly in his str1~nglJ '

) " . ", .

well-sMp6O, £lnd folxpretilslv-e hands (2; EI; 13; et 81 .. ).'

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H1tlelt's lQ6Inner is essent1e..lly QwkwQr4, cn4 all ht,. moV'.e~ent8 jerky except :perhe,pa 'the ge8~" of

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8~hlG: tsct has caused en amazing ·nm.nbel' ot dltteren~. QGs.@,"ptiona ot hiG nQtual. eye color.

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bis bands. He nppeal'lS sh~ ond 111 a tease; 1n' oompany and seems seldom ca·PQble ofcflrry1.ng on eonversnt1on. USUE!ll:y he, decrlo1ma while his associates 11ste,n. He often .eem. listless.and·mood,.. This is 1n msrked contrast to :tbe drsmntic' energy ot his sl'eeehes and his skillful I'la1 'Upon the ,emotions o~ his· 'Vast 8uc:llenQes~ .evel"1 changing mood ot which he, appe~rs

to perceIve Gnd to turn to hIs own purpt)se,s. At times he Is conc1l1Qto~11' nt ethel' tImes, he maY' bur'st into viOlent. tempel,' tantrums, if bis wh1DJS, 81'~ checked 1n 'any wal .1(16).

ATTITUDES, TRAITS,ANn NEEDS CHARACTERISTIC OF HITLER . Attitudes townrd 'NatUre~ 'Fate~ :Rel1g1on. ::"Ffrst and, last words ere often s1gn1f1cant. ~el~'KSmpt

,

begins wlth'~ sentIment of grptltude to Fate, end

I " '" '

almost its lest poregl1",ph appeals for v1nd1cat1on'

td the Goddess of History. ~owever, all through

. the bOOk thePs' ere referenoes to Etornei NE\ture,

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Prov1dence, and Dest1ny_ . "Therefore, I'believe tode'y

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I em acting 1n the sense ot the AlmIghty creator:

"/. '.\ ,.

by warding oft the. Jews 1 '8Dt f1ghting tor the t.~~df S

wo~'tt (9; ail. This feelIng ot be1ng dlre·cted hr· greet 1'orc08 outs:1de one,' or', doIng the Lord f a work,

Is th$ essence ot-the ,teellng of the re,l.lgious .ystio,:,

No Dlflttet- how ~gl).n Hitler's ctbiQal and 8~C)1a~;1dchui

,

~n1 be, t.hey have e. qu£lity compt1l'nble to l'el1g1olUt

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'experience.

,

Mo~eC)ve1", all through his seta end "0""",

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b,oth spoke~ and written, 18 this e~~t-emG e~a&sel't.t1on

, I

~f his· own selt·importanoe -. be truly t.ela his

dlrlne mission (l~), even to the pOint ot tOt'OS~~~bg ~ ,$rtyr.! s de~th (is). .'

As far as. outhor1~ed ~ellg1on ~s cOnceraed" ,

~ tlel' rocegn~ze<! both 1 te ,str,ength ~n.~ W~Qktlelleo8, (9; 12) "and Qdopted free:\.1 whoteyex- he. toqqd' 1S~V'toe.·

. .' .' . .,

able for h1s elm'ends. 'rbht be 8tl'1kea dOWJ.'1 Protestant ,aDd Ca1iholle Dl1ko'ls due. merely 1;)0" the' '~J'lv~'tl~n '~bnt· thes~ rellg1on$.~re but old h~8k8 and mujt g1ye Wltyt.to ~he new'(9).

T~wtlrcl conscienoe his attitude 18·.'d~1 on_.

, one the, one. 'nand be repudiates it liS an' eth1Q&l : guide, henping oontempt on 1 t aa. a '~o~'$h Ibventl0~. a }:)lemteh l1ke'clroUDle18~on (143}. ·B:e aCQrne a$

tOi:>lS ,thl)$$ whQ "obey 1 t (113).

aut in m.t1 tte~. ; of

. . ...

'ae-t1.on he wtl1 ts upon' his 1nn..or vole~, , ~Vnl:esi( :t'hat ••

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tbe inner inoorruptible oonvlotlo~; tb!,",.',tb! f()l~ .

. ,- ,- .

t16ti, I {fa n9thing~.,:c W1l1 not ~ct,' ·x '41~ walt'

. • 4 • • •

~, 110 mattel': ,wl:1tlt );w.ppen,.au.tlt th~ Y014e.,..nfQ·,~

:~l. .. . I ,4 •

r'··

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- 6$ .• ,

lc'rge. B1tle~ appe(11"s aa a DWn ot tremendous strength

• • • " i" • .

ot will. det8.l'lllinat1on, BDd. power. Yet those who ere

. ." '..

or bnve be.on close t~ b.1Dl (e .g., l~.) know t,~b 'he is

~on,scioos of. be~g powertul and 1~pre~ses 9t,hers, ~s ,uoh 001,1. at ce.rtein, ,times. 'Wh~n he, is d~cl~lm1ns to Q ~ep.t, thro~g Ql' when '!:le 1s, on one ot his '

sol1 ti;lrr wnlks tbr~gh the mountains ~ than' Hi tle,r is

'. '. .. .

000llc1oos ot his de,st1,ny as ,?ne, of. t~e greata.rid,p~wer"

!\llOf tbE)· sses. Bu~~. betw~en these 'p8l'lods 'bi' , ,

• '. 6

teela bumt11(lt~d and wosk. At',uch1;1moll he is

'. ... . • .;! • # ',' ' ••••

, ,

lrrlta ted en4 unable to do 0,1" ~ocWe Eln1t~ng. It

I ,. • ." • • .,.'....

18 these l'oEtl1n,gs Qt, his own we~kne8s that 114 dou.bt

, "\ .

hove ~term1ned~o e gl'eat extent hIs, 1.dees qn, .t?-o

educnt10n ,ot youth. ' All weakness must be knocked

out ot, tho 'new ~rman youth, they must, be i:nd'1t.ferent

. "... . . . . . ",

, I ' '

to ,paln, bav:e n~ .tear of, donth, must lctB,rn ~~ [l~~. of

. . . . , .

sel~ ... oommand,; to~ onl1. 1n this ";sy ceq they 'become

... . • .t . '"

oreatlve Godmctn (16) ~

. . ......

.

H1t,ler',:s raoling~ ot ,!,oe,kn-esa

-.' #c.

and power. pl'obabll elso d.et;e1"lnj.nQ 'his n,ttl tud$$ 1;;ow,Pl'ds

, -, '. ,.,' : ;" I" '. , ,':-,

peoples and nations. Pol' those ,who are "e~k~", or fort,

I ' • • ~ '. • '. .".....:':, '. •

"8_;',l-~IiS,Otl a~; t1o~· .dls1>lAl: R,OW&it·" ocr '~6 onir'. cont~ttipt. 9,

I ....•. " •

9 '''1Iyveafs' P911~1cal.~~.;oppor.t~1~.'1 l~~8in my dellb~,.~te· ,us,e ,ot po_~ tit 0, tiMe wbeq ttle~ e~ a,tlll ill.usions·' ri~rOtld 88, t.othe' fC)rc~s, that. Jil~d hiatol',." (16,' 271).

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!"'-;\'\!

··H·,:;,', .: .... :,~ ,"

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.• Por 'th9st)',mO -o.rEj stl"ong he 'ils .. feeling" ot, respect,

t~[l~1 subin18s!v~lle·JS .{4;'91 15). Por the Bl'it-ainot.'

, the,' great "Re,1'! ~erl~ h~ ~d $x-eat respect (9), bUt 'only' oontempt foX' the po-we~J.ess· Indian 2'evoiut10n~:r1.es who tried to oppos~ ,Bhit1s!l imperil'll p01r~if (9:.) .10

For the masses OVfl2"' -whom he bfl.s SW81 , be fe.la·· 'Oilly contsDJpt. He campa.res· them -to -e ~n Wbo: preret-.

to submit to t~e will of s-omeone Ittt;0ngor (9). ,ae bnrangue's'the crowd Dt 1'11ghtwhon that e,re ~1rQ4 end

less" 1'6s1stBOt to the 'will. ~t fl~othel' (~) e, ~. uses

eva]:'y psycho),og1-eel ,:t.r1elC to bt"e(1k thtt, .• 111 ot an audience. :tIe ~,os:1i8e. ~ tll~tlle ,e~itlon. :whleh

.

mo~o. t.n .1tn<' ,qa'-" p~le to-:r ,f). '.lOO!1~g tor S11blid.8s1on"

" theJ.tt ntl41~t! es# ·tbei~ t.e~lln~, ot.~l.'Ot11311ne.dl (9).

}fQ, Und'ci_;a,tapd-a ,his .s'Ub'i3obs'beGPUGO ~he1'4!t',o, ae l1ko

. hints e It( 4 ) .: ,

,

. , Closely relot:ed.to 'h1:Jcttltudo towrrd poweJ",.

D.nd .op~ of ~ha' J:i.sl0 e.lement1S ot., H1~ler'lJ pe1"tI.On.t'11tr . str"J.Cltur9" iii e d:eep"l,.lng,~eed ~-w aggl"ess1.on" dG'8t);tUc~1-Qn't' .b~ttil.tt,... It WQSw1th hi!a in ptwntS$7 at ).,0&8:0 ltl ,eh11~nQo~" (91 II ". And ·tnare 1ft· ,o,v.~~~.nQ4 _', ..

, 10." It J.s1nt~t{J~t~ngto .~ot~, ~t· tihe1f1lr':n_gc1Q',;t,' . . Bvi tblzf tlt'P~tI).t,8 ,on.ly to.. bIlv.a -tb~Oke:'1 0\1'bbe~tiU8.&, ·attler ,\'19.$ 4QJlv1.ocad tbrit ,be .ou.l<l not .ond could tl()'t i'~f~1) tbIJ 't~ngt~ of ·t~6· German, ,an'l$4' ,tordes'..,

r·-

~ .

,

. -

.

o~.lt trom bis daya in Vlepr1(l ·(7) •. We khCnt, to'o ('9)

. ,

that· the outbreaK. of the first ·great war was o·tre~endous-

. '

11 thrilling expenence tOI'. b1JD. .Since the. we·!" we

'. :,J " •

lwv~ seen his adoption ot so-o.o11ed "conmrt.m1st"

, . .

>

meth~ds of. dea11ng with hecklers (9), the ~l'del' ot

his olosa- 1':riends, bis bl'utc1!ty t~J'd ·the.Jewe~

his deat~otlon otone smtlll bptlon cfter nnotbel', end his more recent- lQ!ljor ._1' ogn1nSt ~ho pest of th$ world. , Butthls element at ~:1.$ personality 1s

, . ." "

80 patent thot it hero11 nee"~ 4o(rum~ntlhg .. _

, .

1J1~lert .• ' attitude ·torij.d'-the ~e'WtJ. f1l1d ·t~~

JUia.e ~ ..... AD.r;l .... Se~tl_ f. natfln uncolDlDon ~hingn.nd

Europe bA~ a l:ong hlstO~1 of ·1tbut·, lUI btls bStm ·pointed

,

out, "in .the case, ·of H1tle~. the Jew ~I!i been td:eV8.te,d,

so to spedk, t-o:c de·greet of· eVilness which be twdf' never betore obtained·if (10, - 8_) .;' '!ht1t th11 bntl'ad· Is

o"t n D10l"'3- tbl;ln ueuo1 p~thologicn1 nature Is suggtJllted

by thfJ Jile»rb14' connection ·"Mob B1tlefl XIIl!~S bebeen the Jew Qftd._ "l':SEu~$e, ,blOod" ~fI!l8eje, syphiliS ttl) I ond ttl thy' liuccr~eo.nce ~ ,,-~, Q llltcrt 'i • T~(t JOY

1ft tccU'lA ,DOt even tl b~a~,t, h$1s e ereoture,_t)ut,,'1do - nature' (lS),., "Be 1s at 'the ~bO~ ot ll~l thitlg~ e~11

nQt , on1, '1ft t;hl"!lMlft:r but o18'wh~~ o.nd only tbJooqb-

.'~ .. . . . .

- .

hi. 4 •• tt\1ot1ol'l ,ma,·' th •• 01'14 'be ,il!ntoc1.- tt it' niJ,

. .~ . . .

, '

thii. »oI.nis_' too, ·tMt 1U.tlel'tsteel1pgs about. rfl~e

\

('.':'1

~ii

" r '

66 ..

..

, find expression. For him thera, is on 1~~e,. elDQtlot\Ql

. . ~ ~

4onnection between sex,' stph11is, blood '111SPuri.t11

Jew1.sDness t'nd the degene~atlor\ ct pure, b,et\1th7i

. '

and vitile recibl strains. ,Like the need toX'

tiggr,ession,"b!s fenl" ot tne tr.int1ng ot blood 1. d mo~or eletbent in Hitlel"ts f,erSDnollty' atructU1'e.

H1tle,r's Att1tude·tow~i'd',$c,! ... Thet Hitle .. t•

, '

ntt1t;udd townrd's~x is pntholog1cal 18 Qlreod1 clear

'-

t~om wll£lt hOa, peen' snid above , The best soUrces

we have do not, however, tell uS exp11c~t11wb8t.it 1$ that 1~' wrbhg'~lthm:tler's sex llte. 'From the

. . ' .

fnc,t ,tp;o.t bfs' a10s,o' Qsaoclate" R~bm, as', well sa many

, , ,

, ". .

of' the ani-It Nazis' were' b.1)mosexua1s' 1 t MIS bean a

mritter cit gQssi'p- ;thet m.tlei'-'~oQ ls atteQte41n this wo.'1. All '%'elfnbie' 'sourc'Ets;' however, den, tbbt there '+$ nn, a.videnca w~teve~ far 'SUCh lui ~de8 (e). In

- 'fact, Hit,ler'tlppefl!'s tQ:'he"e' no close men' ft'lenda,

" , ,

no intimats'., nib ~11~' 'R!hm'wasthe' onlt one wbom be,

Il.daressed with ,the~ 1nt1!note '"dUn '('5) flnd'it 1. x:'oportecl thr.t'na: on.o Me su.Qc$~4ada1nce' -thGIlatter" 8

l'

doath t.o S1lob,~' pOf:1 tlon' of1ntitDlH}1 •

. ,

tn', rage.rd to'~omeil'; the r'eporta ('toe c01ltltct1ng.

, , ,

Most; ot' the :-r$OEnr~ nooks' bronewsp0t-a:- man Ca.g., 5)

st2:-Gsa Hitler" .,' as~ot1c1S!D';' h1:s dlsinterJst in"omen.

, ' , '

..... t

. '

... ~

,,'.<. "

f.:'~'-·

11",(1., '

,

'~,.

.... 5'7 ...

.. ~I' ...

lie.over" Heiden' ("B) documents his lQve ettnl'fls, on,d

, .

Reil!sch 17)<~ st.t-tisser (i8)'" 'l?~d RtlUschnlhg' (1-S)lU!v8",

. ,

conaidere-t;le,to Sf!ysbout1 his 'B'tti tude' :tOflsrd' tae ' oppoall;e rtei. As :till- ,:e.a cen 'be ascertL'1ned, f~' 1& ~pletel,. lockIng, 1ft': i-e:stredt ,.evan cenbemptu0US (." j' it Is' ~poP~1attc ('IB;. ls) and tn tile actuDi8e~1 rel~t1on8h1'.p ~tlere is 8o~eth1ng ot '0: 'perve~e ntit~e along w1~"G!, peduila~ ,enslavement' ,to the. ~rt~~)!1 Ot' hiS' choice (8),.:'" It' 1s: certn:tn: t~t' mnny- women t1~d '

,attle • .fo'8c'tooting, (IS;: 7J::' Q:ncl tbnt' he l1k~s', t'fle.1l"

, c~mpnny., "'-"t it'l's a1'ao t~g t&P.t be hE'~, ~e~ot"~rriO?,_

, I "- '.., ',,'

aM\ in every love affair' t.he br-esk 'I18S' JDDde, no15 by:

H1tl&r-" 'but b,. the l['d'y 'con'oez.ned (9).. In one Cti,~8'_" thAt dt his iiiec~~' (J81i~. there"wos' l-8al tragedy- 1n ....

.. ." '. .;: .. 'I • • . ;#.. •

vOlyed .. tor eiti1et- he'murdere4· her in f) t1t ot pas8Ion,..

8"'ot.\01'd1ng to' Stl'a~8e~'f's' eVidence (18) " o~, be so abUsed

. . . ~. . .

n~t! upset he .. 'thrt"she coD'JDl1tted'sUicide '(8), Fillally,

. one-' mUst .tU1t1Cllt tttein, his' trenziecf' outburst agtilnsti sn'MUS in .'-$19'· !Allitpt (9)' tHI l't Uhowbo1. Gi;,~~ ~, ,

~ ,

,ftat1oh"we~G tl vast putr!'t71ng' hotbed of this 10llth'"

so. ,d.,"eeae. Jle1t!on';' 8"~ntC1t'useD' (&) tfu,t':'~'tihe~e

.-. . '. .' .',

1 .. ' soaetb11)g wr01'1S" w1-tli' !i1,tler'a ,so'x ute ls' $U1'e11

" «

" !-

. • ., ... ." .. :.-.~ .. ' .'cj:"'·.' .. ~ ...... ~

'. 68-

. ~

lr1tler,.'snee4 to. i.D.1l~;. this l'.the%,' obv1 oua,

n~t)d 1s ~()rtb.".not1n, a~' ~hia point, atter wbat' be. j~t' been eaid. abov:, .11 ' Eve~ elnc,'H1tlex- ',_ a1ao~ •• ~

0·.. . ~

, ~

, ~t hi'a' t~c)111 ty- as a ~p."ke~ j • his ~ peopl. a~ t~

~~r.+d hay. been de1uSed .1th' b1a waltd8 _' '1'be bUIIl~.,

. , '

ot"spe~cb.e. 18 large, ,VIli',.~nS 1n length 'from Obe aa4

'. . ~ . "':. . '.' .( .. -.:' . . . ....... . ~ ~ .

a'ba~t to' two hours .. thoUgb t1iere are sev'etal 0'

... .. '. . .'

thr.~" and'e~en tou~~our.', dUration. ~ pr1vat8~ mox-fit'Glver, :Hitler le140n1 Q()11~e~8eS, tOI' ~ach lndlv1~1

: .. ..... .'. ;, .. ~ f. .' '.. ,. .' •. . • - I'~

'.b.~ he f1c1+1~e8 •. e. ~.: Q:, new ~~ience to be bat'ao,sue4"

.. '. , - -

.+it hl~ Jq~ents pt d"p:;,ess,1on be q1us,ttalk to pt'we

. '.. .I!' '. '. ~,

to hlin~elt hl~ o~ ~tr~ngth and ~n'JDODient" f;)t

. I. •.

"

: • 0" ,

ex.ltation to, c1oms"nate o'there 'l~),

, .. ;,' " . ;' .'.... _'. -

lU. tier t s' A ttl tud~.' towar.dArt. - ,1!hough Hi tlel'~ a

_ 1" • •

• -." .," t -. ,

ta,the~ intendecl h1tn to, be .. clv~l servant; be h1-..elr

• • • 0' ~ " •• . 0 0

'0 "

" '

cra1fed'to,be an a~tlst and hi., failure to ,b. 1-ec~gtl1&.4

.' .:, '... .'.. . - '

. $$ such by t~e Vienna' _cbool was one of h~. most

. ., '.' .' ~ .

tra~t10 experiences (9). 1.8' Fl.\hr.er hia interest

. ~. ,. -

in.art ,aont~nues and he' shows d1st1nctly favorable

, ,.

Il ~'t1tude., toward '~SiC. pa1nt1ng, andal'cbltect~e ~

A. i. well known, Wagner 18 H1tler's favorite .'WEt m!~t almost ~a!,O~lY-,~ .. ' composer. At twelve

"'~ ,

he wi. 'Iptivated by Loheng~in ,(9), at nineteenln

Vienna he was championing the. merits ot Wagner aa

;. ~

, .

. " .. ,' "'.

.. '39 ..

. *sa~i' K&&.IU,t·· (7). an. aa' _eft hi" haS' e-een D1~' 1I.,1.·te .. ,1g&!" e •• r' .. h~te4' timed (it) t· Ire kno.a al~' of WI!fter's .eOM' (19) il1~a 1n tiM!t" rendition ~ get •• motS.onal"tele.st· aft41nllplNtlon top htl

-' .

aot!()n •• ·' Btl .a~.p CMll'lex. tee:U,ng. abbut lIe:Jt, .

rae. pur1ty, h1a iattitud •• t()'W$l'd tOM dbd .dt.l~k,. all tlnd atbau).ualndi-eltltOJ-Oeillttnt ttl' thE!l' plot.; per.oft.,. .,&rld ~b._ .. : t)t b1i .. · t~'V'ot'lt.:· oompoa.t*. It· i, ·lnt.J..8t1ftS .. ·· to~ 8ltAftlPl." thab Slt1efl bas' ohosen

. .'

•• !

N\li'tlIIbe!'l,' t~tOWD wtucb .wagner l>el'Sbnl~1..d. 1n

.1fa~' ~ •• h*,·:'a. th" ott1eial slte of the ifteetlns ot

.

tbt . ·.$Da,.l !fast l'at'tf ~01lgl'e.s ·(It }.. ,.

wa~.~ .. In:r1u.nc~ro.-e~ Kl,t1,", es:tencl$ beyond

".. .

th.re~1la: 01 mull0 ·t.O ttua1,7 of :U.terfltute. AJii()hg,

tb. ~l't ... ra'9'O .. lt. "bacU.ng.· .r. Wagner'. ,olitical

. '. '; .

Wl'ttlng't and CO~.C1o:wsl1' ·otJuueoruteiou.sl, U bat

. cople4. -&bel"" tiUl'gid and. bOlrlb.att4 _f'iI1.~ Wi tM. Ii reNlt1ftg .t,i.- ·.tl1ch aCCor4ibg 'to.gei4.D 'otten '. t.r8batOl'DUl ti. 11:\tibS 'setltence1ntQ;' a Oqflt\18ed heap'

. I

ot bOlt,. ,io41.*. s ti bIe" .• ords " (a, 308).

. til' tha. tt.ld or I'ainting therie are tWb matters to cfmaidlr .... Hitler's own work and his attitude toward th~ work of othejo~. As. regards. the former,

. .

'" have ovidence' that during his Vienna days Hitler

showed little ability except tor copying the painting .

. . . .

11. From the analytic point ot view th1s may well be Interpreted as a compensation for sexual difficulties.

:,:i

~:4·~~~ "".

.,

I ot oth~r4 (7) •. $0lI1 •. of tb.$ wo%'ks tbA~ aH .~tar1" _'b.o1'leve:,)', 4111pl., $Qm$ fl.e!» t~ ol"pn1 •• ti.QJ.t .Q4

i .'~olort thQ\l.8b thel'$ 1;' noth1l1S' ol-1iW1.~ MI.!), .ot

~$ paln~1J)S$ ',~tu:ttf .. P"·"I)"P4"'U~'o", -..'" .... 'h1.1;fJJ.~.,

.' . .

.'

oW' l',,111'i ,and.\V1.tm'eInp_rd •• Olat",140"l r ••. ~1

. ,

them tontain p'QJ)l~. ,'rail 801.Qtwb41t bAQ~,..d 4 •• 1p_

.Ac • ;

'Q:f til. P4'~t1 be..dg'$ ~n4 t14& ,,1vtl tU_1)U~., .vldeno.

. . \ " .

CJt- l~c:tk. oj' o"1g1,nal~ t1.A·s ".& ... 4. iil., JflQtln, ot,

• ~, I

Otb.fltt4~ H1t1e~ baa surl'ounded hUt •• lf1f1tb m111tl.rr

P~",',u·,,~ Q.£ all $O~tl an.a -, ttr ~Ol"t'.1f~. ot V:4', l~':ft(tr$~ an4·~xp11e1t nu<lea ,(lit 1.>.. ·A' Q1.eQllUDaod G.t'if14~. art he. 'been.pul',eci of it. lXlQd.o#hi.4JI, art4

01, ... 10 qua-lttle' 8:l"$ atreS$$4 1natEte4.,

it, 1. 1n .a~ob.~teettU"« fiba' IU.'tlet', $ .ttl.tiC) , l~te~'$~, f'1nd~ '": 1 ta ~e~.'~:4~ .',O~~let., . It<< •• p •. ncl. t,

. "

cx- •• 1i deal ot tilM Q-V81' al'th1Uee'\t t' tk.£pa and .1~

i~.,~un~ Ge~J:l 'bu,:l.ldlr1CJ1 and •• Q\1tQtlnta 'JiI\\.l' :a., .pprove4 , _, ~1.JI. U.a.1..V ••. tU1s, expan$1V'tnes8, .1~., end ca'810 '1.hra~ .,. t.M q_ua11tles .h1(lh Hltlel' str.sses end

« \. " •

a.s>p~Ove8 ~ vb., buildings of the ne., G.l'Dl8ny. His

'4ev.at1.ti~,..t.Qot ... b110a4 mo,tor' roa~s. 'th4 conferences.'

, ~

• : cro~ .t Nu.".tI1barg. 'apd, his l'etreat ,at~erchtesgad.n

, .

ai'~ ".)~l, e~l.' of' t!{'.e empbrls as« .

, "

7:1, -

.. ,

mti!~' ;?~A8settOt~ 4wll1~'~~8'.'" altlt'~1 s ascetiC q],lA11t1,e are p~pll~arl" tq,OlRl en" .t'~ 8~~~l\tl.ted

, '

lI1tler h1mselt. Elccording

'. . .

b1e .bat1netlce trom' t,obflOQO .n4 .lcobol, to Wa~erl a

... ' ... . . .. . . . .

Intlu8nce. 'Se •• cttlbeo ldUeh ot ttle "e08"ot, o!vlJ.lza-

" i .' ,: ~.. '.' ..

tlOb to abdoDl1n.l po1eql)~"S thJ,;oUgb excesses, 'ThI8

I' . . ~ • - • • . \ ,

aocetie. at mtle .. '_,liJ all tbtt more, itriklng.,a1l10nS

'.,

'. '

a pe<>ple "bo. ?rl the whQle, .~ •. ~a.f:,ea.t.t' $tlCl tond

,'ot d.~lnk1nSIl' it' 1. 'w!)l'1;"b,'ot nQte" hotwtvot. tbat at

I

, time. R1 tle~ 18 not a""ra.: to Q$i'tain types. Qt ,over-

. . . ",;. ~ . , .

indul.nce~ He 1., ~or erxalbple, e~o.'.1.v.lt t!>nd

. . .'. ~

ot s",eta._·s.atJbe.ts, and,,~ast!'1 (7, l~), and will

eons~e' .. t~e1ll 1'1): large quantI tie, «,

. ~ t~.~t a 'e~u;~.rl: Abi1t ties , .... 'itt tlel', the un~du. ~. tad, 18 "'ne'''"rtheleaa a man ot unusual' ab111ty,

, ,

pal't1c""larly In oertain'ateliil where tormal educat10b

. I. • .

, '

i, or little .alue ande\ren' in are'ss where 1t is

..

suppo.ad to b6:Important. 'More than once we find,

thoee who kDo.'bim (e.g.,' Rauschning (16) stressIng

, his 8xt~aordil\atJab111:t1 to take 'a complIcated probl~ and ,-educe' 1~ to, v8r1 simple te1'1l1s II ,It is ,hardly

. '

ne~ •• aa., to 40cument Hitlerl~ abilit, to understand

and ,make use ot the .eaknessea ot his opponents, his

.. '

"';'~" " .,- .,. , .... ·,'l'"· .. -.P_'_'_;,.

, .

f.'bl11tt to divide them and strlks th. one 'bf C)J)e;

~, s~nse: 0~t1ml1n& so as to. strike' at tbe moat: ~P.po~tWl~ m9~el1lt. .l~ 'If Qe"t.1n, bowe.,er, tbt.t

. '

, .

the.$,e abl11tlep, of alt1et's :beve 4et1n"~ lJJnl~tloru.,

B1.tlt'J! b$,' 'bEH~omo DtO~e. and, tA-ortt 1n'91(lted '(1&) t,.om QQnt$.c.t .1 tb 'wnat S:e -.ot~111 -OOQ~~UlS" '8PQ ~b.u.t

l::ul,a t1'll\ltti~ient; or "n~orr.e(St date. QJlwb,1ob .to :ba •• ~. gec;lsa,oQ .•.•. J4ore.over:; btl Own tJ;'aDl', of'r.ter.no. 1$: Nl,' 1ln4at1stac.to~1 i\lJ.c!t;J tOf.Q·· WUi.e.".:tanc:U,ngot-

'. '. . .

. .

, pe'c;lp,l.GP Q\\t.,1d~ tl1e iux-ppe.n. mllieu.. Ht" ~'I.can.-

. :. '.

8:~~\\$ntl't t~eq.~e:n:tl1.lt12,'.\Ul4.1'·8to04 ·Ooth- Br.lt~.b·

'e.ri"'IJr1~«"~c.n p.olnt~ 0': vle.w .1tb. un~PPJ:;.",s\Ut. to his QWl'lptogl1~ .. 0£ exp~nfH.on •.

overt. ~vlden¢e Qt' f4aladjustDterit ..... Certain tacts sytDPt6me.ti.O ot maladj\l4tiD&pll:bav8 already ,been men-

. ' ~ "" . . " ... .. ._. .

. . .: (

tioned, such aa hi. pec\\lial' relation'ship to women'.

Here, theN~ " have to be' added othetta or' a less' speoifiC'

. . , .' ,

nature. Hltle2:' s\d'ters tx-om severe' ineomnis'and when

; .

. he does sleep has violent nightmares (16). At time.' ~ sutfers f'~ halluCInations. 'orten hearing v01ces ,

I _, •

,

on .hiS, long so11tal",. Y(a~Ks (16) •. ,' He b8.s an excess1ve

;feal;' ot poi~onlng and takes extreme precautions to guard; aga1nst 'it, b~tb in his'tood and 1n his bedroom (16). Here tbe b,c1 ~\1st ·1)9.made only 1n one spec1fic

:''': .. "'' .-.""-

,,~

,

~Y' ,U.S). a. 'cannot w().l'lt .8tead1:11, ~t w~tb Eu(plo~l'V~ outburst. ot .~·t1vi~.f or not at all' (16,' 8) •. Even

~be · •• llest c1ecta'1O"fi' d.urrailc;lo g~e~t'f:tttOl"t _,neS he . b..·to work ~elt 111' to' it., When tb •• rted, b8 wlll

b"ak' outir1t.o an .b1at.,~lcal .ttint~1 aOQl~ln8. 1~ b1&b-p1tchecS tQoe.,toam1r1g at bhe lDO\1t.h, and Z:JtilJ2tp1ns w'{~b. unco.nt~o11ed.tu~1 (16}, On $ev~ra,l oee~"1o~s,

I ,

w.hen. an 1mpo~ta'Dtspeech was due, be ba$ stood silent·

before .b1s" audIence a·n4 tben walked. o\it on- tbeDl (16). In 'b}lt caee' ot a\ 'lea.t one ,1~·teMational b.,()ac1cast

:h. _ •• ~ctenl, and tne~p11cabl.,. out .o.tftb.e '~~. Finall" the,.. 18 H1tlel-'. t~$at to o01Dtd.\ .u1Qj;c!$

\. . . .. "

~

'It the .Naz1p*~tl 18 de.t~o1.d O~ th~ plans ~t· the

,German 1\8·1ob .t.1~ (5) •.

, '."

~. ·,h

t . ,

~ .

i;. ....

~

~, ,._,

''''1·

. ; . "

'1'he' Schute.s; btHitlej.t s' Aggressive' and' S1ibri11sa1v$

,

Traits .... The's'ch1zo1d temperament, one such as Hiti~t'!s,

, 1 • '

.' ,

. .

which ~omb1nesboth a sensItive; $hy, and indrawn natu~

. .. .

.<

. . ..

Wi th 1.nh1bi tiona of fe.e ling towarcl others, and a t the

,

'same time. in ... y ot. compensation, violent aggressIve- .

. 'ne881 callouan'es8, and bl'Utall:t1, from one point. ~f view at constItutIonal psychology 1s usually associated wIth a',particular type at physique. It is dIffIcult

;L:t

'.'.-.""

.

from the sort ot photograpb av~ilable to classify

.'.

.... '4 ...

. "

Hltler:.,. physique. aoouztately.· He Pl'obabl, tall. 1J:i 'KNt'$Chme'rfs athletic :.-group though. ",~.rg1n& on the

. ,

. pykniC (11). This 'WQu14 place him in tht 8chizophrenic group 01', tamp$r'ainent4.~ t~ t.,t'm. ot·Sb!140n's syate.,

he is pt-oba~11 cliuis1f1abl~ a! a 443 with· 8 ·Qonsi~erabl. deg!'e .. : of g1llttl'1dt-~o~ph.', ,that 1., an esaent,lelly D1$$ouUC$ b.od, 'b~t: 'on ... S1'iow2:ngteml1d,n4t. ebara~teris't1c • • 1st> (1'1). '

, ) .

Prol;>.ablt rri01"6 ~mpo:-tt:int~ 1'10".v61', 1. the social

ltI11~eu 8.l1dthe :famtly situation il1 wbieb Hitler: gr •• up.

, . ~ l

~ In , strongly, p.tr1arc!:uil SOCiety",' his lathet' .was

pal'~iCulAriy. agg~ssltte'atl<1: ~probab11 bwtal' tOW8~d

. . ..' .

his $ob;,:A®lt'~ , 'Nils· wou.ld prOduce an individual

. . I

.' . .

boen v,err ~u'tmtlss1,ve' to' aut.hOl'ltY.'8nd at the same time bOil1ng ,o.yer 'witn rebel.it'oU,snesw to 1t, . Further, we lenOYI ot .. tht *,xtroIDe a ttacblrte1'l.t which Hitler had fot' his mother~ 1f,.'8s seems most .likely, he MS never outgrown thls ,12 there mlght be .a protest ln h1s ' nature against thi·s enslavement" whlch ln turn mlght glve 'rlse to a deep unconsclous hatred, a posslble

r

source of . ..frightful. unconscious rage .13 Finally,

"

12 Note Hltler's'frequent' and unusual use at the word

Motherland for Ge~any (9). '.

13 Hitler's hatred 01' meat and 19ve ot sweets is

said to be often found ln cases harboring an unconscious hate of the mother (15).

", ',,_',

t ' .;

..:

r~' - .

. ,

r .

~. -

','

....

tbe ·oon.s:atent t1J11urt . to. aOh1ev, hIs tu~t.tat1c ambitions;, hie 101Utl1·ntta •. &04 pOV8t"tr 10· V{EUlntl, '-h~. fallu.t'eto. art-lye st; anr ~sbej stetuit th$u tbat ot' corporal 1n hU bei()v.d tm" (8) ~ elf Dfil$t have' ,

. .

,t1,.uated ~n b1ah.·8~ des~e wMte~.r origiriai tendertcy

t_H ,_. to-l'4 "brut.lit" antS d~'tNet1gene$.. _

~h •• 0000e.· 01., lt1tl.~t ~:Antt ... ·Semitiinn;- I.~tl- 8eftltl8lD .n •. ·pa!'t· ~t ·the .octel .. JIlll.!.eu in .hl~h w..tl~r stew up •. ~ 8dJQtt~ htm.:.it '·(9)t~~ ho $vo1dttci the orW.,. J'ewl.h bor lat school and it 1s known th9tantl ... Semltl'~ ~n4: •• c)t1e.1 ... _to. s~ron, 1~ .a~.thol1c

., .

l'!U.l"al ~OJIIfttln'tle, in ~oP4·. ~n Vienna, 0" Q:ourS4a,

B1tler~aDl. in cOtttac1l With violent aptL.SEti!11t1c .

~, .

llt6r.ture iD4 ~t' ·18 •. t ~b1. p~rlod that hi' claims

b!a d~ep-l'oot"4 bettte4 t9" the ·3 .... Wlls bO,M (9',.

. . . .

The P.tib,o~OslC'l. stra."th or' th11 .b$tl'e4 S\lgg.s~.

. . ,.

eul t)lh 1. .. Ha.ons tor 1~., 'llbat the,. were "e can onlt

. ,,_ . ~ ~ :, ..

. surmise bv.t:~:,,'o.q li·.t ·ee,..t,,·t~ ,possibilities. We

lCno" tbBt ,the naJ:le' Jtltle-"1a a eommon JewIsh one

,(8), that Adolf 1'I9a teased about; his Jewish appearance .in Vlenn8 .. ~'4, ,!,he~~ .1~, . tQQ, . the ,my~te:ry. Q~. ,~.~" .•.

14 It ls' i~te'resting that Hitler's 'descriptiori of the t1rat Jew to arouse bie hatred 1s almost word tor word the IBlle aa He'nisch' s descript10n of Hi tier. in

Vienna. (7). .

, ,

j,'

.. ,

... 79 ...

Alois Hitler',s tX'Ue PElr~ntag,,' whioh, bi. son me1 halve known. ,~e Ql~o 'know t'ti8t'many of tbe peopl$ wbo helped.

.

him. gave him food, and" boug~t his painting. were

Jew'$ ~'15 To have' to acoept k1ndnes~e$ trotrl peopte be 'dislik'ed. woul~ not add to his love of them. BUt there mu'st' be'more ~o it then this to.l' Hitler', ants'.

• j

, '

Semi tis, D1' ls,' boun4 up wi to his morbld con~4t'n w1 tb

- ., ' ,

, s.yph111s andpbobia ove r contam1natloll of. tbe bloocl

, '

, "

of the Ge%t1llS,P X'QQa. Thl;" thel'c;lto%'e" leads to a '

,disousf11on of Hitler's tbeo1'1es.

. '

$Qurce$ 'ot,'Hitle~. s,'Tb~o~!e8 'pt' 'lUic.,,' anel aiood ...

, ,

'l'b.EJ conce:pt of the'superiority ot, the:Aryan rACe 1.;

~

ot course, 'not newWt.'t'l\ Hitler.' Itf! ,i'e.t·~~ponent

wae HQuaton $tew,,,t Onam~~rta'h,,- lI),the 'Pr1t1ng8 ill WQgn6l1' $.-1,.0 tbe:'~Elln~ (JQneeptlotl i.,~.lted. IN;'

, I

thA QQnJ1t.Q~ repetttlqn ot:the 1dea ~t 'bloQd, put'e'

~.lOQ(.\, an4 ,v.ntsd,Qte4, 'blood, whlQb. oceul'S ,.n ¥.elri teatilPt c:al1$. tD~ Ii mfU"~. ~ba,~ purelY, cultural, expl..nation.

'1?1')." 1. iu&gested $ll tbS _ore forcefully be~ause

ot' the" ass¢Qint1.on which Hitler makes between 1m-

, (

, .'

purities of'blood'whlch are due to disease <flyphilis)

')

and impurities 1n the blood of a superior rao~ due

to, mixture with a r~cially interior stock; furtn~r" , . '

.... . " . . . .... ... .' . ~.

15 His rejection of the Jew'may also stem from the' rejecti.on w,ith1n himself ot the passive gentle elements which are prominent in Hebrew-Christian thougbt.

: ~ ; ... :,

" .

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. ..:

, , t;· ,

'"

~ -.'.".

.'

: ~ " , !

: .. -, ",

'\'

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., ".

... 77 ~

If '

\

to thetaot ·tb4t be. pOints to th. Jews as the SOUl'ce

ot beth.,

. '

low it 1$ known that syPh11opbol?la otten has

. '

1ts l"Oota In. the eh!l.dhooo'discovert ot, tb<t, natute ot $e~al congre,. b'etween th~ p$l"ent,e. With $ t~tbEJr

whel .. , an 111eg.ttt.t$snc1 poss1b1r of J$ .. 1stior1st.n.1S ,

'. .

an,d a 'stronC =othe.~. tuat1on', . 8,UC~ a c11,dc;over,,'by tbe

, , ,. " ' I . ,

child Ad~1t ., well h$vct' 'laid th~ 1;>881$ ota 81plU10-

, ',. ,,<'lIt-"

phobia ,wb1ch ,aomEf adventur. w1th e. Je~lah p.ttQsti1;uta

1.11 ViElMa .t.rl~ed ~'o $ tu11 flame .. 1 '1, Terrltted' b1

.'... . . . . . . . '.

the telda' ot hi8 ,own ,Lntection~ all th$ ,I;l.&~red in hi.

", .' J...... i _ • ~. • .

be,-n,' 1" then' d~t.ecte'" . t01r6:rd tb~ 3ewis.

... ; "4o ~.

. . .

'. '.

Htti.l"'.,' p$~$on.l~t' ,~o~rei, tb~gb.1'a1l~n'g

w1,tiwt th. tHt1!"dl8lpS'n'p_ '., 11" tie 'deset1bed 'as or

/ . . .

'ttl,,· pIl1'8bold' tnt .,'-,h· ~e1u'lon. ot pel'l$c\J.tlol\ at1d

of g:ttande~. fbit .tems tr.O!I1 il shd~-ma'och1sti~ , alpllt 1n h1'~ pEt,Plan.lit,. (4)'. Integral wlth .. these "ltematlng',and oppbsed' elements In his pel'sona1it1 tire his t&ar' ot infectIon, the ,identIfIcatIon .of the,

15 The name H1tlel- ~s Jewish as 1'I8S poInted out; ,l? This 1s mere conjecture and must be treated as

. such.' But It 1s the sort Of explana tibn which f1 ts

known PS1chologl'cal tacts .. " '

I~,',i,·.,·";}:

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,

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,:~.~;.~:l,:~·:

, "

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..... '1t.' ... '

Saws U'.tb..-'fc)'urc;e'of tha't 1nt$otl:ort. and • OllIe , 4 .... " r.~ngeiilent otthe sexual t\u:ict10ft wb1ch _kellU.

, '

relation. to the. 0PPQS1t. aeJt abnol'lhel 'ln Ilatul'e.'

Th$ 'drama; an,d tragedy at H1 tle1' , _. lU'. are tbe p~dj,eQt!on, onto tiM "Q~ld, of l:'d.I, own1nner oont,,-lct.,

/,

" "";)

aX¢ nla'atte~pts td ao;Lv. ,tMib~, 'Tlut '.pl1t.1J) Hitler'l,

pe~8onaUtt $eern~"Qlea'11 tQ·~. du.etobi4 ic1ent4.ttc ....

, '

t10nbath wl~h lUI mo.ther; wbODl he p8ltA1.oQ&te11 loved,

. .' .' ..

ran4 .witt'J, 't).u father I wbQlQ b.ebate4 and t'e.~4., Th1. dual a:.n4 OQntt'ac11Qto.ry 1de,nt1t,"oa'tlon (t_ ~ne 1.

o ~ '. • •• • - .. •

ge~t14."l>lls.1V$" ,teJn1rU .. t1".: ,tl1l C)t~f. br.utal. aggpe •• s..ve,

'. ~. .:.

~sdU11ne) result. -.'whe~eve~'Bltlet 1_ plal~n, the

Ilggre~Ul1ye~14 ..... ,81.0 in a ~ee, ,bat1'e".na cont$lbpt

. c· . .. ,

tot' U. tnobber Bll111i 1.ovQ· .nd.; _'4isl1r.t1'or) tot hi.'

, ,

, ,t'tl,th.". ,tit. lnn'er .. QOot11.t; 1& J.rejected. intD the

"'( ",

wot'14'wb.ere' GerztlQfil OOnt~a ~I) ~pre'$,~Pt the "lbothe~'.

\

O:t1d the lew a,ne! ... , fot' a t1l1le.; .... ' tbe A\l.t~1an state,

the -tathei'. ", Just as the tather U t,he, cauae ot hi.

/' "

'.

lt1i:lted blood, the $ource of h1s dominatiop and punllb~

: tDBnt, and of ,the restrictionlS of his own artistic de:velopment i. just 8S in '~ ch1.1dish interpretation of aexuaL congress the father attack_, strangle .. , and infects the ~other,. so the Jew, international ,Jewish capital, e t c , , encircle and restr1ct German,.,

:

, ,

.

k,. " ,

it •

r

"

thJ!te.teh and ,attack be,!' and 1nf'ect· het' w1th impurit1es of blo~. out of' the hatred· of' the tathefl f!\nd love

of the' motbel'icsme the des'1re to' 8aV4' hel't.SO Hitler becomes the savior of Ge~ny, who,oleanses her of infection, ."es·troY's her enem1es I breaks the1!" enc1rclement, ~moves every re.trlctl'oll upon bel' so theft she

may expand tnto new l1'i1rtS space , uncrsmped and untbrottl~s .At the same time I ,Hi tIer 1s cleansing . h1ms81~, defend1ng himself, ~astlng ott pAternal domina-

, ~

t10n an4 ~8tr1etIoQ.

Jrot only is the Fa the 1" teared bu't :he 1$ a s.ource ot jealous,. for he posse,ss,alt, at ·least in part·~ the beloved·JDOther. So he· must 'De'destroyed' ttJ permit complete posseS$1on. The d~stw-ctlon of.the father

"

is achieved·symbollcsliy by' th&'destrtiction'ot the

A118t!'1an.. stato and complete dominaticrt 'and '~o~sesslon of tbe IbOthel', ,tlu"ough gAthering all' Germsnel in '$ c~on Rei1cb

W'&U141 I •

(

Buts th4a . mother' 1S not only 1"ev,ed but hitad .. ' 'or

. sbe Is ~e8Jt, besides' M l.,:~nslaved tt)'her- .affectIons and she 1'"emiru1s him all tot) D1Ucb., 1ft hi': 't-8'te as·

, ..

dQlJlirtAftt_ fatbeJf~ t,t his .'oWftgent1$ serislt~~e nature.

. ' ,

So, tbough be depend. ali the (}erma~ patJp14'tt:Jt' h!*

, .

pos1t1on ot ~om1nanc8" he de$p1$~s "and ~te$ them~ .

. ' .

» .

.

. he domina.tes.them and~ 'becausa 'be tear. b1s vel"

love ot them, he leads them 1ntotbo de,tructive •

.

ness of' waf' wbor-e multitudes"t theJD,are destr01ed.

Beslda2j1~ ',the, J:'ew1sh alement, il;lh1s tather Identlf'lc$tlon parmits 1;\1Jn to use all theso-oalled "Jewish" tricks of deceit, lylng, violence,. and "sudden attack both to subject the German people as wall 88 their

foes.

'1'0 be dominant, aggrespive, b:rutal 1s to arOUSe

, '

the violent protest of the other side of' his nature.

"t ,.".

Only severe anxt'et,1 can come trODi thls; nightmares and siee,pleas nlgbts result. But tear Is assuaged by the flctiQn of 'bhe' demanda ot Fate, of' Destiny', ,

. . ~

of the Fol~ .. Soul of the Garmen pe6pl~.

The denouement of the drama tipproachea at' every

, ' '/,

. '

aggI'esslve s'tap. The fiction. of the' command or Fat~

orily holds as long as there Is auc caaa ...... gre,ater and

....

, ,

groater suocess to assuage the mountIng 'tealings

v :

ofa~loty and ',guilt. Aggresslon, thdrei'ore, twa a 11ml t'; 1 t Cf,ibn ot go be yond the highe Q t polo t ot

success •

. .;:, .' ~ I ' • • '.

W~art that is reaQhed,' theporeonellty

" ' "

may ool~~psa' under the flood ·ot its" o"Nil" guil t. ~a~L1ng~;'~:~~ >1:1;' 1$'",' theret9~e" quite ~08S1~lO that

• M, 1~: Th$~'-' Hi tl~j;t '1$ patti,' ,C~tl$~~OU8 of this we know fi'Qlrt bis own, tb.X'eate ot 8\11cid'o and referencea t'O

" dying I'or- the .. Go rman p~ ople " (9). ,

.

.

.

. : 'I

.. 81 ...

"

. '

HItle~ will doeway wIth himselt at whatever mo~ent GerJDan def~at' 'becomes' s1ift1M.ent enough to de.stroy the fictIon' ,ot Pate wh!cb. be's shielded him trom_ the

, ,

violence ot his oWn SUilt. ' 1le ., then tUl'fi upon bimselt the destructiveness wh1db SO 10n6 haS b~eJj channelled toward his p~opl~ aqd th$1~ ne1gh~ors_

..

J,

.. -,

"

. '" .

.. ,

, ,

. MY PATIENT HITLER.

Coll1er's,Mar,ch 15, 1941. ,~HROUGHEIBASSY EYES.

, New York : Harcourt; Brace I 1939.t 3.. Farago, L.' . GERMAN' PSYCHOLOGICAL flA!tFARE •• NewYork:COIiID1ttee Onll.t1onal

Morale, 1941. "

4., " Frotne, E .. '; ESCA"PEFRO)(FREEDOJl.

" New York: ,Farrar & R1nobar'ti" j. 1941.

,5. 'GUJlthero, 'J~ INSIDE EUROPE. . ,

. New YQrk and London: Harper. 19~f$ .. 6. Hattner, S. GERMANY: JEKYLL AND HYDE.

London: Seckel' & Warburn, 1940. 7. Han1sQ.b,:'.R. r WAS HITLER'S BUDDY.

, 'New Re~ub11ftA April 6, 1939.·

,8. ,Hel'den, l{. Hl'rLER, A BIOO PHY.', '

. "London: Con'table, 1936. '

WIN KAMPF. '

'New York:. Ramal & B1 tehQoek, 1\)39. 10.' Hitler, !.MY 'NEW ORDER.

" '.,' New York: Reyna1' & H1.tehcock, 1941.

11, Kret$chtnerI.E.p.~S.IQUE AND CHARA9TER •. ' , .'

, ' ". . ·New York: 'Harcourt, Brace, 1925 ..

12. Krueger, K.INSIDE HITLER. .' '

• • . New York: A 'V8.1 on pre 8 II ~ 1941.

13. Lew1a, W. ' HITLER-CULT.

, . London: Dent, 1939.

l~ ~ Lite, JUhe 23" '1941 •

• 1.;

15.

1. Blocb, E.

2.

Dodd, M.,

, '

I

H1tl~r, A.

16. 17., le.

Medlcu.s ~ A PSYCHIATRIST LOOKS AT HITtER.

.', . J .i .'. New Rmb1iC~ April 26, 1939.

ltauschn1ng,lt.llITLER S ItS It,

, .' . ... . London: Butterworth, 1939.

'Shel(iofi,W.H. THE VARIETIES OF HOMAN PHYSIQUE. '_New York: Harper, 1940.

Strajaer, Q. HtTLERAND I. '

'Boston: Hought'on lUtflln. 1940.

Viereck, P' •. ' NETAPOLITICS.

'New York: Knopf, 1941.

SECTION 111

'.1 -

. (Written espeoially fol' psyoholo.gists and P87oh1atrists)

,.

~f

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t:;': ~

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., ......

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. ··.'.::T,~.:~>.~··~~.:: ~:.:,~~'.':,';.':;'-.: ._ ..

- 82 ...

'.

FOREY.iQRO' ,~O THE: DETAILED ANALYSIS

In 'lIr1ti~g t~1s analysis ot Hitler's personalIty, the.use ot oertain technioal words was unavoidable. Although I have attempt~d to follow as simple and

1nte lligibl~ a fontl as possible, ,I could not, without J;ti\1ch circuml(>cu.t1Ph and vagueness, get along without three terms:

... '

Need (roughly synonymous with Drive, impulse,'

---- ".

tendency r purpoae ,': ins tinct) • This is a force wi thin . the· subject (! .. _!." the 1ndlvidu~1 whose behavior

1s being studied) which inclines him to strive to""ard

.' ,

a c,ertain goal:, the attainment of'v/hich reduceS' momen-

, ,

tarily the tension of the need. Needs ~ary in kind

and in strength.

'Pr~ss (plural~' press). This is a toroe, emanatin~ < ,from an', object (usually a person) in the environment,

. ~

which is directed toward the subject. A press (for

the subjeot) 1.8 the need or drive in the object, which, if successful, would harm or benefit him. Preas

vary in kind and in strength.

Cithexis. This is the power of an object to arouse feelings of liking (positive cathexis)

or of disliking (negative cathexis) in the subjeot. It is also permissible to say that the subject

J"

,

,

- 83 -

"positively-csthects" or simply "cathects" (vp.lues, admire,s. lovesl one object;· or that he "negptively osthects" (de,.reelates~ ,scorns, teers, ,hetes) anotihe r-, '!'he cs tbexls (potency) of ob~ ects -.. thei%" a bili ty .

to evoke behavior in the subject -~ cen very in kind, (p081t.1v$'·,ot' n.eg.tive) 01* in strength.

1. ' STA~~lT OF THE PROBLEM

~ \ :

"Thll't1' ,eers ago Hi tIer was $ common bum, an unemployed nOQentity. a derelIct, of the polyglot society t~t 1Ims·Vienna. "It was a miserable lIfe," his pal, Hanisch, has written, "and I once asked hfm whet he Wrs're'allY wB,lting for. He ans1'1ered: 'I don't know myself. ' I have never seen such helpless letting-down in distress.;'

Twenty years later Hitler was dIctator of all Germany •. He wes not waiting for anythIng; but demandIng and gettIng all thet a bound,less1y ambItIous man could want. Many peopl~ thought that they had never seen

such resolute confidence in victory.

Three years ago; at the a ga of' fIf'ty- one, Hi tIe r ~as the. most po~erful and succesaful individual on earth, on the one hand, the most worshipped, on the other, the most despised. In Germany pe was virtually

~;. ,l:

~ ..

~,

it ,,'

·,;';_'.'.

, ". ;

- 84 ..

'a demigods . he, had' unl1mitcd, power; he wsa a1way8 right; he,eould do ,no wrong; he WCD the sevior of the

, ;

Vaterlend,tbe,.. conqueror ot Europe, the divinely s.ppointed prophet of a new era, There was a Hitler

to Christ •. '

The men is Chiefly interesting as e force that has affeCted -t he lives of mo~ people on this globe I than anymEln' in history, aided .. to be euro , by ne" and mirccu~ous instruments of communication. Bow wes

. it possible ~ror a man so insignifioant in steture and appearonbe, so deficient· in bodily strength end emotional control, -so lacking in intellectual attainments

how waS it possible for such a m~n to succeed where

the mightiest Germans of the P~Dt bed failed? vThet kind of a man is this Hitlel'? What are his chief abilities end disabilities? '~m:t conditions in .

Ge rmany ";1cre conducive to his meteoric riso to power?

what is he li~ely to do next? -And, if the Allies

•"

: ..

. , .

;J~it·.: ~

get ,thelt" bendS" on' biDi, ]1.0". oan he QG' treated so thBt be will never r~$e -st'itl 'a8 a legendary figure 1;0 In.'t$.pte another S8t8~io ,revolutlon against oultul'e1 These er~ among the qu'estions thet, have been faoed

in th1spepe~'.

1be--aSf)8cts o~ II1tler'a pe~sonalit1 thtltespeclally l'equ1~e eltplanat1ol'1 'aN' these: th$ intensIty of tb.e

,man i 8, dedleation to. the creation, ot an 'ideal;' the

nAf:t.u-e 'ot 'hIs lite ... dra~; '0: M~$sion; S$ be e~nQeive:J it; the tatlat1cl1Ull o-t his 'se'i1tlmsn'ts prQ PGwer;

i,

Glor1; ~iC1~ato~2ullP, 1'il1 ta~lsIli, B%'iUte11~" the ':A'ggressl\t4 Instinct, Nationalism; :PUrity of Blood;

and the ,tan8tle1sm' ot. MEl $ent1ments· corl t';eakness, IndecIsion, Tdle-ranoe, OOll'lpassionj Peace, rtet1onel, Debate /I De:MOCi"ac1'" .Bol~118vis'!D. thlJ Adqu1s1 t1,ve tnstinet,j

- . '

J4a tGf'11111tJ1l, Cap! tailslll, tho Jewllh lt8ca; Chr1st·!eni tr.

, ,

. . ~ '. '.. .

A1.so ot 'interest at-e: the nature of his ofatOl'lca1.

i ,

powell ~. the emotions of' the t!la$ses; hill pa,1ntlng and ,nrch1 t~Cht~.~1bt$restlS; the vagarie,t,1 of his sax instinct; and the significance ot ,hid fieU!'otlc and p.ychotie s)iIlptoms.

"

- '

86 ...

'. ,-

II.. fliYSIOAIJ OONS~IMION

1. l>1.l1s1quO

IA point ot fundAptQntal 1mpol!tanc.o 1s th$ lar,4' gynlO (temin1pe) oomp~nent in Hitler's constitution.

, .

His hi,ps aX'~ wide and his shoulders relativel,.

,na'X'toW. His mu8c~es, are fltib~r. his 16$8 thin and spindly I.' thQ, la,tter being bidden in tha j)e,t by

.

,heavy 'boo~p and more recently by long trousers. He

.

i$ hollowchosted. snd in the throe~ of passionate

,speeoh his' voice sometimes breaks into shrill fal.etto.

, ,. - ~ ,

'In ¢ontJ'8(ft ~lO his inas,QulinO ideal to'll German you.th,

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Hitler·s physical s.tren6tb and agility al'o'definitely

''bqlo.VI the 8ve.rago'. He wa$ fre.!l' BS a child, nevel' 'labat-ad in the fields, , De,Yer playec1 r-ough gaJDes.

HEI haa long tapering le.nsitive fingers'.' In-Vienn$, ~e was tOe) weale to be employed on const~eti()n jobs 'and b6foretbc' out'bl'EHak ot World WeI' I "tis re jecte4

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by the Austrian }.rmy QS permanontly disqualified

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fo%' service. He was discouraged'after one attempt

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to ride a' horse, and in the lest 't."en~y years his

,exercise hes'been limited to short walks. Some 'informants say thet he is physically incapable 'of normal 8ex~1 relations. His movements have been

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d~scribed eswamonish ~ a dainty ladyliko woy 01'

,,1'Slking (wh~n not'asstmiing a milItary carrIage in public), ortemineto geatures 01' hIs arms -- a peculiar graceless ineptitUde reminiscont of. a gIrl t~owing'a basebnll~

'2. Modical erid Psychiatric History Hitler bas suftered-trom nervous gastr~tis, or

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indigestion, tor ~hY' yea~s. This is probably a

psychosomatic 8ynd~me ,- part end percel 01' his goncz-e L

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neurotIcism. ' A Gel'lQSil psych1at%'lst who examined Hitler's medicnl

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r~cord in World War t Qss~ reported that the diagnosis

01' h1s condition was hysterIcal blindness e' In other

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words, he did not'suffor tt-om mustard gss pOisoning,

a8 publicly stated, but trom a war neurosis. It bos also been said that he was not only,blind but dumb" and (according to one informant) deat.

, SOlD«! 'J'ears ago a 'ben.ign polyp wss removed trom a vocal chord.

~tler. is a victim 01' temp~r tnntrums which nave increasod in intonsity and trequoncy during 'the last ten years. A typical seizure consists 01' (1) pacing, shouting, cursing, blaming, accusations or t~eachery

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and be~rayel; (2) weeping end exhibitions of selt'pity; and ($) talling' on tbe-"floor, foaming at the

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mouth, , hl tii.'\g the ,carpet • The man haa some control

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" bite%.' the'se epIleptiform attacks ,using them to get

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bis' own way ,with his close associe.tes.

_H~ tle'r eLs o sut,fers from ag1 tatad depression,s, aftX'1ghtlng nigb.tmeres,' hypochondriacal states in wh1ch he teal's 'that, M _''W~ll be pod.s oned or die from cancer oC'the sto_ch.

'Ill; APPEARANCE AND 'EXPRESSIVE ATTITUDES

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The most significant fact about Hitler's appoar-

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.anco is its utter ina,ignificance. He is the pr()to-

,-, type of the little men, an unnecessar1 duplicate, apparontly,- thet one Vlould nevor turn, to look at twico. For ten years, not",! thst£'nding; Germons beve

" ,been gazing at him and, spellbound, seen the megnetic figure of one who could hElve said and done .he.t Hitlex-

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has said,ahd done.

Comments have chiefly centered on Hitler's eyes and his bends. Although his greyish-blue eyes are usually stary and dead, impersonal and unseeing, ,at times he looks a men or woman streight in the face with ~ fixed, unwavering gaze that bes been described

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,,'

l~'~:., '.

l{(' ,

l'~:

,

~t .

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,t._ ~o~1tlve11 hfpno"tio. Ioh1n~ tbt bab1tw:.l ".OBnC'

ot oxp~e,slJlotJ 8 •• cit •• ern an UteQ'. flame of

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p$s$lo~n1iO dedlcotlolS. Ht.' hs:nde ar. ,8tt'lk1nsl'l

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1Itell"sM»c4 eQ. e~prQa.lv:e" $~d t.X). ·.hcltangu1ng tart

9ud1enc$tb.er ere ~$ec1.·bo good eftect f.

X. .11 otho¥t.l"o,pect" H1t1er'8'eppeereo¢a ie

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~otal~1 1.llok1ng 1ft dtst111'~l'o". S1.s' t(U\t~r.8alie: sott,

1'11. c,beftkS sallow arn:Lputr,_ ,hi. h8(>.dsbake lOQS~J his

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palma 1DC>~O t . lU'ld cla_1. Such tEla t\lX'e s . ¢&J) he. td1,.

· be 'appreciated' b1 .the ·.ev~r9ge· visitor •• ev~denoQs .Qt· an Il'oO Man., ,

, . Xnbia roe.tiona' to tb.$ .orld .. Bltl$r plar' '$81'1' p~ .. tS. 'l'l1.ore 18 tb,4 expressionless 'Ili t1e~, '

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'11k •• d'WDlDt at&nd1tl.g .ith~ up~e1sed ·bt1.nd in tbe front'

· 01. i. .. u .... 1'Iheel~d iIloto~C.·l" .1.1bt\t UlOVEt. at 8$10W pace.

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, 4~wn ttl.· ~$at "'fenu$ b<tt"EJ$n .~",~ed: ronkG _ ()t $b6utltl11 · ~?r$b1ptul acUleten1i.. There i$ tih$' embr:\ftr~fuied Hi tler_

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111 ~b fJ8Se, ,.en subservient, 1n thS 'presence of fA

strnnpr; ttl eJ'18toc'rut~ . a ix-eat gene ra L, i)r a k~bg (as on hill visit to lte~,). T'bere 1s tbe gf-soiatia Hitler, the 80tt, .goOC$ ... ~.tured Austrla~, gentle; intol-mal, p.nd o'lGft Ihc>d~8t, •• 1coming friendly admit-aI's

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at.' his V111a; ,as ._'11 IS tho. sent1meptal'·F..1tlel',

_"ping over e deed oen.1'1. Then there 1s the tactical

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lU.tle~, who comes t.n Q~ ti11e ort t1eol moment with· tbt . "daringly right' deC1sioll t and tbo D\y~t1CJfll1l1 tl¢r 1

, "hint1ng ot a thousand years ot 8upe~o1'1t1toJ' tbo

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" Gerntan talk; thepOSSc3Ss.ed 'Bitler,. sbrieking .1 til

tQnQ~1'cal turf &$ be ,exb.orts the ,l11Sssosjtho

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hystEtr1cal·m.tle~; rOlling,on the eS'l'pe't or sbaJdng

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w1~h. terrott' as he W$ke~ 'fttom e. ti1gbttDarel the

,~tethet!o 'Hitler,.' liinp,' 1nQ'01~nti. eneS ind.ecisive; and at al'l tlme~_ th~ ~Oo.Rl;>oX'H1tleJi'.1 ready fio go

, . ott helt",Qoekedon $. lotig tit-nd. even though he i.

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, ad6resslrig Q single1nd1V-1duel. Of all tha8e~ 1t 18

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\. th,e,~aot1dQl Hi tIer, tbe mystical Hitler, ~nd the'

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'p'os$essed Hit,ler \Vbi~h have ·been ch1etl1 instrumental tn-wlnnlng the pOsition' he now holdS. It 1$ becauS$ o~\thesa powe,):'tul. inhabitants 'ot l11'be1n,g thei: peOple bSy~ accept ed 'and tolel'ate4 tbEt less app~$llng or 1:es8

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bearable inbeb! te:nta.

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