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Types of Fits

Types of Fits

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Published by: Irfan Muhammad on Nov 01, 2010
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08/06/2014

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Tolerances and Fits

Deviations from the exact dimensions are inavoidable due to the nature of manufacturing processes. These deviations must not be so large that the part is useless. Designer specifies upper and lower limits to the dimensions Tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum size limits of a part: (d ! d max  d min
dmin dmax d

Too tight tolerance High manufacturing cost Too large tolerance Part may not function as expected

Dr. Serkan Da

Fits

Dr. Serkan Da

reaming Horizontal or vertical boring machine Milling. tube drawing Press work. flame cutting Tolerance (Qm) 1-2 2-3 3-5 4-10 5-12 6-20 12-35 14-50 30-80 50-100 70-140 120-240 150-500 250-1000 400-1400 500-2000 Dr. precision tubing Light press work. Process Slip blocks. gap gages Fits produced by lapping Ball bearings. reference gages High quality gages. fine honing High quality turning. planing. Diamond or fine boring. fine grinding Grinding. plus gages Good quality gages. broaching Center lathe turning and boring. rough turning and boring. Serkan Da . rubber moulding Stamping Sand casting. slotting.Tolerances Application. tube rolling Die casting or molding. metal rolling or extrusion Drilling.

Dmax is prescribed according to the specified tolerance. Upper deviation for the Shaft is equal to zero. two basic systems are used 1) Basic Hole System (BHS) Minimum hole diameter is taken as the basis.Basic Systems for Fit Specification In order to standardize dimensioning of fits. Lower deviation for the hole is equal to zero. Dr. Serkan Da . 2) Basic Shaft System (BSS) Maximum shaft diameter is taken as the basis. dmin is prescribed according to the specified tolerance.

BHS BSS tolerance zone hole basic size Fund. hole basic size shaft shaft tolerance zone Dr. Serkan Da . Dev.Basic Systems for Fit Specification tolerance zone Fund. Dev.

International Tolerance Grade Numbers ‡ In order to establish a preferred fit we need 1) The magnitude of the tolerance zone for the shaft and the hole 2) Fundamental deviation for the shaft (in BHS) Fundamental deviation for the hole (in BSS) ‡ International tolerance grade numbers (IT numbers) designate groups of tolerances such that tolerances for a particular IT number have the same relative level of accuracy but vary depending on the basic size. The smaller grade numbers specify a smaller tolerance zone. Dr. Serkan Da . ‡ IT numbers are given in Tables A-11 and A-13 in the textbook. The tolerance zones are specified in international tolerance grade numbers called IT numbers. ‡ The magnitude of the tolerance zone is the variation in part size. ‡ These numbers range from IT0 to IT16.

rubber moulding Stamping Sand casting. fine grinding Grinding. tube rolling Die casting or molding. Serkan Da . fine honing High quality turning. reference gages High quality gages. tube drawing Press work. rough turning and boring. metal rolling or extrusion Drilling. planing. broaching Center lathe turning and boring. Diomand or fine boring. flame cutting Tolerance (Qm) 1-2 2-3 3-5 4-10 5-12 6-20 12-35 14-50 30-80 50-100 70-140 120-240 150-500 250-1000 400-1400 500-2000 IT Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Dr. plus gages Good quality gages.International Tolerance Grade Numbers Application. precision tubing Light press work. reaming Horizontal or vertical boring machine Milling.Process Slip blocks. slotting. gap gages Fits produced by lapping Ball bearings.

021 mm ‡ Tables can be used for both shafts and the holes. Dr. Determine the tolerance on the shaft. metric series) Basic size 18-30 (Consider the 1st appearance) Ts ! (d ! d max  d min ! 0. Use Table A-11 (tolerance grades. Serkan Da .International Tolerance Grade Numbers Example: A shaft of nominal diameter 25 mm is going to be manufactured. IT grade is required to be IT7. ‡ Tolerance on a shaft or a hole can be calculated by using the formulas provided by ISO.

453 D  0. T is the tolerance (in Qm) i ! 0. T ! K vi where.Tolerance Designation (ISO R286) Tolerance on a shaft or a hole can also be calculated by using the formulas provided by ISO. in Qm) D ! D1 D2 (D1 and D2 are the nominal sizes marking the beginning and the end of a range of sizes.001D (unit tolerance. in mm) K ! 10.

1.6 .

ITn  IT 6 Dr. Serkan Da .

nominal size can be directly used to calculate i. i ! 0.001D Note: When the nominal sized marking the beginning and end of a range of sizes are not available.453 D  0. i = 1.341 Qm K ! 10.International Tolerance Grade Numbers Example: Consider the previous example (D = 25 mm and IT grade of IT7) and calculate the tolerance on the shaft using the formulas given in ISO standards.

1.6 .

7 6 ! 16 Ts ! v i ! 21.021 mm Same result is obtained using Table A-11 Dr. Serkan Da .45 Qm ! 0.

02 mm Th ! 0. hole Cmin d max ! 25.00 mm Ts ! 0.03 mm Allowance of the fit corresponds to maximum material condition (Cmin).95 mm d min ! 25. Serkan Da .Fit Types There are three types of fits a) Clearence Fits b) Interference Fits c) Transition Fits Clearence Fits The mating parts have such upper and lower limits that a clearence always results when the mating parts are assembled. Dr. Allowance can be calculated by considering tightest fit.93 mm Dmax ! 26.03 mm shaft Dmin ! 26.

00 mm Ts ! 0. Dr.02 mm Dmax ! 25. Serkan Da .Fit Types There are three types of fits a) Clearence Fits b) Interference Fits c) Transition Fits Interference Fits The mating parts have such limits that the lowest shaft diameter is larger than the largest hole diameter.02 mm Th ! 0.01 mm Dmin ! 25.04 mm d min ! 25. hole shaft I max d max ! 25.01 mm Allowance of the fit corresponds to maximum material condition (Imax).

03 mm Dmin ! 25.02 mm Dmax ! 25. Serkan Da .02 mm Th ! 0.Fit Types There are three types of fits a) Clearence Fits b) Interference Fits c) Transition Fits Transition Fits Either a clearance or an interference may result depending on the exact value of the dimensions of the machined shaft and hole within the specified tolerance zones d max ! 25.03 mm Allowance of the fit corresponds to maximum material condition (Imax).04 mm hole I max shaft d min ! 25.00 mm Ts ! 0. Dr.

‡ Specification for the holes: H7. Dev.Fundamental Deviation tolerance zone Fund. BHS Tolerance zones for the hole and the shaft are prescribed by IT numbers. J6 ‡ Specification for the shafts: h6. D8. b8. ISO standard uses tolerance position letters with capital letters for the holes and lowercase letters for the shafts. Serkan Da . k7 Dr. Note that we also need the fundamental deviation for the shaft to completely specify the fit. ‡ Letters are combined with tolerance grades to establish a preferred fit.

Dev. o. Q. for the hole is zero) ‡ (A-Z)«/h« BSS (fund. dev. dev. L. dev. for the shaft ‡ H«/(a-z)« BHS (fund. W. for the shaft is zero) ‡ Letters I. q. l.Specification for the Fits tolerance zone Fund. 25 H7/g6 BHS basic size fund. Serkan Da . Dr. dev. w are not used. for the hole IT grade for the hole IT grade for the shaft fund. i. O.

limits for the hole and the shaft for the given fit spec. Serkan Da .12 ! 33.88 mm.16 mm.72 mm. Ts c11 Basic Size (Datum) (BHS) - What are the max. Dr. IT11. for c. and min. Example.16 mm. dev. + 34 H11/c11 H11 Th fund. devs.12 mm.12  0. H F ! 0. T ! 0. Dmax ! 34. D ! 34 mm. (Table A-11) Dmin ! 34 mm. d max ! 34  0.16 ! 33. for shafts (BHS)).Specification for the Fits. d min ! 34  0. D ! 34 mm.? Table A-12 (Fund.

(Upper limit of the shaft is on datum line). table for BSS is not given in the textbook. Ex: B8/h8 h H h shaft Datum Line shaft H«/h«.Specification for the Fits In Basic Shaft System (BSS). dev. fund. dev. Dr. of the shaft is given by h and it is equal to zero. snug fit. Note: Fund. Serkan Da . + + - B Datum Line (A-Z)«/h«.

Fundamental Deviations (Letter Specification) + A BSS: (A-G)«/h« (positive) BHS: H«/(a-g)« (negative) (J-K)«/h« (depends on size) H«/(j-k)« (depends on size) (M-Z)«/h« (negative) H«/(m-z)« (positive) z BC DE F uv t rs p mn x y HF GH basic size HF RS TU VX YZ a HF HF b cd j gh e f k JK MN P HOLE SHAFT - Dr. Serkan Da .

Tolerance on the Fit Tolerance on the fit is defined as the sum of the tolerance on the hole and tolerance on the shaft. T f ! Th  Ts ! .

Dmax  Dmin  .

Serkan Da interference Cmax Imin T f ! I max  I min Imax Imax .d max  d min clearence Cmin T f ! Cmax  Cmin Cmax transition T f ! I max  Cmax Dr.

Example For a nominal diameter of 25 mm and for a fit specification of H7/j5 determine the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Type of the tolerancing system Tolerance on the hole Tolerance on the shaft Upper and lower limits of the hole (Dmax. Serkan Da . dmin) Type of the fit Tolerance on the fit Allowance Dr. Dmin) Upper and lower limits of the shaft (dmax.

4 Qm + c) Ts ! 9 Qm H7 5 Th ! 21 Qm nominal size Dr. Serkan Da .Example a) H7/j5 Basic Hole System b) D = 25 mm. from the given table: H7 p  21 Qm 0 Qm 5p  5 Qm .

Dr.004 ! 24. Serkan Da .Example d) Dmin ! 0.021 ! 25. Cmax ! 21  4 ! 25 Qm. I max ! 5 Qm.005 mm f) Interference fit. g) Tolerance on the fit: T f ! Th  Ts ! 21  9 ! 30 Qm or.005 ! 25. T f ! I max  Cmax ! 30 Qm. (Basic Hole System) Dmax ! 25  0.996 mm d max ! 25  0.021 mm e) d min ! 25  0. h) Allowance = Imax= 5 Qm.

For example. Serkan Da . D = 20 mm. h6 p 0 Qm  13 Qm Cmin 7 Cmax h6 Dr. interference and clearence values for commonly used fits are given. consider G7/h6.Fits. From the table we read: Cmax ! 41 Qm Cmin ! 7 Qm 7p  28 Qm  7 Qm clearence fit. Interference and Clearence Values In the second table.

Serkan Da . From the table we read: Cmax ! 13 Qm I max ! 21 Qm H7 p  21 Qm 0 interference fit. D = 20 mm. Interference and Clearence Values Consider H7/m6.Fits.  21Qm  8 Qm m6 p H7 m6 nominal size Dr.

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