User's Guide

Builder
Pre-Processing Applications
Version 2009

By Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

This publication and the application described in it are furnished under license exclusively to the licensee, for internal use only, and are subject to a confidentiality agreement. They may be used only in accordance with the terms and conditions of that agreement. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage/retrieval system, to any party other than the licensee, without the written permission of Computer Modelling Group. The information in this publication is believed to be accurate in all respects. However, Computer Modelling Group makes no warranty as to accuracy or suitability, and does not assume responsibility for any consequences resulting from the use thereof. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.

Copyright © 1987-2009 Computer Modelling Group Ltd. All rights reserved.

The license management portion of this program is based on: Reprise License Manager (RLM) Copyright © 2006-2009, Reprise Software, Inc. All rights reserved

Builder, CMG, and Computer Modelling Group are registered trademarks of Computer Modelling Group Ltd. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Computer Modelling Group Ltd. Office #150, 3553 - 31 Street N.W. Calgary, Alberta Canada T2L 2K7

Tel: (403) 531-1300

Fax: (403) 289-8502

E-mail: cmgl@cmgl.ca

Contents
1. Introduction and Overview 1
Introduction...................................................................................................................1 What’s New in Builder 2009 ........................................................................................2 What’s New in Builder 2008 ........................................................................................3 What’s New in Builder 2007 ........................................................................................4 Starting Builder.............................................................................................................5 Specifying “Except” Units in STARS ..........................................................................6 Converting Simulator Type for a Dataset .....................................................................7 Importing Partial Simulator Data..................................................................................8 Saving Your Work to a Simulator Input File (Dataset) ................................................9 Selecting the Main File ..................................................................................10 Organizing the Data .......................................................................................10 Choosing the Array Saving Method ..............................................................10 Organizing Include Files................................................................................11 Saving Comments ..........................................................................................11 Validating the Dataset.................................................................................................11 Viewing Model Initialization Generated by Simulator...............................................12 Simulating Current Dataset from Within Builder .......................................................13 Simulating Current Dataset to a Job Queue from Within Builder ..............................14 Exiting Builder............................................................................................................15 Customizing Toolbars, Menus and Theme .................................................................15 Docking Panes ............................................................................................................15

2. Reservoir Description

17

Overview.....................................................................................................................17 Creating a Simulation Grid Using Structure Maps .....................................................17 Top Maps - Elevation or Depth Map .............................................................19 Units for the X and Y Coordinates of Maps ..................................................20 Opening and Displaying a Contour Map File or Mesh Map File ..................20 Creating a Variable Depth, Variable Thickness Cartesian Grid or an Orthogonal Corner Point Grid ....................................................................21 Creating a Radial Grid ...................................................................................22 Moving and Rotating a Grid ..........................................................................23

User's Guide Builder

Contents • i

Moving Grid Lines ........................................................................................ 24 Adding and Deleting Grid Lines ................................................................... 24 Undoing a Change ......................................................................................... 25 Creating a Non-Orthogonal Corner Point Grid With Vertical Faults............ 25 Zooming and Panning While Creating or Editing a Grid.............................. 26 Creating a Grid for a Pattern Flood Model................................................................. 26 Creating a Non-orthogonal Grid With Sloping Faults Using Structure Maps............ 28 Contour Maps and Sloping Faults ................................................................. 28 Steps for Constructing Sloping Fault Grids With Builder............................. 30 Step By Step Instructions .............................................................................. 31 Useful Tips .................................................................................................... 33 Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties.................................................. 33 Importing from File Output by a Geological Program.................................. 33 Importing a Simulation Grid, Properties and Well locations from a RESCUE Model ......................................................................................... 34 Importing Partial Datasets from Petrel.......................................................... 38 Resolving Problems With Axis Direction in Imported Grids........................ 39 Importing Grid and Grid Properties from a CMG Dataset File..................... 41 Creating a Simulation Grid Using 3D Surfaces from RESCUE Model ..................... 41 Building Simulation Grid Using the Geological Modeling Task Manager................ 44 Import Well Data........................................................................................... 45 Select Tops .................................................................................................... 46 Edit Markers.................................................................................................. 46 Create Horizons............................................................................................. 48 Create 2D Grid .............................................................................................. 50 Create Boundary............................................................................................ 52 Create 3D Grid .............................................................................................. 53 Create Properties ........................................................................................... 55 Editing an Existing Simulation Grid .......................................................................... 56 Adding and Removing Refined Grids ........................................................... 57 Splitting Grid Planes ..................................................................................... 61 Join Blocks Option ........................................................................................ 61 Combining Layers ......................................................................................... 65 Extracting a Sub-section of a Grid ................................................................ 70 Editing a Cartesian, Radial or Orthogonal Grid ............................................ 71 Editing a Non-Orthogonal Corner Point Grid Created Using Structural Maps .......................................................................................... 71 Editing a Grid Created Using RESCUE Surfaces ......................................... 71 Specifying, Calculating and Adjusting Structure and Rock Property Values ............ 72 Specifying Property Interpolations and Calculations .................................... 72 Performing Interpolations and Calculations.................................................. 76 Deleting a Property........................................................................................ 78 Defining Custom Property............................................................................. 78

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Importing Spatial Properties .......................................................................................79 Importing Properties from CMG Dataset Files Without Importing the Grid......79 Importing Properties from CMG Simulation Results Files ...........................80 Importing Properties from a Text File Containing an Array of Values ...........81 Defining/Editing Geological Units .............................................................................81 Converting to Dual Porosity .......................................................................................83 Pinching Out Thin Grid Blocks ..................................................................................83 Fixing Overlapping Blocks .........................................................................................83 Fixing Net-to-gross Ratio Problems ...........................................................................84 Setting Transmissibility Multipliers at Sealing or Partially Sealing Faults ................85 Entering Rock Compressibility...................................................................................87 Editing Property Values of Selected Blocks ...............................................................87 Editing Property Values Around Wells .........................................................89 Reviewing Property Modifications ................................................................90 Editing Grid Structure Values.....................................................................................90 Defining and Editing Sectors ....................................................................................100 Create/Edit/Delete Lease Planes ...............................................................................102 Create/Edit/Delete Aquifers......................................................................................103 Locating and Adding Wells in the Simulation Grid .................................................106 Wells in Map Data .......................................................................................106 Opening a 3D Well Trajectory File and Adding Well Completions............107 Manually Adding or Modifying Well Completions.....................................107 The Wellbore Diagram ................................................................................107 Rock Compaction/Dilation Regions (IMEX and GEM Only)......................................108 Selecting Compaction/Dilation Regions......................................................109 Adding a New Compaction/Dilation Region...............................................109 Removing Compaction/Dilation Regions ....................................................109 Compaction/Dilation Tables ........................................................................110 Adding a New Compaction/Dilation Table .................................................110 Removing Compaction/Dilation Tables ......................................................111 Other Reservoir Properties (STARS Only)...............................................................111 General Editing of a Rock Type ..................................................................112 Adding a New Rock Type ...........................................................................112 Removing a Rock Type ...............................................................................113 Entering Rock Compressibility....................................................................114 Setting Thermal Properties for the Rock Type ............................................114 Entering Overburden Heat Loss Parameters................................................117 Specifying Dilation Recompaction ..............................................................118 Specifying Compaction Rebounding ...........................................................120 Specifying Variable Permeability ................................................................121 Reservoir Options (IMEX and GEM Only)..............................................................122 Curvature Analysis ...................................................................................................123

User's Guide Builder

Contents • iii

3. Fluid Model - IMEX

125

Overview .................................................................................................................. 125 Viewing and Editing Data ........................................................................................ 125 Creating a New Fluid Model .................................................................................... 126 Creating Quick Models ............................................................................... 126 Using the Detailed Fluid Model Dialog ...................................................... 127 Importing a WinProp Generated Model ...................................................... 127 Changing an Existing Model .................................................................................... 128 Working With Multiple PVT Regions ..................................................................... 128 Creating/Editing PVT Tables ................................................................................... 129 Creating a New Table.................................................................................. 129 Editing a Table ............................................................................................ 129 Generating a PVT Table Using Correlations............................................................ 130 Entering Other PVT Region Properties.................................................................... 131 Generating Water Properties Using Correlations ..................................................... 132 Entering Undersaturated Data .................................................................................. 132 Entering Data for the Pseudo-miscible Option......................................................... 133 Entering Data for the Polymer Option...................................................................... 134 Entering Data for the API Tracking Option ............................................................. 134 Launching WinProp With Current Fluid Model Data .............................................. 135 Displaying Component Properties Partial Dataset ................................................... 136 Data Validation......................................................................................................... 136

4. Fluid Model - GEM

137

Overview .................................................................................................................. 137 Library and User Components .................................................................... 137 Specifying a Fluid Model ......................................................................................... 138 Adding/Editing an Equation of State........................................................................ 138 Adding/Editing Components .................................................................................... 138 Adding/Editing a Component...................................................................... 139 Deleting a Component................................................................................. 141 Adding/Editing Comments.......................................................................... 141 Entering Binary Interaction Coefficients.................................................................. 141 Adding/Editing Comments.......................................................................... 142 Entering Viscosity Data............................................................................................ 142 Adding/Editing Comments.......................................................................... 143 Entering Aqueous Phase Solubility .......................................................................... 143 Entering Single Phase Fluid & Gas Diffusivity ....................................................... 143 Entering Reservoir Temperature .............................................................................. 144 Entering Water Properties ........................................................................................ 145 Displaying Component Properties Partial Dataset ................................................... 145

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Data Validation .........................................................................................................145 “Quick” Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Setup................................................................145 New Case .....................................................................................................147 Existing Case ...............................................................................................152

5. Fluid Model - STARS

153

Overview...................................................................................................................153 Adding/Editing Components ....................................................................................153 Adding/Editing a Component ......................................................................154 Entering K Value Data..............................................................................................155 K value Correlations ....................................................................................156 K Value Tables ............................................................................................157 Entering Liquid Density Data ...................................................................................160 Liquid Density Nonlinear Mixing Option....................................................161 Entering Solid Phase Density Data ...........................................................................162 Entering Liquid Phase Viscosity Data ......................................................................162 Viscosity Correlations..................................................................................162 Viscosity Tables...........................................................................................163 Liquid Viscosity Nonlinear Mixing Option.................................................164 Entering Gas Phase Viscosity Data...........................................................................164 Working With Multiple Viscosity Property Types ...................................................165 Entering Fluid Enthalpy Data ...................................................................................166 Entering Other Properties .........................................................................................167 Working with Reactions ...........................................................................................168 Advanced Options........................................................................................169 Launching WinProp With Current Fluid Model Data ..............................................170 Import Black Oil PVT...............................................................................................171 Step 1 ...........................................................................................................171 Step 2 ...........................................................................................................171 Step 3 ...........................................................................................................171 Step 4 ...........................................................................................................173 Displaying Component Properties Partial Dataset....................................................173 Data Validation .........................................................................................................173

6. Rock Fluid - General

175

Overview...................................................................................................................175 Rock Fluid Options...................................................................................................175 Rock Fluid Options: IMEX..........................................................................175 Rock Fluid Options: GEM...........................................................................176 Rock Fluid Options: STARS .......................................................................177 Rock Fluid – Diagnostic Plots ..................................................................................177 Show Blocks ← Minimums.........................................................................179

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Contents • v

7. Rock Fluid Properties - IMEX

181

Overview .................................................................................................................. 181 Modifying Existing Rock Types .............................................................................. 182 Adding a New Rock Type ........................................................................................ 182 Deleting an Existing Rock Type .............................................................................. 182 Averaging Laboratory Data into an Average Rock Type......................................... 183 Setting Rock Type Properties................................................................................... 184 Defining Relative Permeability Tables .................................................................... 184 Tool: Generate Tables Using Correlations ................................................. 186 Tool: Smooth Table.................................................................................... 186 Tool: Curve Scaling ................................................................................... 188 Modifying Tables from the Plot View......................................................... 189 Setting Hysteresis Modelling ................................................................................... 190 Seawater Scale Deposit and Damage Tables............................................................ 190

8. Rock Fluid Properties - GEM

193

Overview .................................................................................................................. 193 Modifying Existing Rock Types .............................................................................. 194 Adding a New Rock Type ........................................................................................ 194 Deleting an Existing Rock Type .............................................................................. 194 Averaging Laboratory Data into an Average Rock Type......................................... 195 Setting Rock Type Properties................................................................................... 196 Defining Relative Permeability Tables .................................................................... 196 Tool: Generate Tables Using Correlations ................................................. 198 Tool: Smooth Table.................................................................................... 199 Tool: Curve Scaling ................................................................................... 200 Modifying Tables from the Plot View......................................................... 201 Setting Hysteresis Modelling ................................................................................... 202

9. Rock Fluid Properties - STARS

203

Overview .................................................................................................................. 203 Modifying Existing Rock Types .............................................................................. 204 Adding a New Rock Type ........................................................................................ 204 Deleting an Existing Rock Type .............................................................................. 205 Averaging Laboratory Data into an Average Rock Type......................................... 205 Setting Rock Type Properties................................................................................... 206 Defining Relative Permeability Tables .................................................................... 207 Tool: Generate Tables Using Correlations ................................................. 208 Tool: Smooth Table.................................................................................... 209 Tool: Curve Scaling ................................................................................... 210 Modifying Tables from the Plot View......................................................... 212 Setting Hysteresis Modelling ................................................................................... 212
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Setting Relative Permeability End Points .................................................................214 Setting Interpolation Set Parameters.........................................................................214 Working With Interpolation Sets ..............................................................................215 Modifying an Interpolation Set....................................................................216 Adding an Interpolation Set.........................................................................216 Deleting an Interpolation Set .......................................................................217

10. Initialization - IMEX

219

Overview...................................................................................................................219 Tree View Items and Menu.......................................................................................220 Standard Interface .....................................................................................................220 Advanced Interface ...................................................................................................221 Data Validation .........................................................................................................225

11. Initialization – GEM

227

Overview...................................................................................................................227 Tree View Items and Menu.......................................................................................227 Entering and Editing Initial Conditions ....................................................................228 Separators..................................................................................................................231 Gas Plant Tables .......................................................................................................233 Specification of Non-EOS Stream Density Calculations..........................................234 Data Validation .........................................................................................................234

12. Initialization – STARS

235

Overview...................................................................................................................235 Tree View Items and Menu.......................................................................................235 Entering and Editing Initial Conditions ....................................................................236 Data Validation .........................................................................................................237

13. Well and Group Control

239

Overview...................................................................................................................239 Time-line View of Recurrent Data ...........................................................................240 Date/Time Information .............................................................................................241 Adding/Removing Dates..............................................................................241 Adding Dates ...............................................................................................242 Deleting Dates..............................................................................................243 Well Data ..................................................................................................................243 Adding New Wells.......................................................................................243 Deleting Wells .............................................................................................244 Well Events..................................................................................................244 Adding Well Constraints .............................................................................246

User's Guide Builder

Contents • vii

New Well Constraint Definition.................................................................. 246 List of Well Constraints .............................................................................. 247 Seawater Model (IMEX only)..................................................................... 247 Coping Well Events .................................................................................... 248 Deleting Well Event .................................................................................... 249 Changing Events Settings............................................................................ 249 Using the Well & Date Filter ...................................................................... 249 Well Event Comments................................................................................. 252 Well Completions (PERF)........................................................................................ 252 Calculating the Horizontal Well Skin Factor .............................................. 253 Adding New Well Completions .................................................................. 254 Joining Well Completions (Multilaterals) ................................................... 256 Additional Data Columns............................................................................ 256 Coping Data Values to Other Well Completions ........................................ 257 Relative Permeability Options..................................................................... 258 Well Trajectories ...................................................................................................... 258 Well Trajectory Import................................................................................ 259 Create Trajectories from Well Completions................................................ 261 Trajectory Perforations................................................................................ 262 Trajectory Properties ................................................................................... 264 Well Logs Import ..................................................................................................... 267 Wellbore Diagram .................................................................................................... 268 Group Settings.......................................................................................................... 270 Adding New Groups.................................................................................... 270 Deleting Groups .......................................................................................... 271 Group Events............................................................................................... 272 Adding Wells to Group ............................................................................... 273 Group Apportionment Methods .................................................................. 276 Group ON-TIME......................................................................................... 278 Cycling Group ............................................................................................. 278 Coping Group Events .................................................................................. 280 Deleting Group Event.................................................................................. 280 Using the Group & Date Filter .................................................................... 281 Group Event Comments .............................................................................. 284 Group and Well Connection Display .......................................................... 285 Reporting Groups ..................................................................................................... 288 Adding New Reporting Group .................................................................... 289 Gas Lift Optimization Options ................................................................................. 290 Adding New Gas Lift Optimization Options............................................... 290 Tubing Performance Tables ..................................................................................... 291 Adding a New Tubing Table ....................................................................... 292 Using Tubing Files ...................................................................................... 293 Using the Tubing Pressure Calculator......................................................... 294

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............STARS 333 Overview.........................320 Restart ..............................................................................................................................................................................................Fixing Well Definition Dates..........301 Trigger ............................................302 Well List Shut/Open .................................................................319 Titles and Case ID ..........334 Calculation and Numerical Options...................297 Using Production Data Wizard ..............................................322 Text Output ............................................................................................................................................321 Simulation Results Output ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................313 Specifying Non-Darcy Information for Hydraulic Fractures......................................................................................................................................................312 Working with Hydraulic Fractures .......................................................................................................................................................309 Hydraulically Fractured Wells (IMEX & GEM) ......299 Average Production/Injection Data....................................................................................342 User's Guide Builder Contents • ix .........................................327 Setting and Editing Numerical Controls ....................................................................................................................296 Production Data Wizard......................................................336 Geomechanical Domain........................................316 14..................................................................298 Switch Well Constraints Based on Production Data.............................................................................................................337 Rigid NULL Blocks and Rigid Cap Rock ................................................................306 Creating Pattern Based Wells ................................................................................... Input/Output Control 319 Overview.........................................330 16...............................................................................................................................................325 15..............324 Miscellaneous Options............................ Geomechanics ..............................................................................................................328 PARASOL class partitioning pattern (PPATTERN) .......................................................................296 Validating Well Completions ...........................................................319 Run Time Dimensioning .... Numerical Control 327 Overview...297 Overview...........................................327 Dynamic Grid Regions ......................................................................................................................................................................340 Displacement Boundary Conditions .................................................................305 Copy Well Wizard ........................................334 Geomechanical Rock Types ...........................................297 Files Required by Production Data Wizard ..................................................................................304 Heater Well (STARS only)..........................................................................................................................................................................333 Data Validation .................................................................................339 Boundary Stress Unloading ................................

. 348 Selecting a Property. 350 Selecting a Time............. .......................................................................................... 357 Moving the Title. 373 Modifying Ternary Color Scale ................... 355 Results 3D & Builder User Preferences .................................................. and Map Scale............................................................................................................................................................ 358 Changing the Aspect Ratio and Scale ...................................................................................... 357 Resizing the Titles and Info Box.... 345 Understanding the Parts of the Main Window ....... 353 Changing Displayed Titles ................... Info Box...................................................................................................... Size and Color.......................................................... 364 Cutting Away Part of a Reservoir in 3D ............ 361 Improving 3D Graphics Performance ................................. 351 Changing Display Settings ........................................... 360 Zooming .................... Panning.......................................................................................................... 351 Selecting a Font Name.......................... Changing Display Content and Settings 345 Overview ..............................................................................................................Y Coordinates of a Point in the Reservoir............................ Style........... 360 Undoing a Zoom or Pan ............................................................................................................... 363 Selecting IJK Slabs and Regions.................................................................................... 355 Showing Fault Faces ........................ etc............................... and Rotating the Reservoir .......... 349 Selecting Plane Number Within a Refined Grid ...... 360 Panning (Moving) the Reservoir .............................. 357 Resizing the Reservoir Viewport ........... 347 Displaying Crosshairs Centered on the Cursor ............................................................................... 357 Toggling the Color Gradient Background............................... 362 Using Stereoscopic 3D ................ 359 Zooming..................................................................................................................................................... 361 Rotating..................................... 370 Setting or Modifying a General Color Scale .......... 370 Modifying a Linear or Logarithmic Color Scale .................................................................................. 348 Viewing Properties .................................................................. 349 Selecting Block Fill...................... Thickness and Color................................... 368 Modifying the Color Scale ........................................................................................................... 350 Selecting a Time Display Format ....................... 354 Toggling the Display of the Grid............................17...................... Map...... Panning and Zooming the Reservoir in 3D ................................... 348 Displaying the IJK Grid Block Address......... 351 The Display Settings Tabbed Dialog Box .................................................. 374 x • Contents User's Guide Builder ...................... 357 Resizing the Color Legend .................................................. 346 Displaying the X..................................... 352 Selecting a Line Style................................................................................... Contour Lines or Contour Fill ................................................................................................................................................. 357 Resizing the Map Scale ............................................................................. 372 Saving Color Scale settings in preferences .............................................. 348 Selecting the View Type and Plane Number............................ Color Legend........ 356 Moving and Resizing Display Objects .......................................................................... Wells.....

...........387 List of Operators .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................377 Improving the Quality of Saved Images .................375 Printing and Saving Images ..........................................392 Viewing Existing Formulae ......................................................... Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data 395 Overview.........................................................................................................................................................387 Explanation of Terms Used .......................377 Saving the Current View as an Image File ...................388 IF Blocks......................................................................................................................................................................382 Wells .377 Specifying Bitmap Resolution in 3D Printing ....................................379 Interactive Block Selection (3D only) ...........................382 3D Properties ...............398 User's Guide Builder Contents • xi .......................379 Synchronizing Views.........................................................................................................................................................................................393 19..............................................................................................385 18..................393 Builder ................................................................................................................................................................................393 Results...........................................................................................................................................392 Example Formulae ......384 Opening and Closing Docking Tools..........................................................................................................389 Using the Array Property Calculator ..................... Array Property Calculator 387 Overview..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................393 Calculating Grid and Property Statistics...........................................................................................................................................375 Changing the Selected Printer and Paper Size ....391 Results 3D...................................................................................................378 Working With Multiple Views and Documents ....................................................................397 Supported Atlas Boundary File Format .......................................................................................................396 Importing Hard Copy Contour Maps........389 New Formula ..................................382 Selection ..............................................................................................................................388 General.................................395 Required Geological Data...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................376 Printing the Current View.379 Opening a Second View .......380 Docking Tools (3D only) ...........................................................392 Editing a Formula ....Viewing and Editing Tabular Data .............396 Creating Contour Maps With Didger 3.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................392 Saving and Restoring Formulae and Formula-based Properties ............................................388 Formula Syntax.................................................389 Builder ...............383 Statistics .......................................

.......... 428 Well Log Formats........................ 434 Table Format for Formation Tops ..................................................................................... 458 Faults Tab .......................... 421 Production Analyst Well Trajectory File Format ............ 460 Inverse Distance Estimation.................................................................WinDig Contour Format ........................................................................................................... 422 XY File Description ........................................................ 461 Ordinary Kriging With Secondary Variable..................................... 459 Methods Tab........................................................... 461 Ordinary Kriging (OK) Estimation .................. 435 Launching Database Import .......................... 410 Supported ZMAP Formats ......................................................................... 435 Overview .......................................................... 424 Well Perforation File Format ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 463 Gaussian Geostatistical Simulations .... 428 Well Trajectory in GOCAD Format...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 430 Single Well Log File ................................................................ 448 20....................................................................................................... 422 Deviated File Description...... 432 Multiple Well Log File..... 426 Old Perforation Format .......................... 402 Creating Mesh Data Files ....................................... 415 Supported EarthVision Formats ...................................................................................................... 435 Prerequisites ................................................................................................... 462 Trend Method .............................. Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations 457 Overview .......................................................... 427 Well Trajectory and Logs in RMS Format......................... 430 LAS Well Log Format..... 434 Importing from a PPDM database........................................................................................ 425 Table Format for Well Trajectory Perforation Intervals .. 436 PPDM Coverage in Database Import ................................................................................. 423 Well Trajectory Table File Format................. 448 Merging Data Sets ..................................................................................................................................... 433 Formation Top File Format .............................. 457 Points Tab................. 419 Newer CPS-3 Files ...................................................................................................................................................... 402 CMG Mesh Format ............. 464 xii • Contents User's Guide Builder ............................................................... 416 Supported CPS-3 Formats .................................................................. 409 Importing Data from a History Match Run Done By a CMG Simulator.................................... 399 Creating Quick Contour Maps Using Builder ......................................................................................................................................................... 403 Sample CMG Mesh Files ..............................................................................................................................................................

.........483 Object Modelling – Inclined Shales............................................................480 Trend Method .......487 Calculation from Specification Action ......................................................................................490 Advanced Options.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................473 Run and Apply Buttons...................................479 Search Radius .......481 Variogram Anisotropy (Kriging Method)...................................................................................................................................................479 Examples....................................................................................................................................................................................473 Region Selection .......473 Map Value Limits or Value Limits (3D) ..473 Extend By ...............465 Use Uniform Grid Assumption for Speed Up...............................................................................................475 Lag Tolerance .....475 Instability ................................................486 Geostatistical Calculation Action ..............................................481 Variogram Range (Kriging Method) .....................................466 Mesh Tab and Region Tab ...................................................................................484 References..........................................................................................................489 Simulator Initialization Action .......................482 Search Radius (Gaussian Geostatistical Method) .....................................492 Running the Script .........................................492 User's Guide Builder Contents • xiii .............................474 Lack of Sufficient Pairs ............................................................................................................................................................................479 Normal Score Transform ...................................473 Mesh Creation.......................................................................................473 Variogram Matching........................................................465 Object Modeling ...........................................490 Queue for Simulation Action .....482 Variogram Nugget (Gaussian Geostatistical Method) .............................................................480 Inverse Distance Method ............................................................478 Trend...........................................................................................Number of Realizations .................484 21...............................................485 Repeat and End Repeat Actions.....487 Set Number Substitution Action ............465 Unconditional Gaussian Geostatistical Simulation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................488 Save Dataset Action.......................................474 Number of Pairs .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................465 Gaussian Geostatistics and Secondary Variable ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Property Calculation Scripting 485 Overview.................................................................................................................................

... 517 25...... 505 Delete CMOST Parameter Associations .................................................................................................................................................................. Exporting Data 513 Overview .... Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator 521 Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Creating CMOST Parameter Associations 495 Overview ............................................................... 523 Appendix A: Correlation Equations ............ 525 xiv • Contents User's Guide Builder ....... 522 References .......................................................................... 508 Save CMOST Task file ..................................................................... 524 Equations for the Prediction of Relative Permeability in Limestone and Dolomite ............................ Units and Unit Strings 517 Overview ...................... 515 24............................................................... 496 Add CMOST Parameters.......... 521 Pressure-Gradient Prediction Methods........................................... 508 Save As CMOST Files .................................................................................................. 513 Exporting Grid Coordinates and Property Values........................................................................................ 504 Add CMOST Parameter Associations.............................................................................. 495 Open CMOST Task File................ 524 Equations for the Prediction of Relative Permeability in Sandstone and Conglomerate ................................................................... 506 Switch CMOST Parameter Associations............ 510 23..................................................................................... 497 Edit CMOST Parameters............................... 496 Open CMOST Parameters Selection Window ............................................................... 507 Export CMOST Master Dataset ............................................................ 502 Delete CMOST Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 503 Delete Candidate values from a CMOST Parameter.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 513 Exporting Properties to a RESCUE model.......................................................................................................................................................................22.............. 521 PVT Correlations.............. 509 Merge Master Dataset Files.....................................

interpolation sets. Builder covers all areas of data input. are supported by Builder. XY plots of tabular data will be displayed by Builder. Builder also produces a Time-Line view. importing well production data. importing or creating fluid models. sectors. showing the changes in well controls versus time. Brief abstract of the chapters in this manual: “Reservoir Description” describes in detail how to create and modify a simulation grid. It also describes how to specify aquifers. The Production Data Wizard is used to simplify importing historical well data into Builder. “Initialization – IMEX”. “Rock Fluid Properties . constraints and targets.GEM” and “Rock Fluid Properties . and adsorption. and finally add well locations to the grid. “Well and Group Control” discusses importing and editing the well and well group operation controls.Introduction and Overview Introduction Builder is a MS-Windows based software tool that you can use to create simulation input files (datasets) for CMG simulators. creating tables from correlations. Builder contains a number of tools for data manipulation. GEM and STARS simulators. and also use WinProp to create fluid models. and “Fluid Model – STARS” discuss creating and editing fluid models. GEM and STARS. “Rock Fluid Properties . and data checking. then interpolate structure and other properties.STARS” discuss creating and editing rock-fluid properties. and components used by each of the IMEX. and lease-planes on the grid. locating wells. A complete interface to all well controls is available. including relative permeability tables. including creating and importing grids and grid properties. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 1 . and how to set up restart simulation runs. IMEX. “Fluid Model – GEM”. and initial conditions. You can see XY plots of tabular properties. It allows you to visualize and check your data before running a simulation. “Initialization – GEM” and “Initialization – STARS” discuss setting up the initialization options used by the simulators. All three CMG simulators. “Fluid Model – IMEX”. Again. PVT. rock-fluid properties.IMEX”. “Input/Output Control” discusses the Builder interface to the simulator controls for output from the simulator. including rates.

“Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data” describes the formats of geological and well trajectory data that can be read by Builder. “Geomechanics . The interface for Tubing Performance Tables has been updated to address changes made to tubing related simulator keywords. “Using the Array Property Calculator” discusses how to calculate array properties from other array properties using formulas in a general calculator. along with additional flow types based on the simulator used. The flow parameters are now displayed in this dialog and there are new PVT methods available for selection. The interface can read in Eclipse tubing data. “Changing Display Content and Settings” discusses modifying. the tubing table interface has also been updated to add additional functionality and flexibility. There is additional intelligence regarding when the Calculator dialog appears. Some of the items addressed include: Tubing tables can now be set for producers or injectors. by unit system. 2 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder . Please see the Tubing Performance Tables section for more information. “Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator” provides an outline of the correlations used for the evaluation of PVT properties and pressure gradients used in the tubing head pressure calculator. saving and printing the displayed image. in a manner similar to CMG’s Results 3D. line colors. “Units and Unit Strings” includes two tables: a table of the expected units. You can control fonts. There is more flexibility for choosing which flow parameters the user wants to enter in the table. What’s New in Builder 2009 1.. etc. and to perform 2D and 3D geostatistical property calculations.“Numerical Control” discusses the Builder interface to numerical control options for the simulators. “Property Calculation Scripting” describes the feature that is designed to help you automate some of the workflow procedures and iterative calculations. and a table of allowed unit strings for each unit dimension. The Calculator dialog displays a new gas injection column to specify which tubing segment the gas injection occurs at. A new ‘Add’ parameter is available. “Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations” describes tools in Builder to create 2D geological maps.STARS” discusses Builder interface to Geomechanics section of STARS. title locations. As part of these keyword changes.

The Color Scale interface has been updated to allow the user to easily set the range based on different requirements. See Cycling Group. See Hydraulically Fractured Wells (IMEX & GEM). As part of this. Grid refinement gets automatically added to get the grid block size close to the fracture width. An interface in Builder has been added to help create or modify Parameters in CMOST Master Datasets (CMM files). In addition. An interface has been added for entering and modifying the PPATTERN information. it is possible to flip the reservoir over 180 degrees and drag-zoom in a more intuitive manner. grid blocks can now be selected while in the 3D View. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 3 . A Ternary Color Scale interface has also been added. the interface will allow you to reset the values based on the range of the whole grid. and can be used for both IMEX and GEM datasets. See PARASOL class partitioning pattern (PPATTERN). 4. 2. The color scale range can be set based on: User entered values Selected grid block values (3D) The current plane values (2D) The values of a cut plane Or. See Modifying Ternary Color Scale. The Non-Darcy settings required are also shown as part of the Hydraulic Fractures dialog.2. properties and well/trajectory information may now be easily changed through Panes that are available in the 3D View. Property Statistics are also shown and can update automatically. The feature will calculate the Forchheimer Equation Beta Correction Factor and will update the permeability values based on the direction and properties of the fracture. See Creating CMOST Parameter Associations for additional information. See Modifying the Color Scale. 5. See Interactive Block Selection (3D only). See Hydraulically Fractured Wells (IMEX & GEM). 3. This feature can be accessed through the Builder tree view if SOLVER PARASOL is set in the Numerical dialog. A user interface has been added for entering Geomechanics Displacement Boundary Condition information. The interface for working with Hydraulic Fractures has been updated to improve the usability. This feature is available through the Well menu in Builder. The ability to model hydraulically fractured wells has been added to IMEX datasets. 3. See Displacement Boundary Conditions. The Group Events dialog has been updated to allow the user to enter Cycling Group information. Additional settings are now available for horizontal wells and there is better management of the fractures that are created. The display of blocks. What’s New in Builder 2008 1. 4.

See Running the Script. 8. OBHLOSSRATE. 7. This allows the user to run geostatistic realization scripts on remote computers for speed or parallelism. There are also enhancements to the Foamy Oil model. b) Heater Well keywords. This allows the creation of grids. See Building Simulation Grid Using the Geological Modeling Task Manager. See Creating Pattern Based Wells. A number of different patterns are supported. or rock fluid region. 9. The Coal Bed Methane (CBM) interface has been updated to allow the specification on Langmuir curves for sectors. Well and production data may be imported directly from a PPDM database. See Join Blocks Option. or well control keywords. formation tops.g. See “Quick” Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Setup. including 5-spot and 9-spot patterns. or structure maps. compaction/dilation regions. 10. Surfactant. A wizard has been added that will allow the easy creation of pattern-based wells. Geostatistical capabilities have been enhanced to support unconditional simulation (see Gaussian Geostatistical Simulations and a fractal variogram type has been added. petrophysical properties. 2. 5. 4. OBHLOSSCUM). The ability to run scripts through command line has been added. See Rock Fluid Options: IMEX. Reservoir conditions may be initialized using the WATER_GAS option. CCHLOSSRATE. and/or Polymer model. Support for the following simulator keywords has been added: a) NONDARCY related correlations. See Importing from a PPDM database. the Combustion model and the Alkaline.6. A model has been added for “Fines Migration” and “Asphaltene Precipitation”. and a number of other spatial properties may be specified as well. 3. See Heater Well (STARS only). The available process wizards in STARS have been expanded on and updated. It is now possible to correct grids from geological modelling packages that may have gaps and non-flush surfaces which create incorrect barriers to fluid flow. The grid can be fixed by joining all corners or creating joined pillars. e) Support for additional OUTSRF SPECIAL keywords for STARS (e. A Geological Modeling Task Manager has been added to assist with the construction of a simple model from geological information such as well trajectories. What’s New in Builder 2007 1. c) Group Cycling related keywords for all simulators. 4 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder . CCHLOSSCUM. A user interface has been added for entering Heater Well information in STARS datasets. d) The Corner Point Tolerance setting using PARTOL-TOL (for STARS).

7. 9. this should also be done prior to starting Builder. double click on the Builder Icon. An option to save dataset array data in a compressed binary format has been added. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 5 . In the CMG Technologies Launcher. Starting Builder Prior to starting Builder. To start Builder from CMG Technologies Launcher for a new case: 1. An unlimited number of custom properties may now be created (see Defining Custom Property). and the Reservoir Simulator Settings dialog will appear. DWB and WHYSTAB g) MODELSHUT and EQUILIBRATE options h) DEPLETION and DPCONNECT in IMEX i) New GCONP and GCONI keywords (VREP. Builder will start. you should set up a project directory within the CMG Technologies Launcher. RECYCLE. See Choosing the Array Saving Method. PMAINT) 8. If you need to convert any contour map or mesh map files. Menus and Theme to see how to select a theme that suits your mood.6. See Customizing Toolbars. Builder now supports a number of different visual themes. Support for the following simulator keywords has been added: a) ON-TIME for Groups b) Group apportionment c) Volatile Oil model in IMEX d) Tabular polymer viscosity mixing for IMEX e) SHUTMOWS in GCONP f) New well constraints DWA.

Release the mouse button. or one of the dual porosity options. See Specifying “Except” Units in STARS in this manual. select the simulator that you will be using. 7. To start Builder with an existing data set: 1. Under Porosity. 5. Specifying “Except” Units in STARS To specify “Except” units in STARS. 6. Currently this is used for specifying the “Except” units (see the *EXCEPT keyword in the STARS manual). The Modify unit system (“Except” units) dialog comes up.2. Under Simulator. This is usually the date of the start of production or injection in the earliest well. 3. select the unit system to use. Click on OK to dismiss the dialog. Some of the dual porosity options will enable input of Shape Factor or Subdivisions for Matrix Blocks input. Under Working Units. 4 If you were creating a STARS dataset. 2. the Advanced… button will be enabled. 6 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder . Builder will start up and open the existing data set. click on the Advanced… button in the Builder – Reservoir Simulator Settings dialog (the dialog that displays when creating a new dataset). select Single Porosity. In the CMG Technologies Launcher. Enter the Simulation Start Date. click on the main file of the existing data set and drag the file over the Builder.

If you have just closed a dataset or cancelled out of a new dataset dialog (the Builder – Reservoir Simulator Settings dialog). Converting Simulator Type for a Dataset You can use Builder to convert an IMEX dataset to a STARS or GEM dataset. Once you click on the OK button of the Builder – Reservoir Simulator Settings dialog. If you read in a dataset with “Except” units. but you cannot change them. You are back in the Builder – Reservoir Simulator Settings dialog. In this case specify the IMEX dataset file to convert. Builder honours them. these units cannot be changed. From the File menu select Convert simulator type for dataset… and then To STARS… or To GEM….Select the alternate units for one or more of the properties listed and click on OK. Builder will launch the Convert simulator type dialog. Either type in the name of the target dataset file or use the Browse button to specify the new dataset file. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 7 . select the Convert simulator type for dataset… and then IMEX to STARS… or IMEX to GEM….

you could convert the existing Black oil PVT data into STARS fluid model by selecting Convert from Blackoil model option button. Components. It may be a good idea to save and examine these messages to further complete the new dataset. Unit conversion is not done in this feature. specify its name in the Source File edit box. 2. The data that could not be converted are listed in the messages that come up while the conversion is taking place. you could do so by launching WinProp from the dialog.You can specify the WinProp generated file from which to import the Fluid Model in the new dataset file by selecting the Import from WinProp generated file option button. Importing Partial Simulator Data You can import the following pieces of data into Builder: 1. Rock-Fluid. See “Importing Spatial Properties” in this manual. Builder will convert the data in the Reservoir. The exported data could be a RESCUE model or a partial dataset for a CMG simulator. Builder also imports all the relevant meta-data – RESULTS keywords – that it stores in the dataset to facilitate restoring these objects. The IMEX dataset were using the MODSI units system. Initial and Recurrent Data sections that are common between the two simulators (IMEX and the target). If you are converting to STARS. The IMEX dataset were using the LAB units and you want to convert to GEM. If you have not already generated a file. 8 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder . Simulation grid and spatial properties from another dataset file. 2. You cannot perform the conversion if: 1. When you are done with WinProp. See “Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties” in this manual. Simulation grid and spatial properties exported from a geological program.

Specify the dataset file from which to import the property. Component Properties data from a file generated using CMG’s WinProp. You can save the file as a single file. Spatial properties from CMG simulation results files. Black oil PVT into a STARS model. When you select the Save As… menu item (or the first time you select Save for a new dataset).3. 6. Saving Your Work to a Simulator Input File (Dataset) Builder has both File→Save… and File→Save As… menu items. See “Importing Spatial Properties” in this manual. or as a set of “*INCLUDE” files. you will bring up the Save As dialog: The dialog is split into five sections: • Main file edit box • • • • Organize the Data combo box Array Saving Method combo box Include File Grid Comment edit box These controls define how the dataset is saved. See “Import Black Oil PVT” in this manual. 5. See “Importing Spatial Properties” in this manual. 4. Spatial properties from another dataset or from an ASCII text file. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 9 . Component Properties data from another dataset file. From the File menu select Import from another file… and then Component Properties…. 7. See the individual sections for the different simulators on Fluid Model in this manual.

Some data in “include” files. This opens a standard Windows Save File dialog that can be used to change the filename and directory where the dataset will be stored. the array will NOT be written to the binary format even if you select this option. The Array Saving Method combo box handles this facet of the dataset. The simulators also read this file. Organizing the Data The Organize the Data combo box drops down to reveal two ways of saving the data: • • All data in a single file. You can change this file by clicking on the browse button to the right of the box. Therefore it can speed up the loading of the data in Builder for large models. When Some data in “Include” files is chosen. This file is saved in the same folder as the main dataset file. *CON. The Include File Grid is not required and will not be displayed. Include files (if there are any) will be stored in the same directory.. If an array is “simple”.0) and with long line lengths. 2345*0. If you choose Optimize for Readability. There are three methods for saving arrays: • • • • • Default Optimize for Size & Speed Optimize for Readability Binary File Format (*cmgbin) Compressed Binary File Format (*cmgbin) The Default method will copy arrays that have not been recalculated (they are written exactly as read) and writes new arrays for optimized for size and speed. The Include File Grid controls these include files so it is required and displayed. The reading of binary data is much faster than the ASCII format. the dataset is stored in a number of different files (include files) as well as the main file. How these arrays are organized in the dataset makes a real difference on the size of the files and how fast they save/load.Selecting the Main File The Main File edit box shows the currently defined main file. Choosing the Array Saving Method Datasets include a large number of numeric data organized in arrays. If you chose Optimize for Size & Speed.cmgbin. the entire dataset will be stored in the main file. then all of the arrays will be written for readability (uncompressed.e. The Binary File Format method outputs grid and spatial property arrays in binary format in a special file with extension . and with J. You can switch between the binary and ASCII formats whenever you want. 10 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder . e. then all of the arrays will be written compressed (i. When All data in a single file is chosen.K annotations) when you save the dataset.g.

The New file column indicates if this file exists in the current directory. For Include files. The results of validation are shown in green (ok). the main file name in the read-only cells will be updated to match. This saving option usually generates smaller . a timestamp and user ID is appended to these comments every time the Save As dialog is used. It also validates the data dynamically as you enter or generate new data. Files that depend on the main file will also have a read-only check box that matches the check box for the main file. The Modified column indicates if that portion of the data has been modified. The Dataset Segment column describes the set of information being saved. Each row describes a segment of the dataset and where it will be stored. these cells will be read-only (and therefore the check box cannot be changed). right click in the tree view and select Validate…. You can edit these comments in the Comment edit box. Validating the Dataset Builder validates your data when it reads in a file. You can modify this information within the grid. red (error) and yellow (warning) bitmaps with individual items of the tree view. The difference is handled internally. The Filename column indicates the name of the file where the data is saved. The columns further describe how each segment is stored. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 11 . This gives the users feedback in case there are files they do not want to create (because they already exist). By default. this will read yes and the new file will be created. New files will always be saved and will therefore have a read-only check box that has been checked.From the user’s prospect the Compressed Binary File Format method is identical to the Binary File Format. All of the files will be saved in the same directory as the main file. This affects how the corresponding Filename entry will behave. The Save file column indicates if the file will be saved. If it does not exist. Organizing Include Files The Include File Grid allows the user to organize the include files. Read-only files will always have a read-only check box that has not been checked. If the users do change the main file in the Main File edit box. the names can be changed by selecting the cell’s browse button (this will open up a Windows Save File dialog that can be used to define a new include file). the cell is read-only – users can only change the name/location of the main file in the Main File edit box at the top of the dialog. The Location column indicates whether the data will be saved in its own Include file or in the Main File. To view the details of the validation result. and will therefore be written out.cmgbin file size and results faster reading speed. Saving Comments The comments for the Save As dialog are stored at the top of the main file of the dataset. For the main file. In some cases.

This is the same dialog as that used for validating with the simulator (see “Validating the dataset”) in this manual. and fluids initially in place in Builder. When validation is over. You can also view errors and warnings by clicking on the Find Error Messages and the Find Warning Messages buttons. Click the Validate with <simulator> button or select Validate with simulator… menu from the Tools menu. you can also validate the dataset with the simulator. Viewing Model Initialization Generated by Simulator You can view the total and hydrocarbon pore volumes. The log file generated by the simulator is displayed. click on the Find Dimensioning Messages button.OUT file toggle button. they are highlighted. If you have made changes to the dataset. Select Run simulator to view initialization… from the Tool menu. The Validate / Run Simulator dialog appears. 12 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder .In addition. if there are errors or warnings. Click the Run button. You can switch between the log and the out files using the Display . The Validate/ Run Simulator dialog appears. choose to save it when prompted. To find runtime dimensioning messages from simulator.

the pore volume and the fluids in place information is extracted from the .out file and displayed in the grid at the bottom of the dialog. You can also view the .out file by clicking on the Display . the pore volume and the fluids in place information is extracted from the . This causes the simulator to run for one time step. Simulating Current Dataset from Within Builder To run the simulation from within Builder. etc. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 13 . The log file generated by the simulator is displayed. The log file generated by the simulator is displayed.Click the Run simulator button. select Run simulation… from the Tools menu.OUT file button. You can also view launch Results 3D by clicking the Launch Results button and view the initialized values of saturations. You can also view the . The Validate / Run simulator dialog appears. When simulation is over. This is the same dialog as that used for viewing the initialized values generated by the simulator (see “Viewing model initialization generated by simulator”) in this manual.out file and displayed in the grid at the bottom of the dialog.out file by clicking on the Display . Click the Run simulator button. When simulation is over.OUT file toggle button.

The following dialog appears: You can submit a job to be executed at later time or run after certain job is done. 14 • Introduction and Overview User's Guide Builder . Simulating Current Dataset to a Job Queue from Within Builder You can queue up several simulation jobs to be executed at later time from within Builder by choosing Run normal in Batch (Submit to job scheduler) and then click Submit button. Please refer to the file ‘readme_lsf. Submit to Platform LSF job queue will be enabled.You can abort the simulator anytime by clicking the Abort simulation button. If you have access to Microsoft Compute Cluster. If you have Platform LSF software installed. then you can submit jobs to it. See Launcher’s manual for how to configure this feature into Launcher. You can also view launch Results 3D by clicking the Launch Results button and view the initialized values of saturations.txt’ under Launcher’s installation folder for more information regarding how to use LSF with CMG’s software. etc.

Builder will remember the locations of the toolbars and menus between sessions. Docking Panes Builder also provides an interface feature called docking panes. The Model Tree View is an example. By clicking on the button which resembles a pin the tree view will automatically hide when not in use. Menus and Theme Builder allows you to customize your work environment to some extent. The selected theme is also remembered between sessions.Exiting Builder To exit Builder: 1. This permits you to have more screen real-estate when viewing your reservoir. You are also able to change the theme used to color Builders main window frame. You are now able to drag all toolbars and menus of Builder and position them anywhere within your working environment. Please see the figures below. Customizing Toolbars. Go to the menu item View/Theme to select your theme. User's Guide Builder Introduction and Overview • 15 . However the tree view will automatically reappear when the mouse hovers over the corresponding tab hooked to the main window frame. So next time you open Builder the different items will appear in their last position when Builder was closed. Select Exit from the File menu.

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Builder has tools for the creation of 3D models from 2D maps of top of structure. you must locate wells in the grid. to reduce the number of vertical layers. Some of these options will depend on the simulator you are using. Creating a Simulation Grid Using Structure Maps Constructing a simulation grid from 2D maps requires three main steps. there are a number of grid editing operations that Builder can perform. You can enter Rock Compressibility and specify Compaction/Dilation Regions for your model. lease planes and sectors in your model. Once the grid structure has been created or imported. A sub-section of a grid can be extracted from a model. you create your three dimensional grid by interpolating the reservoir structure and rock properties from your geological maps. Finally. grid layers may be combined. (See “Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties”). Builder can split grid blocks in each of the I. then can locate the grid blocks that the well trajectory intersects. or K directions. Builder also can import of 3D “static” models from several geological modeling packages. J. or by entering them manually. To build a simulation model. you specify the well completion locations in the grid. and other properties (see “Creating a Simulation Grid Using Structure Maps”). from well positions on the geological maps. from 3D well trajectories. Finally. Refined grids can be added to a grid. gross thickness. First. Obtain map files: Once you receive contour maps from a geologist you can either: • Digitize the maps with a digitizer tablet and the program Didger 3. you describe the grid geometry in aerial (or plan) view and position it over your geological maps. and SIS Petrel. This chapter also discusses specifying aquifers. or User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 17 . such as EDS Gocad.Reservoir Description Overview Builder can create or import the simulation grid and grid properties describing the volume of a reservoir. Builder imports a number of different well trajectory formats. Roxar RMS. A more detailed process is as follows: 1. Second. DGI EarthVision.

and delete grid lines. Run the simulation. rotate and resize the grid. 11. You can also manually enter well names and click on grid blocks to define completions. add other properties: To save a partial simulation input data set. well picks) using the map creation routines included in Builder (see “Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations”). assign or calculate the specified properties. • 2. Compare contour maps: View the grid with other contour maps for the same reservoir to see if the grid adequately overlays all geological features of the reservoir for all maps and layers. and other data required by the simulator. The data may either be contour maps or a mesh of points with the property value at each point. single or dual porosity options. 10. you can ask Builder to calculate the completion blocks. open one of the maps that you will be using. This dialog allows you to select the Simulator. 4. Specify calculations: Specify how grid properties (porosity. By default a “New” case will be started. add. double click on Builder to start it. and a Simulation Start Date. Open a map and create a preliminary grid: First. Add Wells: Wells indicated on your contour maps will be automatically positioned on the simulation grid during the interpolation process. etc. 18 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Create a working directory: Create a working directory. If you do not have perforation information. use file Save As… item under the File menu. Start Builder: Using the Technologies Launcher. Builder can read several contour. 5. click on “Manage Projects” and add a project for your directory. Define the grid in the aerial or plan view and position it on the grid.and grid files formats. move. You can use CMG’s Builder to add fluid property data. 9. Interpolated from contour maps.) are to be calculated. You can translate.• Export ASCII output file from a geological modelling package to a file format that Builder can read (see “Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data”). or Create a map from known data points (for example. review and adjust values. or Calculated from other property values using a formula 7. 6. Calculate: Interpolate. Working Units. View the results of the simulation: You can view the results of the simulation run using Results 3D and Results Graph. well rates. Write out. and add refined grids. 8. and the Reservoir Simulator Settings dialog will appear. Start the CMG Technologies Launcher. 3. and place the contour map files in that directory. You can also add wells by reading in 3D well trajectory and perforation files. permeabilities. either as: • • • Constant per layer.

Builder supports the creation of four types of grids: variable depth and thickness Cartesian. (k=4 top = -700). the measurement is positively increasing upward. in map view.Elevation or Depth Map ELEVATION DEPTH 1000 Upper Flow Layer 500 -1000 -500 For Example Datum (Sea Level) Lower Flow Layer -500 500 -1000 1000 The inputs to the simulator are either *DTOP for Cartesian grids. you must open a contour file or mesh map file for the field prior to creating the grid. Top Maps . User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 19 . The simulator would have gas percolate upward from a block with a greater depth (say. The interpolated value from the map would be 1000. Non-orthogonal corner point grid blocks are four sided quadrilaterals. and (k=5 top = -600). If you are doing an idealized pattern study. If the Upper Flow Layer is split into five simulation layers. then the tops (as depths for the simulator) would be (k=1 top = -1000). orthogonal corner point. without any maps. k=2. Over the past few years. top=4700). measured positively increasing downward. Cartesian and orthogonal corner point grids have rectangular grid blocks in map view. defined as "an array of corner point depths for the corner point grids”. it is not necessary to open a map prior to creating a grid. These are depths. If you are creating a grid for a field study. (k=2 top = -900). more and more companies are changing to use elevation maps for formation top maps. radial (cylindrical) grids. In these maps. (k=3 top = -800). and multiplying by -1 would give a depth of -1000. Say we have an elevation map for the top of “Upper Flow Layer”. top=4800) to a block with a less depth (k=1. but need not be rectangular. and non-orthogonal corner point. The diagram compares depths and elevations for two flow units of a formation. defined as "the depth to the center of the top face of each grid block in the top layer of the grid" or *ZCORN.

Builder can accommodate this combination of units. One thing to be careful about if using elevation maps is well trajectories. then select Field Units. and depth and thickness values on the maps are in feet. The interpolated value from the map would be -500. make sure that the Units for x. select the format corresponding to your files. Units for the X and Y Coordinates of Maps It is not that uncommon to have map files where the X and Y coordinates are in meters. For a description of the supported formats.Now say we have an elevation map for the top of the Lower Flow Layer. In trajectory data. When opening map files or specifying them for interpolation. are specified correctly as meters.) Click on the Browse button. The Open Map Files dialog will appear: 2. No further action is required. 20 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . From the Map Type drop down selection box. TVD represents depth and TVDSS the elevation. your map X. (k=4 top = 800). (Some formats require separate files with fault or well information. next to the file name box. If you want to work in Field Units. one or more file name text boxes will appear. The tops (as depths for the simulator) would be at (k=1 top = 500). while the Z value is in feet. and click OK or Cancel. Again. To open a contour map or mesh map file: 1. and a standard Open File dialog box will appear. on the Open Map Files dialog. (k=2 top = 600). and multiplying by -1 would give a depth of 500. Y coordinates are in meters. (k=3 top = 700). Depending on the Map Type. Select the file to open. CMG’s simulators do not allow mixed distance units in the simulation input data. see the chapter “Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data”. and (k=5 top = 900). The simulation input data can be constructed for either SI Units (distance in meters) or Field Units (distance in feet). 3. select Open Map File.y coordinates in the files. From the File menu. Opening and Displaying a Contour Map File or Mesh Map File The supported contour map and mesh map file formats are discussed in the chapter “Importing geological and well trajectory data”. split into five simulation layers.

Variable Thickness Cartesian Grid or an Orthogonal Corner Point Grid 1. 5. the K layers are numbered increasing downward. select Cartesian from the Reservoir menu. Corner point grids must be numbered with K increasing downward. you will need to select the Units for x. The Create Cartesian Grid dialog appears: 2.y coordinates in the files. Builder can only display one map at a time. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 21 . 2. you must first close any open maps by selecting Close Map from the File menu. select Orthogonal Corner Point from the Reservoir menu. select the K Direction as either Down or Up. Otherwise. the units used in the file will be selected. To open a new map. or Cancel. For Cartesian grids. To open a different map: 1. Once you have closed any open maps. Currently. select Open Map from the File menu to open a different map. To create an orthogonal corner point grid.4. To create a Cartesian grid. With K Direction Down. If the format for the Map Type contains unit information. Click OK to open the map. Creating a Variable Depth.

Separate the width notation with commas or spaces. Click OK to accept your selections. 4. In Block widths. 6. 41. enter specific block widths.9231 and 58. suppose you have two blocks. 22 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Further. You can use notation to quickly specify block widths. select Radial (Cylindrical) from the Reservoir menu. 3*500. or Cancel to cancel your selection. to specify a 5 block model where the first block is 2000 m. specify the number of blocks for each direction. if you use the mouse to move the grid line. Enter values for the intervals to which the moved grid line will snap. For example. the grid block widths after the move may be numbers with a large number of digits after the decimal (say. Without snap spacing. you can enter the following: 2000. The Create a Radial (Cylindrical) grid dialog appears. suppose that you want to move the grid line between the blocks.3. the grid appears (overlapping the contour map if one is open). each of width 50 m. For example. If you set the snap spacing to 5 then moved grid lines would be spaced multiples of 5 apart.0769). 1500 5. To force the grid spacing (grid block widths) to be round numbers when moving grid lines. Creating a Radial Grid 1. select Snap spacing in the Controlling Grid spacing panel. If you click OK. To create a radial grid. the next three blocks are 500 m and the last block is 1500 m. In Number of Grid Blocks.

select Edit Grid from the mode selection box. 2. drag the grid to the desired position. in degrees. Use the Modify Grid Position dialog box by selecting Modify Position from the Reservoir menu. 5. select Edit Grid from the mode selection box. 6. 4. While holding down the mouse button. Select the K direction as either Up or Down. 2. Enter the X and Y locations (in map coordinates) of the origin of the grid. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. angular and K directions. To automatically calculate the grid block widths in the I (radial) and J (angular) directions. the Outer radius of outermost block. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. and the Sweep of the grid. and click on a point on the grid with your cursor. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. Either: • Hold down the [Ctrl] key. OR • To rotate a Cartesian grid. or an orthogonal corner point grid: 1.2. enter the Inner radius of innermost block. Either: • Hold down the [Shift] key and click on a point of the grid with your cursor. To enter Edit Grid mode. then click on Calculate suggested grid block widths from above. radial grid. you can directly enter a set of block widths for the I (radial) and J (angular) directions in the Grid block widths fields. Use the Modify Grid Position dialog box by selecting Modify Position… from the Reservoir menu. measured counter-clockwise from the X-axis. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. Moving and Rotating a Grid To move a Cartesian grid. Enter the angle of the grid. To enter Edit Grid mode. or Cancel. Enter the number of grid blocks or divisions along each of the radial. 3. OR • User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 23 . Alternatively. drag the grid around to the desired angle. While holding the mouse button down. radial Grid. Click OK to create the grid. or an orthogonal corner point grid: 1.

You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. For details on zooming. Select Modify Position from the Reservoir menu. select Edit Grid from the mode selection box. The Modify Grid Position dialog box appears: 3. and release the mouse button. 2. To move a grid line: 1. In Edit Grid mode. Moving Grid Lines NOTE: You cannot move grid lines in Radial or non-orthogonal corner point grids. X Offset and Y Offset are shown. The line you select will appear in the highlight color (default – red). 24 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . For finely spaced grids. To enter Edit Grid mode. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. enter new values in the New column and click on Apply. Select the line you want to move by placing your cursor on the line and clicking. select Edit Grid from the mode selection box or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. it will display the grid line or grid block under the cursor. Drag the grid line to the new position. Adding and Deleting Grid Lines NOTE: You cannot add or delete grid lines in Radial or non-orthogonal corner point grids. 4. 4.To see or enter exact X and Y offsets of the grid origin from the contour map origins: 1. 3. Builder displays the location of the cursor in the status bar at the bottom of the main window. As you move the mouse cursor over the grid. To enter Edit Grid mode. 2. The current values for Rotation. otherwise click on Close to dismiss the dialog box. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. To move or rotate the grid. you may need to zoom in on the region of the grid on which you are working. see “Zooming or Panning while Creating or Editing a Grid”.

Undoing a Change The Undo feature only works when you are moving or rotating a grid. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. Click on a line that is similar to the one you want to add. Click on the grid block in which you want the line inserted. Outer Boundary: Define the outer boundary of the grid region by clicking on map locations. Select Copy from the Edit menu. Only one level of Undo is saved. Select Paste from the Edit menu. This returns your grid to the state it was before your last change. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. Begin: Open a contour or mesh map if one is not already open. Inner Control Lines: Add control lines in the interior of the outer boundary. select Edit Grid from the mode selection box. The line you select appears in the highlight color (default – red). Click on the line you want to delete. 3. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. To enter Edit Grid mode. Changes made with the Create Grid dialog box cannot be undone. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 25 . 2. run parallel to horizontal wells. 2. or to create regions of varying grid density. 4. The line you select appears in the highlight color (default – red). Creating a Non-Orthogonal Corner Point Grid With Vertical Faults Builder includes a “wizard” to step you through the creation of a non-orthogonal corner point grid. moving grid lines or adding refined grids. 3. 3. These control lines can be used to force grid block boundaries to follow faults. 5. The wizard leads you through several steps in a linear fashion. select Edit Grid from the mode selection box. To undo a change: • Select Undo from the Edit menu. or press Ctrl-X. 2. or press Ctrl-C. To delete a grid line: 1. The steps are as follows: 1. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. or press Ctrl-V. To enter Edit Grid mode.To add a grid line: 1. Select Cut from the Edit menu.

or pan across the grid while zoomed-in. Select Zoom Reservoir or Pan Reservoir by clicking on the menu item with the left mouse button. A pop up (context) menu appears. Continue with editing operations. The wizard will allow you to return to a previous step if you wish to change your inputs. Grid creation. After you enter the grid geometry values (area. Perform the zoom or pan operation(s). The toolbar will change to a wizard control bar. during grid construction. This dialog can be accessed from the Reservoir menu. thickness and block size etc. and click the Help button for more information. Zooming and Panning While Creating or Editing a Grid You can zoom in on a part of the grid. Online help is available in the wizard to explain each step in detail.). 4. This option allows you to select one of the available pattern types. Number of grid blocks: Input the number of grid divisions along each segment of the control lines. To start the non-orthogonal corner point grid creation wizard: • Select Non-orthogonal corner point grid from the Reservoir menu. 2. 6. a grid with properly placed producer and injector wells is created. 5. by choosing the Create Grid and Quick Pattern Grid menu item. depth. Select Edit Grid from the pop up (context) menu. Creating a Grid for a Pattern Flood Model Builder can help you to quickly create a Cartesian (*VARI) grid for modeling a pattern flood problem. Adjustment of points on boundaries and control lines: Make fine adjustments on the location of points on the control lines. With the cursor in the reservoir viewport. Read the instructions. click with the rightmost mouse button. 3. The area and volume modifiers for the corner and edge well blocks are calculated automatically to model the flow at boundary. 26 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . A pop up (context) menu appears. This is done as follows: 1. With the cursor in the reservoir viewport.4. click with the rightmost mouse button. 5.

User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 27 .) For the grid block size. 1/8 and 1/6 patterns are the minimum symmetry elements.You start by choosing a desired pattern from the Pattern Type combo box. This option is not available for IMEX and GEM. Once all values are entered. Normal pattern places the producer in the center and injectors at the corners and edges. if you are working on a STARS dataset. The line drawing at the bottom shows you the selected pattern. top and dip angles.area. Now specify the pattern dimensions . Next. The pattern area can be specified by the surface area of the pattern. (The last option is not available for seven-spot patterns. Inverted patterns reverse the placement of producers and injectors. you may check Use nine-point spatial discretization to turn on this grid option. by the well spacing or by specifying the width and height. click Calculate button to show the actual values that will be used to create the grid. you only need to enter approximate thickness and size and the program will calculate the actual exact values to create a grid of the specified area. thickness.

The z values are interpolated from the contour maps at each x. grid structure cannot be predetermined without input data defining elevation and thickness. You can save the dataset now. In addition.one line for each edge of the separated surface. Please refer to VAMOD and VATYPE keyword description if you are using STARS simulator. Where sloping faults are needed. you will need to edit the well perforations. y coordinates for the grid will change as you progress down the fault through the grid. you may specify a non-zero dip angle in the X or Y directions. Consequently. the x. general grid structure is defined starting with a flat plane and assuming some arbitrary constant thickness for each layer. y coordinate. Values of elevation can be computed at a later stage. Click OK to exit the dialog and you should see a Cartesian grid created with the injectors and producers placed at the center of proper grid blocks. the x. The volume and area or transmissibility modifiers keywords are automatically created. Thus. TRANI. These paired lines are often referred to as bifurcating fault lines. The entire thickness of the reservoir will be perforated. If the wells are only to be perforated in part of the thickness. The slope of the fault is implied from the separation of the lines and the map elevation contours on either side of the fault. Rock-Fluid properties. and VOLMOD. TRANSJ and TRANSK keyword descriptions if you are using IMEX or GEM simulator. Contour Maps and Sloping Faults Normal Faults (or dropped faults) are the most common. but it is not ready to be used with the simulator. You still have to create well constraints. y location needed to determine the z value of a particular grid block corner would depend on the location of the grid block above. however. 28 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Creating a Non-orthogonal Grid With Sloping Faults Using Structure Maps When generating conventional non-orthogonal corner point grids (vertical blocks). Since the grid structure is so tightly defined by the actual surface and layer thickness. Well perforations will also be created. initial conditions and other values as required by the simulator. the depth of the tops of the grid blocks will be adjusted to account for the dip angle. permeability.You must specify the depth to the top of the middle of the pattern. the x. y values used for each grid block corner are assigned independent of the top and thickness of the reservoir. These faults are typically expressed on a contour map with two dashed lines . porosity. If you do so. Please refer to other sections of the manual for how to enter those values.

Adjustments are necessary to correct blocks at the fault face. Note that there may still be some discrepancy between the fault slope implied by the bifurcating fault lines on each map and the relative displacement of these fault lines between the two maps. the resulting fault face may not accurately reflect the geology of the reservoir. If maps are used for both upper and lower surfaces. the two surfaces separated by the fault may not be tangent to one common fault face. the edge of the upper surface is normally drawn to indicate the fault. Hence. The degree of slope is determined by the degree of displacement of the fault lines. If the fault line is displaced between the two maps. a normal sloping fault grid could be constructed from data obtained from a single surface contour map (together with a specification for thickness). Thrust Faults are much less common. together with the difference in the contours between the two maps. Figure 2: Thrust Faults a) Aerial View (Contour Map) b) Cross Sectional View User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 29 . These faults are more difficult to determine from a contour map. then there is a sloping thrust fault. the distance between the two surfaces separated by the fault. Errors can be introduced when contour and fault data are digitized or during the process used to permit grid block boundaries to follow fault lines.Figure 1: Normal (Dropped) Faults 1060 1060 105 0 a) Aerial View (Contour Map) b) Cross Sectional View In theory. Since the edge of one surface hangs over the other. Consequently. is typically very small relative to the scale of the contour map. the resulting sloping fault is more likely to be accurate. The only way to distinguish a thrust fault from a simple vertical fault is by examining a second contour map for a lower horizon of the reservoir. However.

The user examines each contour map in turn adjusting the corresponding set of control points to follow the fault lines. This will assist the user in maintaining grid block alignment where the two consecutive zones are tangent. However. Calculated thickness values will be used to determine the proportional subdivision of the zone into layers. Values for thickness and elevation for blocks along the lower surface can be determined for the visible part of the block and must be estimated for the part of the block that is hidden by the thrust fault surface. and Grid Paydepth properties for this grid type. The thickness of each layer is initially a fraction of the total thickness of the horizontal zone. Grid Bottom. the control lines from the bottom of the previous zone are used as the starting values for the top of the next zone. The elevation and thickness for each zone is defined by an upper and a lower contour map. Since the upper surface is displayed on the maps.e. both top and thickness are defined). thickness throughout the zone can be variable. This is similar to the process used in the current non-orthogonal corner point wizard. Figure 3: Sample Reservoir with Two Distinct Zones Top Defined by Map 1 Top Defined by Map 3 ZONE 1 ZONE 2 Bottom Defined by Map 2 Bottom Defined by Map 4 To construct a grid. However. two maps are required. separate specification and calculation of structural properties is not required. however. thickness can be specified and calculated for each layer. Since the process of defining the sloping non-orthogonal corner point grid results in a grid that is structurally complete (i. the user defines a set of control points breaking the reservoir into regions separated by control lines. a duplicate set of control points is assigned to the top and bottom of each horizontal zone. control lines can be separated to conform to bifurcating fault lines. Once the control points are defined. Steps for Constructing Sloping Fault Grids With Builder Builder requires the user to divide the reservoir into distinct horizontal zones. As the user descends through each zone.To construct a grid for a reservoir having thrust fault lines. Each zone is divided into a number of layers. Since a zone is defined by two contour maps. 30 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .this completely depends on the contour maps used. Grid Thickness will still be available. Zones may or may not be in contact with each other . after grid creation. the total thickness within a reservoir zone will be defined by the top and bottom maps specified during grid construction. the upper surface would define the fault face. The “Specify” and “Calculate” functions will exclude Grid Top.

click the Next button in the wizard toolbar to proceed. Continue to define points for the right most. start by clicking points near the left most boundary line. Click the mouse at the appropriate location on the contour map to specify control points along the top most boundary line. Begin with the top most boundary line. Defining four outer boundary lines: At this stage of the wizard. click the button labeled Add Internal Line. click the checkbox labeled Sloping Faults. The wizard will remind you to open an initial contour map if you have not done so already. To begin defining an internal control line. Defining internal control lines: At this stage of the wizard. points will be drawn and joined to form a line. Cancel. Next. Step By Step Instructions 1. The final connection to the right or bottom most boundary line will be done by the wizard when you begin defining another line or when you move on to the next wizard step. Click Help at any time for detailed instructions on the current step. start by clicking points near the top most boundary line. To define a control line that is parallel to the left and right most boundary lines.As mentioned earlier. and Help on the right hand side of the toolbar at the top of the window. Click the Next button to proceed to the next step. As the mouse is clicked. To define a control line that is parallel to the top and bottom most boundary lines. it is necessary to define internal control lines. the wizard will join the new internal line to the top or left most boundary line. Note that the wizard will always display four basic navigation buttons. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 31 . Click Add Internal Line to define another internal line. 3. should user control lines or map data result in overlapping or illogically disjoint fault blocks. The wizard makes the final connection required to connect the top most line with the left most line before updating the wizard toolbar for the next step. it is necessary to define four outer boundary lines defining the grid. Starting the non-orthogonal corner point wizard for sloping fault grid creation: To start the non-orthogonal corner point grid creation wizard. inconsistencies between bifurcation control lines and top/bottom maps. Note: Due to errors in data. Builder will make adjustments to grid blocks along faults defined by control lines so these blocks meet up along a common fault face. grid faces on either side of a fault line may not meet when the grid is constructed. select Nonorthogonal Corner Point from the Reservoir menu. and left most boundary lines. Builder will make adjustments to the grid whenever possible. Once the wizard has launched. 2. errors in defining control points. or click Next to proceed to the next wizard step. When you have completed the last line (the left most line). After the second point is clicked. Prev. bottom most. When you have finished defining the top most line. Click the mouse at the appropriate location to define the first point. Each new point will be connected to the previous point to form the control line. Internal control lines are used to indicate faults within the area defined by the four outer boundary lines. click the toolbar button labeled Next Line.

Then indicate the number of k-layers required in the current reservoir zone by entering a number in the text box labeled K-Layers. you must edit internal control lines to conform to bifurcating faults. and specify the number of grid divisions by entering a number in the text box labeled Divisions. Click the mouse on a control line intended to conform to a bifurcating fault. you defined a set of control points that will be used as a template for a set of control points for the top and bottom of each reservoir zone. Defining contour maps. Note that further separation of control lines defining bifurcating faults cannot be done in this step (the next step will permit the selection and editing of control lines on either side of bifurcating faults). Click Next to proceed. each side of the control line can be selected for editing points. Click Next to proceed. An internal control line can be separated to conform to these paired fault lines. Specifying reservoir zones & modifying control lines for bifurcating faults: There are two tasks to complete at this stage of the wizard. Finally. Second. highlight the line by clicking any part with your mouse. As you navigate down through the reservoir. Making further adjustments to control lines for bifurcating faults: This stage of the wizard allows you to make further adjustments to control lines defining bifurcating faults at any level of the reservoir. ‘Bifurcating faults” refer to fault lines on the contour map representing normal (or dropped) faults. proceeding through the reservoir. start by defining the contour map used to define that surface of the reservoir. Several tasks must be completed for the top and bottom of each reservoir zone. you must enter the number of distinct reservoir zones in the text box labeled Reservoir Zones. Click Define Map to specify the contour map. zone divisions. Click Next to proceed. Click Next to proceed. Then click and drag individual points along the control line to separate the control line. Two opposing line segments are highlighted to show the active section. 32 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . First. and adjusting control points for each map: This is the most involved step of the wizard. The up/down arrows on the wizard toolbar can still be used to navigate through the reservoir. Visit each section in turn. Then click and drag control points to make adjustments. If you wish to adjust a control line. The up/down arrows in the wizard toolbar are used to navigate from the top to the bottom of each zone in turn. 5. These fault lines are typically drawn on the contour map as a pair of dashed lines representing the upper and lower side of the fault. Once the control line has been separated. 6. 7. In the previous steps of the wizard. The region between each set of control lines can be highlighted by using the wizard toolbar buttons labeled Previous Section and Next Section. The wizard will indicate that the line has been selected for editing by highlighting it in red. Indicating the number of divisions for each grid region: At this stage of the wizard you must indicate the number of grid divisions required between each set of control lines.4. adjust control lines to conform to the fault lines of the contour map at that level.

If you find that the resulting grid is significantly non-orthogonal due to meandering control lines (highly irregular faults) – use additional control lines on either side of the fault in question. Navigate back through the wizard to make adjustments to control lines if grid structure is unsatisfactory. adding grid block refinements: As you enter this stage of the wizard. the initial grid is constructed. 2. If these control lines become straighter as you move towards the boundary. several geological modeling programs have “Export to CMG” functions. Click the Advanced button in the wizard toolbar to view these options. The default settings are recommended for construction of typical sloping fault grids. fewer irregular blocks are likely. which write out the CMG grid and grid property keywords in ASCII files. into Builder. From files output by a geological program. Useful Tips • Orient the boundary lines such that the majority of the reservoir faults are perpendicular/parallel to the four boundary lines. Creating the grid. Before selecting Finish. First. To refine a number of grid blocks. Then select Cartesian refined from the Reservoir menu. Add control lines. click the button labeled Prev. it is not too late to make changes. To navigate backwards. Once the grid has been constructed. Importing from File Output by a Geological Program There are two ways of importing 3D static reservoir models. The wizard will warn you if any information will be lost by navigating backwards. 8.Note that a number of advanced grid construction options can be selected at this stage of the wizard. Click Finish when you are ready to exit the wizard. you make grid block refinements. Second. You can enter the wizard from the last step by selecting Edit Grid. to control how rapidly the blocks become vertical. created by geological modeling programs. This will minimize nonorthogonality resulting from the internal control lines drawn to conform to the faults. you can import data into Builder using the RESCUE model exchange format. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 33 . • • • Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties You can import a simulation grid and grid properties in two ways: 1. select the grid blocks in question by clicking and dragging your mouse over the grid blocks in question. on each side of a sloping fault control line. From another CMG dataset file. Block faces gradually verticalize as you move from the sloping fault to the next control line.

You may need to specify the output units to use. For more details. 34 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . After you have made your selection. select Open RESCUE model…). see the section “Importing a Simulation Grid. etc. click on OK. At its inception the purpose was to provide a forum for the development of an open standard for the transfer of data from geomodels to upscalers. A number of geological modeling software packages can export to CMG ASCII format (simulator input format). all units will be selected. Grid Properties and Well Trajectories from a RESCUE Model”. 3D grids. as well as other items. extract a sub-model. such as “Adding and Removing Refined Grids”. and the import is easier. split grid planes. and well logs can also be included in the model. or the all the units of a single RESCUE block. and properties like porosity. You may add refined grids. To find out more about each of these operations. depending on which software you are using. An Open RESCUE file dialog will appear. By default. This manual contains some specific instructions for exporting from Petrel in the section “Importing Partial Datasets from Petrel”. The wizard will start up automatically if you open a RECUE model (from the Reservoir menu. To import a three-dimensional grid saved in RESCUE model: 1.The first option is usually preferred. complete with keywords. permeability. limited grid editing capabilities are available. Select Open RESCUE file… from the Reservoir menu. Once you have imported the grid (and properties). Properties and Well locations from a RESCUE Model RESCUE is a Joint Industry Project managed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC). A RESCUE format model can define “block units” (formed by 3D surfaces representing horizons. The acronym 'RESCUE' stands for REServoir Characterization Using Epicentre. the main file will be read. After you select the file to open. as more information is included in a RESCUE model. Importing a Simulation Grid. and combine layers (uplayer). see the relevant manual sections. then a Select Blockunits From RESCUE Model dialog will appear. boundaries and fault surfaces). wellbore trajectories. Builder has a wizard to lead you through the importing of a RESCUE model. Select the geological units that you wish to import. Fault surfaces. Using Builder you can import a “global grid” from a RESCUE model.

Click on OK. You can answer Yes or No to the question. If the grid in the geological model has the lower most layer as K=1. you may be asked if you wish to renumber the layers so that K=1 is the topmost layer. The Grid creation options dialog will appear.2. and K=nk will be the upper most layer. Most RESCUE models allow the importation of a “global grid” or a “block unit grid”. The following discussion assumes that one of these was selected. 3. then in your simulation K=1 will be the lower most layer. Usually it is best to accept the default option selected. The Inactive Cells Options is used to avoid drawing unused cells. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 35 . and the grid drawn. The grid data will be read from the RESCUE file. If you answer NO.

If the RESCUE model contains grid properties.4.. and the corresponding CMG property name. 36 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Click on Next. Advanced Rescue menu. permeability. click on OK. like porosity. etc. then click on the Add to Selected List button. The format and data file name will be filled in. If the RESCUE model contains well trajectories. You can import properties later by selecting Direct import of RESCUE property under the Reservoir. click the Cancel button on the Direct import of RESCUE properties to CMG properties dialog. 5. Select one item from the list of RESCUE properties. Once you have added all the properties you wish to import. the Import Well Trajectory Wizard dialog will appear. a Direct import of RESCUE properties to CMG properties dialog will appear. If you did not want to import any properties at this stage.

Click on the check box under Selection to un-check any wells you do not wish to import. specification of the imported properties.6. Note: When you save the dataset. and any imported well trajectories are saved in the dataset. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 37 . the RESCUE filename. The data in the RESCUE model should now be all imported into Builder. This information is available the next time the dataset is read back into Builder. The dialog will then display a list of all the well trajectories available in the RESCUE model. names of selected blocks and units. Click on Finish. 7.

e. enter a file name such as “my_sim. and asked to select which you wish to import. Petrel does not currently indicate the output units. 2001). open the exported file in an editor and search for “NET/GROSS”. click on Simulation Model to E… Right click and select Export… In the Save As… dialog. To bring the exported data into Builder. add the following line at the top of the file if you export with distances in feet. 38 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . After the file reading is complete. To export from Petrel. save it and exit. or for a new case (you will need to specify the simulator and units.0. some special care needs to be taken to make the export successful. With Petrel v. If you have included the Net/Gross property in your export. change the Save as type: selection to “CMG grid”. 3. select CMG Export Settings. proceed with adding other input data required by the simulators. If you edited the file. select Import from another file…. In the Petrel Explorer. From the File menu. then select Grid and Spatial Properties from dataset… 3.Importing Partial Datasets from Petrel You can export partial datasets from Petrel in a format suitable for CMG simulators. Select the file that was exported from Petrel (or other geological program) to read the grid and properties from. Typically. 16. Start Builder for an existing dataset (if you just want to replace the grid and properties with those exported from the geological model).. The Export Units dialog will appear. You can select which properties you want to export with the grid. follow these steps: 1. Change the Output XY units and Output Z units so that they are in the same units (i. Replace this keyword with the correct CMG keyword “NETGROSS”. In the CMG Export Settings dialog change the Undefined Property Value field to 0.dat” and click OK. the output CMG keyword for the net to gross property is incorrect. Under Project. permeability. ft for simulator Field units). While you have the dataset open in the editor. Click on OK. GEM or STARS) you wish to create a dataset for. once you have created the simulation model: 1. you will be given a list of the properties available in the file. 6. then click OK. Next.2 (Feb. Click OK when done your selection. However. 2. *INUNIT *FIELD 7. 3. m for simulator SI units. and net to gross are exported. under the Models tab. 4. The CMG ASCII Export Grid dialog will appear. You will be asked to select which CMG simulator (IMEX. 2. porosity. NOTE: you will not be able to correctly run the simulation unless these are the same! 5.

geological modelling programs have used coordinate systems. reservoir simulation has used a coordinate system as follows (2D map (areal) view) KDIR UP (k=1 is bottom layer) (possible for CART and VARI grids) J. Use these menu items to flip or mirror the grid until it appears the way you expect it. Y I. Using these menu items will accomplish the same as modifying the RESULTS AXESDIRECTIONS keyword in the data file. it is likely created in reservoir coordinates. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 39 . Y We will call this "traditional simulation grid coordinates" or "grid coordinates" for short.Resolving Problems With Axis Direction in Imported Grids If you import a simulation grid from a non-CMG simulator occasionally Builder and Results 3D may display the grid “flipped” or “mirrored” from the way you expect it to appear. The following discussion is gives more details on the axes direction problem. VARI. Traditionally. you may see the menu items Flip grid in I direction and Flip Grid in J direction under the Reservoir menu. in the past several years. such as UTM's where the axis directions are: J. If the grid was not created by Builder. X KDIR DOWN (k=1 is top layer) (possible for CART. X (Easting) We will call this "reservoir map coordinates" for short. and CORNER grids) I. When a grid is created by a geological modelling program directly. However. Y (Northing) I. Almost all maps are now created with these coordinates. X J.

the information is stored in dataset and SR2 files.0000 Immediately after add the line: GRID-AXES-DIRECTIONS 1. 1. If the line exists it will be the first line in the file.0000 0. When we added this new convenience. we attempted to ensure backwards compatibility.0"'s match those in the RESULTS AXES-DIRECTIONS keyword used in the dataset. If the keywords are in both the dataset and the simulation SR2 file. so all old datasets and SR2 files would act as before. Save the file and try opening in Results 3D. or if for some reason the keyword was deleted. 4. -1. YOFFSET. If the display in Results was also incorrect. Results 3D will translate "traditional simulation grid coordinates" into "reservoir map coordinates" so that the display on the screen will always be in "reservoir map coordinates". 40 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . adding the correct one of the above two lines may solve your problem. Remove the line with "INDEXED" or "INDEX64". For a number of years. and to ask the engineer for confirmation with a question box.irf (after the simulation is re-run). RESULTS AXES-DIRECTIONS 1. Results has tried to detect if reservoir map coordinates are used. If running the simulation takes a long time.irf. With new versions of Builder. or if you have imported a grid produced by some other means. to avoid asking the question.irf file in a text editor. you may wish to try the following.mrf). but not in the *.0 1. then re-run the simulation. as this is now the way that most geologists and engineers expect the display. *. together with the dataset and the simulator version that were used. If the RESULTS AXES-DIRECTIONS is in the dataset.To display the reservoir correctly. Open the *. you may need to add the keyword. Results 3D and Builder need to know whether "traditional simulation grid coordinates" or "reservoir map coordinates" are being used for the grid block corners in the simulation. if it exists. 1. 1. Save a back up copy of the simulation output SR2 files (*. the simulators and Results 3D.0 -1. ** grid in reservoir map coordinates ** grid in traditional simulation grid coordinates If you are using a dataset where the grid was created with a version of Builder prior to 2002.10. This line is added immediately after the RESULTS XOFFSET. 3. 1. but the displays are still different.0000 0.0 where the sign of the "1. 2. please let us know. Remove the entire line. See if you can find lines like GRID-XOFFSET GRID-YOFFSET GRID-ROTATION 0. and ROTATION keywords (if they exist) and before the simulator GRID keyword in the dataset. Builder may add a line in the dataset to indicate that the grid is in reservoir map coordinates. RESULTS AXES-DIRECTIONS 1. please send us the dataset. 5.

Therefore. wells. Builder will import the grid and then display a dialog listing the importable properties in the source dataset: Structural properties (Grid Top. Creating a Simulation Grid Using 3D Surfaces from RESCUE Model It is possible to create a grid from the horizon and fault surfaces in the RESCUE model. CMG’s current grid creation algorithm is limited in its ability to handle complex faulted systems. Those properties that are supported by the simulator in the source dataset but not by the simulator in the target (current) file are not importable.Importing Grid and Grid Properties from a CMG Dataset File From the File menu select Import from another file… and then Grid & spatial properties from dataset…. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 41 . If a grid already exists in the current dataset. etc.) are not importable. However. this feature cannot honour RESCUE’s interior (fault) surfaces. Specify the dataset file from which to import the grid.) are deleted. Grid Thickness etc. use this feature only if the RESCUE model is designed such that each block unit is bounded on the sides by fault surfaces. Builder also imports all the meta-data – RESULTS keywords – that it stores in the dataset to facilitate restoring these objects. which limits the usefulness of this feature. In addition. Grid and property values are recalculated to take into account different unit systems. it and all the existing grid-dependent information (spatial properties.

Builder displays the top horizon surfaces of the top most block units in the XY plane. Select the blocks and units you want to work with. Select and open the file from the Open RESCUE File dialog. Select Open RESCUE File… from the Reservoir menu. 2. 7. Start Builder for a new case as explained in Starting Builder. 6. Make selection and then click OK or click Cancel and select action later from menu. 4. Select Set control points mode from the Reservoir→Advanced RESCUE menu. 3. The points do not have to fall on the surfaces. 5. The Set autogrid construction options dialog appears. Left click with the mouse four control points to define the extent of the grid in the XY plane.To construct a simulation grid in volumes represented by RESCUE block units: 1. The Grid creation options dialog box appears. You could change the view type to 3D View to inspect the model as described in the Overview. The Select Block Units from RESCUE Model dialog appears. Click OK. Grid blocks that are not located in any of the block units are set to inactive (NULL). 42 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .

Set the number of divisions in each of the selected units by double clicking the value in the Divisions column in the list control.8. Set the block widths in I. 13. Builder will create the simulation grid and display it in the IJ View. You could add grid block refinement at this stage. 10. The pillars along fault surface will be adjusted automatically. J) values in the topmost horizon and the bottommost horizon. You could also add refinement later as explained in Editing an Existing Simulation Grid. Builder will calculate the total number of simulation layers as you enter these values (NK). 12. select Set control points mode again and repeat steps 5 onwards. Select the “usual” direction of the “coord pillars”. If you wish to change the control points and/or the information input in steps 7 – 9. Note that at this stage Builder is in Edit Grid mode. Click OK. As you enter these values.and J directions (NI and NJ). Builder displays the mesh created using the NI and NJ values calculated in step 7. The direction you choose will be used for all the pillars that need not be rotated to honour a fault surface. Builder calculates the number of grid blocks in the I.and J directions. 9. These pillars represent the line segments joining the grid nodes with identical (I. Click the Probe mode button on the modes toolbar to exit the Edit Grid mode. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 43 . Select Construct Grid from surfaces from the Reservoir→Advanced RESCUE menu. 11.

The different tasks are presented as a vertical tree on the left window pane. the RESCUE filename. The Task Manager. Some tasks are always required and some are optional. Red is used to indicate a 44 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . The < Back and the Next > buttons found at the bottom of the dialog allows the user to navigate forward (down the tasks tree) or backward (up the tasks tree) in the workflow.Note: When you save the dataset. found under Reservoir->Build Static Model with Task Manager menu item. This information is available the next time the dataset is read back into Builder. Some tasks are dependent on other tasks and cannot be accessed before the other tasks are completed. The Task Manager is designed as a wizard dialog capable to guide you through the main tasks for building simple geological grids. Building Simulation Grid Using the Geological Modeling Task Manager It is possible to create a grid from well data when well markers are available from geological interpretations of the reservoir tops. names of selected blocks and units and the control point locations are saved in the dataset. can be used for building a grid and populating static properties on it in one integrated workflow. It also allows for building grids with pre-existing structure meshed maps of the reservoir tops. Selecting a task will change data controls and options seen on the right window pane. The tasks are color coded to help you visualize the status of the workflow. The Task Manager dialog window is shown below.

well logs. This is where well trajectories. gray is used to indicate that the task is dependent on a not yet completed prior tasks (higher up in the tree). Import Well Data The Import Well Data task is the very first task to be completed (see previous picture) if no well data are already loaded in Builder. and well markers can be imported from different data sources. After this task is completed. blue is used for optional tasks.required task. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 45 . Note that the Task Manager dialog is a modeless dialog and you still have controls on the Builder’s options for controlling the view and changing the display properties. The different tasks are described hereafter. Builder’s views (IJ-2D Areal or 3D View) will be automatically updated with new data or objects after each task is completed. The well trajectory wizard (see Well Trajectory Import) or the database wizard (see Importing from a PPDM Database) can be launched by selecting the appropriate option and clicking the Import button. Navigation in the workflow can also be done by directly selecting the task with a mouse click without the need for using the < Back and the Next > buttons. The chapter “Importing geological and well trajectory data” describes various file formats supported by Builder. When completed. the Import Well Data task will have its color code turned to green to indicate its new status. This permits to directly jump forward or backward to a specific task in the workflow. and green indicates that a task is completed. well trajectories and well markers will be displayed in the Builder 3D View as shown in the example below. Various file formats and an optional PPDM database connection is available for data import.

The number (#) of wells column indicates the number of wells where the selected marker is present. Edit Markers The Edit Markers task is optional and only available if markers are selected instead of structure meshed maps. You need to select a marker for the top and a marker for the bottom of each geological unit. you have the control on the number of geological units you want to include in the grid. they are connected by lines joining the markers.Select Tops The Select Tops task is the second mandatory task to be completed (see picture below). When markers are available in a relatively small number. You can combine elevation/depth maps with thickness maps. with the Meshed Maps option you need to select a pair of maps instead of a pair of markers. You are building a fence diagram when using this option. If no well markers are available from the wells. Alternatively. they are automatically selected (as shown). As the wells are selected. only the Meshed Maps option will be available. The connection lines are also displayed in the 3D View of Builder as seen in the two pictures below. 46 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . You can name the geological units to match the markers pair name or give it a name of your choice such as Pay Zone for example. Here. You can use the Add Well button to add wells in the fence diagram.

User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 47 .

Therefore. You can open the CreateMap dialog (see Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations) by clicking this button (see the two pictures below). You can select any marker on the fence diagram with a mouse click and drag it along the well to edit its TVD position. Here you will be creating structure meshed maps by interpolating the selected markers. When you select this task. 48 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . If a marker appears to be miss-located.On the Task Manager. This will also update the 3D view. Optionally well logs can be displayed close to the wells to assist with the markers editing. it can be moved up and down from its position along the well path. You click the Apply button to update the well data when you are done editing the markers. The well locations are determined by their surface locations and they appear as vertical lines. the Edit Markers view is a projection of the wells on a vertical plane. Create Horizons The Create Horizons task is mandatory if markers are selected instead of structure meshed maps (see Select Tops). each selected marker will be listed in a spreadsheet row where you have access to a Create Map button. the fence diagram is useful for comparing TVD values for markers at the selected wells.

Each meshed map is automatically loaded and displayed in Builder 3D View as soon as it is created (see below). Using the Create Map dialog allows you to interpolate each selected marker and create a meshed map file for it. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 49 . The meshed map filenames (with their path) will be reported back to the Output File Map column in the Create Horizons task view when created.When the Create Map button is clicked. You can use all options available in the Create Map dialog for mesh map interpolation (see Creating Maps and Geostatistical Properties section for more details). the Create Map dialog is automatically filled with the appropriate marker data.

Create Horizons. could be used for the 2D grid definition. For example. the default is to create a grid with only one cell represented by the bounding box around all the well surface locations. a map created at the previous step. 50 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . we need to lay out the meshed maps (created for the marker tops at the Create Horizons step) on a common horizontal grid definition. You can shift. This will give vertical structure to the grid. Alternatively. The 2D grid is the rectangular horizontal definition of the 3D grid (yet to be defined in a subsequent task). Before we can create the 3D grid. and further discretize this bounding box for creating the final 2D grid. This will display the 2D grid in the Builder IJ-2D Areal view. When you select this task. You click the Apply button to accept the 2D Grid definition.Create 2D Grid The Create 2D Grid task is always mandatory. you can import the 2D grid definition from any meshed map file. rotate.

User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 51 .

cut and paste from ascii files or other spreadsheet software). The points (red dots) will be connected into a closed polygon. It is used to null out some parts of the 2D grid.g. You can click the Remove Last button to undo the last point. The polygon will be used to create the NULL property array when creating the 3D grid. you can define a polygon by clicking points on the Builder IJ-2D Areal view. you could directly input the polygon vertices into the spreadsheet like control (e. Alternatively.Create Boundary The Create Boundary task is optional. Grid cells outside the polygon will be marked as inactive for the flow simulator. 52 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . You can click the Close button for closing the polygon. Here.

Create 3D Grid The Create 3D Grid task is mandatory. Clicking the Apply button will update the Builder 3D view with the newly created 3D grid (see second picture below). you can define the vertical grid according to the structure meshed maps representing the reservoir tops. Here. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 53 . Each geological unit will be bounded by the meshed maps from the Create Horizons task as indicated in the Top and Bottom columns (see picture below). It is the last step for completely defining the simulation grid. You need to define the number of layers required in each geological unit.

54 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .

Instead. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 55 . In the Create Geostatistical Objects dialog you can select the methods and parameters for interpolating the well log data on the 3D grid (see Creating Maps and Geostatistical Properties section for more details). Now that the 3D grid has been built. The well log data will be averaged (upscaled) on a grid block basis. you can use this option within the Task Manager by clicking the Geostatistics button for a selected well log (see first picture below). This will select the well log data and transfer them into the Create Geostatistical Objects dialog (see second picture below). it can be populated with static properties. At this point you could close the Task Manager dialog and use the Reservoir->Geostatistics menu option (see Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations). Cutoffs values can be used to filter out some log data.Create Properties The Create Properties task is optional.

J. delete. etc. K “planes” of the grid Extract a sub-section of the grid For all grids.) Rotate. You can carry out several operations to edit a grid that was created in Builder: • • • • • • • Redefine grid parameters (NI. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. move gridlines (orthogonal grids) Add.Editing an Existing Simulation Grid You can edit a grid in the Edit Grid mode. remove refined grids Split I. NJ. redefine control points (non-orthogonal grids) Add. translate the grid Add. NK. you can: You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform the above operations. To enter Edit Grid mode. delete. 56 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . you will be put into the edit grid mode right away. If spatial property and well data do not exist at this stage. click the Edit Grid button on the modes toolbar. move.

or extract a rectangular sub-section of the simulation model. you may have a grid from a previous simulations study where you don’t have the original map files. If you want to add a Cartesian refined grid to a rectangular range of grid blocks. Click in the middle of the grid block in which you want to add the refined grid.Sometimes you may wish to alter the grid in a dataset that already has grid properties and well locations. If you select the unrestricted editing option. For example. When you release the mouse button. click in the middle of the grid block in one corner of the range and drag the mouse to the opposite corner. or where grid properties have been modified during a history match. 2. split existing grid blocks along I. or K “planes”. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 57 . but the grid is altered. click the Edit Grid button on the modes toolbar. Builder allows several operations where the properties and well perforations are preserved. You will have to recreate or re-import them. Adding and Removing Refined Grids To add a refined grid: 1. all the grid related data will be destroyed. the Grid editing options dialog comes up. If spatial property and well data currently exist. the selected grid blocks or ranges of grid blocks should be highlighted. To enter Edit Grid mode. Hybrid (radial) refined grids may only be inserted into one column of cells at a time – you cannot drag out a rectangular range.J. You will usually use this option only in the initial stages of model development or for certain situations that may develop later on as explained above. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation. You can add refined grids.

then the Hybrid Grid Refinement dialog box appears: 58 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .3. If you selected Cartesian. Edit Grid menu. Select Cartesian refined or Hybrid refined from the Reservoir. then the Cartesian Grid Refinement dialog box appears: If you selected Hybrid.

Click on OK to add the refined grid. select the number of divisions of the parent grid block(s) by moving the I-. and K sliders under Number of blocks in each direction. and Along well directions. 7. For Cartesian grids. For hybrid grids. you can choose Current fundamental layer or a Range of fundamental layers. it is best to apply the refinement to all layers in the K direction or wellbore direction. For hybrid grids. 6. use the Refine Grid Around Wells dialog which you can launch by selecting Reservoir Edit grid Refine Wells… menu. 5. select the Wellbore parallel to direction. J-. Usually. Theta. All layers through grid controls this. and enter a Well radius. Alternatively. To add refined grids around a well To refine a certain number of grid blocks surrounding wells. select the number of divisions in the Radial. or Cancel. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 59 .4.

or press Ctrl-X. To remove a refined grid: 1. If the refined grid extends throughout the entire range of layers in the grid. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. To enter Edit Grid mode. 2. Select the surrounding blocks using the radio buttons in the Apply Changes To frame and the Number of Surrounding … counter. Select Cut from the Edit menu. A highlight color (default – red) rectangle will appear in or around the grid. Click on the refined grid you want to remove. You can also select all the wells in a Group by selecting the desired group in the Well Groups dialog. NOTE: This edit operation applies only to the current layer. You must be in Edit Grid mode to perform this operation.Select the desired wells – the Wells list allows multiple selections. 3. select Edit Grid from the mode selection box. 60 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . you will need to remove it from each layer individually. You can also add comments for selected wells by clicking the Add Wells button and typing in your comments in the edit box provided.

y.1.z coordinates as the top left corner for block 2. 3. This option will split all grid in the columns from I=I1 to I=I2 where I1 and I2 are selected using the FROM PLANE: and TO PLANE: sliders in the dialog. etc. 5. Click OK. I=1 2 3 K=1 2 K= 2 3 User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 61 .Splitting Grid Planes To split grid planes 1. in the grid below the top right corner for block 1. 4. When you are finished modifying the grid.1 (left top block) has the same x. 6. Select Split Grid Plane from Reservoir. exit Grid Edit mode. For example. sector definitions and other features of the grid to ensure that the grid modifications have been performed as you expected. Enter Edit Grid mode as described earlier. 2.1. Join Blocks Option A corner point grid is normally constructed so that adjacent blocks that are located in the same vertical layer have corners that have the same x. Split Grid Plane dialog appears. Edit Grid menu. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for splitting along J rows and K layers. It is recommended that you examine the well perforation locations. To split planes in “I plane” select Split I Plane option.y.z coordinates.1 (middle top block).

However. Therefore. the blocks are still connected because they are contacting each other. With this grid. If 2 blocks are in contact. open Results 3D. Poorly Constructed Grids The Join Blocks option was created to help the user fix certain grid problems that can be created in some geological modelling software packages. This absence of connections will create a barrier to fluid flow in the model that may not be correct. For example. 62 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .1. there will be no connections created when the blocks are not in contact with each other. An example of this behavior is shown below: 3 2 I=1 4 K=5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4 6 Note that in the above example. the grid module will create connections to these blocks. block 1.1.5 (top left block) is contacting blocks 2. If the distance between these corners is greater than *CORNER-TOL. then the grid module creates a connection between these two adjacent blocks. The example below shows a poorly constructed grid that has spaces between blocks. select the menu View->Probe Display and check the box “Connections”.1. If true. almost all of the corners for adjacent blocks are not the same.5 and 2. then connections are made between these blocks. then the grid module attempts to determine which blocks are contacting each other. To view the actual block connections.6.The grid module within each CMG simulator compares the corners from adjacent blocks to determine if the distance between these corners is less than *CORNER-TOL.

or pan mode. then the user must reselect the Join Blocks menu item to get back into the join blocks mode. The join blocks dialog is as follows: User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 63 .Join Corners Option The join corners option can be invoked in 2D or 3D views by selecting the menu item Reservoir->Edit Grid->Join Blocks. If the user goes out of the join blocks mode by selecting another mode such as probe mode. The user can then select some blocks with the mouse and when the mouse is released. a dialog box will appear.

If the distance between 2 adjacent block corners is greater than *CORNER-TOL.The Join Corners is the first (default) option. then these 2 corner coordinates are averaged and both corners are assigned these coordinates. In this case. Builder will search the requested directions and calculate the distance between corners of adjacent blocks. and the user can also check or un-check boxes to determine which direction is searched from the selected block. Below is the result of this option for the poorly constructed grid example: 64 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . if the join corners option is used for the grid in the above poorly constructed grid example. the grid becomes as shown below: Join Vertical Pillars Option Sometimes grid problems exist at fault locations and it is not desired to simply join the corners between blocks because the action of joining the corners will remove the fault. When the OK button is clicked. This option will allow block corners to be different. For example. but the vertical pillars of the grid will be preserved. the Join Vertical Pillars option may be useful.

sectors. Edit Grid menu to start the Uplayer Wizard. Select Combine Layers… from the Reservoir. 2. Uplayer Wizard The first page of the 3-page Uplayer wizard is as follows: User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 65 . When in automatic mode. You must be in Edit Grid mode to start the Uplayer Wizard. the Builder can suggest the optimal combination of the layers given the desired number of simulation layers. aquifers and lease planes will be preserved during combining. K direction permeability or combination of both. It will reduce many (often hundreds) geologic fine layers to much less coarse simulation layers and yet try to maintain the heterogeneity of the reservoir in the K (vertical) direction. When in manual mode. To start the Uplayer Wizard: 1. the Builder provides the user with average and standard deviation of the guide property to help the user to decide which layers to combine. 3. A Grid Editing Options dialog box will pop up. then click the Edit Grid Button on the modes toolbar. The method is based the ‘residue optimization’ method presented by Li and Beckner in SPE paper #57273. Well perforations. you first select “IJ 2D Areal” view. Select Editing limited to … (the default) and click OK. These may be manually added back after the combining is complete. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. The ‘guide property’ is typically porosity. A table of ‘residues’ (the difference of the defined property between the finelayer and coarse-layer models) is produced from exhaustive analysis of all possible layering combinations. Using this table. engineers can determine the desired number of simulation layers needed based on their tolerance of possible loss of fine-layer geologic features. To enter Edit Grid mode. Note that all refined grid blocks will be deleted during the combining operation. You are now in grid edit mode. The grouping of the layers can be done manually or automatically in the Builder.Combining Layers Introduction Combining Layers (or Up-layering) is a technique that provides engineer with optimal geologic layer-grouping schemes for simulation model construction.

then the Builder will not combine layers from two different geological units when searching for the optimal combination scheme.The default mode is set to Let the Builder recommend the layers to combine. The default guide property (Guide property for grouping layers) is set to permeability K divided by porosity if both properties have values in the current model. Other properties may be used as the guide property also. Once the table of minimum residues for all possible layer combinations is generated. You can control the weight of standard deviation term in computing the ‘residue’ by changing the slider value. depending on the number of layers and number of blocks in the model and the CPU power of you computer. Click the Start button will start the computation of minimum residues for all possible layer grouping schemes. Refer to the above SPE paper #57273 for more detailed information. The residue values in column 66 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . If the geological unit associated with each grid layer is available (as when the grid was directly imported from a RESCUE model). If you check this option. If only one of porosity or permeability K is available. There will be a progress bar with a Cancel button to show the percent of completion and allow cancellation of the operation. then the option Honor all geological unit boundaries will be available. though less common. Note that this will take tens of seconds to tens of minutes to complete. then the default will be whichever is available. you can decide on the number of the desired simulation layers based on the information in the table.

then choose the lowest number of layers with residue of zero. Click Next to get to the second page. Click a row in the table will update the number in the Desired number of layers edit box. The second page looks like the follows if you are in automatic mode: User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 67 . Example showing residue table after calculation: If you have chosen I will choose layers to combine option.two are normalized. you only have to select a Guide property for grouping layers and click Next to get to the second page. If you wish to preserve all reservoir heterogeneity. They are the square root of the residues (as defined in the SPE paper) divided by the average property value for the whole reservoir.

You can click Next button to go to the next page. along with porosity and permeability K. given the desired number of simulation layers. Once you are satisfied with the new layer combination scheme. the New Layer column will be identical to Old Layer column as a starting point. To combine several layers. you do not have to adjust anything because the displayed layer scheme is the optimal one. The arithmetic average and standard deviation of the selected uplayer property. You enter the new layer numbers based on the given information. the whole New Layer column will be adjusted. you drag and select a range of rows at New Layer column and then click on the Combine Selected Layers button or right click and select Combine Selected Layers from the context menu. If you enter a new layer at certain row. The Undo Last Combine button or Undo Last Combine from the context menu will undo the last change you made. are displayed. 68 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . click Next to bring up page 3 of the wizard. then the RESCUE unit names are displayed at Old Layer column. Normally. If the model is imported from RESCUE model.The suggested new layer combination scheme is displayed in the column New Layer. If manual mode has been chosen earlier.

Null blocks are excluded in the average calculation in method 7. (Gross) Volume Weighted Arithmetic (exclude null) Null block volumes are included in the gross volume computation and property values are assigned zero for null blocks in average methods 4-6. Pore Volume Weighted Harmonic 3.This page contains the table of property names and averaging methods to be used for the properties. Pore Volume Weighted Geometric 4. You can change the average method by clicking in the Average Method column. There are seven methods available: 1. the default method is displayed for each property. A list of the available methods will be displayed. (Gross) Volume Weighted Harmonic (include null) 6. (Gross) Volume Weighted Arithmetic (include null) 5. Initially. Volume Weighted Harmonic average method should be used for K direction properties. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 69 . Pore Volume Weighted Arithmetic 2. such as permeability K and Transmissibility Multiplier K etc. which is suitable for properties such as temperature. (Gross) Volume Weighted Geometric (include null) 7.

Click OK. exit Grid Edit mode.from and to sliders until the desired sub-section of the grid is highlighted. thickness and net pay etc. the combined blocks are assigned the integer value with the greatest volume. exit Grid Edit mode. because of the potentially large memory required to back up the grid and all the properties. Enter Edit Grid mode as described earlier. J-. 70 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Alter the beginning and ending I-. If you do not like the results of uplayering and want to try a different layer combination scheme. sector definitions and other features of the grid to ensure that the grid modifications have been performed as you expected. The values of integer properties for combined blocks are based on the ‘volume majority’ rule. It is recommended that you examine the well perforation locations. NOTE: There is no “Undo” for this operation. click Finish to start the uplayering process. you have to re-read the original dataset and start the uplayer wizard again. are not shown in the table because they are handled internally with their most appropriate uplayer methods. such as grid top. 3.Geometric properties.. 2. 5. There is no undo for this operation. aquifer and lease plane locations to ensure that the grid modifications have been performed as you expected. When you are finished modifying the grid. NULL block combination uses a different rule – resulting block is NULL only if all contributing blocks are NULL. When the uplayering is done. That is. and K. bottom. Extracting a Sub-section of a Grid To extract a sub-section of a grid: 1. Edit Grid menu. It is recommended that you examine the well perforation locations. Once appropriate average methods are chosen for each property. 4. Select Extract SubModel from Reservoir. sector definitions. Extract Grid Submodel dialog appears.

2.Editing a Cartesian. If you selected the second option in Grid editing options dialog box. The grid rotation. Enter the Edit Grid mode as described earlier. You can add grid block refinement at this stage without destroying the property and well data. 4. If you want to modify the control points. you can proceed from step 3 of Creating a Simulation Grid Using 3D Surfaces from RESCUE Model. 3. the Set autogrid construction options dialog appears and you can proceed from step 6 of Creating a Simulation Grid Using 3D Surfaces from RESCUE Model. Select one of the options and click OK. you can proceed from step 2 of Creating a Simulation Grid Using 3D Surfaces from RESCUE Model. If you selected the last option. If you only intended to add refinement. 2. Proceed as described in Adding and Removing Refined Grids. Enter the Edit Grid mode as described earlier. 6. choose the first option in the Grid editing options dialog box that comes up on entering Edit Grid mode. the Editing grid created from RESCUE model dialog appears. If you selected the first option. If you selected the second option. Click Yes in the message box and the instructions in Creating a Non-Orthogonal Corner Point Grid with Sloping Faults Using Structure Maps. When done. Enter the Edit Grid mode as described earlier. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 71 . click the Probe Mode button on the modes toolbar to exit Edit Grid mode. You can add grid block refinement at this stage without destroying the property and well data. Radial or Orthogonal Grid 1. Editing a Non-Orthogonal Corner Point Grid Created Using Structural Maps 1. A message warning that if you proceed further all your property and well data will be destroyed comes up. you can proceed from step 5 of Creating a Simulation Grid Using 3D Surfaces from RESCUE Model. 5. 3. This puts you in last stage of the non-orthogonal corner point grid creation wizard. 3. 7. click Finish. click on the Prev button. 2. grid line editing and grid refinement operations are described in Creating a Simulation Grid Using Structure Maps. translation. Editing a Grid Created Using RESCUE Surfaces 1. If you only intended to add refinement. If you selected the third option.

Calculating and Adjusting Structure and Rock Property Values Once you have finished creating or modifying your simulation grid. Also displayed are the units of the property. interpolated from maps. After you have specified how to calculate one or more properties. To enter Probe Mode. You must be in Probe Mode to perform this operation. Select Specify Property from the Reservoir menu. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Probe Mode by left clicking on it. is also included. or interpolate values for structural and rock properties for each grid block. Properties may be assigned (by layer or region). the calculated property values can be displayed and modified. If a property is specified and/or has values. “Whole Grid”. 72 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . calculate.Specifying. it is indicated in the top rows which are grayed out. imported from a RESCUE model. The General Property Specification dialog box appears: 3. or calculated using geostatistical routines. and Geostatistics… under the Reservoir menu. you tell Builder to do the calculations. Builder has a number of map creation and geostatistical routines available – see the Chapter “Creating Maps and Geostatistical Properties” – which are available via Create map… under the File menu. or click on the Specify Property button. The dialog lists the property names in columns and the simulation layers in rows. 2. After the calculations are complete. which indicates an identical specification for all the layers. select Probe Mode from the mode selection box. you can specify how to assign. Specifying Property Interpolations and Calculations To specify a property calculation: 1.

Enter a multiplier applied to interpolated values in the times text box. click on the Values in file 1 button and an Open dialog box will appear. Contour maps. simply type in the value. If appropriate. move or copy a specification from one cell to one or more cells. Copy and Paste commands on the context menu (right click in a cell) to delete. If you wish to calculate the property as a difference between values from two maps. For Contour map. If multiple columns are selected only the first column will be pasted. Enter specifications for the property. specify the second map file. To specify a geological map. For Constant. This is restricted to numerical values only and only a single column at a time. These and other menu items appearing on the context menu are also available in the Edit Specification menu at the top of the dialog. From Formula or the Upscale from RESCUE model radio button. formula or to import/upscale from a RESCUE model.4. This will bring the property column in the view. 8. 5. enter a single value to be applied to all grid blocks in the selected region. If you want to specify a constant property for a layer. 7. Or use the scroll bar at the bottom to bring the column in view. You can also use the Cut. Note: Copy and Paste from Excel can also be done. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 73 . Select the first map file. 6. use the corresponding menu items. you can also specify EQUALSI for a property. 9. Use the Go To Property combo box to select the property. Click the Constant. The Property Specification dialog box opens up. Equals I.

10. This option is enabled only if at least one formula is defined. use the Use Regions/Sectors button. If you want to enter specifications in terms of a sector or a region. Geometric. 13. Select the name of the RESCUE property you want to upscale from the Property drop-down list box. The Regions Property Specification dialog appears. For From Formula. Currently four methods are available: Arithmetic. 11. and Harmonic/Arithmetic. the Upscale from RESCUE model option will be enabled. Select the averaging method from the Average Method drop-down list box. 12. Click on OK or Cancel to dismiss the Property Specification dialog. see the section on Using the Array Property Calculator to learn how to create formulae to calculate one array property from one or more previously calculated array properties. 74 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . To upscale from RESCUE model • • • Select the Upscale from RESCUE model option. If the grid was created using 3D surfaces from RESCUE and if properties are available in the RESCUE model. Harmonic. Direct Import should only be used if the grid was directly imported from a RESCUE model.

click OK to apply the specifications. You can select and specify additional properties. NOTES: Grid Thickness You can define grid thickness as the difference between interpolated values of two contour maps times a multiplier. Follow steps 7 – 12 to input a specification. When you have specified all the properties you want to at this time. The calculations are done in the order of the list. Next. The Property Specification dialog appears: 18. a value calculated in a later region calculation will override the earlier calculation done in the first region. you can specify the thickness of each simulation layer as a fraction of the distance between two contour maps. you can re-order the list using the Order buttons. you may wish to divide a single geological layer into two or more simulation layers. or Cancel. In this case. then clicking on Add to region list.. sectors. Neither specified nor interpolated Both specified and interpolated Specified only Values only – not specified 15.. The left column of the property list will contain one of the following codes: If you see. 17.. specify how to calculate each region. or PVT and rock type regions. If a grid block is in two regions. Regions can be the whole grid. You can select multiple regions at once using the usual Windows <Ctrl>-click and <Shift>-click mechanisms.. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 75 . select on map for Values in file 1 and the second map for Values in file 2. these layers will stack above the specified layers.14. Once you have added regions to the Region List. 16. 19. and click on the Set/Edit… button. 20. _ B S V Then the property is. Click on a particular region in the Region List. Layers that you do not specify are stacked below or above the specified layers. Select the property to be specified from the Select property: list. For example. Select the next region and perform steps 6 through 11. If you only have contour maps for the top and bottom of the geological layer. individual layers in the grid. Select regions to be specified by clicking on a region in the Regions List. Grid Top or Grid Bottom You do not need to specify all the layers for Grid Top or Grid Bottom. If you have not specified the top most layers. Continue until all regions are specified.

Performing Interpolations and Calculations After you have specified one or more properties. the simulators expect porosity to be expressed as a fraction. For example. You do not need to specify all the properties at one time. if you wish. Select one of the radio button options for the specification.01 to convert to a fraction. it can be used to divide a single geological layer thickness over several simulation layers. 76 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . specified in the times text box. Finally. if you have an elevation map (Z direction measured positive upwards) you can convert this to a depth map (Z direction measured positive downwards) by multiplying by –1. NULL block specification is similar to other property specification. Click OK to save the specification. 3. you can specify and calculate the properties one at a time. or Cancel. To specify NULL block calculations: 1. you can multiply by 0. It can also be used to do unit conversion.Multipliers The multiplier. As previously mentioned. You may also need to enter a cut-off value for some of the specifications. except for the dialog used to specify each layer or region: 2. Rather. has several possible uses. described above. you can tell Builder to perform the calculations. If your contour map has porosity as a percentage.

the check box will not be displayed. and you receive a new map for one particular layer. You must be in Probe Mode to perform this operation. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Probe Mode by left clicking on it. The Block/Corner Value Calculation dialog box appears: 3. For the properties specified with EQUALSI. Clicking on the “+” beside a property will show the list of regions and specifications for the property. You can check individual regions to calculate only specific regions for a property. You can force the recalculation of a specified property or defer the calculation of a property by checking or unchecking individual properties. select Probe Mode from the mode selection box. if you have specified a property with a map interpolation for each grid layer. or click on the Calculate Properties button. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 77 . 2. To enter Probe Mode. At the top is a list of all the properties that you have specified. you can specify that only that layer be recalculated.To perform interpolations and calculations: 1. Properties that need to be calculated are indicated with a check mark. For example. Select Calculate Properties from the Reservoir menu.

If you want these blocks to be set to NULL. The dialog looks like: The new custom property can also be defined in a number of places when the property dropdown combo-box is available. Add New Custom Property. Deleting a Property If you wish. While the interpolation and calculation is being done. select Delete Properties… The Delete Properties dialog will pop up with a list of the calculated properties (not including structural properties like Grid Top and Grid Thickness). Click OK to begin the calculation. If this occurs when interpolating the “Grid Top” property. It is done by selecting the very first item. the top value at the interpolation point is set to zero. or Cancel. Interpolate from contour maps only applies to rock properties such as porosity or permeability. From the Reservoir menu. 78 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . one of the calculated properties will be displayed in view. select either Use property value in parent block or Interpolate from contour maps.4. The following graph shows that a new custom property is to be created from within the General Property Specification dialog. you may delete a calculated or imported property. the interpolation point is surrounded by faults. To change the view settings and content. or all the mesh points in the vicinity are set to the “NULLFLAG” value. Occasionally. select Add New Custom Property… The CMGCustom Property dialog will pop up. and click OK. in the combo-box. In Property Values in Refined Blocks. see the chapter on Changing Display Contents and Settings. Select a property (or properties) to delete. check the Set gridblock to Null… checkbox. Note that structural properties (Grid Top and Grid Thickness) always use the parent block values to determine refined block values. 6. the interpolation routine is unable to interpolate a value for a grid block because there are no nearby contour lines. From the Reservoir menu. Defining Custom Property Unlimited number of custom properties can be defined. Once the property calculation is complete. You can type in the name you wanted and some comments lines if you wish. 5. status messages will appear on the status bar at the bottom of the main Builder window indicating progress.

when the dataset is read in. 2. The Import spatial properties dialog is displayed. only the fundamental grid block values will be imported and the refined blocks inherit from the parent blocks. Click Add to Selected List button. the refined block values are User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 79 . Specify the dataset file from which to import the property. If both the datasets have local grid refinement. 4. Properties will not be imported unless the numbers of fundamental blocks in the two files are identical. Import the properties along with the simulation grid from files output by geological packages (refer to “Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties” in this manual). The importable properties in the source file are listed in the list on the left.The existing 6 temporary properties. Select a property name from the list on the right. will be automatically converted to the corresponding custom properties. Values will be converted to account for different unit systems in the two dataset files. If the target dataset has local grid refinement but the source dataset does not. CMGLTemp PropX (where X = 1 to 6). CMGLCustom_TempX (where X = 1 to 6). Importing Properties from CMG Dataset Files Without Importing the Grid From the File menu select Import from another file… and then Spatial properties from dataset…. if defined in an existing dataset. Import properties from a text file containing an array of values. Importing Spatial Properties You can import spatial properties in a number of ways: 1. Import the properties along with the simulation grid from CMG dataset files (refer to “Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties” in this manual). 3. The source property will be imported as the property you specified in the list on the right. Import properties from CMG dataset files without importing the grid.

. Specify the dataset file from which to import the property.imported only if the total numbers of grid blocks – fundamental and the refined – in the two files are identical. If the target dataset has local grid refinement but the source dataset does not. Click Add to Selected List button. A property may be listed a number of times if it was output more than once in the simulation output file. it assumes that each refined grid is located in the same parent block in the two files and that it is of the same size in the two files. only the fundamental grid block values will be imported and the refined blocks inherit from the 80 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Importing Properties from CMG Simulation Results Files From the File menu select Import from another file… and then Spatial properties from CMG simulation results…. Properties will not be imported unless the numbers of fundamental blocks in the two files are identical. The source property will be imported as the property you specified in the list on the right. Select a property name from the list on the right. Builder does not validate the location and size of each refined grid.e. The importable properties in the source file are listed in the list on the left. i. The Import spatial properties dialog is displayed. Values will be converted to account for different unit systems in the two dataset files. This selection enables you to initialize a property with values at times later than the zero time from another simulation run.

Using geological units is a way to avoid mixing very different data when using the geostatistical methods. A geological unit is defined as a group of contiguous grid layers all belonging to the same geological formation or reservoir unit. Defining/Editing Geological Units Builder allows you to define geological units. Builder does not validate the location and size of each refined grid. i. Homogeneity in the porosity and/or permeability values is especially important because all the Builder’s methods for geostatistical property estimation operate within a geological unit. Select a property name from the list on the right. it assumes that each refined grid is located in the same parent block in the two files and that it is of the same size in the two files. the grid layers included between the top and bottom surface will form a natural definition. Values are assumed to be in Builder’s current unit system. it assumes that each refined grid is located in the same parent block in the two files and that it is of the same size in the two files. Click Add to Selected List button. A property may be listed a number of times if it was output more than once in the simulation output file. Specify the dataset file from which to import the property. the refined block values are imported only if the total numbers of grid blocks – fundamental and the refined – in the two files are identical. Importing Properties from a Text File Containing an Array of Values This feature reads one or more array values from an ASCII text file. In such a case. The number of elements in the value array must be identical to the number of fundamental or fundamental + refined grid blocks. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 81 . The keyword could be a valid array keyword but is not required to be so. only the fundamental grid block values will be imported and the refined blocks inherit from the parent blocks... The following dialog will appear. If the file contains more than one value array. The source property will be imported as the property you specified in the list on the right. From the File menu select Import from another file… and then Spatial properties from stand-alone arrays…. In any case.parent blocks. To define Geological Units: 1. i. A geological formation is typically bounded by a top and a bottom geological surface. Builder does not validate the location and size of each refined grid. Select Geological Units … under Reservoir menu.e. A grid must be defined in the current dataset. the refined block values are imported only if the total numbers of grid blocks – fundamental and the refined – in the two files are identical.e. each array should begin with a keyword. If both have local grid refinement. The Import spatial properties dialog is displayed. The importable properties in the source file are listed in the list on the left. If the target dataset has local grid refinement but the source file does not. one should strive for homogeneity when defining a geological unit. If both the datasets have local grid refinement.

Instead. all layers belong to the same geological unit. The dialog is designed to enforce those rules.If the geological units are defined. The To Layer cell of the last geological unit cannot be edited. It is always defined as N. the total number of grid layers. the dialog will show the current definition as in the example above. If no geological units are defined. the From Layer cell for all other geological units cannot be edited. 2. the dialog will show only one unit including all grid layers. The geological units must be contiguous. Similarly. Each grid layer must belong to one and only one geological unit. they are automatically updated to To Layer + 1 when the To Layer cell of the previous geological unit is edited. By default. The number of geological units that can be defined is limited between 1 and N where N is the total number of grid layers. non-overlapping. 82 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Note that the geological units are usually defined when importing a RESCUE model (see section Importing 3D Simulation Grids and Grid Properties). The From Layer cell of the first geological unit is always 1 and cannot be edited. and no gaps are allowed. Select the Number of geological units with the spin box.

0e-4 units). The property and layer indicated as the most reliable data will be left unaltered. while maintaining reservoir flow in a vertical direction through the blocks). 3. select Convert to/edit fracture reservoir from the Reservoir menu. the map you give for “Grid Top” in layer 1 may. For each column of overlap. Such an overlap could occur if the contour data for two grid tops and the thickness of the layer(s) in between are not consistent. and then alter the depths of other blocks in the column by adding or subtracting the grid block thickness. The Cancel button allows you leave the dialog without saving. By default. Click OK to perform the conversion. you will need to specify and calculate grid properties for the fractures. dip below the map you give for “Grid Top” of layer 3. and other properties will be adjusted to eliminate grid block overlap. Enter a new value for the pinchout thickness and click OK. Click the OK button to save the newly defined geological units. at points. Builder will first fix the location of the block in the selected layer using the selected depth property specification. select Block Pinch-out thickness setting. The Set pinchout thickness dialog will appear.The Unit Name can be changed at will. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 83 . only extremely thin grid blocks are pinched out (thickness less than 1. while only containing an extremely small fraction of the total reservoir volume. To automatically pinch-out thin reservoir blocks: From the Reservoir menu. You can pinch-out grid blocks (remove them from the active simulation grid. Pinching Out Thin Grid Blocks Very thin grid blocks may slow down a simulation run. After the conversion is done. Builder will mark all blocks less the specified thickness as pinchout blocks. For example. the grid is checked to see if grid blocks overlap. Builder includes a feature that allows you to select the grid depth specification (property and layer) that you consider most reliable and to “fix” the grid block overlap based on this map. A dialog will appear asking you to select the dual porosity option to use. Converting to Dual Porosity To convert a single porosity dataset to one of the Dual Porosity simulator options. as well as enter other required data. Fixing Overlapping Blocks Whenever the grid structure is changed by an interpolation.

e.. Click on OK to apply the fix. or that used for the Grid Thickness) and which layer you consider most reliable. a message box will pop up and inform you. that used to calculate the Grid Top.To fix grid block overlap: 1. The Fix Grid Block overlap dialog box appears: 2. which data is better. To fix net-to-gross ratio problems: 1. Select Fix Grid Block overlap from the Reservoir menu. If the net pay is greater than the gross pay in any grid block. 3. Select the property that you consider most reliable (i.e. or Cancel. Fixing Net-to-gross Ratio Problems If you calculate both Grid Thickness (i. Select Fix Net-to-Gross ratio from the Reservoir menu.. Builder will check that the net-to-gross ratio is one or less. gross thickness) and Net Pay. The Fix net pay or gross thickness dialog box appears: 84 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .

if you have an existing dataset with *TRANSI. *TRANSJ. for sealing or partially sealing faults. These array properties have been used to stop or reduce fluid flow across faults. 3. Builder had a convenient way of setting these arrays with the Set/Edit Transmissibility Multiplier dialog. CMG simulators have allowed you to set transmissibility multipliers in the I. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 85 . or *TRANSK. *TRANSJ. Setting Transmissibility Multipliers at Sealing or Partially Sealing Faults For many years. then choose one of the actions listed in the Action panel. click on OK to adjust values. or Cancel. The simulation layers with problems will be listed.2. After the action for all problem layers has been specified. For continuity. via the *TRANSI. For new datasets Builder 2005 and later will create *TRANSF keywords to communicate fault information to the simulator. a new simulator keyword (*TRANSF) has been developed to specifically handle setting transmissibility multipliers across faults. Builder’s method of setting the transmissibility multipliers across the faults is the same as in previous versions. and *TRANSK keywords. and is described following. A separate *TRANSF keyword gives the transmissibility multiplier and fault locations for each fault. J and K directions. then Builder 2005 and later will modify these arrays to set transmissibility multipliers across the faults. With the 2005 release. Select a Layer and Porosity type by clicking on the layer number.

. Open the Grid Top map with fault lines if you have one. then only one fault will appear on the list. or open the RESCUE model that the grid was imported from. Select Set Transmissibility Multiplier Across Faults. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Probe Mode by left clicking on it.15 or later. then you will only be able to apply a single.. 2. or the grid was imported from a RESCUE model with fault surfaces. then you will be able to set transmissibility multipliers separately for each fault. If a grid is imported from a RESCUE model by Builder 2004. and all grid blocks adjacent to faults will be selected. select Probe Mode from the mode selection box. common transmissibility multiplier across all faults To set transmissibility multipliers across faults: 1. the fault locations may be stored in the dataset. If you do not have the top map with fault information open. from the Reservoir menu. You must be in Probe Mode to perform this operation. To enter Probe Mode. 86 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . If you are using a grid created directly by a geological modelling program and you do not have the top map. and reopening the RESCUE model not required. As you select different faults from the fault list.If you have a Grid Top map with faults that was used to create the grid. grid blocks adjacent to the selected fault(s) will be highlighted. The Set Transmissibility Multiplier Across Faults dialog box appears: 3.

use <Ctrl>-click to select a set of grid blocks. Both options are useful to enhance the faults display in Builder’s view. Entering Rock Compressibility To specify rock compressibility. layer 1 on one side of the fault may connect to layers 2 and 3 on the other side of the fault. select Edit Reservoir Property from the mode selection box. 5. 6. Select the property to edit from the Property Selection list. Note: The simulator will take into account the fault throw when calculating flows and connections across the fault. By default. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Reservoir Property. With sufficient throw. and a value of 1. most property values may be modified.0 indicates a non-sealing fault. Editing Property Values of Selected Blocks After property calculations. When you release the mouse button. Select OK or Apply to apply the changes. you may choose otherwise under the Modify frame. You must be in Edit Reservoir Property mode to perform this operation. 3. select Rock Compressibility from the Reservoir menu. the new transmissibility multiplier will be applied to both the I and J directions. and click on OK. Fill in the required values. To enter Edit Reservoir Property mode.4. Enter a value for the transmissibility multiplier in the New Multiplier column. A value of 0.0 indicates a completely sealing fault (no flow across the fault). the Property Modifications dialog appears: User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 87 . Consult the simulator manual for details. 2. or drag out a rectangle of grid blocks. Note: the Trim fault surfaces and the transparency options become active for RESCUE models. However. otherwise Cancel. To edit (modify) a calculated property value: 1. Click on the grid block to modify.

or Cancel. Click OK to apply the change. 88 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . You can replace the value in the selected blocks or apply a simple arithmetic operation. to All layers through grid. NOTE: Builder 2004 and later store *MOD keywords in the simulator dataset. 6. with a constant operand.4. You may choose Visible blocks only if there are refined grid blocks in the selection. The comments you add will be stored with the *MOD. 5. Select the operation and the operand value under Modify Current Value. You can apply the operation to the Current fundamental layer. to the blocks. or to a Range of fundamental layers. You can add comments as to why you made the modification.

When you release the mouse button. 2. and Builder will select all of the blocks around the well(s) to apply a property modification. To edit (modify) a calculated property value: 1. Select the property to edit from the Property Selection list. you can select a well group to select all the wells in that group. You must be in Edit Reservoir Property mode to perform this operation.Editing Property Values Around Wells You can select a well or all the wells in a well group. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Edit Reservoir Property. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 89 . If you have well groups defined in your dataset. 3. To enter Edit Reservoir Property mode. the Property Modifications dialog appears: You can select more than one well. select Edit Reservoir Property from the mode selection box. Click on the grid block containing the well.

to the blocks. Reviewing Property Modifications To review the modifications that you have made to a particular property. or to Perforations in a range of fundamental layers. You can apply the operation to the Visible perforations only. The comments you add will be stored with the *MOD. Editing Grid Structure Values If the property to be edited is a grid structure property (Grid Top. the following dialog box will appear that gives the user two options for editing this property: 90 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .4. 5. Open the property list if it is not already open (click on the + symbol beside Array Properties. Grid Paydepth. or Grid Thickness). Scroll to the property that you wish to review. with a constant operand. comment out. If the property has been modified. Select the operation and the operand value under Modify Current Value. or Cancel. Click OK to apply the change. or delete modifications if you wish. to All perforated layers. and open the specification list (click on the + symbol beside the property name). You can change the Number of Surrounding Blocks to be included in the selection along with the perforated blocks. You can add comments as to why you made the modification. Double click on this line and the Review or Change Property Modifications dialog will appear. Grid Bottom. NOTE: Builder 2004 and later store *MOD keywords in the simulator dataset. click on the Reservoir button of the tree view. 7. you will see a line “Property Edited (*Mod keyword)”. 6. You can edit. You can replace the value in the selected blocks or apply a simple arithmetic operation.

etc. Corner Point.) one of the following dialog boxes will appear. The user must enter numeric values for each block corner in the following dialog box: User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 91 . Radial. When the mouse button is released. depending on the type of grid used (Cartesian. For Corner Point grid the following dialog box appears. the user must select one or more grid blocks.Enter Grid Structure Property Values in a Dialog First option selected: When the OK button is clicked.

Use a 3D Sector For Drawing the Grid Often it is desired to view only a portion of the 3D grid to simplify grid editing and to aid in quality control of the model.For Non Corner Point grid the following dialog box appears. The user enters a single block value for the property: 3D Editing Options Second option selected: A dockable window will appear on the left side of the screen. The top portion of the dockable window (shown on the left of the picture below) contains controls for viewing 3D sectors of the grid: 92 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . This dockable window can be moved and/or docked in alternate locations by clicking and dragging the top part of this dockable window.

If at any time it is desired to display the entire grid. The number of surrounding grids is controlled by the values in the text boxes in the “Surrounding Grids” frame. then all other well perforations and trajectories will not be displayed. Quick Slabs or Region Slabs” option and click “Reset”. If the “Remove other wells” box is checked. When “Use Well Perfs” is selected. select “Well Trajectories” from the tree view and select “Show All Wells”. and select “Show All Wells”. To display all wells again. 2 sub-options become enabled: 1) Use Well Perfs and 2) Use Center Grid. Each time a new well or date is selected.When the box “Use 3D Sector for Drawing Grid” is checked. The number of surrounding grids is controlled by the values in the text boxes in the “Surrounding Grids” frame. the user must select a center fundamental grid cell using the combo boxes and spin controls provided. the selected well will be reset and the user must click on a well and/or date again to change the 3D display. Each time a new center grid is selected. enter the “Properties” form. If trajectories are displayed. select “Wells” from the tree view. When the grid structure is changed using the option. the picture will change to be the grid blocks surrounding the well perforations on that particular date. When the “Use Center Grid” option is selected. Note that the picture will not change unless a valid well and date is selected from the tree view. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 93 . the user must select a well and/or date from the tree view shown on the left side of the above picture. the display will change to be a 3D sector around the center grid block. simply invoke the “Selecting IJK Slabs.

and the refined structures will change to become inherited from the fundamental grid. inside out. If it is desired to view all grid nodes. If the grid system is Cartesian. check or uncheck these check boxes. If the grid system is corner point. Poorly constructed blocks may slow down the simulator. For complicated grids. The modifications to the grid structure are applied to the fundamental grid only. and it is recommended that these blocks be fixed before running the simulator. For grids in COORD format.Interactively Edit Grid in 3D When the “Edit Grid in 3D” box is checked. The user may click and select grid nodes that are located at the grid block corners. or even stop the simulator if the block is extremely bad. or generally poorly constructed. then the entire grid block will be moved when an edit point is clicked upon and dragged. J. 94 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . one of the axes must be fixed. If the option Connected Blocks is selected. and block fill turned on. allow only one axis to move to reduce the number of variables changing at any one time. the user may only move the block or point so those blocks do not become overlapped. change the width of the grid lines in the “Properties” panel under the “Grid” subitem. A grid node may be unselected by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on the selected node again. for large models. the user may hold down the left mouse button and drag the grid nodes to the new locations. If none of these check boxes are checked. the drawing of all grid nodes may slow down Builder substantially. or K Axis To edit a 3D picture on a 2D flat surface. To change the axis that is fixed. Edit Points Selection of this option will allow editing of points for each grid block. then the user will not be able to edit any corner points or pillars. The user may toggle between selected and unselected by clicking on the node multiple times. then the neighboring block point will also be changed unless the neighboring block is already disconnected (the block corner locations are different by more than 0. it will become a red sphere. The user may select more than one grid node by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking the left mouse button. it is still possible for the user to create grid blocks that are overlapped. Below is an example picture of 5 grid nodes that were selected and the information that is displayed on the probe panel after these nodes were moved. Once all desired grid nodes are selected. To change the size of the grid nodes. the user may check the box “Show All Nodes”. However. When a grid node is selected. then only the one grid corner location will be changed. and the probe panel will display information about this node. Fix I. If the refined block structures are defined explicitly. As there are some safeguards built into this option.1 m/ft). the user will be informed about the poorly constructed blocks (block is non convex message). then these definitions will be lost using this option. However. The probe panel will show information about how far the nodes have been moved in all three directions. the display will change to 3D with grid lines and null blocks shown. When this occurs. only Z or K coordinates may be edited. Refined block structures will be inherited from the fundamental grid.

as is the case when the option is checked. To edit the pillars click on this option. and select the pillars by clicking either the top layer 1 grid node. as shown in the picture below.Edit Pillars This option is only enabled when the grid is defined using either the COORD or CORNERS keywords. If any grid nodes do not lie exactly on the pillar that is being moved. this node will be moved to lie on the pillar. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 95 . or the bottom layer grid node.

96 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Below is an example picture of multiple top grid nodes selected and the total thickness increased. If the bottom grid node is moved. The user can also fix some layers so that their thickness will not change (see the option Layers With Fixed Size). then the top grid node of the top layer will be fixed. If the top grid node is moved.Edit Total Thickness If this option is selected. then all blocks in the column will have their thickness changed simultaneously so that the relative thickness between layers is preserved. then the bottom grid node of the bottom layer will be fixed.

and preserve the original layer thicknesses. Below is an example picture of multiple grid nodes moved downwards. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 97 . This option is useful to move all layers together.Move All Layers If this option button is clicked. then all blocks in the column will be moved simultaneously.

Note that if this option is checked. When re-connection occurs. This option is useful for fault modeling. The user can also modify the throw of the faults in this manner. red grid lines will appear in the neighboring block indicating that it has occurred. If this check box is checked. 98 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . If the blocks are disconnected.Preserve Pillars This option is only enabled when the grid is constructed using the CORNERS keyword. then the “Fix K axis” option must be unchecked to allow editing.1 m/ft). and the Connected Blocks option is unchecked. If the "Preserve pillars" option is checked. Connected Blocks If this check box is checked. then all of the blocks that share the corner will be moved even if some of these blocks are not currently displayed. the blocks can be re-connected by dragging the grid node so that it lines up with the neighboring grid node. the user can create faults where no fault existed previously. unless the neighboring block is already disconnected (the block corner locations are different by more than 0. then grid block corners can be moved only in the directions set by the pillars.

Below is an example of a fault that was created with this method. warning messages will be issued. Layers With Fixed Size If the option is selected. The latter option may be useful to create faults where none existed before. When using this option unchecked. It may also be useful in a Cartesian grid when there is space between layers. Thus. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 99 . then none of the neighboring blocks will be modified. and the user wishes to change the block thickness of one block without changing the thickness of the connecting block. then this text box becomes enabled. as the safeguards to prevent this will be disabled. but wishes to not change one or more layers. In any case. The user can enter fundamental layer numbers (separated by spaces) in this text box that will become fixed in size. if the user creates any grid blocks that are poorly constructed (non convex blocks).If this check box is unchecked. this option is useful if the user wishes to change the total reservoir thickness. the user should take care to make sure that blocks do not overlap other blocks.

Restore Grid If the changes to the grid structure are to be discarded. Select Create/Edit Sectors… from the Reservoir menu. 2. the grid nodes will be restored back to the state of the previous “Clear Restore”. a grid block can be in more than one sector. and you wish to add new overlapping sectors. When the “Restore Grid” button is clicked. Defining and Editing Sectors Sectors are arbitrary groupings of grid blocks that are used by Builder. You can create sectors and assign grid blocks to sectors using Builder. You must be in Probe mode to perform this operation. In general. The Add/Edit/Delete a Sector dialog appears: 100 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . If you are using *ISECTOR. or back to the original state when the grid was loaded into Builder. then the user should click on this button to restore the grid that was present before any changes to the grid structure were made. select Probe from the mode selection toolbar. we have added a new keyword *ISECTOR where each grid block is assigned to a single sector number.Clear Restore Once the grid has been changed to the user’s satisfaction. or right click to pop up the context menu and select Probe. this button should be clicked on to clear the restore array. Builder will convert the information in the *ISECTOR property to the more general sector definition. To enter Probe mode. the simulators. This option will restore the grid that existed after the last time the “Clear Restore” button was pressed. and Results 3D to calculate display statistics on different regions of the field. To add or edit (modify) a sector: 1. To facilitate conversion of datasets from other simulators.

User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 101 . enter a sector name in the small dialog that appears. To edit an existing sector. click on the right arrow button beside the Sector Name combo box and select New Sector. select the sector from the list of existing sectors in the Sector Name combo box. To add a new sector. 4.3. If you are creating a new sector.

Create/Edit/Delete Lease Planes The Lease Planes dialog can be accessed from Create/Edit Lease Plane of Reservoir menu or the Create/Edit Lease Planes icon in the Modes tool bar. When you are finished adding or removing blocks. When you are finished adding or editing all the sectors of interest. and clicking on the Add the blocks in selected regions to the sector or Remove the blocks in the selected regions from the sector. Click Cancel to abort the changes to the last sector that you work on. click APPLY to confirm your changes. Then click on either Add selected blocks to sector or Delete selected blocks from sector. 8. the first lease plane in the list box is selected and the lease plane blocks are highlighted in the reservoir view with magenta color. or Edit Lease Plane menu item in the popup menu when you right click in the reservoir view or double click any lease plane object in the tree view. rock type regions or PVT regions to a sector by selecting the region from the Select Regions list. and using <Ctrl>-click and drag to select a number of grid blocks at once. You can add or remove whole layers.5. If you want to delete the selected lease plane. 7. and select "Delete Lease Plane". 102 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . 6. click OK to dismiss this dialog. click the right arrow button beside the Names text box. Initially. The blocks currently in the sector will be outlined. Select grid blocks by clicking on them.

or Create/Edit Aquifer menu item in the popup menu when you right click in the reservoir view or double click any aquifer object in the tree view. Creating new lease plane is similar to editing lease plane except the values are initially blank. Refer to the proper simulator manual for the meaning of each value. You can change the lease plane name subject to the limitation of 16 characters maximum. You can select an item. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 103 . The values in the dialog will be updated as soon as you release the button.You can manually change any value in the dialog or go to reservoir view to select a range of grid blocks. Click OK button to keep the change or Cancel button to abort the change. Create/Edit/Delete Aquifers The Aquifer Properties dialog can be accessed from Create/Edit Aquifers under the Reservoir menu or the Create/Edit Aquifers icon in the Modes tool bar. then press the F1 key to get help for that item. Some dialog items are disabled depending on the simulator you are working on. or place the mouse curser in a text field.

If you select the third (REGION) option. then Create/Edit Aquifer Regions dialog will pop up for you to select the aquifer blocks. Otherwise. you will see the Aquifer Property dialog right away.Adding an aquifer To add an aquifer. 104 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . click on the right arrow button next to the name combo box and select New Aquifer to show the Select Aquifer Location dialog.

Deleting an Aquifer Initially. the first aquifer in the name list box is selected and the aquifer blocks are highlighted in the reservoir view with magenta color. select the aquifer from the Name list. The selected aquifer blocks will be shown in the Aquifer Regions list. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 105 . If you click Modify button. Then click on the right arrow button next to the name list and select Delete Aquifer.Use the mouse to select the desired aquifer blocks in the reservoir view and then click one of the options in the For each selected block in view frame. Select proper flux direction. To delete an aquifer. Repeat the same process to select more aquifer blocks for this aquifer. the following dialog appears to allow you to change the aquifer block range. Aquifer Influence Function Click Edit/View in the Define dimensionless pressure influence function frame or select Carter-Tracy (limited extent) from the Modelling Method combo box to show the Aquifer Pressure influence Function dialog. A number of preset tables have been built into the dialog and may be selected. You can delete or modify any aquifer region by selecting it from the list and the click Delete or Modify button. Click Add selected blocks to aquifer button. when opening the Aquifer Properties dialog.

you can add additional wells or modify the computed completion locations. Wells in Map Data When Builder completes an interpolation.If you enter your own table. Any combination of these may be used. Give the X.Z well trajectory and perforation depth information and have Builder determine which grid blocks contain perforation intervals 3. Locating and Adding Wells in the Simulation Grid There are three ways of specifying or determining the grid blocks in which wells are completed: 1. After the interpolation is completed. These well locations will be automatically displayed after the interpolation is complete. the values in each column must be in increasing order.Y. A detailed description of how to locate well completions in the simulation grid is given in the Well and Recurrent Data section.Y well locations on the contour or mesh maps used for interpolation 2. 106 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . any wells located on the contour map or mesh map within the boundaries of the grid are created and their completion locations are computed. Import X. Manually specify the grid blocks for a well. Below is a quick overview.

To create simulation model wells (i. Click on any of the well PERF items on the tree view to see the well bore diagram for that well and date. If the well is located in a fundamental grid block that contains a hybrid-refined grid. You can also view the entire wellbore diagram. the well is located in the center of the refined grid. or zoom in on the part of the diagram that intersects the reservoir User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 107 . you must specify the perforation interval along the trajectories. The Wellbore Diagram To display a wellbore diagram for a well. the *PERF keywords). and can determine which grid blocks contain part of a well trajectory perforation. The chapter “Importing geological and well trajectory data” describes the file formats supported by Builder. The Properties… item on the context menu will pop up a dialog box controlling how the well bore diagram is drawn. For this reason. The Well Trajectories section of the Well and Recurrent Data chapter of this manual gives more details on loading trajectories and using them to create well completions for the simulator data. select Open Well Bore Diagram. click on the Well & Recurrent button. move the mouse cursor over the diagram and right click to pop up a context menu. Manually Adding or Modifying Well Completions You can input specific grid blocks for a well completion – a description of this is given in the Well Completions section of the Well and Recurrent Data chapter. From the Well menu.. GEM or IMEX User’s Manuals. Opening a 3D Well Trajectory File and Adding Well Completions After creating and interpolating structural properties of a grid. Builder will display the well trajectories over the simulation grid that you have created. Builder assumes that the well is at the center of the grid block for the well index calculation. it is often convenient to put the well location information in the maps used for Grid Thickness calculations. Once you are viewing a well bore diagram. There are a number of controls for the layout of the well bore diagram. and expand the list of wells in the tree view.If a well is located in a fundamental (coarse) grid block. Well location information does not need to be in all maps used for interpolation but should be in at least one map used in each simulation layer. you may open a well trajectory file and have Builder determine which grid blocks are intersected by perforated well trajectory segments. After reading a 3D well trajectory file. If the well is located in a fundamental grid block that contains a Cartesian refined grid. the well is located at the center of the refined block containing the map well location. For information about calculating well indices.e. see the STARS.

Rock Compaction/Dilation Regions (IMEX and GEM Only) For IMEX and GEM. you may edit.. 108 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . copying and deleting regions. Alternatively. add. the dialog can be accessed directly from the main tree view for the reservoir section by double clicking on Compaction/Dilation Regions. The dialog also displays a drop-down list of existing regions together with a button for adding. or delete rock compaction/dilation regions from a single dialog via the main menu by selecting Reservoir→Create/Edit Compaction/Dilation Regions…. The “Compaction/Dilation” dialog displays data for a specified compaction/dilation region. This dialog allows you to build and edit a set of different regions and their related information.

changes are not permanently written to the data file until you select OK or APPLY.Selecting Compaction/Dilation Regions From the drop down list. select a particular region to edit. Alternatively. The data displayed in the dialog is updated according to the region selected from the list. Data from the currently displayed region can be copied to the new region by selecting the menu option Copy Current Region. Removing Compaction/Dilation Regions An existing region can be deleted by first selecting the desired region from the drop down list. Adding a New Compaction/Dilation Region A new region may be added to the list of available regions by clicking on the button next to the “Rock Compaction Region:” drop-list and selecting from a drop down menu. The region will be removed from the drop down list. The information for the region will be displayed on the dialog. an uninitialized new region can be created by selecting the menu option New Region. When editing a particular rock type. Then click on the button and select Delete Region from the drop down menu. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 109 .

When deleting regions please review the properties this change may impact to make sure that values are properly entered.) For the above reason. Compaction/Dilation Tables When you choose to define your region with compaction or dilation tables. For example if there are three regions (Region 1. and delete tables accordingly. edit.As each region is removed the remaining regions are renamed so that the region numbers are sequential. only particular table definitions may follow in sequence. A drop down list can be used to select which table will be displayed at any given time. This leaves a list of two regions (Region 1 and Region 2. Therefore the dialog will prevent you from defining the wrong table type at any step. the “Compaction/Dilation” dialog will allow you to add. For the Dilation model. deleting a region might affect other properties. 110 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Adding a New Compaction/Dilation Table A new table may be added to the list of available tables by clicking on the button next to the “Compaction Table:” (or “Dilation Table:”) drop-list and selecting from a drop down menu. Region 2 & Region 3) and Region 2 is deleted then Region 3 is renamed to Region 2.

Other Reservoir Properties (STARS Only) STARS “Other Reservoir Properties” can be accessed from the main menu by selecting Reservoir→Other Reservoir Properties….Removing Compaction/Dilation Tables Only the last table in the list can be deleted. Please refer to the appropriate section of the simulator manual to review these requirements. click on the button and select Delete Last Table from the drop down menu. To delete the last table in the sequence. this is to preserve the integrity of specific data requirements for successive tables. this is also to preserve the permitted order of allowed tables in sequence. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 111 . the dialog can be accessed directly from the main tree view for the reservoir section by double clicking on Thermal Rock Types. For the Compaction model. Alternatively. For the Dilation model. The table will be removed from the drop down list.

you may encounter messages warning that continuing on the current course of action may result in some data being deleted. an uninitialized new rock type can be created by selecting the menu option New Thermal Rock Type.The “Other Reservoir Properties” dialog will hold a set of 6 tabs and a drop-down list of the different rock types together with a menu button for adding. The information for the given rock type will be displayed on the interfaces found on the 6 tabs. This dialog allows you to build and edit a set of different rock types and their related information. any changes made in the interface will immediately update the current working data set. Each rock type and its related information is entered through the 6 tabs: Rock Compressibility Thermal Properties Overburden Heat Loss Dilation Recompaction Compaction Rebounding Variable Permeability General Editing of a Rock Type From the drop down list. in order to understand the implications of your choice. 112 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . While editing a given rock type. Adding a New Rock Type A new rock type may be added to the list of available rock types by clicking on the button and selecting from a drop down menu. Further details will be given below. The data displayed in the 6 tabs is updated according to the rock type selected from the list. It is important that you read these messages carefully. and deleting rock types. When editing a given rock type. Data from the currently displayed rock type can be copied to the new rock type by selecting the menu option Copy Current Thermal Rock Type. However these changes are not permanently written to the data file until you select OK or APPLY. Alternatively. select a given rock type to edit. copying.

Then click on the drop down menu. For example if there are three rock types (RockType 1. deleting a region might affect other properties. As each rock type is removed the remaining rock types are renamed so that the rock type numbers are sequential. When deleting regions please review the properties this change may impact to make sure that values are properly entered. The last remaining rock type cannot be deleted. RockType 2 & RockType 3) and RockType 2 is deleted. since the simulator requires a minimum of one rock type defined for the dataset. The rock type will be removed from the drop down list. then RockType 3 is renamed to RockType 2. This leaves a list of two rock types (RockType 1 and RockType 2.) For the above reason. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 113 .Removing a Rock Type An existing rock type can be deleted by first selecting the desired rock type from the drop button and select Delete Thermal Rock Type from the down list.

This section corresponds to the Other Reservoir Properties/Rock Compressibility section found in STARS’ User’s Guide. Setting Thermal Properties for the Rock Type The tab “Thermal Properties” allows you to enter the values for: • • • Volumetric Heat Capacity T-dependent coefficient of the volumetric Heat Capacity Thermal Conductivity of Reservoir rock 114 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder .Entering Rock Compressibility The tab “Rock Compressibility” allows you to enter the values for: • • • • • • • Porosity Reference Pressure Formation Compressibility Thermal Expansion Coefficient Lower Reference Pressure Higher Reference Pressure Compressibility Near Higher Reference Pressure Maximum Porosity Fractional Increase.

In this tab you may enter the thermal conductivity data either using the five fields shown above (i. Any thermal conductivity data entered in the five fields above will be ignored if you choose to use the temperature dependent table for thermal conductivity. The modified tab interface to enter the temperature dependent table for thermal conductivity is shown below. Oil Phase.• • • • • • Thermal Conductivity of the Solid Phase Thermal Conductivity of the Water Phase Thermal Conductivity of the Oil Phase Thermal Conductivity of the Gas Phase Temperature dependent table for Thermal conductivity Thermal Conductivity Phase Mixing – SIMPLE | COMPLEX | TEMPER This section corresponds to the Other Reservoir Properties/Rock Thermal Properties section found in STARS’ User’s Guide. the five fields for entering thermal conductivity data will be replaced by a button that will permit table data to be entered. On selecting the checkbox. Water Phase.e. For the temperature dependent table only the SIMPLE or COMPLEX thermal conductivity phase mixing can be used. Reservoir Rock. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 115 . To select the temperature dependent table for thermal conductivity the checkbox must be checked. Gas Phase and Solid Phase) or a temperature dependent table.

you must click the button labeled “T-Dependent Table”. To access the actual form where the table values are entered. If you choose to continue then the previous interface will reappear. Note that the column for entering thermal conductivity of the solid phase is optional. 116 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . Once the button is pressed a window appears (see below) for entering table data.Deselecting the check-box will prompt a message warning you that any data entered in the table will be deleted.

Entering Overburden Heat Loss Parameters The tab “Overburden Heat Loss” allows you to enter the values for the semi-analytical infinite-overburden heat loss model. Heat loss properties to the outer grid block faces in the indicated direction. Note: The heat loss properties include the values for: • • This section corresponds to the Other Reservoir Properties/Overburden Heat Loss section found in STARS’ User’s Guide. The values included are: • • • • • Overburden heat loss properties to the outer grid block faces at the top of the reservoir. adjacent to the reservoir in the indicated direction. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 117 . used by the heat loss calculation. Minimum temperature difference needed between block temperature and thf to start heat loss calculation. The “volumetric heat capacity” of formation. adjacent to the reservoir in the indicated direction and The “thermal conductivity” of formation. Initial temperature of formation adjacent to the reservoir. Underburden heat loss properties to the outer grid block faces at the bottom of the reservoir.

Specifying Dilation Recompaction The tab “Dilation Recompaction” allows you to enter the values for: • • • • • • Reference Pressure Dilation Rock Compressibility Residual Dilation Fraction. J and K directions. A warning message will also appear notifying you that any values entered for overburden and underburden will be deleted. a similar message is displayed. Due to this requirement you may choose the variables you wish to use by selecting or deselecting the checkbox labeled “Use Heat Loss Properties in I. This section corresponds to the Other Reservoir Properties/Reservoir Dilation-Recompaction section found in STARS’ User’s Guide. applied individually to each block's base porosity.. 118 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . J and K directions”. Start Dilation – pressure at which dilation begins. Maximum allowed proportional increase in porosity. Start Recompaction – pressure at which recompaction begins. i.In this interface you may enter the “Volumetric Heat Capacity” and “Thermal Conductivity” by using either overburden and underburden or heat loss properties in the I. J and K directions will be deleted.e. J and K directions but not both. warning you that the data for the heat loss properties in the I. When deselecting a checkbox. If the checkbox is selected then the button labeled “Directional Heat Loss” is enabled. the fraction of total dilation not recovered on recompaction. Clicking this button will display the interface for entering the values for the heat loss properties in the I.

A similar message is displayed when the check-box is unchecked.By selecting the check-box to enable Dilation-Recompaction any data entered in Tab 3 “Compaction Rebounding” or Tab 6 “Variable Permeability” will be removed. a) Dilation Recompaction. b) Compaction Rebounding or c) Variable Permeability. (Further details can be found in the STARS manual). This is because each rock type can only have data for only one of the three tabs. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 119 . The warning message allows you to continue (Yes) or cancel (No). warning you that any data entered into this tab will be deleted. Before any data is deleted a message is displayed to warn you of the possible consequences.

Before any data is deleted a message is displayed to warn you of the possible consequences. This is because each rock type can only have data for only one of the three tabs. By selecting the check-box to enable “Elastic-Plastic Compaction-Rebounding Model” any data entered in Tab 2 “Dilation Recompaction” or Tab 6“Variable Permeability” will be removed. (Further details can be found in the STARS manual). warning you that any data entered into this tab will be deleted. a) Dilation Recompaction. A similar message is displayed when the check-box is unchecked.Specifying Compaction Rebounding The third tab “Compaction Rebounding” allows you to enable the compaction-rebounding model and enter the values for: • • Rock compressibility for plastic compaction. b) Compaction Rebounding or c) Variable Permeability. 120 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . This section corresponds to the Other Reservoir Properties/Reservoir Compaction Rebounding section found in STARS’ User’s Guide. The warning message allows you to continue (Yes) or cancel (No). Threshold pressure at which plastic compaction begins.

This section corresponds to the Other Reservoir Properties/Variable Permeability section found in STARS’ User’s Guide. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 121 . Permeability is a function of porosity via a permeability multiplier obtained from the exponent of a table look-up. but without the complex void porosity model. Permeability is a function of porosity via a permeability multiplier obtained from table look-up. Permeability will be a function of porosity via the Carmen-Kozeny type formula. The options and values you may modify are: • • • • Permeability is a function of porosity the same as in the dilation-recompaction option.Specifying Variable Permeability The sixth tab “Variable Permeability” allows you to specify the dependence of permeability on porosity.

Before any data is deleted a message is displayed warn you of the possible consequences. This is because each rock type can only have data for only one of the three tabs.e. The IMEX Grid Option dialog allows you to turn on-off the reference porosity option (IMEX and GEM only) and extra block connection option for a dual porosity and/or permeability system (IMEX only). a) Dilation Recompaction. “Variable Permeability”) any data entered in “Dilation Recompaction” or “Compaction Rebounding” will be removed. The warning message allows you to continue (Yes) or cancel (No).By selecting one of the option from this tab (i. (Further details can be found in the STARS manual). b) Compaction Rebounding or c) Variable Permeability. The dialog looks: 122 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . By selecting one of the last two options a button will be enabled which when clicked will bring up the interface to enter tabular data for permeability as a function of porosity via a permeability multiplier obtained from table look-up or from the exponent of a table look-up. Reservoir Options (IMEX and GEM Only) IMEX “Reservoir Options” can be accessed from the main tree view for the reservoir section by double clicking on Options.

While we may not know the exact sequence of events that any reservoir may have gone through. It is usually accepted that where curvature exists. In Builder. It is the result of calculation of the second derivative (the amount of change in the slope of the surface structure values) of a point (centroid of the block top) on the surface and another point in a pre-determined distance. For example. This curvature analysis feature calculates and displays the curvature property in each I and J direction for each layer using the structure top property for each layer. This pre-determined distance is defined as the Curvature Level. it is possible to evaluate the present day structure in detail and use this information to estimate fracture presence.Curvature Analysis To achieve fracture characterization for a reservoir one must consider various parameters. Curvature is a unitless parameter which has relative values. We can conclude that smaller curvature levels would result in smaller and finer curvature changes and bigger curvature levels would result in bigger structural changes in the curvature map displays. one of which is the kinematic history of the reservoir. the curvature calculation is valid for corner point grids only. the fractures can exist. It is available under the Tools menu. The reverse is not true. that is. a Curvature level of 2000 ft means that the Curvature calculations are carried out between a point on the surface and other points which are 2000 ft far away from that point. User's Guide Builder Reservoir Description • 123 . areas with no curvature may still contain fractures.

If a curvature level is entered by the user that is larger than the entire span of the grid. The directions of maximum and minimum stress are calculated from the grid orientation if the option “Use grid orientation for direction of max stress” is checked. Negative curvature values are generally thought to be compressive. a multiplication factor should be applied to the curvature property in both directions to directly calculate fracture permeability that can be used in the simulator. the use of this option is not recommended as normally the grid should be constructed in a way so that it is oriented along the direction of maximum stress so that permeability anisotropy can be modeled correctly. and therefore do not contribute to increased fracture permeability.If a curvature level is entered by the user that is less than a grid block length. The curvature calculations in the two directions assure that the fracture permeability anisotropy can be accounted for. Other types of data such as well tests. Therefore. only positive curvature values should be used for calculation of fracture properties. then the user can enter the direction of the maximum stress. Even though the absolute scale of the fracture permeability cannot be determined with this method. FMI logs. the permeability modifier distribution in two directions can be evaluated. and/or rock fracturability can be used in combination with curvature to determine fracture properties. 124 • Reservoir Description User's Guide Builder . then the curvature level is set to be the span of the entire grid. and this direction will be used for the entire grid. This multiplication factor should be considered a history matching variable. production logs. then the grid block length is used as the curvature level and the curvature calculation will be done from block to block neighbor. If this option is unchecked. The usage of the curvature calculation has one clear advantage over methods that use properties measured in a well in that the fracture properties can be estimated in areas where no well control exists. Therefore. The only input required is the structure top. However.

Fluid Model . Generate water properties using correlations Create and edit tables of undersaturated data (VOT. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . A list of the valid unit strings is available in “Units and Unit Strings” later in the manual.IMEX Overview Using Builder you can: Set or change the fluid component model Create a “quick” BLACKOIL or GASWATER model using correlations Import a fluid component model created using CMGL’s PVT/phase behaviour application WinProp Launch WinProp with the current component data in Builder Create and edit multiple PVT regions Create and edit PVT tables Set and edit PVT Region properties like fluid densities. Tables have to be entered in the units. Please refer to “Viewing and editing tabular data” in “Changing Display Content and Settings”. Note: There is no automatic conversion of tables. You can enter property values in any valid units. Builder will convert the value to the current units and display the converted value and unit strings. fluid model data can also be viewed and edited interactively in the plot view.IMEX • 125 . water properties. BOT tables) View and edit comments for individual data items Viewing and Editing Data Apart from the usual dialogs. etc. COT.

The quick model options will create all the fluid model data required by IMEX. Creating Quick Models The dialogs for BlackOil and GasWater models are similar to the above. double click the MODEL node. The Option to create a QUICK model dialog opens. etc. In the main tree view. Enter oil density as directly or as API or gravity. However.IMEX User's Guide Builder . here you have an option to select any one of the models available in IMEX. Enter gas density directly or as gravity. densities. or Select Component→Quick fluid model… menu item. You can enter bubble point pressure directly or let program calculate from GOR. leaving it to you to create other data like PVT table. or Select Component→Model… menu item.Creating a New Fluid Model To create a model. 126 • Fluid Model . The detailed dialog will simply set the model.

etc. densities. This will enable a drop down box in the cell. Select the model and click Apply.Using the Detailed Fluid Model Dialog Click in the Value cell of the Model row. Builder will read the file and create the model.IMEX • 127 . Importing a WinProp Generated Model Select Component→Import WinProp generated model… and specify the WinProp generated file (generally with extension imx). You can also select the same menu from the main tree view context menu: User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . You can then go directly to the IMEX PVT Regions dialog to add other data (PVT table.) or quit.

One PVT region is always defined. To delete the current region. Working With Multiple PVT Regions The data for each PVT region is entered in the Imex PVT Regions dialog. click on the PVT Region menu. 128 • Fluid Model . select the Copy current PVT Region menu. General and the Undersaturated Data tabs will always be there.Changing an Existing Model Launch the Model dialog either by double-clicking the MODEL node in the main tree-view or selecting Components→Model… menu.IMEX User's Guide Builder . select Delete current PVT Region menu. The number of tabs may change depending on the fluid model. It may also display a list of the required data that need to be entered. You can also change an existing model by importing a WinProp generated model as described earlier. The PVT Table. Select the new model in the Value cell of the Model row. Builder may display a list of the data in the existing model that will be deleted if you proceed with the new model. The current PVT region number is displayed in the PVT Region drop down box which lists all the regions currently defined. This dialog has several tabs. To copy existing region. This menu will be disabled if there is only one PVT region. Depending on the existing model. To create a new PVT button next to the PVT Region drop down box and select Add a region.

enter the pressure value which you want use for interpolating/extrapolating other columns. You can extrapolate and interpolate the IMEX PVT table one row at a time. Edit differential liberation table parameters – bubble point pressure. Perform the following operations using the tools (click the • • • • • button): Replace existing table by generating a new table using correlations. Editing a Table Simply type in to edit values in the table. Builder will convert the values and re-display. If you type in with a unit string. Add a row to the table. Generate a new BlackOil or GasWater type table using correlations. and then select the Interpolate Values or Extrapolate Values menu items. Shift the entire table from one temperature to another. Copy and paste from a spreadsheet program. You can launch the dialog by left double-clicking on the PVT Table node of the main tree view or by selecting Components→Add/Edit PVT table… menu. this tab is called Gas PVT Table (API). Change an entire column after fixing a value in a column (and optionally the pressure). Set how the gas column is displayed – Gas expansion factor. Builder will convert the values and re-display. Fix negative total hydrocarbon compressibility (a check made by IMEX when it reads in a file). Copy and paste from a spreadsheet program. Creating a New Table Enter values in a new table in the following manner: Type in the values. Use the button to edit or enter comments for the PVT table.IMEX • 129 .Creating/Editing PVT Tables The PVT table is located on the PVT Table tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog. Enter comments for individual rows of the table in the Comments column. oil formation volume factor and solution GOR. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . You can also do the following: Add or delete the compressibility and/or interfacial tension columns in the table. For APIINT and API-INTOW models. If you type in with a unit string. Gas formation volume factor or Gas compressibility factor.

Enter the missing values on the dialog. enter an initial GOR value which is used by Builder to calculate the initial bubble point. It will also offer to set or replace the bubble point pressure for all the grid blocks in the PVT Region to the value calculated. Select the Generate PVT Table using correlations… menu. check the Set/update values of reservoir… check box at the bottom before clicking on the Apply or Ok button. compressibility.Generating a PVT Table Using Correlations You can generate a PVT table for BlackOil and GasWater type of models using correlations. If you would like Builder to automatically enter or replace the values for reservoir temperature and density.IMEX User's Guide Builder . oil viscosity and gas critical properties. Alternatively. If the value for bubble point is available. You can change the value displayed. Select correlations for computing the oil properties. its maximum value is entered automatically in the Bubble point pressure calculation value box. Click on the button on the PVT Table tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog. 130 • Fluid Model . Builder will offer to include computed oil compressibility values in the generated table. When Builder finishes the calculations.

Builder will always display the unit strings in the boxes. Comments for each data item in the grid is displayed and edited in the text window at the bottom of the dialog.IMEX • 131 User's Guide Builder .D.. If you do not enter a required item. For oil density three options are available: mass density.The black oil and related properties for Imex are generally carried out using the well-known correlations reviewed by McCain (McCain. For the quick PVT generation feature. W.State of the Art". You need not enter unit strings if the values are already in the correct units. Builder will point that out when you click Apply or OK. The gas viscosity is calculated using the Lee-Gonzalez correlation. For gas. SPE Reservoir Engineering (May 1991)) and the SPE monograph on Phase Behaviour. The actual calculations depend on the choices made by the on the detailed dialog. "Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations . Jr. Entering Other PVT Region Properties These are entered on the General tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog. you can enter as density or gravity. gravity or API gravity. Not all data are required. Fluid Model . The compressibility factor (z-factor) calculation for gas uses the Standing-Katz correlation. most of the correlations default to those by Standing and co-authors.

IMEX User's Guide Builder . Entering Undersaturated Data These are entered on the Undersaturated Data tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog. 132 • Fluid Model .Generating Water Properties Using Correlations To generate water properties using correlations. button and select Enter the data and click Apply or OK. click on the Generate water properties using correlations… menu. You can set or replace the reservoir temperature and/or reference pressure values by checking the Set/update values of TRES… check box at the bottom.

User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Enter the solvent properties and its PVT table on the Solvent tab of the Model dialog which can be launched by left double-clicking the Solvent PVT Table (PVTS) node on the main tree view or by selecting Components→Model menu.Depending on the fluid model. Bg. Oil compressibility as a function of pressure (COT table) 2. copy or delete tables.IMEX • 133 . Oil formation volume factor (Bo) above the bubble point as a function of pressure (BOT table) 3. you can work with the following tables on this tab: 1. Zg table 5. Condensate model – Undersaturated Eg. Condensate model – Undersaturated gas viscosity table Use the appropriate buttons to add. Oil viscosity above the bubble point as a function of pressure (VOT table) 4. Entering Data for the Pseudo-miscible Option Enter the PVT table for the hydrocarbons on the PVT Table tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog.

IMEX User's Guide Builder . Enter the oil PVT tables at different oil phase density values on the Oil PVT Table (API) tab. 134 • Fluid Model . Enter the polymer properties. and polymer viscosity table on the Polymer tab of the Model dialog which can be launched by left double-clicking the polymer related nodes on the main tree view or by selecting Components→Model menu.Entering Data for the Polymer Option Enter the PVT table for the hydrocarbons on the PVT Table tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog. Entering Data for the API Tracking Option The gas PVT table for the API model is located on the first tab of the Imex PVT Regions dialog. polymer adsorption and permeability tables.

IMEX • 135 . you can import it back into Builder as explained earlier. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Select the Components→Launch WinProp to edit/generate model menu. You can also select the same menu from the main tree view context menu: After you have worked with the model in WinProp.The oil tables must be entered in the order of decreasing oil density at STC. Launching WinProp With Current Fluid Model Data You can launch WinProp with the current fluid model data so that you work with the model in WinProp.

136 • Fluid Model . Data Validation Builder automatically performs validation of the data when the following occur: You read in a dataset You add or modify data in the fluid model You can also force validation by selecting the Validate menu from the main tree view context menu.IMEX User's Guide Builder .Displaying Component Properties Partial Dataset You can view the Component Properties section data in keyword format by selecting the Display dataset for section… menu from the main tree view context menu.

GEM • 137 . Library and User Components The syntax for GEM fluid model allows you to distinguish between a library component and a user component. Or you can launch the Model dialog and click the Import… button. reservoir temperature and water properties Create Equation of State sets Create components and specify • • • • Pure component properties Interaction coefficients Viscosity of components Aqueous phase solubilities Import fluid model data generated using WinProp Launch WinProp with the current fluid model data Builder will read and validate fluid model data in a dataset. In view of the above. Builder will write out the component section with all the components specified as user components. To launch the Model dialog select Components Model…. all the user interfaces for the GEM fluid model in Builder are designed for user components only. Or you can launch the Model dialog and click the Create… button. select Components→Import WinProp-generated model… and specify the file. You can subsequently add grid and well data to complete the dataset. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . select Components→Launch WinProp to edit/generate model…. To export the current data to WinProp.Alternatively. double click the MODEL node in the tree view to launch the Model dialog. You can use the Quick CBM Setup to quickly create partial data required for Coal Bed Methane simulation. When Builder reads a dataset.GEM Overview You can use Builder to: Specify a model. If you save the dataset. it converts all the library components to user components by bringing in the pure component data. To import model from a WinProp file.Fluid Model .

To launch the dialog. edit or delete an Equation of State. Left double-click any node to bring up the dialog. click the Components button on the main tree view. select Components→Add/edit components… menu. Alternatively. The Add an EOS Set works like the Copy current EOSSet except when none is defined. Use the button to edit or enter comments for MODEL keyword.Specifying a Fluid Model Launch the Model dialog. Use the button next to the EOS set: drop down box to add. If no model has been specified. 138 • Fluid Model . select the corresponding radio button. Before you can add components. if components have already been defined. Adding/Editing an Equation of State Use the Component Properties dialog to add. To specify or change the model. an EOSSet has to be created. the Not set option will be selected. copy or delete an equation of state.GEM User's Guide Builder . Adding/Editing Components The component definition appears on the Component definition tab of the Component properties dialog.

The Component definition tab displays the component/phase table along with pure component properties.GEM • 139 . User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Adding/Editing a Component Click the Add/Edit component button to bring up the Add/edit component dialog.

To add a component from the library. You can edit the properties in the dialog.GEM User's Guide Builder . Some of the properties. which are not required in GEM. On exit. click on the Select from library list button. use the button next to the Component name drop down box in the Add/edit component dialog and select Add a Component item from the pop-up menu. are displayed as read-only values. You can select multiple components from the list. Enter the name of the component in the Input Name dialog. Builder will read from the library all the available properties and display the first selected property in the Add/edit component dialog. To add a non-library component. 140 • Fluid Model .

check the This is a hydrocarbon component (HCFLAG) check-box. select the set in the Properties for EOS Set: drop down box. Uncheck the box to specify a non-hydrocarbon. To change the properties of a component for a particular EOS Set. Click on the button to pop up the View/Edit Comments dialog. You can also change the name of an existing component by selecting the Change Name of Current Component item from the pop-up menu. Builder will ask you for a name for the new component. change the properties and then Apply. Deleting a Component Select the row corresponding to the component in the grid on the Component definition tab of the Component Properties dialog and then click Delete Component button. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Adding/Editing Comments Select the column (click in any cell in the column) in the grid on the Component definition tab of the Component Properties dialog corresponding to the property for which you want to add/edit comments.You can select Copy Current Component from the pop-up menu to copy the currently displayed component in the Add/edit component dialog.GEM • 141 . To specify a component as a hydrocarbon. Entering Binary Interaction Coefficients You can add/edit the coefficients on the Interaction parameters tab of the Component Properties dialog.

Select the desired EOS Set from the EOS Set drop down box at the top of the dialog. Coefficients can be set individually for EOS sets. Select the desired EOS Set from the EOS Set drop down box at the top of the dialog. 142 • Fluid Model . To apply the default method. GEM uses the default value of 0. To override the default global method. Entering Viscosity Data Enter the viscosity data on the Viscosity tab of the Component Properties dialog.GEM User's Guide Builder . If you do not specify a value for PVC3. To specify interaction coefficients for a hydrocarbon pair. at least one of the pair should be a non-hydrocarbon.0 (zero). Adding/Editing Comments Use the button to add or edit comments for the BIN and the PVC3 keywords. check the Apply a global method (if… check box and select the desired method from the Method for computing phase viscosity drop down box. Viscosity data can be specified individually for EOS sets. uncheck the box.The interaction coefficients for each pair of hydrocarbon components are overwritten in GEM by the value of PVC3.

Use the Option for calculating gas solubility in aqueous phase: drop down box to specify computation method. Select the desired EOS Set from the EOS Set drop down box at the top of the dialog. Entering Aqueous Phase Solubility Solubility data are entered on the Aq.GEM • 143 . User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Check the Enter aqueous phase solubility data (SOLUBILITY)… check box to enter the data. Viscosity data can be specified individually for EOS sets. Phase solubility tab of the Component Properties dialog. Entering Single Phase Fluid & Gas Diffusivity Identification of single phase fluid and gas diffusivity are entered on the Miscellaneous tab of the Component Properties dialog. Uncheck if all the components are insoluble in water.Adding/Editing Comments Use the button to add or edit comments for the various keywords associated with viscosity data.

GEM .Entering Reservoir Temperature Use the Reservoir Temperature tab on the Model dialog to enter either a constant value or a gradient for reservoir temperature. User's Guide Builder 144 • Fluid Model . Use the button to enter comments for TRES.

Entering Water Properties The water properties are entered on the Water Properties tab of the Component Properties dialog. rock-fluid and initial conditions sections.GEM • 145 . “Quick” Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Setup Builder provides an interface to quickly create data required for fluid. Data Validation Builder automatically performs validation of the data when the following occur: You read in a dataset You add or modify data in the fluid model You can also force validation by selecting the Validate menu from the main tree view context menu. Select the row (click in any cell in the row) in the grid on the Water Properties tab corresponding to the property for which you want to add/edit comments. Displaying Component Properties Partial Dataset You can view the Component Properties section data in keyword format by selecting the Display dataset for section… menu from the main tree view context menu. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Click on the button to pop up the View/Edit Comments dialog.

If they are not defined. In addition. DKFRAC (Matrix only) - - In addition. modify them outside the CBM interface Due to the above characteristics. 146 • Fluid Model .This feature has been enhanced in the 2007 version. button at the top of the dialog. of course. whole grid only): • • • • PERMI. Before you access this feature. depending on the type of region you want to specify the Langmuir curves for. The enhanced feature gives more control to the user in terms of specifying the data: You can now specify separate curves for different regions of the reservoir: • • • Sectors Compaction/dilation regions Rock-fluid regions You can now also work with *VERTICAL *BLOCK_CENTER *WATER_GAS and *VERTICAL *DEPTH_AVE *WATER_GAS options for initializing the reservoir You can specify the following properties in the CBM interface itself (Matrix and Fracture.GEM User's Guide Builder . The following table summarizes the required properties. If you are opening up an existing dataset containing CBM data and if you had previously worked in the advanced mode. To access the advanced method. DJFRAC. click the Advanced CBM modeling. the wizard gives you a chance to define them before launching the dialog where you can input the Langmuir model parameters.. Builder will automatically put you in the advanced mode.. the feature was a "Quick" method. PERMJ and PERMK POR SW DIFRAC. you can also specify the following Fracture properties if you are working with *USER_INPUT initialization scheme and multiple regions: • • ZGLOBALC PRES NOTE: The "Quick" method is still available and in fact that is the view presented to you first. If you are in the advanced mode you can still work in the "Quick" mode by selecting the options that corresponds to the "Quick" method. other properties must be defined. create or import the simulation grid. In the previous releases: One Langmuir curve for each component was applied to the whole reservoir Only two initialization schemes were handled: *USER_INPUT and *VERTICAL *BLOCK_CENTER *COMP Most of the data were added to the dataset by Builder. You could.

You can create these from within the wizard (graphical input of the member blocks is not enabled). Also. There is no provision to create the relative permeability curves from within the wizard. Also. you could launch the dialog to create them from within the wizard. Rock-fluid Relative permeability curves (*RPT. Refer the GEM manual. Compaction/dilation Compaction Rock tables (*CROCKTYPE) and related properties. You will also need to create or import the well data to complete the model. etc.GEM • 147 . If you have not already created these tables.). an array assigning the tables to grid blocks (*CTYPE) is required. If you decline. select Components→Quick CBM setup… menu item. Builder will offer to convert to a dual porosity model. To launch the quick CBM setup. Select the names of the library components.Region Sectors Required properties and comments Sectors. the feature would end there since CBM requires fracture data. New Case If you started off with a single-porosity model. This can be created from within the wizard (constant values only for each k-layer). *SWT. The Select Components dialog appears. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . an array assigning the curves to grid blocks (*RTYPE) is required. This can be created from within the wizard (constant values only for each k-layer).

The Select region type dialog will come up: For "Quick" method accept the default setting. Click Next to launch the Coal bed methane model data dialog. Select a scheme and then click Next. Otherwise make a selection from the list of options.GEM User's Guide Builder . you now have more options to select from. the Select reservoir initialization option dialog appears: As indicated earlier.If you have not already specified how the initial reservoir conditions are to be determined (in the Initial Conditions section). 148 • Fluid Model .

You can also enter Palmer-Mansoori parameters using the Compaction/Dilation dialog. click the Set RTYPE Array button.. This is because the initial reservoir pressure (*PRES) and global composition (*ZGLOBALC) for both Matrix and Fracture spatial property arrays are required with *USER_INPUT. If you have not created the *CTYPE array or want to modify them. click the Create/Edit Sectors. you cannot proceed. If you have specified *USER_INPUT as the initialization scheme and have not specified a single sector for the Fracture blocks. With Compaction/dilation tables or with multiple relative permeability curves. create the curves and then come back. button (this brings up the Compaction/Dilation dialog). the following dialog which is almost identical to the one in the previous versions pops up: User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . If you have not created compaction/dilation data (or want to edit them) and want to proceed with multiple rock compressibility regions.. it is recommended that you also specify *CTYPE or *RTYPE for fracture blocks.. Note that the Sectors dialog lets you create sectors for the Matrix and Fracture blocks simultaneously. button which will launch the Add/Edit/Delete a Sector dialog. If you have not specified any relative permeability curves and want to select the option for multiple relative permeability options. If you are using the "Quick" method.GEM • 149 . You will have to exit the wizard (click Cancel). If you have not created the *RTYPE array or want to modify them.. Builder will prompt you to add one or more sectors for the Fracture blocks.If you are working with Sectors and have not defined any sectors or want to add/delete sectors. you can create them by clicking the Create/Edit Compaction Regions. click the Set CTYPE Array button.

You could select one of the following units to enter gas content: SCF/ton. m3/kg. Initial gas content. 150 • Fluid Model . The rest of the data are optional – Builder may enter values for some of these optional data. ft3/lb. coal density and coal compressibility. Langmuir pressure. Initial reservoir pressure. Initial gas composition. Enter either Coal desorption time or diffusion coefficient. porosity and water saturation. this is the last step in the wizard. SCF/long-ton. permeability in I. If you are using *USER_INPUT initialization scheme with the "Quick" method. Permeability and porosity fields will be filled in by suggested values since they are required properties. The Standard pressure and Standard temperature are required for converting the gas content to mole-basis (GEM requires these data in mass/g mole units). A value for reservoir pressure is required. J and K directions. Builder will launch the Set constant values for spatial properties dialog: You can specify constant values for the fracture spacing. Otherwise the Finish button in the above dialog is replaced by the Next button. cm3/g and m3/tonne. Builder displays the pure component Langmuir curves in the plot view.GEM User's Guide Builder . It also displays the equilibrium pressure calculated from the curve and the Initial gas content for each component.Enter values for Maximum gas content. When you click on the OK button.

Builder will bring up Set/edit initial reservoir conditions dialog: Click the Set/Edit Initial Conditions Parameters. When you come back to the CBM wizard click on the Finish button to exit the wizard. *ROCKDEN. *ADGMAXC.. Builder will create a number of data objects that are required by GEM (please refer to the GEM manual for keyword descriptions in the following): • • • • • • • Components Water properties (if you entered them). J and K directions.. button to launch the Initial Conditions dialog.When you click on the Next button.GEM • 151 . *COAL-DIF-TIME or *COAL-DIFCOMP Two rock types with permeability tables (Rock Fluid section) unless they were already specified *PRES and *ZGLOBALC arrays for matrix and fracture (Initial Conditions) if you selected *USER_INPUT Fracture spacing and permeability in the I. *TRES (Component Properties) Sets the reservoir initialization option *ADGCSTC. porosity and water saturation if you entered values for these in the Set constant values for spatial properties dialog User's Guide Builder Fluid Model .

You could also change the spatial properties using the General Property Specification and the Block/Corner Value Calculation dialogs. Existing Case This feature is available only if the reservoir initialization is specified using one of the following keywords: (please refer to the GEM manual for a description of the keywords) • • • • *USER_INPUT *VERTICAL *BLOCK_CENTER *COMP *VERTICAL *BLOCK_CENTRE *WATER_GAS *VERTICAL *DEPTH_AVE *WATER_GAS If the water-oil contact depth (*DWOC) is not specified when you launch the dialog. the Reservoir is initially saturated with water check box will be enabled.GEM User's Guide Builder . You can view or edit the data by re-launching the dialog.You can modify the properties by re-entering the wizard. 152 • Fluid Model .

The Component definition tab displays the component/phase table along with pure component properties. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . To launch the dialog. Alternatively. Left double-click any node to bring up the dialog. select Components→Add/edit components… menu.STARS Overview You can use Builder to: Create components and specify phases in which each component can appear Specify • • • • • • • • Pure component properties Gas-liquid and liquid-liquid K values Liquid and solid phase densities Liquid and gas phase viscosities Fluid enthalpies Reference and surface pressure and temperature conditions Component/phase distribution for well production reporting Reactions Import fluid model data generated using WinProp Import fluid model data generated from BlackOil PVT data Launch CMGL’s WinProp application with the current fluid model data Adding/Editing Components The component definition appears on the Component definition tab of the Component and phase properties dialog. click the Components button on the main tree view.Fluid Model .STARS • 153 .

STARS User's Guide Builder . Click the Select from library list button. You can add a component from a library which is created from the information given in the Tables section of Stars manual.Adding/Editing a Component Click the Add/Edit a component button to bring up the Component definition dialog. 154 • Fluid Model .

STARS • 155 . if you enter both correlations and tables. You will be prompted to enter a name for the new component. STARS will ignore the correlations. You may also copy an existing component. click the button next to the Component name dropdown box and select the Add a component menu. You may change the component name and/or the pure component property data.To add non-library components. Liquid-liquid K value data can be input through tables only. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Entering K Value Data K value data are optional. Specify the reference phase and other phases in which the component may be present. Gas-liquid K values can be input through correlation coefficients or through tables. For gas-liquid K values.

i. 156 • Fluid Model . The options row The cell in Options: row in each component column contains a drop-down box.STARS User's Guide Builder . you cannot check or uncheck them. The check boxes in the set column The check box for a row indicates whether the keyword corresponding to the row will be output to the dataset.K value Correlations You enter the K value correlations coefficients on the K values tab of the Component and phase properties dialog.. The check boxes are “read-only”.e. Builder sets each one of them depending on the data entered for a row.

Set automatically by Builder. If a row is completely blank. Set the option for all aqueous components to Simulator default and Set the option for all oleic components to Set K value to zero. click the K Value tables… button on the K values tab of the Component and phase properties dialog. If a row has value even for one component. This happens when you read in a dataset or click on Apply after making changes to the data.The following table gives an explanation of the options. If you select the Use table(s) option for a component. You need not enter all the coefficients. that column will be disabled.STARS • 157 . the keyword corresponding to that row will not be output to the dataset (the check box in the Set column for that row will be unchecked). Options User Input Simulator default(for aqueous components only) Set value to zero Use table(s) Comments Data already entered or can be entered. Not to be used as a command. Not to be used as a command. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Value for this coefficient should be defaulted (command). If you wish to directly go to tables for a particular component. click in the column for that component in the K value correlations tab grid before clicking on the K Value tables… button. K Value Tables To launch the K value tables dialog. sets the value to zero (command). Builder has detected tabular data for this component. Set automatically by Builder. For oleic. If you wish to remove a keyword from a dataset. Sets all coefficients except KV4 to zero for aqueous components. all the rest of the cells in that row will be filled in with zeroes. Comments for the correlation coefficients Use the button to edit or enter comments.

number of temperature values (rows) in each table and the number of pressure values (columns) in each table.STARS User's Guide Builder . name of the key component. These parameters are “global” in the sense they apply to all tables (for all components) for a given type of table (gas-liquid or liquid-liquid). If composition-dependent tables are defined. Builder will prompt you to enter values for pressure and temperature minima and maxima. the list box will also display the key component concentration for the table in the x(key comp) column. 158 • Fluid Model . Selecting a row in the list displays the table in the grid on the right. key component concentration minimum and maximum. If no tables are defined and the table parameters are not defined. The list on the left lists all the tables for a component for the selected table type (gas-liquid or liquid-liquid). The information panel above the list displays the table parameters: pressure and temperature minima and maxima. Use the radio buttons in the K value tables for frame in the left top corner to change between gas-liquid and liquid-liquid type tables for a component.Use the Component drop-down box to navigate through components.

you can also edit the number of temperature (rows) and number of pressure values (columns) for all the tables. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model .STARS • 159 . You can also change the number of temperature values (rows) in a table using the context menu in the grid. If the table parameters are not defined or you are switching from composition-independent to composition-dependent tables for the first time.You can also define the parameters for composition-dependent tables in the K value table parameters dialog.

You may change the current selection. Use the drop-down box in the Density row of the Options column to enter molar density. compressibility and thermal expansion coefficients on the Densities tab on the Component and phase properties dialog. Use the drop-down box in the Apply data to phase(s): cell of the Options column. mass density or molar volume. The radio button in the Key phase composition dependency frame in the right top corner is automatically set by Builder. Use the button to add/edit comments for the current tables. Entering Liquid Density Data Enter the liquid density. You can enter the data separately for the water and oil phases or you can apply the same data to both the phases. Builder will launch the K value table parameters dialog if the parameters for composition-dependent tables are not already defined. 160 • Fluid Model . If the current selection is Independent and you click on Dependent.You can also change the number of pressure values (columns) by clicking the Set number of columns button.STARS User's Guide Builder .

STARS • 161 .Use the Specify… button in the Gas-like liquid density option frame to input components for which this option (*GASSYLIQ) applies. Liquid Density Nonlinear Mixing Option Use the Specify… button in the Non-linear density mixing option frame on the Densities tab on the Component and phase properties dialog to input non-linear density mixing data. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model .

You can also define viscosity separately for both the phases. Liquid viscosities data are required. You can define one set of data for both the liquid phases (water and oil). The data you enter will be applied to the current viscosity-type displayed in the Viscosity type: drop-down box. Or you can define common data for both the phases but override for one or both liquid phases.Entering Solid Phase Density Data Click the Solid phase densities button on the Densities tab of the Component and phase properties dialog. Use the Apply data to phase(s): drop-down box to select the phase type. You can input the data as viscosity correlations OR as a viscosity-component table. Viscosity Correlations 162 • Fluid Model . Entering Liquid Phase Viscosity Data Enter the liquid phase viscosity data on the Liquid phase viscosities tab on the Component and phase properties dialog.STARS User's Guide Builder . Select the type of input using the Use viscosity correlations and Use viscosity table radio buttons.

Enter values for AVISC and/or BVISC. Missing values will be set to zero. However, AVISC cannot be zero for non-aqueous components. The options row The cell in Options: row in each aqueous component column contains a drop-down box. Non-aqueous components do not have default values for AVISC and BVISC.

The following table gives an explanation of the options. Options User Input Simulator default Comments Data already entered or can be entered. Not to be used as a command. Set automatically by Builder. Value for this coefficient should be defaulted (command). Builde will output the values of 0.0 for both AVISC and BVISC.

Viscosity Tables
The first column is the temperature column. You can increase the number of rows using the context menu of the grid. To delete a table (e.g. to define two separate tables for water and oil rather than one common one or vice versa), select all the rows and columns and use the delete key.

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Liquid Viscosity Nonlinear Mixing Option
Use the Specify… button in the Non-linear density mixing option frame on the Liquid phase viscosities tab on the Component and phase properties dialog to input non-linear density mixing data.

Entering Gas Phase Viscosity Data
Enter the gas phase viscosity data on the Gas phase viscosities tab on the Component and phase properties dialog.

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The options row The cell in Options: row in each component column contains a drop-down box.

The following table gives an explanation of the options. Options User Input Simulator default Comments Data already entered or can be entered. Not to be used as a command. Set automatically by Builder. Value for this coefficient should be defaulted (command). Builde will output the values of 0.0 for both AVG and BVG.

You need not enter all the coefficients. If a row has value even for one component, all the rest of the cells in that row will be filled in with zeroes. This happens when you read in a dataset or click on Apply after making changes to the data. If you enter gas viscosity data, both AVG and BVG coefficients must be input.

Working With Multiple Viscosity Property Types
One viscosity type is always created and is persistent. To add, copy or delete viscosity types click the button next to the Viscosity type: dropdown box on the Liquid phase viscosities and the Gas phase viscosities tabs on the Component and phase properties dialog.

Enter the gas phase viscosity data on the Fluid enthalpies tab on the Component and phase properties dialog.

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Entering Fluid Enthalpy Data
Enter the gas phase viscosity data on the Fluid enthalpies tab on the Component and phase properties dialog.

Select the type of data using the Enthalpy calculation independent variables: drop-down box:

Depending on your selection, some of the rows are disabled – colored.

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Entering Other Properties
Enter reference and surface pressure and temperature conditions on the General tab of the Component and phase properties dialog.

You may also select option for component/phase segregation for production reporting. If you select Use phase list: option, you must set the Phase designator for all the components – use the drop-down box for this purpose. To specify overriding surface K values for a component click the Component K value at surface conditions button.

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Working with Reactions
To add new or edit existing reactions, select Components click on a Reaction node in the Components tree view. Reactions… or double left-

To edit a particular reaction, select it from the Reactions: list box. To add, delete or copy reactions, use the button to the right of the list box:

Component-independent data are entered in the upper grid and component-dependent data in the lower grid. To specify the phase in which a reactant reacts, use the drop-down list in the Reacting in phase (RPHASE) row:

The stoichiometry of the reaction is displayed in the read-only text window at the bottom of the dialog box.
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This window also displays errors in mass balance, if any. Use the button to edit or enter comments.

Advanced Options
Options for rate modifications and reactions deviating from equilibriums are available from the Reaction Rate and Deviation from equilibrium… buttons in the Advanced frame:

Reactions that deviate from equilibrium Modifying data in the form of K values are needed to use this option. You can either specify the correlation coefficients:

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or as tables:

To launch the K value tables dialog, click on the K value tables… button in the K values for reactions deviating from equilibrium dialog. You can specify composition-independent or composition–dependent (KEYCOMP) tables. Select the component to which the K value tables apply in the K values for reactions deviating from equilibrium dialog before launching the K values table dialog. You cannot change the component in the K value tables dialog.

Launching WinProp With Current Fluid Model Data
You can launch WinProp with the current fluid model data so that you work with the model in WinProp. Select the Components→Launch WinProp to edit/generate model menu. You can also select the same menu from the main tree view context menu:

After you have worked with the model in WinProp, you can import it back into Builder as explained earlier.
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Import Black Oil PVT
The black oil PVT import wizard can be started from the top menu item Components→Import Black Oil PVT… This wizard will create a completely new fluid model for STARS, using carefully calculated parameters that are matched to the black oil PVT data. Since STARS uses K value and component based formulations for the fluid model, it is strongly recommended to use this wizard anytime major parameters are to be changed in the fluid model. Changing parameters manually in the data set without the help of this wizard will have un-predictable results, and will usually result in a fluid model that no longer matches the black oil PVT data. The wizard consists of four main steps.

Step 1
The purpose of the first step is to import or create black oil PVT data. Black oil PVT can be input using 2 methods: 1. read from a file, or 2. generated from analytical PVT correlations using the black oil PVT graphical user interface (GUI). If oil density values or gas gravity values have been measured in a differential liberation experiment, the user may enter these values in the table on the first step. The user must define a bubble point before the Next button is enabled to go to the next step.

Step 2
The main purpose of the second step is to define some parameters that are specific to STARS, and not normally used in a black oil simulation. The user may input a table of dead oil viscosities vs. temperature if they are available. If these values are not available, an internal correlation will be used to generate the temperature effect on viscosity. A thermal expansion coefficient can also be entered if it is available from measurements in the laboratory. Otherwise an automatic match of the thermal expansion coefficient will be done. The oil molecular weight can be entered if desired. However, changing this value will have very little effect on the simulation. The only requirement is that all calculations of parameters for the STARS fluid model use the same value of molecular weight. Therefore, changing this value manually in the data set without going through this wizard again will have an un-predictable effect and it strongly not recommended.

Step 3
The purpose of the third step is to refine the match of the black oil PVT data. The water, oil, and gas matches are plotted on the main view of Builder, and the user can select the different plots to view the matches. Each time the Re-Match button is clicked, the views will be updated with the new plots. There are four main matches done:

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Density match The density match will affect the oil density (Do), gas density in liquid (Dg), oil compressibility (Co), gas compressibility in liquid (Cg), and the oil formation volume factors. If a match appears to be poor, the most common values to change are the oil compressibility and stock tank gas density. Both of these values can be changed if the “Launch the Black Oil PVT Graphical User Interface“ button is clicked on step 1 of this wizard. The density match routine uses different points in the black oil PVT table for matching. The equations that it uses are: VoOilSt = exp[ Ct1(T - Temr) + Ct2(T*T - Temr*Temr) - CoOil(P-Prsr) ]/DenOilSt VoGasSt = exp[ Ct1(T - Temr) + Ct2(T*T - Temr*Temr) - CoGas(P-Prsr) ]/DenGasSt 1/DenOil(P) = [ VoOilSt*X2 + VoGasSt*X3 ] A three point match uses the following equation to calculate compressibilities of Dead_Oil and Soln_Gas: Co(input value above bubble point) = Co * mole_fraction_oil + Cg * mole_fraction_gas Then, the density equation is solved for Dead_Oil density, and Soln_Gas density using 3 data points in the black oil PVT table to result in 3 equations. Note that the Soln_Gas density and compressibility in the liquid phase does not resemble these same values when it is in the gas phase. Therefore, gas density and compressibility in the liquid phase will resemble liquid values, rather than normal gas values. A two point match uses the input value of oil compressibility from the black oil PVT data, and solves for Dead_Oil and Soln_Gas density. The automatic matching option will check all match types and all points in the PVT table to obtain the match with the minimum least squares error. The automatic matching routine will also vary the thermal expansion coefficient (Ct) to obtain the best fit of the data if the 'Automatically Match Value' option is chosen. The user may change the emphasis of the matching routine by changing the weighting factors for oil density, oil compressibility, or oil formation volume factor. GOR match (or K value match) The K value match will affect the gas oil ratio of component 3 (Soln_Gas) in the oil phase. The K value match routine uses three different points in the black oil PVT table for matching. The three point match will solve three equations simultaneously to obtain the best fit of the black oil data. If the quality of the gas oil ratio match is poor due to non linear gas oil ratio vs. pressure behavior, then it is recommended to use the K value table option. Otherwise, K value coefficients are adequate. Viscosity match The viscosity match will use the dead oil viscosity at atmospheric pressure and reservoir temperature that was input on the black oil PVT tables, and calculate a solution gas viscosity in liquid that will match the live oil viscosity values in the PVT table. If the non linear
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The gas Z factor is matched by varying the critical pressures and temperatures through the range published for methane and propane. If the differences of z-factor between the PVT table input and the results from the cubic equation are not reasonable. Since STARS currently does not have pressure dependent viscosity options. These compositions may become useful if the user wishes to change the bubble point or change the composition in other parts of the reservoir. no match of the black oil gas viscosity is done. Gas match The gas match includes the gas compressibility factor (Z factor) and the gas viscosity. then the correlation described in the STARS manual will be used to correct the gas viscosity at high density. The z-factors from PVT table may be used to back calculate the gas properties being used in STARS. one of the significant reasons may be that the assumption of pure component in gas phase is not the best representation of real gas. User's Guide Builder Fluid Model . Displaying Component Properties Partial Dataset You can view the Component Properties section data in keyword format by selecting the Display dataset for section… menu from the main tree view context menu. if the option 'Internal correlation for gas viscosity' is selected.STARS • 173 .0) that will duplicate the average gas viscosity with the equation used in STARS. the live oil viscosities will be matched exactly up to and including the bubble point. the new fluid model data will be copied into the data set. Step 4 The main purpose of step 4 is to show the user the composition dependence on pressure. the gas viscosity match is done by calculating a weighted averaging gas viscosity from the black oil data.viscosity option is used. If the finish button is clicked. until a satisfactory match is obtained. Data Validation Builder automatically performs validation of the data when the following occur: You read in a dataset You add or modify data in the fluid model You can also force validation by selecting the Validate menu from the main tree view context menu. For gas viscosity. If the check box 'Use high gas density correction for gas viscosity' is selected. If the option 'Composition dependent gas viscosity' is selected. Multi-components are required to represent the real gas. then calculating the constant A (assuming the constant B=1. STARS calculated viscosities above the bubble point (at constant temperature and composition) will be constant.

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• • • • • Method for Evaluating 3-Phase KRO (KROIL) Leverett J Functions option (JFUNC) Non Darcy Flow option (NONDARCY) select the menu item Rock-Fluid→Rock Fluid Options… double click in tree item Rock Fluid Options There are two ways to access the Rock Fluid Options dialog.General Overview The Rock-Fluid section is primarily for specifying relative permeability and information for various rock types in the reservoir. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid . Relative permeabilities of each rock type are entered using tables. IMEX.General • 175 . GEM.Rock Fluid . Rock Fluid Options Rock Fluid Options: IMEX Builder provides a dialog. and STARS include the ability to define multiple rock types. This dialog includes simple controls to set. “Rock Fluid Options” for selecting features available in IMEX that apply globally to all Rock Types. Builder provides dialogs for the entry of relative permeability tables and their related options.

It is required that a Non-Darcy Gas Flow Option be set before creating hydraulically fractured wells (see Hydraulically Fractured Wells (IMEX & GEM)). When using the General Correlation option (NONDARCY GENERAL) the user can enter a table of α. “Rock Fluid Options” for selecting features available in GEM that apply globally to all Rock Types. and the first and second correlation from Frederick and Graves. When using the Geertsma or Frederick and Graves Correlation options (NONDARCY GEERTSMA. FG1 or FG2) non-Darcy flow coefficient (β) for all phases except gas is assumed to be zero. A “General Correlation” is also available which allows the user to define how non-Darcy flow is a function of saturation. there are a few different correlations available for selection. This dialog includes simple controls to set. N1. • • • Method for Evaluating 3-Phase KRO (KROIL) Single Phase gas relative permeability calculation flag (KRGAS) Interfacial tension effects (SIGMA) 176 • Rock Fluid . Rock Fluid Options: GEM Builder provides a dialog. porosity and permeability for each phase. They include Geertsma’s Correlation.For the Non-Darcy Gas Flow Option. For gas the parameters for αg. N1g and N2g are displayed but can not be modified.General User's Guide Builder . N2 and Forchmax for each phase in the reservoir and modify the Forchheimer Number Weighting Factor.

General • 177 . • • select menu item Rock-Fluid→Rock Fluid Options… double click in tree item Rock Fluid Options Rock Fluid Options: STARS Parameters for rock types in STARS apply to individual rock types and the possible interpolation sets. The purpose of this feature is to allow the user to display the relative permeability relationships that exist at each grid block. Rock Fluid – Diagnostic Plots The rock fluid diagnostic plots feature can be accessed either from the top Rock Fluid menu. relative permeability interpolation values. or from the context menu available by right clicking the mouse on the reservoir grid display. block dependent relative permeability end point scaling values. and 3. temperature dependent relative permeability end point values. The rock fluid diagnostic plots will include the following items if they are used in the simulator data file: 1. 2. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid .There are two ways to access the Rock Fluid Options dialog. There are no global settings.

If the rock region uses the oil wet option. If the block has a rock region assigned to it that has relative permeability interpolation. then both of these curves will be displayed. then the user can display the 3 phase Krw relationship existing at the block.An example of the rock fluid diagnostic plots is as follows: Since the relative permeability relationships can be block dependent. then all of the interpolation sets will be displayed.1. or any of the intermediate wettability options.1.General User's Guide Builder . the user must either enter a UBA (block 8. then these temperature dependencies will also be displayed.1. If the block has both matrix and fracture properties. if the rock region has end point temperature dependence. The above example has all of these features turned on for block 8. An example is as follows: 178 • Rock Fluid .1 in the above example) or click on a grid block. If the block is assigned a rock region that uses the normal water wet option. then the user can display the 3 phase Kro relationship existing at the block. The rock fluid diagnostic plots can also display ternary diagrams showing 3 phase relationships that exist at each block. Similarly.

It is up to the user to fix these blocks to prevent slow simulation runs. then the relative permeability curves become very steep and the simulation may become very slow with very small time-steps. it is recommended to check each block using this option. then click on the button “Show Blocks ← Minimums”. If any blocks are less than the minimum tolerances. Therefore. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid .General • 179 . if any type of end point scaling option is used in the data set. If the range between end points is too narrow. then a text box will be displayed that lists these blocks.Show Blocks ← Minimums This sub-feature of the rock fluid diagnostic plots is intended to allow the user to locate blocks that may cause poor simulator performance because of a poor choice of end points. The user can change the default minimum tolerances of “1-SorwSwcrit” and “1-Sorg-Sgcrit-Swcrit” if desired.

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Each rock type and its related information are entered through three tabs.Rock Fluid Properties .IMEX Overview Builder provides a convenient dialog for building a set of different rock types and their related information.IMEX • 181 . The “Rock Types” dialog holds a set of three tabs and a drop-down list of the different rock types together with a menu button for adding. copying and deleting rock types. • • • • • • • Rocktype Properties Relative Permeability Tables Hysteresis Modelling select menu item Rock-Fluid→Create/Edit Rock Types… double click in the tree item Rock Fluid Types double click in the tree item for an existing rock type select from the tree context menu item Create/Edit Rock Types… There are a number of ways to access the “Rock Types” dialog. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .

builder’s plot view window will display relative permeability curves derived from the table data in the selected rock type from the “Rock Types” dialog. or APPLY. Note that Builder will prevent you from deleting the last remaining rock type. changes made to the data will not be applied until you select OK. open the “Rock Types” dialog and select the desired rock type from the drop down list at the top of the dialog.IMEX User's Guide Builder . The data displayed in the tabs will reflect settings for the selected rock type. then RockType 3 is renamed to RockType 2. Then click on the the menu option Copy Current Rock Type. As each rock type is removed the remaining rock types are renamed so that the rock type numbers are sequential. a new rock type can be created that is a duplicate copy of an existing rock type. When editing a given rock type. For example if there are three rock types (RockType 1 through 3) and RockType 2 is deleted. you must keep in mind that deleting a rock type might affect another property such as when assigning multiple rock types to the grid. While changes to the relative permeability tables are not permanently applied to the dataset until you indicate to do so. Then click on the button and select Delete Rock Type from the drop down menu. First select the rock type to copy form the drop list. Modifying Existing Rock Types To modify an existing rock type. 182 • Rock Fluid Properties . since the simulator requires a minimum of one rock type defined for the dataset. Alternatively. Note that you cannot cancel from this operation. button and select Deleting an Existing Rock Type An existing rock type can be deleted by first selecting the desired rock type from the drop down list. Adding a New Rock Type A new rock type may be added to the list of available rock types by clicking on the button and selecting New Rock Type from the drop down menu.Note that when the dialog is opened. On changing the selected rock type. you will be asked if you wish to apply the changes before continuing. Therefore. therefore Builder will issue a message to make sure that you wish to delete the currently selected rock type. When deleting rock types please review related array properties (such as RTYPE and KRTYPE) to make sure the values correctly reflect the available rock types. This will permit you to experiment with the table data and cancel at any time. Builder will correspondingly open the plot view window and display relative permeability curves for the selected rock type.

Gas-Liquid Relative Permeability Averaging 3.IMEX • 183 . it is not necessary to make sure that the endpoints are correct (i. This feature is available by selecting Average Rock Type from the “Rock Types” dialog by clicking this button the top of the page. For this Average Rock Type option. Gas-Liquid Imbibition Capillary Pressure Averaging 7. depending on the content of the data set: 1. Water-Oil Imbibition Capillary Pressure Averaging 5.e. there is a grid control on the left side of the screen that contains a user controllable column of check boxes. Gas-Water Relative Permeability Averaging (for oil wet or mixed wettability options) 4. as shown in the following picture: User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . Gas-Liquid Drainage Capillary Pressure Averaging For each of the 7 steps. and insert this information into a normal simulator data set. and *SLT). *SGT. Water-Oil Drainage Capillary Pressure Averaging 6. Krocw is the same for both *SWT and *SGT) as is required by the simulators. at If laboratory data is available. The rock type created once the “Finish” button is clicked will be compatible with all of CMG’s simulators by making sure that any endpoint rules required by the simulators are honored.Averaging Laboratory Data into an Average Rock Type The feature to average rock types is designed to help the user select and average relative permeability and capillary pressure curves measured in the laboratory. Water-Oil Relative Permeability Averaging 2. it is necessary to convert this information into a format compatible with CMG’s relative permeability and capillary pressure data input format (see the simulator keywords *SWT. There can be up to 7 steps in this wizard.

this dialog allows you to access a number of convenient tools for working with relative permeability tables. a tool for smoothing curve data. each capillary pressure curve is matched using the equation Pc = Pe * Sw ** (-1. and Lamda is the slope of the Pc vs. Setting Rock Type Properties In IMEX the wetting phase can be set for each rock type. and a tool for scaling curve data. If capillary pressure curves are loaded into the data set. Defining Relative Permeability Tables The tab for Relative Permeability Tables is the most important tab for entering information about each rock type. The user can check the shape of these curves both in normal display mode. In all cases. 184 • Rock Fluid Properties . This setting is found on the “Rock Types” dialog. the heavy dashed black line will be the averaged curve. Sw is irreducible water saturation.0/Lamda). The state of this check box does not affect any calculations of the averaged curve. Sw curve when plotted on a Log-Log plot. In addition. where Pc is capillary pressure. These coefficients are useful for some fracture characterization methods that require a calculation of Sw from capillary pressure curves. then these curves will also be averaged in the same fashion as the relative permeability curves.The user may select or un-select any of the curves by checking or un-checking these check boxes. and normalized display mode by checking or un-checking the box at the top left of the dialog. Pe is entry height. on the tab labeled Rocktype Properties. Aside from the convenience of a spreadsheet like interface.IMEX User's Guide Builder . The spreadsheet interface allows you to copy and paste tabular data for your popular spreadsheet program. There is a tool for generating relative permeability tables from analytical equations.

A button on the upper left corner of the table display is used to access available tools. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .IMEX • 185 . When this button is clicked a drop down menu with a list of the available tools will appear.

IMEX User's Guide Builder . click on the button and select Generate Tables Using Correlations… The dialog conveniently displays relative permeability curves to help you to identify the meaning of the required fields in the dialog. click on the button and select Smooth Table… 186 • Rock Fluid Properties . The curves will be displayed in Builder’s plot view. Tool: Smooth Table To access the dialog for smoothing the Relative Permeability tables. Builder will generate the appropriate relative permeability tables. Builder will verify that your entered values are appropriate for the analytical equations. The equations used for these correlations are given in Appendix A. After entering required values and clicking OK or Apply.Tool: Generate Tables Using Correlations To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations.

click OK to exit the dialog and apply the changes to the table displayed in the “Rock Types” dialog. You can modify the default settings in the Relative Permeability Curve Smoothing dialog at any time. When you are satisfied with the smoothed curves.IMEX • 187 . click CANCEL to forgo applying changes to the table at any time.Note that relative permeability curves can be smoothed with all the smoothing capabilities build in CMG’s IMEX simulator. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . After clicking the button labeled Smooth Curves. Alternatively. the plot view will be updated to display the smoothed curves. When the dialog is opened you will see that the plot view will now display relative permeability curves both before and after the smoothing.

IMEX User's Guide Builder . click on the Scaling… button and select Curve 188 • Rock Fluid Properties .Tool: Curve Scaling To access the dialog for Curve Scaling.

click OK to exit the dialog and apply the changes to the table displayed in the “Rock Types” dialog. Builder allows you to change your relative permeability curves directly from the plot view – by clicking and dragging the points up or down. You can modify the default settings in the Curve Scaling dialog at any time. click CANCEL to forgo applying changes to the table at any time. This will open the “Rock Types” dialog with the appropriate rock type pre selected. The “Rock Types” dialog can be openned directly from the menu or main tree view as previously discussed. Alternatively you can click CANCEL. Modifying Tables from the Plot View Rather than modifying numerical values in a table. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . the plot view will be updated to display the scaled curves. In order to edit the curves. You can then edit points on the curve by clicking and dragging points. After clicking the button labeled Scale Curves.IMEX • 189 . should you decide that your changes are not appropriate. you can double click on a curve directly on Builder’s plot view. the “Rock Types” dialog must be open. Althernatively. Alternatively. When you are satisfied with the scaled curves. By clicking OK or APPLY in the “Rock Types” dialog at any time you can permanently apply the changes to the dataset.When the dialog is opened you will see that the plot view will now display relative permeability curves both before and after the curve scaling.

Setting Hysteresis Modelling Hysteresis is allowed for both capillary pressure and gas relative permeability in IMEX. For capillary pressure hysteresis this requires the specification of transition between the imbibition and the drainage curves. which is synchronized with the dialog. the imbibition column will be removed from the appropriate relative permeability table. The dialog provides a tree view which lists the already existing tables. the required columns will be added to the appropriate relative permeability table. On unsetting hysteresis effects by deselecting the appropriate check box. allows you to enter tables for both the “scale deposition” tables and the “scale damage” tables. By selecting a table from the list. A graph of the tables can also be viewed in the plot view. The dialog maybe opened by selecting the menu item Rock-Fluid/ Seawater Scale Deposit/Damage Tables … or by double clicking on one of the Seawater Scale Buildup tree view items. you should proceed to the tab labeled Relative Permeability Tables to enter the required data. Hence. For gas relative permeability hysteresis this requires the specification of the maximum gas saturation (this saturation in practice is an adjustable parameter which determines the imbibition krg curve as a function of the given drainage curve). the grid on the right is appropriately updated to reflect the selection. Seawater Scale Deposit and Damage Tables The “Scale Deposit and Damage Tables” dialog for IMEX. 190 • Rock Fluid Properties .IMEX User's Guide Builder . On setting hysteresis effects by selecting the appropriate check box. .

c) Apply and d) Help. b) Cancel – will close the interface but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first. Comments can be entered individually for each row in a table or as single comment for the whole selected table. copy. Both the dialog and graph are synchronized. Each table will There are also the usual four buttons at the bottom of the dialogs. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . insert row and delete row. The button labeled Edit Table List allows you to manage the table list.IMEX • 191 . You can also edit the table by right mouse clicking on the table. d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the interface with the current focus. . b) Cancel. The single table comment can by entered and view by click the comment button have it’s own comment.The values for the tables can be modified by entering values in the grid or by clicking on a point in the plot view graph and dragging the point. The row comments are entered in the last column of the grid. copy. a) OK. When the button is clicked a menu appears which allows you to add new. c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the interface. Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. This action will bring up a menu which allows you to cut. paste. any changes made in one will immediately be reflected in the other. The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the interface and save any changes made. insert and delete tables.

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Each rock type and its related information are entered through three tabs. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .Rock Fluid Properties . copying and deleting rock types. • • • • • • • Rocktype Properties Relative Permeability Tables Hysteresis Modelling select menu item Rock-Fluid→Create/Edit Rock Types… double click in the tree item Rock Fluid Types double click in the tree item for an existing rock type select from the tree context menu item Create/Edit Rock Types… There are a number of ways to access the “Rock Types” dialog. The “Rock Types” dialog holds a set of three tabs and a drop-down list of the different rock types together with a menu button for adding.GEM Overview Builder provides a convenient dialog for building a set of different rock types and their related information.GEM • 193 .

Note that you cannot cancel from this operation. Then click on the the menu option Copy Current Rock Type. since the simulator requires a minimum of one rock type defined for the dataset. First select the rock type to copy form the drop list. a new rock type can be created that is a duplicate copy of an existing rock type. Adding a New Rock Type A new rock type may be added to the list of available rock types by clicking on the button and selecting New Rock Type from the drop down menu. When editing a given rock type. you will be asked if you wish to apply the changes before continuing. therefore Builder will issue a message to make sure that you wish to delete the currently selected rock type. then RockType 3 is renamed to RockType 2. 194 • Rock Fluid Properties . button and select Deleting an Existing Rock Type An existing rock type can be deleted by first selecting the desired rock type from the drop down list. changes made to the data will not be applied until you select OK. This will permit you to experiment with the table data and cancel at any time. Then click on the button and select Delete Rock Type from the drop down menu. When deleting rock types please review related array properties (such as RTYPE and KRTYPE) to make sure the values correctly reflect the available rock types.GEM User's Guide Builder . While changes to the relative permeability tables are not permanently applied to the dataset until you indicate to do so. Alternatively. or APPLY. open the “Rock Types” dialog and select the desired rock type from the drop down list at the top of the dialog. builder’s plot view window will display relative permeability curves derived from the table data in the selected rock type from the “Rock Types” dialog. As each rock type is removed the remaining rock types are renamed so that the rock type numbers are sequential. you must keep in mind that deleting a rock type might affect another property such as when assigning multiple rock types to the grid. Note that Builder will prevent you from deleting the last remaining rock type. The data displayed in the tabs will reflect settings for the selected rock type. On changing the selected rock type. Therefore. For example if there are three rock types (RockType 1 through 3) and RockType 2 is deleted.Modifying Existing Rock Types To modify an existing rock type.

and insert this information into a normal simulator data set. depending on the content of the data set: 1. Water-Oil Drainage Capillary Pressure Averaging 6. it is not necessary to make sure that the endpoints are correct (i. The rock type created once the “Finish” button is clicked will be compatible with all of CMG’s simulators by making sure that any endpoint rules required by the simulators are honored.GEM • 195 .e. Gas-Liquid Drainage Capillary Pressure Averaging For each of the 7 steps. Gas-Liquid Relative Permeability Averaging 3. This feature is available by selecting Average Rock Type from the “Rock Types” dialog by clicking this button at the top of the page.Averaging Laboratory Data into an Average Rock Type The feature to average rock types is designed to help the user select and average relative permeability and capillary pressure curves measured in the laboratory. *SGT. Water-Oil Relative Permeability Averaging 2. If laboratory data is available. Krocw is the same for both *SWT and *SGT) as is required by the simulators. For this Average Rock Type option. as shown in the following picture: User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . There can be up to 7 steps in this wizard. it is necessary to convert this information into a format compatible with CMG’s relative permeability and capillary pressure data input format (see the simulator keywords *SWT. Water-Oil Imbibition Capillary Pressure Averaging 5. and *SLT). Gas-Liquid Imbibition Capillary Pressure Averaging 7. Gas-Water Relative Permeability Averaging (for oil wet or mixed wettability options) 4. there is a grid control on the left side of the screen that contains a user controllable column of check boxes.

Settings for the Velocity Dependent Relative Permeability Option (VELDEPRP) can also be found on the tab Rocktype Properties. Sw is irreducible water saturation. then these curves will also be averaged in the same fashion as the relative permeability curves. and normalized display mode by checking or un-checking the box at the top left of the dialog. If capillary pressure curves are loaded into the data set. The user can check the shape of these curves both in normal display mode. Sw curve when plotted on a Log-Log plot. This setting can be found on the “Rock Types” dialog on the tab Rocktype Properties. each capillary pressure curve is matched using the equation Pc = Pe * Sw ** (-1. and a tool for scaling curve data. this dialog allows you to access a number of convenient tools for working with relative permeability tables. In addition. There is a tool for generating relative permeability tables from analytical equations. These coefficients are useful for some fracture characterization methods that require a calculation of Sw from capillary pressure curves. a tool for smoothing curve data. In all cases.The user may select or un-select any of the curves by checking or un-checking these check boxes. Defining Relative Permeability Tables The tab for Relative Permeability Tables is the most important tab for entering information about each rock type. 196 • Rock Fluid Properties . where Pc is capillary pressure. The spreadsheet interface allows you to copy and paste tabular data for your popular spreadsheet program. Setting Rock Type Properties In GEM rock compressibility can be set independently for each rock type. the heavy dashed black line will be the averaged curve. Pe is entry height. Aside from the convenience of a spreadsheet like interface. The state of this check box does not affect any calculations of the averaged curve.0/Lamda). and Lamda is the slope of the Pc vs.GEM User's Guide Builder .

User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .GEM • 197 .A button on the upper left corner of the table display is used to access available tools. When this button is clicked a drop down menu with a list of the available tools will appear.

198 • Rock Fluid Properties . The curves will be displayed in Builder’s plot view. Builder will verify that your entered values are appropriate for the analytical equations. After entering required values and clicking OK or APPLY. Builder will generate the appropriate relative permeability tables. The equations used for these correlations are given in Appendix A.Tool: Generate Tables Using Correlations To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations. click on the button and select Generate Tables Using Correlations… The dialog conveniently displays relative permeability curves to help you to identify the meaning of the required fields in the dialog.GEM User's Guide Builder .

You can modify the default settings in the Relative Permeability Curve Smoothing dialog at any time.Tool: Smooth Table To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations. click CANCEL to forgo applying changes to the table at any time. the plot view will be updated to display the smoothed curves. When the dialog is opened you will see that the plot view will now display relative permeability curves both before and after the smoothing. click OK to exit the dialog and apply the changes to the table displayed in the “Rock Types” dialog. After clicking the button labeled Smooth Curves.GEM • 199 . click on the button and select Smooth Table… Note that relative permeability curves can be smoothed with all the smoothing capabilities build in CMG’s IMEX simulator. Alternatively. When you are satisfied with the smoothed curves. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .

GEM User's Guide Builder .Tool: Curve Scaling To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations. click on the button and select Curve Scaling… 200 • Rock Fluid Properties .

Builder allows you to change your relative permeability curves directly from the plot view – by clicking and dragging the points up or down. You can modify the default settings in the Curve Scaling dialog at any time. the “Rock Types” dialog must be open. In order to edit the curves. This will open the “Rock Types” dialog with the appropriate rock type pre selected. You can then edit points on the curve by clicking and dragging points. click CANCEL to forgo applying changes to the table at any time. should you decide that your changes are not appropriate. click OK to exit the dialog and apply the changes to the table displayed in the “Rock Types” dialog. Alternatively. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . After clicking the button labeled Scale Curves. Althernatively. The “Rock Types” dialog can be openned directly from the menu or main tree view as previously discussed. Alternatively you can click CANCEL. Modifying Tables from the Plot View Rather than modifying numerical values in a table.GEM • 201 . the plot view will be updated to display the scaled curves.When the dialog is opened you will see that the plot view will now display relative permeability curves both before and after the curve scaling. By clicking OK or APPLY in the “Rock Types” dialog at any time you can permanently apply the changes to the dataset. you can double click on a curve directly on Builder’s plot view. When you are satisfied with the scaled curves.

the imbibition column will be removed from the appropriate relative permeability table. For gas relative permeability hysteresis this requires the specification of the maximum gas saturation (this saturation in practice is an adjustable parameter which determines the imbibition krg curve as a function of the given drainage curve).GEM User's Guide Builder . 202 • Rock Fluid Properties . On setting hysteresis effects by selecting the appropriate check box. the required columns will be added to the appropriate relative permeability table. . you should proceed to the tab labeled Relative Permeability Tables to enter the required data. For capillary pressure hysteresis this requires the specification of transition between the imbibition and the drainage curves. Unavailable options appear grey and the corresponding controls cannot be accessed. Hence. On unsetting hysteresis effects by deselecting the appropriate check box.Setting Hysteresis Modelling Hysteresis is allowed for both capillary pressure and gas relative permeability in GEM.

The “Rock Types” dialog holds a set of three tabs and a drop-down list of the different rock types together with a menu button for adding. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .Rock Fluid Properties .STARS • 203 . Each rock type and its related information are entered through three tabs.STARS Overview Builder provides a convenient dialog for building a set of different rock types and their related information. copying and deleting rock types. • • • • • • • • • Rocktype Properties Relative Permeability Tables Hysteresis Modelling Relative Permeability End Points Interpolation Set Parameters select menu item Rock-Fluid→Create/Edit Rock Types… double click in the tree item Rock Fluid Types double click in the tree item for an existing rock type select from the tree context menu item Create/Edit Rock Types… There are a number of ways to access the “Rock Types” dialog.

STARS button and select User's Guide Builder . On changing the selected rock type.Modifying Existing Rock Types To modify an existing rock type. This will permit you to experiment with the table data and cancel at any time. you will be asked if you wish to apply the changes before continuing. When editing a given rock type. The data displayed in the tabs will reflect settings for the selected rock type. 204 • Rock Fluid Properties . First select the rock type to copy form the drop list. Then click on the the menu option Copy Current Rock Type. changes made to the data will not be applied until you select OK. While changes to the relative permeability tables are not permanently applied to the dataset until you indicate to do so. open the “Rock Types” dialog and select the desired rock type from the drop down list at the top of the dialog. Alternatively. a new rock type can be created that is a duplicate copy of an existing rock type. Adding a New Rock Type A new rock type may be added to the list of available rock types by clicking on the button and selecting New Rock Type from the drop down menu. builder’s plot view window will display relative permeability curves derived from the table data in the selected rock type from the “Rock Types” dialog. or APPLY.

Water-Oil Imbibition Capillary Pressure Averaging 5. it is necessary to convert this information into a format compatible with CMG’s relative permeability and capillary pressure data input format (see the simulator keywords *SWT. When deleting rock types please review related array properties (such as RTYPE and KRTYPE) to make sure the values correctly reflect the available rock types. Averaging Laboratory Data into an Average Rock Type The feature to average rock types is designed to help the user select and average relative permeability and capillary pressure curves measured in the laboratory.Deleting an Existing Rock Type An existing rock type can be deleted by first selecting the desired rock type from the drop down list. and *SLT). Then click on the button and select Delete Rock Type from the drop down menu. then RockType 3 is renamed to RockType 2. it is not necessary to make sure that the endpoints are correct (i. you must keep in mind that deleting a rock type might affect another property such as when assigning multiple rock types to the grid. depending on the content of the data set: 1. For this Average Rock Type option. Gas-Water Relative Permeability Averaging (for oil wet or mixed wettability options) 4. Gas-Liquid Drainage Capillary Pressure Averaging User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . There can be up to 7 steps in this wizard. As each rock type is removed the remaining rock types are renamed so that the rock type numbers are sequential. therefore Builder will issue a message to make sure that you wish to delete the currently selected rock type. Note that Builder will prevent you from deleting the last remaining rock type.e. since the simulator requires a minimum of one rock type defined for the dataset. For example if there are three rock types (RockType 1 through 3) and RockType 2 is deleted. If laboratory data is available. The rock type created once the “Finish” button is clicked will be compatible with all of CMG’s simulators by making sure that any endpoint rules required by the simulators are honored. Note that you cannot cancel from this operation. and insert this information into a normal simulator data set. Water-Oil Relative Permeability Averaging 2. *SGT. Water-Oil Drainage Capillary Pressure Averaging 6. Krocw is the same for both *SWT and *SGT) as is required by the simulators.STARS • 205 . Therefore. This feature is available by selecting Average Rock Type from the “Rock Types” dialog by clicking this button at the top of the page. Gas-Liquid Imbibition Capillary Pressure Averaging 7. Gas-Liquid Relative Permeability Averaging 3.

In addition. The state of this check box does not affect any calculations of the averaged curve. where Pc is capillary pressure.STARS User's Guide Builder .For each of the 7 steps. as shown in the following picture: The user may select or un-select any of the curves by checking or un-checking these check boxes. The user can check the shape of these curves both in normal display mode. If capillary pressure curves are loaded into the data set. each capillary pressure curve is matched using the equation Pc = Pe * Sw ** (-1. the heavy dashed black line will be the averaged curve. These coefficients are useful for some fracture characterization methods that require a calculation of Sw from capillary pressure curves. Setting Rock Type Properties The tab labeled Rocktype Properties holds controls for parameters that can be set independently for each defined rock type. there is a grid control on the left side of the screen that contains a user controllable column of check boxes. In all cases. 206 • Rock Fluid Properties . then these curves will also be averaged in the same fashion as the relative permeability curves.0/Lamda). and Lamda is the slope of the Pc vs. Pe is entry height. Sw curve when plotted on a Log-Log plot. Sw is irreducible water saturation. and normalized display mode by checking or un-checking the box at the top left of the dialog.

Defining Relative Permeability Tables The tab for Relative Permeability Tables is the most important tab for entering information about each rock type. The spreadsheet interface allows you to copy and paste tabular data for your popular spreadsheet program.STARS • 207 . Aside from the convenience of a spreadsheet like interface. • • • • • Rock Wettability Method for Evaluating 3-Phase KRO Interpolation Components (INTCOMP) Foam Interpolation Parameters Interfacial Tension When multiple interpolation sets are defined. this dialog allows you to access a number of convenient tools for working with relative permeability tables. There is a tool for generating relative permeability tables from analytical equations. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . and a tool for scaling curve data.The tab holds settings for. a tool for smoothing curve data. the control also holds settings for.

Tool: Generate Tables Using Correlations To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations.A button on the upper left corner of the table display is used to access available tools. click on the button and select Generate Tables Using Correlations… 208 • Rock Fluid Properties . When this button is clicked a drop down menu with a list of the available tools will appear.STARS User's Guide Builder .

Appendix A shows the equations for these correlations. click on the button and select Smooth Table… User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .The dialog conveniently displays relative permeability curves to help you to identify the meaning of the required fields in the dialog. After entering required values and clicking OK or APPLY. Tool: Smooth Table To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations. The curves will be displayed in Builder’s plot view.STARS • 209 . Builder will generate the appropriate relative permeability tables. Builder will verify that your entered values are appropriate for the analytical equations.

Tool: Curve Scaling To access the dialog for generating tables from analytical equations – correlations. click CANCEL to forgo applying changes to the table at any time. click OK to exit the dialog and apply the changes to the table displayed in the “Rock Types” dialog. click on the button and select Curve Scaling… 210 • Rock Fluid Properties . When you are satisfied with the smoothed curves. the plot view will be updated to display the smoothed curves. Alternatively. When the dialog is opened you will see that the plot view will now display relative permeability curves both before and after the smoothing. After clicking the button labeled Smooth Curves.Note that relative permeability curves can be smoothed with all the smoothing capabilities build in CMG’s IMEX simulator.STARS User's Guide Builder . You can modify the default settings in the Relative Permeability Curve Smoothing dialog at any time.

User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties .STARS • 211 .

you can double click on a curve directly on Builder’s plot view. Builder allows you to change your relative permeability curves directly from the plot view – by clicking and dragging the points up or down. In order to edit the curves. it is possible to apply hysteresis to either of the relative permeabilities. should you decide that your changes are not appropriate. Setting Hysteresis Modelling In STARS.Modifying Tables from the Plot View Rather than modifying numerical values in a table. the “Rock Types” dialog must be open.STARS User's Guide Builder . The “Rock Types” dialog can be openned directly from the menu or main tree view as previously discussed. Althernatively. The hysteresis option and its related parameters can be entered in the “Hysteresis Modeling” tab. capillary pressures. You can then edit points on the curve by clicking and dragging points. This will open the “Rock Types” dialog with the appropriate rock type pre selected. By clicking OK or APPLY in the “Rock Types” dialog at any time you can permanently apply the changes to the dataset. or both simultaneously. See STARS manual “Hysteresis Parameters” for details. 212 • Rock Fluid Properties . Alternatively you can click CANCEL.

) User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . See the STARS simulator manual for details. you can then select which method to use. Selecting different methods will change the corresponding information grid and the values which can be entered. They are displayed together with the drainage curves entered in the “Relative Permeability Tables” tab. The fields available in the “Hysteresis Modeling” tab will vary with “Rock Type” and “Interpolation Set”.STARS • 213 . However the parameters available in the dialog provided when clicking the “Advanced Parameters” button will only vary with “Rock Type”. (Note: These values should only be modified if you are certain of their implications.) The imbibition tables entered on the right hand side can be viewed in the plot view.The water-oil hysteresis is only available when the wetting phase is either “Water Wet” or “Oil Wet” which can be set in the “Rocktype Properties” tab. Depending on the options selected the interface will enable and disable controls appropriately. The following is the dialog which appears when the “Advanced Parameters” button is clicked. (Please review the STARS simulator manual for specific meaning of the different variables. Once you have selected to use the hysteresis option. The values of the imbibition tables can be modified by changing the values on the table grid or by clicking and dragging the desired point in the plot view.

Setting Relative Permeability End Points In STARS you can overwrite critical and connate saturations and endpoints from the tables. These settings can be found on the tab Interpolation Set Parameters from the “Rock Types” dialog. For more details.STARS User's Guide Builder . 214 • Rock Fluid Properties . see the section Interpolation Set Number and Parameters in the STARS user manual. These settings can be found on the tab Relative Permeability End Points from the “Rock Types” dialog. Setting Interpolation Set Parameters When working with multiple interpolation sets. interpolation parameters can be set for each interpolation set – phase interpolation parameters. and curvature change parameters. you can specify temperature dependence for critical saturations and endpoints. Alternatively.

Working With Interpolation Sets The “Rock Types” dialog for STARS.STARS • 215 . or modify multiple interpolation sets. Note that when a rock type has multiple interpolation sets. you can then create. the tab labeled Rocktype Properties will continue to display parameters that apply to all interpolation sets for the selected rock type. or rock type. The other tabs will be reflect relative permeability data and interpolation set parameters for the selected interpolation set. includes controls to work with multiple interpolation sets. If you make any changes. when working with multiple interpolation sets. When you check Use Interpolation. Also. User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . Builder will require you to save changes if you try to select a different interpolation set. copy. The data fields on the tabs of the dialog will then include fields for parameters that only apply when multiple interpolation sets are defined. Builder’s plot view will display relative permeability curves for the currently displayed interpolation set in the “Rock Types” dialog.

This will permit you to experiment with the table data and cancel at any time. Then click on the button and select the menu option Copy Current Interpolation Set. a new interpolation set can be created that is a duplicate copy of an existing interpolation set. First select the interpolation set to copy form the drop list. or APPLY. The data displayed in the tabs will reflect settings for the selected rock type and selected interpolation set.STARS User's Guide Builder . changes made to the data will not be applied until you select OK. you will be asked if you wish to apply the changes before continuing. 216 • Rock Fluid Properties . Alternatively. builder’s plot view window will display relative permeability curves derived from the table data in the selected rock type and selected interpolation set from the “Rock Types” dialog. On changing the selected rock type or interpolation set. open the “Rock Types” dialog and select the desired rock type and interpolation set from the two drop down lists at the top of the dialog. Adding an Interpolation Set A new interpolation set may be added to the list of available interpolation sets by clicking on the button and selecting New Interpolation Set from the drop down menu. When editing data for a particular interpolation set.Modifying an Interpolation Set To modify an existing interpolation set. While changes to the relative permeability tables are not permanently applied to the dataset until you indicate to do so.

Deleting an Interpolation Set An existing interpolation set can be deleted by first selecting the desired interpolation set from button and select Delete Interpolation Set from the the drop down list. on exiting and returning to the “Rock Types” dialog. Also. therefore Builder will issue a message to make sure that you wish to delete the currently selected interpolation set. in the event that there is only one interpolation set defined for the currently displayed rock type.STARS • 217 . User's Guide Builder Rock Fluid Properties . Note that Builder will prevent you from deleting the last remaining interpolation set. Builder will assume that interpolation is not being used. Note that you cannot cancel from this operation. Then click on the drop down menu. As each interpolation set is removed the remaining interpolation sets are renamed so that the interpolation set numbers are sequential. since the simulator requires a minimum of one rock type defined for the dataset.

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When accessing initial conditions interface from the tree view. To some extent the required information for this section depends on the information entered in the Component Properties section (see Fluid Model – IMEX section). reference depth and pressure. Both the Standard and Advanced interfaces have four buttons at the bottom of the dialogs. Depending on the initialization information entered one of the two interfaces will appear. Additional information that can be entered in this section includes the capillary-gravity method of calculating vertical equilibrium. User's Guide Builder Initialization . bubble point and dew point pressure. three phase contact depths. (See the Standard Interface description given below. The initialization interface can be accessed in two manners.IMEX Overview The Initial Conditions section allows you to enter information regarding the state of the reservoir at initial time. c) Apply and d) Help. either through the main menu Initial Conditions/Initialization Settings… or from the tree view button labeled Initial. simply double click on the desired tree item and the appropriate interface will appear. light oil volume fraction. b) Cancel. Standard Interface The Standard Interface is a single form which provides a quick and easy way of entering the most commonly used initialization parameters. datum depth. Before data for the Initial Conditions section can be entered a fluid component model must be selected. The Initial section provides two main interfaces: 1.IMEX • 219 .Initialization . a) OK.) 2. the Advanced interface can always be access from the standard interface by selecting the button labeled Advanced. Advanced Interface This interface consists of three tabs covering all reservoir initialization relevant parameters to utilize the full capabilities of IMEX. However. The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the interface and save any changes made. etc. (See the Advanced Interface description given below).

Datum Depth specification used the option that the initial equilibrium pressure distribution in the reservoir will be used to calculate the corrected datum pressures. For the capillary-gravity method of calculating vertical equilibrium. Double clicking on an item on the tree will bring up the relevant interface. c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the interface. You can select this button There is an addition comments button to view and edit comments related to specific interface items. Display dataset for section – will display the Initial Condition information as it will be stored in the dataset. 4. The current status of the Initial Conditions information is signaled by icons under the tree view button labeled Initial and on the different items on the tree view.b) Cancel – will close the interface but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first. Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the interface with the current focus. 2.IMEX User's Guide Builder . 220 • Initialization . There is a single PVT Region defined. Validate – will display a list of all the warning and error messages. the saturation assigned to a given grid block is the average over the grid block volume of the saturations. 3. Expand/Collapse tree – will simply expand and collapse the branch for the different items on the tree. The Bubble Point Pressure is a constant define by a grid property array. on the bottom far left. Tree View Items and Menu Right clicking on the Initial Conditions tree view section will pop up the follow menu. Standard Interface The Standard Interface will appear when a new dataset is created or if the following conditions are met: 1.

User's Guide Builder Initialization . The Advanced Interface can be accessed from the Standard Interface by clicking on the button labeled Advanced. Light Oil Volume fraction or depth dependent tables of these properties. the Advanced interface needs to be used. The radio buttons for the Bubble Point pressure provide short cut to defining the constant bubble point pressure array. including Bubble Point.Only the constant Bubble Point pressure array format can be entered using this interface. Including Vertical Equilibrium calculation using block center option. the use of multiple initialization regions and the use of dew point pressure and light oil volume fraction.IMEX • 221 . This property can also be entered in the Reservoir tree view button under the Array Properties tree item (see Reservoir Description section). To access other properties such as Dew Point pressure. Advanced Interface The Advanced Interface gives access to all the available initialization parameters.

This interface consist of three tabs 1) Calculation Methods. using the Specify Property and Calculate Property options (see Reservoir Description section). Depending on the options selected in this tab. water and gas. oil and gas) needed to perform gravity-capillary equilibrium initialization. These properties must be entered in the Reservoir tree view button under the Array Properties tree item. different parameters in the other two tabs will be enabled or disabled based on what is allowed and not allowed for the different options. Which of these options are enabled will depend on the fluid model selected in the Component Properties section (see Fluid Model – IMEX section). 1. If you select the “User Specified…” option then the specification of initial pressures and saturations are required. whether block centered. block averaged or user defined.IMEX User's Guide Builder . Calculation Methods The Calculation Methods tab allows the selection of the capillary-gravity method of calculating vertical equilibrium. 222 • Initialization . 2) PVT Region Parameters and 3) Advanced Parameters. As well as selecting the initial phases presents (water and oil. water.

If a PVT Type property is not defined for a PVT region then the notice will be updated to reflect that. PVT Region Parameters The PVT Region Parameters tab holds most of the initialization parameters for the different PVT Regions. For reference.2. found in Components tree view button (see Fluid Model – IMEX section). The PVT region information includes a reference depth. Adding and deleting PVT Regions will appropriately update the list of initialization regions found in this interface. The parameters for the different regions can be viewed by selecting the desired region from the combo box. The number of PVT initialization region information that needs to be entered depends on the number of PVT regions defined in the Fluid Model section. User's Guide Builder Initialization . a reference pressure and three phase contact depths. a sentence just below the combo box describes the number of blocks defined for the selected region and also the depth range of the region. To add or delete PVT regions you must use the IMEX PVT Regions interface. This notice is related to the PVT Type grid array property. This property can be viewed in the Reservoir tree view tab. and overriding water saturation default. NOTE: The initialization regions can not be added or deleted in this interface.IMEX • 223 . the capillary pressure at the phase contacts. datum depth information.

the corresponding property will be updated only as a constant property. If the array format for these parameters is more complicated than the constant format. This will automatically update what options are displayed on the left hand side of the tab. The PVT Region Parameters tab also lets you enter information for Dew Point and Bubble Point pressure as well as Light Oil Volume Fraction either for depth dependent tables or constant grid array property format. can be selected at the top of the tab by choosing the appropriate radio button. if there is only one PVT region then a PVT Type which encompasses the entire grid. When using the property array format.IMEX User's Guide Builder . Note: Under certain circumstances when entering either the Standard or Advanced interface and there are no PVT Type define. Thus selecting array format will delete the table information entered or selecting the table format will delete the array information. 224 • Initialization . will automatically be created. Dew Point and Bubble Point pressure and Light Oil Volume Fraction. whether table or array format. Bubble Point Pressure or Light Oil Volume Fraction can not be properly updated. using the Specify Property and Calculate Property or Edit Property options (see Reservoir Description section). Selecting one format or the other will and saving the changes will cause the other information to be deleted. To copy the information from a different region click on the button labeled Copy data from region… and the following window will appear. This interface allows you to select the information from which region you wish to copy. The input format for these properties. If no corresponding PVT Type property has been defined for a given region then the parameters Dew Point Pressure. Which of these properties are available will depend on which Fluid Model was selected (see IMEX simulator manual and Fluid Model – IMEX section).Initialization information can be copied from a different region to the current region being edited. This update will be done only to the corresponding region defined in the PVT Type property. Also note that only one format (either array or table) is allowed for each of the parameters. the property arrays must then be specified in the Reservoir tree view button under the Array Properties tree item.

As well the corresponding status icon will be displayed on the Initial Conditions button of the tree view. Values entered with units different than the current working units will be converted and the converted value will be displayed with the current working units. Data Validation When a dataset is initially read in any error encountered in this section will by noted by error or warning messages. In these cases a list of relevant error messages is given. Under certain circumstances if there is information needed which has not been entered.IMEX • 225 . Required changes can then be made and saved. you are not allowed to exit the interface until the required information is entered. Values may be entered as a number only or as a value followed by a space and the units used. an error message is displayed. Also values entered will be displayed with their respective current working units. This tab includes the residual oil saturation. Advanced Parameters. User's Guide Builder Initialization . The information entered in the Standard or Advanced interfaces is once again validated when the Apply or OK buttons are selected. The Advanced Parameters tab hold parameters and options which are not often used. You can then enter the Initial Conditions interfaces and review the information. As well there is some basic validation done when values are entered into edit boxes. For example if a numerical value is expected and a non numerical value is entered.3.

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etc. Double clicking on an item on the tree will bring up the relevant interface. Expand/Collapse tree – will simply expand and collapse the branch for the different items on the tree. Display dataset for section – will display the Initial Condition information as it will be stored in the dataset. To some extent the required information for this section depends on the information entered in the Component Properties section (see Fluid Model – GEM section). Validate – will display a list of all the warning and error messages. simply double click on the desired tree item and the appropriate interface will appear. datum depth. Tree View Items and Menu Right clicking on the Initial Conditions tree view section will pop up the follow menu. reference depth and pressure. Other information includes gas plant tables. The current status of the Initial Conditions information is signaled by icons under the tree view button labeled Initial and on the different items on the tree view. User's Guide Builder Initialization – GEM • 227 . The initialization interface can be accessed in two manners. either through the main menu Initial Conditions/Initialization Settings… or from the tree view button labeled Initial Conditions.Initialization – GEM Overview The Initial Conditions section allows you to enter information regarding the state of the reservoir at initial time. three phase contact depths. Additional information that can be entered in this section includes the capillary-gravity method of calculating vertical equilibrium. bubble point and dew point pressure. When accessing initial conditions interface from the tree view. light oil volume fraction. specification of non-EOS stream density calculations and well separators.

the definition of multiple initialization regions. block averaged or user defined. 2) Init. as well as the oil zone and gas cap compositions and variation of composition with depth. Calculation Methods The Calculation Methods tab allows the selection of the capillary-gravity method of calculating vertical equilibrium. Region Parameters and 3) Advanced Parameters. As well as selecting the initial phases presents (water and oil. whether block centered. water and gas. Depending on the options selected in this tab. comp) needed to perform gravity-capillary equilibrium initialization. water.Entering and Editing Initial Conditions The Initial Conditions interface gives access to all the non-array initialization parameters. 228 • Initialization – GEM User's Guide Builder . different parameters in the other two tabs will be enabled or disabled based on what is allowed and not allowed for the different options. oil and gas. Some of the parameters and options include the different capillary-gravity methods of calculating vertical equilibrium. This interface consist of three tabs 1) Calculation Methods. 1.

pressure at phase contacts. Region Parameters tab holds most of the initialization parameters for the different initialization Regions. These properties must be entered in the Reservoir tree view button under the Array Properties tree item. a sentence just below the combo box describes the number of blocks defined for the selected region and also the depth range of the region. water saturation. composition tables as well as variation of composition with depth table (only when using the COMP option). Region Parameters The Init. critical depth. oil and gas cap.If you select the “User Specified…” option then the specification of initial pressures and saturations and the initial grid block global composition on a component-by-component basis are required. If an Initialization Region Type property is not defined for an Init. 2. Region then the notice will be updated to reflect that. For reference. Init. a reference pressure and three phase contact depths. The parameters for the different regions can be viewed by selecting the desired region from the combo box. This notice is related to the Initialization Region Type grid array property. The initialization region information includes a reference depth. This property can be viewed in the Reservoir tree view tab. cap. using the Specify Property and Calculate Property options (see Reservoir Description section). User's Guide Builder Initialization – GEM • 229 .

a) Add New Region – this will create a new region with all field empty. which can be found in the Reservoir tree view button under the Array Properties tree item.Clicking on the button with the right arrow key will bring up a menu with five choices. c) Copy Values From A Region – the will copy the information from another region to the currently displayed region. Advanced Parameters. b) Add New Region By Copying – this will create a new region by coping the information from an existing region. 3. NOTE: When adding or deleting Initialization Regions make sure to properly update the property array Initialization Region Type. Use the Specify Property and Calculate Property or Edit Property options to change the values (see Reservoir Description section). 230 • Initialization – GEM User's Guide Builder . d) Delete Current Region – deletes the currently displayed region.

molar rates. edit and validate the separators. on the bottom far left. These are separators through which the produced fluids are assigned surface stream compositions. b) Cancel – will close the interface but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first. To create a new separator simply double click on the tree item labeled Default Separator for Initial Condition or Separators for the Well & Recurrent section. As well as initial fluid-in-place calculation methods and injector standard pressure. temperature and EOS set.) The following is the separator edit dialog. double click on the specific separator.The Advanced Parameters tab hold parameters and options which are not often used. (Note: right clicking on the tree view item will popup a menu which allows you at add. On the tree view you will then find the corresponding tree view items. To edit an existing separator. Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. For the Default Separator select the “Initial Conditions” button. The Initial Conditions interface also has four buttons at the bottom of the dialogs. For the Well Separators select the “Well & Recurrent” button. You can select this button There is an addition comments button to view and edit comments related to specific interface items. a) Default Separator – defined in the initial conditions section and used for initial fluid-in-place calculations. and volumetric rates. d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the interface with the current focus. To access any of these separator options simply select the appropriately labelled tree view button. Separators There are two types of separators. c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the interface. delete. a) OK. In either case the Separator interface will appear. The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the interface and save any changes made. b) Cancel. This tab includes the capillary pressure at the phase contacts. c) Apply and d) Help. b) Well Separators – defined in the well and recurrent section. User's Guide Builder Initialization – GEM • 231 . and residual oil saturation.

The date for which the separator is set can be selected by using the date combo box provided at the top of the dialog or a new date not on the list can be chosen by using the date button next to the combo box. 232 • Initialization – GEM User's Guide Builder . long or short) can be selected from the radio buttons on the top left-hand corner. a) OK. Select a stream from the tree view and the right side of the dialog will change. revealing the different streams available and allowing you to edit them. the right hand side will change in order to allow the appropriate items to be edited.). A corresponding dialog will appear (i. (Note: for the Default Separator the date selection combo box and date button are not enabled since this separator belongs only in the Initial Conditions section. The Separator interface also has four buttons at the bottom of the dialogs. The separator streams can be modified on this interface as well.By clicking different items on the tree. c) Apply and d) Help.e. The creating and editing of Plant Tables for the stages and Density Tables and Component Mass Density Sets for the stream can be accomplished by clicking on the Edit Table button. The separator format used (i. The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the interface and save any changes made. For the long format different stages can be added or deleted by clicking the Add Stage or Delete Stage buttons. b) Cancel.e. Modifying the well list can be done by clicking the Edit Wells button at which point a well selection dialog will appear. Editing Separator Related Tables which is described in the appropriate section below).

Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. Allowing you modify the different table or set available. d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the interface with the current focus. The following Editing Separator Related Tables dialog will appear. Adding and deleting tables or sets may be done by selecting the appropriate items on the tree and clicking the Add Table or Delete Table buttons on the dialog. You can select this There is an additional comments button button to view and edit comments related to specific interface items. User's Guide Builder Initialization – GEM • 233 .b) Cancel – will close the interface but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first. Gas Plant Tables The creating and editing of Plant Tables for the stages and Density Tables and Component Mass Density Sets for the stream can be accomplished by clicking on the Edit Table button in the Separator interface (please see description above). c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the interface. on the bottom far left. Selecting different item on the tree will update the left-hand side of the dialog.

Specification of Non-EOS Stream Density Calculations The table and component density sets which allow the computation of the mass density of surface streams of separators can be edited by using the same interface described above in the Gas Plant Tables section. For example if a numerical value is expected and a non numerical value is entered. As well the corresponding status icon will be display on the Initial button of the tree view. c) Apply and d) Help. Also values entered will be displayed with their respective current working units. You can select this button to view and edit comments related to specific interface items. c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the interface. d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the interface with the current focus. As well there is some basic validation done when values are entered into edit boxes. a) OK. The interface allows you to edit the Stream Density Tables and Component Density Sets. b) Cancel. Values entered with units different than the current working units will be converted and the converted value will be displayed with the current working units. 234 • Initialization – GEM User's Guide Builder . The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the interface and save any changes made. b) Cancel – will close the interface but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first. You can then enter the Initial Conditions interfaces and review the information. The table editing interface also has four buttons at the bottom of the dialogs. Values may be entered as a number only or as a value followed by a space and the units used. Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. Data Validation When a dataset is initially read in any error encountered in this section will by noted by error or warning messages. In these cases a list of relevant error messages is given.The date for which the table is set can be selected by using the date combo box provided at the top of the dialog or a new date not on the list can be chosen by using the date button next to the combo box. Under certain circumstances if there is information needed which has not been entered. Required changes can then be made and saved. The information entered in the Standard or Advanced interfaces is once again validated when the Apply or OK buttons are selected. There is an additional comments button on the bottom far left. an error message is displayed. you are not allowed to exit the interface until the required information is entered.

reference depth and pressure and three phase contact depths.Initialization – STARS Overview The Initial Conditions section allows you to enter information regarding the state of the reservoir at initial time. User's Guide Builder Initialization – STARS • 235 . The initialization interface can be accessed in two manners. When accessing initial conditions interface from the tree view. simply double click on the desired tree item and the appropriate interface will appear. initial reservoir saturations. Display dataset for section – will display the Initial Condition information as it will be stored in the dataset. Expand/Collapse tree – will simply expand and collapse the branch for the different items on the tree. Validate – will display a list of all the warning and error messages. Double clicking on an item on the tree will bring up the relevant interface. Additional information that can be entered in this section includes capillary-gravity method of calculating vertical equilibrium. Right clicking on the Initial Conditions tree view section will pop up the follow menu. either through the main menu Initial Conditions/Initialization Settings… or from the tree view button labeled Initial. Tree View Items and Menu The current status of the Initial Conditions information is signaled by icons under the tree view button labeled Initial and on the different items on the tree view.

solid concentration. phase mole fractions. using the Specify Property and Calculate Property or Edit Property options (see Reservoir Description section). bubble point pressure. gas). reference depth and pressure and three phase contact depths. pressures and temperature.Entering and Editing Initial Conditions The Stars Initial Conditions interface allows you to edit non property array initialization parameters such as capillary-gravity methods of calculating vertical equilibrium. initial reservoir saturations. To view the non array parameters for a given region select the desired region from the combo box. you must add the properties in the Reservoir tree view tab under the Array Properties tree item. To enter and edit property arrays such as initial saturation (water. 236 • Initialization – STARS User's Guide Builder . oil.

c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the interface. b) Cancel – will close the interface but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first. As well the corresponding status icon will be display on the Initial button of the tree view.Clicking on the button with the right arrow key will bring up a menu with five choices. Use the Specify Property and Calculate Property or Edit Property options to change the values (see Reservoir Description section). The Initial Conditions interface also has four buttons at the bottom of the dialogs. on the bottom far left. Also values entered will be displayed with their respective current working units. a) OK. For example if a numerical value is expected and a non numerical value is entered. c) Copy Values From A Region – the will copy the information from another region to the currently displayed region. Values may be entered as a number only or as a value followed by a space and the units used. an error message is displayed. The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the interface and save any changes made. Required changes can then be made and saved. Data Validation When a dataset is initially read in any error encountered in this section will by noted by error or warning messages. The information entered in Initial Conditions interface is once again validated when the Apply or OK buttons are selected. NOTE: When adding or deleting Initialization Regions make sure to properly update the property array Initialization Set Number. Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. User's Guide Builder Initialization – STARS • 237 . d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the interface with the current focus. b) Cancel. b) Add New Region By Copying – this will create a new region by coping the information from an existing region. If there are any errors or warnings a list of the messages will be given. which can be found in the Reservoir tree view button under the Array Properties tree item. Values entered with units different than the current working units will be converted and the converted value will be displayed with the current working units. As well there is some basic validation done when values are entered into edit boxes. You can select this button There is an addition comments button to view and edit comments related to specific interface items. d) Delete Current Region – deletes the currently displayed region. a) Add New Region – this will create a new region with all fields empty. You can then enter the Initial Conditions interface and review the information. c) Apply and d) Help.

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A right-button mouse click will pop-up a context menu specific for each tree item that in general gives options to add new. Each data item has a symbolic icon. Validation status is shown as an overlay image on the symbols when warnings or errors are detected. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 239 . The Tree-view in the Well and Recurrent section displays all data items related to wells. validate and change properties. delete. set production/ injection constraints. Double-clicking on a tree-view item opens a property control panel for that item. define well completions and other properties as a function of time.Well and Group Control Overview The Well and Recurrent data section is where you define wells and groups. groups and dates available in the dataset.

Use menu item Open Time-Line View from the main Well menu or click the tool bar button to open this view. Data can be averaged to reduce the number of well changes. This is a quick and easy way for understanding well status. which provides you with an over view of when different well and other event occur in time. The Time-line view is in a floating window. The Time-line view has several useful features and functions: • • • A Time scale with variable length and units Accessing data property controls Plotting well and group constraints 240 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . to perform overall data quality checking and to access data controls. based on the imported data. If you have large amounts of injection and production data. Time-line View of Recurrent Data The Time-line view has been designed to show well activities and other recurrent data on a time scale. so you can keep the view open while using the first monitor to interact with Builder.A new feature introduced in Builder 2004 is the Time-Line View. and hence reduce the time required for a simulation run. The Production Data Wizard will set injection and production constraints for well. Builder provides a Production Data Wizard to assist you in importing this data. It can stay open for as long as needed while you are using other controls. If your computer has a second monitor it will be very convenient to drag the time-line view to the second monitor.

Given a start date. Date/Time Information Well and Recurrent Data section must contain at least one date (start date) at the beginning of this section. Double clicking on a particular data item. The simulators have a default starting date if it is not found in this section. When this window is opening. In Builder the start date is set when new dataset is created. Note that if time is used. The dialog window called Simulation Dates provides tools to add new or remove those dates that contain no recurrent data items. from the earliest to the latest. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 241 . The window is available by selecting Dates from Well menu or by double-clicking on the Dates item in the section tree-view. unless you need to increase simulator output frequency. You can enter a single date or time. it refers to the elapsed time (for example in days) from the simulation start date. The date/times are all expected to follow the chronological order. event or time scale will bring a corresponding property control panel. Adding/Removing Dates Builder automatically creates date entries for all recurrent data items whenever they are added to the dataset. Builder always uses date format to display and writing out recurrent data.• • • • • • Probing data with a press of the left mouse button Displaying fixed notes Exporting image files and copy images to the Windows clipboard Printing the whole image on one page of any available size Options to hide/display chosen data items Legend information at the bottom of the view All functions and controls of time-line view are available from the context menu that pops up when you right-click with the mouse in the view area. it updates all recurrent data items to get existing dates and find if they are empty. having empty dates is not required. In fact. or a series of dates or times. subsequent recurrent data is set by entering a new date or time and then entering the simulation information for that date or time.

Press button Add a new date to bring a common calendar window that enables you to enter new date or time from the simulation start. Adding Dates Open Simulation Dates dialog window.This window shows all dates existing in the dataset. Pressing button Add a range of dates enables you to create a range of new dates with the chosen frequency. The window checks that new date will not repeat any existing one. It enables to set simulation STOP and comments for each date. 242 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .

set constraints and injected fluid properties. Events that set constraints and other properties in chronological order. Press button Delete all empty dates to automatically find all empty dates and remove them after a confirmation question. Type PRODUCER or INJECTOR (constant in time). User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 243 . Here you can enter well definition information including name. group name. Add new well button enables you to create new well(s) and immediately reset the control panel for the next new one so that you do not have to reopen the window several times. Multiple wells can be created at once with the same properties if you put a comma (. Only the ID & Type data is required to define a new well. type. otherwise the data must be removed prior to it.) separated list of names in the Name edit box. Press buttons Delete selected dates to remove empty dates that you have selected in the grid control. first definition date. It is recommended to check that any dataset has a minimum of redundant date entries. Adding New Wells Select Well New from Well menu or New from the context menu after right-clicking on any Well item in the tree-view. You can check the Time-Line view to see what data exists on a particular date. Each well is defined with: • • • • • • Unique name with 1 to 40 characters (except * and ?). other properties like constraints can be set later on. Trajectory data (optional) that may have one main branch and several multilateral legs. Completions also called model wells or PERF cards. Well Data The well data is found on the section tree-view under the root item Wells(#).Deleting Dates Deleting a date is possible only if it contains no recurrent data items. Group affiliation (optional). Having a big number of empty dates in a dataset may significantly impact simulator run time by increasing a number of time steps and output operations. Each trajectory branch may have perforation intervals on various dates. It should open a Create New Well control panel.

constraint multipliers. Each well event has a corresponding keyword in the simulator dataset thus the order and content of well events is a reflection of dataset syntax. constraints. The top level group cannot attach wells. It will open a window that shows in chronological order all attach-to commands or affiliation by groups.The group attaching the well must be defined in the dataset as a 2nd or 3rd level group. Deleting Wells A well can be deleted by right-clicking on the chosen well item in the tree-view and selecting Delete from context menu. status and other properties set in time. Well Events Well events is a collection of data items related to a particular well that includes well definition. A pop-up question box will ask you to confirm this action. In order to see the current grouping status you can select Group & Well Connections from Well menu. edit and delete existing events. There are several ways to open this window: 244 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Multiple or all wells can be deleted at once if you right-click on the root tree-item Wells(#) and selected Delete from context menu. Builder has a single dialog window called Well Events that provides controls to add new. The group status is updated automatically when well is deleted. This command will open a well selection window where you can choose a number of wells to delete together. One group can attach only wells or only groups but not both wells and groups.

The right side on the dialog window shows controls to set the event data arranged on several tabs. If the list seems to be too long and inconvenient for scrolling you can use well filter button at the top of the list to display only the selected subset of wells.• • • select Well Events from Well menu double click on a particular event item on the tree or time-line view select Properties from context menu after right-clicking on a particular event item on the tree or time-line view The list control on the left side contains all well events defined by the keywords existing in the dataset. Scroll the list control on the left side of the dialog window and select a needed well name. Select an existing date in the combo box at the top of the window or use a calendar button next to combo box to set a new date. Adding Well Events 1. Open Well Event dialog window. When you select a well event in the list control the corresponding tab page is shown brining the event settings to display. Some tabs show controls for many different event types and some for one particular event only. Current well name and date is printed at the very top of the window in bold font. 3. The list can be sorted by well name (default mode) or by date depending on the selected radio button below the list. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 245 . 2.

Adding Well Constraints According to the dataset syntax. 246 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Press Apply button.4. If Ok button is clicked the dialog will be closed immediately. the 1st one for flow rate and the 2nd for bottom-hole pressure control. 5. Click Apply or Ok button to validate and enter new settings. Injection fluid composition (required for all injections wells). In this case the control changes will apply to all selected wells on the single current date. Open Well Event dialog window 2. The controls for each of the data items may change depending on well and simulator types. 3. New Well Constraint Definition 1. monitor and penalty constraints. If Wellbore and Injected Fluid is required than set it on the corresponding tabs for the same well and date. Select the well name in the event list. Each new constraint definition completely overwrites the pervious one including well-bore and injection fluid data. It is very common to have two operate constraints. If only the primary constraint value need to be changed after the constraints have been defined than you can use event ALTER to set a new value. Injected steam parameters (required for injectors in simulator STARS) On the tree view you can see these data items in small letter-case as a subset under the main keywords PRODUCER and INJECTOR. Select an existing date from the combo box or add a new one 4. Select a tab that has setting for corresponding event and set the event check box ON to enables input of data. Operate. Multiple wells can be selected in the list using Ctrl of Shift buttons. A well type (PRODUCER or INJECTOR) which cannot change in time for a well. Event TARGET can also be used to set new or change existing constraint. 6. Monitor and penalty constraints are optional. 2. The 1st operate constraint in the list is the primary. Set ON a check box Constraint definition at the top of Constraints tab and enter your data into the well constant list. 5. 5. Fill in event data settings. If Apply button is clicked than the dialog window stays open and the event list is updated. This is very convenient way to define wells when they have similar properties. 3. Well-bore definition is required for pressure drop calculations only in case when well-head pressure (WHP) constraint has been set or you need to print out wellhead pressure in the output file. These two events are special in a way that they combine several data items together: 1. 4. At least one operate constraint is required. the well constraints are grouped together with the PRODUCER or INJECTOR keywords.

If destination well already has this constraint type (like STO). Tool buttons below the list enable you to control the number and order of constraints: . The dialog looks like: User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 247 . Seawater Model (IMEX only) The top part of this dialog is for specifying the scale deposit and damage tables for the IMEX sea water simulation model. and the bottom part is for specifying the scale removal options.List of Well Constraints List of well constraints must have one or more operate constraints and any number (or zero) of monitor and penalty constraints. To add a new entry in the constraint list select a type of new constraint from drop-down box “Select new” at the end of the list.delete selected constraint .plot well constraints .move selected constraint up and down on the list .commands to copy or delete a single selected constraint to other wells Rules for coping selected constraints: • • Destination wells must be of the same type and have event PRODUCER or INJECTOR set on the selected date(s). than the old constraint is deleted and the new one is added. The very first operate constraint is called primary. Fill other parameters on the new line.

Damage Table. It is very common that some events need to be repeated for several wells and/or dates. 3. Deposit Table. and Scale fraction. Right click in the list control or press Tools button to bring the command menu. Setup search conditions and create a list of well & date pairs that will be the destination for the new copies (see the section “Using the Well & Date Filter”). To do these you need to check the “Assign the scale deposit and damage …” and/or the “Partially or totally removing…” check boxes first. 6. The events to be copied must belong to a single well and date. However. 4. 248 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Coping Well Events New events are first created for one selected well and date. 1. Select the events that need to be copied (as a source) in the list control.The global set-ups. you can modify the global setups for individual layers via the 2 grids. In this case you can use event copy function. Press Ok button. Opening Well Event dialog window 2. 5. are applied to a whole well. Select command “Copy events using filter”.

3. It works similar in delete mode with the difference that it does not have an option of creating new dates. Using the Well & Date Filter Well & Date Filter is a dialog window used to setup a list of well & date pairs for coping or removing well events. 5. Changing Events Settings 1. 2. Set the check box OFF for selected event and press Apply or OK buttons. Answer “Yes” in the confirmation box. 3. 3. Enter new data values in the corresponding fields and press the Apply or OK buttons. 4. 4. The quick way to delete selected events: 1. 3. The text in the window title bar shows the type of action. Open the Well Event dialog window from the main Well menu or use a double click or Properties context menu on any event item of the tree or time-line view. Scroll the list control and select a particular well event. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 249 . It is opened when you select a command Copy or Delete using the filter in the Well Event panel. The example below shows how to use the filter for a copy operation. The corresponding tab page will display the event settings. Right click in the list control or press Tools button to pop-up the context menu. Select the command “Delete events selected in the list”. 6. Scroll the list control and select a particular well event. The corresponding tab page will display the event settings. In this example the well event PRODUCER has been selected to be copied to other wells. Setup the search conditions and create a list of well & date pairs existing in the dataset that may have the events to be removed (see the section “Using the Well & Date Filter”). 5. Open the Well Event dialog window.Deleting Well Event Deleting a single well event: 1. 2. Right click in the list control or press Tools button to pop-up the context menu. Open the Well Event dialog window 2. Deleting events of selected type using filter: 1. Open the Well Event dialog window 2. Select the command “Delete events using filter”. Select one or more events in the list control using mouse and Shift or Ctrl keys. Press the OK button. Select events in the list control.

2. Select well names on Select Wells tab. or you can use the auto-select controls. You can do this manually by setting the check marks in the table boxes. This list is preserved when you close and reopen the window. 1. Switch to the next tab Select Dates. 250 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .The list control on the right side of the window contains the selected well & date pairs according to the applied search conditions. Initially this list is empty.

The check box “Pick the 1st match only” enable selecting only one date per well that matches the search conditions. The check box “Do you want to create new dates?” enables you to add new dates to the list one by one or as a whole range. On the next tab Set Search Conditions you can set the optional conditions that work to filter out the names and dates selected in the steps 1 and 2. Multiple search conditions apply together with AND type logic. 4.The table on the left side has a list of all existing well dates that you can select for filtering well & date pairs. 3. Finally. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 251 . Please note that if the option for creating new dates is selected in the step 2 than the search condition will not apply. If no search condition is set than all well & date pairs will be included. The check box “set on the date” can be used for well type and status to chose whether you want to select dates that have this property defined exactly on the date (check ON) or any time prior (check OFF). press the OK button to copy the well event to the selected well & date pairs. Press the Clear List button (near bottom-right corner) to empty the previous search results and than press Search & Add button to run the filter and create new well & date list 5.

Notes: If comments are available for the selected event. Well completion data can be also referred to as PERF cards or model wells. the current tab is automatically changed for each event selected in the list. A small push button with a pin icon. 252 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . 2. Open the Well Event dialog window from the main Well menu or use a double click or Properties context menu on any event item of the tree or time-line view. Well Completions (PERF) Well completions define well locations and flow connections to the grid blocks in the simulation grid. LAYERIJK and KRPERF. 3. By default. PERF. At least one completion is required for each well. then there is check mark on the Comments tab as an indication.Well Event Comments 1. below the comment tab. Scroll the list control on the left side of the dialog window and select a well event. Select the Comments tab to read or write new comments. This may help you to view the comments while you are browsing the event list. enables you to fix the current tab. Well completions include data used in several dataset keywords: GEOMETRY. LAYERXYZ.

The feature can be accessed by pressing the Calculate button next to the skin factor. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 253 . Calculating the Horizontal Well Skin Factor It is possible to provide a better estimation of the well index (WI) for horizontal wells. the WI value is quite often poorly estimated when using the default geometry values for field scale grid block sizes. This feature will re-calculate the skin value required in order to duplicate the WI calculated from the horizontal well analytical calculations. The right-arrow button brings up a context menu with the main commands to create and delete wells and completions. Notice that if you have several completion dates for one well the blue color is used to indicate those items that have different values from the previous date.To open the well completion control panel you can use one of: • • • select Well Completions from Well menu double click on a completion item on tree-view select Properties from context menu after right-clicking on a completion item on tree-view The Well & Date drop-down list (at the top of the dialog) contains all available well completions. As indicated by the dialog that appears when pressing the button.

7. Press button Stop (with the crossed mouse image) to terminate the mouse input mode. Use your mouse device to click on grid blocks in the 2D or 3D reservoir view to add block addresses for well perforations. or have it automatically calculated after importing data of actual well trajectories and perforation intervals (look in the in corresponding trajectory section).Adding New Well Completions Well completions can be created in two different ways: by entering the geometry data and block addresses in the control panel as described below. Switch to tab Perforations 5. 254 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Press button Begin (with the mouse image) to start mouse input mode 6.Add New from the context menu and select a date 3. Press right arrow button to open the context menu (above) 2. Press Apply or OK buttons. Select Completion . User input of new well completion data: Open Well Completion control panel 1. On the tab General select the appropriate well index type and enter the well geometry data 4. 8.

Insert new line below the selected one .Delete selected line User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 255 .Buttons to control inserting new grid blocks from mouse input to put new block above selected. . put new block below selected and start new branch from the selected block.3.This tool button offers options to insert multiple perforation nodes in a line between two mouse clicks. .3 for horizontal one. .1:20.1:6 for vertical well section or 10.Insert new line above the selected one . A range of grid blocks is allowed when typing a UBA address like 3. It works only when trajectory is available for the selected well.As well as using the mouse.Start & stop mouse input of grid blocks from the 2D or 3D reservoir view.A button that enables to set perforation intervals by measured depth and automatically calculate completed grid blocks and fill in the table. UBA string with the range subscript will be automatically expanded into a number of perf layers. It is a quick way to create a whole branch. . Extra features available on tool buttons: . you can manually add new completed blocks or change the existing address. Just add a perforation line (using the tool bar buttons to the left of the table) and type in a user block address UBA and look on the reservoir view for the new node location.

2. 3. click on the attach-to block in the well completion that is going to be that main branch. If you use mouse input then 1. Select the third option and press OK 7. Press the Begin button 5. A question box will appear. Select the well completion that is going to be the leg branch. The general formula for this value is WI = 2 π kh wfrac (md * m ) or (md * ft ) ln(R e / R w ) + S R e = geofac * (π * wfrac) User's Guide Builder (areap) 256 • Well and Group Control . The more effective way to create multilaterals is by using trajectory data (look the trajectory section) that calculates multilateral completions automatically. It is achieved by changing the layer that the branch is attach-to. • Column titled WI shows the estimated well index not including the fluid mobility part. Open the well completion dialog window. Press Stop button to finish mouse input 8. Press Apply or OK to apply the change. Switch to Perforation tab and select the layer which is going to be connected 4.Joining Well Completions (Multilaterals) Builder enables you to setup multilateral (branching) completions. Additional Data Columns The table with perforated grid blocks constrains a few extra columns with yellow background showing information which is not a part of the well completion but calculated for display purpose only. In the 2D or 3D view. 6.

See the simulator manual for complete formulas of well index calculations. Columns Block Top and Block Bottom show average depth or elevation of grid block top and bottom side respectively. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 257 . • • Coping Data Values to Other Well Completions In case you need to copy a data value like well radius or form factor to other well completions there is a quick way of doing it. The selection dialog window will show up to choose the destination well completions: The display can be sorted by well name or completion date. Column Length shows estimated length of perforated well section in the grid block. Select some wells and press OK button to finish the copy operations. well direction and user input on the tab General of well completion panel. Right click with the mouse in the data cell that contains this value and select menu command Copy Data Item.• The specific values for effective permeability and external block radius depend on the grid properties.

Leaving a blank cell retains the default values. Pragmatically. Each node has xyz coordinate and measured depth from the well top (KB elevation). A Trajectory may include multiple perforation intervals. • • First select what type of relative permeability data you want to modify by setting a check mark on the left table. Modeling of water or gas coning around the well may be one of the applications for this controls. Input corresponding values for one or more grid blocks.Relative Permeability Options The last tab on the well completion dialog window provides several options to modify rock type and relative permeability end points in the completed grid blocks. Well Trajectories A Well trajectory is description of a well path through the earth. it is a list of nodes (vertices) that each give a location of the well path in space. to create well completions in your dataset. 258 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . for more accurate completions and a better visual representation. It is recommended that you use well trajectory data. each defined by the measured depth of the start and the end or the perforated interval and the date of the perforation. Builder supports multilateral trajectories with several levels of branching for one well. whenever it is available.

Well Trajectory Import Builder supports a number of file formats to read the well trajectory data. Select the menu item Well→Well Trajectories→Open File to bring up the Import well trajectory wizard User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 259 . and provides automatic unit conversion. 1.

units and location. Check on or off the option to remove all existing trajectories. Click Next button 4. Press Next button 260 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Select the trajectory names that you wish to import. Select the appropriate file format. 5. 3.2. It is recommended to use automatic reduction of trajectory data points (the default) to speed up well calculations and to avoid inflating data file. The trajectory names that already exist in the dataset are highlighted in gray color and can be overwritten.

Entry “*<the same>” indicate that new well will be created with exactly the same name as trajectory. The imported well trajectories are saved at the end of dataset file. Select menu item Well -> Well Trajectories -> Create Trajectories from Completions to open this control panel. Step 3 provides the following options: • • • edit a trajectory name set a new or existing well for imported trajectory (creating a main branch) set parent trajectory (creating a multilateral leg branch) 7. 8. Create Trajectories from Well Completions This function is useful in the case when you have no files with trajectory survey data for importing but current dataset has existing well completions (PERF cards) and you wish to quickly add trajectories and set different perforations intervals. Use well name button to select wells to add trajectories for. Provided that the wells are nearly vertical or horizontal the created trajectories will be quite representative. Set KB elevation for all wells at once or each one individually Press OK button User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 261 . Press Finish to complete and return to the main view or press Go to Perfs button to complete the trajectory import and immediately got to Trajectory Perforations control panel to set or import perforation intervals.6.

A trajectory perforation is a part of raw data used by Builder to create the grid based well completions (PERF card) for simulator input. It is important to understand the difference between trajectory perforations and the well completions used by simulators. Use one of the commands to open the Trajectory Perforations dialog window • • • select menu item Well | Well Trajectories | Perforations double click in tree item Perf Intervals select Properties from context menu after right-clicking on tree item Perf Intervals Tool bar commands: .Trajectory Perforations A Trajectory perforation is a set of perforation intervals with a measured depth start and end at a particular date. plus a few extra commands to manage the table.insert new perforation interval below the marker . A well trajectory must be imported or created before the perforations can be added.add new perforation date for selected well . 262 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .insert new perforation interval above the marker .change perforation date .delete selected perforation intervals A right mouse click in the grid area brings up a context menu with the same commands as the tool bar.delete peroration date .

Quick Perforation The Quick Perf button provides useful options to create new perforation intervals in selected grid layers. Use button Read File to brows for the file location and select file depth units.Reading a perforation file Set the Select check mark for the well trajectories that you want to read new perforations for. Creating well completions from trajectory data The group box at the top of the window provides three options creating well completions for simulator input from trajectory perforations. The selected option is applied when you click on the OK or Apply buttons. The format of perforation file can be found in section Well Perforation File Format. Notice that if the new completion has the same well and date as the existing one then the old will be replaced. Well and Group Control • 263 User's Guide Builder . The format of perforation file can be found in section Well Perforation File Format. • • • Select Do not create to completely avoid changing well completions Select Clear exiting & create new to remove all completions for all wells and than create new completions for selected (having check mark) wells. Select Preserve exiting & create new to keep existing completions and create new for selected (having check mark) wells. Saving a perforation file Set the Select check mark for well trajectories for which you want to save perforations. It can be done for the whole grid or for a list or a range of grid layers. Use button Save File to brows for the file location.

Trajectory Properties Well trajectory combines several data items: • • • own id with “attach-to parent” information well path nodes (list of xyz locations) trajectory perforation intervals. • • Select Create new trajectory to create new blank trajectory object. It is primarily intended for advanced users. Select Create new trajectory copy to create a copy of current trajectory with deferent name. The Trajectory Properties panel enables you to see and modify all of the above information for selected trajectory. There are several ways to open the Trajectory Properties dialog window • • • select menu item Well→Well Trajectories→Properties & Create New double click on the tree item Trajectory select Properties from the context menu after right-clicking on tree item Trajectory Pressing the right arrow button to the right of Trajectory drop down box shows the context menu with a set of commands to create new trajectories and delete existing ones. User's Guide Builder 264 • Well and Group Control .

User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 265 .The 1st tab of the Trajectory Properties control panel called ID data shows the trajectory name and parent that can be either a well (for the trajectory main branch) or another trajectory (for multilateral leg). Notice that only the node with “Original” type are preserved though calculations. Node Type column shows what each node represents. The context menu with commands to control the number of nodes in the table is available on right mouse click. In addition you can use Tools button with a pop-up menu and a number of commands. Press Apply or OK button to save the changes. The 2nd tab of the Trajectory Properties control panel called Nodes shows the table of trajectory nodes that make up the whole well path with added grid block intersections and boundaries of perforation intervals. Other node types are added or removed while calculating intersections with the grid blocks. You can change these settings after checking the Edit button for corresponding item. Most of the time trajectory nodes are imported from a file. but here you have an option to freely input new xyz location by typing or by copy & paste or by editing existing values.

Easy trajectory set-up opens a control panel to create new trajectory path as shown below. Two options are available. It helps in some cases to speedup calculations and reduce file size. Grid block intersections will be recalculated. Reverse order of all nodes (flip) basically turns the trajectory upside-down. • • • • • 266 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . the second to recalculate all starting from zero depth at the top. Chose the appropriate options and click OK to get a new trajectory path. It is an easy way to create some production-injections well pair for advanced recovery processes. Eliminate surplus of original nodes finds and removes extraneous nodes from the well trajectory still preserving the deviation information. particularly with near vertical wells. Compute measured depth allows recalculating measured depth values for trajectory nodes.• Set correction to KB elevation enables you to shift all nodes in z (vertical) direction by changing KB elevation above datum. Compute grid block intersections invokes a function to find grid block intersections of trajectory path and update them in the table. one to preserve existing non-blank values.

Use Open File button to brows and read log file(s). You can repeat this step a number of time reading deferent files. 3. 2. Select type of the well log file and depth units. The only deference is that here all changes happen for single well and trajectory. Currently log information can be displayed only on the probe window when moving cursor along well trajectory in 2D or 2D view. Multiple log files can be opened at once. The command options available on this tab are exactly the same as in stand along dialog Trajectory Perforations (described above).The 3rd tab of the Trajectory Properties control panel called Perforations shows the trajectory perforation intervals. Well Logs Import Builder has an option to import well log files. Select names trajectory to receive the imported logs 6. For more details on Quick Perf and context menu commands see the section Trajectory Perforations. Press OK button. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 267 . To import wells logs: 1. Select names of well logs you wish to import in the left side table 5. Well logs can also be used when creating contour maps. Select menu item Well | Well Trajectories | Import Well Logs to open corresponding control panel. 4.

coping metafile image on clipboard zooming 268 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . legend. Wellbore Diagram The Well bore diagram is designed to display well trajectories and completions in simple 2D view for quick visual understanding and quality checking of well data. image file export.The supported file formats for well log information are described in the section Well Log Formats. page header and footer context menu with control commands available on right mouse click property control panel to change display settings printing. WGC) floating table that shows values of intersected grid blocks and perforation intervals title. WOC. Wellbore diagram includes the following display features: • • • • • • • • • • well path along the axis with true depth and deviation trajectory perforation intervals (as lines along outer sides of well path) intersected and completed grid blocks (as filled sections inside well path) intersected fluid contacts (GOC.

User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 269 .You can open the wellbore view by selecting Open Wellbore Diagram from the Well menu or from the context menu after right clicking on tree item for trajectory or well completions. To change the well in the wellbore diagram select a different trajectory or completion item in the tree view. Notice that for multilateral well completions only the main branch can be displayed on this diagram.

For ease of use it is recommended to define all groups on one date. 270 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .icon for groups with no attachments Adding New Groups To add a new group to the dataset select Group New from Well menu or select New from the context menu after right clicking on Groups item on the tree view. groups and platforms. . It will open Create New Group dialog window. Certain rules apply for creating group structure according to the simulator syntax: • • • • groups must be arranged in 2 or 3 levels top level group (filed) can attach only other groups and no wells second level group can attach wells or groups but not both at the same time third level group can attach wells only Notice: when all groups have been defined using GROUP cards and all group constraints have set.icon for groups attaching wells .Wellbore view context menu: Group Settings Groups are used to simulate gathering centers. Group structure is shown on the tree view under Groups root items.icon for groups attaching other groups . set production injection or cycling constraints and receive output for multiple wells. any later specification of a previous or new group using a GROUP keyword requires the user to completely respecify all group actions. properties and constraints.

if needed 6. Press OK or Add new group. Set the group definition date 5. Select a group item on the tree view 2. Enter a unique group name 2. Use the Attach Wells button to select attached well names 4. Enter group production.1. Deleting Groups 1. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 271 . Select Delete command 4. No wells are removed in this process. Right lick on it with a mouse to open context menu 3. Click OK in confirmation box Notice that if deleted group has other groups attached than they all will be deleted too. Select parent group 3. Pressing Add new group creates new group and immediately resets all controls for adding next one so that you do not have to reopen this window several times. injection and monitor constraints.

at a particular time.Group Events A Group event is a collection of data items related to a particular group that includes group definition. Builder has a single dialog window called Group Events that provides controls to add new events or the edit and delete existing events. The right side on the dialog window shows controls to set the event data arranged on several tabs. 272 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . constraints.thus the order and content of group events is a reflection of the dataset syntax. constraint multipliers. Current group name and date is printed at the very top of the window in bold font. recycling and other properties. When you select a group event in the list control the corresponding tab page is shown brining the event settings to display. There are several ways to open this window: • • • select Group Events from Well menu double clicking on a particular event item on the tree or time-line view select Properties from context menu after right-clicking on a particular event item on the tree or time-line view The list control on the left side contains all group events defined by the keyword existing in the dataset. Each group event has a corresponding keyword in the simulator dataset . The list can be sorted by group name (default mode) or by date depending on the selected radio button below the list.

This entry can not be deleted from this dialog. in the Select Wells To Display area. Read-only. You can only check or uncheck this entry (via the 2nd column). you will be asked to save the changes or discard them. If the Auto Apply Changes checkbox is checked. The grid has 4 columns: Entry – Entry ID. changes made to the current selected group will be applied automatically after the group selection changes or one of the All or ByFilter buttons is clicked. The group’s definition date is displayed on the right side of the drop down box (1986-04-22 in the above figure). ALL is for selecting all available wells and ByFilter is opening the Well Selection dialog to select the wells based on different criteria. Otherwise. The entry ID with * on the right side indicates that this entry is a well definition.Adding Wells to Group Open the Well-Group Attachment dialog by clicking the button Attach Wells … from the Definition tab on the Group Events dialog: The Well Group drop down box displays the group currently selected (Gather-2 in this case). There are 2 buttons. Its date can not be changed either. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 273 . The main grid area will update accordingly if the current group selection is changed. All and ByFilter.

Enter new data values in the corresponding fields and press Apply or OK. 3. Scroll the list control and select a particular group event. The corresponding tab page will display the event settings. . are used. Open the Group Event dialog window from the main Well menu or by using a double click or the Properties context menu on any event item of the tree or timeline view. You can select date if this entry is not a well definition entry and the Well column cell is checked. If OK button is clicked the dialog will be closed immediately. 3. 274 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Uncheck the check box to remove this well from the current group at the date shown in the Date column If date in the Date column is not a well definition date. you can also change the date at which you want the well added to the current group. Changing events settings 1. Date – The date at which the well is added to the group indicated by the Group column cell. 2. Open Group Event dialog. Fill in event data settings. If the current selected group is the default group you can not uncheck the check box to remove it from the default group. Read-only.Well – Well name. to The 3 tool buttons on the left side of the grid. 2. Group – Group name. . and to delete the currently selected entry. Adding group events 1. 5. Click Apply or OK button to validate and enter new settings. 4. Select a group name in the list control on the left side of the window. If Apply button is clicked than the dialog window stays open and the event list is updated. and . The check box will be checked if the well already belongs to the current selected group at the date shown in the Date column. 6. Select an existing date in the combo box at the top of the window or use the calendar button next to combo box to set a new date. respectively. insert a new entry before the currently selected entry. to insert a new entry after the currently selected entry. Select a tab that has setting for corresponding event and set the event check box ON to enables input of data. • • • • Check the check box to add this well to the current group at the date shown in the Date column.

move selected constraint down on the list . To add a new entry in the constraint list select a type of new constraint from drop-down box “Select new” at the end of the list and enter other parameters on the new line.move selected constraint up on the list .plot group constraints User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 275 . Set check box OFF for selected event and press Apply or OK buttons.Deleting group event 1. List of group constraints Type and number of group constraints is completely optional for production. Open Group Event dialog window. injection or monitoring purpose. 3.delete selected constraint . Tool buttons below the list enable you to control the number and order of constraints: . Scroll the list control and select a particular group event. The corresponding tab page will display the event settings. 2.

If the Priority Ranking method selected you need to enter the priority formula. The Well Group Pressure Maintenance (PMAINT) dialog is used to define and/or modify this constraint.The PMAINT (pressure maintenance) group constraint is a complex constraint. the group apportionment targets are displayed as check-boxes. and apportionment method is selected via the drop-down combo-box for this target. and looks like: Group Apportionment Methods For a well group there are 4 possible (1 production and 3 injection) apportionment targets. For each target you can specify one of the four available apportionment methods. which is fired up by clicking the Formula button for this target. The dialog looks like: 276 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . The dialog can be launched by clicking the Edit button in the PMAINT constraint value column. In the dialog. The required priority formula for priority ranking method will be specified via Priority Formula for Ranking Apportionment dialog. It is for both production and injection.

Please refer the appropriate simulator manual for details. This is done through the Priority Formula portion of the above dialog.You can also just define a priority formula and not used it right way. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 277 . The priority formula can be defined via Priority Formula for Ranking Apportionment dialog as the following: Priority formulae are different for different targets and simulators.

The dialog is as following: 278 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .Group ON-TIME This event can be defined via the Options dialog. It looks like: Cycling Group The purpose of the Cycling Group dialog is to allow the user to define and/or modify cycling group properties. Please refer to the simulator manuals for a detailed description of cycling groups.

and solvent injection (IMEX only). and can be selected via the 4 check-boxes on the upper-right corner of the dialog. The Event combo-box is for the user to select the cycling event to edit. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 279 .For a cycling group there are up-to 4 types of fluid streams that can be manipulated. They are production. water injection. gas injection. There are 5 kinds of cycling events available. It is configured via the control Cycle Part Number (NPARTS). The operation cycle of cycling group consists of 1 to 10 cycle parts.

Please refer to the appropriate simulator manual for more information. 3. 5. Deleting Group Event Deleting a single group event: 1. Press Ok button. 3. 4. 6. Scroll the list control and select a particular well group event. Open the Well Group Event dialog window. The quick way to delete selected events: 1. Right click in the list control or press Tools button to bring the command menu. Coping Group Events New events are first created for one selected well group and date. 4. The corresponding tab page will display the event settings. The number of available operation quantities will change based on the number of cycle parts specified. The events to be copied must belong to a single well group and date. Some of the settings are required. Right click in the list control or press Tools button to pop-up the context menu.The main part of the dialog allows the user to specify and/or modify various cycling operation quantities for each of the defined cycle parts. Answer “Yes” in the confirmation box. Select the events that need to be copied (as a source) in the list control. Open the Well Group Event dialog window 2. 1. but they vary based on the simulator used. Setup search conditions and create a list of well group & date pairs that will be the destination for the new copies (see the following section “Using the Well Group & Date Filter”). In this case you can use group event copy function. 3. Select the command “Delete events selected in the list”. 280 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . 2. Select command “Copy events using filter”. Set the check box OFF for selected event and press Apply or OK buttons. the number of participating streams selected and the simulator being used. Opening Well Group Event dialog window 2. 5. It is very common that some events need to be repeated for several well groups and/or dates. Select one or more events in the list control using mouse and Shift or Ctrl keys.

It works similar in delete mode with the difference that it does not have an option of creating new dates. Right click in the list control or press Tools button to pop-up the context menu. Select events in the list control. Press the OK button. 3. In this example the well group event GCONP and GCOM have been selected to be copied to other well groups. Open the Well Group Event dialog window 2. Setup the search conditions and create a list of well group & date pairs existing in the dataset that may have the events to be removed (see the following section “Using the Well & Date Filter”). 5. Using the Group & Date Filter Group & Date Filter is a dialog window used to setup a list of well group & date pairs for coping or removing well group events. The example below shows how to use the filter for a copy operation. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 281 . It is opened when you select the Copy events using filter… or Delete events using filter… context command after clicking the Tools button. 4.Deleting events of selected type using filter: 1. 6. Select the command “Delete events using filter”.

This list is preserved when you close and reopen the window. Initially this list is empty.Click Tools button and select Copy events using filter… The text in the window title bar shows the type of action. You can do this manually by setting the check marks in the table boxes. or you can use the auto-select controls. 1. 2. Switch to the next tab Select Dates. 282 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Select well group names on Select Groups tab. The list control on the right side of the window contains the selected well groups & date pairs according to the applied search conditions.

On the next tab Set Search Conditions you can set the optional conditions that work to filter out the names and dates selected in the steps 1 and 2. Multiple search conditions apply together with AND type logic. The check box “Do you want to create new dates?” enables you to add new dates to the list one by one or as a whole range. The check box “Pick the 1st match only” enable selecting only one date per well group that matches the search conditions. Please note that if the option for creating new dates is selected in the step 2 then the search condition will not apply. 3. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 283 . If no search condition is set than all well & date pairs will be included.The table on the left side has a list of all existing well group dates that you can select for filtering well group & date pairs.

Group Event Comments 1. 284 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Finally. then there is an indicating check mark on the Comments tab. The current tab is automatically changed for each event selected in the list.4. press the OK button to copy the well group event to the selected well group & date pairs. This may help you to view the comments while you are browsing the event list. 2. 3. Select needed group event in the list control on the left side of the window. Note that if comments are available for the selected event. Press the Clear List button (near bottom-right corner) to empty the previous search results and than press Search & Add button to run the filter and create new well group & date list 5. A small push button with pin icon below the comment tab enables you to pin (fix) the current tab. Select Comments tab to read or write new comments. Open Group Event dialog window.

User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 285 . in a table form. all group and well connection. Notice that “Default-Group” is added into the table as a “virtual” owner for the wells that do not have explicit group attachment. The display has two modes: • • “Attach-to commands” shows a map of all attachment commands “Group affiliation” shows all well and groups arranged by the parent You can change the attachment setting for the item selected in the table by pressing the Properties button or context menu after right mouse click.Group and Well Connection Display Builder provides a dialog window that conveniently shows. Select Group & Well Connection from Well menu to open it. Notice that group and well attachments are set by well and group definition events with WELL and GROUP keywords. Corresponding well or group event dialog window will be opened. Print button can be used to make a printed copy of this table.

You can print the graph on a single page or save it as image file. The two example displays are: 286 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . and/or a particular date to display in the hierarchy plot. From the graph you can also access the well or group properties and do modifications if you like. a single well. If a group is selected this group and all its children will be displayed in full. if a well is selected its entire group hierarchy and its parent’s group’s siblings will be displayed.The Group-Well connection graph is the visual representation of the group-well hierarchy structure. From the grid control you can select a single group. However.

An example is: User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 287 . From the graph you can launch Well Events or Group Events dialog by double-clicking a name box or right-clicking a name box and selecting “Properties…” menu item. The small pop-up window with the key information will be displayed. To get just the key information about a well or a group user can left click and hold on a name box.You can use the “-select wells” button to select multiple wells to be displayed this way.

but there are no restrictions upon well membership in reporting groups.). Reporting Groups Reporting groups allow you to define a set of wells. A well may be a member of an arbitrary number of reporting groups. Use Reporting Groups from the Well menu to open the dialog window. print the graph.The context menu has up to 5 menu items (The Properties is only available if you clicked on a name box. and a well can have any non-negative membership weight in a reporting group. and save the graph as image files. with differing membership weights. No group controls can be specified for reporting groups. and have data reported to output files (as is done for the hierarchical groups). You can modify view properties. 288 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .

Select Add New from the pop-up menu 2. Set a date for group definition 4. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 289 . Press Apply or OK. Enter weight factors for the selected wells 6.The right arrow button contains a pop-up menu with commands to create and delete reporting groups. Enter a unique group name 3. Select well members using buttons Select Wells or From Groups 5. Note: Wells must be properly defined prior the reporting group date. Adding New Reporting Group 1.

Press Apply or OK buttons. Opening the control panel for gas lift optimization options: • • • select Gas-Lift Options from the Well menu select Properties from context menu after right-clicking on corresponding tree item double click on corresponding tree view item The right arrow button contains a pop-up menu with commands to create and delete gas lift optimization on a selected date. Select New from the pop-up menu 2.Gas Lift Optimization Options Gas lift optimization options enable to control parameters of automatic allocation of lift gas to production wells. Enter the control values 5. Adding New Gas Lift Optimization Options 1. Select options that you want to use by setting check marks 4. Choose a date from the calendar 3. 290 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .

independent variables. right mouse click on a corresponding Tubing Tables item and select Properties from the context menu. To open the tubing table control panel: • • • Select Tubing Tables from the Well menu. Select one in the list to display its information. Select the Wells & Recurrent portion of the main tree view.Tubing Performance Tables Tubing performance tables provide bottom-hole pressure (BHP) values for production and injection wells over a given range of gas fractions. The list control in the top left corner of the window contains all available tubing tables. flow rates and well-head pressures (WHP). water fractions. Select the Wells & Recurrent portion of the main tree view and double click on a corresponding Tubing Tables item. Control buttons: New Table Copy Table Delete Table Reset Table Create a new blank tubing table Copy a selected tubing table Delete a selected tubing table Cancel all changes made after the last OK or Apply command User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 291 .

Notice that column values must stand in ascending order. Select the Producer or Injector well type. Use the Flow Parameters table to select the Gas Fraction (Gfr). Notice that the plot window enables you to adjust any BHP value by dragging its data point with the mouse. The list-control in the top-left corner of the window contains all available tubing tables. PVT Methods. 292 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . You can also use the Calculator… button to compute BHP Parameters from the Flow Parameters. Press the Tubing Plot… button to view a plot of the BHP values for visual quality checking.Update BHP Table Sets the number of rows and columns in the BHP Parameters table according to the number of Flow Parameters specified Open the Tubing Performance Plot window for the selected tubing Tubing Plot… table Open the Tubing Pressure Calculator window to compute bottom Calculator… hole pressure values for the selected tubing table Read & save data files for the selected tubing table. See the Using Tubing Files Tubing Files section. Open the Tubing Performance Tables dialog window. You need to press the Apply button to retain any change that you make on the plot. 8. Enter one or more values for Flow Rate (Flo). Wfr and add variables into their corresponding columns. Press the Update BHP Table button to set the number of rows and columns in the BHP Parameters table according to the number of Flow Parameters set in previous step. Set the Reference Depth. Tubing Conditions and Tubing Segment Data entered on the Tubing Pressure Calculator window. 2. Reference Depth. Select the Flow Rate Type. Fluid Gravity. 5. Water Fraction (Wfr) and Additional (Add) independent lookup variables. 6. Gfr. Pressure Computation Methods. Enter values into the BHP Parameters table or use copy & paste to bring this data from another source. WHP Well Head Pressure. Adding a New Tubing Table 1. 7. 4. 3. 5. Select one in the list to display its information. Press the New Table button.

and is also used by the Builder dataset file to read and save tubing data.wbo) File contains formatted tubing data specified by the PTUBE1 and ITUBE1 keywords. This format can be read from the Builder dataset file.Using Tubing Files The Tubing Files button contains commands to read and save tubing table data in the following formats: Wellbore calculator output file format (*. Eclipse VFP file format (*. File contains formatted tubing data specified by the Eclipse VFPPROD and VFPINJ keywords.vfp) User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 293 . This format is used by the Tubing Pressure Calculator to create BHP Parameters data.

3. The selected tubing table name will also be updated to reflect the current type of keyword contained in the file. Wfr and Add variables to calculate BHP values. TVD At The End. PVT Methods. Select a Pressure Computation Method. 1.wbp). 2. Fluid Gravity. 4.Wellbore calculator input file format (*. 5. The PTUBE.wbi) and output files (*. and is also used by the Builder dataset file to read and save calculator data. Select a PVT Method for Pb/Rs and Oil FVF. VFPPROD and VFPINJ tubing table names will not exist after the dataset has been saved and reloaded.wbl) and Pressure Profile File (*. The Original Tubing File: control on the Tubing Performance Table window shows the name of the file where the selected tubing table data originated from.wbi) File contains formatted Flow Parameters. These files will be saved to the same directory as the Builder dataset file. The tubing calculator is available by pressing the Calculator… button on the Tubing Performance Tables window. When the Builder dataset is saved. 294 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . This format is used by the Tubing Pressure Calculator to create BHP Parameters data. Press the Calculate button and wait for the results text window. Tubing Conditions and Tubing Segment Data. the Original Tubing File: location will be updated to reflect the file name used. Select the Make Calculation Log File (*. Set Fluid Gravity and Tubing Conditions. Note that tubing calculator input and output data will be saved to the dataset file. PTUBE and VFPPROD tubing data gets converted to the PTUBE1 format and VFPINJ tubing data gets converted to the ITUBE1 format. If tubing data is read or saved to a *. Pressure Computation Methods. Relative Roughness and Gas Injection. Press OK to accept the calculated results or Cancel to reject. Length. The calculator can only use certain Flow Rate Type. 6. Set the name of the intermediate calculator input (*. 8.vfp formatted file. These files will be saved to the same directory as the Builder dataset file.wbi. Gfr. 9.wbo). Press the Calculator… button on the Tubing Performance Table window. It may take from a few seconds to several minutes for the calculator run depending on the dimensions of the table and the computer capability. Reference Depth.wbo or *. Using the Tubing Pressure Calculator The Tubing Pressure Calculator provides built-in correlations to compute bottom hole pressures for the selected tubing table. 7. Please refer to Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator in this manual for more information on the use of this feature. *. Enter values for one or more tubing sections including Diameter.

After the Tubing Pressure Calculator has computed BHP values and the data has been OK’d the Tubing Performance Table window will update and disable access to all calculated tubing data. If the user wishes to modify any of the tubing data they must select the Edit Calculated Tubing Data checkbox. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 295 . This is done so the Flow Parameters and BHP Parameters tables remain in synch.

Use menu item Wells -> Validate Well Completions for NULL Blocks Select the type of action. permeability etc.Fixing Well Definition Dates The current dataset syntax requires that initial well definition must include keywords WELL.) it may create a problem for simulation run. Validating Well Completions If some well completions have perforations nodes in the NULL or inactive blocks (having zero porosity. Option Ignore will just show validation results without making any changes Press OK 296 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . It will open the dialog window as shown below. It is not uncommon that in the process of building a dataset these events get set on different dates. thickness. By using this control panel you can validate completions and removed this type of NULL perforations. PRODUCER or INJECTOR and PERF set on the same date. If you get a validation error of this type you can use command Fix Well Definition Dates from the Well Menu. Select the type of fix you want to use and press button Apply Fix.

If the data are for well group. For general table file format. the data columns are separated by some kind of delimiter characters. three file formats are supported: general table file (General) format. optionally preceded by some unique string. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 297 . injection and pressure data into the Builder. The data can be in either free format. which allows you to compare the simulation results with the actual field production history. For the free format mode. with one type of data in each column. Files Required by Production Data Wizard Before using the Production Data Wizard. The well names can be one of the columns of data. the data columns begin and end in fixed columns. “WELL:” or “POZO:”. which then builds the well operating constraint information (using *ALTER keywords in the well data section of the simulation input file) for the CMGL simulators. such as “*NAME:”. such as comma. For fixed format mode. Currently. injection. These data can optionally be saved in Field History Files for display in RESULTS GRAPH program. you need to have the input file ready.Production Data Wizard Overview The Production Data Wizard is designed to help you to import well production. or fixed format mode. CMGL Field History File (FHF) format and Peep 2002 Edition 1 Data Transfer File (Merak) Format. or pressure data should be organized into columns. the production. then the well group name should be after “*NAME:”. or can be in rows. space or tab.

where “On-time fraction” = (period time when the production/injection is on) / (total period time). and select “Date/Time” from the combo box at the top of that column. You also tell the wizard how the commas are used in the file. It should be correct most of the time. The other two combo boxes will be enabled or disabled accordingly. change them. space. semicolon or custom character. injection or pressure information along with date information must be specified before you can go to the next step. The Matched column indicates if the well or group name matched existing well or group names in the dataset. A vertical line will be drawn to indicate the column break. just double click on the line. A red text near the bottom of the dialog indicates the results of your selection. If you have chosen “Fixed Width” in step one. you have to specify the delimiters here. For general table file format. In step 4. The Group column. If you have chosen “Delimited” in step 1. the combo box at “Related info” row will display the program best guess of the date format. For FHF and Merak formats. The first thing is to identify the date column or columns. Once this is done. comma. In step 5. you tell the program how to separate the data columns. If you make a mistake and want to delete it. change it to the correct one. Always check if the items in the combo boxes selected by the program are correct. you specify the start and end of each data column by clicking inside the frame containing the file. which depends on the file format you choose in this step. The default is to use comma to separate the data fields. if not. Click the Next button to bring the next screen. if not. If you check this cell and the group name dose not exist in the original dataset. In step 2. These two rows can be the same if well or group names appear as one of the data columns. The top five rows tell the program how to interpret the data in each column. The Add column indicates if the data for this well or group will be added to Builder. The Unit combo lets you specify the unit for the selected property. At least one production. The New Name 298 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . This value is calculated by the builder based on the “Days or hours on” property and should have a value between 0 and 1. you have to go through steps 2. then you will be asked to create the well group with that name in Create New Group dialog. You can view the contents of the original file anytime by clicking View Original File button. You continue to specify other columns by selecting a proper item from the Identifier combo box. you tell the program the meaning of each data column. you specify the primary constraints for each well or group imported by the file. which must contain a valid date string. You select the start of data row in the top edit box and well or group name row in the bottom edit box. 3 and 4 to tell the program how to read the file. They can be one or more of tab. In step 3. The first step of the wizard is for you to choose an input file and its format. you specify the locations of the well or group names and the start of the data row. The “Producing daily rate” and “Calendar daily rate” in the “Related info” combo has the relationship of: “Producing daily rate” = “Calendar daily rate” / “On-time fraction”.Using Production Data Wizard Production Data Wizard can be accessed from Import Production/Injection Data of Well menu. you go to step 5 directly to choose the primary constraints for the wells or groups. if checked. indicates the name represents well group. The data field type in the file can be fixed width or delimited.

or to Results Report program to generate custom reports. you can invoke this wizard as many times as you want to import all the production data you have. Switch Well Constraints Based on Production Data After you finish importing well production data through Production Data Wizard.column is for you to change the well or group name. the date/time means the end of a period and the associated value is applied to the period from the previous to this date/time. Therefore. injection and pressure data are saved into different files. Before you click Finish. Once all the data are in the Builder. but the production volume data from the production file are for surface condition. If you want to change the well or group name to an existing well or group name displayed in the table at right. If you think there are too many *ALTER keywords. which may impact the simulation run time. you can invoke Average production/injection data from the well menu to reduce the number of this keyword. For example. For all production properties such as oil. For non-production properties such as pressure and temperature. That is why the Builder needs additional information to convert volume at surface condition to reservoir condition. These files can later be used in Results Graph program to compare with simulation results. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 299 . and then right click to bring up the menu. gas and/or solvent) at reservoir condition as the operating constraint. The meanings of date/time in FHF created by the Builder are different for different properties. A -99999 value for any property means the data is missing for the property at that time. but the oil rate drops to almost zero after some time. This option specifies the total fluid volume (oil. If your production data are in more than one files. if a well starts with oil rate as the primary constraint. You need to provide values for solution gas to oil ratio and volume formation factors for oil. water. you can examine the *ALTER keywords by clicking Well & Recurrent button in the tree view and right click at the blank area in the tree view and select Display dataset for section. you can still change the primary constraints by choosing Well->Switch Constraints from the main menu. Production. a valid production history data should start with a data/time with a property value of zero to establish the first period. the value corresponding to the date/time is considered to be an instantaneous value at this point in time. the Builder can automatically switch to gas rate constraint when this happens. just click the name. then drag and drop that name to the New Name cell. You can also ask the Builder to automatically switch the primary constraints based on the actual production rates in the production data file. water and gas if you choose Total Fluid Produced as the primary constraint. You can do multiple selections by using shift or control key with left click. Right click at the cell under Primary Constraint column to bring up a list of available primary constraints for that well or group. All the data imported by the wizard can be saved to CMGL Field History File by accessing Create Field History File option from the well menu. you can choose one of the Apply Date Options to overwrite the existing production data with the newly imported data or append only the new data to the existing wells. water and gas rates.

Switch Primary Constraints dialog: When the dialog starts. If you do not need to switch any constraint. Note that you can change the period for which the constraint switch will apply. the table displays the current constraint. simply click Next to get to the next dialog. Automatic Primary Constraints Switching dialog: 300 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .

click the Find Automatic Switch Dates button to display the dates when the constraint switching occurs. select the new interval. then do not enter any value and click Finish to exit the dialog. This dialog display a curve representing the sum or average of the property used as primary constraint. monthly or quarterly etc. The plot shows the averaging periods as red vertical lines. right click on the plot at the desired date. Default is 3 months.After entering the desired tolerance values. You can average the data into weekly. After this is done. and from the pop up menu. This is a visual aid to help you decide how to average the data. the averaging interval will change for all dates after the selected date. Repeat as many times as necessary. Too many unnecessary ALTER keywords will reduce the running efficiency of the simulator. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 301 . Average Production/Injection Data This option allows you to reduce the number ALTER keywords generated by the Production Data Wizard. If you do not want to use this option. Right click at the vertical line in the graph to select the averaging period. To change the averaging interval.

Trigger This dialog allows you to define the well management triggers. and STO-RP the trigger condition. ON_GROUP the trigger type. The general format for trigger is: trigger-name (trigger-type trigger-condition). To create a new top-level trigger. GroupTrigger is the trigger name. you can • 302 • Well and Group Control . For example for the trigger named GroupTrigger (ON_GROUP STO-RP). you can • • • • • Double click the label “Triggers” in the Wells & recurrent tree view Right click the label “Triggers” and select the menu “New…” Right click an existing top-level trigger item and select the menu “New …” Right click an existing top-level or nesting trigger item and select the menu “New Child…” to add a new nesting trigger to the selected trigger Right click an existing nesting trigger and select the menu “Sibling Before…” or “Sibling After…” to add a nesting trigger as the sibling trigger to the selected nesting trigger Double click an existing trigger (top-level or nesting) and use the action area to type in the trigger you wanted User's Guide Builder To create a new nesting trigger.

Double click a trigger item Right click a trigger item and select “Properties…” To modify an existing trigger. the trigger defined as an action item for another trigger Apply On combo box: Use to specify whether trigger applies on wells.e. or cycling groups. you can: • • The Well Management Trigger dialog looks like: • • • Date combo box: Select the date on which the trigger is defined Child Trigger check box: Valid for nested trigger only.To remove trigger(s). This operation requires user confirmation. sector. layers. elapsed time. field. groups. you can • • Right click a trigger item and select “Delete…” to delete a single trigger Right click the label “Triggers” and select “Delete…” to delete all triggers. i. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 303 .

“field” for ON-FIELD trigger. Only minimum syntax checking will be performed on the typed in trigger actions.e. Well List Shut/Open This dialog allows you to define the well management WLISTSHUT and WLISTOPEN keywords. For a nesting ON-WELL or ON-GROUP or ON-CYCGRP trigger @ can be used to represent all well or groups or cycling groups specified by its enclosing trigger. If @ is selected it is shall be the only selection. k) for ON_LAYER trigger. Actions area is for you to type in the trigger actions. single selection for other 4 types of triggers. you can specify only one of them at the same time. Please refer the simulator manual for details. For ON-WELL. • • There are total 5 options are available for no ON-CYCGRP trigger. to select to apply this trigger on. any other selections additional to @ will be ignored. It can be launched by double-clicking the Well & Recurrent tree view item Well List (Open/Shut) or right-clicking the same item and selecting the Properties… menu. sectors.• Subject name combo box (the one next to the Apply On box): Available subject names (wells. When combo box: Available trigger conditions to select. and ON-CYCGRP types of triggers. ON-GROUP. multiple selections allowed. 304 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . and cycling groups for ON-CYCGRP trigger). j. “time” for ON_ELAPSED trigger. The last 2 options are mutual exclusive. groups. Layer UBA: Type in the layer (i. They are basically any valid well & recurrent statements including triggers. i. i. and more. Use the Comments area is to type in your comments.e. Please note all the comments lines will be written at the beginning of its enclosing root-level trigger.

e. To delete or remove Heater Wells that have been created. Read-only. It is also possible to turn a Heater Well off. There is one column without the header text. Either the wellbore temperature and/or one of the total heating rate values can be entered for a Heater Well. Alternatively. respective entries. Comments – To launch the comment dialog to add comment for this entry. It can be launched by double-clicking the Well & Recurrent tree view item Heater Well or right-clicking the same item and selecting the Properties… menu. i. To turn it off. You can click its button cell to launch the Well Selection dialog to select the available wells for this entry. • The 2 buttons on the left side of each grid. the “Remove Event” box can be checked for a particular well. the items for deletion can be selected in the “Name/Date” list and the “Delete Selected Events” button can be used.e. select a later date and then uncheck the check box next to the name of the Heater Well that you want set to “Off”.The entry ID. The rest 4 columns are: • • • Entry# -. the forth one from the left. are for adding and deleting the Heater Well (STARS only) This dialog allows you to define and modify STARS heater wells. i. and . Read-only Date -. They both have 5 columns. a Heater Well has to be first created and shown as “On”. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 305 .The definition date Wells – The well names that have be selected for this WLISTSHUT or WLISTOPEN entry. To do this. To change the well selected you need to use the next button column (with “…”).The top grid is for WLISTSHUT and the bottom for WLISTOPEN.

So.e. the peroration copying is required for the operation. Then.Copy Well Wizard This wizard allows you to copy multiple wells of the same type (producer or injector) to the same number of the wells of the different type (i. to injector or producer) with the specified well geometry. Select the menu command Copy Well… to open the wizard. perforations. The first step is select wells to be copied using the selection options. A well has to have perforation. and trajectories. select the well perforation copying option. 306 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder .

User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 307 . Then. select the well geometry copying option. Check the Copy Geometry check box to copy well geometry. select trajectory copying option. It is optional. It is optional and enabled only if any selected wells have trajectories. Check the Copy Trajectory check box to copy well trajectory.Then.

You can fine tune every well copy selection you have made so far if you want. On the last page you have all the information regarding your copy well selections. 308 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . you can specify the resulted well name suffix and definition date.Then.

7-spot.. The conditions can be layer number. 9-spot. The user can specify the conditions for creating the perforations of the wells. normal or inverted. This is a modeless dialog.e.Finally. you can invoke other parts of the Builder when this dialog is up. The pattern can be any one of the following: 5-spot. i. The pattern centre can have producer or injector well.e. or line drive. There are 4 steps in this wizard. Creating Pattern Based Well Wizard This option can be accessed from Well->Pattern-Based Wells in the Builder. Creating Pattern Based Wells Introduction The purpose of this option is to allow user to quickly create pattern based vertical wells or producers (vertical or horizontal) in a specified region of the reservoir using a dialog wizard.. i. block center depth or block property being greater or less than certain value. The first step allows you to define a region to contain the pattern based wells: User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 309 . click Finish or Cancel to complete the operation.

You can create one pattern or fill the whole region with patterns. If you select one pattern.The second step allows you to define the pattern area and select a pattern type. There is an option here to create a sector for each pattern and specify a name prefix for the sector. then the next step will let you copy and paste new patterns to other locations. then an injector well is created for every producer well and vice versa. 310 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . If you choose ‘Create injector-producer pairs for cyclic injection’.

If you have selected ‘Fill the region with patterns’ in step 2. i.e.. Note that these conditions are OR’ed to produce the final result. You can move or rotate the selected patterns by clicking “Move Patterns” or “Rotate Patterns” button in the modes tool bar. then all the patterns will be selected automatically for you. The last step is for conditionally adding perforations to the wells. If you use ‘Start Copy’ button to start a series of copying. if any condition is met. The default is to add perforations to all layers of the wells. To select multiple patterns.You can copy and delete selected patterns in the step 3. The block property can be any property including custom one. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 311 . use control key in conjunction with mouse click. remember to click ‘Stop Copy’ button when you are done with copying. then the grid block will be perforated.

Since in simulation.Hydraulically Fractured Wells (IMEX & GEM) To model the fracture more explicitly than using the skin factor. the fracture grid) is typically set to 1 foot and then other fracture parameters are properly adjusted to arrive at a dimensionless fracture conductivity of the desired value. you need to do a local grid refinement and create a fairly small grid cell width that is perpendicular to the direction of the fracture. the minimum grid block width cannot be less than the well radius.e. 312 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . You can create a single-plane vertical fracture in a vertical well or multipleplane vertical fractures in a horizontal well in Cartesian and corner point grids. The Hydraulically Fractured Wells Wizard automates this tedious task and performs Local Grid Refinement (LGR) to bring the grid-block size close to the actual fracture width. the smallest grid width (i. The Hydraulically Fractured Wells Wizard contains two tabs: Fractures for managing fracture creation/copying/deleting and Non-Darcy Option for selecting correlation for nonDarcy flow calculations.

You can select X (I axis) or Y (J axis) orientation for the fracture. You have also to specify the fracture half length. 3. J and K sliders. If you want to place several fractures for horizontal wells at the same time. you first select “IJ 2D Areal” view. 13. A Grid Editing Options dialog box will pop up. You must be in Edit Grid mode to start the Wizard. or right click on the reservoir to pop up the context menu and select Edit Grid by left clicking on it. Click the Tools button and select Add new fracture from the pop up menu. 2. Delete selected fractures To start the Hydraulically Fractured Wells Wizard: 1. Select Editing limited to … (the default) and click OK. If there are any fractures associated with a particular well. those numbers are determined from perforations. Select Hydraulically Fractured Wells… from the Well menu to start the wizard. width and permeability. then click the Edit Grid Button on the modes toolbar. Select a well from the Well/Fracture list control. you can specify minimum fracture spacing or select I or J slabs in Fracture Placement dialog.. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 313 . Working with Hydraulic Fractures The Tools button at the top of the Fracture tab has three options: • • • Add new fracture Copy fracture to wells.You can see all well names in the Well/Fracture list control on the left side of the Fracture tab. You have to specify all necessary parameters and click Apply button after it is enabled. you need to also specify a number of refined layers up and down from the layer perforated by the well. You are now in grid edit mode. To enter Edit Grid mode. You can change the default Number of refined blocks in each direction (23. 3) by sliding the I. The Fracture Placement dialog will be displayed after entering information in the Fractures tab and pressing the Apply button. For horizontal wells. 3. 2. For vertical wells. To add new fracture: 1. If you select a fracture from the Well/Fracture list control. Builder will try to set up several fractures spaced as close as possible to the selected distance (starting from the end of the horizontal well) or will put fractures in the selected slabs. A new blank (no parameters) fracture will be added to the selected well. 4. they are listed beneath that well name. Notice that only odd number of refinements is allowed in I and J directions.. the name of the selected well/fracture and all relevant fracture parameters will be displayed on the right side of the Fracture tab.

A new dialog called Fracture Placement will pop up where you will be able to select perforations for the selected wells.. To copy fracture to wells: 1. All relevant fracture parameters will be displayed on the right side of the Fracture tab. Alternatively. Click the Tools button and select Copy fracture to wells. from the pop up menu.. You can modify any of them before copying to other wells. Click OK button in Well/Perforation Selection dialog to start the Wizard calculations. You can apply the refinement to all layers in the K direction or in the well bore direction by selecting All perforated layers radio button.5. Select a fracture from the Well/Fracture list control. 314 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . A new dialog called Fracture Placement will pop up where you will be able to select wells and perforations for the selected wells. 2. 6. 3. You can also specify minimum fracture spacing or select I or J slabs for horizontal wells. You can also specify minimum fracture spacing or select I or J slabs for horizontal wells. 7. you can choose Visible perforations only or specify the K values in Perforations in range of fundamental layers option.

Select a fracture from the Well/Fracture list control. and any associated grid refinements will be undone. 7. 2. Alternatively. You can zoom in to see the refinement for the fractures and how the Permeability and Forchheimer Equation Beta Correction properties have been modified for the grid blocks corresponding to the fractures. You can apply the refinement to all layers in the K direction or well bore direction by selecting the All perforated layers radio button. Click the Tools button and select Delete selected fractures from the pop up menu. 3. You can also specify minimum fracture spacing or select I or J slabs for horizontal wells. 5. Select the desired wells in the Wells list (multiple selections is allowed). You can also select all the wells in a Group by selecting the desired group in the Well Groups list.4. All selected fractures will be deleted from the list. To delete selected fractures: 1. IJ-2D Areal View Showing the Permeability Changes in the I Direction due to Fractures: User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 315 . Click the OK button in Well/Perforation Selection dialog to start the Wizard calculations. Multiple selections are allowed. you can choose Visible perforations only or specify the K values in Perforations in range of fundamental layers option. 6.

316 • Well and Group Control User's Guide Builder . Please note that this information can also be specified by going to the Rock-Fluid menu in Builder and selecting the Rock Fluid Options dialog when working with IMEX datasets. Non-Darcy Option.IJ-2D Areal View Showing the changes in the Forchheimer Equation Beta Correction Factor: Specifying Non-Darcy Information for Hydraulic Fractures The second tab in Hydraulically Fractured Wells Wizard. allows for quick selection of correlation for non-Darcy flow calculations.

FG1 or FG2) non-Darcy flow coefficient (β) for all phases except gas is assumed to be zero.When using the General Correlation option (NONDARCY GENERAL) the user can enter a table of α. N2 and Forchmax for each phase in the reservoir and modify the Forchheimer Number Weighting Factor. N1g and N2g are displayed but can not be modified. User's Guide Builder Well and Group Control • 317 . N1. When using the Geertsma or Frederick and Graves Correlation options (NONDARCY GEERTSMA. For gas the parameters for αg.

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Input/Output Control Overview The Input/Output (I/O) Control section controls a number of aspects of simulator data. and Miscellaneous. each for a different development scenario. you may need to enter dimensioning values to override the simulator defaults. without having to repeat the simulation of the historical period. Saving all possible information leads to very large simulation results files. quickly filling even today’s large hard drives. then double click on Titles and Case ID on the tree view. The Identification dialog will appear: User's Guide Builder Input/Output Control • 319 . you could run one simulation for the history portion of a simulation. and then run several forecast runs. Restart runs are used to break a simulation run into a sequence of (shorter) simulation runs. Run Time Dimensioning. text output. However. The Miscellaneous section has a few controls that don’t fit in any of the other sections. Alternatively. For example. Normally. While all of these can be defaulted. Restart. There are a large number of options controlling what information is saved from the simulation run. click on the I/O Control button above the tree view. The data in SR2 files may be viewed and analyzed in CMG’s Results 3D and Graph. Titles and Case ID To bring up the Identification dialog. you will not need to enter anything in the Run Time Dimensioning section. These files may be opened and read in a text editor. The Text Output section has controls for the variable and information output to the ASCII output and log files. select Titles and CaseID from the IO Control menu. if your simulation run terminates with a report of a dimensioning error. These subsections are: Titles and Case ID. The Simulation Results Output section allows you to choose the appropriate variables to output to the SR2 file. it is recommended that you enter simulation run titles and a case id. Simulation Results output.

The dialog is easy to use. Run Time Dimensioning This dialog should only be used if you are an experienced simulator user and know how to read the dimensioning information in the simulator ASCII output. click on OK to accept your changes. just enter text in the text entry fields. The dialog will appear: 320 • Input/Output Control User's Guide Builder . To bring up the Run Time Dimensioning dialog. Some the fields are limited in the number of characters that they can accept – when the limit is reached. or Cancel. click on the I/O Control button. then double click on Run Time Dimensioning. or if you are directed to enter values by CMG support personnel. When you have finished text entry. characters entered will no longer be shown in the text entry field.

You can enter these in the lower part of the grid in the above dialog (below the Undocumented Dimensioned Variables row. click on the I/O Control button. the simulator also suggests values that you need to input for the above keywords. If you get Runtime Dimensioning errors when you run the simulator. writing restart information to a file (so you can start a later run from this run) and reading a restart file written by earlier simulation runs.out or . The simulator may suggest you to enter keyword – value pairs that are not documented in the manual. Restart Restarts are used to break a simulation run into two or more shorted simulations. To invoke the Restart and Writing Restart dialog. These pairs are preserved in the dataset. then double click on Restart in the tree control. User's Guide Builder Input/Output Control • 321 . You can also edit previously entered values.Find the row of the dimension that needs to be changed. and the bottom section controls writing information to a restart file (so you can restart from this simulation run). You can view these suggestions in the . There are two aspects to Restart control. the top section controls reading a restart file (to do a simulation run re-starting from some point in a simulation run completed previously). you can view the suggestions in this dialog too. and enter a numerical value in the Value column. The dialog will appear: The dialog has two sections.log files generated by the simulator. If you have run to initialization using the Validate/Run Simulator dialog.

The control will be added to the list. then double click on Simulation Results Output.irf and *. There are a number of options for controlling how frequently a restart record is written. RESULTS 3D and GRAPH.To write restart information from a simulation run. Select the time/date to restart from.) To pop-up the dialog.mrf. click on Enable restart writing. Click on Restart from previous simulation run. After you have run a simulation where restart records are written. You will be asked to enter a date or time when the control is activated. click on the I/O Control button. or select Simulation Results Output from the IO Control menu: 322 • Input/Output Control User's Guide Builder . (The SR2 file is actually a file pair with the same root file name and the file extensions *. This is controlled by the Reading Restarts section of the dialog. for later view and analysis with CMG’s simulation post-processor. Simulation Results Output The simulation results file is used to control what information is written to the SR2 file. then browse to select the file containing the restart records from the previous run. you may restart a subsequent simulation from the restart. Then click on the “+” button to add a restart writing control. After the file is opened. the list of available restart time/dates will be filled in.

User's Guide Builder Input/Output Control • 323 . and the second part controls what is written. The categories of information include grid properties. sector properties. and special history. and the control remains in force until it is overwritten by a later control. To add a control. click on the “+” button to the left of one of the two grid controls. A dialog will appear. well injection/production. and (b) the Information Type that the control applies to.The dialog is divided into two parts. asking you to select (a) a date or time when the control is activated. the first part controls how often (in simulation time) different types of information are written. The time/date when the control comes into force is indicated in the Date/Time column of the control. Each control has a simulation time/date when it applies. lease plane.

Once you have finished adding or removing controls in the dialog. are of limited usefulness.out file. showing a small amount of information indicating the progress of the simulation run. click on OK to apply the changes you have made. If you do not wish to retain the changes. click on the I/O Control button. a log (or diary) file. select the control by clicking on it. which can contain a large amount of information. or printed out. you can select from drop down lists in the grid control. to further control the properties being output. then double click on Text Output. To change the frequency and types of information being written to the text output file or the diary file. a new control will be added to the list. or select Text Output from the IO Control menu. For example. click on Cancel. The information output to text files can be read in a text editor program. To delete a control. like debugging information on numerical method convergence. The Output file writing dialog will appear: 324 • Input/Output Control User's Guide Builder . However. text output of grid variables. is only available in the text output file. and a selected property and time may be exported from Results 3D into text files if required. and the *. when running a large simulation (several hundred thousand or more grid blocks). This information is more usefully viewed in Results 3D. Depending on the Information Type. or click on a Select button. Text Output In addition to the binary information output in the SR2 file (described in the section above. some other information. such as oil saturation. and click OK. You can control how much information is output to text files. then click on the X button to the left of the grid of controls. and used by Results 3D and Results Graph) the simulators can output information to text (ASCII) files.After you select the Date or Time and the Information Type. the diary file can be conveniently viewed using Launcher. There are two main text files produced by the simulators. If the simulation is run using CMG’s Technology Launcher.

you can select different options from drop down lists.The dialog works much the same as the Simulation Results File dialog: controls are added or removed using the “+” or “X” buttons to the left of the grid controls. or selecting Miscellaneous from the IO Control menu. The dialog will appear: User's Guide Builder Input/Output Control • 325 . Once the control is in the grid. Miscellaneous Options On final dialog in the I/O Control section controls a number of miscellaneous options. When a control is added. then selecting properties to be output from a list. This dialog is invoked by double clicking on Miscellaneous under the I/O Control button. or by clicking on a Select button. and the Information Type. you are required to enter the Date/Time at which the control becomes active.

The simulator help should appear.Help on any of the options may be obtained by clicking on the option. opened to the appropriate section. and pressing the “F1” key. 326 • Input/Output Control User's Guide Builder .

It is recommended that you only override the defaults if you are an experienced reservoir simulation user. Builder provides an interface for setting these controls. solution method control. you do not need to enter any values in the Numerical Control section. Selecting a control and pressing the F1 key will open the simulator user’s manual at the appropriate page. click on the Numerical button in the tree view then double click on the numerical control of interest. as defaults are supplied for all values. select one of the options from the Numerical menu. with the selected control or section highlighted. Setting and Editing Numerical Controls To access the Numerical dialog. and linear solver control. or. or directed to do so by CMG support personnel. Numerical controls are provided in three subsections: time step control. User's Guide Builder Numerical Control • 327 . Detailed information on each control keyword is provided by the simulator user manuals. The Numerical dialog will appear.Numerical Control Overview Normally.

deamalgamate. Please refer to simulator user manual for the four sub keywords handled in this dialog – AMALGAMATE. Initially. Other keywords are allowed to be set or changed in recurrent data. in the initial section or at the simulation start date/time. This action should start the simulator help. DEAMALGAMATE and REREFINE. You can add additional dates and times by clicking on the right arrow button next to the Date/Time selection box. Here is a sample dialog: 328 • Numerical Control User's Guide Builder . then the grid control in the Dataset Value column will be set to yellow and cannot be edited if the Date/Time is not the simulation start time. If a control keyword cannot be changed after the initial date/time. The basic idea is to group blocks with similar property values into coarser blocks to reduce the computation time for the simulation. DEREFINE. select the keyword by clicking on it. Dynamic Grid Regions This dialog can be accessed from Numerical menu. Some control keywords are only allowed to be set once. opening it to the appropriate keyword. de-refine or re-refine regions of reservoir at any time steps. The Set At Time column will indicate to you when a numerical control has been set to a non-default value at an earlier Date/Time than the Date/Time currently selected.To understand more about a particular control keyword. then press the “F1” key. It allows you to amalgamate. the Date/Time in the Numerical dialog will be set to the simulation start date (time=0).

User's Guide Builder Numerical Control • 329 . temperature. The arrow button to the right allows you to add a new keyword at certain date. mole fractions etc. then the duplicated ones are appended by a sequence number. ‘static’ means the amalgamation or de-refine will take place at the specified time step.g. e.g. delete an existing keyword or copy the current keyword to a new date. (1). The conditions for amalgamation or de-refine can be static or dynamic. (2).) are within the specified tolerance.The combo box at the top displays the current action keyword appended by the date of the action. If there are more than one keywords with the same action and date. while ‘dynamic’ means the action will happen if the property values (e.

press Apply button to save the changes. APARTITION. PARASOL class partitioning pattern (PPATTERN) In order for the PPATTERN information to be entered. then the PPATTERN information will be available in the tree view. The two options (check box) at the bottom correspond to EVEN-IF-CMPLX and EVEN-IF-WELL sub-keywords of DYNAGRID keyword. Please refer to the appropriate simulator user manual for the six sub keywords handled in this dialog – IPATRN. Here is a sample dialog: 330 • Numerical Control User's Guide Builder . AUTOPSLAB.Amalgamation Block Size allows you to specify how many cell blocks (NX*NY*NZ) in the selected regions will be grouped into a single block. PARTITION. GPARTITION and PPARTITION. If PARASOL is set in the Numerical dialog in Builder (which is available through the Numerical menu). PPATTERN sets the basic partitioning of the reservoir into non-connected regions and separators that make possible the parallelization of the linear solution. it is required by the simulators that the SOLVER PARASOL setting be used. You can specify the selected regions by enter the block ranges in the table or drag and highlight a range of blocks in the reservoir view and press the Add Selected Blocks button. Once you finish entering the desired information.

This dialog can be accessed by double clicking on “Define PARASOL class partitioning pattern (PPATTERN)” through the Builder tree view: User's Guide Builder Numerical Control • 331 .

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Yellow triangle.Red hexagon. Select Expand tree from the popup menu. Using Builder you can enter and modify: Calculation and Numerical Options Geomechanical Rock Types Boundary Conditions You can get an overview of the available geomechanic options by clicking on the Geomechanics section in the Builder tree view.STARS Overview Currently. Information is missing or information has been entered iii) Error which is incorrect. Builder provides a variety of interfaces to modify the geomechanics information. Information has been entered for that option and no errors have been found. The current status of the different geomechanics information is signaled by icons next to the different items on the tree view. Geomechanics . Information has been entered for that option and the ii) Warning information entered is not recommended and may lead to incorrect results. These interfaces are accessible through: i) The main menu item labeled Geomechanics.Geomechanics .no icon next to the tree item mean that no data has been entered for that option. validate and modify geomechanics data in a dataset. button with the right arrow iii) Double clicking on the appropriate tree view item. . i) Valid . There are four possible states for the tree view item. ii) Clicking on the tree view button labeled Geomechanics and then clicking on the . Builder will read. The simulator will not accept this data or incorrect results will be obtained.STARS • 333 User's Guide Builder . The right mouse-click on the tree view. geomechanics is only used by STARS. iv) No data .Green check mark.

334 • Geomechanics .Right clicking on the Geomechanics tree view section will pop up the following menu Validate Display dataset for section Expand/Collapse tree will display a list of all the warning and error messages. Data Validation When a dataset is initially read in any error encountered in this section will by noted by error or warning messages. For example if a numerical value is expected and a non numerical value is entered. Values entered with units different than the current working units will be converted and the converted value will be displayed with the current working units.STARS User's Guide Builder . If there are any errors or warnings a list of the messages will be given. You can then enter the relevant interface and review the information. Double clicking on an item on the tree will bring up the relevant interface. As well there is some basic validation done when values are entered into edit boxes. As well the corresponding status icon will be display on the Geomechanics button of the tree view. an error message is displayed. will display the Geomechanical information as it will be stored in the dataset. Values may be entered as a number only or as a value followed by a space and the units used. will simply expand and collapse the branch for the different items on the tree. The information entered in the different geomechanics interfaces is once again validated when the Apply or OK buttons are selected. Calculation and Numerical Options The Calculation and Numerical Options dialog allows you to modify parameters related to i) general calculation options. Also values entered will be displayed with their respective current working units. The Calculation and Numerical Options dialog can be brought up by selecting the main menu items Geomechanics/Calculation Options… or Geomechanics/Numerical Parameters…. ii) plastic deformation solution control parameters and iii) matrix solver control parameters. Required changes can then be made and saved.

Once you make the selection the following dialog will appear. tree view items under Calculation Options or Numerical).e. which can be used to add new dates.e. Since some of the parameters are date dependent there is a date combo box provided at the top left hand corner of the dialog.Alternatively you can double click on one of the relevant geomechanics tree view items (i.STARS • 335 . This combo box list currently used dated and if there is any calculation or numerical data entered (i. Next to the date combo box there is a date button Clicking on the date button will bring up the date selection dialog. as indicated by the phrase “< has Data >” next to the date). User's Guide Builder Geomechanics .

The Geomechanical Rock Types dialog can be brought up by selecting the main menu items Geomechanics/ Geomechanical Rock Types …. ii) The second column “Default Value” is the default values used by the simulator. Selecting F1 key will also bring up the respective simulator help. Alternatively you can double click on one of the relevant tree view items (i. If a value for a parameter is not entered at the current selected date then the last date at which a value was entered for this parameter will appear in this field. If you enter a value for such a case. and the colour of the parameter value will be black. The Calculation and Numerical Options dialog also has four buttons at the bottom a) OK. i) The first column “Keyword Description” lists the description of the different parameters. If the parameter has units. iv) The fourth column “Set At Time” tells you the last date at which a given parameter had a value entered for it. The Calculation and Numerical Options dialog has grid table with four columns.STARS User's Guide Builder . …). “GeoRock 1”. tree view items such as “Geomechanical Rock Type”. iii) The third column “Dataset Value” is the value entered for the given parameter. b) Cancel. d) Help – will bring up the simulator help regarding the item on the dialog with the current focus. Comments for the different parameters may also be viewed and modified by using the edit box provided at the bottom of the dialog. Once you make the selection the following dialog will appear. 336 • Geomechanics . Geomechanical Rock Types The Geomechanical Rock Types dialog allows you define the different geomechanical rock types to be used in the simulation and enter the relevant parameters.e. c) Apply and d) Help. then entering a value with a given set of units will automatically be converted to the appropriate units. The functions of these buttons are as follows: a) OK – will close the dialog and save any changes made. As well the last actual value entered will appear light green in the third “Dataset Value” column. the date in the “Set At Time” column will disappear. b) Cancel – will close the dialog but will not save any changes made unless the Apply button was selected first.Once a date is chosen you can view and edit the different parameters. If you don’t enter a value for a given parameter then the simulator will use the given default value. c) Apply – will save any changes made but not close the dialog.

The grid table lists three columns. the second column for default values used by the simulator and the third column for the current values entered for that parameter. You can view and edit the comments associated with a specific parameter. You can also view the simulator help for a specific parameter. Geomechanical Domain The Geomechanical Domain dialog allows you define which blocks will be used for doing geomechanical calculations. by clicking on the specific parameter and then clicking on the comments button .STARS • 337 . The first column for the parameter description. The Geomechanical Domain dialog can be brought up by selecting the main menu items Geomechanics/ Geomechanical Domain …. Depending on the rock type model selected a list of different parameters will appear in the grid table. User's Guide Builder Geomechanics . The rock type model for the selected rock type can then be chosen using the “Rock Type Model” combo box.You can choose which rock type information to view and edit by selecting the rock type using the “Rock Type” combo box located at the top left hand corner of the dialog. by clicking on the specific parameter and then clicking the Help button or hitting the F1 key.

This button will then add the selected block after applying the specified option to the grid table. You can clear the table by clicking on the button labeled Delete All Listed Blocks. 338 • Geomechanics . tree view item “Geomechanics Domain”). include:” Your selected option will then be applied to all the selected blocks.STARS User's Guide Builder . If the option “All active grid blocks” is chosen then none of the other options are available and the different dialog controls are disabled. The block selection can be made by either entering the block values manually in the dialog grid table or by selecting the grid blocks using the mouse and highlighting them in the grid. Once you make the selection the following dialog will appear. Once you have selected the blocks using the mouse you can click on the button labeled Add Selected Blocks From View.e.Alternatively you can double click on the relevant tree view items under Boundary Conditions (i. you can then choose one of the options listed under “For each selected block in view. If the option “Only in the selected blocks” is chosen then the other options in the dialog are made available and selected grid blocks can be specified. If you select the grid blocks using the mouse.

If you enter the blocks using the dialog grid table. You can clear the table by clicking on the button labeled Delete All Listed Blocks. This button will then add the selected block after applying the specified option to the grid table. Alternatively you can double click on the relevant tree view items under Boundary Conditions (i. Specific NULL blocks are selected by either entering the blocks in the dialog grid table or by selecting the grid blocks using the mouse and highlighting them in the grid.STARS • 339 . Both the empty option and the “All NULL Block” are equivalent since the simulator default if this option is not used is the “All NULL Block”. by clicking on the Help button or hitting the F1 key. The option you wish to use for fixed boundary nodes around null blocks can be selected from the combo box labeled “Fixed Boundary for nodes around”. tree view items “Rigid Null Blocks” or “Rigid Cap Rock”). then specific NULL blocks can be selected. you can click on the button labeled Add Selected Blocks From View. If you don’t want any rigid NULL block option to appear in the dataset then select the empty option. by clicking on the specific parameter and then clicking on the comments button . User's Guide Builder Geomechanics . Once you make the selection the following dialog will appear. If the “Selected NULL Blocks” option is chosen. If you select the grid blocks using the mouse.You can view and edit the comments associated with the Geomechanical Domain. the blocks must be specified using the “plane number” and “element number”. The Rigid Cap Rock and NULL Blocks dialog can be brought up by selecting the main menu items Geomechanics/ Rigid NULL Blocks…. Rigid NULL Blocks and Rigid Cap Rock The Rigid Cap Rock and NULL Blocks dialog allows you set if there is vertical movement constrain on the cap rock of the reservoir and also lets you select which NULL blocks will have fixed boundaries at the block nodes. You can also view the simulator help for the Geomechanical Domain. These two parameters are described in the STARS simulator manual under the “RIGIDNULL” keyword.e. The rigid cap rock can be set by selecting the check box labeled “Fixed CAP Rock”.

You can also view the simulator help for the rigid NULL blocks and fixed cap rock. Alternatively you can double click on the relevant tree view items under Boundary Conditions (i.e. 340 • Geomechanics . The Boundary Stress Unloading dialog can be brought up by selecting the main menu items Geomechanics/ Boundary Stress Unloading …. by clicking on the comments button .You can view and edit the comments associated with the Rigid NULL Blocks.STARS User's Guide Builder . “Boundary Stress Unloading” or a date under “Boundary Stress Unloading). by clicking on the Help button or hitting the F1 key. tree view items “Well Radius”. Boundary Stress Unloading The Boundary Stress Unloading dialog allows you set the well radius where the boundary conditions are to be applied and the total stress to be unloaded at the well boundary. Once you make the selection the following dialog will appear.

The values for the stress to be unloaded are the entered in the grid table. which can be used to add new dates. The grid table lists the different layers in the first column. This signifies that data has been entered for that date. It is date independent so only one value is needed.STARS • 341 . User's Guide Builder Geomechanics . When looking at the list of dates the phrase “< has Data >” may be seen next to the date. Next to the date combo box there is a date button Clicking on the date button will bring up the date selection dialog. The stress unloading is date dependent and as such the appropriate date to be viewed and edited must be selected from the date’s combo box.The well radius where the boundary conditions are to be applied can be entered in the edit box at the top of the dialog. The stress unloaded is entered in the second column.

You can also view the simulator help for a specific parameter by first clicking on the parameter field (such as the edit box for well radius or the grid table for stress unloading) and then by clicking on the Help button or hitting the F1 key.You can view and edit the comments associated with the well radius.e.STARS User's Guide Builder . Once you make the selection the following dialog will appear. tree view item “Displacement Boundary Conditions”). Displacement Boundary Conditions The Displacement Boundary Conditions dialog allows you to assign displacement boundary conditions at any node on any finite element. 342 • Geomechanics . by clicking on the well radius edit box and then clicking on the comments button . The Displacement Boundary Conditions dialog can be brought up by selecting the main menu items Geomechanics / Displacement Boundary Conditions … Alternatively you can double click on the relevant tree view items under Boundary Conditions (i. To view the comments for stress unloading. you must click on the grid table and then click on the comments button.

A schematic diagram of a grid block is displayed on the left of the dialog as a square when using 2D option or a cube when using 3D one. front. left. and in three directions a triangle is shown. J. User's Guide Builder Geomechanics . Appropriate symbols or vectors are displayed in the view for the current row in the table. back and bottom sides of a reservoir are constrained.If the option “NOT SET” is chosen then the keyword PRESCBC and PRESCBC3D are absent and default essential boundary conditions are applied i. The block selection can be made by either entering the block values manually in the dialog grid table or by selecting the grid blocks using the mouse and highlighting them in the grid. set the direction (I.STARS • 343 .e. If displacement is set to zero and the node is fixed in one direction a circle is displayed. The diagram is displayed in the local node system. Once you have selected the blocks using the mouse you can click on the button labeled Add Selected Blocks From View to add the selected blocks to the grid table. if it is fixed in two directions a square is shown. right. If the option “2D (PRESCBC)” or “3D (PRESCBC3D)” is chosen then the other options in the dialog are made available and selected grid blocks can be specified. and displacement values in the table. You can select the local nodes. or K).

344 • Geomechanics .You can clear the table by clicking on the button labeled Delete All Listed Blocks.STARS User's Guide Builder . You can view and edit the comments associated with the Displacement Boundary Conditions. You can also view the simulator help for the Displacement Boundary Conditions. by clicking on the Help button or pressing the F1 key. by clicking on the specific parameter and then clicking on the comments button .

Quick Slabs or Region Slabs and Cutting away part of the reservoir in 3D. The Display Settings tabbed dialog box controls these . lease planes and geological map information.see Moving and Resizing Display Objects. and. aquifers. such as the font and size used for text information.see Modifying the Color Scale. and the position of titles. the colors of grid lines. you can interactively zoom. In the 2D views. You can view any reservoir property for which there is data in the open file.see Viewing Properties. Both of these programs have the same capabilities and user interface to control the display. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 345 . You can alter the Y/X and Z/X aspect ratios and the map scale if desired .see Printing and Saving Images. simulation wells.Changing Display Content and Settings Overview Both Builder and Results 3D let you select either a two-dimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D) view of a reservoir for onscreen viewing and printing. You can alter the current property. reservoir property.see Selecting IJK Slabs. In the 3D view. info box and map scale . In addition. Panning and Rotating. There is also an interactive method for moving the titles. Builder and Results 3D can display grid. select a different time for the displayed data. pan. You can control a large number of display properties.see Changing the Aspect Ratio and Scale. you can remove portions of the reservoir to see the interior region . The current section discusses the parts of the interface that are common to the two programs. in Results 3D. You can zoom in to view only part of the reservoir.see Zooming. Builder and Results 3D each begin with a default property selection – the first property in your file. In 2D and 3D. you can also use color to distinguish between ranges of data values in your reservoir view .see Changing Display Settings. you can choose which layer and cross-section to view. You can print or save all on-screen views as image files (in a number of formats) that you can later insert into word processor or presentation software . Information on file opening is discussed in the Builder or Results 3D specific parts of the User’s Manual. color scale. sectors. and animate the data for a series of times . and rotate to display the region of interest .

you can simultaneously view different properties for the same file or look at properties from different files .Finally. The Builder toolbar is as follows: 346 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . Understanding the Parts of the Main Window Builder and Results 3D have many controls and dialogs in common.see Working with Multiple Views and Documents. but they also have differences.

Displaying the X. displays quickreview strings for specifications. It marks the properties that have specifications and/or values. It offers a convenient way to change displayed properties and launch General Property Specification or the Well Selection dialog (double click on a property name. specification or date for a well).Y coordinates of a point in the reservoir: When in IJ-2D Aerial view type. lists the spatial (grid) properties. You hide or show the Treeview using the Treeview Display Toggle button on the main tool bar. sectors. and dates at which well changes (perforations) take place for a well. shown below.The Treeview.Y Coordinates of a Point in the Reservoir To display the X. and the X. lease planes and wells. move the cursor over the reservoir.Y coordinates (in map units) of the cursor hot spot are displayed on the left side of status bar at the bottom of the main window. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 347 . aquifers.

then the Time Selection List will show the latest time. Currently all the spatial properties are defined in Builder at “zero time”. with scroll bars if the list is longer than the list box length. or the font used. sign. Viewing Properties Selecting a Property All the properties available in the current file are available. To change the items shown in the probe display. if you have defined wells or well changes at later times. move the cursor over the reservoir. 2. Click on the property you want to see. which draw lines vertically and horizontally from the cursor hot spot. A list of available properties appears. Displaying Crosshairs Centered on the Cursor It is also possible to turn on “crosshairs”. The IJK grid block address of the grid block and the current property value is displayed. Displaying the IJK Grid Block Address To display the IJK block address: In Probe mode. OR 1.or values. 2. choose Probe Display… from the View menu. the name will be marked by a property has an EQUALSI specification. using the leftmost mouse button. To toggle the display of crosshairs in 2D views: 1. and the X. it will be marked by a sign. click using the rightmost mouse button.When in IK-2D X-Sec or JK-2D X-Sec view types. To select a reservoir property to use: 1. If a property has specifications and/. Click on the property name string. Click with the leftmost mouse button on Show X-hair in Probe Mode to toggle the display of crosshairs on or off.Z coordinates are displayed on the left side of the status bar at the bottom of the main window.Z or Y. Click on the drop down button of the properties selection list. However. Scroll the Treeview to the property name. A pop up (context) menu will appear. The default selection is always the first property in the list. click and hold the mouse cursor anywhere in the drawing area over an active reservoir image. While pointing at the reservoir. If a 348 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder .

For example. select Select Refinement Level. In probe mode. Move the Plane slider. and click with the rightmost mouse button. Click on the desired view type. You can select any layer in the K direction from all K layers in the file. To dismiss the dialog box. 2. You can move the Plane slider by clicking and dragging the slider. probing a refined grid block will show that plane K=2 within the refined grid is being displayed. Click on the drop down button of the view type selection list. 2. To change the displayed plane with a refined grid: 1. Once you have clicked on the slider (and thus made it the selected control). Click on the Apply button. If block 1. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 349 . and choose a layer to view. The available 2D view types are aerial or map view (IJ-2D Aerial) and two cross-sectional views (IK-2D X-Sec and JK-2D X-Sec). Selecting Plane Number Within a Refined Grid The default for refined grids is to show the “middle” plane of the refined grid. From the pop up (context) menu. To select another view type: 1. suppose you are looking at an IJ-2D Aerial view of plane K=3.3 contains a Cartesian refined grid with 3x3x3 refinement.Selecting the View Type and Plane Number The default view type is IJ-2D Aerial with the K layer set to 1. To view another plane: 1. Click on the pop down button of the selection list.1. 5. The last choice is 3D view (3D View). The Select Layer of Refined Grid to View dialog appears: 3. you can move through the planes using the right and left arrow keys on the keyboard. 4. click on the Cancel button. move the cursor over the refined grid of interest.

Contour Fill also shows the contour lines. Some properties.Selecting Block Fill. The View→Properties… Spatial Properties dialog has controls to Draw lines in Color Fill mode and Show Values in Color Fill mode which control whether lines and values are shown in Contour Fill mode. such as Ternary. or click with the rightmost mouse button in the reservoir viewport and select Properties… from the pop up (context) menu. click on the pop down button on the plot type selection list. For Cartesian (Variable depth and thickness) grids. Select Properties… from the View menu. Contour Lines are calculated for block centered properties by first interpolating the values for block corners from the block center property values. The default time format is Date. By default. To select a plot type. hours. 350 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . the corners of the grid blocks are also smoothed (in cross-section and 3D views) to better show the flow connections and reservoir shape.in day. Contour Lines and Contour Fill. The number and value of contour lines is controlled by the settings for the color scale for the property being displayed. Block Fill colors each grid block with the color associated with the value of the property at the center of the block. Contour Fill uses data interpolation between grid block centers values to smooth data. cannot be contoured. They will only be displayed in Block Fill mode. 2. and so on. then click on the desired type of plot. Select the desired time format by clicking on a radio button in the Preferred Time Display selection. Selecting a Time Display Format Times can be displayed as: • • • Date Simulator time step Time since simulation start . To change the time format: 1. The corner values are then contoured. 3. First values for block corners are interpolated from the block center property values. Click on the General tab. Contour Lines or Contour Fill The plot type selection list allows you to choose from Block Fill. The Display Settings dialog appears. determined by the simulation output units of the open file. The corner values are then contoured.

The Display Settings Tabbed Dialog Box To pop up the Display Settings tabbed dialog box: Either • OR • OR • Click on the Properties (Display Settings) button on the main toolbar. For example. The Builder Properties dialog box appears: Position the cursor in the current view. one of the many display settings is the font type. 2. OR 1. Click the drop down button of the time selection list. Adjust the Time slider in the Animation area. either: 1. Each view window within a main Builder or Results 3D window has its own set of display settings. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 351 .Selecting a Time The simulation output file (SR2) may contain property data for several simulation times. Click the desired time or date to select it. To view a property at a different time. Select Properties… from the View menu. size and color used for the first title. Click on the Properties… menu item. In Builder. then click with the rightmost mouse button. the time selection list gives a list of all times with well perforation changes. Changing Display Settings Display settings control the details of the view display in Builder and Results 3D. A list of the times for which the selected property is available will appear. A pop up (context) menu appears.

Size and Color Many of the Display Settings dialog tabs contain buttons to set the font to use for particular text output. Selecting a Font Name. To select a particular section on the tree view. Clicking on one of these buttons will pop up the common Font dialog: 352 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . with each heading controlling one section of the total display. click on it. For example. and the Contour Map tab contains a Set Values Font button. the Titles tab contains a Line 1 Font button. Style.This dialog is organized by a tree view. Each section contains a number of controls that allow you to customize the display of a particular item.

style. click on the “?” button on the top frame of the Font dialog. Thickness and Color Many of the Display Setting dialog tabs contain buttons to set a custom line type. size and color from the fonts that are installed on your computer. For example. then click on the part of the dialog that you want help on. To obtain help on the various components of this dialog box.This dialog allows you to select a font. the Grid tab contains a Custom Grid Line button and the Well Perforations tab contains a Set Custom Line button. Clicking on one of these buttons will pop up the Set Custom Line dialog: User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 353 . Selecting a Line Style.

2. or time step of the data being displayed current layer info (this is empty if you are in 3D mode) 4. Click Cancel to close the dialog box. 354 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . Clicking on the Select Color button will pop up a Color dialog. date. specify the title that should appear.This dialog allows you to select a style. Note that only a solid style can have a weight greater than 1 (this is a Windows limitation). Changing Displayed Titles To change titles that appear in the view: 1. In Line 1 and Line 2. 3.. You can enter the following to automate specific entries in the titles.. $file $prop $title1 $title2 $title3 $date $time $layer button to the right of the text box. If you click Cancel before you click OK. Click on the Titles tab. To include this in the titles.. Click OK to accept your changes. OR Select from a list by clicking on the Enter. and close the dialog box. you will lose all your changes. 5.. color and weight for a line. Select Properties… from the View menu. current data filename current grid property the string specified by “*Title1” keyword in the simulator dataset the string specified by “*Title2” keyword in the simulator dataset the string specified by “*Title3” keyword in the simulator dataset today’s date current simulation time.

This may be used to turn the display of the Info Box on or off. 2 Click on the Spatial Properties section of the tree view. To toggle the display of grid lines and axes on and off: 1. on the Info Box tab. 2. Click on Cancel to cancel your change. The options in the Display Settings dialog allow you to toggle on or off the display of all the items in the view. 3. etc. The Display Settings dialog box appears. Click on OK or Apply All to apply your change. there is a check box control Show Info Box. 4. Click on the Grid tab. Showing Fault Faces To show fault faces with solid color or using texture: 1. For example. Select Properties… from the View menu. Wells. Click on the Show Grid checkbox to toggle grid display on or off. 3. Map. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 355 .Toggling the Display of the Grid. Bring up the Properties dialog box as described earlier. Click on Show Fault Faces From *TRANSF check box.

Or click on Texture radio button to show fault faces with texture pattern. Select desired plot layout.4. Color for fault faces can be selected using color combo box control. Click on Color radio button to show fault faces with solid color. Use Preferences feature to save Fault Faces settings as default values. Use Reset Page button to return factory defaults on the current preference page. lines. fonts. 5. colors etc and click OK button to save it in registry. File / Results 3D & Grid Builder Preferences… menu item brings up this dialog window. User preferences apply to newly created plots and do not change the existing ones. 356 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . 6. Note: When texture patterns are used to show fault faces thinner lines on the pattern correspond to greater permeability of the fault. Results 3D & Builder User Preferences User Preferences feature Results 3D and Builder settings that can be saved as default values in Windows registry under the current user name. Click Apply All or OK.

then the item will be redrawn at the new location when you release the mouse button. Click on Resize Viewport with the leftmost mouse button. use the Display Settings dialog. holding the mouse button down. Using the leftmost mouse button. map scale. to change the font size. A pop up (context) menu will appear. Info Box. Color Legend. and reservoir viewport. To increase or decrease the size. contains a text entry field for Approximate Width (% page). Click on the item to move with the left mouse button. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport. Resizing the Reservoir Viewport To resize the reservoir viewport: 1. 2. Note that you cannot drag an item outside the view margins. click on Move. contains text entry fields for Color Bar Width and Color Bar Height. color scale. Color Legend tab. 3. Move the cursor inside the view. These items can be moved about on the view. A pop up (context) menu appears. and. An outline of the item’s shape will move as you drag. The height is determined by the Color Bar Height. and Map Scale To move an item: 1. and the Numeric Format used.Moving and Resizing Display Objects A view consists of a number of items: the title block. Moving the Title. 2. and click with the rightmost mouse button. and the Titles or Info Box tabs. The width of the color scale is determined by the value of Color Bar Width. the Color Legend Font. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 357 . drag it to the desired location. This controls the width of the Map Scale. Map Scale tab. The number of scale bars displayed and the Map Scale Font sets the height of the map scale box. and click with the rightmost mouse button. Resizing the Titles and Info Box The sizes of the titles and the info box are determined by the fonts used by these items and the length of the text to be displayed. info box. Resizing the Map Scale The Display Settings dialog. Resizing the Color Legend The Display Settings dialog. The cursor will change shape to the move cursor. The cursor will change to the resize cursor and small rectangle handles will appear at the corners and sides of the viewport.

Toggling the Color Gradient Background To toggle color gradient background of the reservoir viewport: 1. Click down with the left mouse button. 2 Click on the Model View section of the tree view. Move the cursor over a handle. 3. Select desirable color of the reservoir viewport top. Bring up the Properties dialog box as described earlier. Click on Top Color… button to bring color selection dialog.3. 4. 358 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . 5. Release the left mouse button. 4. and the cursor will change shape to indicate the direction that the handle can be dragged in. and the reservoir viewport will be redrawn in the new size. Click on Color Gradient radio button. 5. and drag the handle to the desired position.

Note: Color gradient background currently implemented in 3D view only.6 Click on Bottom Color… button and repeat steps to select reservoir viewport bottom color. Select Aspect Ratios and Scale from the View menu. 7. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 359 . Changing the Aspect Ratio and Scale To change the aspect ratio or scale used to draw the reservoir: 1. Use Preferences feature to save Color Gradient settings as default values. Click Apply All or OK. You will see smooth color gradation over the reservoir viewport background. The Aspect Ratios & Scaling dialog appears.

2. Move the cursor to the top left corner of the area to be zoomed in on. then enter a value for the scale. Click on Zoom Reservoir with the leftmost mouse button. Alternatively. Zooming. and drag out a rectangle of the zoom area. Click OK to confirm your changes. Panning. The height to width aspect ratio of the zoom rectangle will always match the height to width ratio of the viewport. you may no longer see the entire reservoir in the reservoir viewport part of the view. 3. A pop up (context) menu will appear. Enter new values for Z/X Aspect Ratio and/or Y/X Aspect Ratio to change the aspect ratios. 3. The cursor will change to a magnifying glass. click on the Zoom button on the mode toolbar. and Rotating the Reservoir Zooming To zoom in on a part of the reservoir: 1. click on the checkbox for Fix X axis scale as given. Panning (Moving) the Reservoir Once you have zoomed in on a portion of the reservoir. 360 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . or Cancel. To set a fixed scale. 4. 2. and click with the rightmost mouse button. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport.

If you have a large and complex reservoir. and click with the rightmost mouse button. 3. Click on Rotate (3D View) with the leftmost mouse button. Click on Full Reservoir View with the leftmost mouse button. 5. 2. Rotating. Panning and Zooming the Reservoir in 3D When you are in a 3D view. 2. and drag it to a different position within the viewport. and click with the rightmost mouse button. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport. and drag the mouse left or right. pan and zoom the reservoir interactively by direct manipulation of the mouse. Click on Pan Reservoir with the leftmost mouse button. Click down on a point in the reservoir. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 361 . click in the reservoir viewport and drag the mouse to pan the reservoir. A pop up (context) menu will appear. To rotate the reservoir in 3D: 1. Hold down the Ctrl key. you can use the zoom and pan features as discussed above. 2. Click on Undo Zoom or Pan with the leftmost mouse button. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport. A pop up (context) menu will appear. Release the mouse and the reservoir will redraw at the new position. To return to viewing the entire reservoir: 1. A pop up (context) menu will appear. and click with the rightmost mouse button. The cursor will change to the rotate cursor.To pan the reservoir within the reservoir viewport: 1. A pop up (context) menu will appear. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport. up or down to rotate the reservoir. Click in the reservoir viewport. Hold down the Shift key. The cursor will change to a hand. click in the reservoir viewport and drag the mouse up or down to move the reservoir towards you (zoom) or away from you (unzoom). In addition. 3. Your view will change back to showing the reservoir as prior to the last zoom or pan operation that you preformed. you may require a fast graphics card to have good control while doing these operations. you can rotate. and click with the rightmost mouse button. 4. click on the Pan button on the mode toolbar. Alternatively. 2. Undoing a Zoom or Pan To undo your last zoom or pan: 1.

In the CMG Technologies Launcher. 5. If adding the –s command line option does not improve performance. Video Card performance has improved significantly in the past couple of years. 362 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . Select Modify Icon from the Programs menu. add or remove a “-s” after the “-3”. a small cross hair will appear in the center of the screen. Start up Results 3D. There are two ways to indicate to Results 3D and Builder to use hardware OpenGL acceleration. This is normally set automatically by the installation program. While you are panning the reservoir. If you have a complex reservoir. To rotate in bounding box mode: 1. and click with the rightmost mouse button. Click on OK to save the modified settings. and/or a slow (non-OpenGL) graphics card.Note that panning the reservoir may also change the center of rotation. In the text box Additional command line switches. The first is in the Technologies Launcher by using a command line option of “-s”. open a simulation output file (SR2) and change to a 3D view. 4. 3. the grid block under the cross hair will become the new center of rotation. or if your display is now incorrect. The entire line should read “-3 –s”. 2. remove the –s using the Technologies Launcher Modify Icon dialog. The 3D settings dialog will appear. 2. 3. select the Results 3D icon. 6. Move the cursor over the reservoir viewport. The card must come with OpenGL ICD files and have enough memory to support double buffering. do the following: 1. Click on 3D Settings… with the leftmost mouse button. Improving 3D Graphics Performance One way to improve 3D graphics performances is to have a graphics card that supports OpenGL in hardware. The second method is to check the Hardware acceleration for 3D checkbox on the 3D tab of the tabbed property sheet. 4. A pop up (context) menu will appear. or Cancel. To add or remove the Hardware acceleration for 3D option. and most cards currently for sale include OpenGL support. Click on OK to apply the change. When you finish the pan operation. A “professional” OpenGL graphics card can significantly improve 3D performance for large simulation models. you may wish to rotate in bounding box mode. Click on the Rotate Bounding Box only… checkbox.

Other tips on improving 3D graphics performance include: • • Turn off the display of the grid prior to switching to 3D View. For Cartesian (variable depth and thickness) grids, switch to Contour Fill mode prior to switching to 3D view.

Both of these steps are done automatically if you use the Quick 3D Full View button on the toolbar.

Using Stereoscopic 3D
Stereoscopic 3D works by alternately displaying “left eye” and “right eye” images, with slightly different perspectives, while a pair of shutter glasses cover or uncover the appropriate eye in sync with the images being displayed. Your mind’s vision center will use the different perspective information from the two images to compose a 3D composite – the image will “pop” out of the screen appearing to be a true 3D object. To use stereoscopic 3D, you must have a graphics cards that supports OpenGL stereo buffers, a pair of shutter glasses, and a display that is capable of a high refresh rate (>100 Hz). The normal CMG software installation procedure should set Results and Builder to use Stereoscopic 3D if the graphics card is capable.
To add or remove stereoscopic 3D display:

1. In the CMG Technologies Launcher, select the Builder icon. 2. Select Modify Icon from the Programs menu. 3. You must be using hardware acceleration (“-s”) in the text box Additional command line switches to use stereoscopic 3D. The entire line should read “-g -s. 4. Click on OK to save the modified settings. 5. Start up Builder, open a data set file and change to a 3D view. 6. You can set stereoscopic 3D default value enabled or disabled in Preferences dialog box on Stereoscopic page. NOTE: if you are not wearing shutter glasses, or if they are not working correctly, you will see two superimposed images on the screen when in Stereoscopic 3D mode.
To change the setting options for stereoscopic 3D:

1. Select Stereoscopic View Settings… from the View menu. The Stereoscopic page of Properties dialog box appears.

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2. Check Stereoscopic 3D Viewing to enable stereoscopic 3D, or uncheck to disable. 3. Move the Fraction in front slider to pull the image more “out” of the screen. 4. If you significantly change the Fraction in front setting, you may need to adjust the Offset adjust and Balance adjust to get a comfortable image. It is suggested that you start with small changes. 5. Click Apply or OK to apply your changes. Click Cancel to dismiss the dialog.

Selecting IJK Slabs and Regions
You can define rectilinear volumes of grid blocks in IJK coordinates; then, only those volumes are displayed in 2D and 3D. There are 4 different methods to define slabs. All methods can be selected at the same time to have a combined effect on the view. Having the option “Apply changes instantly” checked makes the 3D view to update immediately without clicking Apply button. Select IJK Slabs and Regions from the View menu, OR click on the IJK Slabs button on the toolbar. The IJK Slabs and Regions dialog box appears. Check on the box “Show slabs or regions”.

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Simple slabs - IJK slices

The left table contains 3 columns with check boxes for each of IJK coordinates. Setting the check box ON adds a corresponding slice of grid to the view. The top row has 3 buttons next to I, J, K names. Clicking these buttons brings a small control panel to setup regular slabs. It helps settings slices with a constant thickness and step along one of the axis.

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Right mouse click in the IJK slices table brings the following context menu that allows checking ON and OFF selected table cells. The table cells can be selected as in any spread sheet.

The group box “Animate IJK slices” contains options to start continuous shifting of selected IJK slices along one of the axis. Simply press down the Loop button and click on Up or Down arrow to start the animation. “Delay” button controls the time break in milliseconds between the animation steps. To stop animation you can click on Loop button once again or close the control panel.
Sectors and regions

This table contains names for all available sectors in regions that have been used in the simulation run and saved in the SRF file. If none of them has been created in the dataset than the table is empty.

Custom slabs

Custom slabs enable you to cut a part of the grid model in terms of IJK ranges and show or hide it on display.
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1. Set “Custom slabs” check box on. 2. Click “Add New” button to append a new slab covering the entire grid size. 3. Use IJK range sliders to adjust boundaries of the current slab. The current slab is shown in red color in the little diagram on this control panel. The current slab can be changed by clicking on a different row in the table. 4. Setting the “Show/hide slab” check box OFF in the table hides or effectively makes a hole in the grid on display. It is a handy feature for creating cutoffs around wells. Please make sure that some visible slabs are added otherwise the screen will be empty. 5. Use “Reset” button to return the maximum range for current slab and “Delete” button to remove the current slab from the view.

Well locations

Well Location tab provides controls to display fundamental grid blocks around the well completions. The check boxes “Show/hide” enables to add or hide these grid blocks from viewing.

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1. Set “Well location” check box on.. 2. Use button “Add wells to the list” to select new well names. 3. Adjust number of grid block around wells to show bigger or smaller area at well completions. 4. Select the option “Use current view date” ensures that well locations will be synchronized with the current view date (in case when well completions are changing with time) otherwise completed grid blocks from all times are shown together. 5. Use button “Remove selected wells” to delete selected names from the table and view display.

Cutting Away Part of a Reservoir in 3D
You can use a cutting plane to remove part of the reservoir while in 3D view. This allows you to see the interior of the reservoir. Cutting planes are particularly useful when using nonorthogonal corner point grids, where IJK slabs do not give you planar surfaces. Cutting planes can also be used between wells and through refined grids.
To use a cutting plane:

1. Select Cut Plane… from the View menu, or click the Cutting Plane button. The Cutting Plane dialog box appears.

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2. There are five options on how to specify the cutting plane. The first three specify vertical or horizontal cutting planes, where you give one value to specify the plane location (default to center of the reservoir). Click OK to set the cutting plane. 3. If you select Vertical cut plane between well perfs, the dialog changes as follows:

4. Select two well perforations of interest, then click OK to set the cutting plane. 5. For a General Cut Plane, you must enter a point and a normal direction to specify the cutting plane. For example, a value of NX = 0.5 and NZ = 0.5 will give you a plane at a 45º angle from the horizontal if your Z/X aspect ratio is 1/1. If you have a high Z/X aspect ratio, the cutting plane may appear more vertical than you expect. To see what your Z/X aspect ration is, use View→Aspect Ratios and Scaling. 6. Once you have set the initial cutting plane, and the dialog has disappeared, you can move the cutting plane as follows. Make sure you are in Probe mode by clicking the Probe mode button on the Mode toolbar. Hold down the <Shift> button, click the left mouse button while the cursor is in the view, and drag the mouse up and down, moving the cutting plane back and forth along it’s normal direction. For vertical cutting planes, you can rotate the cutting plane by holding down the <Ctrl> button and clicking and dragging the mouse left and right. 7. To turn off the cutting plane, uncheck Use Cutting Plane and click on OK.

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Modifying the Color Scale
Color is used to represent ranges of values. The color scale is only available (active) when a property is displayed. You can select from 3 types of color scales: Linear, Logarithmic, and General and 3 types of color systems: RGB (red, green, blue), HSV (hue, saturation, value) and Gray (black and white).

Modifying a Linear or Logarithmic Color Scale
The Color Scale shows you the value of a reservoir property in a specific grid block in both the 2D and 3D views. You may change the colors used, whether the scale is linear or logarithmic, and what the range of values covered by the scale is. Grid blocks whose values are outside the range are not displayed.
To set a linear or logarithmic color scale for each reservoir property:

1. Select Color Scale from the View menu. The following menu items appear for 3-D view:

2. Selecting Set to the Range of the Whole Grid sets the color scale minimum and maximum values to the range of whole grid for the current reservoir property. 3. Selecting Set to the Range of the Cutting Plane sets the color scale minimum and maximum values to the minimum and maximum value of the current reservoir property on the cutting plane. 4. Selecting Set to the Range of the Slabs sets the color scale minimum and maximum values to the minimum and maximum value of the current reservoir property on all the selected slabs. 5. Selecting Set to the Range of the User Selections sets the color scale minimum and maximum values to the minimum and maximum value of the current reservoir property on all the selected grid blocks. In a 2-D view the following menu items appear:

6. Selecting Set to the Range of the Whole Grid sets the color scale minimum and maximum values to the range of whole grid for current reservoir property.

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7. Selecting Set to the Range of the Current Plane sets the color scale minimum and maximum values to the minimum and maximum value of current reservoir property in the current plane. 8. Selecting Set Color Scale… brings up the Color Scale dialog where you may set specific values for the minimum and maximum, or change other aspects of the color scale (Linear is the default).

9. Min Value and Max Value default to the current selected lowest and highest values for the current reservoir property. You may change these values here to specific values. 10. You may also set the range of the scale to the range of the whole grid, to the range of the current cutting plane, or to the range covered by the currently selected blocks. 11. In Number of scale intervals, click and drag the slider to the right to get more intervals and to the left to get fewer intervals.

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12. In Color System, select the system you want to use: HSV (Hue Saturation Value), RGB (Red-Green-Blue), or GRAY (gray scale). 13. You can move the sliders to change the endpoints of the color components on the scale. 14. Click OK or Apply to accept your selections and redraw the image with your specifications. Notice that in the Logarithmic scale interval division is done logarithmically and Min value must be greater than zero.

Setting or Modifying a General Color Scale
To set a general color scale for each reservoir property:

1. Select Color Scale from the View menu to open the dialog box and click General radio button in the top-left corner of this window. Adjust the width of the dialog box to see all table columns. The General Color Scale allows customizing color and Min-Max values for each interval in the scale.

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2. The slider Number of sale intervals is disabled for General color scale to avoid accidental resetting the color and interval division to defaults. There are a number of commands available from context menu to change the number of General scale intervals (as described below) without resting defaults. If you still prefer to use this slider than switch to Linear or Logarithmic scale type, adjust the slider and switch back to the General scale. 3. In Color System, select the system you want to use: HSV (Hue Saturation Value), RGB (Red-Green-Blue), or GRAY (gray scale). 4. Each row in the table represents a color scale interval. You can edit the Min and Max values and select any color you wish by changing data in the cells. Please make sure that Max value is always greater than Min and scale intervals do not overlap. 5. Right mouse click in the table brings a context menu with commands to modify current settings.

Add Interval – adds a new interval at the top of the table (end of color scale). Insert interval – inserts a new interval above the select grid row. Delete interval(s) – deletes selected table rows and scale intervals. Split interval(s) – splits the selected intervals into a number of smaller ones. Combine intervals – combines selected adjacent intervals into a single inheriting the color of the lower one. Interpolate intervals – recalculates colors for all intervals using linear interpolation between the first and last colors on the scale to get even color spread. With this command you can set only the top and bottom colors and quickly interpolate the rest.

6. Click OK or Apply to accept your selections and redraw the image with your specifications.

Saving Color Scale settings in preferences
You can save the settings for a property in the preferences by clicking the Save as Preferences button. You can restore the default settings by clicking the Restore Default button.

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Modifying Ternary Color Scale
To set a color scale for reservoir Ternary property:

1. Select Set Color Scale… from Color Scale menu item under View menu. The Ternary Color Scale dialog box appears.

2. By default the scale covers the complete range of values for SW, SO, and SG. You may change this by entering new numbers in the Maximum Values boxes, or by clicking and dragging with the mouse on the triangle. 3. In Color Range, select the number of colors you want to use: 6 Color or 3 Color. 4. In Three Phase Colors, select the different colors to represent Oil, Water and Gas (two choices are available: Gas = red, Oil=green and Water=blue or Gas=green, Oil=red and Water=blue). 5. Clicking on the Save as Preference button saves the current settings for the maximum Water, Oil and Gas ratios. While clicking on Restore Preference button restores the saved values. 6. Click OK or Apply to accept your selections and redraw the image with your specifications.

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Viewing and Editing Tabular Data
Apart from the usual dialog boxes for viewing and editing data, Builder also provides plots of tabular data (PVT, VOT, COT, BOT tables, etc.) in a special view window called the plot view. The plot view consists of a plot tree view which lists the plots you can display. The rest of the plot view displays the currently selected plot in the plot tree view. The plots are automatically created as soon as data is available – which can be when you open a file or create new data. The plot view becomes the active view when you click on the “Components” or “Rock-Fluid” buttons on the main tree view; or select one of the correspondingly named the menu items

If you left double-click on the plot, a dialog containing the data in the plot is launched. You can now interactively modify the plot or dialog data. The data in the plot and the dialog are synchronized. A context menu opens up if you right click on the plot. You can print the plot, export it to a file or copy to clipboard. Limited display properties editing capabilities are available through the Properties sub-menu. The legend in the plot can be moved around. If you have closed the plot view, you can reopen it by selecting View→Open Plot view. If you have closed the plot tree view, you can reopen it by selecting View→Show/hide plot tree view. You can also go directly to the plot view by selecting its window from the list under the Window menu.

Printing and Saving Images
In general, all views are in “what you see is what you get” mode – i.e., the printed output should look just like the screen display. This is true for both 2D and 3D displays. Prior to printing, you should set the display to look like you want your printed output to look (i.e., select fonts, change or move titles, etc.). Also prior to printing, you should make any necessary changes to your page setup and printer selection. If you are printing to a printer that does not support color (i.e., black and white only), you may wish to change your color scale to use a gray shade scale. See the section on Modifying the color scale for more information. You can save the current view as an image file in one or a number of supported formats. Many office applications such as Microsoft Word and PowerPoint can import and display images. Using this facility, you can include images produced by Results or Builder directly into reports or presentations.

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The supported image formats are Enhanced Windows Metafile (*.emf), bitmap (*.bmp), JPEG file interchange format (*.jpg), tagged image format (*.tif), and portable network graphics (*.png).

Changing the Selected Printer and Paper Size
To change the selected printer or plotter and paper size:

1. Select Page Setup from the File menu. The Page Setup dialog box will appear.

2. If you want to change the printer, click on the printer button. A dialog will appear allowing you to select from the printers that have been installed on your computer. Select the desired printer, and click on OK. 3. In the Page Setup dialog, select the Size and Source from the drop down selection lists in the Paper frame.

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4. In the Orientation frame, choose Portrait or Landscape. 5. Enter new values to the Margins if you wish to change these. 6. Click on OK to confirm your changes, or Cancel.

Printing the Current View
To print the current view:

1. Select Print from the File menu. The Print dialog box appears. 2. The Print dialog will allow you to change printers. However, if you would also like to change the paper size, you should use the Page Setup dialog prior to using the Print dialog. 3. Click on OK to print, or Cancel.

Specifying Bitmap Resolution in 3D Printing
Without getting too technical, printing of 3D views is done by rendering (displaying) the 3D image to a bitmap, then copying the image to the printer. For small paper sizes, the bitmap can have the same resolution as the printer, yielding the best image possible. However, for larger plots at full plotter resolution, a full resolution bitmap would require a significant amount of memory, and the drawing routines would take significant time to complete. To reduce this resource requirement, the maximum bitmap size is limited by default. If you need to improve the print quality for large 3D printout, you will have to increase the maximum bitmap size.
To increase the maximum 3D bitmap size:

1. Move the cursor over the view to be printed, and click with the rightmost mouse button. A pop up (context) menu appears. 2. Click on 3D Settings… from the menu with the leftmost mouse button. The Settings for 3D View and Rotation dialog appears. 3. In the Print Resolution area, enter a value for Maximum Pixels in X. 4. Click OK to confirm your changes, or Cancel 5. Use File | Print to print with the new resolution and see if the printed image is improved.

Saving the Current View as an Image File
To save the current view as an image file:

1. Display the view you want to capture. 2. Select Image… from the Export menu. A dialog box appears.

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3. Enter the file name for the saved image. Select the image format that you want from the Image File Format selection list. 4. You can change the size of the saved image if you need a particular size. 5. Click on OK to save the image, or Cancel.

Improving the Quality of Saved Images
Images are saved at the current screen resolution of the view. To produce higher quality saved images, increase the view size. The quickest way to do this is to make the Builder or Results 3D main window full screen and to make the view to be saved full screen. In addition, you can select Paper Zoom→200% from the View menu to increase the resolution of the view, prior to saving the image.

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Working With Multiple Views and Documents
Opening a Second View
To create and control a second or subsequent view:

1. Select New View from the View menu. A second view window will appear within the main Results 3D or Builder window. 2. To see both windows at once, select Tile Horizontally or Tile Vertically from the Window menu. 3. To change the Display Settings, property, or time of one of the views, click on the view to make it the current view, then use the menus and dialogs as you would if you only had one view. The changes you make will only affect the current view, unless you have synchronized the views (see next section).

Synchronizing Views
You can open two or more views, then synchronize the views so that certain types of changes made in one view will also be made in other views.
To synchronize views:

1. Select Synchronize Views from the View menu, or right click to pop up the context menu, then select Synchronize Views. The View Synchronization dialog appears:

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2. Click in the checkboxes of the items you wish to synchronize between views. For example, if you want all views to show properties and wells at the same time, click in the Time checkbox. 3. Click on OK to confirm your changes, or Cancel.

Interactive Block Selection (3D only)
Select mode can be set from the “Modes Tools” toolbar or the 3D context menu by clicking on the “Select” menu item.

When this mode is set you can select a single block or various block combinations. To define what combination of block(s) you want to select, use the radio buttons in “Selection” docking tool. (are described in next section of this manual). The options include selection by Block, Pillar, Layer, Slab_I, Slab_J, Stripe_I, Stripe_J or Region. Simply put the mouse cursor over a block and drag the mouse while holding down the left mouse button.

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The highlighting will disappear from any blocks that were selected. To show all grid blocks click the “Show All” button in “Selection “Docking Tool. To cancel the current selection press the ESC key. Subsequent set of blocks can be selected from the current selection following the same steps. Example: 3D Reservoir View after hiding unselected blocks. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 381 .After grid blocks have been selected you can use the “Hide Selected” or “Hide Unselected” buttons on the “Selection” docking tool to set only those blocks visible which you currently want to analyze.

Selection “Selection” is used to set the grid block selection type and also to hide selected or unselected blocks. Wells and Statistics. 3D Properties.Docking Tools (3D only) The Docking Tools enable the user to quickly access parameter settings which are used more often. The “Show All” option can be used to undo the selections made. 382 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder . There are four Docking Tools: Selection. 3D Properties This docking tool allows you to show or hide different parts of a grid and change 3D graphics properties. change property settings or choose to display well/trajectory information. The user can show or hide different parts of the grid.

This feature allows the user to easily turn off wells in large models to make Builder more responsive.Wells The “Wells” docking tool is used to show or hide Wells and Well Trajectories and set different controls related to Wells. User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 383 .

When a grid property is changed. 384 • Changing Display Content and Settings User's Guide Builder .Statistics In the Statistics docking tool you can see histogram and summary information for all of the blocks displayed for the current property. Statistics can be update manually by clicking on the “Update” button. Colors of histogram bars correspond to colors of the color scale. The histogram displays the number of blocks for each property value range. The “Auto Update” check box can be checked to update Statistic information automatically each time a new block selection has been made. or when the property shown has changed.

User's Guide Builder Changing Display Content and Settings • 385 .Opening and Closing Docking Tools All of the Docking Tools can be opened or closed by accessing the Panes options through the View menu.

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This is the replacement for the previous temporary property. logical and logarithmic operators and other special quantities. When you save the dataset. It can be a property previously defined and calculated using the Array Property Calculator. to specify and calculate a property in terms of another property probably with some type of arithmetic operation. one may calculate and display property values derived from a combination of property values from different simulation runs or at different times.. The Array Property Calculator is included in both Builder and Results. The Calculator can be used in Builder. Simple averages and pore volume weighted averages can be calculated for any displayed property – see Calculating Grid and Property Statistics. denoted by Xn. n = 0 . 99 Custom (or custom) property. All custom properties will have the prefix ‘CMGLCustom_’ for their names. A generic. Source property. Representation of the source property in the formula. In Results. Explanation of Terms Used Formula. There is no limit on the number of custom properties you can define. User's Guide Builder Array Property Calculator • 387 . The functional relationship expressed using string tokens representing arithmetic.Array Property Calculator Overview You can calculate new array properties from the array properties that are output from the simulator. Both the applications provide a special Formula Generator view in which to input the “formula” describing the functional relationships. for example. the specification of the custom property is saved but the calculated values of the custom property are not. An existing property in the dataset (Builder) or in the current or another simulation output file (Results 3D). You can also calculate new array properties from array properties in more than one simulation output file – allowing you to compare two different history match or prediction runs. non simulator input. Includes a list of “source properties” used in the functional relationship. property to which you can assign a formula in Builder. Independent variable.

‘-‘. if the formula is PERMK = PERMI * 0. An ‘ELSE’. ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ statements cannot be present without an ‘IF’ statement. 388 • Array Property Calculator User's Guide Builder .. For example. ELSE (. ‘<’. Precedence and order of evaluation Calculations are always carried out from left to right Precedence is similar to C programming language: ‘*’ and ‘/’ have equal precedence but are higher than ‘+’ and ‘-’ which have equal precedence. An ‘ELSE’ statement may be terminated by ‘ENDIF’.e.01 the formula will look like X0 * 0. An IF block completely defines a formula (i. ‘>=’. ELSE. An expression within parentheses is evaluated completely and the result is treated as the single value in a binary operation. MIN. a formula containing an IF block can only have the IF . those greater than i.5 to (i+1)) MAX. THEN) . An IF block must have an ELSE statement. 10**x.ENDIF) statements). Formula Syntax Only enter the “right hand side” of an equation as the formula. values up to i. THEN . ** (power). ‘= =’ IF Blocks A formula can have only one IF block. . OR. ‘ELSEIF’. ‘SQRT (square root) Logarithmic operators: LOG. ‘/’ (divide).. ‘>’.. ‘>=’. ‘*’ (multiply). Following have equal precedence ‘<’. An ‘IF’ statement must be terminated by ‘THEN’. THEN (as a delimiter).. ABS (absolute value) Xn (n = 0. ‘= =’ Other: ‘(‘ and ‘)’ as a delimiters for function arguments INT (rounding of floats to ints. AND. ENDIF (as a delimiter).01 where X0 is the source property Permeability I. ‘<=’.. LN.5 will be rounded to i. ‘>’. (ELSEIF . 99) for independent variable. ‘<=’..List of Operators Arithmetic operators: ‘+’.. e**x. Logical operators: IF.

e**x. The two expressions should be separated by a comma. 10**x. User's Guide Builder Array Property Calculator • 389 . INT. ELSIF. A scrollable view for formula entry appears.General • Following operators must be followed by an expression enclosed in a pair of parentheses: LOG. • • • Using the Array Property Calculator New Formula 1. ABS. IF. Bring up the Formula Generator view by selecting Enter a Formula… from the menu item Tools. LN. A formula can span more than one line. ELSE. OR MAX and MIN operators should be followed by two expressions in parentheses. AND. ‘SQRT’. Appropriate use of spaces between operators and functions and parentheses to group calculations is recommended.

You cannot delete a source property from the list unless you remove all references to it from the formula. X1. Select and add the source properties needed by your formula by clicking on Add List of Independent Variables button at the bottom of the view. Enter the formula in the text box near the top of the view. In Results 3D. For each property. You can delete the variable and source property from the list by clicking on Delete Selected button. You can add the source property to the formula (any number of times) by either typing its variable symbol (X0. etc. You can edit the source property (change from one property to another) without removing references to it in the formula. A dialog box. After you select a property. X0. You can change the source property associated with a variable Xn by selecting the variable and source property in the list at the bottom of the screen and clicking on the Edited Selected… button. This is to make formula entry more concise. listing the available properties. it will be assigned a variable name. 5. pops up. X1 etc. 390 • Array Property Calculator User's Guide Builder .2. 3.) or by selecting the property in the list at the bottom and clicking on Insert Selected into Formula button. Xn. You may change the name of the formula in the top text box opposite Calculation if you desire. 6. 4. you can use the Browse button to specify additional simulator output files. the times at which data values are available are also displayed.

9. 8. maps. This may be one of the Temporary properties. and constant values to individual layers or regions of the property. Builder Using the Property Selection list. or Cancel. specify the formulae.7. In the Specify property dialog. Click on the ‘Specify Property’ button.g. Click OK when done. You are back in the usual reservoir view. Use the ‘Calculate Property’ button to calculate the properties that are specified in terms of a formula. select the property you want to calculate with the formula. division by zero) (optional). Change the default value to be assigned to calculations which may result in indeterminate values (e. User's Guide Builder Array Property Calculator • 391 . Change the value of the tolerance to be used to compare the equality in the simulation times of the source properties (optional).

simply click on its name in the list on the left.2 ) IF ( ( X0 < 0.Results 3D When you exit the Formula generator view. Select the formula you want to edit in the dialog box that pops up. Click on “Edit Selected”. Follow the steps in “new formula” above.1 ) AND ( X1 < 1200 ) ) THEN ( INT ( X1/100 ) ) ELSE ( INT ( X0 * X1 ) ) MAX ( ( LOG (X0 * X1 *X2 ) ) . Viewing Existing Formulae To view existing formulae. This brings up the Formula view. click on a window that displays a property from the second simulator output file (make it active). All the formulae entered or read in from a file are listed on the left. Results will calculate and display a new property using the data in the second simulator output file. select Display Formulae from the Tools menu. Select the new property from the Property List. This brings up a dialog box. Results will automatically create a new property with a name identical to the name of the formula and display it. The list box on the right displays the string that represents the formula.23 * ( X0 ** 0. If there is another simulator output file open. ABS ( X0 – ( X1 / X2 ) ) ) 392 • Array Property Calculator User's Guide Builder . Editing a Formula • • • Bring up the Formula view by selecting Edit a Formula from the Tools menu.1 ) AND ( X1 < 623 ) ) THEN ( INT ( X1 / 10) ) ELSEIF ( ( X0 < 0. Example Formulae Example 1: Example 2: Example 3: 1. To view a formula.

Results • Each formula corresponds to a new property in Results. Enter or confirm the file name. A regular property that is calculated using formula specification is saved in the dataset. You can recalculate the property after changing the specification if desired. 3. You can export the values of the property to an ASCII format file using the Export menu. sums over all blocks and histograms for the currently displayed properties. and a common file dialog will appear. A custom property is not saved in the dataset. These formulae are saved in the session file (file with 3tp extension). To view statistics for the current property: 1. These properties are not saved in the simulation output file. When you select this property. Select Grid and Property Statistics from the Tools menu. The next time you open up the dataset. then click OK.Saving and Restoring Formulae and Formula-based Properties Builder • • • Each formula that is used to specify a property (regular as well as temporary properties) is saved when you save the dataset. The status bar will indicate the progress of the calculations – when complete the Property Statistics report will pop up. Its specification.click on the Save to file… button. is saved. Results adds the formula property to the Property List. however. If you wish a logarithmic histogram for permeability. 2. Note: The histogram of the property uses the property ranges of the color scale divisions for categories. Results calculates the property and displays it. When you open up a session file. • Calculating Grid and Property Statistics Builder can calculate pore volumes. To save the report . Click OK to dismiss the Property Statistics dialog box. User's Guide Builder Array Property Calculator • 393 . property averages. change the color scale to logarithmic before running the property statistics. A report is generated and displayed in a dialog and can be saved to a text file. You can export the values of the property to an ASCII format file using the Export menu. the custom property values are not calculated automatically.

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you can enter well log.y points along contour lines (contour maps) and files giving a property value at each node in a regular mesh of points (mesh maps). User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 395 . Simgen format. Builder can also import 3D well trajectories and compute the grid blocks containing perforated sections of these wells. A number of different formats are accepted. You will need to ensure that your data is in one of these formats. picks. The supported mesh formats include CMG mesh format. Builder supports a number of file formats for geological information as described in the following sections. CPS-3. CPS-3. ZMAP GRID format.Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data Overview Builder can import geological data from two types of data sources: data files and data stored in a Public Petroleum Data Model (PPDM) compatible database. as described below. Builder reads two types of geological data files: files giving x. and ZMAP CNTR format.y points) and well names and locations. the contours will be displayed. or other data versus measured depth along the trajectory. When you open a mesh map. Coupled with the well trajectories. Both types of maps can contain fault lines (as sets of connected x. and interpolation from the map will use the nearest contour lines to each interpolation point to determine the value at the interpolation point. The supported contour formats include WinDig format. and EarthVision mesh format. Builder will create contours for display purposes from the mesh but will use the nearest mesh nodes for the interpolation. When you open a contour map.

possibly bottoms) to position the simulation grid and to ensure that the number and size of grid blocks that you have specified create a grid large enough to cover the area of the study.goldensoftware. call CMG and ask for support. The WinDig User’s Manual describes how to install and use WinDig.com.Required Geological Data If you are conducting a full field or regional study. thickness. which is both a digitizer and a contour editor. If you are working with a flow unit conceptualization. When doing a pattern or pilot study. Didger 3 is a digitizing program that can be downloaded from their website www. Didger 3 from Golden Software. You can construct a grid without opening a map file. WinDig runs on IBM PC compatible hardware running Microsoft Windows 95 or Microsoft Windows NT and supports most popular digitizing tablets. In the past. CMG resold a third party program called WinDig. you can assign constant values to any layer of any property. you will receive the program on a 3. you may wish to use a typical or idealized geology with uniform geometric and rock properties for each layer. Inc. Instead of interpolating grid block properties from maps. thickness. If you do not have maps for one or more of the properties or layers. Once you are satisfied with the aerial position and coverage to the grid. and net pay for each geological layer in the reservoir. permeability. you need to have maps for top. You can also create contour map files in the CMG Mesh format from Builder using the Create Map File menu. Typically. With WinDig you can digitize your hard copy contour maps and create WinDig format contour maps that can be directly imported into Builder. or the data may already be in electronic form as files on the computer. If you purchase WinDig. You will need to register and pay a license fee to Golden Software before you can use Didger. This data can be in the form of hand drawn or hard copy maps that must be digitized into electronic form on the computer. you will need these maps for each flow unit. and WinDig. If you need support for WinDig. geological data describing the structure and rock properties of the field must be available for an accurate simulation. If your reservoir is dual porosity. 396 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . you assign a constant value to each simulation layer. Importing Hard Copy Contour Maps Builder reads exported files from two different digitizing packages. You use the geological data describing the reservoir structure (formation tops.5” diskette and a copy of the WinDig User’s Manual. you will need only one top and thickness map for each layer but separate (matrix and fracture) maps for other properties as well as a fracture spacing map. Builder will import files exported in the Atlas Boundary format (extension “bna”). you interpolate from structural and rock property maps to assign values to each simulation grid block. porosity.

Start Didger and open a new project from File→New menu and select “Tablet Digitizing” type. Tablet Digitizing 1. Press Enter key. 4. The Didger and WinDig files can be directly imported into Builder. Click on the well location with the tablet. 2. Alternatively you can start a “Blank Project” and import the image through File→Import Bitmap→Into Raster Project. 6. Steps 3 to 6 are the same as for Tablet Digitizing. you can save it to a WinDig format file typically with a file extension of “dig”. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 397 . 5. Enter “Contour” or “C” in the Primary ID field and the contour value in button the Secondary ID field. Start Didger and open a new project from File→New menu and select “Raster Digitizing” type.bna) in the export dialog Digitizing Screen Image 1. Enter “Well” or “W” in the Primary ID field and a well name or index in the secondary ID filed. select Open Map File… from the File menu. 3. then choose the appropriate format in the map type selection list on the Open Map dialog box. Press Enter key. Click on the points along the fault. Select Image→Calibrate Image menu item to go through calibration settings to establish coordinate system between the image pixels and the contour map. Exporting the contour map for Grid Builder: save the original Didger file using File→Save select File→Export menu item and choose Atlas Boundary Format (. You will need to register and pay a license fee to Golden Software before you can use Didger. Press Enter key. Inc that can be downloaded from the web www. For digitizing fault lines select Digitize→Polyline from menu or similar tool bar . Go through calibration settings to establish coordinate system between the tablet and the contour map. For digitizing contour lines select Digitize→Polyline from menu or similar tool bar . Creating Contour Maps With Didger 3 Didger 3 is a digitizing program of Golden Software.goldensoftware. 2. Enter “Fault” or “F” in the Primary ID field and the fault name or index button in the Secondary ID field.Once you have digitized a map.com. The program will ask you for image file path. After starting Builder. Click on the points along the contour line. For digitizing well locations select Digitize→Point from menu or similar tool bar button .

fault and well information.332.82184. “F” and “W” on the first place indicate entries for contour.g. IDs for Builder are not case sensitive. e. In Builder the Primary ID must be: “Contour” or just first letter “C” for contour objects.72428.95536 -273. Supported Atlas Boundary File Format Builder can import maps from Atlas Boundary file format containing contour. Letters “C”.40304 -23 (total of 23 X and Y coordinates) -4 1 1 Primary ID and Secondary ID are text strings. "well". The general format of Atlas Boundary file is: “Primary ID”. y1 x2. polylines and points. 1034. Atlas Boundary file (with extension “bna”) stores special information including polygons. The quotes around the text strings are required if the text contains spaces or other delimiting signs. 1293. 1558. 1897. "well".7058. 1937. type/length x1.47024 "1". No information on map units is included.Note: Primary ID is used to distinguish between contour lines.21584 1128.3224 "WI2".79736. The file entries are identified by primary and secondary IDs. yn The example contour map in Atlas Boundary file format is: "Contour". faults.84752. 1936.45. "2900". 1897. 300 or –1. “Fault” or just first letter “F” for fault objects.69648 1035. y2 … xn.4864 "OP1".21252. “Secondary ID”. wells and all other lines and points. "Fault". 2196.83452. Primary ID entry is not case sensitive. 1346.35152 -273.20296. 1345.40192 4165. … 1900.67152 1034. 4165. Contour values should be entered in Secondary ID field as a number. 1605.70948. fault and well receptively. “Well” or just first letter “W” for wells. 1346. 398 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .

e. 2. Duplicate contour lines: Some packages may output duplicate contours (that is they may repeat the same set of X. These gaps between contour lines can lead to anomalous interpolated values. some contours are closed. D. If you use an exponent in a floating-point number. Gaps in contour lines: Some contour lines produced from geological modelling packages have "gaps". Syntax Each record in the contour file must end with a new line character. Lines consisting of a single point: Occasionally. only true contour "lines" should be in the contour file. If the first and last points in a contour are "close". Each pair should start on a new line. ideally. Within a record. For more information see the next section on the WinDig file format. A contour line that should be continuous is actually made to consist of a number of shorter segments with small spaces between segments. In contour maps. 3. While code has been added to Builder to handle these cases. you may encounter the following pitfalls: 1. A quantity called the map scale is computed. duplicate lines lead to some increase in the processing time. Y coordinate pairs following the identifier: 1 >2 <-1 2 point polygon polyline ellipse (not supported by Builder) Each coordinate can be a number with or without a decimal. a contour file produced from a geological modelling package is observed to contain some contour lines that consist of a single point or an identical point repeated a number of times. Although Builder attempts to remove duplicate lines when processing the contour map. WinDig Contour Format Most geological modelling programs have commands to output contour maps into ASCII text files. A decimal point is not mandatory in floating point numbers. After the entire map is read. use E. When you create contour files directly from geological modelling packages. the bounding box of all points specified in the map is computed. or d in the exponent.The type/length is an integer which identifies the object and also the number of X. Y points and contour values). The output text file must then be reformatted into the WinDig file format to be read by Builder or Results 3D. Two points are essentially "close" if the distance between them is less than the map scale times 10e-4. the contour is automatically closed. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 399 . you can enter arbitrary white-space characters between items.

<float>. fault. and well record must be on a line by itself.. The coordinates are always measured from the lower-left-corner. <float>.Contour Map Entries A WinDig format contour file consists of a line indicating the coordinate units ("Meters" or “Feet”) and two lines of arbitrary text. ending with a decimal point). The arbitrary text at the beginning of the file is ignored. The first float is the X coordinate. The third value must be “-22”. There are four types of records in a contour file: • • • • Separator Contour Fault Well Separator Record A separator record looks like this: 1E20. contour. A sample contour map appears at the end of this section. If it is “-22. then it will be interpreted as a contour line with value –22. <float>. You must delimit sequences of contour. Well Record A well record specifies the location of a completion and looks like this: <float>. "1e20" does not work. and well records. <integer> can be any valid integer. Fault Record A fault record specifies a point on a fault line and looks like this: <float>. and well records with separator records. -22 <float> is any valid floating point number. The first value is the X coordinate and the second value is the Y coordinate. the second is the Y coordinate and the third is the contour value. <float> <float> is any valid floating point number. 1E20.” (i. fault. <character string> 400 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .e. Each separator. All contour records in a given sequence must have the same contour value. followed by a separator record followed by sequences of contour. You do not need a separator record at the end of the file. The third number cannot have the value -22. Contour Record A contour record specifies a point on a contour line and looks like this: <float>. fault. -22 is used in fault records. <integer> You must enter the character string "1E20".

Sample Contour Map "Meters" "T-left-X". 391. -22 2821.9125. 3103. 1005 1E20.103.6997.148.8077.451.34. 1E20. 1005 2424.6743. 1005 2607. 2796. -22 802. 777. 2348. "T-left-Y". 440. -22 2412.452141E-05.906. -22 3218. -3. 1005 2146. 1E20. 388. 1010 2059. 1005 2322. "B-left-Y".906. Well records in the same sequence can have the same or different names.555. -22 802. -22 1601.856.<float> is any valid floating point number. -1 1536. 0. "well1" 1624. 1010 1953. 1623.062. 1E20. -22 1E20. -1.626.09.756.597.873. -22 394.65.058. "well3" User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 401 . The characters can be anything except a new line character.6982.994. 0. -22 1209.361. 1784.745.631.182. 3140.7855.856. 0. 1010 1E20. 1010 2722.711. -22 2412.382.7792. 1 1905. -22 1209.688. <character string> is a string of one to 16 characters giving the well name delimited by quotation marks. 1E20. "B-left-X".187. 1997. 0. 1005 2265. -22 3218. -22 1E20.562778.099. 0.103.801.082.076.58161E-06 1E20.037. 1322.801. 2903. 1010 1939.873. -22 1997. 1085. 389. -22 1997.305. "B-right-Y" -4. 1772.562778. "well2" 2768.355. 0. 1010 1727.525. 1010 1866. 3965. 1463.82. 389.739. -2 2471.23.288. 1010 2593.67.815. 2601.372. "well2" 1E20. -22 2821.98. 2444. 1E20. The first value is the X coordinate and the second is the Y coordinate. All completions with the same name are collected in the same well trajectory. 2252.144.885. 4 2. 1010 1930. 1005 2869. 2 1502. 1005 2747. 0. 388.359.046.265. -22 394. 2584.315.821.788.384.626. 1955. -22 1601.555. 1005 2209.8408. -9. 1946.630352E-06. 1629.2938. 0.352.337. 3264. 2754. "B-right-X". 1005 2029.144. 388. 1343.652. 4793.6331E-05. 1010 1962. 3 2. 388. 386. 1E20. 0. 391.739.0218.314.257.85.8093.

etc. X and Y coordinates). permeability. CMG Mesh Format Builder allows the user to specify files containing data at the nodes of a mesh. Builder will contour the mesh points for display. Once the map file is created. Three methods are available for creating contours using the data: Inverse Distance. However. This is true even if the mesh is finer than the simulation grid (i. the original data at the closest four non-NULL nodes are used for interpolation of properties for each simulation grid block.) at the well locations (Well name.. the map files can be imported or used for property specification like any other map file. there is no averaging of mesh nodes falling within the boundaries of a grid block). and/or Type in the well names and locations and/or Input locations using the mouse Import tops from trajectories You can also output Fault locations to the map file.extracting the property values from a simulator output file (SR2). Krigging and Trend. The input data consists of property values (porosity.e. You can Import the well locations from an existing map file. For additional information see the section entitled Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations. 402 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . and/or Import the well locations from the current dataset in the view. Fault information can be input using the mouse or by typing in. The data can be produced by: • • Geological modeling packages Results Report .Creating Quick Contour Maps Using Builder You can create contour map files in the CMG Mesh format from Builder using the Create Map File menu under File.

then provide data as triplets of x-coordinate. called the NULLFLAG. is found and the value is assigned to that node. indicates that there is no data for a particular node. and then provide a value for each node. To create a mesh data file in XYZ file format. y-coordinate. and node value. closest to the given x-coordinate and y-coordinate. A special value. You do not need to enter data for every node in the mesh. Coordinates that fall outside of the mesh are ignored.Creating Mesh Data Files You can create a mesh data file in one to two formats: • • ASCII file format XYZ file format To create a mesh data file in ASCII format. and the value is not assigned to any node. The node on the mesh. you must give information on the locations of the nodes and the order of the node data. The XYZ file format handles unassigned data by assigning a NULL value to unassigned nodes. you must give information on the mesh node locations. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 403 . NULL nodes are ignored in the interpolation and contouring routines. NULL nodes are ignored in the interpolation and contouring routines.

number of rows). The number of blocks in the J direction is equal to NJ-1. NI Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: NJ Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: ORIGIN Purpose: Number of nodes in the I (X) direction (i. ORIGIN: TOPLEFT BOTTOMLEFT TOPLEFT: The first node is at the top left corner of the mesh BOTTOMLEFT: The first node is at the bottom left corner of the mesh No defaults Required keyword XMIN.e.. Format: RESULTS MESHTYPEFILE ASCII XYZ Definitions: ASCII: ASCII format XYZ: XYZ format Defaults: No defaults Conditions: This must be in the first line in the file. Specifies the location of the first node (point) of the mesh relative to other points of the mesh.. Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: 404 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . YMIN. NI num_nodes Num_nodes: number of nodes No defaults Required keyword NI does not indicate the number of blocks. and ORIGIN fix the location.Keywords MESHTYPEFILE Purpose: Signal the type of data input file. size. YMAX.e. The number of blocks in the I direction is equal to NI-1. number of columns). and order of the mesh nodes. Number of nodes in the J (Y) direction (i. XMAX. NJ num_nodes Num_nodes: number of nodes No defaults Required keyword NJ does not indicate the number of blocks.

fixes the location of the last node (point) of the mesh. along with YMAX. YMIN value Value: coordinate value No defaults Required keyword This fixes the position of the first node (point) of the mesh. ORDER: NEXTROW NEXTCOLUMN NEXTROW: The order of the data array is such that the next value in the array will be for the node in the same column but next row. unless the end of the column is reached. along with XMAX.XMIN Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: YMIN Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: XMAX Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: YMAX Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: ORDER Purpose: x (world) coordinate of first node (point) of the mesh XMIN value Value: coordinate value No defaults Required keyword This. y (world) coordinate of the first node (point) of the mesh. The x (world) coordinate of the last node (point) of the mesh. along with YMIN. XMAX value Value: coordinate value No defaults Required keyword This. Specifies the order in which the data values should be read (for ASCII format only). Format: Definitions: User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 405 . y (world) coordinate of the last node (point) of the mesh. fixes the position of the first node of the mesh. YMAX value Value: coordinate value No defaults Required keyword This. fixes the location of the last node (point) of the mesh.

0.0. between columns of node points). (NI-1) values expected.and J.0 Specifies the type of spacing between nodes in I.0 9.0 5. suppose we have a mesh with NI=3 (three columns) and NJ=4 (four rows).0 12.0 11.0 7.0 10.0 2. … 12.0 8. VARI: The distance between nodes in the I..0 11.and J.0 3. 4. then the values are placed on the mesh as follows: 10.0 4.0 If ORIGIN=BOTTOMLEFT and ORDER=NEXTCOLUMN. 3. the spacing type is set to VARI. SPACING: EQUAL VARI EQUAL: The nodes in the I-direction and J-direction are equally spaced. Suppose that the data values are given as 1.0 9.0 4.0.directions is variable and is specified by the DI and DJ arrays. If DI and DJ are specified.0 12.e. The distance in the I direction = (length of I-direction side)/(NI-1). If ORIGIN=TOPLEFT and ORDER=NEXTROW.0 3. unless the end of the row is reached.0 8. 2.0 7.0 2.directions.0 6. For example. No defaults Required with ASCII format The ORIGIN and ORDER keywords work together to indicate the order in which the data values are placed on the nodes. then the values are placed on the mesh as follows: 1. Optional Specifies the variable spacing between nodes in the I-direction (i.0 1.0.0. SPACING Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: DI Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: 406 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . This distance is constant along a column formed by two neighboring nodes.NEXTCOLUMN: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: The order of the data array is such that the next value in the array will be for the next node in the same row but next column. Array of values following the keyword Value: coordinate value No defaults Required with SPACING VARI.0 6.0 5. otherwise it is set to EQUAL.

This keyword is distinct from RESULTS ROTATION keyword which is used in combination with RESULTS XOFFSET. Array of values following the keyword Value: coordinate value No defaults Required with SPACING VARI. it is a NULL node) Defaults: 0. There can be only one set of data per mesh file.0 Conditions: Optional Explanation: NULL nodes are ignored in interpolation and calculating contours. MESHDATA Purpose: Format: Defaults: Conditions: FAULT Purpose: Specifies the beginning of the data. RESULTS YOFFSET and RESULTS KDIR (refer to “Importing Data from a History Match Run Done By a CMG Simulator” in the manual). Specifies the angle in degrees by which the mesh is rotated with respect to the axes of the map.e. Array of values following the keyword No defaults Required.g. If these latter keywords are specified. Specifies the beginning of a fault definition. ROTATE keyword is ignored. 0. ROTATE value Value: The angle of rotation in degrees. between rows of node points). e.. Format: NULLVAL value Value: A value to be interpreted as the corresponding node having no valid Definitions: value (i.DJ Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: ROTATE Purpose: Specifies the variable spacing between nodes in the J-direction (i. This distance is constant along a row formed by two neighboring nodes. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 407 .0 (-90 < value < +90) 0.0 Optional This keyword is required if the mesh was rotated in the geological program with respect to the X and Y axis directions that you want to use in Builder.. Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: NULLFLAG Purpose: Specifies the value to be assigned to a NULL node. (NJ-1) values expected.e.

second from (x2. The fault is constructed by joining together successive points to form segments. The name/number/'name with spaces' could be repeated.y3). The repeated records do not have to be consecutive. Only one of number. first segment is (x1.Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: number name 'name with spaces' x1 y1 x2 y2 .y2) → (x3. The repeated records do not have to be consecutive.y2). Only one of number. or 'name with spaces' is allowed.. Specifies the beginning of well information WELLS NAMEFIRST followed by one or more lines of the NAMEFIRST format: number x1 y1 name x2 y2 'name with spaces' xn yn WELLS XYFIRST Followed by one or more lines of the XYFIRST format: x1 y1 number x1 y1 number x2 y2 name xm ym 'name with spaces' NAMEFIRST: Each record begins with a name/number/'name with spaces' followed by the x and y locations of the well. name. One keyword required for each fault. For example. name or "name with spaces" is allowed x1 y1 etc. . XYFIRST: Each record begins with the coordinates of the well followed by a name/number/'name with spaces'. FAULT WELLS Purpose: Format: Definitions: 408 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . y1) → (x2. The name/number/'name with spaces' could be repeated.. name: alpha-numeric name name with spaces: alpha-numeric name including spaces. xn yn number: fault number name: alpha-numeric name name with spaces: alpha-numeric name including spaces.: world coordinates of the points on the fault No defaults Optional.

00 14.90 –99999.00 28.00 10.00 34. One keyword required for each fault.00 20.). Optional Specifies the file to be "included" at this location in the main file.00 -99999.00 16. Sample CMG Mesh Files Format 1: ASCII File Format The following is an example of an ASCII format mesh data file: RESULTS MESHTYPEFILE ASCII NI 36 NJ 60 SPACING EQUAL ORDER NEXTCOLUMN ORIGIN BOTTOMLEFT XMIN 0 YMIN 0 XMAX 7200 YMAX 18000 ** ROTATE 60 NULLFLAG –99999.00 32. it closes filename and reverts back to reading from the main file immediately following the INCLUDE filename words.00 24.00 6.00 20. This is a handy way of keeping the main file short and readable.90 4.00 10.: World coordinates of location of the well.00 12.00 24. faults. Nesting of include files is not permitted.00 22.00 10.Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: INCLUDE Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: x1 y1 etc.00 4.00 26.00 20.00 26.9 MESHDATA -99999.00 24.00 8.90 -99999.00 18.00 34.00 6.00 12.00 6.00 14.00 32.00 30.00 -99999.00 8.00 20.90 -99999.00 22.00 16. wells.00 28.00 22.00 26.00 34. etc.00 4.00 22.00 28.00 30.00 16.00 18.00 14.00 12. No defaults Optional. No defaults Optional When the reader comes across this keyword.00 12.00 8.00 18. When it comes to the end of the file.00 16.00 24.90 -99999. it opens filename file and continues reading that file. while "including" files containing long arrays of data.00 32.00 34.9 4.00 28. One could have as many "include" files as one wishes (for data. INCLUDE 'filename' filename: Name of the file to be included.00 30.00 6.00 8.00 4.00 26.00 30.00 10.00 32.9 –99999.90 … (continue to a total of 36x60 data values) Format 2: XYZ File Format The following is an example of an XYZ format mesh data file: User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 409 .00 18.

YMIN. It will then create the mesh nodes using NI and NJ. NULLFLAG .00000000e+10 567. If the number of triplets is less than the number of nodes.inc' FAULT 1 465923. XMAX 468473.2 The number of values in the array is not fixed.64843222e+05 4. a reservoir engineer may wish to conduct a simulation study covering a small portion of an existing field study. y.56647899e+06 5. some of the mesh nodes will remain unassigned.13 467747 5570499 WELLS NAMEFIRST Well-1 466798 5568294 Well-2 465578 5567239 Well-3 464978 5570344 The following (x. If a point in the triplet array does not coincide with a mesh node. 410 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . YMAX. value) triplet array is extracted from XYZ file xyz. For example.00000000e+10 1.34 5567283.64903222e+05 4. Builder will create a mesh rectangle using XMIN. it will be assigned to the nearest node. This may require doing a fine scale study on only a small portion (say one five spot well pattern) due to the high cost of simulating the entire field with a finer grid.99 5568865.96 466981.43 467436. Ideally.9 5566479 466434.in: 4.56647899e+06 1. the (x and y) values in triplet array would match with the mesh node locations.56647899e+06 5. XMAX. If the number of number of triplets is greater than the number of mesh nodes.24 5568146.RESULTS MESHTYPEFILE XYZ NJ 135 NI 122 XMIN 464843.64933222e+05 … 5. and ROTATE.64873222e+05 4. Unassigned nodes will carry the null value and will not participate in calculations. Importing Data from a History Match Run Done By a CMG Simulator Occasionally. the engineer may wish to study a new recovery process.0 YMAX 5570499. some of the triplets will remain unassigned and therefore unused.1000000E+11 SPACING EQUAL ORIGIN BOTTOMLEFT MESHDATA INCLUDE 'xyz.9 574.56647899e+06 5.0 YMIN 5566479.

oil saturation and water saturation for the first two layers from the edge water flood example in the Results templates directory.) The keyword to extract grid property information is PROPERTY-FOR.0 days. Calculate the properties. The Export menu item in CMG’s Results 3D can be used to extract information from a history match SR2 file and writing out the information in a format that can be read into Builder to prepare the grid properties and initial conditions for the new study. If the new study uses a finer grid than the history match does. it is first necessary to create a Results Report command file. Alternatively. The process described below gives details about how to extract the information using Results Report. *.irf. 1. To learn how to use the Export feature of Results 3D. Export properties during history matching using Results 3D. The history match portion ends at a simulation time of 2586. if there is an existing history match of the entire field. Alternatively use Results Report to extract data from the SR2 file. Figure 1: Data Flow During Creation of New Grid SR2 file (*. However. refer to the Results manual. the engineer may choose to redo the history match using only the region of interest. Run simulation with revised dataset. Our Results Report command file would look like this: User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 411 . the engineer may wish to start the new simulation study from the ending point of the history match. Set up a new model using the maps in GridBuilder. Original maps for properties unaltered during the history match. some work is necessary in obtaining the input grid properties and initial conditions to use in the new study.In setting up the fine scale grid. (For more information on using Results Report.mrf) from history match run of entire field. Use Results Report to extract information from the history match output SR2 file. see the Results User’s Manual. the same information can be written out using Results Report. Suppose we wish to extract pressure. To do this. In either case new mesh map files are created.

0 *MESHLAYER 1 *OUTPUT ‘so2.dig’ *PROPERTY-FOR ‘SO’ 2586. the extracted mesh map contours will be positioned properly with respect to the contours in the original structure maps.*FILE ‘watfld1. You can now open the extracted mesh map files in a similar manner to any digitized contour map. it may be necessary to add in the offset and rotation information.dig’ *PROPERTY-FOR ‘PRESS’ 2586. the X offset value of “0” to the X offset value found in your simulator data file. you will see three lines as follows: RESULTS ROTATION RESULTS XOFFSET RESULTS YOFFSET 0 0 0 If the history match simulation data file was produced with Builder. and the Y offset value of “0” to the Y offset value found in your simulator data file. 412 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . change the rotation value of “0” to the rotation value found in your simulator data file.irf’ ** open the SR2 file for the history match *OUTPUT ‘pres1. so that these can be read into Builder in a similar manner to contour maps. In each mesh map file. Each file will contain the grid block values for the specified properties.dig’ *PROPERTY-FOR ‘SW’ 2586. you should find three similar lines in your data file. together with grid position information. If the extracted mesh files are being used in conjunction with the original contour maps for structure top. These can be displayed or used for interpolating values (such as the initial conditions for pressure. 2.0 *MESHLAYER 2 *OUTPUT ‘so1.0 *MESHLAYER 1 *OUTPUT ‘pres2. etc. Once you do this.dig’ *PROPERTY-FOR ‘SW’ 2586. 3. In each mesh map file produced by Results Report. Start up the Builder program.0 *MESHLAYER 1 *OUTPUT ‘sw2. The following keywords are used with mesh data produced from a simulation results file (SR2). The SR2 file may or may not contain information on how the history match simulation grid was positioned relative to the origin of the contour maps used to create the history match grid.0 *MESHLAYER 2 This will create six files in the current directory.0 *MESHLAYER 2 *OUTPUT ‘sw1. and water saturation) for a new grid created with Builder.dig’ ** assign the output file name *PROPERTY-FOR ‘PRESS’ 2586.dig’ *PROPERTY-FOR ‘SO’ 2586. Adjust the offset and rotation of the extracted mesh files. oil saturation.

are not available in world coordinates. To be used if XMIN etc. YOFFSET. and KDIR. are not available in world coordinates. ROTATION.or Z. YOFFSET.axis direction of the simulation grid. and KDIR.0 Conditional keyword This keyword is required only to convert the simulation grid coordinate values into world coordinates and its meaning is specific to a combination of RESULTS generated values of XOFFSET. the first layer was at the bottom and the last layer was at the top.0 Conditions: Conditional keyword Explanation: This keyword is required only to convert the simulation grid coordinate values into world coordinates and its meaning is specific to a combination of RESULTS generated values of XOFFSET.XOFFSET Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: x (world) offset of the simulation grid origin. the first layer was at the top and the last layer was at the bottom. ROTATION. and KDIR. RESULTS KDIR UP DOWN UP: In the simulation grid. To be used if XMIN etc. KDIR Purpose: Format: Definitions: The K. are not available in world coordinates. y (world) offset of the simulation grid origin.0 Conditional keyword This keyword is required only to convert the simulation grid coordinate values into world coordinates and its meaning is specific to a combination of RESULTS generated values of XOFFSET. DOWN: In the simulation grid. ROTATION. YOFFSET Purpose: Format: Definitions: Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: ROTATION Purpose: The rotation of the simulation grid in degrees. To be used if XMIN etc. Format: RESULTS ROTATION value Definitions Definitions: value: rotation in degrees Defaults: 0. YOFFSET. To be used if XMIN etc. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 413 . RESULTS YOFFSET value value: coordinate value 0. are not available in world coordinates RESULTS XOFFSET value value: coordinate value 0.

YOFFSET.99 … LAYER = 3 -99999.99 MESHDATA ** J = 1 -99999.99 -99999.99 -99999.99 -99999.99 -99999. The following is an example of mesh data extracted from an SR2 file: RESULTS MESHTYPEFILE ASCII ** Grid Thickness. ROTATION. TIME = 0.99 -99999.99 -99999.Defaults: Conditions: Explanation: DOWN Conditional keyword This keyword is required only to convert the simulation grid coordinate values into world coordinates.4431 RESULTS XOFFSET -1163.99 -99999. and KDIR.99 -99999. NI 97 NJ 41 SPACING VARI RESULTS ROTATION 53.35 RESULTS KDIR DOWN ORIGIN TOPLEFT XMIN 100 YMIN 50 XMAX 9800 YMAX 4100 ORDER NEXTCOLUMNDI 150 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 DJ 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 NULLFLAG -99999.99 -99999. and its meaning is specific to a combination of RESULTS generated values of XOFFSET.99 -99999.12 RESULTS YOFFSET 1821.99 (continued for 100x50 values) 414 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .

14.29 21038. 14.1000000E+31 The ZMAP CNTR format will have a header similar to the following: ! ! ZIMS FILE NAME : Brown Top 11 ! FORMATTED FILE CREATION DATE: APR 3 98 ! FORMATTED FILE CREATION TIME: 16:44 ! @Brown Top 11 HEADER . the fault file associated with the topmost layer of ‘Grid Top’ will be used to locate the faults on the simulation grid. 0.00 The ZMAP FALT file contains (vertical) fault trace information and will have a header similar to the following: User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 415 .1000000E+31 0.1000000E+31 0. As Builder currently only handles vertical faults.1000000E+31 0. ZMAP CNTR file. Some other geological modelling packages also support these formats.1000000E+31 0.000 1.1000000E+31 0.Supported ZMAP Formats Builder and Results 3D support four ASCII (text) formats that can be exported from Landmark Graphics Corporation's Z-Map Plus program.1000000E+31.1000000E+31 0.1000000E+31 0.400000 21000. you can input different fault files for each layer to control the interpolation for the maps in that layer.00.Y coordinate in either “meters” or “feet”. The ZMAP GRID file will have a header similar to the following: ! ! ZIMS FILE NAME : Brown Top 11 ! FORMATTED FILE CREATION DATE: APR 3 98 ! FORMATTED FILE CREATION TIME: 16:45 ! @Brown Top 11 HEADER .1000000E+31 0.00 -24731. @ 0.10 -24750. 27250. All the maps for a layer should share a common fault (FALT) file. 7.1000000E+31.94 -25250.1000000E+31 0. 14.764 -2902. 1. . 1 31. GRID. 1.1000000E+31 -2900. 1.1000000E+31 0. 1.1000000E+31 -2831. 7.00 0. 15. CNTR. 7. 28.00. 0. ZMAP FALT file. 7. 0.1000000E+31 0. 20750.00. however. 7. 80. 0 @ 0. . 0.1000000E+31 0.1000000E+31 -2900.100 0. 1 X (EASTING) .00 500.1000000E+31 0. -28500.1000000E+31 0. -21000. Note that a separate GRID or CNTR map is needed for each layer of each property. with the units for all X. 5 15.65 20774.400000 20750. 1.00 -25079. and ZMAP DWEL file.1000000E+31 0. 27..1000000E+31 0. 0.0000.1000000E+31 0. A simple well location file format may be used to locate wells on each layer if the DWEL file is not available. 2.000 1. 0 Y (NORTHING) . .1000000E+31. 2.180 -2872. The supported formats are the default formats of the ZMAP GRID file.

1. 2. 0. . 1. TVD .1000000E+31. 0. 14. 8. 40. then a WELLNAMEFIRST or XYFIRST keyword must be the first line in the file. 8.1000000E+31. the well information is input separate from the maps. 80. 1. 7. .00000 84. Y (NORTHING) . 22. 1. 8. 31. 7. 5881848.0000000E+000.1000000E+31.0000000 FDT01 106. 43. 9. Inc. 8. 1. 3. X (EASTING) . SEG ID . 3. 7. 1.00000000E+00 929. 0 If you don’t have the deviated well trajectory information. 14.35.0 2442962. 15. . 2. 3. 2 8. 7. 8. 7. 2439425. 1.00000000E+000. . If the well name contains spaces. 0.0000000 FDT01 84. 13. 1.09998 5879739. 1. 2. 1. 6. 2. 8. 1. .1000000E+31.27. 7. 13. 2439423. 7. 8.0 2442661.000000 3.00000 2. 0. 1. 2. 0.500000 290. 62. 7. drift azimuth . 10. The simple format is either: Well_name X Y or X Y well_name where X and Y are the coordinates of the well location on the surface for the corresponding map. 5884844.. 0. 0.0000000 Supported EarthVision Formats Builder and Results 3D support Dynamic Graphics. drift angle . 0. 4. Y (NORTHING) .000000 845. 13. 76. 1. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 FDT01 0. The ZMAP DWEL file contains well trajectory information. 1.0 2442802. 8.00000 5879738. The DWEL file will have a header similar to the following: ! ! ZIMS FILE NAME ! FORMATTED FILE ! FORMATTED FILE ! @TRAJECTORIES 11/02 DEVIATED WELL NAME measured depth .1000000E+31.00000000E+000.1000000E+31. 1. 7. 49. 3. 1.D. 14. 34. 7. 0 .35. X (EASTING) . @ 2442342. 0. 1. 1. 2. . 27.! ! ZIMS FILE NAME : mergflts-maintroncoso ! FORMATTED FILE CREATION DATE: JAN 8 98 ! FORMATTED FILE CREATION TIME: 9:55 ! @mergflts-maintroncoso HEADER . SEG I. 7. 5. 3. EarthVision scattered data default export format.1000000E+31. . 5884454. If the well names contain only numbers. 17. 0 . 7. @ : TRAJECTORIES 11/02 CREATION DATE: JAN 8 98 CREATION TIME: 10: 5 HEADER . you can put the well location information for each layer in a separate file with a simple format. When using a DWEL file. 8. 21. 1.1000000E+31. 1. TVDss . The projection must be either “Local Rectangular” or “Universal Transverse 416 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . as the information applies to all layers. 5883656.1000000E+31. 1.1000000E+31. 3.00000 5879739. the well name must be enclosed in single quotes. DWEL. 7 2. FALT. 0. 1 . 63. 2439422. .0 80.000000 296. 1. 48. . 16. 14. 13. 26. 8. 0. 1. 35. 1. 15. 1.0 2442466. 14.90000 823. 3. . 30. 8.1000000E+31. 15. 1. 5882699.00000 105.

265582. A sample well trajectory file is as follows. 2.51806640625 6 1 The EarthVision vertical fault file is also supported. 04/21/98) Format: free Field: 1 x Field: 2 y Field: 3 z Field: 4 column Field: 5 row Projection: Local Rectangular Units: meters End: # Information from grid: # Grid_size: 49 x 49 # Grid_X_range: 30000 to 50000 # Grid_Y_range: 70000 to 90000 # Scattered_data: case. and Units must be either “meters” or “feet”. 3970926. 267474. 263965. 3. It will have a header similar to the following: # # # # # # # # # # # # Type: vertical faults Version: 1 Description: VERT FAULTS Format: fixed Field: X 1 10 Field: Y 11 20 Field: FLTNUM 21 30 Projection: Universal Transverse Mercator Zone: 11 Units: meters Ellipsoid: Clarke 1866 End: 265113. tvdss. 269913. 3970269. 1.5322265625 5 1 32083. 2.dat # Z_field: UNCF 30000 70000 -7935. 269186. 3964144. 2. "md" or “vdblMDs”. "y".6666666667 70000 -7922. 272338. 1. 2.6666666667 70000 -7884.2grd (mike. Note that the required Fields are: • If Format: free .3333333333 70000 -7909. 3970441.59033203125 4 1 31666. 3970542. “z” or “tvdss (z)\”. "x".3388671875 3 1 31250 70000 -7896. "y". 271748. 3970677. 266961. 3970631. 1. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 417 .Mercator”. 3970495.39404296875 2 1 30833. The Format could be “free” or "fixed". 3970764. "md" or “vdblMDs”.3333333333 70000 -7873. • If Format: fixed . "x". 1."wellid" or “wellname”."wellid" or “wellname”.12548828125 1 1 30416. An example of the mesh file header is as follows: # # # # # # # # # # # # Type: scattered data Version: 4 Description: Exported from grid uncf.

60 59238.90 59237.00 4190.50 116550.00 4080.00 4100.70 59237.00 854.00 59237.00 4180. # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # Type: scattered data Version: 4 Description: Exported paths data from database:offshore5.20 116551.00 -3306.80 59237.00 -3356.60 116550.10 59238.00 -3336.60 59237.40 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R 5-337-14R If you don’t have the deviated well trajectory information.20 116550.50 59237.10 116550.00 -3286. The simple format is either: Well_name X Y or X Y well_name 418 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .00 4120.00 4070.00 4160.70 116550.20 59238.50 59238.70 59238.90 116551.00 4150.00 59239.80 116549. you can put the well location information for each layer in a separate file with a simple format.00 -3346.00 -3296.60 59238.00 116550.00 4200.00 4130.90 116549.00 4110.30 116551.00 -3276.00 4140.000000 End: 0.20 59238.00 -3256. The first point of a well trajectory should give the surface location.30 59238.dwd Format: fixed Field: wellid 1 15 non-numeric Field: md 16 25 Field: "tvdss (z)" 26 35 Field: x 36 45 Field: y 46 55 Field: linecol 50 53 non-numeric Field: symbol 54 57 non-numeric Field: commonid 59 62 non-numeric Projection: Transverse Mercator Units: meters Ellipsoid: Hayford International 1924 Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.90 116550.10 -3216.40 116551.999600 Central_Meridian: 45 30 15.00 4210.00 -3366.000000 E Latitude_of_Origin: 15 30 10..00 -3246.50 116549.00 -3316.80 59237.40 59238.00 -3326.000000 False_Northing: 500000.00 116549.60 116549.00 4170.00 -3266.00 -3226.00 -3236.00 4090.00 4220.40 116550.000000 N False_Easting: 100000.

2780021E+04 0.2838482E+04 0.1647059E+04 0.2983842E+04 0. Newer versions of CPS-3 output comments rather than keywords. X-Maximum.1047147E+04 0.000000 0 0 0 1272000.2575592E+04 0.2867689E+04 0. If the well name contains spaces.00000 ->Default 0. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 419 . refer to the instructions that follow this section.1970341E+04 0.295488E+04 0.2925824E+04 0.2604711E+04 0.1826841E+04 0.280925E+04 0. Supported CPS-3 Formats Builder and Results 3D support CPS-3 Grid Data (mesh data) and Contour file format.186319E+04 0.0 1291000.2285586E+04 0.2432462E+04 0.2402762E+04 0. The last two numbers are not used.237284E+04 0.3066538E+04 FSASCI Used to identify the CPS-3 mesh format FSATTR Not used FSLIMI The first 4 numbers are X-Minimum.2256072E+04 0.1934789E+04 0.222484E+04 0.1718736E+04 0. the well name must be enclosed in single quotes.2633801E+04 0.204292E+04 0.1610486E+04 0.1449266E+04 0. then a WELLNAMEFIRST or XYFIRST keyword must be the first line in the file.2896782E+04 0.100000E+31 0.00 263000.0830 166 96 200.251781E+04 0. Y-Minimum and YMaximum respectively.2006256E+04 0.1790438E+04 0.2461459E+04 0.54349 3685.0 230000.2692280E+04 0. These newer files require manual editing before they can be read by Builder and Results3D.1533531E+04 0.2750791E+04 0.3039971E+04 0.00 448. A sample Grid Data file is as follows: FSASCI FSATTR FSLIMI FSNROW FSXINC 0 1 "Computed" 0 1000000015047466219876688855040.2190654E+04 0.1899145E+04 0. If the well names contain only numbers.266300E+04 0.2343419E+04 0.1303553E+04 0.1754464E+04 0.168304E+04 0.1177649E+04 0.2721548E+04 0.1359258E+04 0.2314498E+04 0.124080E+04 0.where X and Y are the coordinates of the well location on the surface for the corresponding map.9883727E+03 0.2154524E+04 0.2117406E+04 0.1406198E+04 0.2489767E+04 0.00000 200.1112168E+04 0.2546487E+04 0.1572911E+04 0.2080046E+04 0.149218E+04 0.3012370E+04 0.

However. Each line defines a contour point and the value at that point.2520760E+04 0.2260635E+04 ->f2 0.6037690E+04 0. The first line is a Fortran style statement to declare the number of values and format for all the lines. FSXINC X and Y increments.3667197E+04 FSASCI Used to identify the CPS-3 mesh format FSATTR Not used (2E17.5958145E+04 0. All the numbers after the "→Default" line give the mesh values at the mesh points.7) ->f1 0. porosities etc.FSNROW The first number identifies the number of rows.5989938E+04 0.5867917E+04 0.7) Fortran style format statement to indicate there are two numbers in each line with width of 17 and 7 digits after the decimal point.6387917E+04 0.000000 0 FFATTR 3 0 (2E15. Builder also supports the generic contour format exported from the CPS-3.2260635E+04 0.3401793E+04 0. →f2 "→" indicate the start of a fault line with the name "f2" Two numbers in each line indicate the x and y coordinates of each fault point in the fault line. These values can represent any grid properties.6387917E+04 0.3162905E+04 0.2886946E+04 0. Therefore.5905114E+04 0. the second number the number of columns. Here is a sample format: FSASCI 0 1 "Computed" 0 1000000015047466219876688855040. only three numbers representing X and Y coordinates and contour value are required in each line. such as grid tops.6101402E+04 0. they are not used in the program because these can be calculated from the limits and number of rows and columns. Here is a sample file: 420 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .2881542E+04 0.2552553E+04 0.3629874E+04 0.6101402E+04 0. CPS-3 fault file is also supported.6398598E+04 0.

160 421420.00 9578153. is Y coordinate increasing in the north direction.47 425700.198 9574090.F18.00 9578161. some manual editing is required. The following type of fault file is also supported: FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT The first line specifies how many variable in each line.209 422065.850 9578014.983 9574694.25 425765. 1440.00 9578136.011 420979. The value is usually 1E30 but you may need to examine the data values for confirmation.126 9578014.647 421036. 1430. in the data line.639 9574264. 1440.2.306 9578175.2.717 421798.00 9578131.(F18.720 422163.651 421296.00 9578150.00 9578144.073 9578015. The third line indicates the second field in the data line is X coordinate increasing in the east direction.25 425775.00 9578142. FSASCI 0 1 "Computed" 0 1E30 0 FSATTR 0 0 User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 421 .28 425750.1X. The critical information is the second last value which indicates the “null” value used in the file.34 425728.59 425695. 1430. The second line indicates the first field.709 421807. 1440.59 425744.791 421333. 1430. 1430.327 9574325. These newer files do not have the required keywords in the file header. 1430.00 425714.333 421234.F10. The last field in the data line is the fault name.182 9574633. FSASCI must be added to the start of the file.541 420947.00 9578170.00 9578168.00 1430.12 425733. 1440.00 9578135.00 3 VARIABLES NORTH N 12 3 EAST N 12 3 STRING C 12 0 9574720.00 425761. Newer CPS-3 Files In order for Builder or Results3D to read newer CPS-3 format files. 1440. They have comments containing some of this information.1X.825 9574412.0) 425685.966 9577976.

Both files can be generated from the Production Analyst by choosing PA_DATA from the PA_TOOLS menu.52 0.485000e+003 32. When metric unit is used. FSXINC.0 46760.01500 Gas 9. “.0 m ! YINC: 100.435000e+003 32.92 0. then the first line must contain *METRIC (or *metric) keyword and nothing else. the length is in feet.dev” for DEVIATED Files.01500 Gas 9.0 1. !Grid Lattice: Generic Binset !VOI Box XMIN: 46550. Two files from Production Analyst program are required to completely describe the well trajectories: an XY file. the length is in meters. The original file comments contain the equivalent information.61 3163.61 3286. then the units for all the numbers are assumed to be in English units.01500 W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 If all the numbers in the file are in metric units.310e+003 7.285e+003 7.83330 1 770124 1.01500 Gas 9.62500 1 770414 1. a program used to record and analyze well data.59 0.235e+003 7. you can enter the inclination and azimuth at points versus measured depth.0 m ! YMIN: 108650.0 1.0 m ! NCOL: 22 ! NROW: 27 FSLIMI 46550.0 100.0 m !Lattice XINC: 100.62500 1 770307 1. and a DEVIATED file. If the node coordinates are not directly available.05 0.0 108650. add the line “→Default:” just before the start of the data.0 FSXINC 100.61 3582.Next.435000e+003 32. and DEVIATED file gives the coordinates of the nodes of the trajectories. and FSNROW must be added.235e+003 7.0 m ! XMAX: 46760.0 FSNROW 27 22 Finally.0 m ! YMAX: 108910. ->Default: Production Analyst Well Trajectory File Format One of the supported well trajectory file formats is from Production Analyst. They are both ASCII files.61 3447.0 108910. Keywords are case insensitive. otherwise. 422 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .xy” is the file extension for XY Files and “. XY File Description Sample XY File: *metric *well *type OGCI_01:A20 OGCI_02:A20 OGCI_03:A20 OGCI_04:A20 *xcoor *ycoor *kbel *tdepth *inter *region *cdate *gcorr *alias Gas 9.62500 1 770228 1. and Builder will calculate the deviations. The XY file contains the well names. FSLIMI. If this keyword is not present. surface locations and creation date.435000e+003 32.

80 -381.80 If all the numbers in the file are in metric units. Well names are case sensitive X coordinate of the well surface location.38 2624.20 2747.Builder only needs the following keywords to define a surface well: *well Well name with optional completion name separated by a “:”. Deviated File Description Sample Deviated File: *METRIC *WELL *DEPTH *XDELTA *YDELTA OGCI_01 0. which is used as Z coordinate of the well surface location.00 -127. Well creation date.52 *TVD 0.40 -1101. However.85 OGCI_02 3048.00 OGCI_02 609.45 OGCI_02 0.91 0.48 528.78 0.56 OGCI_01 3048.00 0.00 0. Each column title is a word preceded by “*”. The rest of the file is a table with the first line containing the column titles. No space is allowed within the name.08 -269.41 -254. Although there are many keywords output by Production Analyst .31 OGCI_02 2438.00 -1377.22 1052.44 -336.20 -551. if the name is enclosed in a pair of single quote.76 -1436.00 OGCI_02 30. Y coordinate of the well surface location. Scientific notation is allowed.54 993. Can consist of any printable ASCII characters and numbers.81 -382.22 -509. Each of the rest of the lines defines a 3D point of the trajectory for a well. 881230 or 19881230.20 -716.48 0. Any valid number.60 -358. Each column title is a word preceded by “*”.80 -1074. When metric unit is used.39 OGCI_02 3178.00 30.47 1576. the length is in feet.00 OGCI_01 609. then space(s) are allowed.00 OGCI_01 30. *xcoor *ycoor *kbel *cdate The keywords and numbers are separated by at least one blank. If this keyword is not present. A well name with different completion names is allowed in the same file.72 -202. Must be in YYMMDD or YYYYMMDD format. Kelly bushing elevation. otherwise. For example. The completion name is not used by Builder.80 -826.00 0. Scientific notation is allowed. the length is in meters.00 0.00 -67.63 -637.70 OGCI_01 3462.00 -1790.The rest of the file defines a table with the first line containing column titles.04 1475.36 -134. The meaning of each keyword is as follows: User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 423 .43 2100. Any valid number.03 -671. Scientific notation is allowed.48 0. Keywords are case insensitive.54 OGCI_02 1219.33 2736.42 OGCI_01 2438.08 OGCI_02 1828.34 2419. the well creation date (*cdate) is taken from the first one encountered.83 -2035.60 -275.84 1958. However.47 0.28 OGCI_01 1828. Any valid number. then the units for all the numbers are assumed to be in English units.14 OGCI_01 1219. then the first line must contain *METRIC keyword and nothing else.48 510.40 -1432.00 30.

Numeric.the order of which is not important. *INCLINATION and *DEPTH should be present too. The first line contains the column titles (keywords) .360 degree The angle between the wellbore and a vertical line (z axis). Well surface location. However. The well names are case sensitive. The column titles can be optionally preceded by a “*”. Column titles can be specified using upper or lower case and are separated by at least one blank. well names are case sensitive. i. y coordinate (optional). True vertical depth of the wellbore at a specific measured depth. positive downward and the first depth is zero. Any valid number The angle between the wellbore and the y axis (north). Also. If blanks are necessary. Well Trajectory Table File Format This is a generic format which is generated from querying most of the database. User's Guide Builder X-SURFACE Y-SURFACE 424 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data . Well surface location.*WELL Well name. Any valid number. in degrees Should be between 0 . measured depth in wellbore. Any line that starts with “**” is treated as a comment. The meaning of each column title (keyword) is as follows: UWID(or WELL) Unique well name. It contains all information required to describe the well trajectories. The rest of the lines define 3D points of the trajectory for a well whose name appears under UWID or WELL column. if there is no *TVD data. distance the wellbore at a specific measured depth deviated in the Y direction (north or up is positive) from the well surface location. any text string without blanks. Any valid number.e.180 degrees *DEPTH *XDELTA *YDELTA *TVD Angular well trajectory is supported by the following keywords. No space is allowed within the name. ‘Well name 1’. distance the wellbore at a specific measured depth deviated in the X direction (east or right is positive) from the well surface location. then the INCLINATION angle of the first point should be zero so that the measure depth and true vertical depth of the first point are equal.. then the name must be enclosed in a pair of single quote. unless the name is enclosed in a pair of single quotes. x coordinate (optional). Numeric. Numeric. *AZIMUTH *INCLINATION When *AZIMUTH keyword is present. Can consist of any printable ASCII characters and numbers. in degrees Should be between 0 . *TVD is optional.

Here is another sample file that does not contain the surface location: WELL FDT01 FDT01 FDT01 FDT01 FDT01 FDT01 FDT01 FDT01 SKIP 0.0 1128. negative downward from the sea level.3 660. Well trajectory node.90000 116.00E+00 3. 1. When TVD column is present and ELEVATION is not present. The units for the column names are specified through the Trajectory File Open dialog. x coordinate.89999 139. It has to be associated Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 425 User's Guide Builder .000E+00 296. 1.0000000 5879740.90000 134. 57848. 2439421.00000 288.000E+00 84.0000000 5879740.5 650. 1. 1.09998 Y-COORD X-COORD SKIP 5879738. UTM (meters) for X and Y and field unit (feet) for the measured depth and elevation. 2439420.0000000 5879740. 2439422. 2439425. and YSURFACE columns are optional.00000 823.750000 2. 1.0 12128. 2439422.0000000 5879739. If not present.5 670.09998 794. 57848.750000 2. then it is assumed to be zero. Here is a Sample File: UWID 316-23R 316-23R 316-23R 316-23R 316-23R TVD 0. Y-SURFACE and ELEVATION for the lines that belong to the same well should have the same values. For example.0000000 5879739. 2439423.0 12127. All the lines that belong to the same well must be grouped together and sorted with decreasing TVDSS or increasing TVD order.89999 156. then the first point of the well trajectory is taken as the surface location. The XCOORD and Y_COORD can be in different units from the rest of the columns. then measured depth will be calculated using coordinates information. 2439421.9 57848. z coordinate positive downward from the surface location.0 12128.0000000 A SKIP keyword in the first line indicates the program should ignore the corresponding column.0 1128.0 12128.0000000 5879740. y coordinate.0000000 5879740.09998 789.ELEVATION X-COORD Y-COORD TVDSS TVD DEPTH-MD Well surface location.2 57848. 1. 1. Well Perforation File Format The well perforation file is used to specify which section of the well trajectory is perforated for production or injection purposes.0 12128.2 12127.09998 762. 2439420.500000 2.0 57848. True vertical depth subsea.0 12128.4 12126. Well trajectory node.0 1128.09998 772.00000 290. z coordinate.09998 812.0 57848.6 57848.0 12128. Measured depth along the wellbore (optional). It is used in conjunction with TVD to compute z coordinate of the trajectory node. ELEVATION column is ignored if TVDSS is present. 57848.00000 DEPTH-MD 0.89999 TVDSS 929. 57848.00000 845.750000 SKIP 0. True vertical depth.00000 298. 1.0 1128.00000 293.89999 166.0 1128.00000 290.4 X-COORD Y-COORD X-SURFACE Y-SURFACE ELEVATION 57848.0 600. The X-SURFACE.500000 2.000000 2.0 12128.000000 2.00000 296. z coordinate. The X-SURFACE.000000 105. positive upward. If they are absent. This file does not exist by itself.

Well names and dates can be in any order. date. must be in single quotes if it contains spaces date of the perforation. Field units require measured depths in feet. SI units require measured depths in meters. table format or other formats because perforations are specified using measured depth along the well bore. The perforation date may be delimited by ‘/’ or ‘-‘.0 0. The header keyword DATE_FORMAT must be followed by a string specifying the date format. in the format given be DATE_FORMAT ignore this column well diameter specifies that type of perforation event. The keywords that identify columns are: WELL DATE SKIP DIAM STATUS well name. immediately above the table in the file. The header keyword INUNIT must be followed by either SI or FIELD. Use Y to specify a year digit. with a small amount of header information at the start of the file. and well diameters in inches. Each column in the table is identified with a keyword in the header line. Table Format for Well Trajectory Perforation Intervals In this format. Allowed options are: PERF or ACID – causes a perforation segment to be created CEM_SQZ – causes a perforation segment to be closed off measured depth to start of the perforation interval measured depth to the end of the perforation interval depth correction. perforation interval. Builder supports two different formats. and activity are given in a table.with some well trajectory file in PA. INUNIT SI DATE_FORMAT ‘YYYY/MM/DD’ WELL DATE MD_START MD_END STATUS MD_CORR SKIP OP1A 2000/01/01 5500 5600 PERF 0. ‘OP 12C’ 2000/10/15 6000 6200 CEM_SQZ 20. M to specify a month digit and D to specify a day digit. the well name. Four digit years are required. added to MD_START and MD_END MD_START MD_END MD_CORR 426 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .5 1.

31. (example: 31/2001/01) ‘Y M D’ means year. The delimiter between month. The fourth (or 6th) word can be PERF. the default is 'M D Y' or integer format. CMG Table Format and Zmap format etc. If there is no DATE_FORMAT keyword. specifies a perforation segment. it has to be followed by one of the following strings. Three numbers follow the well name. dash('-') or space.2001) ‘D Y M’ means day. month. month. “off depth correction” is a number added to KB elevation to correct the trajectory depth (z coordinate) such that perforation is in the desired grid block. which specify the order of year. 31-JAN-2001. KB elevation should have been specified in the file that defines the well trajectories. Four digit year is preferred. 96 will become 1996. (example: 31/01/2001. month and day in the date string: ‘M D Y’ means month.0 2305. (example: 2001/31/01) When the month is specified. month. Integer date format is an 8 digit integer in the form of YYYYMMDD (e. Note that there must be no delimiter between year. (example: 1/2001/1) ‘D M Y’ means day.g. The third word (or 4th and 5th word if date is space separated) is the date the perforation job is done. month. (example: 1/31/2001.5 2310. such as Production Analyst format.01. Comments can be inserted anywhere in the file as long as they are preceded by “**”. which are KB elevation. If present. dot('. day. The PERF or ACID keyword will cause a perforation segment to be created.5 2310.'). 20010131). User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 427 . 1900 is automatically added to the year.3 'WELL1' 1193 5.5 100 2300 2302 2305 2306 2307 2308 2309. or complete month name.Old Perforation Format This file format is the same as the perforation file generated from CMG’s Builder program. Builder ignores the rest of the line. e. day. 2001-January-31) ‘Y D M' means year. The month name can be in English or Spanish. It has to start a new line and be included in a pair of single quotes. Every line. or ACID. The first number is the measured depth of the start of the perforation segment and second number the end of the segment. well hole size and off depth correction. it can be a 1-2 digit number. day (example: 2001/01/31. year. year. year.6 12/18/1983 12/18/1983 12/18/1983 12/18/1983 12/18/1984 12/18/1984 PERF PERF PERF PERF PERF PERF 18 18 18 18 18 18 ** comment The Builder ignores all the keywords except DATE_FORMAT.g. The well name starts the definition of the perforations. after the well name line. day. the first 3 letters of the month.5 –500 2300. day and year can be slash('/'). Well hole size and KB elevation are not used by the Builder perforation file reading routine. Here is a sample file: DATE_FORMAT 'M D Y' 'WELL0' 1193 5. CEM_SQZ. month and day in this format. year. If a two digit year is encountered. Jan 1 2001) ‘M Y D’ means month.0 2312.

The unit for the measured depths of the start and end of the perforation segment in this file is assumed to be the same as the unit of the measured depth or z coordinate in the well trajectory file(s) that this file is associated with.0 1925. The first three columns are X.000000 6784224. Everything after the well log names is ignored. Here is a sample file: 1. A sample file containing well trajectory (WellPath) data is as follows: GOCAD Well 0.0 1930.00 0.01 HEADER{ name:wt-12 color:red } WREF 1440 1715 DPLN 0 TVSS_PATH TVSS_PATH TVSS_PATH TVSS_PATH TVSS_PATH TVSS_PATH TVSS_PATH 0.0 0.0 0.399994 -1821.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 2 Porosity % linear Permeability % linear 455550.3 0.906250 6784224. The first two lines are ignored by the Builder.00 0. followed by the same number of lines containing the well log names.199997 -1818.0 1920.0 0.500000 455549.500000 455549.00 0.0 Oil Well-14 0.00 0.3 0.00 428 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .00 0. Finally.000000 -1818.1 0.500000 0. Y and Z (Elevation) coordinates of the nodes.3 1 2 2 2 4 Well Trajectory in GOCAD Format The GOCAD is a very flexible file format.0 1928. the rest of the columns are the well logs.000000 -1818.000000 455548.0 0.300003 -1818.0 0.0 -1920 -1925 -1926 -1927 -1928 -1930 0.843750 6784224.0 0. Well Trajectory and Logs in RMS Format This format can contain both well trajectory and multiple well logs for one well in one file. It is object oriented and can supply all the information needed by any graphics program.4 0. The fourth line indicates the number of well logs this file contains.0 1927.781250 6784225.0 1926.125000 6784228. there is a table of well trajectory nodes and logs.00 0. The third line contains the well name the rest of the line is ignored.0 0.500000 455549.

TVSS_PATH describes a point of the WellPath. Zm. dX and dY relative to the X and Y of the WREF point. It is NOT the KB or RT of the well. the "real world" Z coordinate). PATH keyword can be replaced by TVSS_PATH (depth in sub-sea) or TVD_PATH (depth in true vertical depth). The Z value of the WREF is used as the depth for drawing the derrick and the 0 position of the Well Name. VRTX describes a point of the WellPath given in absolute (real world) coordinates. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 429 . The header defines the reference point and the datum plane. WREF X Y Z DPLN datum_plane PATH Zm Z dX dY VRTX X Y Z WREF gives the X and Y coordinates of the reference point for the well path . y deviations. which is the true vertical depth. giving a measured depth. while the Zm is not used by the Builder. dY of the PATH is used to draw the well path.MRKR marker 1 2 meters NORM 0 0 1 ZONE zone 4 7 1 END GOCAD Well 0. The Z and dX.0 DPLN 0 # *X *Y *Z VRTX 1440 1715 0 VRTX 1440 1715 -1920 VRTX 1440 1715 -1925 VRTX 1440 1715 -1926 VRTX 1440 1715 -1927 VRTX 1440 1715 -1928 VRTX 1440 1715 -1930 MRKR marker 1 2 meters NORM 0 0 1 ZONE zone 4 7 1 END The WellPath is composed of a header and a coordinate section. GOCAD subtracts the WREF Z value from the TVD_PATH Z. Well path can be given by TVD_PATH keyword. The coordinate section defines the well path by giving either a series of PATH definition or VRTX definition. a real depth (with KB or RT elevation already taken out.usually the surface location of the well.01 HEADER{ name:wt-14 } #WREF 1440 1715 0. Z and x. To find the sub-sea depth.

if present. The Inclinometry_Definition and Inclinometry sections describe the 3D well trajectory. prepared by Jean-Claude Dulac. This format can have "wrap" and "no wrap" option.W. The above is a brief description of GOCAD format.las". For complete references. only "name" is used. The information in these two sections. Please contact the following address for detailed format description: CWLS Committee Suite 229.0 is supported by the Builder. and both options are supported. Alberta CANADA T2P 0M6 Builder only read the following information sections from the file: ~VERSION INFORMATION ~Well Information ~Curve Information ~ASCII | CURVE ~Inclinometry_Definition ~Inclinometry | Inclinometry_Definition ~Perforations_Definition ~Perforations | Perforations_Definition ~Tops_Definition ~Tops | Tops_Definition The well surface location is given by UTM in the Well Information section. Builder does NOT read the location given in longitude and latitude format. This type of file is self-explanatory. Well Log Formats LAS Well Log Format Canadian Well Logging Society's LAS (Log ASCII Standard) Well Log format version 3. 640-5 Avenue S. So the sample file below should explain most of the format: 430 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .Builder only deals with the following keywords: GOCAD Well WREF VRTX TVSS_PATH TVD_PATH HEADER END Within HEADER block. The default file extension for this format is ". The Perforations_Definition and Perforations sections specify the perforation interval along the trajectory. will be read by the Builder. Calgary. The well log data are given by Curve Information and ASCII | CURVE sections. see the GOCAD Developer’s Guide.

1250 NULL .K/M3 45 350 01 00 NPHI . -999.0000 MATR . GEL CHEM BHT .34567 UTM . ALBERTA SRVC .UNIT API CODES #------------------DEPT .DEG 34.OHMM 07 220 04 00 SFLA . ~Well Information #MNEM. 1234587 3489875 ~CURVE INFORMATION #MNEM.0000 RMF .25 COMP . ANY LOGGING COMPANY INC.M DT . DATE .V/V 42 890 00 00 SFLU . 12345678 LAT . ANY OIL COMPANY INC.56789 LONG.0000 DESCRIPTION ------------------------First Index Value Last Index Value STEP NULL VALUE COMPANY WELL FIELD LOCATION PROVINCE SERVICE COMPANY LOG DATE {DD/MM/YYYY} UNIQUE WELL ID API NUMBER Latitude {DEG} Longitude {DEG} UTM LOCATION : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : CURVE DESCRIPTION ------------------------: 1 DEPTH : 2 SONIC TRANSIT TIME : 3 BULK DENSITY : 4 NEUTRON POROSITY : 5 RXORESISTIVITY : 6 SHALLOW RESISTIVITY : 7 MEDIUM RESISTIVITY : 8 DEEP RESISTIVITY DESCRIPTION ---------------------: MUD TYPE : BOTTOM HOLE TEMPERATURE : BIT SIZE : FLUID DENSITY : NEUTRON MATRIX : LOGGING MATRIX DENSITY : MUD FILTRATE RESISTIVITY : DRILL FLUID DENSITY User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 431 .OHMM 07 120 46 00 ~PARAMETER INFORMATION #MNEM.US/M 60 520 32 00 RHOB .UNIT VALUE #----------------MUD .OHMM 07 222 01 00 ILM . WILDCAT LOC . 12-34-12-34W5M PROV . SAND MDEN .2500 STEP .M 713.0 WRAP.MM 200.DEG -102.0 : CWLS LOG ASCII STANDARD -VERSION 3.2160 DFD . 2710.0000 STOP . ANY ET AL 12-34-12-34 FLD . 3.DEGC 35.K/M3 1000.OHMM 07 120 44 00 ILD . TAB. OR COMMA.M -0. COMMA : DELIMITING CHARACTER BETWEEN DATA COLUMNS # Acceptable delimiting characters: SPACE (default).M 1670. 13/12/1986 UWI .~VERSION INFORMATION VERS.K/M3 1525. NO : ONE LINE PER DEPTH STEP DLM .0000 FD .5000 BS . 100123401234W500 API . WELL .-------------STRT .OHMM 0.UNIT DATA #----.

44.0 -999.450 110.0 -999.2.550.SHOTS/M : Shots per meter {F} PERFT.00.M : Perforation Top Depth {F} PERFB.BIG HOLE 551. Here is a sample file: Well-14 DEPTH 2510.450 2550.450 2550.450 123.9 9.0 -999.0 2514.0 -999.0 2512.450 2550.200 105.M : Perforation Bottom Depth {F} PERFD.0.000 123.1 7.7 9.8 9.290.9 -19.0 432 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .04 400.3 -19.7 9.0 -999.00.43 300.00.00. The rest of the lines are the log data.554.0 GR1 -999.00 200.000 0.0 -999. M : Measured Depth {F} TVD.60.295.0 -999.9 -20.0 -999.6 8.234.0 -999.204.0 -999.198.5.86.0 -999.~OTHER Note: The logging tools became stuck at 625 metres Causing the data between 625 metres and 615 metres to be invalid.00.600 1669.0 -999.00 100.0 -999.600 1669.3 SP2 -999.00.0 -999.71.0 2515.3.00.450 123.0 -999.0 -999.DEG : Borehole Deviation {F} ~Inclinometry | Inclinometry_Definition 0.200 105.1. : Charge Type {S} ~Perforations | Perforations_Definition 545.39.0 -999. One of the log names must be DEPTH.8 LLS -999.85.0 GR2 -999. The next line contains the log names (column headings).00.6 8.21.88 600.234.0 ILD -999.482.00.64.00.000 0.90.224.34.0 2511.750 123.0 -999.0 -999.450 123.93 500.0.450 123.BIG HOLE 575.0 LLD -999.0 -999.0 2513.7 SP1 -19.284.12.0 -999.000 0.100.0 Rt 8.12.2 -20.0 -999.390.595.0 -999.0. The other log names can by any name desired.90.450 123.8 8.0 -999.41 ~Perforations_Definition PERFT.200 105.450 110.20.224.0 -999.7 8.0 ASN 7.04.12.00.4 -19.600 ~Inclinometry_Definition MD.2 8.DEG : Borehole Azimuth {F} DEVI.571.50. ~ASCII | CURVE 1670.0 -999.00.875 123.0 -999.7.BIG HOLE Single Well Log File This file format stores the well logs for one well per file.0 -999. The first line is the well name and an optional date and/or null value.450 123.0 -999.0 -999.450 110. The next line may optionally contain log units which must be input using the keyword LOGUNITS. M : True Vertical Depth {F} AZIM.00.

6 -999.0 -999.9 8.0 -999.9 -19.2 -20.0 -999.2 9.5 1926.0 1925.0278 . DEPTH DEPTH2 'Water Rate RC' 'Oil Rate RC' 'Gas LOGUNITS 'ft' 'ft' 'bbl/day' 'bbl/day' 'bbl/day' "WELL-112" 19880101 16276.7 9.9 -19.0 -999.0 -999.0 16296.2 SP1 -19. The next line contains the well name and an optional date and/or null value.0 -999.1 -999. In the example below.0 -999.0 "wt-12" 1923. zero values will be added for this depth range.2 -20.6 8.0 0 8.0 -999.0 -999.8 -999.0 8. additional log points will be added with zero values.0 -999.The user may also enter a depth range using the log names DEPTH and DEPTH2 (see example in the Multiple Well Log File below).0 1936. Another well name and log data can exist in the same file.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 1927.3 -20.0 -999.0 -999.4 8.0 -999.0 1937.0 -999.3 -19.0 -999.0 -999.0 LLD -999.0 1938.0 -999.0 -999.1 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.4 -19.0 -999.0 1940.0 -999.0 1925.9 16384. It is similar to the Single Well Log File format except the first line is the log names (column headings).0 Rt 8.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.59 0 16363.4 SP2 -999.0 8.3 -20.0 -999. Multiple Well Log File The file format permits multiple wells in a single file.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 16357.2 9.2 9.0 -999.91 0 16338.7 8.0 1924.0 GR1 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.4 -19.0 7.0 -999.75 0 Rate RC' Production '' .0 -999.9 -20.0 -999.0 -999.1 7.8 8.0 1928.0 1942.7 9.7 9.0 -999.1 -999.2 9.0 -999.1 -999.0 -999.7 9.6 8.9 -999.0 -999.0 -999.2 1925.9 9.3 -19.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.4 -19.0 -999.9 -20.0 -999.9 -19.0 -999.0 -999. Sample file as follows: DEPTH ASN LLS "wt-14" 19880725 1936.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 8.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.7 8.8 8. since depth ranges are missing between the first and second points (16296 – 16338).0 -999.0 -999.0 1929.0 -999.0 -999.9 9.0 -999.2 8. When this type of file format is selected in the Well Trajectory dialog. If both of these log names are found.0 -999.9 0 213.0 -999.0 -999. additional log points will be automatically added so that the log values remain constant for the depth interval specified.0 -999. followed by well log data.4 -19.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 ILD -999.9 -19.0 -999.1 8.8 9.0 -999.0 8.0 -999.8 9.0 1939.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.3052 User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 433 . If depth intervals are missing between points.1 8.6669 .0 0 97.0 1941.0 -999.0 8.0 -999.0 -999.0 -999.0 7.0 -999.7 8.0 -999.0 -999.7 -999.0 GR2 -999.0 -999.6 -999.0 1936.0 8.0 The user may also enter a depth range using the log names DEPTH and DEPTH2. The next line may optionally contain log units which must be input using the keyword LOGUNITS.9 9. you can select multiple files from the file open dialog.4 -19.9 9.

it is assumed that the measured depth is given in the dataset working units.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 16247.0021 .1 16263.7694 . must be in single quotes if it contains spaces.0 "WELL-94" 19880301 16240.0 16357.4 16252.4341 The well name must be enclosed in single or double quotes in this format. INUNIT SI WELL GEOUNIT OP1A Basal ‘OP 12C’ Quartz MD_TOP 5600.5601 . formation bottom measured depth.009 . Formation Top File Format If you have loaded LAS format (version 3.7 16281.63 227. immediately above the table in the file.11 1937.5 16283.91 3984.27 1648. the well name. Field units require measured depths in feet. Builder supports the following file format: Table Format for Formation Tops In this format. SI units require measured depths in meters.9 16363. The keywords that identify columns are: WELL GEOUNIT MD_TOP well name. The default file extension is ". they might have already top data.5 16278.4 16253.0 16296.4563 .84 3.2 948.0 16246.0 16246.9 16255.4 16252. The header keyword INUNIT must be followed by either SI or FIELD.4922 . you can load formation top data using CMG’s Table Format."WELL-112" 19890101 16276.0 16338. If INUNIT keyword is absent in the file. are given in a table.2277 .82 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1310 .5 16278. must be in single quotes if it contains spaces measured depth to top of the formation User's Guide Builder 434 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data . with a small amount of header information at the start of the file.5428 .69 3562.99 2305.2 16260.0 "WELL-94" 19880101 16240. geological unit name.0 16246. formation top measured depth.1491 .50 5690 MD_BOTTOM 5690 5820 Well names and geounit names can be in any order. Each column in the table is identified with a keyword in the header line. The formation top file is used to specify formation or geological unit tops associated with the well trajectories by name.0) files to the application.94 67.wlg".9 16384. The name must match the name as given in the trajectory file geological unit or formation name.2285 .13 1078.2 3087.5 16304.4 "WELL-94" 19880201 16240. For other file formats.

through matching production data to wells. If imported data is being added to an existing document. Builder database import requires a PPDM version 3. The database import operates as a wizard. then an additional data merge step will be required. etc.g. from selecting wells to be imported. permeability. or can be used to add data to an existing Builder document. Prerequisites In order for Builder to be able to import well data from a database. The following types of well data can be imported: • • • • • • • General Well Data (well name. UWI. Importing from a PPDM database Overview Builder is capable of importing well data from a PPDM compatible database. Note that configuration of an ODBC data source may require installation of database platform-specific software onto each computer that will access the PPDM database. some prerequisites must be satisfied: 1.) Directional surveys Perforated and Completion Intervals Formation Tops Well Logs Well Core Analyses (e. Contact local network and database administrators for assistance with creating an ODBC data source to connect to an available PPDM database.MD_END measured depth to the bottom of the formation Note: Value -99999 has to be used for missing values of MD_TOP and MD_BOTTOM columns. The data must be available in a PPDM-compliant database. Builder can also optionally create a simple orthogonal corner-point grid as well as create grid properties (tops and thicknesses) from selected formation tops. Import from Database can be used to import data into an empty Builder document. A properly configured ODBC data source must be configured. porosity) Monthly Production Data In addition to importing the well data. surface and bottom hole location. The minimum required information to User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 435 . to selecting specific categories of well data to be imported.7 (or later) database 2. Builder uses Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) to connect to and retrieve data from the PPDM database. Successive pages of the wizard guide the import process.

This information is entered in the Database Login dialog. then choose Database and press Import button. After the third unsuccessful attempt. Selecting this item will start the database import. The first step in the import is establishing a connection to the PPDM database. which will appear immediately after the database import menu item has been selected: The database login dialog will allow up to three attempts to connect to the database. a failure message dialog will be shown. as well as the name of the ODBC data source. Possible reasons for an unsuccessful attempt to connect to the database include: * Incorrect database user ID or password entered * Incorrect ODBC data source selected * Database access permission has not been granted * The database is not available at the present time Contact the local network/database administrator if connection problems persist.perform a database import is a valid database user id and password. 436 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . Launching Database Import The database import is accessible via the File | Import from Database menu item or Reservoir | Build Static Model with Task Manager menu item. Establishing a connection requires entering a valid database user ID and password. as well as selection of the appropriate ODBC connection.

and support for existing data has changed. 2. PPDM has evolved over time. In this case. the Database Import Wizard will appear: The first page of the Database Import Wizard displays some general information regarding the import process.7 and later. In PPDM ver 3. well production data was stored in table PDEN_VOL_BY_MONTH. and allows some import options to be changed. if data is being imported into a pre-existing document (with pre-existing data). Create simple grid from imported data Database import can create a simple orthogonal corner point grid after a successful import. PDEN_VOL_BY_MONTH is deprecated in favor of PDEN_VOL_SUMMARY. the option to use deprecated tables refers to the PPDM support for well production data. Prior to PPDM ver. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 437 . Consult the local database administrator to determine which PPDM table contains production data. then this option should not be selected. or if more advanced grid creation is anticipated. Use deprecated PPDM tables As with any software product. 3.7. Support for new types of data has been added.When a database connection has been established. The import options that can be altered at this point are: 1. and set this option accordingly. However.

User can switch to any other field by clicking on a radio box beside the field name. 438 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . UWI and well location of all wells belong to the field will be imported from the database.Click “Next” to proceed to well selection. Or click the 1:1 button then the view go back to its original size. only one field has been selected. click multiple select mode that at least contains one well. It can be zoomed in many times until one field in the all view. click undo button. click zoom in mode See following graph. To Zoom In. button (the view must be zoomed in before). The names of all fields stored in the PPDM database will be displayed in the tree view. (Note the field name will be shown when the field area is bigger enough to write the field name). To select wells from view. all wells in the field will be drawn in the view. the view will go back to previous view. All pool names of the field will be added to tree under the field node. click undo button. button. then use mouse to select an area To undo an action. After selecting a field the well name. click undo button. If a field is selected from a few fields by clicking a field area on the graph view or a field is chosen from tree. To select a field from view. the wells in these highlighted selected area will be deselected. then picture can be To pan a picture. click pan mode panned with holding left mouse button down and moving. view can be zoomed in. The next graph shows the four fields after zooming in. then the view To Zoom Out. and one selected area (pool) be selecting. In this situation a field can be selected by clicking a field area on the view or click a radio button on a tree view. the view must be zoomed in. This button can be clicked many times until the view becomes its original size. button. the fields that have well data will be drawn on the view if the Show All Fields button is clicked. click single select mode button if current mode is not single select mode. the Show All Fields button will enable. and all wells will be drawn on the view. While wells are . The field limitations will be shown in middle column of the grid. Before well selection a field must be selected by clicking on a radio button of the field on the tree. In order to select a field easily. If more than one field has been clicked. select four fields in black rectangle. then the view will show all wells in the selected field. then use mouse to click inside of a field to be selected. button. If current mode is in the multiple select mode or multiple ones are highlighted. click zoom out will be zoomed out. then use mouse selected area to be zoomed in. there are 15 fields. the single select mode must be set.

User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 439 .

Multiple pools can be selected by checking their check boxes. multiple selections can be done by repeat above steps. 440 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . the following window pops up. Before a well is selected. Users also can do same thing by using mouse to select a rectangle area on view.Wells to be imported can be selected by three means: • • • By specifying a latitude/longitude Area of Interest (AOI) By specifying a producing pool By specifying well names To select wells by Area of Interest. click Refine Selection button. To select wells by specifying well names. it will be shown as empty box. otherwise it will be shown as filled box. To select wells by specifying a producing pool. select New selection from the list on first row and right column of the grid. and westerly longitudes and southerly latitudes must be negative values. click on the check box beside the pool name. All wells that belong to the pool will be selected after check box of the pool is checked. Note that all entries are in decimal degrees. enter the lower left and upper right latitude and longitude into the grid.

then click > or >> button. check wells to be added in the unselected wells list. etc. Pool Name or checked. logs. To remove wells from selected wells list. If click Cancel button. There are four ways to check wells: • • • • Use mouse to click the check box Click Select All button. click Select button Click OK to keep what has been changed and go back to select wells page. the next step is to choose which well data will be imported. Selection of well data to be imported is performed on the next wizard page. Well data includes trajectories. then click < or << button. check the wells to be removed from the selected wells list. Wells in the list can be sorted by UWI. this will make all check boxes of wells as checked Select by pool names or user selections Enter wildcard string. To add unselected wells into the selected wells list. Well Name. perforated intervals. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 441 .Unselected wells are listed in the left grid and selected wells are listed in the right grid. Click Next Once the wells to be imported have been selected. go back to select wells page and keep original selected wells.

it may be desirable to refine the retrieval. users need to select a writable directory for builder saving log data files as zip and "las" format. Otherwise. but maybe read wrong log data). For example. 442 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . If the Overwrite Import Log Files is checked. builder will read log data from the file in the selected directory without fetching log data from database (this will save some time. It is possible to limit the well data being imported. After clicking browse button the following window pops up. If a large number of wells are being imported. is displayed at the top of this wizard page. • • Retrieving large numbers of wells can result in lengthy database connection times A large geographic range can result in a very coarse grid. Notice that the checkboxes for Perforations. the log data file will be overwritten if there is a file with same name in the selected directory. well logs. If there is any "las" format file in the selected path. To refine the retrieval. the Overwrite Import Log Files check box is enabled.The total number of wells to be imported. Click browse … button to select a directory. Uncheck the “Trajectory” checkbox. it is possible to just import production data but not any trajectory-based data (perforated intervals. as well as the geographic range covered. Logs and Markers are disabled. or if the geographic range is large. Unchecking “Wells” effectively prevents any data from being imported. click “Back” and change the Area of Interest or reduce the number of selected wells. If the Logs box is checked. formation markers).

After the well data to be imported has been selected. and the progress of the database import is displayed. click “Next” to begin the import from database process.Select a writable directory (example: c:\data\LogData) Click OK The Next button is enabled. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 443 . Please see the following window. The next wizard page appears.

If the import is allowed to proceed to completion.The database import can be halted by clicking the “Stop” button. a summary of the import will be displayed 444 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . no changes will be made to the Builder document. If the import is stopped.

Diagnostic information can be saved to a file. how many have production data. A summary of the imported data can be viewed by clicking “View Summary”. the formations that are associated with perforated intervals are shown. Also. This dialog shows statistics on the number of wells that were imported. and the number of associated perforated intervals is displayed in brackets immediately after. trajectories (directional surveys). The geological formation code name is displayed. and formation tops. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 445 . This may be helpful in selecting which geological formations to model for gridding and geostatistical analysis. perforated intervals. the error messages can be read by clicking “View Log”.If errors have occurred during the database import.

Consult “Production Data Wizard” (pg. click OK to continue. Click “Finish” to complete the data import phase. uncheck “Auto Create Grid”. The repeated wells will be identical to the original wells. If the option to create a simple grid was selected (on the first page of the import wizard). and change the Grid Block Widths and/or K Layers. This is accomplished by invoking step 5 of the Production Data Wizard. but assigns a slightly different name to the repeated wells. and click OK. 446 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . 265) for more information in using this dialog.Note that the number of wells that were actually imported can be greater than the number that were originally selected. then the Create Grid Parameters dialog will be displayed. The following sections discuss this post-retrieval processing. and allow Builder to move the imported data into the open document. Injection wells have well names with a suffix “iw” appended. Another aspect of the post-import processing is that Builder attempts to create events from the production data. Database Import can recognize when wells are combined producers and injectors. Otherwise. The database import calculates the default gridding parameters. In these cases. if these values are appropriate. except that injection data will be retrieved instead of production data. Builder performs significant post-retrieval processing on the imported data. Builder effectively imports these wells twice.

This is an optional phase. and will only occur if the “Create simple grid” option was selected at the start of database import.Click “Finish” to allow Builder to process production data and create events. The final phase of post-import processing is the creation of grid properties from geological formations. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 447 .

or by selecting the name and clicking “>”. i. Builder will then commence with creating mesh maps for the selected formations. Once the desired formation tops have been selected. Stratigraphy and Production Reporting groups. PPDM Table Builder Object/Description Well General Information WELL well_name uwi parent_uwi surface_longitude surface_latitude bottom_hole_longitude bottom_hole_latitude drill_td drill_td_ouom max_tvd max_tvd_ouom Well WELL_NODE latitude longitude Well 448 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder .e. below. The Builder PPDM import retrieves selected entities from the PPDM Wells.Select one or more formations to be used in the creation of grid properties. Table 1. This completes the database import process. All available formations can be selected by clicking “>>”. shows the high-level mapping between PPDM entities and equivalent Builder objects. and creating grid properties (top and thickness) for each of the selected formations. PPDM Coverage in Database Import The purpose of this section is to document which PPDM entities are retrieved during a database import. tables that are used to locate values in other tables. Move formation names from “Available Formations” to “Selected Formation(s)” by either double-clicking on the formation name. Table names in green text represent navigation tables. and are not necessarily represented as Builder objects. click OK.

Completions and Cores Information WELL_PERFORATION TrajPerf. Core Pore Vol.WELL_DIR_SRVY WELL_DIR_SRVY_STATION x_offset x_offset_ouom y_offset y_offset_ouom station_tvd station_tvd_ouom station_md station_md_ouom Well General Information Trajectory TrajNode WELL_DIR_SRVY WELL_DIR_SRVY_STATION x_offset x_offset_ouom y_offset Trajectory TrajNode Well Perforations. TrajPerfInterval perforation_date top_depth top_depth_ouom base_depth base_depth_ouom WELL_COMPLETION top_depth base_depth completion_strat_unit_id base_strat_unit_id WELL_CORE_SAMPLE_ANAL bulk_density effective_porosity k90 kmaz kvert oil_sat pore_volume_gas_sat pore_volume_oil_sat pore_volume_water_sat porosity water_sat Used to synthesize well logs for… Core Bulk Density Core Effective Porosity Core K90 Core KMax Core KVert Core Oil Saturations Core Pore Vol. Core Porosity Core Water Saturation User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 449 . Oil Sat. Core Pore Vol. Gas Sat. Water Sat.

’WTR’.’INJHRS’) Field names that end with “_ouom” contain unit-of-measure strings (e.’GAS’.’INJHRS’) ‘INJECTION’ or ‘PRODUCTION’ Monthly production or injection volumes PDEN_WELL PDEN PDEN_VOL_BY_MONTH year product_type ProductionData (‘OIL’. “ft. TrajTopInterval Well Production Data ProductionData (‘OIL’.Well Logs Information WELL_LOG WELL_LOG_CURVE reported_mnemonic WellLog RM_INFO_ITEM_CONTENT RM_DATA_CONTENT RM_DATA_STORE long_location Contains LAS filename (ZIP file) WELL_LOG WELL_LOG_CURVE reported_mnemonic WellLog RM_INFO_ITEM_CONTENT RM_DATA_CONTENT Well Formation Markers Information STRAT_NAME_SET STRAT_UNIT long_name ordinal_age_code STRAT_WELL_SECTION pick_depth pick_depth_ouom TrajTop. and are used by the database import to perform appropriate unit conversion.’GAS’.”. “m”).’WTR’. 450 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . TrajTopInterval STRAT_NAME_SET STRAT_UNIT long_name ordinal_age_code STRAT_WELL_SECTION PDEN_WELL PDEN PDEN_VOL_BY_MONTH year product_type activity_type jan_volume … dec_volume TrajTop.g.

Data merging is performed via the Data Merge Wizard. if there is no correspondence. Match each well in the source data set with a well in the destination data set 2. the Match Wells page is visible: User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 451 . The basic data merge workflow consists of two distinct steps: 1. comparing well names and recognizing a match when a well name from the source data set is identical to a well name in the destination data set. the user must attempt to manually match the wells. When the wizard starts.g. typically after a data import has been performed. Data merging is the combination of well data from one data set (the source) with matching well data in a second data set (the destination). the user can decide to add the unmatched well directly to the destination data source.Merging Data Sets If data is being imported from a database or text files into a pre-existing data set. or to insert data from the source well into the destination well. The Data Merge Wizard will appear whenever Builder needs to merge data from two data sets. the data from the source well will replace its equivalent in the destination well. then it is likely that data merging will be required. If the wizard cannot automatically match a well in the source with a well in the destination. If data from the source well corresponds to data in the destination well (e. The first step is matching wells between the two data sets. Match each trajectory in each source data set well with the appropriate trajectory in the matched well in the destination data set. The wizard will attempt to match as many wells as possible. The goal of data merging is either to replace data in the destination well with data from the source well. trajectory nodes or perforated intervals). however. the data from the source well will be inserted into the destination well. If there is no match for the well.

The green check is replaced with a red X and the well name appears in the right list (Unmatched wells). Matching these two wells requires that the user possess additional information (e. It is possible to un-match an existing match.g. Note that it is not permissible to match a well that has already been matched. One reason is that the well rights were sold and purchased by a different company than the original operator of the well. comparing well locations) in order to manually match the wells. To manually match an unmatched well. Note that the matched wells do not have to have the same well name. Unmatched wells have a red X mark beside their names. Highlight the appropriate row in the list and click “Unmatch/Remove”. There are several reasons why the same well might have different names. the matching well name will be displayed in the “Matched To” column.Automatically matched wells are displayed with a green check mark. and both destination and source well names are displayed. 452 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . drag its name from the list on the right and drop it on an unmatched well in the left listing. the red X will be replaced with a green check mark. and the name will also be removed from the right list. If a manual well match is successful. Wells that require a manual match are displayed in the list on the right.

If a well from the source data set has been directly added to the destination data set (i. The Match Trajectories page has two purposes: 1. the purpose of trajectory matching is to make explicit the relationships. there will be multiple entries for that well in the right hand list.e. 2. The left hand list shows all wells from the destination data set. it might be that the source well/trajectory pair actually represents a specific trajectory in the destination well. To specify the parent-child relationship between a trajectory in the source well to a trajectory in either the source well or the destination well. formation markers. well logs). Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 453 User's Guide Builder . The right hand list shows all wells from the source data set. a multilateral well in the destination data set would have multiple entries in the left hand list. perforations. it has not been matched to a well in the destination data set). Regardless. matching trajectories: The Match Trajectories page displays two lists.Click “Next” to proceed to step (2).e. along with what well data is available for each well (trajectory nodes. the Parent column will show “Added Well – No Match Required”. it is a multilateral well). If a well from the source data set has been matched to a well in the destination data set. Similarly. To specify on a per-well basis the well data to be merged If a source well contains multiple trajectories (i. the well name from the destination will be displayed in the Parent column. Alternately.

as well as what well data is available. Note that not every well will contain every type of well data. perforations. The grid on the Trajectory Match wizard page shows two columns that can be used to specify which well data is merged.) will be merged on a perwell basis. ensure that the check box(es) under “Imp” are checked. etc. It is possible to specify which well data (trajectories. Note that the list contains candidate trajectory names from both the source and destination wells. Trajectories from the source well are labeled as “NEW”. For example. and the check boxes for well logs and formation tops are not checked. 454 • Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data User's Guide Builder . but not formation tops or well logs. click the appropriate cell in the “Parent” column. while the “Name” column shows well and trajectory names. only well data that actually occurs in the well will appear under the “Name” column. To merge specific types of well data. This is achieved through the Filter Data dialog: The Filter Data dialog shows all wells to be merged into the destination data set (either matched or added).To match a trajectory to its parent (which could be in either the source well or the destination well). The check boxes in the “Imp” column correspond to entries under the “Name” column. make sure that the check boxes associated with trajectory nodes and perforations are checked. while trajectories from the destination well are labeled “EXISTING”. to merge trajectory nodes and perforations. The “Imp” column shows a series of check boxes. and expand the drop-down list. It is possible to perform large scale (bulk) changes to the well data to be merged.

Complete the Data Merge Wizard by clicking the Next button. Entering wildcard selection string to select matching well names The changes to the well data to be merged are made permanent when OK is clicked. Wells can be selected by: 1. Clicking on individual wells in the list box 2. User's Guide Builder Importing Geological and Well Trajectory Data • 455 . Clicking Select All 3. make a selection in the list box. select the appropriate well data in Selectable Data.To change the well data that will be merged. and click Apply To Selection.

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porosity. The option File→Create Map is always available while the option Reservoir→Geostatistics is available only if a grid is already defined.Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations Overview This feature is designed to help the engineers create quick maps or grids and geostatistical realizations.). User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 457 . permeability etc. The purpose of the Reservoir→Geostatistics option is to populate existing grids with reservoir properties. are shown below. The input to this feature is well and/or fault data points (tops. The dialog windows. The purpose of the File→Create Map option is to give the user a quick tool for creating reservoir maps (from well marker points) which can be used in building grids. thickness. or in 3D from Builder by selecting the menu item Reservoir→Geostatistics. for each option. and the program will use one of the calculation methods to calculate values at other locations. This option can be invoked in 2D from either Results 3D or Builder by selecting the menu item File→Create Map.

The filename is defaulted to MesMap. Then. The column Layer# only shows in 3D and is used only when the option ‘Use layer numbers for 3D’ is selected. and the column Value is reserved for the parameter value at the corresponding location. a button provides more options to create new geostatistical calculation objects or to delete existing ones. Points Tab The table of the Points Tab is used to input data points. The Tools button gives 5 methods for inputting well locations and parameters: 1. the user can input parameter values for these well locations to create a new map. The first method is to extract them from an existing map file. The data can be copied from other documents and directly pasted into the cells of the table or alternatively the Tools button can be used. The columns X. this map can be opened with this button. Creating a Simulation Grid Using Structure Maps). 458 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder .The Create Map dialog has an input field for a filename where to save the results of the calculations. and Z (only in 3D) are reserved for the data point coordinates. If a map is available that contains well locations and fault points. The column Well is reserved for an optional well name. The two dialogs are otherwise similar. The Geostatistics dialog has 2 pull down selection lists at the top. To the right of the Name list. The table will display 4 predetermined columns in 2D (Create Map) and 6 in 3D (Geostatistics). and the well locations and fault points will be extracted from this map and placed in the appropriate tables for this option. The Name list is used to select existing geostatistical calculation objects and the Output Property list is for choosing the Builder property the geostatistical calculations will apply to.msh and the results are written in the Builder mesh ASCII format (see Reservoir Description. Their different Tabs are described below. This option is available on the Points tab as 'Import wells and faults from contour map'. Y.

They will be added into the table at the currently selected cell. 3. 4. and place them into the table after the currently selected cell. all log points will be imported. but will not appear as wells on the view. Note that this method will over write any existing data points in the cell. Faults Tab This Tab is only available for the 2D option.0 or CMG formation top file (. This method will add fault points for the particular fault that is selected. The third method is to paste values in the table from a spreadsheet like Excel.Z coordinates and values from logs and trajectories. The second option is to extract the well locations from the simulator data file. User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 459 . The first method is to extract them from an existing map file. Therefore. but well names will not be provided. The fourth method is to input points by clicking the mouse on the currently displayed grid property. then when the log values are imported from the view.Y. This option is available on the Points tab. For 3D geostatistical realizations the calculations will use fault planes already built into the structure of the 3D model grid. In 3D. If this box is un-checked. then if more than one log point is located within a particular grid block. There are 3 methods available for inputting fault points. only data from the Builder main view selected layer (K-plane) will be imported. The third method is to input well X. The use of faults in the generation of maps or geostatistical realizations can be disabled by checking the box on the Methods Tab “Ignore faults”. The second method is to input points by clicking the mouse on the currently displayed grid. these points will be used in the calculation. These well locations may be different from the actual locations because the simulator data file well locations have been moved into the center of a grid block. 2. If the option to import all points is selected. For the Create Map option (2D). 6. 3.2. The sixth method is to import values from trajectory top data which where loaded from LAS V3. these log points will be averaged (simple average method) and only one value will be imported for each block. The fifth method is to import values from well test data and is available only in 3D. If this option is chosen. This method will add locations and parameters into the table after the selected cell in the table. Thus. The parameter values will be extracted from the currently displayed grid property in the Builder main view. the option to import only the coordinates that lie within the model grid will be enabled. existing values in these cells in the table may be over written. 1.tdb). 5. the 2D calculation of maps will use nearby points that do not cross any fault lines.

2 main categories estimation and simulation which can be further divided into methods for continuous (e. The 3D option offers estimation and simulation for continuous data. Estimation is used when one needs a smooth interpolation across the data. and simulation for categorical data. porosity) or categorical data (e. 460 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder .g. There are currently 6 methods available to create maps. Normally. As opposed to estimation methods which generate only one result. rock types). In contrast. Estimation and Simulation Methods for 3D The parameters used in the calculations will vary with the method selected.g. estimation methods require AT LEAST TWO WELLS for data input. simulation methods can generate multiple cases. For that reason.Methods Tab The methods can be divided into 4 categories. Estimation and Simulation Methods for 2D There are currently 6 methods available to create geostatistical calculation objects. simulations are important for uncertainty analysis. All these methods are described below. simulation is used when one needs to reproduce all the variability actually seen in the data. The 2D option offers estimation and simulation for continuous data only.

The default value of 10 can be changed on the Methods Tab “Number of nearest points”. This makes map creation very easy. thus has its own variogram.j). The option to Assign data to cells is also available for all 2D methods. It describes the spatial structure and is used to model the spatial correlation in the data. a search for the Number of nearest points will be done. More details can be found on variograms in the section on Variogram Matching. This calculation method uses the following procedure for calculating values at mesh cells that do not contain a well point: • For a mesh cell (i. The value at mesh cell (i. The map can be improved further by improving the variogram match. Each dataset is characterized by its own spatial structure. This option has an automatic variogram matching utility that creates and matches the variogram using a non-linear least squares type of fitting routine. Use it to save the data along with the results. The Kriging method requires the use of variograms and search areas. User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 461 . Usually. the first and default method is to use an inverse distance calculation. It is used to force a data value at a grid node as oppose to an estimated value. • ∑ i V: nearby data value. The variogram is a function of the data variance against the distance between data locations. the map is substantially improved when compared to the inverse distance or trend methods. or by changing the anisotropy parameters. exp: exponent value. The data point closest to the node will be used.j) is calculated by: Vi 1 ⋅ ∑ exp 1 i di d iexp d: distance data to mesh cell. is to use Kriging method which is the method normally used when it is important to account for spatial correlation and anisotropy among the data.Inverse Distance Estimation In 2D. The option to write wells/points to file is available for all 2D estimation methods. Ordinary Kriging (OK) Estimation Another method. available in 2D and 3D.

The declustering option is used in conjunction with the normal scores transformation. For example. The i =1 i =0 weights w depend on the variogram used and on the correlation between variables V and U. The results are transformed back into the original histogram or into the declustered histogram after estimation. An example of the use of this option in 2D would be to calculate structure top from well data and seismic data together. Ordinary Kriging With Secondary Variable This option can be used when the user has a secondary attribute to help estimating the primary variable. A normal scores transformation is usually used when the data histogram is strongly skewed. the values of the secondary variable U are shifted so that they have the same mean (m) than the values of the primary variable V. The weights w depend on the variogram used. To avoid bias. Normalizing the data histogram may help to obtain a better estimation because kriging algorithms are optimum when the data histogram is Normal (experience has shown that kriging is robust against departure from normality). 462 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . Note that the secondary attribute needs to be known at the grid cells in 2D or at the grid blocks in 3D. The clustered data will have lesser weights than isolated data points. The kriging estimator is a linear combination of the nearest data points of the primary variable V and the secondary variable U at the grid cell or grid block being estimated: ∑ w i ⋅ Vi + w 0 ⋅ ( U 0 − m U + m V ) with ∑ w i = 1 . If not used. the kriging estimator is also a linear combination of the nearest data points: ∑ w i ⋅ Vi with ∑ w i = 1 . declustering will help to reduce the influence of over sampling in sweet spots.Like inverse distance. Declustering is used to reduce possible bias in the data histogram. the data are all equally weighted (1/n where n is the number of the data). i i Ordinary kriging estimation has additional controls such as the use of declustering algorithm and the use of normal scores transformation of the data. The values of the secondary attribute will be combined with the data input values for a particular property. Another example in 3D would be to calculate permeability values in taking into account the correlation with the previously calculated porosity values.

A correlation coefficient must be specified. Usually. the secondary variable input is from a mesh file. The default is to calculate four such trends. This situation may lead to an overestimation of the kriging variance. This is sometimes necessary when the variance of the secondary variable is much larger than the variance of the primary variable. The variance reduction parameter is generally used in conjunction of the normal scores transformation option. and average them based on an inverse distance calculation (the exponent for this inverse distance calculation is calculated from the values input on the Methods Tab “1st and 2nd Coefficients For Averaging Trends”. and the mesh cell sizes).0. The variance reduction parameter is used to reduce the variance of the secondary variable. the coefficient of correlation is used to give more or less weight to the secondary variable. the coefficient of correlation is obtained by cross plotting the collocated values of the primary and the secondary variable. User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 463 . where the trend between two data points (wells) is calculated and applied at different locations. Its value can range from -1 to +1. Conversely. In the 2D option. Using a correlation coefficient of 1 (or -1) will give all the kriging weights to the secondary variable and none to the primary attribute. Therefore.The following picture shows the options for Ordinary Kriging with Secondary Variable. It may be necessary to adjust the variance of the transformed secondary variable such that it is smaller than the transformed variance of the primary variable (1. The work flow required to do this is very similar to the work flow example given in the section Gaussian Geostatistics & Secondary Variable. In the 3D option.0). the secondary variable input is from an existing Builder property such as Porosity. Trend Method Another estimation method is the trend method.0 will give all the kriging weights to the primary variable and none to the secondary attribute. using a correlation of 0. The normal scores transform always creates transformed variables with a variance equal to 1.

until this method can be implemented in Builder. a zone of high or low values will be predicted in a region where no data exists. the 1st coefficient for averaging trends. These simulation methods are usually used for calculation of properties such as porosity. he may input a pseudo well close to the other two wells to prevent this sharp trend from being predicted. The trend method usually predicts smooth contours which follow field trends properly. if two data points which are close to each other have parameter values that are very different. and enhanced to handle rotated grids. he or she would obtain results very close to those obtain with the Kriging estimation methods. the weighting factor in X direction. Contrary to the Kriging routines described earlier. They can also be used for the calculation of integer indicator type properties such as rock type because allowances have been made to handle integer properties. If one would average multiple realizations. 464 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . The more correct method to handle indicator type properties is to use the SISIM routines available in GsLib. Gaussian simulations are used to generate multiple versions (called realizations) of grid values that all reproduce the data. and reproduce the variogram of the data. The trend method is only available in 2D. the trend method will predict a very sharp trend which rises or falls very rapidly. and the 2nd coefficient for averaging trends. and variable grid sizes including non-orthogonal corner point grids. If the user wishes to remove this region of high or low values. etc. the Gaussian Geostatistics method can be used.The trend method requires to input the number of trends. reproduce the histogram of the data. Gaussian Geostatistical Simulations The implementation of these simulation options is based on GsLib2. However. they add an element of randomness to account for the uncertainty associated with some reservoir properties. the weighting factor in Y direction. permeability. In this case. However.

msh) using the input base file name. Use Uniform Grid Assumption for Speed Up This option is only available in 3D where the grid can have blocks of variable size. These values may not be very accurate when the size and the location of the grid blocks vary greatly. porosity would be the secondary variable.Number of Realizations This option is only available with Create Map in 2D (in 3D the number of realizations is set into a script. Gaussian Geostatistics and Secondary Variable This option is similar to Kriging with a Secondary Variable in how it can be used. Unconditional Gaussian Geostatistical Simulation This option is similar to the Gaussian Geostatistical Simulation already described above. Therefore. User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 465 . there is no data conditioning when this method is used. see Scripting section for details). Since permeability is related to porosity in some fashion. If seismic data was available. You can select this option to greatly speed up the calculations. The Points Tab becomes hidden on the dialog. Builder will calculate and write mesh maps (*. The most common use of this option is to calculate permeability from core permeability and log porosity. It allows the pre-calculation of the variogram values needed for the Gaussian simulation. Use this option if it is appropriate to trade precision for speed. This is done in assuming that the grid is uniform. If the number of realizations is set to be greater than 1. The primary variable would be the core permeability. and adding a number on the end of the file name corresponding to the realization number. The main difference resides in that there is no need for data points. The averaged grid block dimension is used to build a lookup table for fast reading of the variogram values. this data could also be used as a secondary variable.

There are 4 options that one can use to control the distribution (histogram) of the simulated values. The histogram of the simulated values can be Uniform, Triangular, Normal, or LogNormal. Uniform and Triangular histograms are controlled by a minimum and a maximum values, whereas the Normal and the LogNormal histograms request a mean and a variance value. Sometimes, a combination of mean and variance values can generate negative simulated values. In such a case, the negative values will be truncated at 0.0 if the output property cannot be negative. This may generate abnormal proportions in the lower tail of the histogram. Unconditional simulations are useful for testing assumptions on certain properties when no sampling data is available for them.

Object Modeling
The object modeling method is available only for 3D geostatistics. This means that the Reservoir→Geostatistics menu item must be selected, the currently displayed property must not be a structure property, the mesh creation option is set to “Use model grid and populate the grid directly”, and the grid type is set to 3D. The object modeling option uses the Marked Point Simulation method to define objects within the 3D grid system. The major steps in this technique are as follows: 1. Select a location from the conditioning data set to insert an object. The object locations are drawn one at a time from the conditioning data. 2. Insert an object at the location of the conditioning data selected in step 1. Draw the dimensions and orientation of the object, and place its centroid at the conditioning data location. 3. Check if objects have been inserted at all conditioning data locations. If there are conditioning data locations without an object, return to step 1. If all conditioning data locations have been populated with objects, proceed to step 4. 4. Select the location of an object away from the conditioning data locations. Draw, at random, the coordinates for the centroid of the object.

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5. Insert an object at the location selected in step 4. Draw the dimensions and orientation of the object, and place its centroid at the location from step 4. 6. Calculate the volume fraction of the objects. Return to step 4 if the volume fraction is below the target value. Stop the simulation when the volume fraction reaches the target volume fraction. This simulation process can be repeated for other types of geologic facies that are represented with objects of different properties and volume fractions.
Data input requirements

There are 4 numeric values required to define the object locations within the 3D grid system. The first 2 values (min and max values for object definition) are used to define objects that have fixed locations determined from the conditioning data. The next required numeric input value is the Object Value. This value will be assigned to grid blocks that are located within the object limits. Normally, the displayed property should be an integer or region type property such as Relative Permeability Set Number, or Sector Array, so that special properties can be assigned to the grid blocks located within the object limits. The last numeric input value required is the volume fraction occupied by the objects. When this volume fraction is exceeded, the Marked Point Method will stop execution (see description of this method in the preceding section. Currently, the type of objects can be chosen as parallelepiped or channel.

Below is an example of a conditioning data set. If the minimum and maximum values for object definition are set to 1, then the first object will be placed at the 3D point (1575.74, 1875.6, -172.5) because the data value is greater than or equal to 1 (min value), and less than or equal to 1 (max value). The height of this object will be equal to (-164.15)–(-172.5)=8.35. The second object will be placed at the 3D point (4455.74, 3315.5, -198) and the height of the object at this point will be (-197.5) –(-198)=0.5.

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Criteria for choosing object modeling

The most accepted conditional simulation techniques to describe geologic facies are object modeling and Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) (not yet available in Builder) technique for categorical variables. Two groups of geostatistics practitioners that advocate the use of either object modeling or SIS have emerged in recently published field cases. Although, there are no general rules for choosing one technique over the other, a few guidelines, for deciding the conditions that make object modeling more appropriate can be derived, based on the type of information available. In Builder, the shape parameters and the dimensions of the objects are selected with the Object Editor. An example is shown below.

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Depositional Environment. Object modeling is recommended for fluvial, deltaic and deep marine depositional environments. The shape of most facies in these environments, like channels, mouth bars, levees and different types of shale, are often reasonably preserved in the subsurface and can be represented by discrete objects with unique shapes. Usually, geologists can estimate dimensions and volume fractions of facies based on modern river analogs, outcrops, ground-penetrating radar and seismic data. Object modeling is less applicable to carbonate environments because facies have gone through post-depositional processes, such as dolomatization. Therefore, it is difficult to approximate the shape of facies and estimate their dimensions in carbonate environments. Still, a few applications of object modeling have been found attractive for quantifying the distribution of laterally continuous, but thin, sedimentary bodies in a carbonate environment. Conditioning Data. Object modeling is recommended during early appraisal stages of a reservoir and when limited wells with conditioning data are available. It is difficult for object modeling to honor conditioning data in several wells that are closely spaced and when facies extend across multiple wells. Data conditioning is not a problem for SIS.

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Proportion of Objects. Object modeling works better when volume fractions of facies represented by objects are small and volume fractions of the background facies are large. Examples include a reservoir that has 5% volume fraction of shale objects within a sand background or a reservoir that has about 30% volume fraction of channel objects within a shale background. Object modeling can fail to reproduce the specified dimensions, in cases where volume fractions of facies are large and of about the same magnitude. Excessive eroding among objects can make reproduction of target volume fractions difficult and can result in abnormal shapes. Object Dimensions. Object modeling can encounter difficulties, while generating descriptions when object dimensions are large, relative to the well spacing and simulation area. The problems arise when the marked point simulation process attempts to place an object at a conditioning well, and because of its large dimensions, the object extends over to a nearby well which does not have conditioning data at this location. The simulation process attempts to iterate around these conflicts with nearby wells; however, because the object's dimensions are large, it will not converge, even after several iterations. Seismic Data. Object modeling is not well suited to condition descriptions with seismic data. The marked point process does not have a mechanism that can easily use the volume of reservoir attributes, generated with recently developed seismic inversion techniques. Seismic inversion provides reservoir attributes, which can be correlated to geologic facies or convey direct information about trends and lateral variations of facies. One approach proposed to incorporate the seismic attribute data into the marked point process, which indicate that channels tend to have lower seismic impedance than non-reservoir facies. However, only limited results were presented, and more evaluations of this technique are needed to prove the effectiveness of incorporating seismic attribute data. Available Data. Object modeling requires information external to the data available from well logs and cores. The data about dimensions, shapes and orientations of various objects can be obtained from outcrop analogues, modem analogues, and literature data. However, if such information is not readily available, object modeling could render results that are meaningless and far removed from reality. Hybrid conditional simulation approaches

This chapter, as well as previous ones, has shown that individual conditional simulation techniques suffer from some shortcomings because these techniques are not applicable for all scenarios, even within the same depositional environment. To overcome these deficiencies, geostaticians have proposed different hybrid techniques that are more flexible and generate more realistic reservoir descriptions. Hybrid approaches combine two or more conditional simulation techniques to take advantage of the best features of each technique.

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Multi-step Approach Using Object Modeling. The multi-step object modeling approach applies the marked point process multiple times in several stages. At each stage, the simulation process generates geologic objects at different scales. In the first stage, large-scale objects are simulated to fill the reservoir volume with major geologic facies or facies associations that extend throughout the simulation area. In subsequent stages, facies at smaller scales or lithotypes, which occur within major facies, are simulated within each of the objects from the previous stage. Several stages of this process can be repeated to describe the necessary level of geologic detail. This iterative approach can be written as a script and run with Builder scripting tool (see Property Calculation Scripting below).

The following example considers the description of channels and shale in a meandering river environment. The following figure illustrates the major steps of the two-step approach. In the first stage, channels with 30% volume fraction are distributed with object modeling within the floodplain shale background. In the second stage, drape shale with 5% volume fraction are described within each of the channel objects.

Multi-step Hybrid Approaches Using Object Modeling and Pixel-Based Techniques. It is unrealistic for a single geostatistical technique to describe reservoir heterogeneities at all scales. Therefore, multi-step approaches, using more than one technique, were introduced to characterize distinct styles of heterogeneity at different reservoir scales. For example, in a fluvial environment, the character and degree of correlation are different for major geologic facies, such as channels, and for beds of sand grain within each channel, which control porosity and permeability. Channels are correlated across the field along the paleoflow direction, while, at smaller scales within individual channels, the arrangement of sand grain is highly influenced by the distance from the source of the river. For some reservoir characterization applications, it is important to properly describe the heterogeneities at the scale of major facies and at the smaller scales within the facies.

The number of steps required in a hybrid approach depends on the variation of correlation at different scales and the type of reservoir properties being described. A hybrid approach, consisting of four steps that describe major facies and reservoir properties in a fluvial depositional environment, is depicted in the following figure. Other approaches with different steps can be designed to fit other modeling purposes. Steps are executed sequentially, so the descriptions from previous steps can be used in subsequent steps. This can be automated by using Builder scripting tool. The four steps are:

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Step I-Describe major geologic facies associations with object modeling. This includes facies that extend across a significant region of the field, such as channels, mouth bars, levees and floodplain shale. The dimensions, type of objects, volume fractions, and conditioning data are specified for each facies. (Currently, Builder offers parallelepiped and channel objects) Step 2-Describe lithotypes with Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS). Lithotypes include beds of different lithogies, such as fine and coarse grain sandstones, mudstones and calcite concretions, which are present in different proportions within each geologic facies described in step one. The variograms, volume fraction and conditioning data are specified for each lithotype within each facies. (Currently, Builder does not include SIS) Step 3-Describe porosity with Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS). The variograms, porosity mean value and conditioning data are specified for each lithotype described in step two. This approach allows us to assign different properties to the same lithotype present in more than one facies. Step 4-Describe permeability with Sequential Gaussian Cosimulation (SGCOSIM). The variograms, permeability mean value, conditioning data, and cross-correlation between porosity and permeability are specified for each lithotype described in step two.

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Mesh Tab and Region Tab
The mesh tab is available only in 2D for the Create Map option. In 3D, the mesh tab is replaced with a regions tab (see Region Selection below).

Mesh Creation
There are currently two methods of specifying the mesh for map or geostatistical realization creation: 1. Specify number of mesh cells between data points. With this option, the program will calculate the average distance between data points (wells), then divide by the user input value of the “number of mesh cells between data points” to result in the mesh size. The program will center this mesh over the input data points and faults before calculation of the map will commence. 2. Specify number and size of mesh cells. The user must input both the number of mesh cells and the size in both the X and Y directions. The program will center this mesh over the input data points and faults before calculation of the map will commence.

Region Selection
This option is enabled for 3D. The user may specify the entire grid or select a region from a list of defined regions. The user may add to the list of regions by adding new sectors in Builder.

Extend By
This option is enabled for 2D. Values entered in these boxes will result in maps that extend outwards from the limits defined by the input data points (wells). If the entered values are zero, then the resulting map will be limited to the area defined by the data points (wells). There is no limit to the maximum value for these parameters, but the user should be cautious when using values outside of the data point region because of extrapolation errors.

Map Value Limits or Value Limits (3D)
If the user wishes to limit the map or geostatistical realization to some range, then the user can input a range in these boxes. If this option is not used, the maximum and minimum values calculated from the input data points will be used.

Run and Apply Buttons
As shown below, the Run and Apply buttons are available at the bottom of the Create Geostatistical Objects dialog (3D). The Create Geostatistical Objects dialog is used to Create, Run, and Save geostatistical objects which in turn can be selected at a later time for execution in a script (see Scripting section). The Run button will become available when you start entering data and setting geostatistical parameters. Note, that you have to create a new geostatistical object before you can input data and set parameters.

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When you are done entering data and setting all the geostatistical parameters, you can Run the object or/and you can use the Apply button to save it. The OK button will also save a newly created geostatistical object or a modified one. The OK button will not run the geostatistical object. Any new geostatistical objects will be permanently saved when saving the dataset. Comments can be associated with a geostatistical object, they are entered by using a comments editor called by the comments button .

Variogram Matching
If the check box on the Methods Tab entitled “Export Variogram Data File” is checked, when the button on the line reading “Variogram Parameters” is clicked or when the map is created, the automatic variogram matching routine will be called. The user can take the data in this file and load it into Excel and plot the actual vs. the model variogram data. The following description of variograms has been extracted from reference #2. In practice, several difficulties are encountered in estimating the variogram. Because the goal is to capture the spatial relationship in the best way possible, the original variogram equation is modified to capture the spatial relationship. This section discusses common problems encountered in variogram estimation and the proposed solutions implemented in practice. While many of these proposed solutions may not have a strong theoretical foundation, they have been proven to work in practice.

Lack of Sufficient Pairs
As defined, the variogram is a statistical property. We calculate the "average" squared difference between two values located a certain lag distance apart. For this average to be truly representative of a given lag distance, sufficient data pairs are needed for that lag distance. Although defining a precise number of pairs as sufficient is difficult, at least twenty-five to thirty pairs are needed for a reliable estimate of the variogram for a given lag distance. Obviously, the more pairs we have for a given lag distance, the more precise the estimate of the variogram. Also, it is important to remember that the minimum number of pairs is only relevant to the extent that a reliable, interpretable experimental variogram can be observed. For example, if twenty-five pairs do not provide an interpretable structure, alternative means of obtaining a more reliable variogram need to be explored.

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Number of Pairs
A commonly used method to ensure sufficient pairs for a given lag distance is to restrict the maximum distance at which the variogram is computed. For a given region of stationarity, the possible number of pairs decreases as lag distance increases. Eventually, as the lag distance corresponds to the maximum possible distance between any two sample points, only one data pair may be available at that lag distance. Obviously, we may not be able to obtain a reliable estimate of the variogram at that lag distance. To avoid this problem, a rule of thumb used in the geostatistical literature is to use half the maximum possible distance within a region of interest as the maximum lag distance at which the variogram is calculated. For example, if 10,000 ft is the maximum distance between any two sample points within the region of interest, the variogram estimation is restricted to a maximum lag distance of 5,000 ft. This rule of half the maximum distance also serves another important purpose. Recall the definition of the estimated variogram. Because the variogram is computed as the average of the squared difference, it is symmetric about the lag distance. That is, the following squared differences as [x(u) -x(u + L)] 2 or [x(u + L) -x(u)]2 or [x(u) -x(u - L)] 2 or [x(u - L) -x(u)]2 are all combined to provide a variogram estimate for lag distance L. Using the half- themaximum-distance rule effectively ensures that representative pairs are collected on both sides of a given location.

Lag Tolerance
The second alternative to ensure sufficient pairs for a given lag distance is to define the tolerance with respect to the distance as well as with respect to the direction. This is especially useful for areal data sets. Typically, examination of areally distributed data shows that the samples are not distributed at uniform intervals; therefore, a sufficient number of pairs for a precise lag distance cannot be obtained. For example, to estimate the variogram at a lag distance of 330 ft, we may have one data pair at precisely 330 ft. However, we may have three additional pairs between 310 and 330 ft and five additional pairs between 330 and 350 ft. Obviously, one pair, precisely at 330 ft, does not provide a reasonable estimate of the variogram. However, we can capture additional pairs for a better estimate of the variogram by defining a tolerance with respect to the lag distance. To estimate the variogram at a lag distance of L, we collect all the pairs within L±∆L lag distance. The following figure illustrates tolerance with respect to distance for an isotropic search, which is concerned only with distance for all the angles. When searching for sample points away from x(u) at a given distance L, we can search for all the data points within L±∆L distance. In the following figure, no sample point is precisely at a distance L; however, by using a tolerance of ∆L, we can obtain two pairs at that lag distance.

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which is a distance perpendicular to the direction in which we are computing the variogram. In addition to tolerance with respect to direction. and delta theta is defined with respect to direction. at higher lag distances. another restriction can be placed on picking appropriate pairs. This distance defines the maximum width of the area to be used to select the data pairs. once the area reaches the maximum width. We can define a bandwidth. As the following figure shows. the same width is used to select appropriate pairs for a given lag distance and to select the direction. Bandwidth allows better control of the directionality of the estimated variogram.In a similar fashion. or the tolerance angle. A tolerance of delta L is defined with respect to distance. the width of the areal coverage increases as the lag distance increases. In the absence of the bandwidth restriction. 476 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . the next figure shows a tolerance with respect to distance and direction in a 2D domain.

User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 477 . using a tolerance of +/. This technique applies whether the tolerance is defined with respect to distance or direction. that is. a poor choice of tolerance may mask the existing spatial structure. therefore. important to use the smallest possible tolerance to capture both the true structure and the anisotropy. estimation of the variogram should begin with a small tolerance. the spatial structure cannot be created by manipulating the tolerance and direction if it does not exist within the data.In 3D data sets.45 with respect to the angle. if the spatial structure indicates anisotropy (different spatial relationships in different directions).41 It is. in general. As Deutsch and Joumel1 state. Therefore. may reduce the ratio to 2. For example. the tolerance should be increased. The smallest possible tolerance at which an interpretable structure can be observed should be used to estimate the variogram. The bandwidth has to be defined for both directions. a large tolerance with respect to direction may camouflage the anisotropic structure. some details in structures may be lost that may be important from a spatial relationship point of view. the estimated variogram may not be as "crisp". if the ratio of the range in the variogram in the x direction to the range of the variogram in the y direction (which is perpendicular to the x direction) is 5. However.1f the tolerance is too large. If the variogram does not exhibit a clearly defined structure or shows too many fluctuations. The tolerance that is appropriate with respect to distance and direction is a subjective decision. Specifically. if we define tolerances with respect to distance and two directions. In practice. The guiding principle should be to use the tolerance that is appropriate to achieve a clearly interpretable variogram structure. if present. the tolerance volume looks like a flattened cone. a tolerance should be chosen so that the most interpretable variogram is obtained.

which are restricted by direction as well as distance. for every lag distance. the squared difference may have a significant impact on the arithmetically averaged variogram value. and the variogram can be recomputed for a given lag distance. uses a lot more pairs at a given lag distance compared with the anisotropic estimated variograms. Because it uses the square of the difference. Therefore. A normal scores transform (see section below) can help to reduce large fluctuations in the variogram. If the difference is very large. it is almost impossible to observe an interpretable structure in anisotropic variograms. That discussion showed that increasing the number of pairs for a given lag distance does improve stability of the variogram. For example. If no apparent structure is observed in an estimated isotropic behavior. The two methods commonly used to minimize fluctuations are to increase the possible number of pairs for a given lag distance. the other data point from the same pair may reveal the differences between the two data points. An alternative for improving the stability of the estimated variogram is to examine the possible pairs used for estimation of the variogram for a given lag distance. If interpretable structure cannot be captured with an isotropic variogram. the isotropic variogram should provide a more stable structure than any of the anisotropic variograms. certain pairs can be removed. by considering all the pairs at a given lag distance independent of direction. Alternatively. This instability may prevent capturing the underlying variogram structure that may be present and also causes fluctuations in the estimated variogram as lag distance increases. Estimation of the isotropic variogram allows adjustment of some of the parameters (such as tolerance with respect to distance) before proceeding with estimation of the anisotropic variogram. a certain percentage of the pairs showing the maximum deviation can be removed to create more uniformity in the analysis and to eliminate subjectivity in deciding which pairs should be removed. Instability The estimated variogram represents the arithmetic average of the squared differences of variable pair values at a particular lag distance. The difference between the two point values in a pair is what affects the variogram. it is always preferable to start with an isotropic variogram structure before investigating the presence of anisotropy. we may be able to obtain a better estimate of the variogram that is less affected by these extreme pairs. the squared difference can have a significant impact on the estimated variogram. any large difference between a given pair is magnified. Also. It is important to remember that the isotropic variogram. The isotropic variogram structure assumes that the variogram structure is a function only of distance. The instability must be minimized to model the variogram. resulting in instability of the estimated variogram. some type of spatial structure should be evident in the isotropic variogram. the point falls on a line. 10% of all pairs in the 478 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . in almost all instances. On the basis of the scatter plots. Plotting one data point of a pair vs. it is difficult to imagine that some type of structure can be captured by investigating the anisotropic behavior. This effect may change the variogram value disproportionately at a particular lag distance.From an estimation point of view. Scatter plots are one way to examine these extreme pairs. If pairs exhibit a large difference. not of direction. The previous section discussed the first possibility: increasing the possible number of pairs for a given lag distance by use of appropriate tolerance values with respect to the distance and the direction. If the match between the two points is exact. If we can eliminate certain "extreme" pairs that have a significant impact on the variogram computations.

The following figure shows this transformation schematically. the program will sort the neighbors by variogram closeness (covariance) to this mesh cell. If the number of nearest points is large. User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 479 .g. If the trend is not too pronounced. the resulting realization will appear more averaged than if this value is small. If the Auto box is checked next to the input for maximum nearby cells for search. in figure skating in the Olympic games. the problem may require a large amount of memory and long execution times to establish the search neighborhood for each mesh cell. If Geological Units are defined (see section Defining/Editing Geological Units). the search will be limited within the geological unit of the estimated/simulated grid block.order of showing the maximum deviations can be removed. and is limited by the Maximum Nearby Cells For Search. then the program will estimate the number of nearby cells using the input search radius and the current cell size. If a trend is present. When the search neighborhood is actually used for assigning values. This is often symptomatic of a trend in the data and should be investigated. Normal Score Transform The normal score transform allows transformation of sample data into equivalent data that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This procedure also has the advantage of being objective. it might still be possible to use the raw data if the search window (see below) is small enough that only the beginning of the variogram will be used in any of the kriging systems. If the neighbor mesh cell has a value. Under these circumstances. if the search neighborhood is small. the variogram represents a truncated mean of the differences squared for a particular lag distance. Note that trends can be present in the local average of the data and/or in their local variance. See the Examples section for an illustration of this effect. Sometimes it keeps increasing a way above the data variance line. it should be removed before proceeding with estimation or simulation. Generally. the resulting map or geostatistical realization will be more disconnected than if the search neighborhood is large because the mesh values will be more independent of the neighboring mesh values. Trend The variogram should level off at the data variance for large lag distances. Such truncated means are often used in statistics to reduce the adverse effect of erratic values (e. only the first “Number of Nearest Points” will be used for the calculations. then this cell is used for the conditioning of the mesh cell to be calculated. The size of the search neighborhood is determined by the user input search radius in each direction. a search is done on nearby mesh cells to determine if the cell already has a value assigned to it (mesh cells that contain wells always have values assigned to them). the two extreme scores are removed from the final tally). Search Radius When a mesh cell value is to be calculated using either the Kriging or Gaussian Geostatistical methods. After the search neighborhood for a particular mesh cell is calculated. If the search radius is set to be very large.

After obtaining the estimation with the transformed data. 480 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . Typically. Note that the map has many circles (or bulls eyes) that indicate an area that has a value much different from its neighbors. therefore. For the same value of the cumulative distribution function. Examples Inverse Distance Method The following is an example of a map created with the inverse distance method. we can back calculate the corresponding sample value.1 1 F(x) F(x NS ) 0 x Original 0 -3 xNS Normal Score +3 A cumulative distribution function can be constructed for any sample data. they range from -3 to + 3. Another advantage of the normal-score transform is that certain estimation techniques work better with normal-score-transformed data. For the normal distribution function. Effectively. This behavior is typical of the inverse distance method. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the sample value and the transformed value. The cumulative distribution function has a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of one. The effect of extreme data on the variogram should be minimized with the transformation. the cumulative distribution function has the same range. and is frequently the reason why other methods may be preferable. we can back transform the data to original variable values. there are no order-of-magnitude variations within the transformed data set. if we know the transformed value. With transformation of the sample data to a normal score. the normal-score-transformed values have a mean of zero and a variance of one. Using such a transform for every sample value allows transformation of all the sample values to a corresponding normal score. Each sample value is associated with a corresponding cumulative distribution function. we can define an equivalent normal-score-transformed value. That is. the variability of the data set is restricted to -3 to + 3.

000 4.000 900 Well12 800 700 420 600 Well28 500 Well11 400 300 Well27 660 900 420 Well23 Well4 260 Well15 98 0 9 00 0 74 W ell26 26 0 34 0 Well24 Well5 26 0 420 Well25 50 0 Well29 Well10 200 100 0 Well6 0 Well30 W ell9 Well7 Well8 26 34 0 1 80 0 1. MXDRM001 Permeability I (md) 1995-01-01 76 0 76 0 7 60 K layer: 3 68 0 Well1 Well2 520 Well3 Well22 68 0 680 Well14 Well13 60 0 8 40 1.000 3.000 0 1.000 -2.000 4.000 -2.000 4.000 -3.000 680 0 920 -1.000 100 0 Well5 280 Well6 28 0 Well30 Well7 36 0 Well9 360 Well8 0 1.000 3.000 52 Well20 Well21 Well19 6 80 900 Well12 0 800 700 -1.000 2.000 -3.000 3.000 3.000 820 6 60 580 .000 2-PHASE (OIL-WATER) DEPLETION.000 Variogram Range (Kriging Method) Below is an example of two maps created with the same data except the range is changed from 314 ft (left) to 1500 ft (right).000 2-PHASE (OIL-WATER) DEPLETION.000 4.000 Trend Method An example of a map created using the trend method is as follows: 0 1.000 2.000 2.000 -3. MXDRM001 Permeability I (md) 1995-01-01 42 0 K layer: 3 0 50 0 660 34 82 0 74 0 Well2 66 0 W ell13 Well3 Well22 Well20 W ell19 Well21 W ell18 Well16 Well17 9 80 58 Well1 Well14 0 1.000 -3.0 1.000 2.000 0 42 0 76 0 0 900 -1. User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 481 0 360 42 0 1.000 Well18 Well27 440 520 Well23 0 44 92 Well16 ell17 W Well15 8 40 600 500 Well28 Well26 Well11 Well4 600 36 0 68 0 400 300 680 4 40 Well24 Well25 Well29 Well10 200 -2.000 -1.000 -2.

482 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . Below are examples of geostatistical realizations with a nugget of 0.0 (left) and 0.: Variogram Nugget (Gaussian Geostatistical Method) As the nugget value increases greater than zero the amount of randomness increases. and the ranges are 1713 ft and 500 ft in the major and minor directions respectively.5 (right).Variogram Anisotropy (Kriging Method) If the variogram is changed to be anisotropic (Bi-Directional option on the Methods Tab). the map can be changed to the left (azimuth angle=0.0) or the right map (azimuth angle=45).

both with the “Number of Nearest Points” = 10: The following examples are two geostatistical realizations with search radii of 100 ft (left) and 1000 ft (right).Search Radius (Gaussian Geostatistical Method) If the search neighborhood is small. The following examples are two geostatistical realizations with search radii of 100 ft (left) and 1000 ft (right). both with the “Number of Nearest Points” = 50: User's Guide Builder Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations • 483 . the resulting geostatistical realization will be more disconnected than if the search neighborhood is large.

Geostatistical Object Modelling in 3D Rel Perm Set Num .: “Geostatistical Software Library and Users Guide”. (1992) Chap 3. Press. Mohan Kelkar and Godofredo Perez. Texas 2002. C. and Journel. Richardson. Oxford U. “Applied Geostatistics for Reservoir Characterization”.G. 484 • Creating Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations User's Guide Builder . Deutsch.Randomly Distributed Inclined Shales References 1.Object Modelling – Inclined Shales The following picture was created using the Object Modelling method and the Parallelepiped object type. A. 2. Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.V. New York City..

For example. It allows selecting actions and putting them in sequence for execution.Property Calculation Scripting Overview This feature is designed to help the engineers automate workflows and iterative calculations. use the multiple versions of the porosity values to generate multiple versions of permeability values. multiple versions of a reservoir dataset can be used for uncertainty analysis. User's Guide Builder Property Calculation Scripting • 485 . save and initialize all the resulting datasets with the flow simulator. The actions correspond to a subset of the calculation methods available in Builder. A good example is when one needs to run many geostatistical realizations of porosity values. Scripts can be used for many purposes.

Actions can be edited by double clicking in the Actions cell (second column). A repeat action is a loop for repetitive calculations. one action per row. Repeat and End Repeat Actions The Repeat and the End Repeat actions are created in pairs by selecting Repeat action in the context menu of actions. To replace an action. Deleting one of them will automatically delete the other but not other actions in between. Rows can be added (plus button). and moved up (up arrow) and down (down arrow) by selecting them (one at a time) and using the row manipulation buttons. A row can be selected by selecting one of its cells (left mouse clicking) or selecting them all by right mouse clicking in any of its cell. The fourth column is used to display the result of the action (more details below). The default is one iteration which can be changed by selecting the Value cell of the Repeat action. The following describes the different type of actions currently available for scripting. The sequence of actions in the script is important because some calculations may depend on the results of previous actions. you need to delete it first. The table is divided into 5 columns. The first column is used for the automatic numbering of the rows. To the right of the Script Name list. Any other actions added between a pair of Repeat and End Repeat will be part of that loop. Each row corresponds to a script action. more details are given below. deleted (X button). The number of loop iterations is given by the action’s Value.The Scripting dialog has a pull down selection list at the top. The last column is reserved for comments. The context menu of actions will be active only when an empty row is selected. The third column is used for the value of the action. a button provides more options to create new script objects or to delete existing ones. Actions can be selected from a context menu available by right mouse clicking on the rows of the table. A selected row will be highlighted in blue. Indentation is automatically added for a better readability of the script. The second column is used to identify the type of action. A new row is added or inserted after the currently selected row. its actions will appear in a table. you need to create a script first before inserting actions. Multiple levels of Repeat loops can be used for the creation of imbedded loops. Comments can be entered by selecting the Comments cell of an action. The Script Name list is used to select existing script calculation objects. 486 • Property Calculation Scripting User's Guide Builder . If no scripts already exist. The action value depends on the type of action. If a script is selected.

For a script to be valid and saved. That property is known by the geostatistical object and was chosen at the time of the creation of the geostatistical object. The list of properties that have been selected will appear in the Results cell for this action. These existing objects would have been defined using the Create Geostatistical Objects dialog (see Create Maps and Geostatistical Property Calculations section). the Results cell will display the Builder property the calculation will apply to. When a geostatistical object is selected. Property Calculation Scripting • 487 User's Guide Builder . If no such geostatistical objects are currently defined. The pull-down list contains all the currently defined geostatistical objects.Geostatistical Calculation Action Selecting a Geostatistical Calculation action will create a selection list of geostatistical objects in the Values cell of its corresponding row. Calculation from Specification Action This action reproduces the functions available with the Calculate Property button found on Builder main view (see also Reservoir->Calculate Properties menu option). you need to select a geostatistical object for each geostatistical calculation action. the list will be empty which will invalidate the script. A series of calculations can be selected with this action. The list shows <not selected> by default.

Set Number Substitution Action The Set Number Substitution action is used to replace or substitute the index number of a property of type integer. the internal counter can be controlled by the immediate prior Repeat loop in the script. the user can define cases for substituting or replacing the Base case. Each time an integer property is selected. When a Set Number Substitution action is defined. Then. The number of substitution cases is control by setting the Number of Iterations. the dialog will update the spread sheet control with all integer values of this property currently in use on the simulator grid. only properties such as set values for Relative Permeability. For each iteration. the user assigns a new integer value to change the set number of the Base case. the cells will be filled with pulldown lists allowing to select a different integer value to replace the corresponding Base case value. It should be noted that the substitution always applies to the Base case and not to the previous substitution. For each iteration column. Each time the Set Number Substitution action is executed. the property sets need to be already defined in the dataset and the property needs to exist on the simulation grid. Each pull-down list is filled with all set numbers existing in the dataset for the selected property. the Values cell will display the number of iteration cases and the Results cell will display the property it applies to. The list of property to select from will be limited to those integer properties. Therefore. In addition. These values will be listed in the column “Base Case” of the spread sheet control. Alternatively. PVT. its internal iteration count number is incremented by one and the corresponding substitution is applied to the property on the simulation grid. Rock Type etc… can be selected from this action. 488 • Property Calculation Scripting User's Guide Builder . The internal iteration counter will be reset to one each time the number of executions exceed the number of iteration cases.

are saved to disk. When a Save As action is defined. and the main dataset is left in its original state. the default value will be one plus the largest sequence number found in the current working directory. If the Overwrite existing cases box is checked. Generally a Save As action will be placed at the end of the innermost loop and/or before a Simulator call. and the script name in the dataset case ID. A Base Name must be chosen. Otherwise. It is used to save the dataset in its current state in the script. and title3. and any include files are left in their original state. title1. The base name will be appended with a sequence number which will be automatically incremented by one each time the script executes the Save As action. Builder will start the sequence at the number provided and overwrite any existing datasets if they exist. the date. the file name. • Save Main Only: Only the main dataset is saved. • Save Include Only: Only include files are saved. You may choose how Builder saves the dataset during this action: • Save Main and Include: All files. Macros (identified with the $ sign) can be used to add the sequence number. title2. the Values cell in the script dialog will display the dataset base name and the Results cell will display the first sequence number that will be used.Save Dataset Action The Save Dataset action reproduces some of the functionality found in the File->Save As menu option. User's Guide Builder Property Calculation Scripting • 489 . the default being the name of the currently open dataset. including any include files in the dataset. The default value is 0 if no previously saved dataset exists with the same base name and sequence numbers.

txt extension and will be formatted (tab separated) to be easily loaded in a spreadsheet application such as Excel. 490 • Property Calculation Scripting User's Guide Builder . An option is given to automatically open the file with Excel when the script has finished with this action. When this action is defined. the Results cell will display the path and filename where the simulator outputs will be saved. This action will be waiting on the simulator to be finished (just one time step) before it can retrieve the initialization outputs. Therefore. Queue for Simulation Action The Queue for Simulation action reproduces the functionalities found in the “Schedule a simulation job” dialog that comes up when submitting a dataset file to a simulator from program Launcher. Note that a running script can be canceled by depressing the Escape key. Please. the multiple outputs will allow to explore uncertainty on volumetrics and material in place by computing statistics such as mean and variance. The file can be appended to or overwritten if it already exists. a Queue for Simulation action should naturally be inserted in the script just after a Save Dataset action. This file will have a . This is why a sleeping time (in milliseconds) is used. If simulator initialization is done in a loop.Simulator Initialization Action The Simulator Initialization action is used to run the simulator one time step and extract initial values such as Total Oil in Place and Volumetrics. This will force Builder to periodically go into short sleeping periods to give the simulator the most cpu cycles to complete its initialization. A filename must be given to save the initial values output by the simulator. see section Working with Job Scheduler in the Launcher manual for a complete description. This script action is used to schedule a previously saved dataset for execution in batch mode by the appropriate simulator.

User's Guide Builder Property Calculation Scripting • 491 .The dataset can be submitted for running with the simulator on the local computer or on a remote computer that is part of a computer farm. is installed. This second option is available only if a third party software for sharing computer resources. Scheduling a job is accomplished by setting a date and time to start and a priority for execution. such as Platform LSF.

The Results cell will indicate if the jobs will be run locally or remotely. The running script can be aborted by depressing the Escape key. Subsequent saved datasets by the script will be put in the execution queue in a sequential manner to be run after the previously scheduled job. 1992). and Journel. Using a predefined seed for generating random numbers permits to get the same results when running the same script multiple times. This may be convenient if you need to do a lot of repetitive Builder actions on a remote computer for example. A timer bar will also appear just below the message window. New York City. If that option is used. A. the Values cell will display the date/time to which the first saved dataset will be executed.V. When started this way.: “Geostatistical Software Library and Users Guide”. Running the Script The script is easily run by clicking the Run Script button. The seed number is saved with the script. C. Builder will automatically exit when the script is completed. 492 • Property Calculation Scripting User's Guide Builder . the pseudo random numbers (used in geostatistical simulations) will be generated in using the GSLib routine (Deutsch. Otherwise.When a Queue for Simulation action is defined. One could delete all multiple geostatistical realizations and keep only the seed number knowing that the geostatistical realizations could be reproduced at a later time. When running the script. Oxford U. Advanced Options The Advanced Options dialog can be used to set a unique random seed for the all the geostatistical simulations. Builder can be loaded to run a script automatically in the background from the command line. the operating system pseudo random numbers generator is used.G. Press. messages are sent to the Output Messages window to inform the user on the sequence of actions being executed and their current status.

and the –f switch is required to tell Builder which dataset to load.dat –script PorSim User's Guide Builder Property Calculation Scripting • 493 . the following command line loads Builder to run a script called PorSim in the dataset directory: C:\path to resgb\resgb. use the –script command line switch to indicate which script Builder should run when started. Other optional switches may be provided if required.exe –g –f c:\data\porsim\dataset. You must also specify the –g switch when starting Builder.To start Builder in this manner. For example. Multiple script names may be provided after the –script switch if they are separated by a ‘+’ character.

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• • • • • • • • • • Open CMOST task file (filename. Users must create the CMOST task file by using CMOST studio first.cmt) in Builder Open CMOST Parameters Selection window Add CMOST parameters Edit CMOST parameters Delete CMOST parameters Add CMOST parameter associations Delete CMOST parameter associations Switch CMOST parameter associations Export CMOST master dataset Save CMOST task file User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 495 . The CMOST parameter association is the link between CMOST parameters and the locations of data values that are associated with keywords in the base dataset. According to these CMOST Parameter Associations.Creating CMOST Parameter Associations Overview This feature is designed to help the user create a master dataset for CMOST or to edit the Parameters section of an existing CMOST task data file. Builder can write out the CMOST strings into the master dataset that CMOST can read and decode. and then they can make the CMOST master dataset manually or create it by using this feature in Builder. The following tasks can be performed when using this feature. In order to run CMOST tasks the CMOST task data file and CMOST master dataset are needed.

Start Builder 2. Select CMOST Files(*. edit parameters. select Open… or click the Open icon on the tool bar 3. Builder will ask the user to choose a dataset file. the CMOST parameters selection dialog must be used. please use CMOST Studio to create one and then perform the above steps again). This window will automatically appear if a CMOST task file is opened through Builder. an existing CMOST task file has to be opened first. delete parameters and export the information into a master dataset. The steps to do this are as follows: 1. 496 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder . Open CMOST Parameters Selection Window In order to add new parameters. Select the CMOST task file 5. From the File menu. (Note: If a CMOST task file does not exist.Open CMOST Task File In order to export the CMOST master data file or edit a CMOST task file. Click Open button If there is no base dataset file name in the task file.cmt) under Files of type 4.

To manually open the CMOST Parameter Selection window. select Create CMOST Parameter Association in the Tools menu. (Note: If the Create CMOST Parameter Association menu item is not enabled. This item will not be enabled unless a task file is open in Builder. the following window will automatically appear: User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 497 .) Add CMOST Parameters After successfully opening a CMOST task file in Builder. please click on Reservoir in the Model Tree View.

If the Create a working parameter is selected. If the Select parameter from dataset is selected. The following window appears. Click the Add Parameter button 2. Click the Next button. 498 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder . 4. it will add a CMOST parameter and an association. 3.1. it will add a CMOST parameter in the same way as the CMOST studio.

and then the data will show on the right. 6. Select a parameter from the tree view on the left. Click on the data cell that contains the keyword value for the desired parameter. User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 499 .5. 7. Click the Next button. It will enable the Next button.

values can be entered in the grid on the right. Input the candidate values (such as 15. 500 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder .• • If the Create one manually is selected. 16 and 17).

The general information of the CMOST parameter is shown on left top grid.• Click the Finish button. If the Create one with method is selected. The candidate values of the CMOST parameter is shown on left bottom grid. The CMOST parameter association is shown on right bottom grid. i ii Arithmetic Geometric • iii Fixed iv Uniform v Triangle vi Normal User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 501 . These can be seen in the following window. now the CMOST parameter and CMOST parameter association have been added. this means that it will add a CMOST parameter association to an existing CMOST parameter (please see Add CMOST Parameter Associations). • If the Use existing definition is selected. this means that the candidate values can be created by one of the following methods (please see the details in CMOST menu).

Click the Edit Parameter button 502 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder . 2. Edit CMOST Parameters On the CMOST Parameters Selection window 1. input correct values on the left grid. the Finish button will be enable. then click the Generate button .vii Lognormal viii Universal • • After a method is selected. Click the Finish button to add the CMOST parameter and CMOST parameter association. Select a CMOST parameter on the left top grid.

the selected parameters are deleted. When the OK or Apply button is clicked. Select one or more CMOST parameters in the left top grid. The following values can be changed: • • • CMOST parameter name Default value Candidate values (there are three ways to change the candidate values. the second way is to do the same in the CMOST Parameters Selection dialog. 4. Click the OK button after changing the values. Delete CMOST Parameters One parameter or a few selected CMOST parameters can be deleted at the same time. User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 503 . All CMOST associations belonging to the deleted parameter will be deleted too. the first way is to change the value or add new values in the above dialog.) 4. Click the delete button on the right side of the dialog.3. the third way is to change values by using a method. On the CMOST Parameter Selection window 1. If the Cancel button is clicked. 2. the selected parameters will still exist. 3.

Click the Edit Parameter button 3. the selected values are deleted. 3. Select one or more values in the right bottom grid. Select a CMOST parameter on the left top grid. Select one or more values in the left bottom grid. 4. 2. 504 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder . Click the delete button on the right side of the grid. Or on the CMOST Parameters Selection window: 1. If the OK or Apply button is clicked. On the CMOST Parameters Selection window 1. There are two ways to delete the candidate values. 2. Select a CMOST parameter on the left top grid.Delete Candidate values from a CMOST Parameter One or more selected values can be deleted at one time.

Select a CMOST parameter on the left top grid.4. Click the delete button on the bottom of the grid Add CMOST Parameter Associations In order to create the CMOST master dataset. This can be done by performing the following steps. The CMOST parameter associations will tell Builder which data will be replaced by the CMOST variables. in the right bottom User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 505 . the CMOST parameter associations must be added to the CMOST parameters. Click the Add Dataset Parameter Association button group box. 2. On the CMOST Parameter Selection window 1.

On the CMOST Parameter Selection window 1.3. 506 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder . 4. 5. Delete CMOST Parameter Associations If an incorrect CMOST parameter association has been added and you want to delete it. Select one or more CMOST Parameter Associations on the right bottom grid. the following steps can be performed. Click the OK button. Click a data value in the grid. Select a tree node on the left tree view.

Click the Switch Dataset Parameter Association button group box. on the right bottom User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 507 . you can follow the steps shown below. 2. 1.2. Click the Delete Dataset Parameter Association button group box. Select one or more CMOST Parameter Associations on the right bottom grid. on the right bottom Switch CMOST Parameter Associations When you want to switch a CMOST parameter association from one parameter to another.

Click the Save button . 2. On the CMOST Parameters Selection window 1. 508 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder . Save CMOST Task file After any changes are made. the CMOST master dataset can be exported by the following steps. The user can . the CMOST task file can be saved by performing the following steps.). The default name will be the base dataset name with an extension of “cmt”. then the CMOST task file will be saved.3. In the CMOST Parameter Selection window 1. The file will save in the same directory as the base dataset file. Select a parameter that you want to switch to. Click the Export button . (Note: The Save button on the toolbar can be used as well. Click the OK button Export CMOST Master Dataset After adding all CMOST associations to parameters. then the CMOST master dataset will be exported into a file. (Note: The Save button on the toolbar can be used as well. • Reference the Save As CMOST Files section for using the Save As menu. Or click the OK button to close the CMOST Parameters Selection window and use the Save or Save As options under the File menu to export the CMOST Master Dataset.) • Reference the Save As CMOST Files section for using the Save As menu. 4. Or click the OK button to close the CMOST Parameters Selection window and use the Save or Save As options under the File menu to save the CMOST task file. change the task file name and the directory by clicking the Browse button 2. then Builder will use the default file name. If there is no CMOST master dataset file name in the task file.

and then select Save from the File menu or click the Save button on the tool bar. If the users would like to save all changes into the default files. It is also possible to save the data into different files by performing the following steps: 1. The CMOST master dataset can be exported as well. User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 509 . they can click the OK button on the CMOST Parameters Selection window to close it. 2. • Users can choose to export the CMOST master dataset only. the CMOST task file and base dataset can be saved. Since the files should be saved in the same directory. the button browse button applies for all of the file types. Click the OK button to execute the checked options. Select the Save As from the File menu The following window will appear: 1.Save As CMOST Files After editing the CMOST parameters. • Users can change the directory and file name by clicking the browse . Select the Export or Save file options.

and right window contains the merged file. Text colored yellow represents text that has been changed. 1. the following merging window will pop up: The left window contains the contents of the old file on disk. the middle window contains the new one. Text colored blue represents text that has been deleted. Select an option from the following window: If the Merge option is selected. then the user has the option to overwrite or merge the master datasets by performing the following steps.Merge Master Dataset Files If the master dataset already exists in the same directory where saving to. Text that is colored red represents text that is new. 510 • Creating CMOST Parameter Associations User's Guide Builder .

Select the desired ordering using these options. Use the options merge the old file with the new file. 2. the Existing then New and New then Existing options will be enabled. Check the Keep New check box if the new CMOST keywords should be needed. on the top left of the window to to 3. 5. User's Guide Builder Creating CMOST Parameter Associations • 511 . 4. Use the four buttons move the cursor. If the Keep Old and Keep New options are checked.1. Check the Keep Old check box if the original CMOST keywords need to be retained.

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and the value of the currently displayed property. If you exported Grid Top with the well information. User's Guide Builder Exporting Data • 513 . Select Export Grid Coordinates… from the Tool menu. Builder will add the well names and perforations within the grid to the dataset when the property is calculated. Alternatively. you could use them as map files for property calculations. For this purpose. You could also optionally export well perforation locations in terms of x and y along with the property values in the Mesh and XYZ formats. Exporting Grid Coordinates and Property Values Exporting grid coordinates: 1. The grid coordinates and property values exported in this fashion can be used directly in the simulator input file (dataset file) for CMG simulators. export the properties in the Mesh or XYZ formats.Exporting Data Overview Grid coordinates. The Export Grid Coordinates As Simulator Input File dialog comes up. can be exported to ASCII text files. The exported property values can be used as initial values in the dataset.

Select the export format. Select All Times to export the property at all the available times in the SR2 file. 2. 6. Results will write the depth values with the *PAYDEPTH keyword (depth specified for more than one layers). Click OK. To output *DTOP (depth for only one layer) select the Force use of DTOP keyword option. 514 • Exporting Data User's Guide Builder . 7. The Export Reservoir Property Values dialog comes up. Specify a file name. 4. Click OK. 3. 3. 4. You can change the file name and/or path with the Browse… button. Select the options. Use Mesh Format or XYZ Format to export the data in map formats. Select one the options under Well Locations and Well Time. 5. Select Export Property Values… from the Tool menu.2. Specify a file name. Use SIF Format to include the property directly in a CMG dataset. Exporting property values: 1. You can change the file name and/or path with the Browse… button.

Fault surfaces. click on the Browse… button. 3. Select Export Properties to RESCUE model… from the Export menu. 3D grids. User's Guide Builder Exporting Data • 515 . wellbore trajectories. and run the simulation. Click on the OK button to add the selected properties. The following dialog will appear: 2. or the all the units of a single RESCUE block. and properties like porosity. boundaries and fault surfaces). you can export (or append) simulation calculated properties (such as saturations changing with time) back to the RESCUE model. etc. Some geological modelling software packages can then use this data for well planning or 4D seismic applications. A RESCUE format model can define “block units” (formed by 3D surfaces representing horizons. To export properties back to a RESCUE model: 1.Exporting Properties to a RESCUE model RESCUE is a Joint Industry Project managed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC). Results will verify that the simulation grid and the RESCUE model grid match. and add them to the right hand column (Properties to add…) by clicking on the right arrow button/ 4. To append to an existing RESCUE model. permeability. and select the RESCUE model to append. At its inception the purpose was to provide a forum for the development of an open standard for the transfer of data from geomodels to upscalers. Select properties from the list of available properties and times in the left hand column. and well logs can also be included in the model. Using Builder you can import a “global grid” from a RESCUE model. Once you have built a complete dataset using this imported grid. The acronym 'RESCUE' stands for REServoir Characterization Using Epicentre.

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“1/( kg/cm2)” for inverse pressure in modified SI). So.Units and Unit Strings Overview In many of the dialogs in Builder. For example. for example. by unit system. “m3/day” or “MBBL/day”. or Lab. Field. If a unit string for a single dimension contains a “/”. to form a string for a well liquid rate. Builder will attempt to interpret the unit string. and second a table of allowed unit strings for each unit dimension.e. SI. and then convert the numerical value entered into the working units that the simulator requires. first a table of the expected units. In these text entry boxes. Following are two tables. it is possible to indicate that the numerical value entered is not in the working units (i. In most cases. you can type the units after the numerical value (separated by a space).. chosen when creating a new case).g. take a string from the dimension [well liquid volume] and a string from [well rate time]. Strings for compound units are formed by combining simple unit strings. User's Guide Builder Units and Unit Strings • 517 . then enclose the string in parenthesis when forming a compound unit string (e. you enter numerical values in text entry boxes.

Expected Units Dimension Time Temperature Pressure Length Property Volume Permeability Mass Molar Mass Viscosity Energy Well Liquid Volume Well Gas Volume Well Rate Time Interfacial Tension Electrical Current Electrical Power Electrical Potential Electrical Resistance Electrical Conductivity Electrical Energy Temperature Difference Diffusion/Dispersion Coeff. SI day C kPa m m3 md kg gmole cp J m3 m3 day dyne/cm A kW V ohm S/m kW-hr C cm2/s Field day F psi ft ft3 md lb lmole cp Btu bbl ft3 day dyne/cm A kW V ohm S/m kW-hr F cm2/s Lab min C kPa cm cm3 md g gmole cp J cm3 cm3 min dyne/cm A W V ohm S/m kW-hr C cm2/s Mod. SI day C kg/cm2 m m3 md kg gmole cp J m3 m3 day dyne/cm A kW V ohm S/m kW-hr C cm2/s GEM SI day C kPa m m3 md kg gmole cp J m3 m3 day dyne/cm A kW V ohm S/m kW-hr C cm2/s GEM Field day F psi ft ft3 md lb gmole cp Btu bbl ft3 day dyne/cm A kW V ohm S/m kW-hr F cm2/s 518 • Units and Unit Strings User's Guide Builder .

“day” “hr” “min” “yr” “s” “C” “F” “K” “R” “kPa” “psi” “atm” “bar” “kg/cm2” “MPa” “m” “ft” “cm” “inches” “mm” “m3” “ft3” “cm3” “md” “darcy” “m2” “micro-m2” “kg” “lb” “g” “ton” “tonne” “gmole” “lbmole” “kgmole” “cp” “kPa-day” “kPa-hr” “J” “Btu” “MBTU” “m3” “ft3” “cm3” “bbl” “STB” “MBBL” “MMBBL” “m3” “ft3” “cm3” “bbl” “Mcf” “MMcf” “E3m3” “day” “hr” “min” “yr” “dyne/cm” “N/m” “kPa-m” “mN/m” “A” “mA” “kA” “kW” “W” “J/day” “V” “mV” “kV” “ohm” “S/m” “kW-hr” “GJ” “J” “C” “F” “K” “R” “cm2/s” User's Guide Builder Units and Unit Strings • 519 .Allowed Unit Strings Dimension Time Temperature Pressure Length Property Volume Permeability Mass Molar Mass Viscosity Energy Well Liquid Volume Well Gas Volume Well Rate Time Interfacial Tension Electrical Current Electrical Power Electrical Potential Electrical Resistance Electrical Conductivity Electrical Energy Temperature Difference Diffusion/Dispersion Coeff.

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When the gas phase is not negligible. which is the volume of the lifting gas allowed to dissolve into the under saturated oil. is handled. liquid-gas two phase tubing flow is handled within the calculator. Below is an outline of the correlations used for the evaluation of PVT properties and pressure gradients. The length of sections is limited to a maximum of 32 meters and may dynamically be changed based on the convergence characteristics of the integration. The input wellbore profile consists of a user defined number of segments. the production flow is upwards. For injectors. only single phase flow. tubing segments with horizontal or even downward flow are acceptable.Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator Overview The tubing pressure table calculator (ptube. The dissolvability is a volume fraction. Hence no specification of pressure method is required and tubing segments with any angle are acceptable. if the appropriate pressure predication method is selected.exe) was developed to generate tubing pressure tables for producers using the PTUBE1 keyword or for injectors using ITUBE1 keyword. When lifting gas is injected. Within a section. For producers. However. Basically. Additional correlations are added for calculations of volumetric properties. a user given lifting gas dissolvability is applied for all the integration steps above the injection valve. Within the tubing calculator. gas and water PVT package based on the summary by McCain [3] is used to predict the local properties of the fluid. Local fluid PVT properties and pressure gradient are evaluated in each of these steps. each of these segments is divided into sections to apply Runge-Kutta integration. Optionally. PVT Correlations A black oil. User's Guide Builder Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator • 521 . dry gas or water. a section’s length is also limited to ensure the pressure drop within a section is less than 100 psi. gas lift is applicable to producers. equal Runge-Kutta steps are applied.

Lasater’s correlation is used.951 data points from the Stanford Multiphase Flow Database. Vazquez-Beggs [4] Vazquez-Beggs and Standing are set to be the default correlations for Oil Pb/Rs and FVF calculations respectively. Three of these methods were developed for flow at any inclination. The method employs one equation system for all flow regimes.solution GOR methods: 1. the Moody frictional factor is calculated by original Colebrook’s equation and Zigrang et al’s explicit approximation [14] (for Petalas-Aziz mechanistic model) is also used. Except for the downward stratified flow. Lasater’s correlation combined with the Standing’s correlation [1][2] If API > 15. which are continuous across flow pattern regimes.Oil bubble point pressure . which basically uses the mechanistic approach for bubble or slug flow and introduces a transition zone to and equations for annular flow. Petalas-Aziz mechanistic model [10] [11] is a method applicable for all pipe inclinations. The interfacial tension (IFT) is calculated internally using the correlation of Baker-Swerdloff [2]. In the tubing calculator. Standing [3] 2. Standing’s correlation is used. The method is currently valid for upward flow. Vazquez-Beggs [4] 2. Beggs-Brill [6] [7] is a correlation. otherwise. Mukherjee-Brill [8] [9] is a correlation in attempt to overcome some limitations of Beggs-Brill method. The method was tested extensively and proved to be robust and exhibited few discontinuities. Oil formation volume factor methods: 1. A very simple “Simplified mixed density” model is also included. The Drift-flux [13] is a method developed recently at Stanford. 522 • Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator User's Guide Builder . so that it is characterized by simple. Pressure-Gradient Prediction Methods There are six methods implemented to be selected to predict the pressure loss in the wellbore. The remaining methods are strictly validly only for upward flow. The method is believed to be suitable for pipeline system for the method tends to over predict pressure drop both at upward and downward inclinations. The Aziz-Govier [5] is a correlation for vertical producer. in this model all flow is assumed to occur in the bubble regime. the liquid-holdup correlation is expressed by separate equations for upward and downward flow. However. which was the first one to predict the flow for all inclinations. which is included as it is the default used in the analytical pressure drop model used in CMG simulators. in the tubing calculator Payne et al’s modifications [11] are applied to improve these errors. The model was tuned against 5. naturally continuous and smooth behavior.

H.. June 1985..P. Pet.D. 607-617 Brill. pp.: “Pressure Drop Correlations for Inclined Two-Phase Flow. e. is given for a producer combined with the gas lift option.. Pet. pp. and Aziz. J.: “Pressure Drop in Wells Producing Oil and Gas. April. and Mukherjee. and Brill. The Mukherjee-Brill method can also suffer from similar problems. May 1991. Cdn.. No. N. Richardson Texas. H.: “Two-Phase Vertical Flow in Oil Wells – Prediction of Pressure Drop. References PVT Correlations Chierici. 549-554 Mukherjee. 1984. Jr. J. et al. K. and Beggs. This is because the huge gas/liquid ratio the method encounters is out of the smooth range of the correlation. the Petalas-Aziz mechanistic model or drift-flux method is recommended. 299-315.D. Chap. 266-272 Vazquez. K. Vol. Tech.: “A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined pipes. 1987. June 2000.” J. 927-938 Beggs. J.D. Dec.” Petroleum Engineering Department.: “Development and Testing of Mechanistic Models for Multiphase Flow in Pipes. H. Vol. M. Tech.: “Multiphase Flow in Wells. Richardson Texas H. 11. Vol.g. and Beggs.” Int.. 3. Pet.: “Two-Phase Flow in Pipes. “A review of Explicit Friction Factor Equations”. 2003. 38-48 Beggs. Zigrang. 1999. H.” University of Tulsa. K. 280-283 User's Guide Builder Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator • 523 .: “Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Prediction. J. 1996. Petalas.L. pp. SPE. July-September 1972.: “Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations – State of the Art.P. and Fogarasi. Tech. Cdn. Tech. 3 inch tube with 10 bbl oil per day. and Aziz.D. Energy Res. H. M.P. Petalas. 1974.: “Oil System Correlations. D. 11. Monograph. pp. May 1973.: “Drift-Flux Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Wellbores.” SPE.” J.W.P. 17.” J. pp. “Empirical Equations to Predict Flow Patterns in Two-Phase Inclined Flow. Sylvester.” SPERE. 1985. Stanford University.P. Energy Res. Pet.” Petroleum Engineering Handbook. N. Mukherjee.D. 22 McCain. 43-55 Brill.. & Brill. J.” SPE 84228. Aug.D. H. J. pp. G. If the table has to cover small rates and uses gas lift. 1985. Tech.. tables made by the Beggs-Brill method may contain jump points at these small rates. J. 107. pp. N. G. J. Multiphase Flow. pp.: “A Mechanistic Model for Multiphase Flow in Pipes”. Govier.” J. H. Shi et al.” JPT (June 1980) 968 Pressure-Gradient Prediction Methods Aziz. W.When a small rate. & Brill. Tech.

0 (any wettability ) ⎛ So k ro*g = 0.6 ⎢ ⎥ + 0.5814 ⎜ ⎜ (1 − Sw ) ⎟ − 0.56556 (Sw ) (Sw − Sw i ) ⎣ (1 − Sw i − So rw ) ⎦ ⎛ Sw − Sw i ⎞ (Sw − So rw ) k rw = 1.9 ⎡ (Sw − So rw ) ⎤ 3.2484 φ (1 − Sw i ) (Sw − Sw i ) 1.98372 ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw i ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 4 ⎡ So − So rg ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 − Sw i − So rg ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 (any wettability ) k rg ⎛ Sg − Sg c ⎞ = 1.58617 (1 − Sw − So ) x ⎟ i ⎠ i rw ⎝ (Sw − Sw i ) − 1.76067 ⎢ 1 − So rw ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 1.6318 φ (1 − So rw ) (So − So rw ) ⎡ ⎛ So ⎞ ⎟ − So r ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ 1 − Sw i ⎠ = 0.Appendix A: Correlation Equations Equations for the Prediction of Relative Permeability in Sandstone and Conglomerate k rw = 0.7794 x ⎟ i ⎠ ⎝ So rg (Sg − Sg c ) k rg (So ) rg (1 − Sw i ) 2 (any wettability ) 524 • Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator User's Guide Builder .035388 (Sw − Sw i ) − 0.010874 x (1 − Sw i − So rw ) (water − wet ) 2.1072 ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw ⎟ k rg (So rg ) + 2.8 ⎡ So − So rw ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣1 − Sw i − So rw ⎦ 2.91 (intermediately − wet ) k ro*w + 2.

0053 x (Sg − Sg c ) (So rg )2 (1 − Sw i ) − 0.32797 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ Sw − So rw ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw − So i rw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 4 ⎞ ⎟ x ⎟ ⎠ 2 (Sw − Sw i ) ⎛ Sw − Sw i + 0.5 wettability ) 1 − Sw i − So rg − Sg c ⎛ ⎜1 − ⎜ 1 − Sw i ⎝ User's Guide Builder Technical Notes for the Tubing Head Pressure Calculator • 525 .Equations for the Prediction of Relative Permeability in Limestone and Dolomite k rw = 0.15 ⎛ 1 − 0.29986 ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw i ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ − 0.0020525 (Sw − Sw i ) φ 2.051371 (Sw − Sw i ) ⎜ ⎜k ⎝ a ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.93752 ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw i ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 4 ⎛ So − So rg ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw i − So rg ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (any wettability ) k rg = 1.025890 (Sg − Sg c ) x ⎞ ⎟ x ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 2 ⎛ 1 − Sw i − So rg − Sg c ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw i ⎝ (any ⎛ ka ⎜ ⎜ φ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.413259 ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw − So i rw ⎝ (intermediately wet ) k ro*w ⎛ So − So rw = 1.8655 (Sg − Sg c )(Sg ) 1 − Sw i k rg (So rg ) + 8.43 (water − wet ) k rw ⎛ Sw − Sw i = 0.2624 ⎜ ⎜ 1 − So rw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ So − So rw ⎜ ⎜ 1 − Sw − So i rw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (any wettability ) ⎛ So k ro*g = 0.

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