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# ﻿UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS

UNIVERSITEITSEKSAMENS

UN1SAI~

CMT401C

October/November 2009

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY IV

Duration

3 Hours

100 Marks

EXAMINERS FIRST SECOND EXTERNAL

MR FH SOLOMON MR P KAGODA

MR A DAWNEERANGEN

Use of a non-programmable pocket calculator IS permissible

CLOSED BOOK EXAMINATION

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CMT401C

OCT !NOV 2009

QUESTION 1

(a) What is the Mohr- coulomb equation and what It used to describe?

[2]

(b) What are the pore pressure parameters A and 8 helpful for in triaxial tests?

[2]

[4 marks]

OUESDONZ

A C8R test on a sample of subgrade gave the following results:

Plunger penetration(mm) 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0
Plunger 10ad(KN) 1.0 1.6 2.4 3.6 4.5 53 6.0 6.8
Plunger penetration(mm) 2.25 2.5 2.75 3.0 3.25 3.5 3.75 4.0
Plunger load(KN) 7.5 8.3 9.0 9.4 10.1 10.7 11.2 11.7
Plunger penetration(mm) 4.25 4.5 475 5.0 5.25 5.5 5.75 60
Plunger load(KN) 12.2 12.7 13.0 13.5 14.1 14.4 14.6 14.9 The standard force penetration curve, correspondmg to 100% C8R has the following values

Plunger penetration(mm) 2 4 6 8
Plunger 10ad(KN) 11.5 17.6 22.2 26.3 Determine the C8R value of the sub-grade by plotting both the test and standard curves, and choosing the higher CBR value between 2.5mm and 5.0mm penetration. Round off result to the nearest whole number. [9 marks]

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CMT401C

OCT !NOV 2009

QUESTION 3

a) Which analvsrs will sometimes show that an apparently sound rock IS partially decomposed and will be likely to suffer further decomposition dunng the life of the road? The person who studies the soundness of the rock IS called? Name a typical example rock surface decomposition which may degrade after bemg crushed?

[3]

b) Amorphous quartz, IS prone to attack by the alkahs In cement which leads to the so-

called? [1]

c) Name three tYPical problems with lime?

[3]

[7 marks]

..

QUESTION 4

a) One of the problems experienced With asphalt mixes IS the stripping of blender from the aggregate due to the actions of water Name and describe one possible cause of stripping? [1.5]

b) ClaSSify the follOWing rocks as Igneous or sedimentary Dolerite, dolomite, quartzite,

gabro [1]

c} What are the problems of using old cement and how does this have a beanng on

cement storage? [15]

d) Why IS it necessary to know the percentage of calcium hydroxide In lime? [1]

[5 marks]

qUESTION 5

..

a) What are the benefits of accelerators In concrete? Name three hardening accelerators

b) Sugar is known to be the most frequently used retarder What IS the quantity of sugar needed ( % by mass of cement) that Will delay settmg time by approximately 4 hours [1]

[5 marks]

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CMT40lC

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OCT !NOV 2009

QUESTION 6

a) Name three parameters that affect the durability of concrete

[3]

b) Permeability of concrete is affected by:

[2]

c) What is the other name for hgnosulphoalummate? What is the colour appearance of

sulphate damaged concrete usually has? Further sulphate attack may lead to' [3]

(Smarks]

QUESTION 7

a) Describe each of the following steel making terms:

[3]

i) Finishing temperature

ii) Hydrogen embrittlement

iii) Semi-Killed steel

b) What is the upper transformation temperature? [1]

c) What are the two significant constituents of steel and what are their properties? [6]

(d) What factors Influence the designer's choice of structural steel? [5]

115 marks]

QUESTIONS

a) Calculatmg concrete volume and quantities:

[14]

Given: masses per bag of cement are prescribed as follows

Cement SOKg

Sand l06kg

Stone 12Skg

Assume you are in charge of the concrete mix design and you make up a batch of concrete. USing dry sand and stone, and find that you need to use 27,SLItres of water to bring the mix to the right consistence.

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CMT401C

OCT INOV 2009

The relative densities are.

Cement 3,14

..

Sand 2,65

Stone 2,70

Water 1,0

Matenal Dry aggregates(Kg) RD Solid Volume In batchtutres)
Cement 50 3,14 (i )?
Sand 106 2,65 (1·17
Stone 125 2,70 (I·P
Water 27,S 1,0 (I. )?
Total (II. )? I.) calculate the sohd volume in batch in htres for each material? Round off to one decimal

place. [2]

II.) What is the total sohd volume In batch of concrete?

[2J

ill ) How much of each matenal do you need to make one cubic meter of compacted concrete? [2J

IV.) What is the quantity of each matenal per cubic meter of concrete?

[2]

v.) In practice, You would round off mass 1m3 to the nearest 5 kg How much of each matenal

should be in a batch If the mixer capacity (= Volume of concrete produced) IS 300 lItres ? [2]

Vi.) Say the sand contains 5% moisture and the stone contains 2% moisture. How much of each

moist aggregates should be in a batch If mixer capacity is 300 htres?

[4] [8]

(b) Calculating concrete mixes batched by mass and quantities of materials

Assume:

Mass of one cubic meter (1 m31 of compacted fresh concrete = 2400kg

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CMT401C

OCT/NOV 2009

What IS the Yield of the following mix and how much of each material IS required to fill a trench 35 m long X 850 mm wide, concrete depth is 450mm (TIp follow the steps below to answer)

Cement 50Kg
Sand 115 Kg
Stone 170Kg
Water 24 utres,
I.) Yield of MIx? [2]
II ) Volume of concrete? [2]
III ) Number of batches? [2]
IV) Matenal quantities? [2]
( C ) Calculating matenal costs [ 15] Given the loose bulk density of stone = 1750Kg/m3 and the loose bulk denSity of sand= 1680 Kg/m3 and the following mix proportion for a 1 m3 concrete mix'

Matenal Dry matenals Pnce
Water 210 Kg Nil
Cement 400 Kg R41.85/50 Kg·sack
Stone(3% morst ) 1012Kg RaO/ m3
Sand(6% moist) 744 Kg R75/ m3 I.) Adjust the mix to compensate for moisture content

[5]

II ) Adjust the mix for a 600/400 concrete mixer using full bags of cement use mass batchmg

This mixer gives a Yield of about 400 htres from about 60 htres of dry mix. [5]

III ) Determine the approximate matenal cost to produce 152 m3 of concrete

[5]

[37 marks1

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CMT401C

OCT INOV 2009

QUESTION 9

a) What would you recommend to a road authority for the reduction of splash and spray from

high- speed vehicles dnvrng on a section of motorWay? Explain [6}

b) Define the following: I.) Relative denSity Ii.) Bulk density

III.) Apparent relative density

c) Which test would you prefer in deformation stability of asphalt mixes?

[3} [1]

[10 marks]

TOTAL Marks = [100]

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