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Published by: uzair97 on Nov 01, 2010
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In your judgment, was the historical shift in emphasis from intentional/isolated discrimination to nonintentional/institutionalized discrimination good or bad? Justify your judgment? Ans. The historical shift in emphasis from intentional/isolated discrimination to

nonintentional/institutionalized discrimination is not good because it has increased the extent to which discrimination is made. During the last century an important shift occurred from seeing discrimination primarily as an intentional and individual matter to seeing it as a systematic and not necessarily intentional feature of institutionalized corporate behavior. We can estimate whether an institution or a set of institution is practicing discrimination against a certain group by looking at statistical indicators of how the members of that group are distributed within the institution. For Example:Women are given more priority during hiring and selection process. Likewise an issue was raised in California where a man raised issue in a call center that they were mostly hiring women. Some of the men working there were also paid less salary then women. Likewise during the selection of a Director asking job-irrelevant qualification requirements, hiring by personal connections, and seniority-based selection.

2. Research your library or the Internet (e.g. the Census Bureau puts its statistics on the World Wide Web at www.census.gov) for statistics published during the last year that tend to support or refute the statistical picture of racism and sexism developed in Sector 7.2 of the text. In view of your research and the materials in the text, do you agree or disagree with the statement, ³There is no longer evidence that discrimination is widely practiced in the United States´. Explain your position fully.

Ans. The gap between the classes and race is still great in United States of America. The evidence that discrimination is widely practiced in United States can be seen from the Census


promotion. testing. for example. I will provide the answer after consulting sir. sexual orientation. y Equal Employment Opportunity 1972:Equal Employment Opportunity urge employers not to adversely single out employees or applicants on the basis of age. religion. Title VII. national origin. Which of these seem to you to be the strongest? The weakest? Can you think of different kinds of arguments not discussed in the text? Are there important differences between racial discrimination and sexual discrimination? Ans. compensation. pregnancy. job advertisements. and national origin. California. layoff. or classification of employees. Federal and state statutes make up most of the employment discrimination laws. The three main kinds of arguments against racial and sexual job discrimination are Civil Rights Act of 1964.htm 3. It emphasizes on the equality given on all the aspects of employment given to someone. Compare and contrast the three main kinds of arguments against racial and sexual job discrimination. or various other reasons. y Civil Rights Act of 1964:The federal Civil Rights Act of 1964. prohibits employers from discriminating against job seekers and employees on the basis of race. religion.table given at the following link. sex. use of company facilities. Prohibited discriminatory practices include bias in hiring and firing. Executive Order 11246 and Equal Employment Opportunity 1972. http://www.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032010/hhinc/toc. race. disability. gender. prohibits racial or sexual discrimination no matter how few workers the company employs. assignment.census. Private employers with less than 15 employees are not subject to the Act. recruitment. y Executive Order 11246:Executive Order requires companies doing business with the federal government to take steps to redress racial imbalance in workforce. or recall. training and 2 . However. some states do not set numerical limits. transfer. sex.

Do you agree or disagree with these arguments? If you disagree with an argument. Discriminating among job applicants on the basis of race. and explain why it is wrong. This means having workplace rules. sex. fringe benefits. retaliation.t. which claim that discrimination violates basic human rights. therefore contrary to utilitarian principles y Rights arguments. policies. In such an environment. practices and behaviors that are fair and do not disadvantage people because they belong to particular groups. Ans. pay. and disability leave.c. Compare and contrast the main arguments used to support affirmative action programs. for example. all workers are valued and respected and have opportunities to develop their full potential and pursue a career path of their choice. An affirmative program is designed to ensure the proportion of minorities within an organization matches their proportion in the available workforce. 4. retirement plans.apprenticeship programs. and various types of harassment. Kantian theory. holds that human being should be treated as ends and never used merely as means. state clearly which part of the argument you think is wrong. According to me Equal Employment Opportunity is the strongest one because it lays the foundation for every company big or small to practice I and not discriminate anyone on the basis of sex or race e. religion or other characteristics unrelated to job performance is necessarily inefficient and. The main arguments used to support affirmative action program are y Utilitarian arguments. This principle means that each individual has a moral right to be treated as a freeperson equal to any other person and that all individuals have a correlative moral duty to treat each individual as a free and equal person 3 . which claim that discrimination leads to an inefficient use of human resource.

This action is designed to achieve a more representative distribution of minorities 5. It defend affirmative action on the basis of the principle of compensation. 4 . which claim that discrimination results in an unjust distribution of society¶s benefit and burdens. y Form of compensation is based on the idea of compensatory justice. which can reduce the effects of past discrimination. This is not a bias thing since they are hiring people best suitable for their organization but if they precisely take someone from the university due to extraordinary (PR) or something like that then it won¶t be right. ³If employers only want to hire the best qualifies young white males.y Justice arguments. In my opinion the employers have the right to hire the best candidate for their organization but differentiating them on the basis of colour that is white or black e. Likewise IBA and LUMS students are preferred in most MNCs operating in Pakistan because of their reputation and the amount of exposure their student receives that lead to their building of professionalism and decision making skills. then they have a right to do so without interference.t. Ans. According to the job requirement they can make a criteria for selecting a candidate based on their educational and professional experience not rather their skin colour. many businesses have done the affirmative action.c is not ethically correct. because these are their businesses´. Comment on this statement. the principle requires that compensation should come only from those specific individuals who intentionally inflicted a wrong. Today. and it requires them to compensate only those specific individuals whom they wronged.

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