Seminar Report

On CLOUD COMPUTING

Submitted by: Khushal Gupta Roll No: UE7531 ECE 7Th

Sem

INDEX
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Content Introduction History Layers of cloud computing Architecture Cloud Types of cloud Essential characteristics of cloud Advantages of cloud computing Multi-tenancy Features of Multi-tenancy Disadvantages of cloud computing Need for change of present internet scenario Silicon valley towards cloud computing Google towards cloud computing Microsoft towards cloud computing Apple towards cloud computing Future scope References

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INTRODUCTION

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. servers. networks). memory." HISTORY 3 . In other words is the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet on a utility basis. enabling convenient.Cloud computing is an emerging computing technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams and is an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it conceals. processing and bandwidth. storage. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage.g. It’s services often provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser. on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. while the software and data are stored on the servers. A technical definition is "a computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its underlying technical architecture (e. The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet.

self-healing. IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto. As a result of this arrangement. Chellappa who called it a computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits. Parker Harris. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility". By the turn of the 21st century. although most of the focus at that time was limited to SaaS. and their associates. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to 1960. In 1999. Business users have enthusiastically welcomed the resulting flexibility and speed. and cloud computing is conceptually somewhat similar. security mechanisms. indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus that date back to the 1960s. They also provided the concepts of "on demand" and SaaS with their real business and successful customers. Microsoft extended the concept of SaaS through the development of web services. Subsequently. Salesforce. selfconfiguring. servers.The Cloud is a term that borrows from telephony. They applied many technologies developed by companies such as Google and Yahoo! to business applications. The term "telecom cloud" was used to describe this type of networking. which described advanced automation techniques such as self-monitoring. the first academic definition was provided by Ramnath K. data circuits (including those that carried Internet traffic) were hard-wired between destinations. In the early 2000s. 4 . The term cloud had already come into commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. Telephone companies were able to offer VPN-based services with the same guaranteed bandwidth as fixed circuits at a lower cost because they could switch traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit. The key for SaaS is that it is customizable by customers with limited technical support required. and other system elements that can be virtualized across an enterprise. and self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous storage. thus utilizing their overall network bandwidth more effectively. the term "cloud computing" began to appear more widely. long-haul telephone companies began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) service for data communications. Up to the 1990s. applications. In 1997.com was established by Marc Benioff. it was impossible to determine in advance precisely which paths the traffic would be routed over. networks.

Amazon started providing access to their systems through Amazon Web Services on a utility computing basis in 2005. small. IBM.. and observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . those who use IT services and those who sell them". will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas.. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and easier. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. like most computer networks. and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project. In 2007." LAYERS OF CLOUD COMPUTING 1) Clients 5 . were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes.Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble which.[25] By mid-2008. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby. Google.

Windows Mobile) Thin client (CherryPal. is essentially useless without it. iPhone. gOS-based systems) Thick client / Web browser (Mozilla Firefox. WebKit) 6 .2) Application 3) Platform 4) Infrastructure 5) Servers 1) Client: A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on cloud computing for application delivery. in either case. or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and which. For example: • • • Mobile (Android. Google Chrome. Zonbu.

OpenID) Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service. Live Mesh) 3) Platform: A cloud platform (PaaS) delivers a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service.[52][53] For example: • Services o o o o Identity (OAuth. thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance. and support. Amazon CloudFront) Synchronisation (Dropbox. Purewire. PayPal) Search (Alexa. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. ongoing operation. ScanSafe. Twitter. YouTube) Security as a service (MessageLabs. generally consuming cloud infrastructure and supporting cloud applications. Zscaler) Software as a service (Google Apps. Salesforce) Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services) Storage [Distributed] o o Content distribution (BitTorrent. Google Custom Search. Skype) Web applications (Facebook. For example: • • • • • • Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (BOINC. Yahoo! BOSS) Real-world (Amazon Mechanical Turk) Java (Google App Engine) PHP (Rackspace Cloud Sites) 7 • Solution stacks o o . Google Checkout. often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer.2) Application: A cloud application leverages cloud computing in software architecture.

Rackspace Cloud Servers) OS-level virtualisation • • Network (Amazon VPC) Storage [Raw] (Amazon EBS) 5) Servers: The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products which are specifically and solely designed for the delivery of cloud services. typically a platform virtualization environment. WorkXpress.[54] For example: • Compute (Amazon CloudWatch. RightScale) o o o Physical machines (Softlayer) Virtual machines (Amazon EC2. GoGrid. For example: • • HP Bladesystem Matrix Fabric computing (Cisco UCS) ARCHITECTURE 8 . Nirvanix.NET (Azure Services Platform. Rackspace Cloud Files) Queues (Amazon SQS) Storage [Structured] o o o 4) Infrastructure: Cloud infrastructure (IaaS) is the delivery of computer infrastructure. BigTable) File storage (Amazon S3. as a service. Rackspace Cloud Sites) Proprietary (Force.o o o o • Python Django (Google App Engine) Ruby on Rails (Heroku) . Wolf Frameworks) Databases (Amazon SimpleDB.com.

9 . the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications. usually web services. comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. Cloud architecture extends to the client. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled.Cloud architecture. CLOUD The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the internet. where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds. This closely resembles the UNIX philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. based on how the internet is depicted in computer network diagram and is an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it conceals. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. each independently delivering data to applications or users.

They have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy. capitalizing on data security. there is some uncertainty whether they are a reality even within the same 10 . essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". corporate governance. These (typically virtualization automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls". build. While an analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud networks would be the future of corporate IT. and reliability concerns.TYPES OF CLOUD 1) Private cloud 2) Public cloud 3) Hybrid cloud 1) Private cloud: Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. and manage them" and as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management.

from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense. particularly for the financial services. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. a mostly virtualized environment that requires physical servers. or other hardware such as a network appliance acting as a firewall or spam filter.firm. 3) Hybrid cloud: A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". Essential characteristics of Cloud 1) On-Demand self service 2) Broad network access 3) Resource pooling 4) Rapid elasticity 11 . 2) Public cloud: Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense. via web applications/web services. and that future datacenters will look like internal clouds. such as a Plug computer with cloud services. for example in reference to platform as a service offerings. though such offerings including Microsoft's Azure Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment. self-service basis over the Internet. It can also describe configurations combining virtual and physical. Analysts have reported on Platform's view that private clouds are a stepping stone to external clouds. A hybrid cloud can describe configuration combining a local device. Analysts also claim that within five years a "huge percentage" of small and medium enterprises will get most of their computing resources from external cloud computing providers as they "will not have economies of scale to make it worth staying in the IT business" or be able to afford private clouds. collocated assets—for example. routers.

5) Measured service Advantages of Cloud Computing 1) Agility 2) Cost 3) Device 4) Multi-tenancy 5) Reliability 6) Scalability 7) Security 8) Sustainability MULTI –TENANCY 12 .

An application instance usually incurs a certain amount of memory and processing overhead which can be substantial when multiplied by many customers. you only have to buy one software license. With multi tenancy software is designed to virtually partition its data and configuration so that each client organization works with a customized virtual application instance. serving multiple client organizations (tenants). Data Aggregation/Data Mining One of the most compelling reasons for vendors/ISVs to utilize multi-tenancy is for the inherent data aggregation benefits. Instead of collecting data from multiple data sources. The cost savings can be eclipsed by the difficulty to scale single instance (a bigger faster server can only take you so far) as the demand grows. Further cost savings may come from licensing costs of the underlying software (such as operating systems and database management systems). especially if the customers are small. Multi-tenancy reduces this overhead by amortizing it over many customers.Multi Tenancy refers to a principle where a single instance of the software runs on a server. if you can run everything on a single software instance. FEATURES OF MULTI-TENANCY Cost Savings: Multi-tenancy allows for cost savings over and above the basic economies of scale achievable from consolidating IT resources into a single operation. with potentially 13 . Put crudely.

and looking for trends is much simpler. With the multi-tenant model. all data for all customers is stored in a single database schema. Disadvantages of Cloud Computing 1) Internet connectivity 2) Network down 3) Security is in hands of third party 4) Cloud host disappears Need for change of present Internet scenario Present internet scenario is based on the concept that there are a number of servers on which all the data is stored and the clients all over the world are talking to them. Thus. But imagine a situation in 14 . These packages then have to be installed on each individual machine. mining data. multitenant applications require a larger development effort. running queries across customers.different database schemas. Complexity Because of the additional customization complexity and the need to maintain per-tenant metadata. Release Management Multi-tenancy simplifies the release management process. the package typically only needs to be installed on a single server. This greatly simplifies the release management process. packages containing code and database changes are distributed to client desktop and/or server machines. In a traditional release management process.

Plus there will be no repetition of the data. The capacity of cloud servers is more than anyone can imagine. Plus the more the data on the server the slower the server runs. All this plus the speed won’t be affected because there will not be load on any one server. United States. To solve these problems is introduced. As the user and the data are going to increase exponentially cloud computing which provides more elasticity than the current internet scenario will prove worthwhile. 15 . It is the leading high-tech hub because of its large number of engineers and venture capitalists. Cloud computing is based on the concept that there will be a cloud on which all of the data will be there and the clients round the globe will talk to it.which the amount of data exceeds the capacity of these servers. SILICON VALLEY TOWARDS CLOUD COMPUTING Silicon Valley is the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California.

Apple. gOS Cloud is a operating system in which there is just a browser. It takes just a few seconds to boot and then the browser 16 .Most of the leading companies such as Google. IBM have already sensed that advantages of cloud computing and have taken their first step towards it. Microsoft. In January 2010 it is launching gOS CLOUD which is the first ever cloud computing operating system. GOOGLE TOWARDS CLOUD COMPUTING Google has raised its first step towards cloud computing.

This OS cum browser is connected to the cloud. a Los Angeles-based corporation.cum OS opens. 17 . It is based on gOS or "good OS" is an Ubuntu-based Linux distribution created by 'Good OS LLC'. You just open the gOS Cloud and get whatever you need from the cloud just on the click of a button.

Microsoft towards Cloud Computing 18 .

2010.NET Services: consumable web-based services that provide both secure connectivity and federated access control for applications.With the upcoming concept of cloud computing Microsoft fears that it’s existence could suffer. Apple towards Cloud Computing 19 . and . With Google providing the operating system for cloud computing the monopoly of Google is for sure. We will begin charging customers on February 1st. reliable and powerful platform for the creation of web applications and services. the services are free to evaluate through January 2010. It is coming with Microsoft Azure platform which offers an intuitive. Currently in Community Technology Preview (CTP). The Windows Azure platform is comprised of Windows Azure: an operating system as a service. SQL Azure: a fully relational database in the cloud. Although Microsoft is working hard to avoid this situation.

iwork. It is planning to allow users to create and edit documents. In a browser. document-wide discussions.com as their first step towards cloud computing.Apple one of the largest computer technology company has launched new web based application on its website www.com document supports multiple notes along with related discussion threads as well as separate. the iWork. including PDF and MS Word. FUTURE SCOPE 20 . spreadsheets and presentations online. and store them on central servers that can then be accessed from any computer. The program converts the iWork document into a number of cross-platform formats for sharing files with Windows colleagues.

Cloud computing is massively scalable. Thus to control this scenario cloud computing is introduced. As the amount of data a user have is going to increase exponentially and when multiplied by the total population the world the total amount of data will go on beyond the handling limit of internet servers present right now. provides a superior user experience. You just need a slim laptop which will connect you to the cloud and then you can access any data you like. Information technology is changing rapidly. and is characterized by new. food and energy. An emerging IT delivery model-cloud computing-can significantly reduce IT costs & complexities while improving workload optimization and service delivery. healthcare.The next generation computing will surely be cloud computing. water supplies. along with most of the world's financial transactions. REFERNCES 21 . now depend on information technology. Power grids. and now forms an invisible layer that increasingly touches every aspect of our lives. Every bit of data that any user requires will be available on the cloud. traffic control. internetdriven economics.

1) Google official website 2) Wikipedia 3) IBM official website 4) Microsoft official website 5) Apple official website 22 .

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