CHAPTER 8

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

The support system in all animals is made up of skeletal & the muscular system.8. . 2. endoskeleton and hydrostatic skeleton. The 3 basic types of skeleton in animals are exoskeleton.1 Support System in Animals 1.

outer skeleton (hard material formed outside the bodies).ENDOSKELETON ‡ Also called EXOSKELETON HYDROSTATIC SKELETON ‡ Soft-bodied internal skeleton (skeleton is inside the body). ‡ Land invertebrate (except shell of snails) outer covering made of cuticle. ‡ Found in humans & vertebrates. ‡ Also called animals are supported by liquids. ‡Ideal for aquatic invertebrates. . ‡ Muscles are attached to skeleton. ‡ Found in land & aquatic invertebrate. ‡ Aquatic invertebrate: made of calcium carbonate. ‡ Consist of bones & cartilage. ‡ Cells and spaces between body organs consist mainly of water.

The body is supported by buoyancy of water. . Aquatic vertebrates have small and light pelvic & pectoral girdles.3. 4. The whole body weight is supported by skeletal system. Land vertebrates have large and strong pelvic & pectoral girdles.

Similarity Consist of bones & cartilage Land vertebrates Endoskeleton Large Very strong Differences Type of support system Size of pectoral & pelvic girdles Strength of pectoral & pelvic girdles Aquatic vertebrates Buoyancy of water Very small Very weak .Comparison between the support system of land & aquatic vertebrates.

Comparison between the support system of land & aquatic invertebrates. Similarity Have exoskeleton @ hydrostatic skeleton Land invertebrates Smaller body size More rigid exoskeleton Differences Size Rigidity Aquatic invertebrates Bigger body size Less rigid exoskeleton .

2 Support System in Plants ‡ Plants depend on their stems & roots for support. .8. ‡ Some plants develop special structures for additional support.

wild orchids Cucumber. angsana tree. durian tree Banyan tree. pumpkin Bougainvillea Rose Brown alga Mangrove tree .Support System Buttress root Prop roots Clasping roots Tendrils Thorns Prickles Air sacs Stilt roots Example Rain tree.maize. pandan plant Money plant.

3 The Importance of the Support Systems in Living Organisms ‡ A crippled person can use a cane. . ‡ Beached & stranded whales will die because its body weight will crush its internal organs.8. crutches @ a walking frame.

3.‡ The support system helps to: 1. Give definite shape to the organism Support the weight of the body Enable plants to stay upright Protects the internal organs from injury . 4. 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful