P. 1
Estimating and costing

Estimating and costing

|Views: 207|Likes:
Published by Arif Samoon
This is the handout which was available at Nizami photostat, provided by Ms. Shazia Baqar (Third year, 2010).
This is the handout which was available at Nizami photostat, provided by Ms. Shazia Baqar (Third year, 2010).

More info:

Published by: Arif Samoon on Nov 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






ing arrd

'. <.D o

0- ,CO s, t i 111fr'..1 .. _. _

- ::r =

lntroriucti on


For the C()iIlSlrtl.CU~n of nn cugluecr ing works, H is e$;1l:HH1~i to know before hand till;! IJJ"oDClble cost nlr) construetion for the complete work, which conaists of the cost: Dr rnaterials, c,g,~} or: trunsporrurlon. cost of 1r.1 00 UI', cost o f sea lfo Id i ng, cost 0 f too Is and p I:nnt s. est'abl]s II rne.nt aud .'HI rpc rv is i on ch f1r~t:'~,

CO~[ of wutcr, taxes and rcasofllablp profit of the contractor. etc, If' the ,~bove calcu latedprobab!e ~'o~t

is greater than the money-available. attempts are made to lessen the cosr by reducing ll~c workor hy


CharH!]n~ the spceificatiens..

So in pl·c'pa,ring an estimate, t~H~ qunnrlries or d ifferent Hems G f work ,~HC calculated ~)y simple methods of mcnsurut ion and from these quarrtities the cost is calcu late d. The calculations ma;in~ly cuns hn of. len g~h 'X lneadl h ;w; h ~:lght) or length x breadth or he ightith ickness There Fore an estimsrcr has to go into details of"i<!~ch item big or small by p lcun-ing (imagirrming some [Ilem:s) the objcet

-' ,

(bu iJ! . .;.Ltng. s nucturc, etc) in h is ... m ina from the study 0 f drawings and s pt!C if cati oris.

Accuracy in estimate is essel1!inl, orherwixe if the expenditure exceeds the estimate, It is difficult to' Arrange for :add ,it ional money, T!H~, ~;21~e 0 fend] IN::1n should be reaso nable and preferab I y til e p resen r

1.1 D'cfin1tion of a~ Es timate .

An estimate is the anticlparedcr probable cost of work andis usually prepared before the construction [LS tak[?~TI up. J t is. indeed calculations or computation 'Of various items of an engineering W'Orl{1 so as [0 know its ap'p'rox~matecos( or expenses Ilke ly to be i[lCU~;f~ed. the quantities of the various materials req~i:i,['~dl UH.! labour involved for its corrsf rucriun and s~lU!il'nct(]ry complerion. The re~tiJnnle also gives au idea of' ~he UI1V~ n~~lu~I'Gld ~'Ol" il~ complet ion,

However the actual cost is known only after tile compleiion ofthework form the accounts or the

l' n III I ') I [,.', I ~~ d w uri.: , ,

AI1 cstimnre (0[· il,I1Y p~lb!ic C(HlSHtICli{Hl wPl'k is required to be pl'~purcd nnd submitted so tluu _ sauction of necessary funds nwy be obtnlnc d ['Or'I.11 the 'concerned authority.

To preparu un 'l!'Sftl:ndL~" dtHa[I'l:Ll dnnVttlg i.c dnn'Hli~lg con5is1fl~g or pluu, the elevation and the , sections through importnnr points and detailed spcci fic.uti:()], ofall workmansttip, properties l1mJ proponion

ofmaterial's an: required, '

1. Ji..l Imp 0 rtanc e. of E s ttm atl 11. g

L It helps ~11 working out the approximate 'cost cfworks before they are taken' in hand, thereby to know whether Hu~)" can be corn pl eted acce rding to £ iven specificat ions wi th i n certa i n flnanc ~ (11 I imits, ~'rhenv.isc it requ ir.e:s.mod i fication or dl'opP'lng of the certain prorlosaJ§ altogether depend i ng upon the n vailable ri nancta I resources, T~lC esri mate Is neg uirep in inv i I' til g reride t'S- f,o r the works and to arrarrge contract for a com p I e re prqj eel.

- ~ I

. ,




C' .: ,} .C" -. n ."Il.'.. C····, "'''Hnt'J and Vt1iLUJ(jtU'<

IV II cSd·,ma~ •• I~,~ .. u';' . !ll

1,.2 QtUlntitlr Survey ':.

It i s a scl~"<lu le (1 r Qual~! i tics 0 r" II til 0 items" r work ill a b II i Idil',&: Thcs~ 'lu~nli L jt.: ~J,,tl~llc lIlr~IC~.t"'ll the drawings nf the bui lding. Thus qu,mtlty survey glv'es quantmes of work:,-dmle 1.11 ca~_ of esc .. ,rn, w h enp rlced, gives th e to ra 'I: ee s L 1 n she 1'"1 ouam i ty .rurvey mea ns e. a lc ul ati ono F q ua n t it I e S (I f mate r·ia Is

required to complete ria work concerned,

1.3 Data Requtr ed for th.e Prep eratfon of an esttm,ate 1 .. 3 .lD'ra livings

C(Hnpdc'l!': 'mul r'lIHy dlm[.m~iOlLcd dr.t1\i,v!ngs (i.e. plnns~, ~~CCJ ~n~H1J. cl,t:va~ ions. sect iuns rmd tHlH;.~t' dcrn ib:)

af'the work iii question are required. j"

, 1.3.:2: S,p,@;cHh:;:llUOI1S,

Del:aHed speciflenriens, giving tile nature, qu'a.IH:y alHj class ef work, IllaJ1cdfils to beused ln I,hq various parts uf work, ~llaJjty of .the material. thejr ptoporticns, 11'rcllH'rO eof p'fe:pataticHir:, workmanship and d'e5'cdpctil;;m, 0 r execurlen 0 f\vurk are requl fed.

1.3 .. 3 Rate~

The rates OfVtlJJOHS items of work, rnaterials to be used in the construction and the wages ofdi ff~e:rlent categories of labc ur, (s ki! led or unsk n I ~d) should be iva i1 abl e feu prepari ng an esti mate. The cost 0 r trnnspertati Or! charges shou j d a lso be known. Asfar a'S pOSi$~b lesancrioned "schedu le of Rates" shall' be- fotlowed or the rates 11H1Y be worked out by the "Ana lysis of Ra.t'esH method,

A ftCfC'O Il c.cti rig above ill form all 011 the esf mate ~s then worked au l u I1dJ~L var to us Su b-heads 0 t work and the quantities/cosi under each sub-head an: then worked out.

1.3,,4 .Fac,[IJr!i1 t.o be CORsid ered Jot' th e Preparathll" of' iI D"e~aHed "Estjimate Fe Il O'WJ ng Factors sh nuld be cons! der ed wh i le preparing the detai Led estimate:

A. tQ LIlIl n tlry or Ma.ter:ia is ~ For large works, large quanti ~y 0 fnHI.t'erla ls ]S .re('l' .. iired, the same can be purchased ata cheaper rurc rhau the rate of smaller quantify of rlH'I,t~e'rial~L So rare shnuld be fh'uflcd OUl aeccrdlng to 01~' volume of the work. .,

lJ, ll\'aH~.b U~~y (J r Mllterlnls: ~5tjmnted cost of work wj n be hlgiH.'!1" i f the materials requ ired are.not avai lab le RS and whe:n r~lq u ired: the workers and lh'~supe.r'Vi.sory stan will rerna in idle du e 10 'Ut i s. r [, \'11 i ~ II a, I S 01 affect the progres~ of [:l'1 e work. So it s,ho""d d be: a ss II fi1'e d ~ hat the m aterl als . requ ired for [he'"' execution of work, should 016 availeb le C!lt th'e site of thev~'ork~s and wi, en'


C TnHH~porl[nl'~On of ~~atl~r.if,lls: The cost oftransportation uf srna ller quantity Ofn'l!8t{!r"iaLs will be ,i ore m co m par ison '''' i ~h 1 he cost c f l rans portn rinn of huge q U~ f1"t i ty 0 f nrn te r ia h; bou g h t at a t irne ..

E~Nmaliri.f.jl and Co.s.r·jn.U~ __ ~~ _

,~ .. -""--.-

D. Lorn Uo n (] f $ He: i r rhe s ~ te o f wo r'k ~ sl ecated "f1 tan 0(J,1 p l ace, for w·h ic 11 rN~q uent i oad j f1~, unlnading is neee.s·S:~\I'y scvernl times, due to diffe.rent modes of trarrsport .• damage 01' loss: of

rl'lal ~·d.l':Il~ ~Jno~d,d b~ cen s i de I't: d !Hlred\ll b< """

r:. AV~I ~~:1lJi:iityof L~,t,HI~.1 r: D~ily wflges ofj,oc·tj.lfniJoute't shQuld be cous;~dSfed before the pn!p'21ralton 'l) r lW est lin HW" A~ rH m~ pO~1~.;ib I Q h.N::JlI uvnllnble Inbou~'shou ld be CJ;gu~crcJ_.

I .11 0 ~ fhn-c n t Ty pes o f P h\f~ S

l.'L 1 SU~ P.lnn

~'t i~ d~c: plan dr-awn. for a partlcularconstructlon showlng its position with respect to approaching ! ouds, rna i n bal.iH":l~ITI arkets an d 0 ther p e rma nent fealtJ res in a pep u J ared ~l rea, ~,t sl: ows the h)C~btjO n of the' area tinder censiderstlon wHh respect to the other areasend no B ;gGI1,~r-'aUy the nantes or the mVIlC I'S of lH'IHIS or pro IJ~:rty ho,l'ders, adjo ining [() if are, nlse d~not,ed. NQrtll .1 ine is a lso 'clearly marked on it

r .4.2 Ltrre Plan

Line plan ·1;11111 be defined as the plan ora pnrtlcular construction si:tnply sllo,\'Ii'lng<lT1oin fsarurcs with the he I p Q f l he s ~ n!; I e ~ in es D f d i fferent p o rt ion S 0 f the consrru arion, Deta j Is 'Of C;'OrJ s l ru c rio 11 a i"e n o ~ geIH~U'nl!y shewn on this plan, The lnside nm.d outside. d irll.C:IH.i().Ii1$ sh own on 'the plan ;.hOLd{]1 necessarlly l H: co r re 1'! p ~ ~ u d II i~. 't U ~ t C ~ ~ I ~, I d i ! II ~ n~· i "]'1; .II •

This is the pion ef'n particular colony showing the poslrlens ofdiTrorcl1~.li1coHs~s in single lines, ~hc~r number if any, positlnn of roads, schecl, market, hospital and other features etc. This plan. is g.cner.aHy ri~l(ed on the entrance, or at exit or in the central place of the color~YI [br the guidance of th e inhabitunts and eurside rs.

..... '!!

This p],nn inti iCQh::S a plan of a construction drawn 1.01 a definite scale, shewing all deta i led i nfcr rnnt lou

required t"o·r ihi ~;;.:~(;U~ Ion. Various sections :l['l(f elevations are cl:e,ldy drawtt on t:his plan,

1.4.S C'~ntr~ [Jut! Pf an

This is actuallya layout plan drawn w r~lcilitate tile layin.g, out of foundation lines nnd other rcnHlres. It is ~cm:rally drawn at II bigger scale lint! en 1[ arc shown the pos itions ofthe cerural lines of [he walls ~m.ltlh!,ir pn'kmg.tlt~on eutsiue about 2m away from the outer lines shown on the plan, T~1e SElI~,eare tf.].'[1sft'HC'd on the ground p lllar s COIUlruClCtJ for checking the ccrrsrructlon from time to ti~e. Pcslt inn LJ r Lh: 11'': h f\, LH k {B. r~d .) 0 r t C In P (It .1 I Y n: tun: i S L 1 J ~ 0 ~d to \\' 11 IJ nth is pin 11 •

1 is TY[lI,es of ;EstII1Hde~

The d i fl"l:' re n t ry pes (I r es l ~ 11'1 at~~ are u' t:n tin 11 e d be low.

.,,? .... -,.








1 I

. .

.. ~

Civil EsHma.f1hgl CosUng (Jnd Valuation, I..rl .~

(oJ ( Co)

(d) (e)

Brief spec ific'ati ens

Site pl;;Hl. 01" layout plan showing tilt! ~JDPQSa! in hnnd Line JJI(1I1 showing, lIre North llin'i; an ·tl"

lJl'i I.: f r c! c a ,'l f ra te s Fe; I' d i tft! I'C'~' r i tems.

This estimate il.~ l~tepn.I'Pd em the rQ'llov,i.ng lines For various str rcturas and wo.d~s:

A. BuilcHug

ii) 'Per" stud ent for £c hoo I 1'1.1"1 d hostels, P .'l",!';r.s,1i: 1'0011.11 Iur schooh~.

Pc.:r l~~ I !'Ol' hospitrlb:.

Per senl~ fOI" cinema,

P~'I" bay for factories etc.,

(ii) (,In pHnth nrCfl basis (per HP~'l) On cubic content basis (per eub!c metre).

n. Rn n ds ,tUHl ,I-Ii g hwa Y5. Per ki lom etre J en,g,th.

C .. h,,.igaCiof'l Chnuue ls. rei' kllomelrc' basis dCP~lllrJin,g upon !.l'1C cap;lH;iJly or channel or Arcn of Izmd commanded,

I D. nr"~d~(is' ,:rnd Culver ts, Per rum lrrg metre of' span, dcpenciin"g upon die road way.

<.D o o N

z ([



r. Ove l" r~l e:nd Wnt,c,f Tn n h:. On the bas is of capac lty pier litre 0 f tank; ere: etc,

_ ..

1.,5" j.1 pnnH~ Area E'&tinurt,e

H COilS isis of \! ol'killg our the p I inth area of a l:H1 dd111g wh ich is rnu i rip I ied by pI inth area ra[t;: to get an estimate for [b,at building (l.e, Plinth area rate per sqrn y;. Plinth 21,I'ea of the building), lt gives an idea of tin: cll~1 01 coustruction '1,\ ithout working out the rlcrn ils:

The p llnth arlen. shoukt be- calculated rot the roofed arcn of'u buHdiqJ; b)j 'lJking external dlmenslons, I XCllldillg the plinth OrfS·CLS. The area of the courtyard etc: should not be included: ill it.

H(Jwt'~'crj [be 11'linlh area rates gC'J1,erally provided, can l e deduced from the cost o LSlimi:hll' b-uildil1l~s constructed ~n (h~ same ~ocn.!ity having" more or less the same flnishings and the same amenities The. hei !IH or the' ;buil'cling' ecusidcred must be (he same, and m rsr hi1YC been constructed during the same vear . r m struetion 0" a Ht I~ earlier S Ihat here should IJe nor much variation in: U1e cost of C 0''111 stru c tion.

j, I -- - -

The '. liHh area estime " I,S nccompained b,)'-


li re plan of It" b.lI! a r,'Ii}" SIP· i fI CQitIOI 5.

inc I., orlh· bi I

1"1 u

~ =-- to

J.5 JI .2. Cubic COf1tel',t C.stiHl'ote

".,H.5 ·sti are is also.an n prux irnate es irna a.Tt is wo kcdotltoJ1thebasjsof'~hecubrcult;ortl~lnts.'Of [I. ~ bUI In~ to b" cousrruc: - and hen ap'p',1 tng rtl it the rate P"I" cuhie metre [Le; P'li'mh

.tr~. o 11' \11 t: I.' hci1h ~hd:;,h', is ~:Jk_'I' frol'n 'I.h~ hlp of the no,,!" L·ve,! to itlc'IIOp of the IllullU'p,ofor

,'I l ~\",,~~-' b -l~_ ~I 1- roon Cbi_ott f~t ra,t(').T.l_cub,ic cnntent F.,E1,es,g,cJnera:I!I)j pro ldedcan bee ~ cos. o~si ilkl' bJi~di ~s eenstru ted in 'tI e ssm h)~CilH'ly. h21.vil1g n11>('He or te'5SI ehe

he I.~- e 13 'ar t -. hl_ buihJin~ Hll,S'[ 'e ofthe same height rma ce'I!1I:~Urtl'Ch!!"tJ

t h lr _ Z I u _l' rin ·00' h I' r.: COS'I, o,r I "onsHUle'!,i~()1 • h)~ ,st'OI ~yc'tJ bl1t,ilidlngs

:E~HmC!tln'"'.'.· Mtd C O:s:Una

. ~ ~. -- ~

t~H~ l\eigl'H SillDllid be taken qti;lw~e,tr the n'O'OT level €If :CJtle 5'torcy I·e the t~)P of next bh~her floor "nre, a l{nl·ndat.1oI1. pliruh ~1I~d the pHI'np~~' flbovc' rDQ'Pa.r.: cxc·luded i:n find"i"ng H1e cubical cenrenrs. 0 "r~Ti~ cdi:m~N:: is constdered f'l10re aecuratc thnn U1U't of the "plint!J~~€;El, G.sti·m~h:'! as L~l(~ Ill! 19h( of ~ In: N ~ u 'i I d in t!. Is H I so l a~(;e n in tt'J acccu I~ l",...._

~ . -. .-~. -'. . _" - .. - . .,.

It is aeecm p a 11 i C{J b,Yr- ,

(L':r) (b) (c:) (en.

A brjef rep Q rt

Lt t\ e P ~ an 0 f the b~d hHrl,g

Br'i:ei" spee'[fleatious .

Line pl,f[n (If [h~" buitcllUg for which the cubic conteI'd rate Is ~QI"Iiiid"el"@GL'

z ([


1.,5 .. 2 DebdJed E~thu"td:e

D~m~·le.d estimate consistso f" the d.eta~ led pflrticul"ars:, for ~h"f: qua.l:Hr~f,Gs:~ rates Ilnd costs of ai I itern1l involved for satisfaetcry completion oJ a project, On the ap~r(rV,td -of lh€: rough astimure OF after ~el1 i I;g.lhe h Adnl i nlsrrative Approval" this e,s£imale [is pl'~~~ftm~ ln deta ll pdQI' t~J j~~,vit i:n~ e r tenders and f.QI:" geulng ~'TecJmJv,a~'l gan{';liol1'~ froll] the competent authority, In i~ UH~: wboJe project is (i".ividcd ime 's~!b-wtH·k~. The cost of €a,e.h sub-work is calculated sep~r:ate,ly 'and then ijdded rogerher to give th e rotale est I:,) f pmjecL 1'IUiS the (~U rL~1,t lues 0 r H ems lIIHJ!!I" each sub- h ~rtl.tl @f work' are eule Llhn~ d in dL.~"1.a~1 t't1··Olli 'Ih[t dinrcns lons taken ['rmn [he drawlngs and rhc C:O'S;{ of each item is wo:rked out. ucc.urding

I , ~.

1(1' the pl'1;vt~lent market rates, (lit" frOllili the snnct ianed sc'i'~cdu Ie of rates, In 'tii"iS;e o [I' n(jn~sdlCdult rute

~ [em s. pro p er ~um I.ys is o r rates a re perp ared an d attae hcu. Th is e::;l illuH~ is t he Des [ and 111 ost tI,("'C: If f1li te

[hat; ~arn CH;; prepared. . ,

D~ltlH~'d estimate ~8, aCGompnniod by-


(a) A ch~lta i ~cd r~PQr~

aJ} D!.! ra ~ led SiIJ e ci fl IS at ~ M.S' Ior Ull; ex e cuti em 0 r work

(c) Dela, lied drawings, ,(Plan!'i. Sire plen, I .... flIyfHl( plan, EI~vi:utO'nSt ~1~GlifOrlifd ElevntJollls, CI'1)3S~5'ec:[~on:s.) (d) Cnculatlun unduCsl!;lil of various ltums such ,~1~ [H"lIIm~, stabs, ir.d:(Il:~on charmals etc.

(~;) So hed u I.~ a r ra tes Io II oW1l:d a nd r rern ~ um i r ~ ny

0:1 ,f\II'lalysts 0 f rutes for ~HJ n-sche dulerl rate items.

1, 5,.3 QlIl.anU't~ Esli.m,Dtes

Th isis a OaIIU,!J le ~c 'elU i mate [) r q u ~mH ties Fo r a It Hem ~ () f~\vo~'k req u it~d to com pic I ~ it\ P n~Jl:t: I. 'I'll e ,qlH~III.lh)" tJ.f' huJi'tkl:unl iHHH or work is, ealcu lau~d lrcm lh~ ~'c~pecllve d:inH::~TIsion~ '[Ill the druwi rig. The C'O;\il~ or l' ne hhh! ii v 1 d~w I i l eiu is n h 1:1 i n~d hy 111 LI ,Iii p' ~I ~ IlL'. H n.'lp III nt i'I).' W d~, ill H' 'VII h.' p~c ": l'liH i ~ f'lJ r HHlli let' n I i

1l.5.4. rh~'u~s~d E.sfhll1!.ate:

,Re vi$:ed ~:it hna1:c ~ 50 ~1I:ll0 a. dcta i led est i ~natn,;l and is prepared il rresh, when the 0 r i.g)~~~d ~'~mcdollL'd ~1~li~!acd ~~til~Hn~ c'x~~cd.']: by S,IJ.1~1 or .ir~lr1d'1'. i,;'itI1.l.;r due to Ihcn~h!g llcfng rlium(j ~ns'U~1"il~i'l.m'~ or dUiJ l~~1 SOI:Ul' (lIji'liUf rcasorrs;

Th I: re Ii.is~':d r.~"i n1.nte sh eu ld be at'COI1111"l;Ul ie d b'U all !t h C' !~ ~ f) r;:. F'" "'«" ~ I' "'''''' t> e ' ..... f e: .. 1 e t· "I.·. ".1 .....• . ... ~ ... .1:

'. ' "' , .'. .. '.. . t" . l;'" .. , - ,t'H,r' .... ca· u,,~. ~·I ~,~~.,J'!. ,..",'a,i e'!U '~1jIl.IJH}'H,e anu

,".Js.,Q S~'HHd .. d.rudud~ U~.'I;! '~cO.ir~pri,;·~ ... 'l.lve.: slt.lhml~:nti shJt'l."vl"in!i) dH;",aw·~.a[iJ(.m. In eaeh item .r - c~.,L '".- aut .'_.'

~. ,," - _. _ '._ '. ;:! ~,. "" r ",., , . i.~, (} WQ.~ I{S" ~l£ ~llH:r11IH\'

Ir"Jue and C,rlS'l=Ul ig ~ nal tU~ d n~v' ised t. :X1(:,e"~~ ,~rr Sil'i,/ In ,.~ .a I'H:! r;I' i v j nUl \'1 '" , ..... 0"'· ... " . !~. ~.' '.' .. _ ... " . ;"" ••

r" ... ire -. . , 0 _";:)' .. ~ ~.,.; .",~t~:(HlIS o<.~ excess or SC'lVI1'pl~ rn

C~~S0 j) e·adl IlC'lH" ..' ~ . . .. ~. '


1.5 .. 1 El{t.e;ns~,o·n and Inq}rovertH~nt Es-timate ..., ?

.- " , ,'. " " - J' ' .. ' ue rJp '1'11 'the: old work the cost at wh leh cfW[iHH

When some cl anges and exrensions a,.~ 1.·e,ClUIrec, to re ma, ,u~.' -'. '. ,:" .. ',. .: .. _, ... "',, is or. _~.

.. . d' 1- d - urn ~ te of til e ad d I tiona) WO! k IS prep.a'red

be met cut of ArmualMaintenanceestirnate, a -, f;;taLeCles , j ...... t. ,,- . ., • ,

called the Extension and Improvement estimate, It is accornpan i cd by-

U) Report expl',ain!ng the necessity of the addiuona! work {i./) Existing drawings i.e pbUl etc,

Uii) Drawing for the addlticnnl or changed work Uk}) Calcutation sheets as per design or otherwise

(v) Rmes rol lowed rOt' preparing the abs ruct of cost.

1.6 Method for D,eterrriini.ng Appr o xtrnat e Quan~titir:,s of Mat erj al s and 'Labour for ,HI. Propo sed Building Based on the Eq'ua tf cn s Develop,d .by

Ce.nt,ral BuUdll1g R,(UHlrch In!l1Ututa (C.,B.H.,)). R,oof'kee . .

'1 n, rh j s IITllle'th old [1 p,jra~ lmate q L11:11H ide s of mate rta I san d 1~,I;H.)~~r nu·p.lired per sq. rn ,0 r the p.1 i nth Dl'ea for n. proposed bui ldlug are determined by mu ltiplying the ernperical equations deve.leped by C.B.R,r \-".i:[b the lQ,t~1 p.lirith ~.r,ea cfthe buiidlng. The eqm:uti~'ns are based on th"f! fcdtcl"l'~'itlg speuificatiens:

0) For single and d,aubl'Bsior'ey eonstructlon ~

(l~) Fou II dn t ion

Cem -ntcoucrete i ; 5 ; :10 (150 111m th ick)

Bj"icl\\!>'J(Hk iu cement mcrtar ~ : G' 3~' nun Ih1Ck D.I'.C. cOllsisltingnfcemcl:lt concrete I ; '2:;0;1.

I h) \v,u US'

Brickwork In cement IlH'JI'I;'II' l : 6 (2JO 111m lhJ:ck load Df':t1i"jng ,and 110 mm thick pa,I'[hi9IlS). R .. C.C. work ,IJl linl(!ls, bcnrns anli ch:ljj,ns I '1 : 4.

(c) FhH~lring

JS mm IhLk cement concrete I: 2 :4 I[lid over cement concrete I LSr mm thick I, ::.5 ,: i O. -td) u.ooJ

.R.C.C. s l~ b 'v,tl'.h lime concrete terrace (average I: 10 mrn thick].

(In F,o'r Fouf S~t.'fney :H.,C.C. ·F.nJl~R1'Q:d, B [IUdh,O Foun [H l,on x'c:,m~£Llion 2 rn d~,~,p

IR..C.I . i, COiL1111f1 fhDtmngs ,I : 2, :4\'1hl1 bed concrure II :.~ : IS.

The T~b .1Li!S, 1.1 t 1.3 ,S!HU'o the eq:u,a.lttons rCCOi 'Il1'II~clldcd bv C_B fl' 'I f" -- di] ,_ ._' ._. _'. . ..' .'.

. • .1". - e ~ • ~ • . " : _I· '. C _. • ~ • • ...... ~. or -_I rrl!rclu ~Inrll~el'~a~s for

Lu!um~.i 0 ,IJ,._rri! shep S iU'1d P inth areas .' ar m I Irum 3'0 g.... c .... ~" ..

~ - - 'q .. m'l to, j lJG sq.nll.



, I

I.E ,Ulb,~

g! 'y t'2 o,J 'M O\~V\

,(.0 <=> o



Analysts 1~lf ,R,a~~

40:1 ,A.naly,sis 'of Rate

The C{Hnpllta.tion of rate pCI' unit of a particular item of'work, following its,:sp'~'cifh::,a~~ol1., from the C.Q'st nfquantities afmaterials, the cost of labourers and! othermiscellaneous petty expenses re:quh'led t;br Hs

ccmp letion is known as the tmolysis of rate, '

4.2 Factor.s Aff-ecUng the AlHt']ysis of Rate The analys is of rate of any item ofwork depends on the rol'~owing:

Ul Speciflcations of differem items of work and materials, quality- ofln~lter~al.s, t;l.p. ,

(Ii) Q;U[1H"lt i'tics Q r .rrHlter~nl.s and tht:dl' rates number of di rrcrcutl.ypes of labourer ,(both xklllcd and

tmskinedl.) as per standard and their rates, ...

(Hi) Location ofsite ef'work, means cf cnmmunications, distance of site 'from the source ofmaterials, rate oftransport easily avallab le nvaiilatdUty of'water (water fit for dr lnkjng to, be used).

(Iv~ , Availab] I iuy of tools and plants, dUfer-enuty:pe,s 0' equ ipmen.t require,d fbr d tfferrenr, eperat lens as per ~p~lci:fic:H,ioT\$:

(v) Profit and averhead expenses of contractor.

.. ,

4.3· To Fh:: up' Rate P~a; Un I t 'Q.,f an ,Item

The' foll(liwin,~ five svb-heads are est~maH!:d and. addedtogether to .g'st'lhe rate per unit of an item,.

(~) Quanrlty nfrnaterials and fts cost

(Ii] L,~ beur cost

(iii) COL$[ of cqulpmcnis or loo~.~ rmrll),I.1'Il'[ (T S~ :1J) (h') 0 \1CfI1;t;"f1d ~x pc ns C 5 l ~ 11 C III ~J i n ~ i ncideui n!)

(~) Co rUf~H:: t'or'5, pro fI ~

4 .. 3.1 Q'\UI,IlUty of Mftt,g,ia~s .and i Is Cost

e, sed ,on t:h'i! det.~H(Jd spccificackm .. I he 5tlm,::llor'lnk~s Qfnhe qunntities ofvar:ious. materials requ~i red per 1U!lIi~ qU[l[n'~Hy of,_n h·e ,1 .. The quantJ£ics can be' k.IIOWfli frcm exper ience of[p~eUcril' work. The cost ofmate'ri:aJ:s is then calculated from [he ieca I I1Hlr~e, rates: The rates: 10 r mater ials Dye usua llv take In as ~!lIC' r,@i~tS de HVI~n=lJ at it he s iu: of \'\:or k ,a nd I nc lude the fi rst ,~ost i( L e. eosi all n.l':i~i.n),. c C"S~ 0 f transpo ~ t, rtl.H\!~la.~t t~M~'ig.h~. sales U!lX ere, The nnes, of rmder:i,alc5 y,ary from place '[0 :p.l.ace and therefore, HH: rates, of d;.if('ii're:,l!ll it.'~ms g . wlJlik alse ver from plnce ItO pi-ace.

TtH~ m,J~:cr.i,lJ,15:whh~,h nre s!IJ,p,~Held depaJl'unc';ruaUY,1 pfotT~' ,on the cost cf matertals is no:~ allowed: but

t'O'Sf 0 'a.ri;:1,;~ ~romgodDwn ~.o 'HJ'rk silc shaU be added. '.

~.3.,2 LqbQ>ur 'C'G'Ii,t.

TI e ,I ~.b :U is III}!" s.sur, u) do I - we .k phj':i _nUy t~ execure UU.! 85-5 igned uls,k.Tbeiif Wllg'l"'S., ,oxp'cndhur-e on a . - it, ,s, :0 ,II 'UiOl ne ~r~m 1, !HL han ., 'c. IS: ~llkC'rI into iC"(HU~Uer~rion to nrr'i e ULthe cost. The



. '... c'. .•. ..... I . nut c or the work,; stage ef work ddiOltl

extent of labour luvolvcd for each uern depends upon lie lUI urc . -c:::t

turn of labour p~cr g hourly work in a day, . ·

4.3.3, Cost of Equtpm ents 01' To"l)i~s and Plant . r- _

t· r YO k 0 .

Certain cq u lprnents, tools an-d p lants e te. arc ulso eJ~ploycd .for the 'constn~c l~OI1 0 ali r . :rer~t~on

and n.'.ritl.Hen1H1IC.· ,e .. ·. of the eqtltP.mcril 'th.~r~'.del.).I.~ecr.allon.rds~_,(:ld. d.sr~,the.c~s. of 111ev.:0rl, D'li.'l~.h employed. Generally, a lurnpsum !-1j'OV1SIOtl Cor ro~ghly I.So/a) lor each ue.n of work i1i mQde. ; tile

analysis of rates aga lust cquiprnen t. 0


4.4 Ta,.5K or Out .. turn of Work



11. J,. £1 Overhead Expenses IJlu·ir,],g the 1,;~lccul:LOIl of works" some miscellaneous,expense$ have .to be. incl~rrcd, tile s.ni1H;\~lOt

COI.lIHCU rOl' j,n the an.IiJ!Ys is o r ral OS; Lilcro can be loss 01'1 lhc. cornpl cuon .0 t the J ob. ~

Over head charges (or expenses or costs) or miscellaneous e~renscs ,include, office expenses illc~n,g

rent, starionary, postage, telephone, depreclatleu o.Ffurniture etc .. ; and include charges for supervision, hr'1tlnlli'ngaf matcr inls rcpnirs, 'carriage and deprcc latiun of tools and plants, expenditure 011 I~m umcnlties. cornmisslon and cornpcnsatlon etc. 2 (() 5% msy be rdlowed for 00/("- head cbarges:

4 .. 3.5 Contlnctolr'ls ProHt

Tile rate per unit of the item of work is obtained by adding 10% ofthis CO!)~ as contraetors prcfl]; Hi%, prof! t is added to d11e labour cost ifthe materials are supplied from department stores 10% pr.oflt may be added over the whole cost oflabuur and rnnrer ials, tf it is flat specified ch~t these 51 «II be, supplied d e partmen ta t ly,

The capacity ofdoing work by a skilled labour ll1l the fOJ"m ofqtHI~li~y of work per day is known 21'S tile· (QS,~ or out turn of labour, The out .. turn of work per labour vnr] es to "Some ex ent to the nature I s ize, 11H!ight, iQiC1'lIIOli e 'c.

T'~~c dernl Is mien ticned .n Table 4. I. may he co ns idcrc d as the appr ox imare quan t ity 0 f work or om turn for an a ",:r rage labour per day,


S' ~J

, .. ntl.

Quan f i.l.)" .

K Inri Q/ Lab (JJJI' Required per Day (8 hrs. ,cr: da.~)



E;U1:h work in exeavation in ol"dimlry soil, lend ~p to 50 f1i1 and. lin upto I 5 III

E, rth work in cxcavarlon in hard soil. lead up 110 3,0 III mul ~ ,i ft uptn 1'.5 In

U:x~n\,ridiun in so Ii ' f d'~COIl"pOSt::J ror.:k. Ict'lu up 1,0'sU rn and Ii r~ up to l.S rr.

S.and rrWrrlg in p!intll .. ,or -5si"~ and co s-oH~ ~'3dn&

:S,i ~jl_' I: _ . er br,ick 1l".Jl soil'll!; in luuing (;,!,Iumin.l:; , ne dr, ss,ing till bed

IJr,ic . ~. ork in eemen ilL rtar ill fmuuia. ior j nd lin 1

:2.21cu m:



4.00cu . .m

1.25: C'lIJU

per mason


........ ~~(J~f.

"' .. ~ ' '1 ~\. ~., .. x \' ...•..... ' 't. " o..W.'~

·~~~~tl."~· .

co .0 o


An agreement which is enforceable by !aw is a contract, It is, an undertaking given by a person (net heing 1.1 Govt, servant), syndicate Of firm, for the execution of'any work or SUPI;"Y of materials or performance .or any, service in this. connection.

, ........ /9,2 Contractor

This term is applied normally to n person (etherthem a GOVL Servant), syndicateor firm" giving an undertaking for the execution of any work or supply of materials or performanceef any service. in that connection.

9.2.1 Qu~HUcaUoni of contractor'

The following categeries ofcontractors me generally enlisted with P.\\',D:

. ___________..-

(I) Por building ,fln.~ roads _

un For sanitnry in~naJlaliQ.ns nod water supply

- jiU

(iii) For electrical; and Air conditlcning

(Iv) For f&lrnituro

Each of these categories ofcomrnctors should be cornpelunt ,enough to dcrd with tflc work cntrusicu ItO t!lemUlt! huve 1\1\ c'nginccrin~ orgnnism icn to do tile work. For (Ii) and (iii) uf'works, eourractors should have valid license to perform llu: work. Each contractor is expected to have required equipment nnd lluuchinel'Y for [Ile job TI,~ qualification of conracturs are further adjudged fQrm '(a) their financial resources (b) [h~ir professlnna] ability to understand and implement the contraetua] O'bl,ig,ation (c) lh ir ahility '0 comrol labour (a) inccmu tax clearance certificate. .

Afi.cr Ciujtat Earthquake, Gov has inrrcduccc a bill \,0 change UH~ qualification required tor buildlng eemraeter If II'he contractor is an indivuua] then he must have civil Engg. degree land if i't a firm •. then they must have ctvll englneers with h·m.

9.,2 2 uthulriUes Com p e ent to Enter IntD Contra,cts for Publfc WUlk:s

~-~ • .._-... 1 -.-.....,.,-- __

(I) Th sub-Dlvislcna] officers in the central P. \V.O can sign the agreement fer work costing within

~,heir lpowers, for ,~Ind On benal! of the presidentafter the tc'ndcrs have been accepted, by 'the comp ~e"nt nlll_horl'~Y· All agreements for execunon of works in excess of the power of subO.H.,isiolU t officer C.1U r~k',v[se be sisn.d by Ilhc Divisionrl! cruceI' on behnlfof .he president

n rer th c cept: nc (II lenders, by the competaru authority. -.. ...

{,u') pll\'e~s dl~':l[ed 't~G.P.\V.D of re rs 0 ~c.cepf tender for contract are' as below:

( Ch rc En~II r (-) R 'I~'. •

.;. ~. s. -j 0 lacs 1 nder h rs DWn powers

(~J? Rs. 4~'O lacs with prior appro al or A_D.G (~:,I)~s.S'50 .Iacs \\'.ith prior ~Pipn)\I;J,~ »r.pc (w) (" .. ) ,Pull powers with prlm"l'lpproyal o-FC.\IV.B_



Ch~ i rf;;timatingr C{l$t'frtg and ViJfLiOit'i(m to

(f) Its. 701 ac s " . . . ooc::t

(.I) Rs,] Cl lass for strr:n,gtl1en€,d .dIV~~HCrns and ..

Rs. 6 taes fef d lvlsion with ASW, t"-

(i) R!l, 6 fJ1 OC){):!~


(.6) Supdt En~,iTHl'~_r (S.E,)

(c) Execu'liva Engineer (E,E.)

'9.3 ESrsenti alit of Corrtrue rs <..0

Tile essen t I a ~ e I emen ts 0 f a Gont~"aCl are: a

(r) rVlini murn two PI31;::;['~:li ~. ,M lnlrnum of two parties are necessa ry to form a contract because 0';:;:> person C:,f1fH'6~ enter inro a contract wi~:th himself In order ro form a cantraCl, one ,arty ha5~ 11~~ke,?r1 .Qn~r and the' other must Rcc'ept,it, The person who ,ma~e5 '~,he nrfC'f is called t~ j P FtH1il i .'H2'J 1"' a n d, th e person who -J c cepts the o ffer IS c al letl til e j P rmJl1 se e " olT

(I i) -0 ffc r .n n d a ccep 'La nee : Th ere ,,1'11 ust bean • offe (1 an d a f1 · a,c:cepHmce j to tl~ e 0 ffe r in an y con tnliI;

Both [offer' and "acceptance' ~hoLl.lcl he lawfu].

O'il) Cnmpetent pnrtles : Th~ parties to PI. contract must be COltnpetenl i.e. they arc ef the. age eh mo] ority, of sound III ind and not dlsquul i fled form CQ,nuac.ti ng by .any ~aw tQvvb ich they ~mftsu bj ccted,

(II,) free CO~I,~l)n t : To fo!'m n val id COI11,Tflct~ ~]I pfl r"~ [C,G should gJve their free consent. Consent

nU~~HH tluH u~c partlcs Inusl agr',cl~ up'em the: .same thing In the same sense" consent should be rr·cc unless 11, is induced by !.JIH]ue inJlv!.!nel.:'! CJ'[HI,d. nl'islI'cpl'c:":lenllllioJ1 IllH.1 J11L~lJ1r.:r.~,

(If) Jntlcu(ion H) crente legnl f)bJi~l1.i!ion ~ The parties must hnve intention to create .Iegal, 'obligation, In comruercial n_g!"cemc:nt, an inteution to create lcgnl relatlons i.~ prcsurnud, 1I !'!creES lhc putlicS have expressly agreed to otherwise.

(vi) Lawfu I nbjcct : The a bJ ec 1 of an agraement is said 10 be lawful, if it"rs not. fraridulcnt en illegal ,gr i.m:nonll or oppused te puhlic policy andalso II should not irnply injury to the person or properly

of another. ' I .

(vii) Not expressly fl,ech~red void; An agreement expressly declared to be void under any-law, is, not

en fdr.ccable and is, thus, nor ,~ contract. ..

g., 4- DHf,(3';f,~nt TllrH~S of co Fltr(tct CorHrL~C~S arc or1lhC!: FollowLng L}Jpe.s:

(AJ Hem, rate GOlttr;:H;[. including

0) PiC rc c n l age: rule co III I'i\C~

(i"l Schedule ,r,;\trc cnnrract

( iii) La b 0 IJ r r.;~ ~ e ba sis

(iv). rll:rougl\ nne bLl~L'l

(B) Lumpsum Contrnc l

(C) Co mb inaricn 0 rba~h item rate and I urnpsum contract.

I( Ai., h·~~j1 H.~1.'2 Con r a c~

In ll,liS type cf contractcr.jbe co.uructors have it') quote rate of eaeh item f "1,," -c -.,' ,"

"'~""iI em [) t H! work with out reference

In ~JI1\1 schedule o~"nIC.'i, Thi'S method IS f1dop~cd w, , ", " ' , ,'" . '.' ,',.,,' .... ,~

~ , " , ' . . ien 0 rensonably cornnlese ":, I ed'i' 'II, ,I" , ' " ."., '

.1 '1/, II III hie Lor rh e pi (lee where lhe wnrk 15 to be ('tUI' i c d out I',' I~;)C 'I" lJu C Oi rat es .rs 110~ work is: more, ' , 0,1 'W H! n n u mbe r ~ f IHJ<I:!I-SC1'1 edul e JtC.1T} s i, n th ,


, ,

I •• ~.: ~~~,

to In 't I~ is type of C cmraer, rh e work is' 2.lllotlf;: d at fixed rates fer d iffen;I'i't ite"I'lls an d tll ~ pa'ymell ~ depenQJ Uru1,Ilrhe q lHmtHy~m! kind ofwor'k' dotr~ 'Of supply made, _, Z

(fU) 1.. r;r;bo uf" t:'at~ bdsl"

a: raL~

I It some eases the contractor qUQIe- the labour rute ~H ~{)me pefc'e~JliIg'C flbovt en below ~he p reva iii n g ; n th e area To r V~ltr i ous l :[c ms o f we rks,

o ,lj ) 1·1~ n:H_ftl /J J" (:II te tn:l e lis

In some cases Ihr. eontraercr quote 'the rates for dob1~, work scme percentage above or below the Lhrotlghrates.

("8) lu:m,psum_ Contr8ct

! 11 Lh iS~Y~-H.) 0 f CEl:rH ract .. the ocntrserc rs have to q U ote i'i Iu III P-SJUfJl figu,r,e for C,0~-rI j;) l eti,111:g the work wccolrdI_ng to the-given, spl2ait1cnt:'ion draw~ngs_etc. T~lrS type of cenrracts are gl\Uili1 only in ~xc_eption,nl cnscs. Tire contracts nutstinelude necessaryeondlrions [0 g[lfegm:lrd and preteer the lnreresr of the government.

({::" Ccu'n b i n,frtio,n of both

In this ccnrracr, a fixed sum is agreed UPQ!1 :for the comp-!etJo,Cl Qft~ p~lrticij'].il:ir work by Lh~ C('!i,[],tractor, ln casen rany additlon o.ral.tel'rLt!Dn;s 'th e payment is rna-de or deducteCf onthe ~Hl,£~5 ofschedul e of rates.

9.5 Adva ntages: and dIs[a.d·vantage,s

9. § • 1. I tern. nil [1~ co n h·,D 0.1

5' .,5 ~.1_1 }\dLV,Qnlnlglrl:~' ~~.

(./) ThLIi form of conrract ensures a more derailed analysis of east by Hu, contractor and is more

scientific. _

,un TI1,e conu-acmr arc rcqult'~d to quote rates reg' iudividua] i:'~eI1l1S of w'(uk a~\d hence it is not eflS')I W ~"o!"ln a rt ng d uri ug sou b III iss ~ on 0 fte n der and to ~! lot a we rk. 10' on e 'of the ~ on tractors W ['[h O'lJJt eornpcti t ~ CI n .

(f II) Tid s fo rrn IJ r c ~1 n l rae l 11(~ I ps ins In o Jlh P rogrc ss an d lim ely eom ple lion ofa 'Work b ecause the unworkable nHe-d tender may be avoided.

U~·) Intcruted talc pa)'llu:n~ 10 COIHrflCrOr5 for the completed i~em ismore easier.

"i 5.1 ,.2 ,0"$ adLHJi,d agcs'

( iii)

I( 11 In rh J:s type 0 f comrac t there t 5 a ~ Wi:W~ a ,100 pho le fo rill. een tractc r to c-orre9rGl it ra tee ,~I:'I order to be ,8 lowest tencercr,

(ij) Til is rypc a j' oO!llmc~ is not nhV,ltY:i a~vmrhlge6u5 when the ~ uunt ities u r eertai ~11 items nrc to be int:I'l'uscd 01' dl!el'C~~Sl!cl. ! rby rm~h:fpation 0" by S~tne' OHHH source tl.-cCHHrrlcl[u" 'COl-He:; to KFl(lWn tlte dc~n:i ,'. hasc quun t i H cs arc II ~~,('Iy to he ln C F'l2n:;!.: d muy (l UOU .. • h i ~J'I pd c e f'lH' i!I,icsc items a 11d ~nlllhlrt)' ca~l lf~h)h! luw prilc'~!::i "1;)1' items li~a;'ly to be dc'crcased. r~, lhm 'c!Ha.:, tne (:lupnrlm'~tH

\\'U u III ~ 1.1 all ld los l! hlZ-U V f ~y (j uu tu uu bnl an e e d lendc r, -

Pr~ [1~nll i.on a r ~t(iI1~,p~fa~ i'iOi.r; ,s't II tenre III I) r thi S 'lype 0 r lC11,(j ers r ~q uires B;loO re l i III C ~ n d L bra ro u y,~ s~rmmy t5 requ I red for this type of tel1ideu"

Chan r e~ u f rejec I ionof s uch l \f pl~ 0 ncnd~n :UJ: more beeau "1'.,~ of hu I"'.~," 11. erro aa I', ke ._ ... ' ..

) - . . "" ...... '1I,]c"" v ,i" - unu ... ' ,I ~I~ .. ~ llYer\Vn t I'nn

and 'lH~in!:! and IHlldoi,ng i~,hc m~Hal to these overwriting and cutting i~~ the. quoted rates or

items b)' tne COt1II.ril,~ [Of. \ _ "


_~~~._~_.,, __ """' .. ., ~_~_~~ __ ~"-_-~- CluU Btimming1 CosfJng and ValuotjD~

433 _ .. _

(v) H requires acctlp'nt: measurements ,Qfal Hue: Items ofwork.


- ,

9.5.:2 Lump-sum Contl'o'ct

(D 0.



'Cr) (ii)

The cos.t of'the work is known before hand, ,_ '" f _ dd' ," ", 5'J

Deta llcd measurements of the work done ~re not requ ired except, n case 0' aJlY a t: JOn fJJ1

ahc.nltiol1s. _ , '" '1' -', r'ontraG~ S,incC,I,here is dtfnc,I,JHv"in male, ,img int:ermedi,tlt1e,payme,nt to ~Ol1tl,"a'cl!OrS II," E ,lJ5 ~)p'e,',Q ~'. l,~_

" ._, -' - ickl 1 ll'lgm~i1dyf;Orl1pl"tHmno,

every conrraetor l1£t5, f1 tendency 0' complete the' work qu Ie, ',)"11 resu II - -

work. . .

, j ff" , t ,(1' - -, tlo ""'f'w"'r'k- is' more convenJ'enl.

Proper p,lannmg .1,IH e,OI~,ent managemen .rur CXOCIJ ron u, -,'" ' I, - . L.t1



' Di$ad,f;lcmta9~6

(I) Makirlgi:Ul intermediate payment to contracrors is not so "Cftsy. ".

(ii) Derailed dra\!,ling with f:ull' info~natt.iol'1 and speci:ficati'on is essential' to avoid any dispute,

9.5.3, Sched'uhzd contrad

9w5,3.1 A dvmrtages

('1 The materials :stored in Government are utilised.

(ii) Delay Of\\'Ork due to non-ava ilab illty of materiats ln the open market is avoided. Thus better' progress wlrh standanl qutdity of mater ia ls can be eraiuutincd.

(ifi) TI1~ increase rn the cost of work is checked irrspite of any rise in pd~e of'rnaterials in the market .

. "

9.5 .3.2 D lsadvl)'u t.ag13$

(J) There may be delay in obrainlng rnaterials frol~ the department stores resulting in the delay in completion of the work.

(If] A iargc storage area is required by the department to store the materlals.

(iii) Theft I):frnateri,als rrom store, shortage of materia] and damage of materlals are constant worries ro-l' a department,

(i~') Reconailf iation cf'materia! is essential ill this ,}!p,e of coni ract.

9.6 Tender

Tender is :;:J written offer 5ubmitt~u by contractors in resp-orms!: to tender callnotice, ('I execute.certain work or sur ply ofspec·ifieu mnf~l'Ills or ransport cf rnatsrlals at certain rates. within a fixed time w&th the terms and ccndluons laid dm~ n In the tender documents, The tender duly fr-I.!e'd in is placed. a:n the locked tender box kepr in Ihc room ul"the officer inviting the tender on nr before the 's'j'l,ecified dale and hours.

9,16.1 Tend r urm

Jender farm is a printed sta d r 'or n of oruruct giving t rms and conditions of renders. U is obtained 'rom Ih" uffice or the om er invitin tender OJI payment, The amount of payment called the 'cost of

t nder Iorm ' hi decided by llw d"pllrnnerH conceruad invi~il1g the lender. -In the tender form, there is ,.lhfJ rt mcmornndurn for ,givi.rlg (i) general dcscripliol'll of work, (ii) estimated cost. (Hi) liIme allowed for the \'\ rk 'rom dnte OfHiti n ora!!!!' to eornrnence, (iv) estit'Il11lcd enst, (\') earnest .mono'y. (vI,) columns f(11' ~ it:I1i1llir ~ ('II r I II 0 m,re r 0>' wh,om Rei e ph:d Imd , i gmlt urc 0 f C (11 1'1 nil tor before' s,lIIbm i:Hi'll 0[1 of tender, 5i~n. ture of witness to contraC:lcr's signalu <e. I~ is a pa I. oftender

, .0.2. T nd 'If" ID(:H:U:l'l;~e:llt

• rJ'P,,'dinz< rc _IS. 0 lo:ina dO(:aIl'l~JI'I' S ar carefully prepured;


(11 Ccmplere set cf drnwlngs, showings full details QfwQrkm 'b~ executed, a

(If) '[),e'tllilrilld spec i fjcations of each itern of work, a!on,gwUh scnedul:c'o.f quantltles is motinetl'ld 'tGl"ldt.:f call notice. lf reference tn 'p,W.D, spedI1c(ltinn,s is to be made, it' should btl spcldficaUy l11enUoned a~,atinsl each Item. ' . , - Z

(In) List of matertals re be ,~s5,LJed by the Deparrmenl,liiving rates ofeach item und there pl,acOC[[

lssue, - 't-')

(il~) CondiU,ons: of contract ure printed on tJlN~' form Add[Uollul set of cendltlcns n!quilred for the

apeclflc work are also notifled alongwith general conditicns. , Lf)

(11) J fil Is dccidedro deduct securiry ata rate less than I: 0 per cent from runntng bills 'Of contractors, it shouid be notified in the' tender call notice.

(iv) Authority to r eject any or all tenders WrUlOU't. the assignrnen: of any reason" 'g,hrouldill:ways be reserved ;_UlC noUncd in tender call notice.

Dncurnents mentlcned above are prepared by the llcad Clerk and checked by Head Draftsmen and Divisional A'C'CQIUnlanl and got ap,pJ:'Qv~~ from the competent n\.ll.holri:~y;, before actual Issue of 'the

lender, -.'


91,,6.,3 Tender No'UoC!e or No't.I'ce In'vithllg, Tend,!!], (N J.T.)

FoUo .... 4ng instructions ShOll ld bit fa 11~(Jwed:~


(IJ As, SOOI1 as A dmin'istrativt: Approval, Technical Sancrlen and Appropriation: are e.onveyed ~.nd eenrreet documents are nppr,cPiled', sealed renders are h1Vi~'ed from approved P. \V.D. CDIHIr:~Uaor5. N.r. T. is III I cpIHC'L1 em stundnrd rQrms by Un: lreud clerk,

Uefon: N.I.T. is !lCUHIHy issued, The Di,vJsio~~l Acccuntan] s.hall verify It.hat the amount of earnest 1H1J'1"i"C'), to aecompny the tenders is corect as per rules and sehedule of quantities and

spceificalions of \t\.rOIK are 1.l5 pier sanerloned estimate.

WhJc pllbllicilY is giv,t'tI LO. the tender cull flcnice as per procedure ,g,Jvcn below:-

(a) Wor'5 ,c(u,[ling Hs. SO,OOO l, Three weeks oleur rm~,i,lce Is g)'iH~n tO, ecntraetors. 2. Tendct notiit:e is ~d.vle:rt.W:scd in leacltng, da ilies.

3, Letters are i's,nlcd mndivi'dlu~ny 'to Ilne ,eUI.igiblecontrac .. 'tors a,s ;pre'Ji rule .. s ~f"the 'Depa.rtment.

4. COpi~i oflender cal] notice are s,eult to ;aU di,\i!bh:ms, of the department for e!;u,ibiting, on. mhcir rlio'lic·e boards, L Two vecks C' lear notlee Is :glYle.n to eontractors.

(/J) \Vorkl ceuing aver rho :201,,000 I'I.nd IUpl [.0 l s. 50,000.

(iCl ~ odts:_ es r irtg Q 'e' r Rs, ! a ,UDO I nd up r Rs:. 20.000.

O'tiCI is not adveulsed j,n press, Remainlag lns .. r Ct~IQIn:5 mentioned Ilbove ,s,h~U be fonlGwed.

I. T~J'1 da'Y!i, clear netlee is given '~,0 coatrscters.


Ccplcs 001' notic .' are 51:1'11[ 'to aU Oi" isions B.nd SubDiil"'~siions Qrthe cencerned clin:'I,~ fur dhp,I,;:tyin,g

Ion nonce buards, -

uh ric rl SfLH the" t 111.:1 \~ r "~s:gi 1 in sane loncd estimate.

th P ace wl ere, ~11 .r ietime wh .n, I;cmU'ae~, doe ment can be or is 0 ~ t nuers ar i1 ail:lb)c n cost of each form.

last _ e (OJ r C' 'rpl nf l 'ld U and ,p l I;C. date and lime of

_ P_,. ' ~n) 10 accompany the te,ndcrs.

rod rin~ hi -nih , 11 rue hi com 1 te the work.

f;h I hJ be: linfornH'tHJ1ilt they !ilhilill mitl,~1 G(nn:c:li(J u iF ny, as rcgJud IPC:H~"3n~a;gG, I'i:n"i:.

- r~ll, c III rr t~nd,t'r ~rt .!i.]bh: :I'o! e l'cj~(lcd,

.' 1- '1'111' l I,Q h'~ huJI' rht' 111lildi or NuU,!:" h' I~h, ' T"lIIUj, "If DpCtHJ'~' I f

I") 1Il1',pU r~lml dlcn:.umcnt on which iII~lnl'lll~r .111d suhs C:rjln~ln t ~g,rCCI'tl,~n t5 with l:jl,C rc b ~ -d U nflcllud" ,h,mll 28 numbers nF i'BrOrn11Ja~ion!!l 1'I'lld ~nll"hfliol'1~' Ii 1II:.h ns Hllflto of r \ 1! 1..;, ~. rl1i~~1 ".O'r'! ''Y. r.e I L nO', ~ , C II ,1'1'1;,: ~ mU1H;;1'" pcrigd nf ""~,,I "(Jl it"] o If Iwh:lS qllol~d by [hill!

I 1 I(ln If rn ""n .. ,1 ere. 1\,11 he c p;u;ic~IIi1n: nrc r.ot irll(.luth::d in Ih~ lc"U1dUi'lll~l'l Df

HlI r: l II In! ,,1,lId ~"lillh(l'LH perf n UI,g i"m '1IgH:cm~lIil fol' UU~ e p',ar rc~,lilI"", HC:l1c-~

I In I utle ,111 II e all in • JO,I!UIT: I.

II _, luh f

I> 0 Illy tern, GlnblllllCU'ucni, iHC' ~nU1C',i'mt.:'t:"~ IllIrv,iu::d hyhl" [ un 'J!I\lIC Orr~,i". from 5p'l.:crali l!d firm ~hroul!II(UIl

r. Ih' ~ h I Jlob, I lliHHlcr uaucc is wid [lea onthe he.11 ,!,fi!,ji

r! . I nU 'r not,t':C' I S,ilITIC as tha olf orclinarr Il~rur&r

J h tin: I' in' IHr~· S'P;)Jl cr " hi cit C j) VC It nros of 1111u: .nrr e II ,I 0 CI'{(;I.:I,I[I.:.~ throu h ll\ Elrllibnuie of

lin,io;! 'fAI : tc:r'lr~,- r. ,c rep rId ~ rr

Con ~rClcl iJ'lfi

...._____~~~"'-'-----~---~~-- __ ~ __ ~~ .lJ41tc

(/) All "

.'~ coc'r~~r;th;}liI~, in the e,Q!lt.r.[fct diocu!1leJ1.l should be ihil"ialkd ariddated b~lthe E,l(ccutivu: ErrgillccrO

l h:) 1 he G ffic ... d I' ~ ~ ,'_, , ..... er concernc·. 5 ~(nJld murk all. correcrlons find ,over wd~ .. ~JfIg and nlumbar them alia otll:C;!r-"

'I:h,e:r~:l i I'll ,red ink. :Sepnl'a~ e II1U rn b ers sb QU I d be nllotte d for eorreetlons aM cI l;)'VeC['IO'II Fit L 11,g,S. T,C)ll"a N numb e r '0 fcorrcctl t'! ns s h End d be m en t~,(~'ILIlc:d <fit the e,mcl >0 f the GO!1 G ernl:ld pa.ge a nd in i t ~fl' i ,~ed.

· Omlhnh:ms if any, and m11higuhy in words or fig,lInJ:s ef rates quoted, shQu~d be 'cl~t1Fly '"J'dnJc,~ (I ut on C i'lch pag~ 'IJ f the SelLe d u! e, attach ed ttl the tender cOJ1'CCrI1C,D. Wh,~rlJ rates hav,e be e:n<I, quored i 11 R upees (lml no ~ P' is mentioried, word' on Ily' s no uld be added after 'Tol:. upees '. correct ~onsf-'J

inltta.lled and remarks given at the end. .

Nerrnally, ~10' cono~tiol1(Jllcl1dcr should b~[l'CiCe,~'led, Hul, wh,c.re,! ne frmlnd~1 ir:npl icatien is invohll;JI'" or '111 C' te 11 d e r rerna ins I cwest even ~ rtf r taki n gin to a,CC()lH\t f fHH) C ial im p I j ~,a t ion, i ~ may be ccns i d~e red

an merit.

9_,6.9 C o'nqJ ~r,itIUV'B; S~,ahHllHHllt of Terrders

Ccmparnt i ve statement is prep::lr~'dI La compare the ratesand other turns ~nd condltlons or eli ffcrent renderers whose tender.s have bee'!'! accepted. 11 is prepared by the officer open i.lI1g the render. in form as, 'P, W. D.- I :3, The corn parat ive statement (C.S ,) ccnta ius in f,Olrl,t"iiillions re§ardj Il,~ t:h,~ iilJI~I'rI~ of the con lrill,Clcor, date or receipt of tendc rs, percentage above or b'I!~OW the rates. amount ,i~l case of~1ump sum renders, The rccommeudatrcu or rejection of the tender is recorded (3'11, it.

COlT'lpilrn'li .... estntemcm of item HHe renders is more elaborate and is prepared in th,e r. W,D. lcrm- ~ A u n'r:r I horn ugh ce rnpu lal i nn urn! ehec k un dcr gUP ervls i on G r the d ~ v isicna I nccoun tan ~ i The corn pnfflli ve ,!i'lnt e men I 1111.1 S ~ e 0 rrect Iy i 11 corpc rule the rates n n d I] meunt nn d checked prop e fly on ~ he 1 n u i ¥ i d ual u:no{.'r"& bCC;H~S·C n mistake in it may lead to the work beill~ ~lw.(Inj,r;:,L1 to a eoutracrcr who is nol lowesL

9"6.1 0 ~'rihnmDI Ti@,[ldur

A tender jls :said to be, i.nfa;m~d ~

lol) \~han fll Is net sUPPlo'ned by the requisite earnest maney in 'thle presedbed manner,

('i) 'Ilvhcnr lit is nOI submitted in tile tender form sold bll rh~ d~p~rlmen~' ~.r by Uiffli due date rind time ncUi ~~,,(l'd in the' netiee ilHljting 'lC!mJer,

~U~l ~\ hen the render I-rll rn [S' not properly filled ln Of 5 il.Bfll\d by tbe contractor,

Igl, 6,.11 Unb,~,~ nt d r .nu,er

In i,le U1f r,ilt~, ~ en Jer, co II ~ r~.: -, ors qlH:r ~ the I r rn h~5 rer 11 ch and overy ~,FH:I ividu ill i i~,cn~ .. [h;i't n n UU~ bI'U;1S, 0 r In{arm::ui:on rrom iln)~ 50W·C\.' re ~nrdtn~ hem or .. ark. es wluch !1[!i:: lill.::e~y tlo be lnere fl sled nlfnl whilch are h~~I) hll h(.T ~I, ·al.'hl,.", . I~ r&:'IH' rl u; It qn 'I~' hi~11 r .• e fm rhe iti:ms Ii,k~.dy ~n hI} In~nH~~cd uml~ 1(!!.~ rutu fu~' ~h,n~ ,I~ ~'~lO be tl,r,;t(t;l$~tl.

. .

~ f I'b~ i~farmElti,gn to 'the tonflra·.::'tor pro\ n to be correct the tender beco.mes LJnba,i3,nccd ;i11fl1i the

d',p..1rW1Cn; J1iJ5'£ hca\"~,~~ iJ'lfw~ 'A{lf " IS' i2 '~rded 10 the 'C!J!'HIr;[!('I'"r. an II1,e mher hond irth,t ~l:1Ir(H'lllfHH~'Cln "f '\!~ ee be \-H[ln . 'Ih~ (:{}fII'tril:'tor wou.ld stand ~o lese. for item rate tenders unbalance'£! tender Fllnu occur.

9.6.11. E;(~nlpfre o!U/Jbtlfo,need Tende',

mou r n T 10 R. 100. Q{) ja~ h '~n in ired fur earthwork of il. road 0) D,D.A. ut rme. Thre e co n [ tJ C lars X, Y and Z, ha ve par: ic j pa ted ill the :l~ 'S 1 e O~'. I r er amp hniol'\ of the work the bill5. wi til their

·.' ,


7J.cs,rr;npfl,()'/I 0] uemlQUt'mU,IY eu-m

, Sl. No,


C·:/ r-.,~ ~1"J""alin(li., Costing and Vbluf.ll:loJ1 q-

tVJ ,~,L. ,r'''_' ',,;,1"-



I. Ear~b\'rr'ork ii,Cx.taVil[IOH .30:J0

'wirh lead UpLO SO 11.1 and

:l:i.l'lt U.plO ! .5 rn

2 ,['>rQVlcli:ng ,o,nd ,1El;yiJ~g tOO

icencretc I ~ 2 :, fir wi,111

stone t1ggrcgatc 20 mm

nom Ln.,1 size ,

l. SI"ickwotk wj't~l' l)'it ]00

eim;s lJl'I\'o!;lt wllh


cement mertnr J ; 4'


,(}.1 00:

I I r" I!

p~r CU.!l' I ,!@O lX')(~

,<I -7'() 000

""~I';!~~·· -

x r

N,;'i, R.,\,

I,,9i,ooO lt95,(XX) ,

4lJ4~500 4,66.1.50 4,7H;,(XJO

E,\{C'I;:!SS amount

oflo,¥e.d tend,cn.,:F

'[0 be paid to 4;J91COO

the than =4.64)500

3 rd 100V'Est ;;. I 4),00



The eomparat ~VIJ 5t.n~cJfl:ull'IJll 0 fthc lei' d'e;'cr shows that the comraetor ,Z [st.i:le,lowcst renderer being a lowest total tender ameuat Rs, ,4,791,000. \N~di:a difference oCR-5" 4'1 g I ~OOO,,4.19,OaU"" Rs. 2~OOO _w'Uh tile Jrd h;nvl.!,sll •. BUI!,31fltH ccmpletlcn of work 'the biU .El11"1J,OlJIIl't ef Z. uxeeeds by Rs. ,,14500 that ofc,ontr~lcitiJ' A wh,jJ has nrH b(H~n ,Bwarded ~he' work . .Due to' such unb8lhmcad 11'!.:!ndcr ~.ht depan.J1HH1.t'hns to tose Rs.

j 4'1:)00. •

S,O during prcp;ar,;uion o comparative St.11i'l,c,ment 1){,lhe teilldtrs nn intcll.ig.enl scrutiny must be Il"l'Qldeand the

unbalanced tender 5,hnU DC' rejected for moo \'all'c,ed rates,


9.ii.12, Accepltanc,e of' ~ende:u

r(.H¥cn of /arious P'. \:V.D, cfficers 10 accept 'lenders, ~ue g,ivcn tn Departmental Fin:l.l\ncial Rules and

.sbould tl"l: strict J 1f [:0110\ 'I.; d. \VIN:rc. til e E x,e e utlve En g i neer ~S n. ot corn pc ten t to accept tender or UiH3 "',Q,rk JS, lofspe~i,a1j', nat rc, 111;; shou.ld submit copies af Nctice Inviting: Tenders, proposed adverriserneru ~ nd [hoe Form, enwhi h t~n rs ;;JJ[C [0 lie invited, ~o the Superintending_Engin,eer fer approval and.

I ,i '. beforic mctual iSSJC fll!ndcr otice, Similar action wiil be taken by the Supe·rintendiiilg Engirseer 5 w ll. The £xeeUh \ c 11 inccr wi 'I nurtna] 1.1 l'IC'c-e,piI! the lowest tender if he is competent to do. so and i Eh' rates qucu:d U' \ IUl in the sancticned estimm eo nlh.~ or those provided j,n the Schedule of ',rt, tes, III ot,h I~;U.I.:S;. he: \ III record !I[5 rc nmmendations on lbe comparatlve statement g,nd d·~s;pa~ch

h t_,:se on UL nC~l du)· nf 01,1 [ j,n!; of rend ers, IO [he Superlntendlng Engineer, whQ w,m H:klcw,i~e.

re ~UlU ~ g_ [hro.uS,h [be J.S • n 'CAI,he'r cummurucate h&5 fin 1 grder~ or sl_'brnit [:!'M.~: lease to U1C' Chief ;Engifl~ -1"" for ordl r5ii,.f i is, beyond his ccul1pe~~t:ll,;y. Tbe Executive Eng,incer w ill inform Il,h:c cll:lJI;tnu~ton b ~: the II,; '~I-on ,~,S.S,OOI,n 8S ,.he, same is ;rrec~il .. ~d by him. Jf the rates quotes are 0111.1"111::= h"igh,er' slde, ,) rhe,cnd,-rs, ar r ~'- dI n(Ujrn_~U~ and re-in - lted 50 is to _I"e~r !"cas,anable, rates, Harne'fit ,IlI,o,n'ty is ,,-, _.d ~o ch- ~ (I' erers \!.t'hlHi u!nd1'r,s ,~t"e ~(H ~u:c@'p!ed. \¥nen tess, than threle tenders are ,received

l dl 'U ~ ne b: op 1 -ad -,pI -', T~e~IJ e 'Q~ o9,cnjl?Q often r .. er w~ Ie;xl,ende:dl and Ls, published ,~n

Ilu ne s • ?'f It! as - 0 n !l.nd r ,j n mf"onn. '!loin IS grven u) the t(:nd{:lI'er in case of1imitedtcrildl~f.


j.2srtOO per cu.m



pta cu.m

I -;n 000

.rc ~+:"I, ..

4.8,o,5uo ,2nd lowest

4,,8 i,OOO ~I'd h:n.-'Vics{

I !it. lowest


91.6,.1.3 Spe.clmen Form of LeUer A.ccc.ptJng fb.e Tan dar

No " .


The Sup1.!'i'in1Iendjng, Eng_:inle:eIIEx{!Gutive Englnees

To '

~ I ~ ~ '!! ., •• 'I' i It ~ • ~ iI ........ ~ ,"-II • 1I1 ... ~ • 'I i "'. III" ... ii I

-, 1.,~;.·.n!~I'!I.iI··~·~~~';.'~"~ ••• !!_!ii;'.,

•• II • " i ...... ; ~ I ~ • I I I • ~ •• ~ ~ ~ •• '. ~I ~ .. ~ "~ ....

SL~b ; Tender No, ' ..... , ......

Name of work ,.,""


Yow- tender for the ,fl,boYc mcn!i"ol1ed work has been 1lccc:p,Led by the underslgned on b·eluJJf.of (he plresndeIlVGov~rj1DrJAurIH1ri[y at your tendered percentage betcw/above ithe estimated cost The"

tender amnunt is. Rs .

You are. therefore. requested to attend the office of to complete the ~onna~ agreement within days ofthe receipt of [his letter.

Cop'Y to :

(r) Assisranr Labour Cornmissicner (U) I [1(:OI11C Tnx Officer

Yours fu.HhfuUy

Sdl- S u perin rendi ng Engineer Executive Engineer

9.6.14 Con,tro.ct Do cu.me.nt/Agreem en!

His 6 CoMrOlC( deed between the Contractor and Government, Executive Engil1eer is autherised to 'si.g.11. on behalf cf Governor ofth·e 51'U~. He is: responsible for ccrrect p.rreplllratiofil ilnd execuuon ofagrcam,ent.. The clauseu rnentioned in the agreement an buindlng (H1 both parties ..

Fo l~'awing instructions should be fbll?wed while dra'.ft[ng eontract deed: ..

I. The contract deed is;ldrafted by Divisional Head Clerk. Heis responslble for correct e~tires 10 the agreement. Only standard forms are used ~n contract deed, The ngreement is: prepared ~{rlr:lly according to' terms and conditlons of N.LT; tender submitted by the eonttaetor, and letter or acceptance,

2. In case, [he tcnocrs re accepted by tile Executive Engineer, three copies olf agreemearare sulflci -"Ill. otherwise four c pies have to be prepared i:n the first lnstance. The original agreement along \ 1.11 an nuesicd copy are SCr1~ to the Superintendlng engineer Ier approval. Agreement is carefully examined by the Superintending Engineer and approved, The original as;,rcemlenl is returned 10 <tIu: Excuti c Engil1i!!cr [,1I1d nucstud copy rclnil1cd In his orncc., Od£:inlili.] '(;',(UUrnct d~l.'w ~lIlJ I igin~.r·i~11 I!' Cll Co IIU~L~tor remain in personalcusrody of Executive En~,ineer under foc,k Jl1d key jUild ar 110l taken out ('xteopr Icr prod'LJction in a court or hllW QII!' reference in ease of noy doubt in il'~est~d copy. Ihird copy Is sent 10 II.hc Aceountant General iIi.nd fQlurth given (101 ~lJn'tracrlJ.r an po., lu~n~. if he so desires. Generally ~WQ additional attested coplcs are prepared .•

0/1 (0 r refeore'nclC' of Divisional Accountant and rhe other for Suu-Dlvis lonal .Engi.necr. '

). No ehnnge in conEr~c! deed are permis5,ibl e)tC~p'l. In dnwings, design and speciflcatiens of , ark. These _.fmnges can be mad by the Exeeurive Engineer only with the npplrovul of'cnmpetent tunhorit}' If as J result of such changes in dle!iiSIl etc, some new'lteau of wcrks are invclved, rat .. n:}f I.~ hi I, Dr ~ nut prov ;d~d ilFl th\! agreement, the E ee tive Engineer is eompeten . to make p ym ES (or [he items gj~ fI in [~H! Sched [Ie of Rates, Fur non-schedule rates, analysls ofrates IS pr pan _ an i"lppro\'ed b) [he ccmpcrent [i nhorili', before makl 19 payment

4. F II 0\1* III~ pr I:J darb. - re 11 ~ ce,na(y while draning il rreCll1ent.. .


agrecmenr. '.' '. d ' 't· bUClI11 by both parties. Corre cttcns and

Every pa~c of contract deed should be slg'1e at its .0.. . .. "I, ,._.' ,.1

• '.. . • . "i" i . ,. '1'1 ". - these should bC_jomtL!Y atlcstcu by

lt1tcrpnIDllOn~ i'I"'C s!rJctly avoided and III I U::S': 51! I (lCeU,I, . ' •. . ' , . r'f;

'. .. , .... . '.1 [d . ' ite dates lInrjn llu:u' 5L.I.1'I18n.,r·cs, nor (I, 'IX

Ihe Slil:jllfHOI"ICS. Exec inve 611lJ,II1CC'IS,.!l lOU_ nol \\HI e I . .• • r=r .' _ ,

uffieal seal on the con tract deed. Dale Dr cxccut ion 0 r deed IS WJllth:.' on Iy once, at [he

l;omrllCIlCCI1lC,!:!H oFagrt.=17mc::n! .

(\I{I) t\lIdill.inl' or typed clauses in the pril1led forms or contract deed should be avoided and if

II b s (] j 1I 11.: J y 11 cccs so ry, p ri Q r i'lp.p 1"0 va I 10 r S ~I per in ten ding Sl g. i n eer is necessa ry,

5. I. III j) 0 r.!, n[ cnndirious g.b.'cil in .!gJ·c(!:mc!1U';, me rncm luncd below: .

e,l I r inspire or ~5SUC' or 'etl'o.:rs~ the pro grcs.s of work is Lrn;:j.atis:r~lclory or 11n: e ontraclor I C,iJ\I'\!S,

, I Ill': work incnmplt rc, artion can be' taken.

(.1) To rOI" dl his svcuriry and n':5t,ir.H~d (cnnce l) Ids ngn·,emcnl.

(b) To gel Ihe re I l1;;1 in illl,:; wurk eump lcrcd ['ruin another il~cncy OJ' 1.I1rmigh L1~pm·lmcnlillla.b~lN,.II'., n'l the risk and ~QS'i urorill:Jnal contrnetcr,

U) "fen percent pCIHI.Il), for non complcf iou of work wIthin the specified time limit. m'i1,y be iUlposcd by The E)"U.:.cllli,\·~ Engineer. Supeelntcnd in~ Engineer cf'the circle is the final fluthoriEY '[0 d ce rdc 111 , C;1S , if Ih!i: e cntrnctor I UI,! CS:Ul !JppCtLl.

ml ·llu." 'OlurJC~or crw .11'11'1), lbr exlcns ion of time lim,il within ]0 days or the cause of hlndercnee til w r":!. ~h <1:10. de lny in supply of materials by the DCp(HI.I'lWnt or other natural calamltles. l' I. 11 LOll c, n blo! L1llo\\l:u by I hi,: illl!lloril) appr ovmg the tenders.

(II') ,~hr.: "I .It I) Or~\orJ... ell uc inr I cased or decreased by the Executive Engineer, under written r 1.'1"5 tc tl e to 11 cro: 1"1. C limi: is prooortionntely enhanced, if the amount of work lncreased.

til p~Jr . e an fer e .. 5C fOi::Jrbtlr;-LtiulllncOl,SI.: cf dlspuie. The case hi:lSi 1oO be referred

L\ r I 1 in r, 0 .1) a l 0, ,0 r fi n ~11 b II. 'I) ,I h ~ A ~ b j I r Ll ~ 0 I~ a' p rIO j n ted u ,n d u r ru IC:.Si .•

•. f Q n:~ld 'r h'Ull df H,abl,l.t 10 the d -'p1ortrne'nt ItiO' rhe ';'In or 1f1,hclc 'Ill uss curn), d 'posit ifllhc wOFk is flrD,E carried (!rul'

IlL 6 . 1.;51 ,Ll! ru • ~ l M rlHl ' 1

II .S onrr erors '111, hclr tenders as III .!:j.'-I1l:Lt'OnlC:,c .. to Clls,·uue that i(hcy drQ no.

r ... r '.: n • c I. !;nn C~,[ nlDn~}I could be in 'Ehu l'o,rm of s;Ji''\!dng, certificates.

iedu b- Ilk 0 TrO;;:i1 u )' CbaH::m. The anHH!fill a.r c.,r;~ill:SI: mone'Y is

o rk, No [ rider slwu,ldI be ~rI'enaiIH:d. ilr rlecl~~ved. 'WW~o J

• 11' te tuc ~ ls treat 'd Q;S tlpan Olr lO% s,l!curhy lo be dcdull:h:d

[I,c:con:l.~ng Lathe ~q:u~:ci'li ant i on, time lirnit and cnnd Hie n of contract. The. securitydepus it is \:0 llcctcd b:P ucd.UClll1gJ 10% of Ihe b:11 amount r"'- , il . b"I'I' r' l dtl . ,""~ n .~

I v , " '.' ~. .... ~,u II ,',.n. ro III 'I 1 C runn Illg 'I. 0 tn e: C ontracrors an, 'l te earnest rno I;!)'. I~

(hn~o~U,hal In ensh ~H th~ rtme 0 r tender, is 'lrQ~Hod lllS P~H'~ ~H Sc,IUiri"ly thlpcsJL The ~c,(1lJrH)' depeslt :iN also he.a~~r,;:Jlted hI cnsh, II':! the form OrOOVIHI1:merrl securities, F.D.R. and guarantee bonds ofSchedule bunks. rile security deposlr is. refundable to the c.olitr;;~l;;lor,afieI (he p.rcserIbeld rnaintenancc period is ove~Z 9.6'.17 Reten~[on M,on~y ([

Retention inaney 'i.~ the mnney of rhe centracrcr retained by tlte departmentwhenever a 1y claims for--> paym,cnl 0 fa sum of Inoncy arises nu~ G f or under the contract against tile contractor. The E.ngitleer~in~ _ Gh,arg;~ ,Ls entitled 10 withhuld the sums in whole Ok' :in part from security deposit tiU rin~Hs~tiOJ1 o~ adj 'lISlBH! 1111 ofan.y such clnim. If the security amount is nn.suFflclent to coyer I.he, cJ a i me d arn O'U'n I., 'I'hl; Ei1g~nc~I·~in-cl1.arge is entitled to wdhhQld the amcunt from any sum found payabtc W the contractor trom l1H! depa run e n L

9.6,1B Difference bet;_w-ea:n Security' De p os+t and Reh~ntiQn Mon,ey




It is not camp ilsory,

[t is essentially be deposited before entering into a contract,

The amount of deposit depends on tendered amount

a has no relation with tendered amount but depends on lhe amount of'claim.

~t. has no relation W]Ul the rna i ntenance period, The amount is refundable after '[he 'fi.:nal isarion or adj ustrnent 0 r the cia - Ill' Thisismeant for [ulfilrnent of allY elai against this tender or other tender

This amount Can [lot be wi hhcld from any other con met under the same Engineer·incharge,



This amount is redundeble after' compte: ion rnai 111 enance pc riod,


"This IS mcnn for noji-fulf lrncnt of the conditions or contract.

This amount can 110t be ctnlected [rom ;In}1 other contract even under Illc same ~llg[llcl.:'r"lf\-ch ~c,:

t WI,~ll is a ccurrn 17 Explain differcru types. ofcontract.

= W'll~1 ,ll re the esse nt ia I c lemenrs 0 rae ontract. Explain brlefly.

J. Ddln.le U111! tern ·Ccntfllctut'. Wha~ are tbl: ~:lsl;!n, Ial Q'uali f1C:i~tlons of'ilI cClJUrodor'? 4. Wdt· il,d antt'! es nd dis ,d • nlagd ~[:

(9) I [CI'U rate co.nt1"ilJ' { (b)1 L UT'lp~su~n contract (c) Sc,h·· du hui c'on tnle:t

T nd rforrn

No lk e in 'i'rin • nder 1110b tenccr

c: {1 h1 P :JJr-:JI'~ ,j, v e 5 te rn e n l "f U~· n d ers

n Ui



(]., WIHH lei you 1 a~,filll)~ illl Lll1bnlanc(.l(j l€Jlth~I'? 11,"(.pl!lin with nn c1umplc.

"] Den e tlie fo!lowillt;.s:

(~'1 bmH!Sll ilHml.!Y (11) S~Cllrily dCI1~S,JI {t:) Ih:h:nlion IlHHll"Y

:-t, l)ifl'l'n:ntJattl l)eh'l;'~cl' :!!iL"c,ul"hy Jep'lJ~j~ ;1Il~j 1.'1:.leJHiiOlO money,

• !

- -IU~:!'i('HH!' I ~nN -- -r

I )r~ir~H~~ r;'nn';'hl:;:~r !"~l;j~~~tr-- {-, ---"

- - - .... - -.~, ._

Illli'~I~l'l1~~ll~J?}; 111_ ~'nr'(ll'! _.! <':.~. _

, F.!rU~ M.'~][k C;"l(.~IM~ioUl 'iiI1dr~');~'~lI knJ t~i~~: ~ J !';nr,h!' !llIT'IW flr ,I~. '.i PbrHh~~Jh nF $1,\:Jv,:!' In

~'ii, HI1:'~ltV !-oil.

_____ .... _If_______ ---~ ... ~ _ .............. _-..-

.'1" hu~~~ \llhn,b. ~;o:'crlv.-lilnn ul'U.lll~~ IlI?m~ ,lIPI a ~ l'll!!k: I rh'r'i]'w> (:If K:1I 1 'IMW:i'f.lh ·nr Sha 'd m ~sh~v, :,Ind lW'i,1 tl'j' ~qllld['l.T'fl~H':-~,

t:;-!H;i'~~ or 1100 'l ~l!j'on ' r ri!rm~0';:;;~ Iil:~,,] rfI(~!:.rcg~lc~~ !;f'1'~4'i.!il t'Mll I iU~1! ~ul'khi etc .• n ,G. r~.ti'

r, 'ln~l'~ rc!in'l.ll ~mJ I;:W.'III.i'nr- rldlJ::-; .. ··IH1H.lcrs. I

I po ~ pe-~ ~hl:d 'l. m r ns, '11.1 .S, n,~ i'i t' lc .• , \1 F 'I 0000 N r~<::. hrick I iQ:o::5:~:J ~~r 'Wfl Inoll'd~ ~lr CII·t 'oI'~,,~d h~ iltl<l;~. DI" :~lli ether mean "'\~'rwl by the ... ·11,j1l1c1 'Im

1 ~~!~l~t*) .J li'll!lll; ~. --- --- ,

Ci~'1I1'n~ l'U, '('Ft!I·c;: [1'Llim~,i~c 11141eil'i,,! COlllP;\ .j ill ~ I Ihl i,,1~ilit~ ,&. curi n~.". cl'I;mplc[[' li!,t. ~.":Ifil.:~'ni~l~ .~ ... I '\\.; -him' '1 r ~i uc ~~I:' ~n'L'alli: \\ 1 HHI 1l "In!it.;';n: I r;l'!' (1 'I:. .s,

: ~II/J; 1tl ~.II.·' ~r~~ -l-"fl.:II--IT_n'l' I: 1. 5' ~ h:!, iil~: I hlnck !:!lU~hlnr s~rl.·l'tl~lrl ,nSlI P!:;I ~"'II't ~UL O~ml.":n CW"I. (10 I\.~ l ~i ...... ill.:'if~lll. Ld l:m "L ill h;I.",.r,;" .~tJ 'HI " .. i, hh _II if'll' l!i C:Ul kn:!' t', ::; .,,:' u:1' ,I. ~I~.J ! ~.Ii"rl~.~ ~IlJn b'l.: ~,~~d \!11 :: Il'I~1 lhi'l'k ~'I ~L.'trh·nl I


r .;:'111 tun 41r , I

w o o N

z er ~

~1_t(..:2L "~':~T-. __I' ]_ 1".7' , .. _-;_. £i ..



1-'11(1.0 fl I .• ~ fI I



- _

t, I r

-~-_ ... - ,...__.,...._.'.


-:~ .... If' t _. J'-F~(~~Tio;no.'\' __.....-.--.--- - If)'II:;n rill;' _. R/\o r .t:

r fj-r ['n \jJli1G ;tr'lJ ~rr· \·'t'f'1s··r:ii;;;;-'~!':l1: WI~h med~~~-' ~~ .~.- ...... ~

I furin!~ i!<p!H\!1 of rc~Ci~ ,lhllR,a.:r.U!rz 6,ono. r~~~m"t' I c '11.1 t s~l.·dl Jw, uft,(:d 0.: Q r i I I lien. -1;1 Sf! (11.2 IJ :,!!",~

i sq. l1i~ti!r) :Jt 70 d~gr1!e ccrui 'rav~ mi:o:t!J \' .. i~11 adequare quantity of kerosene (lil. l!' s iq: iiJi1i(o:rnl:.

, iPr~S5,u rc ~ .. pn1y dL~ljiblJlOiC :"t otic wi In aU1Om~::' Icmpcral:J'r~ ccntmller. Prior '10 :1rrlk:tlo.l1 .for tliC' ! ~tin·~.c coot i1:111.II~'Cd iTI~-c:!'iJI s.h;:dl t:t! r.cmQl.'(!d frnrn the base courae and Iht' same shall 1:;1: ,~'h~J ned iby means of appro ,,"~J?"iI:'C:;!l':!fi l:.al I :SW,t'~prJ::'F, blol"vct h.lrrdlmloms. r .. nd dlSPClilll 111': :'UI1'li! '''I.IW~in 'Ih.n::t:: ofmin. After Ill::: applic;llif)"I1. u'j'lnie :sha"ll be k,ept or fmm 5Im';a('c Ii"!' the I'J.;·j"ng , ef bi!utl1inoll.sOOI.H'SC., ~ • .1'~C'dBI ~JFid IjL'rhndoln~>' ' .s-h",n fiulJy O9I1'L1'J)' the rC$:11Zii and sp.t':"f:"i:fic:."Hiol1 of I

.t\,,\SI-fTO and as d1iil::,~c:d hy the c.fl'ginC!cr I l'ru:h,arglr• ( ft;;j,le indude cost or material. labnul.

:!II cst!;. T ,& P' 3~d;!.fI I'c_:li.h_& l'ifL:: 270.0f) ':~Sft

p'n .. rupil~Urc ~(lr.crc'c bIndt:'r (:O(.Ir:1-e (~~. C~T1 ~CI 8(m) I .---~~-:~--- ....... ~--

,c-.ampJ.c!cd lJ1ick,1(;SS as per ::l:pnro'Ved j·ab mix fOmiula sii'lS' cros.ch oggr.e£ tl!. frort;1 H,ub SQIJi!;:t;s Of

I 'li!·quh,JI'c.ll. C$in!: ;1.o;p'lalt of ~rnde 60/,0 during. 1.3~'j ng tCJnr~ntlm~ nCit lr;:os5 than I dO - C com P3C[ i ted by .s::t'..::!! l.\'hc;:i &. PTIt rolla" Th,t p.r-oe'Cdmc of !,Ol;·ir..:_ mii,~>C'r eourse rna r er~"] &, rnz:.hCldology r :;;h211 fully compiy as dire t~if by th~ Engineer I

,lnchJ.fse ruli'~irl':lum birurnen eornent shouM be I sp~;jid .shl£:: pa: .. cr m~c~ii':!S .be hinder cnursa I

"].J-II ,.-. ! the Io ,,.. ' . G' ~.. -l ~ hal

,.;. ~ no , ... ,. " 11. mg r',:U:l3.\lon anu • I~r:; HHl

ic-st eritcria, C'Omp.2.'·:iirr~ Thickness 5Q-l I,'}Omm. .

<.J:> o o N

z cr I'J




! _3 :~



., -~




• r ~

. "' .. - ... 'E'

to C a N

_ II! J..." ..... ...1" .• ~ ":I

...., • '" .. " ... .... ..... ':'"":, J ...... ':.! ..... ;L: :~ :~.; ~ .. " ;: .. :; .. ~- ,II_'


_ ... ,. "J~,. - ~ ...

ii:" ~ •• - ... ......... 4'- '15· ~

; .

:::L" ._


. ...... ", " ..

·c 'L~ ~~_- '""!

- -..._ ..... - ... =


"""F"~ '~JI!!!!lJI'",...- ,:~

..., """" - ''''

~- .. - ~' • ~ w


.. _"".10"" ::.'


': ... "':11 -- ,.: , ..... -."' ..... """~I ..

.. ~ L ..............

;. .. ~-i .• =~ £:

~~.,~-:.;:' ~:,:- ,: ~ ~_;~ ': =: ~::~ r~" ~:j~ ~ .~~.

'~' .... """ ....

• .,_ - If~ ,_ I. ...

:..: ,,..., ... ~Ijo

r ._ ..

""' ............ _.'

- .

II!"- ",.~.

-, .......

r, ....


·~- ...... I_, ~ • I ..........

_. "


~ "'" .,.-" .. " .

_ ....... :.. 1, .... _._ ...

;~~ ~cc

•. -,..-~ !i':' - .. r_ r , ...,



.,......,... ...... .,..~- iiir" ... ·'·

..... ,II, ,. -"'-" !:"~.


- ~-

_,~ .... ,

_ -'1

:.C C:':_:~- .,.:.




. .

, - .


.,..... • I - ~_ ,..

... r _'=' '-' .. ~ 110-'"

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->