NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL

CFMI-TP-NT.11

NOVEMBER 30, 1980

REVISED MAY 31, 2000

Subject:

Transmittal of the CFM56, Non-Destructive Test Manual, CFMI-TP.NT.11, Revision 36, dated May 31, 2000.

Attached is revision No. 36 to the CFM56, Non-Destructive Test Manual. Please insert/replace pages in accordance with the list of Effective Pages provided with this revision, and Part 9 is reissued in entirely. After inserting the revision and removing superseded pages, note the necessary information on the Record of Revision page. Please direct any inquiries or comments regarding this revision to:

CMF International Product Support Manager

HISTORY OF REVISION

Rev No. Basic Issue 1 2

DATE REMOVED Nov 30, 1980 Feb 28, 1981 May 31, 1981

Rev No. 21 22 23

DATE REMOVED Aug 31/88 May 31/89 Aug 31/89

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Aug 31, 1981 Feb 28, 1982 Aug 31, 1982 Nov 30, 1982 May 31, 1983 Nov 30, 1983 May 31, 1984 Aug 31, 1984 Nov 30, 1984 Nov 30, 1985 Feb 28, 1986 May 31, 1986 Nov 30, 1986 Feb 28, 1987 May 31, 1987 Aug 31, 1987 Nov 30, 1987 Feb 29, 1988

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 R 36

Feb 28/90 May 31/90 Feb 28/91 May 31/92 Feb 28/93 May 31/93 Nov 30/93 May 31/94 May 31/95 Feb 29/96 Nov 30/96 May 31/99 May 31/00

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PART SUBJECT Title Page Record of Revisions History of Revisions Record of Temporary Revisions Table of Contents Introduction 1 3 7 R 8 9 10 General Gamma Ray Borescope Inspection Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (SOAP) Chip Analysis

CONTENTS
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NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL
INTRODUCTION

CFMI-TP-NT.11

NOVEMBER 30, 1980

REVISED MAY 31, 1992

LEP Page 1/2 May 31/92 . changed. or deleted this revision.INTRODUCTION LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION TAB DIVIDER TITLE PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE R PAGES R INTRO PAGE DATE 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 May 31/92 Blank May 31/92 Feb 28/91 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 Feb 28/91 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/81 May 31/90 May 31/90 Blank R: indicates pages added.

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Inspection of the Engine. Part Part Part Part Part Part Part Part Part Part Part 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 General Not applicable Gamma Ray Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Borescope Inspection Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (SOAP) Chip Analysis Not applicable R R (3) Additional Parts may be introduced into the NDTM. Specific Procedure. Preparation and Operation. Organization of the Non-Destructive Test Manual. CFMI may also have additional requirements to those found in the specification.INTRODUCTION 1. Safety. (2) The Parts that follow are contained in this manual. A. as the engine program develops. or Part. Component. CFMI may assign some Part numbers differently than those found in the specification. (1) The Non-Destructive Test Manual (NDTM) is divided into Parts (methods of testing) defined by Air Transport Association (ATA) Specification 100. Equipment and/or Facilities. (4) Each Part of this manual will have the following general scope of coverage: General Technical Principles. INTRO Page 1 May 31/92 . Manual Breakdown. to provide economical and reliable inspections. Record of Inspection.

2. counterclockwise. viewed from the rear. a list of effective pages and a table of contents. bolts. See figure 1. Engine Directional References. the second the section/sub-system and the third the subject or item. (3) Parts. (2) In this manual the sixth digit will always be zero. or immediately clockwise from 12 o'clock. 3. etc. Flange Identification. clock position and other directional references apply to the engine in a horizontal position. When components or struts are numbered circumferential direction the No. The first element denotes the chapter/system. and with the accessories section at the bottom. INTRO R Page 2 Feb 28/91 . such as positioning of brackets. 1 position is at 12 o'clock. Numbering Systems. (a) Each Part begins with a tab divider. (b) The list of the effective pages shows the date of the most recent revision. The external flanges of the engine have been assigned letter designations. (1) This manual employs the 3-element (6 digit) ATA 100 numbering systems. clamps. See figure 2.B. The remaining positions increase arithmetically in a clockwise direction. See figure 3. Clockwise. a title page. The letter designation will be used for flange identification wherever it is necessary to be explicit about flange location.

ATA Numbering of Engine Sections Figure 1 INTRO R Page 3 May 31/81 .

Engine Directional References Figure 2 INTRO R Page 4 May 31/81 .

Flange Identification Figure 3 INTRO R Page 5 May 31/81 .

Supporting publications. 4. and Local Rules and Regulations. 5. Use. Assumptions. PROCEDURES OR LIMITS WHICH. INTRO R Page 6 May 31/81 . The following assumptions were made in connection with the use of this manual. Operating and Service Instructions. WARNING: WARNINGS CALL ATTENTION TO METHODS. POSE A PARTICULAR RISK OF INJURY OR DEATH TO PERSONS. All findings of these inspections shall be interpreted according to limits of serviceability shown in the maintenance manual. The following is a list of publications written in support of CFM56 engine. This manual is to be used in conjunction with applicable Maintenance Manual and other applicable inspection equipment manufacturer's. (2) That the personnel doing these inspections know and will ensure compliance with applicable Federal. State. qualified and/or licensed. CAUTION: CAUTIONS CALL ATTENTION TO METHODS AND PROCEDURES WHICH. or provide supplementary or explanatory information.B. IF NOT PRECISELY FOLLOWED. (2) Front stator case horizontal right flange. (1) That the personnel doing these inspections are properly trained. B. where such licensing is required by law. Definitions. The following terms are used in the NDTM and are defined as follows: NOTE: Notes call attention to methods which make the job easier. A. IF NOT PRECISELY FOLLOWED. Horizontal flanges are identified by: (1) Front stator case horizontal left flange. POSE A PARTICULAR RISK OF EQUIPMENT DAMAGE.

and identifying parts and for illustrating relationship for disassembly. B. Operating Instructions. (2) The catalog is also a historical record of parts used. storing. D. repair procedures. It is no to be used as the authority for procedures of assembly or disassembly. (1) The Engine Shop Manual presents detailed information required to support the engine at shop level. and components. are included to familiarize personnel with the terminology and physical appearance of the various components. issuing. C. and operation and troubleshooting comprise the major portion of the publication. (1) The Illustrated Parts Catalog lists and illustrates all parts and assemblies of the engine. and /or discontinued. Descriptions of the engine sections. superseded. Engine Shop Manual. The Illustrated Tool and Equipment Manual provides information on the special tools and equipment required for the CFM56 engine. (2) Inspection. where applicable. testing and troubleshooting comprise the major portion of this publication. The Maintenance Manual presents detailed information required to support the engine at a flight-line level. The tools and equipment are illustrated with a brief description of the tool and its use. E. INTRO R Page 7 May 31/81 . These instructions are not to be used for testing the engines after line maintenance. Illustrated Parts Catalog. flight-line repair procedures or limits. Description of the engine sections. Inspection and checks. The operating instructions give operating limits and special operating procedures useful for pilots and maintenance personnel who will operate the engines. Illustrated Tool and Equipment Manual. systems. It is intended only for requisitioning. and components are included to familiarize operation personnel with the various components.A. Maintenance Manual.

Consumable Products Manual. I. G. (1) The Component Manuals contain detailed maintenance or overhaul instructions for the accessories furnished on the engine. Associated Terms Bubble Flaking Oxide Formation Peeling Scale Slag inclusion (weld) INTRO Page 8 Feb 28/91 . The following terms are used to describe/define defects. 6. Definition of Terms and Abbreviations. inspection. Component Maintenance Manuals. The Consumable Products Manual presents technical data on all products used in maintenance of the CFM56 engine. (2) The manual covers disassembly. assembly and testing of the accessories. manpower skills and processes requirements are given on a broad base so individual airlines can fit it to their operation. approved repairs and repair methods. Facility Planning Manual. The Facility Planning Manual provides the information to aid airline planners in developing the facilities and equipment requirements for the CFM56 engine. This Manual covers frequently used processes and procedures that are used in the maintenance and repair of engine parts. Defects. A.F. The manuals also include an Illustrated Parts Catalog for each of these accessories. Terms R Blister Definition A raised portion of a surface caused by separation of the outer layers of the parent material or of a coating applied to it. Standard Practices Manual. space. cleaning. H. Equipment.

Change in color appearance often indicates this condition.Terms Brittle Definition A change in the elasticity or resilience of the parent material usually caused by aging. high-pressure differentials. INTRO R Page 9 May 31/81 . Ballooning Bend Bulge Crease Curl Dent (not to be confused with small-area defect in heavy material) Depression Distortion Elongation Fold Indentation Kink Protrusion (hollow) Rupture (result of excessive buckling) Uneven Warpage Wrinkle Burn out (missing piece) Erosion Corrosion Guttered Heat-check Heat deterioration Hole (burn) Hot spot Overheated Oxidation Burn A rapid. destructive. excessive localized heating. Structural stresses. chemical action. extreme cold. usually caused by pressure or impact from a foreign object. usually caused by higher temperatures than the parent material can withstand. Associated Terms Cold worked hard (like an old O-ring) Buckle A large-scale deformation of the original contour of a part. oxidizing action. or cold-working. or any combinations of these.

A parting or discontinuity in the parent material Crack Break Cold shut (castings) Crater (castings) Fatigue damage Fissure Fracture Lap (forgings) INTRO R Page 10 May 31/81 . Break Nick (similar to Chip. A breaking away of the edge of the parent material. Generally found on plain bearing surface. See "Gall" or "Scratch". Normal burnishing from operational service is not detrimental if the coverage approximates the carrying load and there is no evidence of burns. Notched Spalling (usually a broken-away flat surface). usually caused by heavy impact from a foreign object. but without a loss of material. but no parent material is removed). shallow cavity (usually rough in the surface of the parent material). Surface discoloration is sometimes visible around the outer edges.Terms Burnishing Definition Smoothing of a metal surface by mechanical action. Associated Terms Rub Wear Burr A rough edge or a sharp protusion on the edge or surface of the parent material. Pit Chafing Chip Corrosion A mass of small pits which cumulatively create a large.

A completely smooth surface depression caused by pressure or impact from a smooth.Terms Crack (Cont'd) Definition Associated Terms Rupture Seam Separation Slit Tear Crazing A mesh of minute hairline cracks found in glazed or baked-on coated surfaces. but none is separated. INTRO R Page 11 May 31/81 . The parent material is displaced. Gradual continous distortion or plastic flow under constant stress. Bend Creep Distortion Creep Deformation Dent Peen Deviation Damage Defect Flaw Imperfection Irregularity Crack Seam Cold shut Lap Discontinuity An interruption in the normal physical structure or configuration of a part. Any condition that causes a part to differ from the manufacturer's blueprint. rounded foreign object. Cracks do not penetrate into parent metal. Any alteration or change of shape. generally caused by temperature change or by deformation of parent metal. dimension or configuration resulting from stress or damage.

INTRO R Page 12 May 31/81 . In most cases. See "Spalling". an accumulation of foreign material is deposited on the parent material. rough scratch or group of scratches. and frequently accompanied by deformation or removal or parent material. Wearing away by lowamplitude rubbing against another metal (generally associated with press fit or close fitting parts). A defect caused by the movement of 2 surfaces in contact with each other. The progressive fracture of a material under cyclic stress loading. Associated Terms Bend Deformation Erosion Fatigue Crystallization Fretting Flaking Flaking Fretting Wear Galling Galling Pickup Gouge A wide. Gradual wearing away of a surface caused by a fluid (gas or liquid) flowing over the surface. Wear is generally caused by fine particles of foreign material entrained in hot engine gases flowing at a high velocity. usually with one or more sharply incised corners. bending or permanent strain that results in misalignment or change of shape.Terms Distortion Definition Any twisting.

Abnormal movement of a part.Terms Groove Definition A long. if depression is sharp. The state of being outof-balance. continuous depression caused by pressure of a moving surface in contact with the parent material. which usually results in vibration. or formed by subsequent reaction of the solid metal. or insufficient securing of a part. High spots Blister Buckle Bubble Out-of-round Burr High metal Displaced metal adjacent to a defect such as a scratch. Foreign material embedded in metal during solidification. Local distortions Associated Terms If depression is shallow and smooth see "Wear". even though the defect itself may not be visible to the naked eye. see "Scratch". Imbalance Inclusion Indication Looseness Backet out Excessive play Excessive backlash Insufficient torque Shaky Sloppy Unbottomed Unpinned Unwired INTRO R Page 13 May 31/81 . which is raised above the surrounding. narrow. Unequal distribution of weight about the axis of rotation. nick or gouge. The visible evidence that a material defect exists.

A surface impression with sharp corners or bottom. water) because of foreign material in the flowpath or malformation of the part. INTRO R Page 14 May 31/81 . oil. An abnormal sound involving moving parts. Term used to describe surface defects that can be seen but not felt with fingernail or scriberpoint. usually caused by pressure or impact from a sharp-edged object. but usually none is separated.Terms Misalignment Definition A mismatching or malformation of any part which either prevents perfect assembly or results in faulty operation and/or ultimate failure. usually an increase in volume or a change of pitch. The parent material is displaced. fuel. Associated Terms Eccentric Out-of-round Out-of-square Mismatched Unmatched Nick Chip Dent Notch No Apparent Depth Noise Bumps (sound) Chatters Clicks Grates (usually gears) Grinds Hums Rattles Rubs Scrapes (sound) Screeches Thumps Whistles Clogged Contaminated Plugged Restricted Obstruction Prevention of free flow of a fluid (air.

or heataffected zone (within 1/8 inch (3. caused by pressure Pit A minute depression or cavity having no sharp.175 mm) of the fusion line). chemical corrosion). wall. usually as a result of frictionheating. Areas containing numerous pits or pinholes Porosity Pit Pinholes INTRO R Page 15 May 31/81 . All material in a single part except the weld. Pits are usually caused by chemical reaction (rusting. Associated Terms Buckling Parent Metal Pickup Burr Gall Imbedment Inclusion Pile-up Protrusion Metallization Bound Compressed Flattened Seized Smashed (without separation into pieces) Squashed Squeezed Corrosion Crater Electrolytic cavity Inclusion Perforation Pinholes Pock-marked Pinched Distortion of one or more surfaces of the parent material. Transfer of one material into or onto the surface of another in contact with it. or bottom of an oil can.Terms Oil-canning (Snapping action) Definition Shapping or popping displacement of sheet metal when restrained at its edges like a diaphragm. braze filler. high-stress corners in the surface of the material.

Usually "imbalance" is meant. pulling apart. A long. sharpcornered impression caused by the movement of a sharp object across the surface of the parent material. Associated Terms If impression is shallow and smooth see "Wear". A welding or binding of faces which prevent further movement. Scratch Abrasion Chafe Furrow Groove Score Seizure Bound up Frozen Tight Wedged Welded (without external heating). R R R R R Tear A physical separation.Terms Rub Definition A surface depression or displacement caused by two surfaces moving while in contact with each other. Burr Chip Crack Nick Unbalance INTRO Page 16 May 31/90 . or wrenching of metal which can be caused by impact damage. usually in thin layers or localized spots. Flaking Fretting Galling Spalling Cracking off or flaking off of small particles of metal from the surface. The act of putting a balanced component out of balance. usually while hot. narrow. Burn Scale A layer of metallic oxides formed by chemical action of oxigen on the exposed surface of the metal. If impression is sharp. see "Scratch".

Abrasion Attrition Brinnelled Chafed Chattering Erosion Fraying Fretting Friction Galling Glazing Groove Interference Oxidation Roughness Rubbed Scarfed Scuffed Uneven Weak B. LRU TGB AGB LPT HPT MEC PMC VSV VBV N1 N2 Line Replaceable Unit Transfer Gearbox Accessory Gearbox Low Pressure Turbine High Pressure Turbine Main Engine Control Power Management Control Variable Stator Vane Variable Bleed Valve Low Pressure Rotor Speed Core Rotor Speed INTRO R Page 17/18 May 31/90 . such as oil.Terms Varnish film Definition A hard surface-film of partially carbonized hydrocarbon. The following abbreviations have been used for terms that appear within the manual. which is built up when the part is heated to or above the breakdown-point of the fluid. Associated Terms Banded Discolored Oxidized Stained Wear Relatively slow removal of parent material in the process of operation (not always visible to the naked eye). Abreviations.

1981 . 1980 REVISED MAY 31.GENERAL CFMI-TP-NT.NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 1 .11 NOVEMBER 30.

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PART 1 GENERAL LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION TAB DIVIDER TITLE PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES CONTENTS 72-00-00 PAGE DATE 1 2 1 2 1 2 May 31/81 Blank May 31/81 Blank May 31/81 Blank LEP R Page 1/2 May 31/81 .

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..........TABLE OF CONTENTS Section R 72-00-00 R Page Purpose of the non destructive test manual . 1 CONTENTS Part 1 Page 1/2 May 31/81 .................. 1 General information .............................

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72-00-00 R Part 1 Page 1/2 May 31/81 . General Information . C. Pupose of the Nondestructive Test Manual . B. This manual provides information on the nondestructive testing methods for the inspection of the CFM56 Turbofan Engine. Standard shop practice safety procedures and precautionary measures should be observed at all times to avoid damage or injury to equipment and persons. A. operation or maintenance of equipment listed in this manual. its components and individual parts.PART 1 GENERAL R 1. The purpose of the Nondestructive Test Manual (NDTM) is to provide the personnel who are responsible for maintenance of CFM56 engines with sufficiently clear and detailed instructions for performing nondestructive tests. 2. These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation.

1980 REVISED MAY 31.NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 3 .GAMMA RAY CFMI-TP-NT. 1984 .11 NOVEMBER 30.

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PART 3 - GAMMA RAY LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION TAB DIVIDER TITLE PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE R PAGES CONTENTS INTRO PAGE DATE SECTION 72-30-00 PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 DATE NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 NOV 30/80 BLANK NOV NOV NOV NOV NOV NOV NOV NOV NOV NOV 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80 30/80

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PART 3 - GAMMA RAY TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Introduction ......................................................... 72-00-00 72-20-00 73-30-00 72-40-00 72-50-00 Equipment and Inspection ................................. Inspection of Fan Booster Section ........................ Inspection of High Pressure Compressor Section ........... Inspection of Combustion Section ......................... Inspection of High Pressure and Low Pressure Turbine Sections ......................................... Page 1 1 1 1 1

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CONTENTS
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PART 3 - GAMMA RAY INTRODUCTION 1. General Technical Principles . The application of gamma ray radiographic inspection techniques is an effective method of assessing the mechanical condition of selected internal engine components without engine disassembly. Procedures and equipment have been developed for the implementation of these techniques on the CFM56 turbofan engine for failure detection and trend monitoring. In gamma ray radiography, results are obtained which are similar to those obtained during industrial X-ray inspection. In this case, however, the penetrating radiation is in the form of gamma rays emanating from the decay of a radioactive isotope, rather than the X-rays produced by the impact of high speed electrons on a heavy metal target. There are several significant differences in the 2 methods which influence their possible application to the inspection of assembled aircraft turbines engines . WARNING : THE RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION METHOD DESCRIBED HEREIN REQUIRES THE USE OF RADIOACTIVE BYPRODUCT MATERIAL AS DEFINED BY THE UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION. EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO SUCH RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. THE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SUCH BYPRODUCT MATERIAL REQUIRES AN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSE (OR AGREEMENT STATE LICENSE). COMPLIANCE WITH APPLICABLE FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE USER. CFM INTERNATIONAL ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE COMPLIANCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION PROCEDURES WITH THE REGULATIONS AND LICENSING PROVISIONS FOR THE USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL.

A. In the case of X-rays, the radiation source can be turned ON and OFF at will, and the energy and intensity of the radiation can be controlled by respectively adjusting the voltage and beam current. In the case of a radio active isotope source,the radiation is always emanating from the source, and cannot be turned OFF. The only effective way of turning OFF the radiation is to move the source from the inspection area or to place a heavy radiation shield between the inspection area and the source. B. The energy of the gamma rays are determined by the spectrum of the particular isotope, Iridium-192, which is generally used in these applications. It produces 12 different radiation energies over a range of a few

INTRO
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thousand electron volts to over a million electron volts, and has an effective penetrating power equivalent to approximately a 400 KEV X-ray machine. This is applicable for the inspection of steel sections in the one inch (2,5 cm) to 3 inch (7,6 cm) thickness range, which brackets the majority of the assembled engine radial material thickness areas. C. The radiation effect is measured in Roentgens, and determine the film exposure produced. the types of industrial X-ray film used in aircraft radiography require one to 4 Roentgens to produce a film of 2.0 density. The Iridium-192 source in free space produces a radiation intensity of 0.55 Roentgens per hour per curie source strenght at a distance of one meter, and obeys the inverse square law as the distance is changed. D. The source stenght, measured in curies, is determined by the initial source stenght and the radioactive decay curve of the particular element. For Iridium-192, new sources at nominal 100 curies are procured, with a logrithmic decay of the source strenght at a half life of 74 days. (In 74 days the source stenght will be reduced to half its initial value, or 50 curies.) Therefore, for a given source at a given time, and a selected radiographic inspection requirement of source-to-film distance and material thickness, the only variables available for film exposure control are the exposure time, film selection, and film processing. E. The determining factor in the application of gamma ray radiography to assemble aircraft gas turbine engines in preference to X-ray techniques is the relative physical size of the equipment. In the inspection technique being applied as described in detail in the Radiographic Inspection Procedures, the radiation emanates radially outward through the engine from a spot along the axis of the engine, with a film placed on the surface of the engine. An encapsulated 100 curie source, with an equivalent radiation energy of 400 KEV, is physically less than 0.25 inch (6 mm) in diameter, allowing the use of a source carrier tube within the engine of 0.50 inch (12,5 mm) outside diameter. An equivalent 400 KEV X-ray machine would weight hundreds of pounds and have dimensions in the order of feet. Even a machine of this rating with a tube remote from the high voltage transformer would require a tube head several inches in diameter and a thick high voltage and coolant line cable.

INTRO
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2.

Radiological Safety.

A. Since gamma ray radiographic inspection requires the use of byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Commission, all activities associated with such inspections must comply with the applicable AEC Federal rules and regulations. In addition, State and local rules and regulations must be observed, as well as those rules and regulations established by the industrial radiological safety officer within whose jurisduction the gamma ray radiography is being conducted. In applications outside of the United States, the activities must comply with the rules specified by the pertinent national regulatory agencies. The following radiological safety actions are typical of those that may be required and are included herein for maintenance planning purpose only. In all cases the user shall consult and comply with all applicable Governmental rules and regulations. B. All gamma ray radiographic inspections shall be performed under the personal supervision of a trained, qualified, and licensed radiographer, who meets all the requirements specified by National, Federal, State, local, and site industrial rules and regulations. The radiographer in charge shall ensure the compliance with all applicable National, Federal, State, and local rules and regulations in all aspects of radiological safety. C. The source container, source control mechanism, source carrier tubes, and other associated radiographic equipment shall be of an approved type and design, and be equipped with safety and warning devices in compliance with applicable National, Federal, State, and local rules and regulations. D. A prime and back-up gamma ray sensitive survey meter of an approved type and detection range shall be available for establishing and/or verifying the threshold radiation isodose line for the exclusion area, and for assessing the proper operation of the source control mechanism in exposing and returning the source to the storage container. These meters shall have been calibrated within the prescribed time interval. E. Rope or tape barriers shall be erected and radiation area warning signs shall be posted as prescribed by applicable rules and regulations. Properly deployed audible warning signals and/or visible flashing light signals shall be activated during that period of time when the source has

INTRO
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All personnel associated with the radiographic inspection shall wear an approved pocket dosimeter and a film badge. the radiographer in charge shall assure that no personnel other than those associated with the radiographic inspection are in the radiation area. Accumulated radiation dose records shall be maintained of all associated personnel as prescribed by applicable rules and regulations. G. The film badge shall be obtained through an approved film badge service vendor. A direct reading type dosimeter have a range from zero to 200 milliroentgens is recommended. At all times that the source is out of the storage container. the radiographer in charge shall maintain direct surveillance of the operation to prevent unauthorized persons from entering the radiation area. and that those involved personnel be at such locations that their radiation exposure is minimized. F. Before the source is moved from its safe position.been transported out of its safe position in its storage container. The appropriate procedures and regulations shall be followed when transporting the source container between its storage facility to the radiographic inspection site. INTRO Part 3 Page 4 Nov 30/80 . The radiation source container shall be stored in a secure manner when not in use in a radiographic inspection as prescribed by applicable rules and regulations.

7 kg) and should be considered for this application. and Source Control. Source containers using depleted uranium as the shielding material are available for 100 curies of Iridium-192 which weight less than 50 lb (22. C. (2) The source control mechanism shall be of an approved type and have sufficient range to allow the insertion of the source through the source tube system consisting of a one ft (30 cm) adapter section. (1) The Radiographic Inspection Procedures prescribed hereafter have been established for the use of nominal 100 curies Iridium-192 source. Source Container. B. either locally supplied or furnished by a service vendor. as well as standard equipment and facilities. (1) The source tube provides a guide and passageway for the source as it is transported from the storage container to the source tube tip. a minimum travel length of 25 ft (765 cm) should be provided. Equipment and Facilities . the flexible source tubes. and a 10 ft (305 cm) rigid source tube. The source container shall be an approved design for the storage of such a source. Since radiographic inspection can be performed either totally in-house. it is desirable to use a source container of minimum weight to facilitate handling.PART 3 . where it is held for the duration of the exposure. Since the source container must be placed close to the engine. The following equipment and facilities are required. A. Source Tubes. the equipment requirement can vary considerably. Since there are numerous models and types of source containers. and the source container are coupled together to provide a continuous enclosed source path.GAMMA RAY EQUIPMENT AND INSPECTION 1. The rigid source tube sections. To allow a factor of safety for this 18 ft (550 cm) required travel. The gamma ray radiographic inspection of aircraft engines requires the use of special equipment included in radiographic inspection fixture set. or by the use of vendor radiographic services. 856A1141. a 7 ft (210 cm) flexible tube. it is 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 1 Nov 30/80 . Source.

reading from left to right. 5 ft (153 cm). and gives some freedom of choice of the lateral. (3) The rigid source tube acts as the source guide within the engine. embossed. and provides a solid medium for accurately locating the axial position of the source. The couplings between the rigid sections are the same as those between the rigid section and the flexible tube section to allow the use of one or more rigid sections.necessary to provide adapter sections to allow the interfacing of all possible source containers with the coupling type selected for the source tubes. and 3 ft (91 cm) should be provided. whose diameter is equal to the outside diameter of the tube. Also. The source tube is constructed of a noncorrosive circular cross-section material. vertical. and is accurate to within plus or minus 0. and are upright.125 inch (3. One is divided into inches as the major divisions. In order to provide a selection of flexible source tube lengths for optimum setup lengths of 7 ft (213 cm). the couplings are keyed to provide positive circumferential alignment of the tube sections. or otherwise marked scales are placed on the tube sections. This flexible section allows axial adjustment of the source tube position independent of the position of the source container. and is accurate to within ± one mm of the true source position. (4) Two permanent etched. (2) The rigid source tube is coupled to the source container by a section of flexible source tube. and axial position of the container as well as its attitude. with increasing numbers. The couplings should match the rigid source tube. The other is divided into centimeters and millimeters. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 2 Nov 30/80 . scribed.0625 inch (1. with 0. and is made up in sections having a total length of 120 inches (305 cm). and have an inside diameter compatible with the source being used.1 mm) subdivisions. and a hemispherical outer surface. The first section of the rigid source tube has the front end plugged with a plane inside surface.6 mm) of the true source position. and have zero end play when coupled.

requiring hand operation only for installation. The clamping mechanism grips the source tube with sufficient force to prevent slipping of the tube when 25 lb (11 kg) axial force is applied.6 mm) of the desired distance from the reference plane.25 inch (6 mm) of the true center. Film Holding Strap. is needed for holding film in place over the combustor and low pressure turbine areas. and with a thickness of 0. quick release. The other strap 8 ft (244 cm) long is required for holding film in place over the compressor area. The source tube must be held in the center of the shaft as it enters the engine. One strap. It is made of a material which is not deteriorated by engine oil or fuel.0 to 7. The other end is fitted with the mating attachment hardware of the latching mechanism. An indexing fixture is provided which holds the source tube in the center of the shaft as it enters the engine with less than plus or minus 0. E.2 to 0.187 inch (1. The axial position indexing mechanism is capable of positioning the end of the source tube to within plus or minus 0. and the tip must be positively supported during the exposure. Two different length straps are needed. Clamping of the source tube can be accomplished by a one-hand operation. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 3 Nov 30/80 .3 inch (5.8 mm).6 to 4. zyglo fluids. The source tube can be removed or inserted in the engine with the indexing device in place. with an elastic range of 50 percent elongation. The source tube is fitted with a centering device which holds the source tube tip in the center of the engine shaft within plus or minus 0. The film cassettes are held against the surface of the engine by a elastic strap. Source Tube Indexing Fixture. or engine cleaning fluids. similar to those used on automobile and aircraft seat belts. The elastic film holding strap is 2 inches (5 cm) wide. The indexing device mounts positively to the fan spinner cap mounting flange with captive attachment thumbscrews.0625 inch (1.13 cm elongation per meter per kg). and must be positively clamped and accurately positioned axially by a suitable fixture for the tube-engine interface.75 cm to 1. D. The strap has a gradient range of 0.(5) The source tube must be accurately centered in the engine shaft. One end of the elastic film holding straps is terminated with a continuously adjustable.25 inch (6 mm) deviation from the true center.6 mm) elongation per foot of length per pound of applied tension (0. whose unstretched length is 12 ft (366 cm).0625 to 0. buckle.

2 cm).F.3 cm) or 0.2 cm) and 4. The outer surface is water. and film drier. protective cassettes.127 mm) lead screens at the front and back of the film for exposure enhancement and back scatter attenuation.8 x 43. screened. NOTE: Alternate positive methods of film identification may be used.005 inch (0. Film Processing. The exposure information given in the specific radiographic procedures has been selected to provide optimum film density for single loaded film cassettes with 0.127 mm) thickness of lead screens when film is hand 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 4 Nov 30/80 . fixing.375 inch (1.7 cm) radius without damage to the cassettes or causing a permanent set. either by means of an automatic film processor. A supply of industrial X-ray film of the proper sizes and types to meet the needs of the radiographic inspection procedure must be available. Film processing capability must be provided. A darkroom film laboratory facility is required for film cassette loading and unloading. and film processing. with the edges reinforced to prevent tears and light leaks and associated film spoilage. Film Cassettes and Film Identification. washing tanks. Sufficient quantities should be available to allow labeling all cassettes of at least 2 inspection procedures according to the prescribed identification system to avoid delays in the radiographic inspection for film identification. The film cassettes are constructed of such material that they can be formed on a 18 inch (45. (1) The industrial X-ray film used in gamma ray radiography is encased in reuseable light proof. (3) One-half inch (1. or a hand developing system of film holders. G.5 x 17 inches (11. with lead identification numbers and/or letters attached to the source side of the cassette.4 x 43. developing. and wear resistant.0 cm) standard lead letters and numbers are used for film identification. The 2 most required film sizes are 7 x 17 inches (17. They are constructed with a light proof enclosure for the screens and the film. oil. The cassettes are fitted with 0.005 inch (0. (2) A sufficient quantity of the proper size cassettes should be available to allow the complete radiographic inspection of an engine to be accomplished without a delay for cassette reloading.

trial exposures should be made for a specific procedure to determine acceptable development/exposure times. with an adjustable iris to vary the area down to a 0.0 density. Preparation and Inspection . Generally automatic film processing relative to hand method yields a greater film density for the same exposure. (1) Adequate equipment must be available for the examination and interpretation of the radiographs including 2 types of viewers. (2) Standard 14 x 17 inch (36 x 43 cm) viewers are required for examination of films up to 2. (1) Tools and Equipment.Procedure. 856A1141 856A2573 Description Inspection Fixture Set Puller 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 5 Nov 30/80 . 2.processed at 68°F (21°C) for 5 minutes. Tool No. (a) Special Tools. (3) A high-intensity viewer should be provided for examination of films having up to 4. Equipment and the necessary copying film should be available for the making of duplicate films of selected radiographs of interest. A simultaneous display of eight 7 x 17 inch (17.7 cm) diameter circle.0 density. A. NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items. A correlation can then be established from the test exposure that will permit adjustments to yield acceptable results with the other procedures. Examination Equipment. The light intensity should be continuously adjustable from zero to maximum illumination. Due to variables in the automatic process. The viewer should provide viewing of a maximum area of 5 inches (12.27 cm) circle. Equipment and Materials.8 x 43 cm) films is recommended. H. Tools.5 inch (1. The light source should be heat filtered to allow sustained exposure ot the film to the full intensity of the light without overheating the film.

as illustrated in figure 1. and facilities necessary and the performance of the inspection. Description Film as required in procedure (c) Equipment. C. which are performed before. Calculate the exposure times required for each radiographic inspection procedure based on the strength of the source being used. Code No. establish the total film requirement by size. devices. type. (2) Verify the availability and serviceability of all special equipment. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 6 Nov 30/80 . The following sequence is recommended for the effective conduct of the radiographic inspection. Pre-Inspection Planning. and fill in the appropriate data on the Radiographic Inspection Instruction Sheet.(b) Standard Tools. and number of sheet. Description Standard 16 x 14 in. The radiographic inspection of an aircraft turbine engine is accomplished in a series of steps. From the tabulation of film data. The recommended pre-inspection planning activities are as follows: (1) Select the Radiographic Inspection Procedures which are to be accomplished during the inspection. (36 x 43 cm) Viewer High-Intensity Viewer (2) Consumable Products. CP2102 Description Pure Mineral Petrolatum Manufacturer Local Purchase Manufacturer Local Purchase Local Purchase B. and after the actual radiograph exposure. fixtures. during.

and year of century. place corresponding chalk marked numbers on the side of the cassette opposite the side having the indentification strip and sheet number. (3) Make up film identification strips and overlap keying numbers and attach to film cassettes as illustrated in figure 2. For purposes of easy film identification during installation on the engine. The identification number consists of the sequence of the last 3 digits of engine serial number. (2) Adequately mark and segregate cassettes loaded with the different types of film to assure positive film type identification. and located laterally as specified in the inspection procedure. Film Preparation.Radiographic Inspection Instruction Sheet Figure 1 D. centered between the ends of the film. day. (1) Load the necessary number and sizes of screened cassettes with the specified types of industrial X-ray film for the selected radiographic inspection procedures. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 7 Nov 30/80 . and the number of the radiographic inspection procedure. 6 digits representing month. The identification numbers are taped to the engine side of the cassette.

Radiographic Film Identification and Placement of Film on Engine Figure 2 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 8 Nov 30/80 .

(d) Install source tube indexing and support fixture. See figure 3. (3) Install source tube indexing and support fixture as follows: (a) Place an indexing mark across joint between the fan spinner cap and the fan spinner body. and discard O-rings. (a) Assure that the keyed couplings are properly seated and that there is no end play in the couplings. Tighten mounting thumbscrews to firmly seat the support bar against the spinner cap mounting flange. Engine Preparation. Remove the 12 spinner cap attachment bolts and remove spinner cap as shown in section 72-21-00. Place spinner cap in appropriate temporary storage during radiographic inspection. of engine maintenance manual. Place attachment bolts in drawstring storage bag and attach to spinner cap. (4) Assemble the sectional rigid isotope source tube and insert into the center vent tube of the engine. and the outside of the engine in the regions covered by the selected inspection procedures. Align support bar in a horizontal position.E. 856A2573. with clamping jaws open upward. See figure 3. (1) The engine is prepared for the radiographic inspection by providing access to the engine shaft for source tube insertion. Secure the fan from windmilling by snubbing strap around fan blade and fan outlet guide vane. (b) Remove snap ring from turbine shaft forward end. and to the surface of the engine for film placement. (c) Remove the low pressure turbine (LPT) shaft plug using puller. Orient fan shaft with 2 fan spinner cap mounting bolts on a horizontal diameter. (2) Place appropriate stand and work platforms near the engine and to provide access to the fan inlet. and lock fan in place with wedge between fan tip and fan case at 6 o'clock position. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 9 Nov 30/80 .

Installation of Gamma Ray Apparatus into Center Front Access of Engine Figure 3 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 10 May 31/84 .

(b) Connect adapter section and flexible source tube between source container and rigid source tube. (c) Deploy visible and/or audible alarms for activation when required during exposure. (5) Establish radiation safety controls as prescribed by applicable rules and regulations. Tape cassettes together and to engine or use plastic strap as follows: (a) Place elastic film holding strap around engine directly on surface. (7) Install X-ray film on surface of engine over area to be radiographed. at the 12 o'clock position with cassette one. where film cassettes are to be placed. The film should be directly on the 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 11 Nov 30/80 . with light tension. per detail procedure. Place the next cassette 2 with its left end overlapping the previous cassette. (b) Post warning signs. (a) Place locked source container on bottom of fan duct or some suitable support. aft looking forward. (b) Select the set of cassettes identified for the particular radiographic inspection procedure and place film under holding strap in their approximate position.(b) Orient the source tube with the tube support at the 6 o'clock position. (c) Place the tube in the indexing fixture at the source tube position for the first radiographic inspection procedure. starting clockwise. (a) Set-up radiation area boundry barriers. See figure 2. (c) Connect source control cables to storage container with control station at remote position providing minimum exposure to operator during operation. The overlapped number is placed beneath both cassettes. and the scale numbers reading upright. (6) Complete assembly of source exposure system. Continue until all cassettes have been installed.

(d) Activate visible and/or audible radiation alarm equipment. (d) Make fine adjustment of cassette position to conform with radiographic inspection procedure. (c) Tighten holding strap sufficiently to hold cassettes firmly in place. (c) Visually check engine area for evacution of all personnel. if the engine is cool enough to hold a hand against the surface indefinitely. (a) Place the source tube at the proper index position and clamp in place with the indexing fixture. CAUTION: DO NOT PLACE FILM CASSETTES ON SURFACE OF ENGINE IF THE TEMPERATURE OF THE ENGINE SURFACE IS GREATER THAN 130°F (55°C). (f) The placement of film on an engine at a greater temperature may cause damage to the films and deteriorate the quality of the radiographs. (b) Unlock source container with safety lock. or similar abuse which will cause unwanted marks on the film and low quality radiographs. As a simple rule-ofthumb. under tubes. (8) Enter appropriate data of the particular radiographic inspection in Radiographic Film Log Sheet shown in figure 4. (e) Care should be taken in the handling of the film cassettes during installation on and removal from the engine. kinking. and bracket where possible. avoiding any bending.surface of the engine. squeezing against sharp projections. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 12 Nov 30/80 . (9) Obtain exposure for radiograph of the area of engine specified in the applicable inspection procedure by the following sequence of steps. the temperature is below the level where film damage can occur. WARNING: EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO THE RADIOACTIVE SOURCE MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. lines.

Sample of Radiographic Film Log Figure 4 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 13 Nov 30/80 .

(11) Return engine to pre-inspection condition. (g) Maintain cognizance of area to assure and/or prevent entry of radiation area by unauthorized personnel. (f) Set timer to desired exposure time. (i) Return source to container when timer indicates completion of required exposure. (m) Remove exposed film from engine.(e) Operate source control equipment to transport source to tip of source tube. (d) Install new O-rings lightly coated with petrolatum (CP2102) into forward and aft groove of LPT shaft plug. (10) Repeat steps outlined in step (9) for obtaining radiographs specified by the remaining radiographic inspection procedures selected for the particular engine inspection. (n) Remove identification strips and overlap numbers from film cassettes. (k) Lock container safety device. (j) Survey source container to assure that source is properly in the safe position. withdraw tube from engine. (c) Remove source tube indexing fixture from the fan spinner flange. (e) Install LPT shaft plug and snap ring. (a) Uncouple flexible source tube from source container and the rigid source tube. (l) Turn off visible and/or audible radiation alarm. (b) Unclamp source tube from indexing device. (h) Survey perimeter of exclusion area to assure compliance with radiation safeguard regulations. and disassemble into separate sections. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 14 Nov 30/80 .

(13) Process radiograph films. (g) Remove fan tip locking wedge. (c) When films are dry. from source storage container. with index marks aligned to assure same relative position. analyze. (12) Remove radiographic inspection apparatus and radiological safety control equipment. (14) Examine. (c) Remove radiation area warning signs. (a) Disconnect adapter section. cut any sharp corners to prevent scratching other films or tearing filing and storage envelopes. and install shipping plug in container. and prepare equipment for transportation to storage site. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 15 Nov 30/80 . (e) Remove portable audible and/or visible alarm equipment. and evaluate radiographic inspection data. if used. (d) Sort films by inspection procedure number and arrange films of each procedure in sequence of position around circumference around engine.(f) Reinstall fan spinner cap cover as prescribed in section 72-21-00 of maintenance manual. and remove fan snubbing strap. (d) Take down radiation area barriers. (b) Develop films. either by feeding through automatic film processor. (b) Disconnect source control cables from source container. or place in film holders and hand process. (a) Remove exposed films from cassettes under dark room conditions. if detachable. (h) Remove elastic film holding strap or tape from the engine.

and enter into the condition monitoring data file of the engine. the date of inspection. Mark the outside of the envelope with the engine serial number. if applicable. the inspection site. and chronologically within the engine group. using standard and high intensity viewers as required. (d) Trend monitor condition of engine by comparing radiographic results of this inspection with the results of previous inspection of the same areas to establish rate of increase of distress. either in the form of a hand record or a machine record. (b) Place all the individual radiographic inspection procedure envelopes for the same engine serial number and same inspection date into one larger envelope. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 16 Nov 30/80 . (b) Encircle areas of distress or abnormality with film marking pencil. (c) Store inspection envelope vertically in radiograph file by engine serial number.(a) Examine each radiograph. (e) Document the results of the radiographic inspection. both with respect to magnitude and characteristics and axial and circumferential position. (c) Record all areas of distress or abnormality. (15) Enter radiographs into the Radiographic Inspection Data File as follows: (a) Place all films from each radiographic procedure into a paper envelope. if applicable. Insert a copy of the inspection log sheet in the envelope. with the engine serial number. and procedure numbers included in enclosed inspections. procedure number. and inspection date on the outside of the envelope.

(4) 3 . (5) 5 .3. The radiographic inspection procedure numbering system has been designed to allow the convenient insertion of additional procedures into the system at a particular engine area.Compressor section.High pressure turbine section. Source location. exposure times. (6) 6 . etc. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 17 Nov 30/80 . 2 stator. (a) CFM56-01 (b) CFM56-02 (c) CFM56-03 (d) CFM56-04 Fan booster in area of fan stage No. Fan booster in area of fan stage No. C. (2) 1 . Specific Radiographic Inspection Procedures for CFM56 Engines. See figure 5.Fan area..Combustion section.Core thrust reverser area. The following specific procedures have been developed. Fan Booster in area of fan stage No. Each procedure is listed under its appropriate ATA coded section. 3 stator. etc. film placement. B. A. exposure time. Fan booster in area of fan stage No. 1 stator.Low pressure turbine section. General radiographic inspection procedures have been developed for the various sections of the engine for guidance of source location. (3) 2 . 4. The first digit of the procedure number behind engine designation (CFM56-XX) designates the engine areas as follows: (1) 0 . 4 stator. General Radiographic Inspection Procedures. can be adjusted to enhance specific part or area to be inspected. (1) Fan/booster area.

ATA Numbering of Engine Sections Figure 5 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 18 Nov 30/80 .

(a) CFM56-21 (b) CFM56-22 (c) CFM56-23 Combustion section in area of fuel injectors. Compressor section in area of stage 1. Compressor section in area of stage 2. (a) CFM56-100 Compressor section in area of inlet guide vanes. Compressor section in area of stage 8. 72-00-00 Part 3 Page 19/20 Nov 30/80 . Compressor section in area of stage 7. (a) CFM56-51 (b) CFM56-52 (c) CFM56-53 (d) CFM56-54 Stage 1 of LPT section. Stage 2 of LPT section. Combustion section in middle area. (4) High pressure turbine (HPT) section. CFM56-31 HPT section in area of HPT nozzle. Compressor section in area of stage 6. Stage 3 of LPT section. Compressor section in area of stage 5. (5) Low pressure turbine (LPT) section. Compressor section in area of stage 3. Compressor section in area of outlet guide vanes. Stage 4 of LPT section. Combustion section in area of exit of swirler. Compressor section in area of stage 4.(2) Compressor section. (b) CFM56-101 (c) CFM56-102 (d) CFM56-103 (e) CFM56-104 (f) CFM56-105 (g) CFM56-106 (h) CFM56-107 (i) CFM56-108 (j) CFM56-109 (3) Combustion section.

Engine and Radiographic Preparations. A. 3. Use information shown in the radiographic inspection procedure selected. 72-20-00 Part 3 Page 1 Nov 30/80 . 2. The following steps will aid in organizing an inspection. Establish zero reference point and prepare engine for inspection accordingly. Select radiographic inspection procedure needed from figures in this section. Interpretation of Findings. Film and Source Information.GAMMA RAY INSPECTION OF FAN BOOSTER SECTION 1. 4. Figures 1 through 4 of this section provide information that can be used for general inspections of the fan booster section.PART 3 . B. Interpret findings from radiographic to limits of serviceability stated in maintenance manual Chapter 72-21-00. Observe instructions and procedures in Chapter 72-00-00. General.

Fan Booster in Area of Fan Stage 1 Stator Figure 1 72-20-00 Part 3 Page 2 Nov 30/80 .

Fan Booster in Area of Fan Stage 2 Stator Figure 2 72-20-00 Part 3 Page 3 Nov 30/80 .

Fan Booster in Area of Fan Stage 3 Stator Figure 3 72-20-00 Part 3 Page 4 Nov 30/80 .

Fan Booster in Area of Fan Stage 4 Stator Figure 4 72-20-00 Part 3 Page 5/6 Nov 30/80 .

Figures 1 through 10 of this section provide information that can be used for general inspections of the high pressure compressor (HPC) section.PART 3 . 4. Use information shown in the radiographic inspection procedure selected. 72-33-00 Compressor Rotor. Compressor Rear Stator. 2. 72-32-00 C. B. A. Select radiographic inspection procedure needed from figures in this section. Observe instructions and procedures in Chapter 72-00-00. Compressor Front Stator. Interpretation of Findings. 3. The following steps will aid in organizing an inspection. 72-31-00 B. Film and Source Information. Establish zero reference point and prepare engine for inspection accordingly. General.GAMMA RAY INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR SECTION 1. Engine and Radiographic Preparations. A. 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 1 Nov 30/80 . Interpret findings from radiographic to limits of serviceability stated in maintenance manual.

Compressor Section in Area of Inlet Guide Vanes Figure 1 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 2 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 1 Stator Vanes Figure 2 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 3 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 2 Stator Vanes Figure 3 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 4 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 3 Stator Vanes Figure 4 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 5 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 4 Stator Vanes Figure 5 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 6 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 5 Stator Vanes Figure 6 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 7 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 6 Stator Vanes Figure 7 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 8 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 7 Stator Vanes Figure 8 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 9 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Stage 8 Stator Vanes Figure 9 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 10 Nov 30/80 .

Compressor Section in Area of Outlet Guide Vanes Figure 10 72-30-00 Part 3 Page 11/12 Nov 30/80 .

72-41-00 B. Establish zero reference point and prepare engine for inspection accordingly. Use information shown in the radiographic inspection procedure selected. 2.GAMMA RAY INSPECTION OF COMBUSTION SECTION 1. Engine and Radiographic Preparations. 72-40-00 Part 3 Page 1 Nov 30/80 . A. 3. Figures 1 through 3 of this section provide information that can be used for general inspections of the combustion section. 4. Observe instructions and procedures in Chapter 72-00-00. B. Film and Source Information. Interpretation of Findings. General.PART 3 . Combustion Liner and Seals. Select radiographic inspection procedure needed from figures in this section. Interpret findings from radiographic to limits of serviceability stated in maintenance manual. A. The following steps will aid in organizing an inspection. 72-42-00 Combustion Section.

Combustion Section in Area of Fuel Injectors Figure 1 72-40-00 Part 3 Page 2 Nov 30/80 .

Combustion Section in Area of Swirler Exit Figure 2 72-40-00 Part 3 Page 3 Nov 30/80 .

Combustion Section in Middle Area Figure 3 72-40-00 Part 3 Page 4 Nov 30/80 .

72-40-00 Part 3 Page 5/6 Nov 30/80 .

HPT Rotor. Film and Source Information. Figures 1 through 5 of this section provide information that can be used for general inspections of the turbine sections. Interpret findings from radiographic to limits of serviceability stated in maintenance manual. Use information shown in the radiographic inspection procedure selected. HPT Shroud and Stage 1 Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) Nozzle. Engine and Radiographic Preparations. The following steps will aid in organizing an inspection. Observe instructions and procedures in Chapter 72-00-00. B. A.GAMMA RAY INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE AND LOW PRESSURE TURBINE SECTIONS 1. Select radiographic inspection procedure needed from figures in this section. Interpretation of Findings. 72-51-00 B. 72-54-00 72-50-00 Part 3 Page 1 Nov 30/80 . 72-52-00 C. 3. Establish zero reference point and prepare engine for inspection accordingly. General. A. D. 2. 4. 72-53-00 High Pressure Turbine (HPT) Nozzle. LPT Assembly (LPT Stator and LPT Rotor).PART 3 .

HPT Section in Area of HPT Nozzles Figure 1 72-50-00 Part 3 Page 2 Nov 30/80 .

LPT Section in Area of Stage 1 Nozzle Figure 2 72-50-00 Part 3 Page 3 Nov 30/80 .

LPT Section in Area of Stage 2 Nozzle Figure 3 72-50-00 Part 3 Page 4 Nov 30/80 .

LPT Section in Area of Stage 3 Nozzle Figure 4 72-50-00 Part 3 Page 5 Nov 30/80 .

LPT Section in Area of Stage 4 Nozzle Figure 5 72-50-00 Part 3 Page 6 Nov 30/80 .

72-50-00 Part 3 Page 7/6 Nov 30/80 .

11 NOVEMBER 30. 1980 REVISED MAY 31. 1999 .NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 7-BORESCOPE INSPECTION CFMI-TP-NT.

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BORESCOPE INSPECTION LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION R TITLE PAGE R LEP R CONTENTS R 72-00-00 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R PAGE 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 DATE May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 Feb 29/96 Blank May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 Blank SECTION R 72-21-00 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 72-31-00 R R R R PAGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 1 2 3 4 5 DATE May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 R: indicates pages added. or deleted this revision. changed.PART 7 . LEP Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 .

LEP Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 .BORESCOPE INSPECTION LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION R 72-31-00 R (Cont'd) R R R R R R R R 72-42-00 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 72-51-00 R R R R R R R R 72-52-00 R R PAGE 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 DATE May May May May May May May May May 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 SECTION R 72-52-00 R R R R R R R R R 72-54-00 R PAGE 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 DATE May May May May May May May May May 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 Blank May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 Blank May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R May 31/99 May 31/99 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 May 31/99 Blank R: indicates pages added. or deleted this revision.PART 7 . changed.

.................................... l Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Turbine Nozzle ............. 1 Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Compressor ... 1 Borescope Inspection of Combustion Section ... 1 CONTENTS Part 7 Page 1/2 Feb 29/96 .....PART 7 ............. 1 Borescope Inspection of Low Pressure Compressor ................... l Borescope Inspection of Low Pressure Turbine .. l Borescope Inspection of High Pressure Turbine Blades ..........BORESCOPE INSPECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 72-00-00 R 72-21-00 72-31-00 72-42-00 72-51-00 72-52-00 72-54-00 Page Borescope Inspection ......

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General. Tools. WARNING: ALL STANDS AND GROUND EQUIPMENT SHALL HAVE SAFETY LOCKS AND RAILINGS. C. Safety. The following WARNINGS apply to using borescope equipment. 2.BORESCOPE INSPECTION 1. A television camera and viewing screen may be used instead of visual examination through the monocular viewer and a television tape recorder may be used in lieu of the photographic method of making a record. This procedure includes instructions for checking the resolution of borescopes and fiberscopes. The borescope provides a system of visually inspecting and taking photographs of selected areas inside the engine. The CFM56 engine has been designed with a substantial number of access holes for viewing critical areas inside the engine. B. 3. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 . The borescope is a precision monocular periscope instrument especially designed for the inspection of the inside of turbofan engines through small diameter access holes. Equipment and Materials. WARNING: DO NOT EXPOSE YOUR EYES TO THE FULL INTENSITY OF THE XENON OR GAS ARC LIGHT SOURCE. NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items. A. DO NOT IMPROVISE WITH LADDERS AND BOARDS. This procedure describes the type of borescope equipment found to be acceptable for inspection of the CFM56 turbofan engine. WARNING: ALL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN INSPECTION SHALL BE PROPERLY GROUNDED.

Tool No. 856A1084G02. P07. (1) Special Tools. Videoprobe Flexible Borescope. Tools and Equipment. P06 P07 856A1321P01. P03.HP Turbine Guide Tube. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . Borescope Guide .A. P03.Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-5) Motor Drive . P08. P03 or P04 R R 856A1815G01. P09 856A1323G01 856A1488P01 or P02 Borescope Resolution Monitor Motor Drive . G03 or G04 856A1142P03 or P04 Description Cart. P04. P05 or P06 856A1324P01 (ALT) Fiberscope Set Borescope. P05. Rigid 856A1310G01 856A1351P01 R R R 856A1320P04.Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-3) Motor Drive-Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-7B) 856A2002P01. P02. G02 NOTE: Other borescope systems using either fiber light or distal lamps for illumination and a rigid lens optical path may be considered acceptable for inspection of the CFM56 turbofan engine if they meet the design specifications of CFMI Specification M50TF3276-S1. Light Source Set R R 856A1322P02. HPT Shroud Borescope Set. Drive-Core Engine Rotation (CFM56-2) Kit. P04. Stator Actuator Motor.

2:1 magnification at 2 in. (f) Magnification adapter .(2) Standard Tools. (50. 856A1322. (e) 40-60 degree eyepiece extension. (d) Long right angle extension. (g) 35 mm camera adapter.8 mm). or 110 VAC 400 Hz. (h) Television camera adapter. 856A1320.110 VAC 60 Hz. (1) This borescope set consists of the following: (a) Light source . (a) The rigid borescope set. (c) Two fiber light bundles. is stored in a carrying case and must be assembled prior to use. except for the light source. and Light Source Set. Rigid Borescope Set. Description 35 mm Camera Video Monitor Manufacturer Local Purchase Local Purchase B. See figure 2. 220 VAC 50 Hz. See figure 1. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 . (2) Preparation for use. NOTE: The 35 mm camera and television camera adapters are optional equipment and may be obtained from the borescope vendor. (b) Four rigid probes.

Rigid Borescope Set Figure 1 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 .

Rigid Borescope Probe Specifications Figure 2 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 .

CAUTION: BEFORE CONNECTING THE POWER SUPPLY TO A 110 VAC 60 HZ POWER SOURCE, BE SURE THE ON-OFF SWITCH IS IN THE OFF POSITION AND LIGHT INTENSITY CONTROL IS SET TO MINIMUM. ENSURE PROJECTOR AND POWER SUPPLY ARE PROPERLY GROUNDED. (b) Select desired probe. Connect the fiber bundle to the probe and to the light projector. Connect the light projector electrical cable to a grounded power source. (c) When the magnification adapter is required, attach the adapter to the eyepiece at the selected probe. When used with probe 1 the probe must be focused prior to attaching the magnification adapter. (d) If photographic record is desired, attach the 35 mm camera on the optional adapter. Attach the camera and adapter to the eyepiece of the selected probe. (e) When using the optional television camera adapter, attach the C-mount to the TV camera adapter and connect the camera assembly (vidicon and low light intensifier) to the C-mount. Connect the TV camera electrical cable to the camera and camera control unit. Attach the TV camera adapter to the eyepiece of the probe. (f) Attach the offset eyepiece to the probe eyepiece as required if viewing access is limited. (3) Operating information for the use of the rigid borescope set is as follows:

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(a) Probe 1 is primarily used for defect assessment of the combustion chamber and high pressure turbine (HPT) nozzle. This probe contains a variable focus adjustment in the form of a knurled ring between the eyepiece and the fiber light bundle disconnect fitting. This is the high magnification probe and can be used to define or access most defects in the combustion chamber or HPT nozzle. For photo recording purposes a visually sharp focus should be obtained prior to coupling of the camera and adapter to the borescope. Fine adjustments may then be accomplished through adjustment of the camera adapter. This probe will require more exposure time than the other probes due to increased focal length and therefore less light transmission. The depth of field and field of view are decreased because of the magnification provided in the probe optics. (b) Probe 2 is a general purpose 90 degree probe and is primarily used for general inspection of the engine. Probe 2 can be used in all borescope ports of the engine. (c) Probe 3 is a fore-oblique angle probe primarily required for the high pressure compressor (HPC) blade platforms and airfoils. (d) Probe 4 is a retro-angle probe primarily required for blade tips and other liner surfaces and shrouds. (e) Probes 2, 3 and 4 can have fixed or adjustable focus lenses. 1 For close-up inspection, less than 0.25 in. (6,4 mm) away from the probe optics window, the magnification adapter should be utilized. The magnification adapter provides variable focus as well as magnification. The magnification of 2 to 1 is only obtained at 2.0 in. (50,8 mm) from optics to object distance. The magnification factor decreases for object distances greater than 2.0 in. (50,8 mm); object to optic spacing.

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For objects less than 2.0 in. (50,8 mm) from the probe lens window, adjust the magnification adapter to bring the object clearly into focus. Only fine adjustments are required on the camera adapter. Use of the magnification adapter for photo recording will require more exposure time for a given probe, than photos taken without its use. The magnification adapter is not recommended for use with probe 1 during photo recording.

(f) Light projection provides the light source for the fiber bundle probes. Place the power unit switch to ON. The red indicator light should glow. Adjust the intensity of the light source to provide the required illumination after the probe is inserted into the engine port. (g) Two light sources are built into the power unit. The 150-watt lamp is used for visual inspection of objects close to the distal end of the probe. The 1000-watt high intensity lamp is used for photography as well as visual inspection of combustors and HPT nozzle vanes. NOTE: The photo arc light circuit contains a thermal delay cutout that prevents the light from being turned ON if light projector is too hot. C. Fiberscope Set, 856A1321 and Borescope Guide Tube, 856A1310. See figure 3. (1) The flexible fiber optic system has an articulated distal tip. The light for viewing is conducted from the projector to the probe through an integrally attached fiber light bundle. The distal end can be angulated over a range of 180 degrees of arc vertically at the bending point. The system contains the following features.

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Fiberscope Set Figure 3

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(a) Optical system specifications. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Distal focusing - adjustment at eyepiece. Depth of field - 6 mm to 100 mm. Angle of view - 90 degrees. Diopter adjustment - minus 6D to plus 4D. Magnification - 1:1 at 25 mm. Objective focal distance - 2.13 mm. Lens speed - f 2.8. Image bundle size - 1.7 mm square. Single fiber image guide - 17 microns. Illumination - inherent light guide with 5 feet extension.

(b) Distal tip specifications. 1 2 Size - 6 mm dia x 20 mm long. Side view - 90 degrees to centerline of probe.

(c) Bending section (articulated tip) specifications. 1 Angulation controllable at eyepiece 180° (90° up - 90° down). Minimum bend radius - one in. (25,4 mm). Length of bending section - 50 mm.

2 3

(d) Flexible cable-probe specifications. 1 2 3 Working length - 70 in. (1800 mm). Outside diameter over working length - 6 mm. Covering on cable - stainless steel braid.

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Temperature range - 0°F to 200°F (- 18°C to 93°C) continuous operation. Light source - the fiberscope integral light bundle will attach to the Light Source Set, 856A1322.

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(2) Preparation for use. CAUTION: MOST FLEXIBLE FIBER OPTICAL SYSTEMS MAY BE DAMAGED QUITE EASILY IN VERY COLD WEATHER. FORCED BENDING OR WARMING CAN DAMAGE THE FIBER BUNDLE. SLOWLY AND GENTLY ARTICULATE TIP IN COLD WEATHER. AFTER EXPOSURE TO EXTREME COLD, WARM INSTRUMENT TO ROOM TEMPERATURE VERY GRADUALLY. (a) Connect the fiber light bundle from probe to light projector. Connect light projector to power source. Be sure that the power supply and power outlet is grounded. (b) Install optional 35 mm camera adapter or TV camera adapter as required. (c) Turn light projector ON. (3) Care and use of flexible fiberscope. The fiberscope (flexible borescope) is a precision optical instrument utilizing bunches of finely spun glass fibers to carry light and images. Although guarded by a stainless steel sheath for protection, reasonable care must be used to prevent damage and assure long service life. (a) Read the instruction manual completely before using. (b) Check the scope for damage before using. A slightly damaged scope, such as partial loss of tip control can result in getting the scope hung up and finally resulting in severe damage.

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(c) Although they are safer than ones with distal tip bulbs, scopes are not explosion proof. They ~ should not be used where highly volatile gases or explosive dust could reach the hot projection lamp of the external light source. (d) Do not subject the scope to intense X-ray or gamma radiation. Glass fibers are not nonbrowning and will turn yellow, amber, or brown if exposed to radiation. (e) When cleaning the scope, use lens tissue only on glass surfaces. Scopes should be kept clean at all times. (f) Avoid extreme temperatures. Use between 0°F to 200°F (- 18°C to 93°C). Do not insert into a hot engine; heat will cause bubbling of epoxy at the tip. This will cause loss of focus and damage to the lens sheath seals. Low temperatures will make the sheath brittle and tend to crack. (g) Hold tip or adjacent hardware when removing scope to prevent dropping to floor which will avoid hard shocks. (h) Use control knob to maneuver bending section of tip. Never bend or twist tip by hand; damage will result. (i) Do not force the control knob. Use the knob to guide the tip through curves, using tip touch to insert and also to remove or reposition the fiber probe. Do not merely push through guide tubes nor yank out when removing. (j) Return angle control knob to neutral position before withdrawing scope from engine or guide tube. (k) Bending section is flexible in one plane only. This plane must be oriented to the curves in the guide tube. The plane can be established by the articulation control. Do not bend in a 90 degree plane to the tip articulation plane.

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use care when closing the protective case. (m) Use plastic guide tube. to guide flexible fiber scope when inspecting the leading edge of the HPT blades. The installation and operation of the MOTOR.(l) Do not insert the scope too far into the engine. The pneumatic turning device provides smooth even speed turning of the core rotor. (2) Pneumatic rotation. If engine rotor is rotated the tip might be cut. If the fiber bundles are closed within the case edges. This is an advantage to the inspector viewing the blades. damage will result. DRIVE CORE ENGINE ROTATION are given in the maintenance manual relative to each engine model: 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 . The pneumatic pressure required is satisfied by a shop or line air supply. A 360 degree protractor is integral with the device. 4. A special pad is provided for this purpose. A. Procedure Before Borescope Inspection. (n) When storing the scope. This can be done manually or with the aid of a pneumatically powered motor. (3) Installation and operation. The core engine rotor is actuated by means of a drive adapter with a long breaker bar installed into the drive pad. (1) Manual rotation. Reversible control as well as speed control are provided and the need for an additional mechanic to turn the rotor is eliminated. Inspection of the HP rotor blades (compressor and turbine) requires rotation of the core engine rotor a complete 360 degrees for each stage of blades to be inspected. Never leave scope laying on floor where it might be stepped on or run over. Support Equipment. 856A1310.

Engine R CFM56-2/A/B/C CFM56-3 R R CFM56-5/A/B/C CFM56-7B Tool number 856A1142 856A2002 856A1488 856A1815 B. and lock aft to the stage 4 blade platform. (b) Remove the borescope port ( S4) plug between the 4 and 5 o'clock position on the compressor case. (a) Locate No. 1 blade in position before you turn each stage of blades. See figure 5. (2) Core rotor zero index position. you can put the No. (d) While you lock in the borescope. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 . (c) Put the rigid borescope probe with the 90° right angle viewer and a 60° field of vision in the borescope port. (c) The low pressure rotor is now in the zero referenced position for inspection. 1 fan blade with the T12 temperature sensor located in the fan frame at 1: 30 o'clock. aft looking forward. Thus. 1 blade. turn the core engine rotor clockwise (forward looking aft). (e) Turn the rotor until you can see the locking lug of the first blade slot. Zero CFM56-7B Index Position. (1) Low pressure rotor zero index position. (b) Align the leading edge of the No. 1 fan blade which is identified by a circular hole in the spinner rear cone adjacent to the No. The zero index position is the referenced position for borescope inspection. See figure 4. (a) Prepare for borescope inspection.

Zero Index Position of Core Engine Rotor (typical) Figure 5 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 .

(1) The CFM56 booster has one borescope port in the stage 3 (a second port is provided in stage 4 for CFM56-5B/5C only) for inspection. The low pressure turbine (LPT) has borescope inspection ports in all stator stages. wide angle fixed field.4 x 25. This is the zero index point and blade number 1 for inspection of all stages of the compressor rotor. The relative closeness of the borescope inspection ports to the rotor blades results in high magnification viewing using any of the specified probes (CFMI Specification M50TF3276S1). Therefore. relative to actual dimensions of the object. objects viewed closer than 2 in. The magnification of this probe is 1 x 1 at 2 in. Borescope inspection ports are located in each HPC stator assembly. The second locking lug is 2 blades past the first locking lug. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 . The HPT blade leading edges are inspected using the fiberscope via the igniter ports. Those objects viewed further away than 2 in.4 at 51 mm).(f) Continue to turn the rotor until you see the second locking lug. 5. (51 mm) from the distal lens are magnified. (51 mm) are decreased in image size. The probe is turned or rotated to view the passing blade. The core rotor blade airfoils and root/platform are completely inspectable from the gas path aspect. (25. (g) Align the leading edge of the first blade past the second locking lug with the leading edge of the nearest stage 4 vane. 90 degree angle of view with 60 to 65 degree field of view. A. Description. Inspection Techniques. The magnification is variable relative to blade position due to the changing viewing distances as a rotor is turned and the blade passes the relatively fixed borescope. (2) The primary probe recommended for CFM56 inspection is probe 2.

and coloration variables. The magnification factor of probes 2. (5) In contrast. or dirt streak to attempt to establish what the mark or line really is. e. The 300 watt arc light gives the closest to true or actual color of any light source. surface finish changes. the nonarc or incandescent light sources give a copper or bronze hue/coloration to the internal engine parts. contour changes.g. dents.Along with the varying magnification. Cracks that are open do not usually disappear with low to high light levels.g. crack. e. (3) Use a borescope probes 2.. (25. 3 or 4 does not change. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 . dirt smears. Having established the defect or suspected problem. the assessment of the magnitude of the defect now becomes the challenge. the angle of incidence of the illumination beam changes as the blades pass the fixed viewing port positions. Dirt/carbon/water streaks do not show the depth or shadow characteristics that cracks exhibit. Use of the various probes and variable positioning of the borescope relative to the suspect defects usually results in defining the suspected defect. (4) Another helpful technique in establishing the type of defect is through varying the borescope light intensity. thus producing/providing a third variable. 3 or 4 change the angle of views as well as the incidence angle of light beam relative to optic angle of view. impact results.. Flooding a scratch. loss of metal or coloration change. cracks. These views are further varied by probe immersions into the engine (radially). etc.4 at 51 mm). a crack or dirt line or water mark. It should also be noted that arc light sources such as the GE Marc 300/16 high intensity light (300 watt) versus the 150 watt quartz iodide or any incandescent light source tends to give a difference in image color when viewed through the borescope. a sharp nick or smooth dent. gives the inspector the aid of depth. scratches. NOTE: The above factors or variables should be utilized to the inspectors advantage when attempting to assess suspected deterioration or defects. the aspect of the object.4 x 25. it is 1 x 1 at 2 in.

NOTE: If the person performing the testing has corrected vision. lay Borescope Resolution Monitor on a flat surface making sure that the arm with the clamping device is also resting on a flat surface.) should be worn. (g) Hand tighten borescope in place. (a) Turn on lightsource and allow a minimum of 3 minutes warm up for lamp to reach its' maximum operating range. CAUTION: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BUNDLE OUTPUT. OVERTIGHTENING COULD RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE BORESCOPE. (c) Connect female end of light bundle to male connector on Borescope Resolution Monitor. (e) Check Borescope Resolution Monitor to assure that resolution target is illuminated. with objective window of borescope facing resolution target. See figures 6 and 7. 856A1323. (f) Insert borescope into clamping device located on arm of the Borescope Resolution Monitor. (h) In order to ensure that borescope is positioned correctly. Glance at female end to assure that adequate light is passing through. (d) Turn intensity of lightsource to maximum. CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE CLAMPING DEVICE. contact lenses. (b) Insert male end of light bundle into lightsource. etc. Resolution Check of Borescope and Fiberscope Using Borescope Resolution Monitor. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 . The objective window on borescope should be in line with black pivot bolt of arm. 856A1323.B. (1) Test rigid borescope as follows. then the appropriate eyewear (eyeglasses. HAND TIGHTENING IS SUFFICIENT.

Borescope Resolution Monitor Figure 6 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 19 May 31/99 .

Resolution Target Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 2) 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 20 May 31/99 .

Resolution Target Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 2) 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 21 May 31/99 .

Otherwise. Group 1 is located on the far right side of the target and appears smaller than group 0. (j) For borescopes with a magnification of 1:1 at 2 in. the borescope is not serviceable for engine inspection. the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal. However. (51 mm). borescope is not serviceable for engine inspection.(i) Align borescope so resolution target is centered in field of view. Group 0. the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal. See figure 7. NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the light intensity or the scope position in order to obtain the best view. with 6 elements to each group. sheet 1.e. Each group diminishes in size. its' 6 lines are quite visible to your eye. the scope or light bundle or light source is not serviceable for engine inspection. There are 7 groups . Otherwise. 3 vertical) of group 3.3 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable. (k) For borescopes with a magnification of 1:1 at 7 in. 3 vertical) of group 5. if the forementioned group/element cannot be seen. NOTE: The resolution target is divided into group numbers and element numbers. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 22 May 31/99 . If you peer through borescope and only part of resolution target is illuminated in your field of view. while group 3 is located in the center right side of the target. element 2 (36. See figure 7. sheet 2. Group 2 is located in the center left side of the target.0 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable. element 4 (11. half of field of view resembles a half moon) borescope is not serviceable for engine inspection. element 1 is located at the lower right of the target. (i. (178 mm).

Glance at female end to assure that adequate light is passing through. 856A1323. (d) Turn intensity of lightsource to maximum.(2) Test fiberscope as follows. WARNING: NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO THE LIGHT BUNDLE OUTPUT. CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE CLAMPING DEVICE. (b) Insert male end of light bundle into lightsource. (e) Check Borescope Resolution Monitor to assure that resolution target is illuminated. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 23 May 31/99 . NOTE: Due to the nature of the fiberscope. HAND TIGHTENING IS SUFFICIENT. it may be necessary to use a free hand to assure that the tip of the objective window remains centered on the resolution target. (f) Insert fiberscope into clamping device located on arm of the Borescope Resolution Monitor. THIS COULD RESULT IN INJURY TO PERSONNEL. (h) Hand tighten fiberscope in place. (g) Align objective window of fiberscope with resolution target. OVERTIGHTENING COULD RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE FIBERSCOPE. (a) Turn lightsource on and allow a minimum of 3 minutes warm up for lamp to reach its' maximum operating range. See figures 6 and 7. (c) Connect female end of light bundle to male connector on Borescope Resolution Monitor.

while group 3 is located in the center right side of the target. If only part of target is illuminated in field of view (i. its' 6 lines are quite visible to your eye. Group 0. relative to assessment of the maintenance manual limit. 3 vertical) of group 1.(i) Check fiberscope with objective window aligned and centered in field of view. e.. (a) Position the rotor to obtain the best view of the defect. Each group diminishes in size.g. if the forementioned group/element cannot be seen. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 24 May 31/99 . C. it is relatively easy to effect a comparative measurement. etc. half of field of view resembles a half-moon). Otherwise. leading edge or trailing edge distortion. leading edge impact. element 4 (2. with 6 elements to each group. the 6 individual lines (3 horizontal. the scope or light bundle or light source is not serviceable for engine inspection. element 1 is located at the lower right of the target. tip (distortion) curl. the fiberscope is not serviceable for engine inspection. fiberscope is defective and is not serviceable for engine inspection. Procedure. Usually normal (at right angle) to the defect and centered in the field of view. (j) For fiberscopes with 90° direction of view. See figure 7. There are 7 groups.83 lines per millimeter of resolution) should be distinguishable. NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the light intensity or the scope position in order to obtain the best view.e. (1) If Polaroid camera equipment and optional camera adapters are available. NOTE: The resolution target is divided into group numbers and elements numbers. sheet 1. However. Group 1 is located on the far side of the target and appears to be smaller than group 0. Group 2 is located in the center left side of the target.

axial. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 25 May 31/99 . (b) Use a sample blade (if available) and mark a similar or depiction of the blade defect. and circumferential orientation as the defect photo was obtained) of the borescope port and obtain a photo of the measurement scale. however. locate a scale (machinist 6 in. scale marked in 0. (d) Hold the borescope probe aligned with the centerline (same position. Place this blade in the relative position of the installed defective blade on the outside of the engine. increments) in the relative axial and circumferential position outside the HPC case. (2) If photographic equipment is not available. These 2 photos should be at the same relative magnification. for reference. (a) Position the rotor at the optimum rotation angle to view the defect. (c) Withdraw the borescope. withdraw the borescope probe with camera attached. (c) Using a full scale cross section of the engine. angle of look.010 in. retaining the axial circumferential orientation and lock angle relationship and visually assess the comparison of the actual to marked defect (from the installed blade to the external sample). (e) By comparative measurement. (d) Re-mark or correct the depiction until satisfied that the 2 images compare.(b) Obtain a Polaroid photo of the defect. apply the magnified scale increments from the photo of the scale to the photo of the actual defect. the following procedure has been used successfully. the comparative assessment becomes more difficult.

Local temperature rise (due to engine temperature soak-back) may cause local temperatures sufficient to damage the fiber optic type borescopes. 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 26 May 31/99 . NOTE: If engine starter motoring is used it is further recommended that engine hot section inspections be accomplished within 20 minutes after the motoring cycles are completed. motor engine for a maximum of 2 minutes by utilizing the engine starter and by carefully adhering to starter duty cycle limitations. NOTE: A straight edge scale can also be used if no blade samples are available to the inspector. (a) Figure 8 provides engine cool-down information relative to the various borescope port locations for use in determining elapsed time required prior to engine inspection of arrival aircraft. (3) Borescope temperature limitations. It is not recommended that (fiber light type or fiber optic/light flexible) fiberscope inspections be accomplished at temperatures above 150°F (65. (b) The information is either calculated or recorded from test engine data runs. (c) To increase the engine cool-down rate after shutdown.6°C).(e) Measure the marked defect. This will reduce the hot section area temperature sufficiently to allow fiber optics method of inspection at that time. CAUTION: REFER TO AIRCRAFT OPERATION MANUAL FOR STARTER DUTY CYCLE LIMITATIONS PRIOR TO MOTORING OF ENGINE.

Engine Temperature for Borescope Inspection after Engine Shutdown Following Normal Flight Cycle Figure 8 72-00-00 Part 7 Page 27/28 May 31/99 .

REFERENCE 72-21-00. trend symptoms.BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR 1. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. ENGINE CFM56-2 CFM56-3 CFM56-5A CFM56-5B CFM56-5C CFM56-7B 3. Requirements. Special Inspection. A. the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. General. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems. Inspection Criteria. or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The borescope inspection of the booster section is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. B. On Condition Maintenance. Fan and Booster Inspection/Check TASK 72-00-00-216-008-C00 TASK 72-21-00-290-001 TASK 72-21-00-290-003 TASK 72-21-00-290-801 TASK 72-00-00-200-803-F00 R 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 . Procedure. 2. Whenever borescope inspection of the fan rotor is required. Borescope inspection of the booster section may be required for visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. A. It is recommended that in-limit defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates.

4. (c) Dents. A. General. (e) Tip curl. The following listing relates the special checks to those additional defects which are prevalent in engines having experienced a problem requiring special checks. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for each rotor stage. (c) High fan vibs. Documentation of Defects.(1) On Condition (Scheduled Inspection). The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position on the blade. (d) Erosion. (a) Cracks or tears. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . (b) Nicks and scratches. (h) Missing metal. Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements. (b) Foreign object damage (FOD) and suspected bird injection. (g) Distortion leading or trailing edges. (2) Special Inspections. (f) Pits. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. (a) Fan stall.

NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used. a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. surrounding condition. (1) Record individual blade damage on booster blade maps. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. Whenever photos are made of a defect. stage. and date. magnitude of defect. Photo Recording of Damage. C. port direction of view. B. the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced. See figures 3 through 7. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. See figure 1. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. (2) Record damage detected on appropriate fan/booster rotor blade map. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the booster is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 .The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. etc. See figure 2. Mapping Defects. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span. The rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity.

R R Booster Section Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 .

R R Booster Section Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 .

R

R

Booster Section Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 6)

72-21-00
Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99

R

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Booster Section Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 4 of 6)

72-21-00
Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99

R

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Booster Section Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 5 of 6)

72-21-00
Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99

R

R

Booster Section Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 6 of 6)

72-21-00
Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99

Booster Blade Map Figure 2

72-21-00
Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99

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R

CFM56-2 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 1 of 4)

72-21-00
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R

CFM56-3 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 2 of 4)

72-21-00
Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99

R R CFM56-5 Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 3 of 4) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-7B Fan Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 4 of 4) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-2 Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-3 Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5A Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5B Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 4 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5C Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 5 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 19 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-7B Stage 2 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 6 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 20 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-2 Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 21 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-3 Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 22 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5A Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 3 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 23 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5B Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 4 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 24 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5C Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 5 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 25 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-7B Stage 3 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 6 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 26 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-2 Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 1 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 27 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-3 Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 2 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 28 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5A Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 3 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 29 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5B Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 4 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 30 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-5C Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 5 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 31 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-7B Stage 4 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 6 of 6) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 32 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5B Stage 5 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 2) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 33 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5C Stage 5 Booster Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 2) 72-21-00 Part 7 Page 34 May 31/99 .

Special Inspection. A. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems. or troubleshooting/fault isolation. Procedure. trend symptoms. A.BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR 1. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. Borescope inspection of high pressure compressor (HPC) section may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance. It is recommended that in limit defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates. Whenever borescope inspection of the HPC is required. On Condition Maintenance. REFERENCE 72-31-00. B. Inspection Criteria. The borescope inspection of high pressure compressor is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. Maintenance Practices TASK 72-00-00-216-049-C00 TASK 72-31-00-290-001 TASK 72-31-00-290-002 TASK 72-31-00-290-801 TASK 72-00-00-200-804 R 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 . General. the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. Requirements. 2. ENGINE CFM56-2 CFM56-3 CFM56-5A CFM56-5B CFM56-5C CFM56-7B 3.

72-31-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for each rotor stage of the compressor. The following listing relates the special checks to those additional defects which are prevalent in engines having experienced a problem requiring the special check. (a) Cracks. (c) Foreign object damage (FOD).(1) on condition (Scheduled Inspection). (h) Missing metal. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position on the blade. 4. (b) Oil fumes detected in cabin air. Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements. (d) High core vibration. (a) Core stall. (b) Nicks or scratches. (e) Tip curl. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Documentation of Defects. A. (d) Erosion. (2) Special inspections. (i) Dirt. General. (g) Distortion of leading or trailing edge. (c) Dents. (f) Pits.

(2) Record damage detected on the appropriate compressor rotor stage maps. See figure 1. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used. port direction of view. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the high pressure rotor is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number. Whenever photos are made of a defect. See figure 2. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. The rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. and date.The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspection. a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. surrounding condition. C. magnitude of defect. stage. etc. Mapping Defects. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced. the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. (1) Record individual blade damage on HPC blade map. B. Photo Recording of Damage. See figures 3 through 11. 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 .

R Compressor Section Inspection Record Figure 1 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 .

Compressor Blade Map Figure 2 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 .

R Stage 1 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 .

R Stage 2 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99 .

R Stage 3 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99 .

R Stage 4 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 .

R Stage 5 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 .

R Stage 6 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 8 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 .

R Stage 7 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 9 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 .

R Stage 8 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 10 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 .

R Stage 9 Compressor Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 11 72-31-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 .

or troubleshooting/fault isolation.BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF COMBUSTION SECTION 1. Whenever borescope inspection of the combustion section is required. the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems. Inspection Criteria. Requirements. Maintenance Practices TASK 72-00-00-216-023-C00 TASK 72-42-00-290-001 TASK 72-42-00-290-041 TASK 72-42-00-290-802 TASK 72-00-00-200-805-F00 (SAC) TASK 72-00-00-200-816-F00 (DAC) R R 3. General. Procedure. 2. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. ENGINE CFM56-2 CFM56-3 CFM56-5A CFM56-5B CFM56-5C CFM56-7B REFERENCE 72-42-00. Special Inspections. On Condition. Borescope inspection of the combustion section may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 . trend symptoms. B. The borescope inspection of combustion chamber is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. A. A.

This usually occurs uniformly around the aft liner in approximately 20 places. (1) Overtemperature operation.B. (25 mm) dia. which is followed by distortion and cracking. Use of arc Xenon or incandescent light sources for borescope illumination will result in viewed coloration differences. (2) Inner liner. Incandescent lamps usually do not have sufficient light levels to view the distant areas of the combustion chamber liners..0 in. (c) Use of the Xenon arc lamp with the distal light type borescopes tend to cast a bluish coloration on the viewed hardware. C. On Condition (Scheduled Maintenance). This light is close to white light. (b) Use of incandescent filament lamps tend to project a yellowish color on the viewed hardware. (1) Discoloration. The closest color to true daylight viewing is gained from the use of a Marc 300/16 type hiintensity lamp light projector. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . Carbon streaks have been misinterpreted as cracks and carbon deposits have bean misinterpreted as holes or burn through. The aft panel of the inner liner is susceptable to distortion and cracking. Special Inspections. (a) High exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increase in EGT trend. (a) Normal aging of the combustion chamber components will show a wide range of color changes. the first evidence of this is discoloration in a round spot approximately 1. (b) Overtemperature during takeoff or cruise.

The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until the damaged parts are repaired or replaced. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection record forms and maps for the combustion section. R R R (1) Record damage on maps. R R R R (2) Record inspection on single annular combustion chamber (SAC) inspection record. . See figure 2. General. Inspect the combustion chamber in accordance with the standard condition check. Mapping Defects. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. surrounding condition. accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. (3) Record inspection on dual annular combustion chamber (DAC) inspection record. 4. . B.(2) Impact damage observed on high pressure turbine (HPT) rotor blades.DAC : see figures 9 through 15.SAC : see figures 3 through 8. Limits and area all apply as in an on condition check. A. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used. Documentation of Defects. See figure 1. The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. etc. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 . Details are lost relative to magnitude of defect. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially for location of damaged area. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted.

C. and date. port direction of view. 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 . Photo Recording of Damage. a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. Whenever photos are made of a defect. stage. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number.

R Single Annular Combustion Section Inspection Record Figure 1 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Section Inspection Record Figure 2 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 .

R R R Single Angular Combustion Chamber (Typical) Figure 3 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99 .

R R Single Angular Combustion Chamber Section View Figure 4 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99 .

R R Outer Liner Surface Map (SAC) Figure 5 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 .

R R Outer Liner Inner Surface Map (SAC) Figure 6 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 .

R R Inner Liner Surface Map (SAC) Figure 7 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 .

R R Dome Area General Map (SAC) Figure 8 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Inspection Figure 9 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Inspection Figure 10 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection Figure 11 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection Figure 12 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection Figure 13 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection Figure 14 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 .

R R R Dual Annular Combustion Chamber Borescope Inspection Figure 15 72-42-00 Part 7 Page 19/20 May 31/99 .

ENGINE CFM56-2 CFM56-3 CFM56-5A CFM56-5B CFM56-5C CFM56-7B 3. Borescope inspection of the high pressure turbine (HPT) may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. Inspection Criteria. B. or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The borescope inspection of high pressure turbine nozzle assembly is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. Procedure. observed defects must be assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. Maintenance Practices TASK 72-00-00-216-023-C00 TASK 72-51-00-290-002 TASK 72-51-00-290-004 TASK 72-51-00-290-801 TASK 72-00-00-200-806-F00 R 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 . Special Inspections. On Condition. General. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems trend symptoms. A. A.BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE NOZZLE ASSEMBLY 1. Whenever borescope inspection of the HPT nozzle assembly is required. REFERENCE 72-51-00. 2. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. Requirements.

(b) Buckling and bowing. (a) Cracks. (b) Nicks. (b) Cracks. scratches.B. Cracks. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . scores. Cracks. (7) Inner and outer bands. (5) Airfoil trailing edge. (c) Blocked cooling air passages. On Condition (Scheduled Maintenance). (6) Other airfoil areas/defects. (c) Burns. (a) Burns. (1) Discoloration. (2) Leading edge damage. (a) Cracks. (b) Burns. (3) Airfoil concave surface. (4) Airfoil convex surface. (a) Burns. or dents.

The on condition checks pertains to all special inspection requirements regarding hardware limits and inspection procedures.C. A record of the vane by clock location as well as magnitude can be sketched on the map. (2) Engine stall. A. 4. (1) It is recommended that a record of each inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Special Inspections. See figure 1. These records should accompany the HPT nozzle (module or engine) to the repair facility for correlation of inspection depiction versus actual hardware condition. (1) Overtemperature operation. (2) Record inspection on inspection record. Documentation of Defects. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 . This information is useful in establishing deterioration data from subsequent inspection or watch checks. General. Sample forms and a map of the HPT nozzle assembly is provided so that any damage within (or out) of serviceable limits can be recorded. (3) Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) trend step increase.

R (1) Record damage detected on the HPT nozzle vane map. This probe has the greatest fiber light transmission capability. Photo Recording of Damage. surrounding condition. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. stage. magnitude of defect. C. See figures 2 and 3. It is recommended that the probe (rigid optic fiber light borescope) be used for photo recording. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number. Mapping Defects. 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 . Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span. (2) Care edge from will vane should be taken to center the light beam on the vane leading in question. and date. port direction of view. Too much immersion of the probe show liner high-lighting and tend to wash out the HPT nozzle photo detail. eliminating as much glare or reflective lighting the inner combustion liner. NOTE: Whenever photos are made of a defect. the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. (1) Photos of the HPT nozzle vanes require time exposures unless extremely fast ASA film is used. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. etc.B. accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot.

High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Inspection Report Figure 1 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 .

High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Map of Damaged Vanes (Typical) Figure 2 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 .

R R R CFM56-7B HPT Nozzle Map Damaged Vanes Figure 3 72-51-00 Part 7 Page 7/8 May 31/99 .

trend symptoms. Inspection Criteria. the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability.BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE BLADES 1. B. A. A. Special Inspections. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. Requirements. General. On Condition. ENGINE CFM56-2 CFM56-3 CFM56-5A CFM56-5B CFM56-5C CFM56-7B 3. Procedure. or troubleshooting/fault isolation. It is recommended that in-limit defect conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates. 2. The borescope inspection of high pressure turbine blades is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. Whenever borescope inspections of the HPT section are required. Borescope inspection of the high pressure turbine (HPT) blades may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. REFERENCE 72-52-00. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problem. Maintenance Practices TASK 72-00-00-216-026-C00 TASK 72-52-00-290-001 TASK 72-52-00-290-001-A TASK 72-52-00-290-801 TASK 72-00-00-200-807-F00 R 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 .

(c) Burning. C. This section merely highlights those areas of distress associated with a given problem. Specific defects accompany some of the special check requirements. (3) Blade platform. (a) Nicks and dents. (a) Cracks. or missing pieces. (1) Trailing edge. (b) Cracks.B. the general on condition check should be accomplished. (2) Tip area. (4) Concave and convex airfoil surface. (c) Tip trailing edge wear. (b) Plugging. Special Inspection. In all cases. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . (5) Cooling holes. (a) Cracks. Cracks. On Condition (Scheduled Inspection). (b) Bent. (b) Distortion. curled. (1) General. The following listing relates the special check to those typical defects which are prevalent in engine having experienced those problems requiring the special check. (a) Cracks.

(b) High pressure compressor (HPC) stalls usually drive the exhaust gas temperature (EGT) to overlimit if the stall is severe or sustained. When metallic debris is noted in the engine tailpipe. prior to release of the engine. prior to release of the engine. a borescope inspection of the HPT rotor is required. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 3 May 31/99 . a borescope inspection of the HPT rotor is required. (5) N2 overspeed. (3) Overtemperature. (b) The normal on condition check is required. The standard on condition check and corresponding limits apply. (a) When an engine stall is either suspected or known to have occurred. (4) Metal in the tailpipe. (c) The normal on condition check must be accomplished. prior to release of the engine. and hard landing. high or changing core vibration indication or following a reported hard landing. The standard on condition check and limits apply to these conditional checks. This produces tip deterioration (nibbling) on the concave or pressure face tip centered about 2/3 chord aft from the leading edge. will require a borescope inspection/check of the HPT rotor prior to release of the engine. a borescope inspection of HPT rotor is required. An N2 overspeed. The typical effect of HPT overtemperature is the nibbling of the concave or pressure face tip about 2/3 chord aft of the leading edge.(2) Core stall (N2). core vibs. In all inspections of the HPT rotor. (a) When certain EGT excursions are reported. the on condition check and limits apply.

NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used. etc. B. General. See figure 3. (2) Record damage detected on the appropriate high pressure turbine rotor maps. Documentation of Defects. Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span. (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. Mapping Defects. magnitude of defect. See figure 2. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection forms and maps for each rotor stage of the HPT. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position of blade. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the high pressure rotor is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. See figure 1. 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 4 May 31/99 . (2) Record inspection on inspection record. accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. (1) Record individual blade damage on HPT blade map. The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections.4. surrounding condition. The HPT rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. A. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until damaged part(s) are repaired or replaced.

72-52-00 Part 7 Page 5 May 31/99 . the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. port direction of view. a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot.C. and date. Photo Recording of Damage. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number. stage. Whenever photos are made of a defect.

R HPT Rotor Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 2) 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 6 May 31/99 .

R HPT Rotor Inspection Record Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 2) 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 7 May 31/99 .

HPT Rotor Blade Map (Typical) Figure 2 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 8 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-2/-3 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 1 of 4) 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 9 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5 HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 2 of 4) 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 10 May 31/99 .

R R R R CFM56-7B With Single Annular Combustion HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 3 of 4) 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 .

R R R R CFM56-7B With Dual Annular Combustion HPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 3 (Sheet 4 of 4) 72-52-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 .

It is recommended that in limit conditions be documented for determination of subsequent deterioration rates.BORESCOPE INSPECTION OF LOW PRESSURE TURBINE 1. Requirements. A. Inspection/Check TASK 72-00-00-216-045-C00 TASK 72-54-00-290-001 TASK 72-54-00-290-005 TASK 72-54-00-290-801 TASK 72-00-00-200-808-F00 R 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 1 May 31/99 . A. Borescope inspection of low pressure turbine (LPT) may be required for a visual assessment check as part of the on condition engine maintenance plan. 2. General. The CFM56 Maintenance Manual will call out the engine sections required to be inspected. ENGINE CFM56-2 CFM56-3 CFM56-5A CFM56-5B CFM56-5C CFM56-7B 3. Special Inspections. Whenever borescope inspections of the LPT section are required. or troubleshooting/fault isolation. The borescope inspection of low pressure turbine is given in the Maintenance Manual or Aircraft Maintenance Manual relative to each engine model. On Condition. Other borescope inspection checks will be required resulting from engine problems. REFERENCE 72-54-00. the following defects must be observed and assessed as to the applicable hardware limits for serviceability. trend symptoms. Procedure. B. Inspection Criteria.

Use of the magnification adapter is recommended for final assessment of possible or suspect cracks in the blade tip shrouds. For tip shroud condition. etc. Note and record the presence of these defects relative to the percent span and percent chord for magnitude and location on the blade. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 2 May 31/99 . (b) Cracks shall exhibit depth and under magnified assessment shall show edge material definition. Subsequent inspection should be performed to locate the origin of such damage. (a) Nicks and/or dents in the leading edge. carbon streaks. airfoil surfaces (convex/concave) and/or the platforms must be assessed.B. Note any cracking or sharpness of dents and/or nicks. the retrograde or probe 4 is recommended. (a) Using the fiber light type rigid optic borescope probe 2 (wide angle scope) inspect the total airfoil. (1) Cracks in LPT rotor blades. and with minor trailing edge damage to stage 1 blades. 3. and tip shrouds for evidence of cracks. 3 and 4 versus leading edge damage (impact) to stages 2. etc. 2. Note also the condition of the blade material adjacent (at extremities of defect) to the observed defect. platform. For example: inspect damage to leading edge of stages 1. Care must be used to distinguish cracks from smears. (2) Nicks and dents. On Condition (Scheduled Inspection). (b) Smooth impact deformities to leading or trailing edge blade contour should be noted/reported. trailing edge.

See figure 1. In all cases. High time LPT rotor assemblies may show airfoil surface irregularities which can be dirt accumulation.(3) Wear. This area is viewable using probe 2. but if suspected wear is observed the retrograde probe 4 is recommended for final assessment. however pitting and/or corrosion of the blade material are considered significant deterioration modes. The LPT stage 1 and stage 4 blades (stage 5 for CFM56-5C) must be inspected. the general on condition check should be accomplished. R R R (1) Overtemperature inspection. pitting of the surface from particles in the gas stream or corrosion of the blade material. carbon buildup. This section merely highlights those areas of distress associated with a given problem. C. LPT rotor blade tip shroud interlock and/or circumferential mating face area wear has been experienced. The following listing relates the special check to those typical defects. Special defects accompany some of the special check requirements. coloration. Dirt and coloration are of little concern. pitting. These abnormalities are very difficult to define and to differentiate between the various suspect defects/surface irregularities. Use of all 3 probes as well as varying light intensities is required for final assessment of these conditions. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 3 Feb 29/96 . All LPT stages must be inspected. (2) Metal in the tailpipe. and corrosion. (4) Dirt. Special Inspections.

Details are lost relative to percent of chord or span. accomplish the mapping at the inspection site. B. Sample forms are provided which include borescope inspection forms and maps for each rotor stage of the LPT. Map the defect on the site of the inspection. Documentation of Defects. See figure 3. The propagation of the damage can then be pictorially illustrated during subsequent inspections. (1) Record individual blade damage on the LPT blade map. (2) Record damage detected on the appropriate LPT rotor stage map. The maps are provided so that any damage within serviceable limits can be recorded pictorially by blade number and position of the blade. surrounding condition. R (1) It is recommended that a record of the inspection be maintained for each borescope inspection conducted. R R R R R R R R R R R R R 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 4 Feb 29/96 . (2) Record inspection on inspection record. Do not rely on memory of the defect to allow the mapping to be done in an office after the inspection. magnitude of defect. The LPT rotor blade maps are oriented about the zero reference for inspection continuity. General. See figures 4 through 8. NOTE: When defect/damage maps are used.R 4. Mapping Defects. The blade numbering relative to angular position applies only when the low pressure rotor is indexed as defined in section 72-00-00. A. etc. See figure 2. The inspection records and maps will remain with the engine folder until damaged part(s) are repaired or replaced.

Photo Recording of Damage.R R R R R R R C. Note directly on polaroid photos and record relative to sequence of photos on 35 mm or negative film. If the photo is not recorded relative to engine serial number. and date. Whenever photos are made of a defect. port direction of view. a record of the photo should be made immediately on the spot. stage. the correlation of the hardware damage and the photo will be extremely difficult. 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 5 Feb 29/96 .

R LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection Figure 1 (Sheet 1 of 5) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 6 Feb 29/96 .

R LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection Figure 1 (Sheet 2 of 5) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 7 Feb 29/96 .

R LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection Figure 1 (Sheet 3 of 5) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 8 Feb 29/96 .

R LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection Figure 1 (Sheet 4 of 5) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 9 Feb 29/96 .

R LPT Blade Overtemperature Inspection Figure 1 (Sheet 5 of 5) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 10 Feb 29/96 .

CFM56-2/-3 LPT Section Inspection Record Figure 2 (Sheet 1 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 11 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B LPT Section Inspection Record Figure 2 (Sheet 2 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 12 May 31/99 .

CFM56-5C LPT Section Inspection Record Figure 2 (Sheet 3 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 13 May 31/99 .

LPT Blade Map (Typical) Figure 3 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 14 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-2/-3 Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 15 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 16 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-5C Stage 1 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 17 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-2/-3 Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 18 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 19 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-5C Stage 2 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 5 (Sheet 3 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 20 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-2/-3 Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 1 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 21 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 2 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 22 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-5C Stage 3 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 6 (Sheet 3 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 23 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-2/-3 Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 24 May 31/99 .

Figure 7 (Sheet 1 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 25 May 31/99 .

R R CFM56-5A/-5B/-7B Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 2 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 26 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-5C Stage 4 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 7 (Sheet 3 of 3) 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 27 May 31/99 .

R CFM56-5C Stage 5 LPT Rotor Map of Damaged Blades Figure 8 72-54-00 Part 7 Page 28/28 May 31/99 .

1989 .NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 8.11 AUG 31.FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION CFMI-TP-NT.

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R R R R LEP Part 8 Page 1/2 Aug 31/89 . or deleted this revision.PART 8 – FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION SECTION TAB DIVIDER TITLE R PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE R PAGES R CONTENTS R 70-00-71 1 Aug 31/89 PAGE DATE 1 2 1 2 1 2 Aug 31/89 Blank Aug 31/89 Blank Aug 31/89 Blank R: indicates pages added. changed.

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PART 8 – FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION R 70-00-71 Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection PAGE 1 R R R R CONTENTS Part 8 Page 1/2 Aug 31/89 .

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R 2. Quality Assurance R A. The fluorescent-penetrant inspection (FPI) process is a visual inspection aid used for detection of shall surface defects that may not be visible under normal white-light visual inspection. R R R R 70-00-71 Part 8 Page 1/2 Aug 31/89 .R R 1. R R R R R R R R R R R FLUORESCENT – PENETRANT INSPECTION A. (a) Post-emulsifiable penetrants. Refer to Standard Practices Manual Chapters 70-32-00 through 70-32-24. (1) Two basic types of penetrant can be used depending on the configuration of parts being inspected. Tools. Refer to Standard Practices Manual Chapters 70-32-00 through 70-32-24. R 3. Refer to Standard Practices Manual Chapters 70-32-00 through 70-32-24. voids or other types of defects which are inherent or which are caused by processing or service. R A. R 4. General. Equipment and Materials. inclusions. CAUTION: WATER-WASHABLE PENETRANTS SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR INSPECTION OF LIFE LIMITED ROTATING PARTS. R A. (b) Water-washable penetrants. Method of Test. The defects may be cracks.

2000 .11 NOVEMBER 30. 1980 REVISED MAY 31.NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 9-SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM CFMI-TP-NT.

SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM SECTION TAB DIVIDER TITLE PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES PAGE DATE R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R SECTION 79-00-00 (Cont'd) PAGE 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 DATE May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 R 1 May 31/00 R R 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 May 31/00 May 31/00 May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/99 31/00 31/99 31/99 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 79-00-00 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R: indicates pages added. LEP Part 9 Page 1 May 31/00 . changed. or deleted this revision.PART 9 .

PART 9 .SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM SECTION R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 79-00-00 (Cont'd) PAGE 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 DATE May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 SECTION PAGE DATE R: indicates pages added. changed. LEP Part 9 Page 2 May 31/00 . or deleted this revision.

but other symtoms as well. Under inspection. (1) Presence of chips on filters or magnetic chip detectors. 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 1 May 31/99 . small particles are also a source for determining the condition of a unit. (4) Borescopy. A. D. the lubricating oil of mechanical units becomes contaminated with metallic particles ranging in size from a few microns to several millimeters as a result of friction between moving parts. consumption and discoloration. (5) Gamma radiography. (3) oil pressure. It is the sum of this information which makes up the failure signature.. During operation. This method of detection is only applicable to damage which is characterised by a previous abnormal production of metallic particles in suspension and which is sufficiently progressive in its evolution to allow preventive action to be taken. General. ) it is possible to be forewarned and to monitor the evolution of incipient damage to a component of the unit concerned. It is therefore necessary to look for additional signs and to employ all other methods which will assist in this task. Phenomenon such as fatigue and sudden failure cannot be detected. E. B. silver. chrome. (2) Vibrations. nickel. A failure signature can be defined for each type of damage and comprises not only of oil contamination by particles produced by wear. This method of detection therefore serves to supplement the inspection of filters and magnetic detectors. aluminum. By determining the concentration and nature of metallic particles in suspension in the oil (iron. etc . C.SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM 1. gears or machining residues.. Large particles are usually detected by the periodic inspection of filters and magnetic plugs and may relate to a state of deterioration which is quite marked such as flaking of roller bearings.

HOT OIL GUSHING FROM TANK COULD CAUSE SEVERE BURNS.. (a) Standard tools. TO ALLOW TANK PRESSURE TO BLEED OFF. (1) Open filler cap of oil tank as specified in maintenance manual section 12-10-00. A. None required. Equipment and Materials. Sampling.) a sample of 250 cc can be extracted. NOTE: To be valid. 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 2 May 31/99 . It is necessary to use a greater bottle than 60 cc and avoid filling up the bottle. Description Plastic bottles and tubes Manufacturer Code Local Purchase (2) Consumable Products. the oil sample must be taken as soon as possible after shutdown with a maximum of 15-30 minutes after engine has stopped. NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items. (2) Take sample by squeezing plastic bottle and then dipping tube end into oil. chips analysis. No new oil must be added before sampling as this would falsify the result. If other analysis should be necessary (ferrography. CAUTION: USE EXTREMELY CLEAN SCREW TOP PLASTIC BOTTLES AND PLASTIC TUBES THAT HAVE NOT BEEN USED BEFORE. Procedure WARNING: WAIT FOR AT LEAST 5 MINUTES AFTER ENGINE SHUTDOWN BEFORE REMOVING OIL TANK CAP. B. Release bottle to suction oil. NOTE: A sample of 60 cc should be extracted for a spectromic oil analysis. Tools. (1) Tools and Equipment..2.

(c) Date of sample. including bearing fatigue failures. Calibration and Analysis. detection limits. (b) Operating time since last oil sampling. 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 3 May 31/99 . For example the equipment is particularly sensitive to Mg. and working range for analysis of each element should be available from the equipment manufacturers.5%) constituent of the lube wetted parts materials. (d) Identification of engine. They have different sensitivities to the elements to be monitored. The sensitivity of the equipment to particular elements should be considered when analysing SOAP results. There are two types of equipment: emission and atomic absorption. Sensitivity.(3) Fill and close oil tank as specified in maintenance manual section 12-10-00. (e) Type and brand of oil used. NOTE: Samples for spectrometric analysis should be sent to the laboratory as soon as possible (4) Tag oil samples as follows: (a) Engine total operating time. If SOAP is to be the primary method of monitoring. (f) Oil consumption. 3. the interval should be appreciably shorter 50 to 100 hour intervals. NOTE: It is recommended that oil samples be taken at approximately 200 hour intervals. The Mg reported in the SOAP results for some CFM56 engines is not believed to be attributable to an engine part's distress as this element is a minor (2.

Methods for Emission Spectrochemical Analysis. In calibrating. Philadelphia. calibration before each run. Calibration of the spectrometer Calibration procedures/recommendations should be obtained from the manufacturer of the particular equipment to be used. B. Some of the equipment manufacturers also supply the calibration fluids. Method D-2P3.A. Fresh calibration fluids should be made and/or obtained as recommended by the manufacturer. Practices that would alleviate possible analysis variances such as shaking samples before analysis to obtain uniform material dispersion. The concentration of wear material in the oil as indicated by SOAP. Procedure recommendations should be obtained from the equipment manufacturer. 1916 Race Street. 19103 Issue 1971. published by the American Society of Testing Materials. including Fe. in conducting analysis with atomic absorption type equipment the air and gas flow rates for the fire may effect the results. Analysis. control of the sample temperature to obtain consistent viscosity. same dilution agent/procedure used in conducting atomic absorption analysis. for a healthy engine is very small for all elements measured. The small concentrations and possible variations in analysis results precludes establishing specific values at this time for normal SOAP results. Corrections may also be considered for oil added although the experience indicates that this is not necessary for moderate oil consumption rates. and conducting the analysis. the following book reference is suggested. Pa. it should be noted that the viscosity of the fluids (calibration fluids VS engine oil VS fluid temperatures) may have an effect on SOAP results. The laboratory data should be corrected for any metal constituents in the oil. 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 4 May 31/99 . A standard calibration can be made using National Bureau of Standards. Each airline should establish the engine signature based on their analysis and experience. Also. page 375. If the operator wishes to establish a calibration standard this way. NBS materials and the engine oil being used.

such as the excessive spline wear experienced with the IGB Horizontal Shaft Spline. Each operator should establish their criteria and actions to be taken for SOAP based on their experience and operations considerations (route length and terrain. Nickel (Ni). In this case put the engine on watch do a daily inspection of engine magnetic chip detectors. etc . 4. Silicon (Si) may be monitored for indications of oil contamination. Review SOAP data for significant quantity increases (or appearances) and definite increasing trends. Zinc (Zn). (2) A progressively moderate increasing trend of Fe is characteristic of excessive parts wear. The following guidelines are provided for consideration (quantity values provided indicate relative values . Copper (Cu).. A. Iron (Fe) is the most significant metal to monitor. The Fe content in the oil may attain a very large (100 + PPM) concentration before corrective action is required providing the distress is assessed and monitored such as can be done with the IGB shaft spline wear.not limits): (1) A sudden large (10 to 12 PPM) increase (or appearance) of Fe or a minor increase (5 to 7 PPM) of Fe in conjunction with an indication (2 PPM) of Cu. SOAP Data Analysis. route versus service or shop facilities and spare engines. B. 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 5 May 31/99 . Although action for this type of distress is not as urgent as the above. ). it is recommended that an engine investigation be promptly conducted to determine and assess the part deterioration and establish a program for monitoring the distress until corrective action is taken. These SOAP results can indicate rapid parts deterioration and in particular bearing distress. Molybden (Mo). Absolute values (limits) have not been significant in determining required action. Chromium (Cr) and Silver (Ag) are possible secondary identifiers of part distress.SOAP limits and the engine action required are variable as will be apparent in the following paragraphs.. Aluminium (Al).

Except for Cu. The gearbox bearing housings and the IGB Horizontal drive shaft are Cr plated. Al . Zn . (c) Fe.indication of bearing (CFM56 engine bearings have steel cages . pump bearing distress may occur due to ingestion of material from an engine part's distress. Cr . W may be the SOAP indication of a future No.indication of AGB bearing distress or lube and scavenge pump bearing distress. Ni. 4 bearing distress. IGB or AGB bearing distress. Zn. Cu. Cr . Ni. Cr are major constituents of many parts in the sumps. Ni. 3 bearings inner race spinning. (f) Al . (d) Fe. The following element associations are suggested as possible distress identifiers: (a) Fe. and Fe indication may be from engine part. Cr. some of these metals have been noted in review of some SOAP data received for engines which had incurred a lube wetted parts failure or have been noted as individualistic constituents of particular parts in review of figures 1 thru 26. Mo. (b) Fe.indication of lub module distress R 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 6 May 31/00 .indication of bearing distress Fe. Fe. Ag) in conjunction with Fe SOAP results with figures 1 thru 16 for guidance in diagnostic investigations of the engine. However. Cu .(3) Review secondary metals (Cu.Ag may provide secondary indication). Ni. the secondary metals have not contributed to the detection and isolation of part distress in the experience to date. (e) Fe.indication of No.possible indication of gearbox parts distress. Al.

R Oil Sampling for Analysis Figure 1 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 7 May 31/99 .

R Chemical Composition of Materials (In Percent) Figure 2 (Sheet 1 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 8 May 31/99 .

R Chemical Composition of Materials (In Percent) Figure 2 (Sheet 2 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 9 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-2 Engine Sump Area Figure 3 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 10 May 31/00 .

CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 5) 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 11 May 31/00 .

CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 5) 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 12 May 31/00 .

CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 5) 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 13 May 31/00 .

CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 4 of 5) 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 14 May 31/00 .

CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 5 of 5) 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 15 May 31/00 .

R CMF56-2 Transfer and Accessory Gearboxes. Radial Drive Shaft Lubrication Unit Figure 5 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 16 May 31/00 .

R CMF56-2 Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 6 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 17 May 31/00 .

R Magnetic and Sealol Seal/Housing Figure 7 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 18 May 31/00 .

R CMF56-2 Material Sheet Data Figure 8 (Sheet 1 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 19 May 31/00 .

R CMF56-2 Material Sheet Data Figure 8 (Sheet 2 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 20 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-2 No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 9 (Sheet 1 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 21 May 31/00 . 4 and No.

R R R CMF56-2 Material Sheet Data Figure 9 (Sheet 2 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 22 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-2 AFT Sump (Location of Seals) Figure 10 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 23 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Engine Sump Area Figure 11 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 24 May 31/00 .

1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold Figure 12 (Sheet 1 of 3) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 25 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-3 No.

2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 12 (Sheet 2 of 3) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 26 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-3 No.

R R R CMF56-3 No. 2 Bearing Area (Material Sheet Data) Figure 12 (Sheet 3 of 3) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 27 May 31/00 . 1 and No.

3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump Material) Figure 13 (Sheet 1 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 28 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-3 No.

3 Bearing Area (Material Sheet Data) Figure 13 (Sheet 2 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 29 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-3 No.

R R R CMF56-3 AGB/TGB Forward Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 1 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 30 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 AGB/TGB Forward Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 2 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 31 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Forward Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 3 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 32 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 14 (Sheet 4 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 33 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 14 (Sheet 5 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 34 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 TGB and Lubrication Unit Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 6 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 35 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Magnetic and Sealol Seal/Housing Figure 14 (Sheet 7 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 36 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Material Sheet Data Figure 14 (Sheet 8 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 37 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 Material Sheet Data Figure 14 (Sheet 9 of 9) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 38 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-3 No. 4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 15 (Sheet 1 of 3) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 39 May 31/00 .

5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 15 (Sheet 2 of 3) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 40 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-3 No.

5 Bearing Area (Material Sheet Data) Figure 15 (Sheet 3 of 3) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 41 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-3 No. 4 and No.

R R R CMF56-5A Engine Sump Area Figure 16 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 42 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B Engine Sump Area Figure 17 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 43 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5C Engine Sump Area Figure 18 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 44 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 1 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 45 May 31/00 .

1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 2 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 46 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5B No.

R R R CMF56-5C No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 3 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 47 May 31/00 .

2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 4 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 48 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5A No.

2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 5 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 49 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5B No.

R R R CMF56-5C No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 6 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 50 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C No. 1 and No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 7 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 51 May 31/00 .

3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 20 (Sheet 1 of 4) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 52 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5A No.

3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 20 (Sheet 2 of 4) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 53 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5B No.

3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 20 (Sheet 3 of 4) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 54 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5C No.

3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 20 (Sheet 4 of 4) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 55 May 31/00 .R R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C No.

R R R CMF56-5A TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 1 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 56 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 2 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 57 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 3 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 58 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 4 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 59 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 5 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 60 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B AGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 6 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 61 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5C TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 7 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 62 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5C AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 8 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 63 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5C AGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 9 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 64 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 21 (Sheet 10 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 65 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 21 (Sheet 11 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 66 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Magnetic Seal/Housing Figure 21 (Sheet 12 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 67 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Sealol Seal Figure 21 (Sheet 13 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 68 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Lubrication Unit Figure 21 (Sheet 14 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 69 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 15 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 70 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 16 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 71 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 17 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 72 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 18 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 73 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5C Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 19 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 74 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5C Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 20 of 20) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 75 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5A No. 4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 1 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 76 May 31/00 .

4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 2 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 77 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5B No.

4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 3 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 78 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5C No.

R R R CMF56-5A No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 4 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 79 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-5B No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 5 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 80 May 31/00 .

5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 6 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 81 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-5C No.

4 and No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Material Data Sheet Figure 22 (Sheet 7 of 7) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 82 May 31/00 .R R R R CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C No.

R R R CMF56-7B Engine Sump Area Figure 23 (Sheet 1 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 83 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-7B Engine Sump Area Figure 23 (Sheet 2 of 2) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 84 May 31/00 .

R R R CMF56-7B No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold Figure 24 (Sheet 1 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 85 May 31/00 .

2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 24 (Sheet 2 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 86 May 31/00 .R R R CMF56-7B No.

R R R CMF56-7B No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 24 (Sheet 3 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 87 May 31/00 .

R R R R CMF56-7B No. 1 and No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 24 (Sheet 4 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 88 May 31/00 .

3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 24 (Sheet 5 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 89 May 31/00 .R R R R CMF56-7B No.

R CMF56-7B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 25 (Sheet 1 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 90 May 31/00 .

R CMF56-7B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 25 (Sheet 2 of 5) 79-00-00 Part 9 Page 91 May 31/00 .

R R

CMF56-7B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 25 (Sheet 3 of 5)

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R R

CMF56-7B Gearboxes Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 25 (Sheet 4 of 5)

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R R

CMF56-7B Gearboxes Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 25 (Sheet 5 of 5)

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CMF56-7B No. 4 Bearing Area (Aft Sump) Figure 26 (Sheet 1 of 3)

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CMF56-7B No. 5 Bearing Area (Aft Sump) Figure 26 (Sheet 2 of 3)

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R R

CMF56-7B No. 4 and No. 5 Bearing Area (Aft Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 26 (Sheet 3 of 3)

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(4) It is recommended that each airline compile a SOAP history record for each incurred engine failure and/or lube wetted parts distress with careful correlation of exhibited SOAP indications to parts damage using figure 1 for guidance. These records may provide for establishing SOAP diagnostic criteria. (5) Investigate the engine for increased oil consumption if a SOAP trend suddenly drops or the rate of increase is reduced. High oil consumption can indicate lube wetted parts distress. Also a drop in SOAP indications caused by the diluting effect of increased oil additions may be interpreted as a correction of a false indication of part's distress. C. Diagnostics Consider the following engine investigations and monitoring as determined by SOAP data analysis and experience: (1) Inspect the engine collection devices (magnetic chip detector, pump scavenge inlet screens, scavenge oil filter). (2) If the collectors have debris, substantiating possible parts distress, investigate per chip analysis. (3) If the collectors do not have debris, substantiating possible parts distress, the engine should be "put on watch" and the following investigations and monitoring conducted: (a) Take an oil sample and expedite SOAP evaluation. (b) Review engine oil consumption history. Inspect the engine for evidence of internal oil leakage, including borescope inspections and a ground engine run. (c) Review engine vibration history. Increasing vibration can be an indication of bearing distress. (d) If the SOAP indication was a sudden increase in Fe, monitor the engine collection devices daily until the SOAP indication is resolved.

R

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If CI concentration is higher than C2 concentration there is a silica contamination (look for presence of silica on filter). Refer to Maintenance Manual. "Flushing of Oil System in the case of oil system contamination. Monitor engine oil consumption. Perform a second SOAP on the sample and determine Si concentration (C2). 2 3 (f) If the SOAP indication is a progressively increasing Si silicon trend (over 10 PPM). and chip analysis collection devices on more frequent time interval until distress indication is resolved. Review oil leakage troubleshooting and consider borescope inspection of compressor for oil wetting. 4 bearing areas. the following procedure could be performed. Consider spectrographic analysis of material collected. vibration.3 micrometer). Perform Radiographic inspection of the No. 2 3 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 99 May 31/00 .8 micro inches (0.(e) If the SOAP indication is a progressively increasing Fe trend. chapter 12-10-00. consider the following engine investigations/monitoring: 1 Perform Radiographic inspection of the IGB radial shaft. 1 Perform a SOAP on oil sample and determine Si concentration (CI). If CI concentration is approximately equal to C2 concentration there is no silica in oil. as Si is composed by silica and/or silicone (contained in greases). Perform a filtration of sample with a filter of 11. 3 bearing or No. paragraph 6.

(h) Decrease the oil sampling and SOAP analysis time intervals.(g) Consider changing the engine oil and corroborating the SOAP results previously obtained if the engine inspections do not confirm on indicated problem. 79-00-00 R Part 9 Page 100 May 31/00 .

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL PART 10 . 1984 REVISED FEBRUARY 29.11 MAY 31. 1996 .CHIP ANALYSIS CFMI-TP-NT.

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changed. LEP Part 10 Page 1/2 Feb 29/96 .CHIP ANALYSIS LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES SECTION R TITLE PAGE R LEP R CONTENTS INTRO 72-00-00 PAGE 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 DATE Feb 29/96 Feb 29/96 Blank May 31/84 Blank May 31/84 Blank May May Aug May May May May May May May May May Feb Feb May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/84 31/84 31/89 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 29/96 29/96 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 31/94 SECTION 72-00-00 (CONT'D) PAGE 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 DATE May 31/94 May 31/94 May 31/94 May 31/94 May 31/94 May 31/94 May 31/94 May 31/94 Blank R R R : Indicates pages added.PART 10 . or deleted this revision.

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.............................. R R R R CONTENTS Part 10 Page 1/2 May 31/84 ..........................CHIP ANALYSIS TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 1 1 R Introduction ........................... R 72-00-00 Chip Analysis .......PART 10 ...

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B. The particles found during filter and magnetic plug inspection will permit the technical crews to assess the internal status of engine mechanical assemblies. D. It is very important that the recovery of particles be performed with care because the action to be taken depends on the diagnosis made from the analysis results. the particles will be analyzed in a laboratory as soom as possible. A preliminary observation of the particles will determine the immediate action to be taken but. R R R R INTRO Part 10 Page 1/2 May 31/84 . the sump in question should be closely monitored. NOTE: After applying the procedures recommended in paragraph 4 (preliminary observation of particles) and pending analysis results.CHIP ANALYSIS R 1. R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R A. General.PART 10 . in order to define the fault origin with a maximum of accuracy. To provide maintenance personnel the information concerning recovery of particles and action to be taken. C.

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for analysis.4 mm) Pore: 0. Tools and Equipment. A.CHIP ANALYSIS OIL SYSTEM . R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items.PART 10 . R 2. R R R R This procedure describes the recovery.RECOVERY OF PARTICLES FOR ANALYSIS R 1. General. Tools.001 mm FALP 025 00 Manufacturer Code BY BY BY BY BY BY BY R R R R 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 1 May 31/84 . Equipment and Materials. of particles found during visual inspection of the filters and magnetic plugs on lubrication unit or during drainage of oil tank or drainage of transfer and accessory gearboxes. Description Pyrex Filter Support With funnel and clamp XX 10 047 30 Vacuum Flask (1 liter capacity) XX 10 047 05 Filtered Solvent Distributor XX 66 025 00 Latex Vacuum Hose XX 25 047 55 Flat Tip Tweezers XX 62 000 06 Petri dishes PD 15 047 00 Filter for Solvent Distributor Dia 1 inch (25. (1) Equipment.

4 inch (10 mm) Brush Binocular x 20 Magnet Dia 1 inch (25. R R R R 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 2 May 31/84 . supply or scavenge filters having particles in a new polyethylene bag. A.5 inches (200x400x90 mm) minimum (2) Consumable Products Code No.4 mm) Pull force 15 lb (7 daN) Approximately Stainless Steel Tank or Glass Tank 8x4x3.002 inch (0.05 mm) EP 1239 D 4 P Eductor or Vacuum Bulb 300 ml Bottle Brush Dia 0.4 mm) Length 1 inch (25. R R R R R R R R CAUTION: REMOVE INDIVIDUALLY CHIP DETECTORS FROM LUBRICATION UNIT AND IDENTIFY EACH AS REMOVED. without dripping. chip detectors. Particles Recovery Procedure.8 inch (45 mm) Pore : 0.R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Description Filters (Polyamide filter) Dia 1. CP 2011 Manufacturer Code BZ Local Purchase Local Purchase Local Purchase Local Purchase Local Purchase Local Purchase Local Purchase Description Stoddard Solvent R 3. Tag each bag with the following indications: (1) Airline (2) Aircraft type and serial number. AN ERROR IN THE SUMP INVOLVED LEADS TO A DIAGNOSIS ERROR. Place.

periodic inspection or remark made in the mechanic's report. 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 3 Aug 31/89 . (b) Pressure or scavenge filters. (b) Time since last shop visit. AGB. Replace filter into plastic bag. (c) Remove particles from chip detector magnet using a clean cloth or a thin sheet of paper. (a) TGB. serial number. (4) Date and reason of filter inspection. B. retain plastic bag and identification tag. and service time as follows: (a) Total time. See paragraph 3. NOTE: The use of magnets to remove particles is not recommended since repeated exposure may degrade magnetic performance of magnetic plug. Recovery of Particles. See figure 1. (5) Indicate location of the following. (1) Recover particles from chip detector magnet as follows: (a) Place chip detector on a clean surface. (c) Time since engine oil has been changed. Aft or Forward Sump chip detectors. figure 2. Particles remaining on the filter may be recovered using filtering equipment. B. Avoid collecting particles on a strip of adhesive tape as it will be difficult to remove them. See NOTE: R R R R R R R NOTE: (d) Place particles onto a filter into a Petri dish. (b) Remove filter from chip detector by pushing the springloaded pin that secures filter to chip detector using a fiber pusher.(3) Engine position. if any. (2).

R Lubrication Unit (CFM56-2 Engines) Figure 1 (Sheet 1/2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 4 May 31/94 .

R Chip Detector (CFM56-2 Engines) Figure 1 (Sheet 2/2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 5 May 31/94 .

R R Lubrication Unit (CFM56-3 Engines) Figure 1A (Sheet 1/2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 6 May 31/94 .

R R Chip Detector (CFM56-3 Engines) Figure 1A (Sheet 2/2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 7 May 31/94 .

onto filter support and secure assembly with clamp. (c) Place oil filter in a clean stainless steel or glass tank. CHECK THAT THE TANK USED IS FREE OF PARTICLES. See figure 2.A. Maintenance Practices. CAUTION: THE SOLVENT USED FOR EACH OPERATION MUST BE A NEW OR REGENERATED LIQUID. (a) Place a filter. See Maintenance Manual. FALP 02500. See CAUTION: CHECK THAT THE FUNNEL AND FILTER SUPPORT ARE FREE OF PARTICLES. Connect vacuum flask to eductor or vacuum bulb (300 ml). Maintenance Practices. (b) If required. onto solvent distributor. (e) Place an adhesive tape on the Petri dish. (g) The removed chip detector will be cleaned according to the procedure indicated in Component Maintenance Manual. chapter 79-00-00.NOTE: A magnet placed under the Petri dish will facilitate deposit of particles on the filter. install a new filter. EP 1239D4P. See figure 3. Using ball pen or felt tip. See paragraph 3. NOTE: The eductor requires a water tap with moderate flow. write the identification elements indicated on the tag. See figure 3. (2) Recover particles using filtering equipment as follows: figure 3. (f) A new or thoroughly cleaned chip detector will be installed on lubrication unit. chapter 79-00-00. 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 8 May 31/94 .

Petri Dish Figure 2 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 9 May 31/94 .

Filtering Equipment Figure 3 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 10 May 31/94 .

This operation directs particles toward the center of the filter and completes rinsing. NOTE: Retain tag that identifies the particles.(d) Pour oil from plastic bag into the funnel. PD 15 04 700. NOTE: Particles that remain on the funnel glass surface will be recovered by rinsing using distributor of solvent (CP2011). Maintain partial vacuum and rinse filter by circular motion toward center using distributor of solvent (CP2011). remove the maximum of particles from oil filter. (h) Create a partial vacuum in the vacuum flask to assist passage of the liquid through the filter and collection of suspended particles on filter. Using a ball pen or felt tip. Rinse the tank using solvent distributor and pour into the funnel. (f) Using an ultrasonic tank and the distributor of solvent (CP2011). 62 000 06. Let filter soak and place it in a Petri dish. using tweezers. See paragraph 3. See figure 3. (g) Pour the liquid recovered from the tank into the funnel. (j) Return vacuum flask to ambient pressure. 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 11 May 31/94 . (i) Remove clamp and funnel. (k) Place a strip of adhesive tape on Petri dish. write the identification elements indicated on the tag. Close Petri dish. (e) Fill tank with solvent (CP2011) to immerse oil filter and soak for 10 minutes. Rinse plastic bag using distributor of filtered solvent (CP 2011) and pour into the funnel. A. See figure 2.

BECAUSE FINE PARTICLES MAY STICK TO THE MAGNET AND IT MAY BE IMPOSSIBLE TO REMOVE THEM. chapter 79-21-11. copper. silver.(l) A new or thoroughly cleaned oil filter will be installed on lubrication unit. chapter 1200-00. B. Servicing. (c) Magnetic non-metallic particles such as: slightly magnetic. See Maintenance Manual. light alloy. rivet heads. flakes from bearings. tooth debris. (1) Visual Inspection. sand. carbon deposit carbon deposit. Cleaning. (2) Using a binocular microscope and according to figures 6 through 14. rivet heads. pieces of component etc. (m) The removed filter will be cleaned and checked according to the procedure indicated in Component Maintenance Manual. determine the group of particles according to the following elements: (a) Appearance: metallic shavings. o-ring etc. flakes from gearshafts. A. CAUTION: DO NOT BRING PARTICLES INTO DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE MAGNET. Identification and Classification of the Particles. 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 12 May 31/94 . Preliminary Observation of the Particles. flakes etc. (d) Non-metallic particles such as: carbon seal. burrs. shots carbon deposits. 4. filter mesh debris. The 4 following groups of particles can be found: (a) Magnetic metal particles such as: machining chips (swarf) shots from shot peening. chromium. (b) Non-magnetic metal particles such as: non-magnetic stainless steel. Check if particles are magnetic or non-magnetic using a magnet.

3 cases will be considered. (1) If particles are identified. NOTE: In all cases.8 inch (45 mm) and a surface of 2. C. (b) Quantity: The quantity is determined by measuring surface of deposit on recovered filter. particles of different appearance and origin will be found. the filter must be in horizontal position and particles spread over evenly. 2 cases will be considered. 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 13 Feb 29/96 .5 square inch (1600 sq mm). NOTE: Most of the time. Immediate Action to Be Taken. (2) If particles are not identified and non-magnetic. See figure 5. particles must be sent to the laboratory for analysis. conform to the indications of figures 6 through 24. Filter has a diameter of 1.(a) Origin: compare particles with samples given in figures. particles must be sent to the laboratory for analysis. See figure 4. R NOTE: In all cases. (3) If particles are not identified and are magnetic. To measure.

R Non Identified and Non-Magnetic Particles Figure 4 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 14 Feb 29/96 .

Non Identified and Magnetic Particles Figure 5 (Sheet 1 of 2) 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 15 May 31/94 .

Non Identified and Magnetic Particles Figure 5 (Sheet 2 of 2) 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 16 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 6 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 17 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 7 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 18 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 8 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 19 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 9 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 20 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 10 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 21 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 11 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 22 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 12 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 23 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 13 (Sheet 1 of 2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 24 May 31/94 .

Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 13 (Sheet 2 of 2) 72-00-00 R Part 10 Page 25 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 14 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 26 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 15 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 27 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 16 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 28 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 17 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 29 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 18 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 30 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 19 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 31 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 20 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 32 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 21 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 33 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particles Found on Filters Figure 22 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 34 May 31/94 .

R Origin of Particle Found on Screen or Filter Figure 23 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 35 May 31/94 .

R R R R R R R Origin of Particle Found on Screen or Filter Figure 24 (Sheet 1 of 2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 36 May 31/94 .

R R R R R R R Origin of Particle Found on Screen or Filter Figure 24 (Sheet 2 of 2) 72-00-00 Part 10 Page 37/38 May 31/94 .

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