A 22-year-old man develops marked right lower quadrant abdominal pain over the .١ past day. On physical examination there is rebound tenderness on palpation over the right lower quadrant. Laparoscopic surgery is performed, and the appendix is swollen, erythematous, and partly covered by a yellowish exudate. It is removed, and a microscopic section shows infiltration with numerous neutrophils. The pain experienced by this patient is predominantly the result of the formation of which of ؟the following two chemical mediators a) Complement C3b and IgG b) Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor c) Histamine and serotonin d) Prostaglandin and bradykinin e) Leukotriene and HPETE A 40-year-old woman had bilateral silicone breast implants placed two years ago. .٢ Since that time, she has noted increased firmness with slight deformity of the breast on the left. The implants are removed, and there is evidence for leakage of the implant contents on the left. Which of the following cell types is most likely to ؟be most characteristic of the inflammatory response in this situation a) Mast cell b) Eosinophil c) Giant cell d) Neutrophil e) Plasma cell A clinical study is performed of patients with pharyngeal infections. The most .٣ typical clinical course averages 3 days from the time of onset until the patient sees the physician. Most of these patients experienced fever and chills. On physical examination, the most common finding is a pharyngeal purulent exudate. Which of ؟the following types of inflammation did these patients most likely have a) Granulomatous inflammation b) Acute inflammation
c) Abscess formation d) Resolution of inflammation e) Chronic inflammation A 20-year-old man has experienced painful urination for 4 days following spring .٤ break. A urethritis is suspected, and Neisseria gonorrheae is cultured. Numerous neutrophils are present in a smear of the exudate from the penile urethra. These neutrophils are most likely to have been caused to undergo diapedesis to reach the organisms as a consequence of release of which of the following chemical ؟mediators a) Histamine b) Prostaglandin c) Hageman factor d) Bradykinin e) Complement C5a .٥ A 90-year-old woman has developed a fever and cough over the past 2 days. Staphylococcus aureus is cultured from her sputum. She receives a course of antibiotic therapy. Two weeks later she no longer has a productive cough, but she still has a fever. A chest radiograph reveals a 3 cm rounded density in the right lower lobe whose liquefied contents form a central air-fluid level. There are no surrounding infiltrates. Which of the following is the best description for this ؟outcome of her pneumonia a) Hypertrophic scar b) Abscess formation c) Regeneration d) Bronchogenic carcinoma e) Progression to chronic inflammation A 35-year-old woman has been taking acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) for arthritis for .٦ the past 4 years. Her joint pain is temporarily reduced via this therapy. However, radiographs of her knees reveals continuing joint destruction with loss of articular cartilage and joint space narrowing. This pain reduction is most likely to be the ؟result of diminishing which of the following inflammatory responses
a) Neutrophil chemotaxis by leukotriene B4 b) Fever resulting from interleukin-1 release c) Prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation d) Pain resulting from bradykinin generation e) Anticoagulation by Hageman factor inhibition A 37-year-old man has had nausea and vomiting for 5 weeks. He experienced an .٧ episode of hematemesis yesterday. On physical examination he has no abnormal findings. Upper GI endoscopy is performed, and there is a 1.5 cm diameter lesion in the gastric antrum which appears to be an area with loss of the epithelial surface. ؟These findings are most typical for which of the following pathologic processes a) Abscess b) Serositis c) Granuloma d) Gangrene e) Ulcer A 15-year-old girl has had episodes of sneezing with watery eyes and runny nose .٨ for the past 2 weeks. On physical examination she has red, swollen nasal mucosal surfaces. She has had similar episodes each Spring and Summer when the amount of ragweed pollen in the air is high. Her symptoms are most likely to be mediated by ؟the release of which of the following chemical mediators a) Complement C3b (b) Platelet activating factor (PAF (c) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF d) Histamine e) Immunoglobulin G
MCQs on Inflammation & Healing
Which of the following factors best explains the ؟different outcomes for the 2 test groups a) Extent of liver cell injury b) Injury to the connective tissue framework c) Location of the lesion d) Extent of damage of bile ducts
Which of the following terms best describes: a nodular raised scar that . complete recovery of the liver architecture is observed when the livers are examined microscopically. fibrous scars from resolving abscesses are seen microscopically in the liver.٣ ؟developed at the suture site over 2 months
a) Organization b) Resolution c) Keloid formation d) Secondary union
.٢ later. Two months . Which of the following pathologic findings would most likely be seen in ؟the left ventricle 1 month later a)Abscess b)Complete resolution c)Coagulative necrosis d)Fibrous scar
An experiment infects one group of test animals with viral hepatitis. A second test group is infected with bacterial organisms and after the same period of time.١ ventricle.A 65 year old man developed myocardial infarction in the posterior wall of the left .
mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate with lymphocytes. A biopsy specimen of the ulcer base revealed angiogenesis. Which of the following inflammatory cell types in this lesion that ؟plays the most important role in the healing process
a) Macrophage d) Eosinophil b) Plasma cell c) Neutrophil e) Lymphocyte
A 40 year old woman had mid epigastric abdominal pain for the past 3 months. sharply demarcated shallow ulceration of the gastric antrum. Various inflammatory cells are present. Which of the following terms best describes this ؟pathologic process
a)Acute inflammation d) Fibrinous inflammation b)Chronic inflammation e) Granulomatous inflammation c) Serous inflammation
.؟Which of the following statements best describes the wound site after 1 week .٦ An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a 2 cm. . On postmortem examination the necrotic myocardium has largely been replaced by capillaries. fibroblast.٤
a) Granulation tissue is still present b) Collagen degradation exceeds synthesis c) Wound strength is 90% of normal tissue d) Neutrophils infiltrate the margin and the wound is filled with blood clot
A 70 year old man died of congestive heart failure 2 weeks after an acute . and plasma cells. fibrosis.٥ myocardial infarction. and collagen. macrophages.
fluid level. Which of the following terms best describes the sequel of the patient’s ؟pneumonia a) Complete resolution b) Fibrosis c) Abscess formation
.٨ he has touched a pot of boiling water over the stove. few small lymphocytes. and no surrounding infiltrates. she no longer had productive cough but she is still feverish. collagen. Microscopic examination of the removed nodule revealed macrophages.٧ nodule beneath the skin at the site of the healed incision.One month after appendicectomy. Which of the following ؟complication of the surgery is the cause of the nodule
a) Chronic inflammation d) Ulceration b) Abscess formation e) Fistula formation c) Suture granuloma
A 5 year old child had erythematous skin of the fingers with small blisters after .٩ received a course of antibiotic. A chest X ray revealed a rounded 3 cm. Which of the following best ؟describes the process
a) Fibrinous inflammation b) Suppurative inflammation c) Serous inflammation d) Catarrhal inflammation
An 80 year old woman was diagnosed as having Staphylococcal pneumonia and . Two weeks later. mass in the lower lobe of the right lung that has a central air. multinucleated giant cells and refractile material. an 18 year old young man palpates a small .
d) Progression to chronic inflammation
؟Which of the following statements best describes the wound site after 1 day .١٠
a) Granulation tissue is still present b) Collagen deposition & fibroblast proliferation are present .b) Collagen deposition & fibroblast proliferation are present .c) Scar consists of connective tissue devoid of inflammation d) Neutrophils infiltrate the margin and the wound is filled with blood clot
Which of the following terms best describes: a type of repair in which the .c) Scar consists of connective tissue devoid of inflammation d) Neutrophils infiltrate the margin and the wound is filled with blood clot
؟Which of the following statements best describes the wound site after 2 months .١١
a) Granulation tissue is still present .١٢ ؟damaged tissue is replaced by granulation tissue then fibrous tissue a) Organization b) Resolution c) Keloid formation d) Secondary union
Which of the following terms best describes: excessive amount of granulation . which protrude above the level of the surrounding skin
Mention three chemical mediators of inflammation and their producing cells(٣) Mention the pathogenesis of the inflammatory exudate(٤) ؟What are the functions of the inflammatory exudate(٥) …………………………… The inflammatory exudate consists of(٦) ………………… ………………………………………… ؟What are local signs of acute inflammation(٧) ؟What are the systemic changes in acute inflammation(٨) ؟What is the fate of acute inflammation(٩) ... SANAA SAMMOUR
:SHORT QUESTIONS ؟What are the reactive changes of acute inflammation(١) Define chemotaxis(٢) .………The pseudomembrane of membranous inflammation consists of(١١)
.Mention types of acute non suppurative inflammation with examples(١٠) .a) Organization b) Resolution c) Keloid formation d) Proud flesh
.Mention examples of localized suppurative inflammation(١٥) Give a short account on carbuncle(١٦) Mention 5 differences between acute and chronic inflammation(١٧) :LONG QUESTIONS . definition.Mention the differences between acute and chronic inflammation(٥)
:SHORT QUESTIONS . and define each type with examples(١) Give an account on healing by resolution..…………………………………The abscess consists microscopically of(١٣) . structure and (٤) .Give an account on acute suppurative inflammation(٣) Discuss the pathology of the abscess.. Define healing by regeneration(٤) What are the main components of headlining by regeneration and mention the (٥) ..…………… …………………………………………The pus consists of(١٢) . definition. mechanism and (٢) .complications . its features.Discuss the reactive changes of inflammation(١) .example of each one .……………………………… ………………………………………… ..Discuss the types of acute non suppurative inflammation(٢) . pathogenesis.Mention complications of an abscess(١٤) .What are the types of healing..………………………………… ………………………………………… .give an example What are the types of cells according to the power of proliferation and give an (٣) ...
Mention the steps of wound healing by first intention(١٢) .Discuss healing by organization(٢) Discuss wound healing by first intension(٣)
. definition.……………… ………………………………………CHALONES are(٧) .Define healing by organization and give three examples(٩) .Describe gross and microscopic picture of granulation tissue and its fate(١٠) ؟What is the function of growth factors in healing by organization(١١) .What are the probable mechanisms of healing by regeneration and factors (٦) affecting it .Describe healing of mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract (١٧) .it .…………………… ………………………………………… ؟What are the roles of growth stimulating factors in healing by regeneration(٨) ..Mention four causes of delayed union of a bone fracture(٢٠) ؟What are the factors responsible of non union of a bone fracture(٢١) Describe healing of a brain infarct(٢٢) Describe healing of a peripheral nerve damage(٢٣) :LONG QUESTIONS Discuss healing by regeneration.Describe healing by second intension and mention examples associated with it (١٣) .Mention 4 complications of wound healing(١٥) . mechanism and factors influencing (١) .Mention factors influencing wound healing by organization(١٦) .Describe healing of liver or kidney(١٨) .Mention 5 differences between healing by first and second intension(١٤) .Mention steps of bone repair(١٩) .
…………… ………………………………………Septicaemia means(٣) ……………………………… ………………………………………… .Describe repair of a bone fracture and mention its complications(٣)
:SHORT QUESTIONS .Describe gross and microscopic picture of septicaemic spleen(١٠) ..Mention types of pyaemia with 2 examples of each type(١١) .Give an account on septicaemia (١) Give an account on pyaemia(٢)
.Describe microscopic picture of pyaemic abscesses (١٢) .How local spread of infection occur to the surrounding tissue(٢) .……………… ………………………………………Pyaemia means(٤) ……………………………… ………………………………………… Mention 4 effects of acute toxaemia(٥) .Mention 4 differences between exotoxins and endotoxins(٦) .Mention 3 effects of chronic toxemia(٧) ؟What are the effects of bacteraemia(٨) Mention 4 pathological features of septicaemia(٩) .Mention ways of spread of infection(١) .Define pyaemia and mention its pathogenesis(١٣) :LONEG QUESTIONS .
Mention four causes of fatty change(١٤) Discuss the pathogenesis of fatty change of the liver(١٥) Mention the gross and microscopic picture of fatty change of the liver(١٦) .((myxoid change
.Mention the gross and microscopic picture of the fatty change of the heart(١٧) .Mention two conditions associated with fibrinoid change(٢٠) Mention two conditions associated with extracellular accumulation of mucin (٢١) .Mention the differences between necrosis and apoptosis(١٣) .Describe morphological and ultrastructural changes of necrosis(٦) .Mention examples associated with apoptosis(١٢) .CELL INJURY
:SHORT QUESTIONS Discuss pathogenesis of cell injury(١) ؟What are the forms of reversible cell injury(٢) ؟What are the main sites of cloudy swelling(٣) Give three examples of hydropic change(٤) Define necrosis(٥) .Mention types of necrosis with examples(٧) .Mention four different sites of hyaline change(١٩) .Mention three examples of cholesterol accumulations(١٨) .Describe gross and microscopic picture of coagulative necrosis(٨) ؟What are the associated pathological changes of necrosis(٩) Define apoptosis(١٠) Discuss mechanism of apoptosis(١١) .
gross and microscopic picture of fatty change of (٤) .Discuss causes.Mention sites of secondary amyloidosis(٢٥) .Mention the chemical and clinical classifications of amyloidosis(٢٣) . definition.Mention the gross appearance of amyloidosis(٢٦) . morphological changes and associated (٢) .Mention sites of primary amyloidosis(٢٤) .Define fibrinoid change and mention associated conditions(٥) Discuss amyloidosis. definition.and effects
:SHORT QUESTIONS Define granuloma(١) . types.Mention four cytokines responsible for tuberculous hypersensitivity reaction(٦) ؟What are the types of primary tuberculous complex(٧) ؟What are types of pulmonary tuberculosis(٨)
.Describe microscopic picture of amyloidosis(٢٧) ؟How can you diagnose amyloidosis(٢٨) . classifications.Mention types of granuloma with two examples of each type(٢) .Describe the proliferative reaction to tubercle bacilli(٣) .Mention four effects of amyloidosis(٢٩) :LONG QUESTIONS . pathogenesis and morphology of cloudy swelling(١) Discuss necrosis.Define apoptosis and discuss its pathogenesis and associated conditions (٣) Discuss causes.pathological changes .Describe the microscopic picture of tuberculous tubercle(٤) Methods of spread of tuberculous reaction(٥) .Define amyloidosis(٢٢) . pathogenesis.the lives .. gross and microscopic picture (٦) .
Mention the C.Discuss acute progressive pulmonary tuberculosis(٤) .؟What is the fate of primary pulmonary tuberculosis(٩) ؟Mention five complications of chronic fibrocaseous tuberculosis of the lung(١٠) ؟What are the forms of acute progressive pulmonary tuberculosis(١١) .Mention 4 sites of lepromatous leprosy and is effect(١) .S.Give an account on secondary pulmonary tuberculosis (٣) .Give an account on tuberculous arthritis(٩) Give an account on tuberculous meningitis(١٠) SYPHILIS :SHORT QUESTIONS Mention sites. gross and microscopic picture and (٢) complications LEPROSY :SHORT QUESTIONS .enteritis ؟What are the complications of primary intestinal tuberculosis(١٧) ؟What are the complications of secondary intestinal tuberculosis(١٨) .F.Mention different types of leprosy and microscopic picture of each one(٢)
.Mention causes of tuberculous peritonitis(١٩) .Give an account on intestinal tuberculosis(٦) .Mention four sites of gumma and its effect(٤) Describe microscopic picture of syphilitic aortitis(٥) Mention three complications of syphilitic aortitis(٦) :LONG QUESTIONS .Give an account on Pott’s disease(٨) .Describe gross and microscopic picture of tuberculous bronchopneumonia(١٢) ؟What are gross and microscopic picture of military tuberculosis(١٣) ؟What are the gross and microscopic pictures of tuberculous lymphadenitis(١٤) ؟What are the effects of tuberculous lymphadenitis(١٥) Mention gross and microscopic picture of ulcerative type of tuberculous (١٦) . changes characteristic to tuberculous meningitis(٢٣) .Describe the pathological features of tuberculous salpingitis(٢٥) :LONG QUESTIONS Give an account on host response to tubercle bacilli(١) .Give an account on tuberculous lymphadenitis(٥) .Define Pott’s disease and mention three complications(٢١) Describe gross appearance of tuberculous meningitis(٢٢) .Give an account of tertiary stage of acquired syphilis(١) Give an account on syphilitic aortitis. gross and microscopic picture of hard chancre(١) Mention four manifestations of secondary stage of acquired syphilis(٢) Describe gross appearance of gummatous ulcer of the skin(٣) .Give an account on tuberculous peritonitis(٧) .Discuss primary pulmonary tuberculosis(٢) .Mention the gross appearance of dry type of tuberculous peritonitis(٢٠) .Describe the gross appearance of tuberculous epididymitis(٢٤) .
Give an account on bilharziasis of the large intestine(٢) Give an account on bilharziasis of the liver(٣) Give an account on bilharzial splenomegaly(٤)
FILARIASIS .RHINOSCLEROMA :SHORT QUESTIONS Describe microscopic picture of rhinoscleroma(١) SARCOIDOSIS :SHORT QUESTIONS Describe microscopic picture of sarcoidosis(١) .Mention 5 pathological lesions due to sarcoidosis(٢) :LONG QUESTIONS Give an account on sarcoidosis(١) ACTINOMYCOSIS.Mention the pathological lesions of filariasis(١) Describe the microscopic picture of hydatid cyst and mention four complications(٢) What are the pathological lesions of toxoplasmosis(٣)
.Describe microscopic picture of bilharzial reaction(١) Describe gross appearance of bilharzial cystitis(٢) Describe changes in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder due to bilharziasis(٣) Mention 4 complications of bilharzial cystitis(٤) Mention the gross appearance of bilharziasis of the large intestine and two (٥) .Mention three effects of portal hypertension(٨) Mention gross and microscopic picture of bilharzial splenomegaly(٩) Mention pathological features of bilharziasis of the lung(١٠) :LONG QUESTIONS Give an account on bilharzial cystitis(١) .MADURA FOOT :SHORT QUESTIONS Describe microscopic picture of actinomycosis(١) Mention sites of actinomycosis and its effect(٢) Describe gross and microscopic picture of madura foot(٣) :LONG QUESTIONS Give an account on actinomycosis(١)
PARASITIC DISEASES BILHARZIASIS
:SHORT QUESTIONS . TOXOPLASMOSIS :SHORT QUESTIONS .HYDATID DISEASE.complications Describe gross and microscopic picture of bilharziasis of the liver(٦) Mention three complications of bilharziasis of the liver(٧) .
Define thrombophlebitis and mention its causes and effects(٥) :LONG QUESTION Give an account on thrombosis.What are types of local ischaemia.spleen Define infarction and mention gross and microscopic picture of infarction of lung(٣)
. (١) pathogenesis. types of thrombi.features and structural changes in organs THROMBOSIS :SHORT QUESTIONS Mention four differences between thrombus and clot(١) ؟What are the predisposing factors of thrombosis(٢) (Mention fate of thrombi (four examples(٣) . sits and fat of thrombi EMBOLISM :SHORT QUESTIONS Define embolism and mention 4 types of emboli with and example of each one(١) :LONG QUESTION Give an account on embolism(١) ISCHAEMIA :SHORT QUESTIONS .Define phlebothrombosis and mention its causes(٤) .ANKYLOSTOMIASIS & ASCARIASIS :SHORT QUESTIONS Give four complications of ankylostomiasis(١) Give four complications of ascariasis(٢)
HYPERAEMIA :SHORT QUESTIONS . predisposing factors. clinical (١) . mention causes and effects of each one(١)
INFARCTION :SHORT QUESTIONS Define infarction and mention gross and microscopic picture of infarction of (١) kidney Define infarction and mention gross and microscopic picture of infarction of (٢) .What are the types of venous congestion and mention the cause of each type(١) Describe gross and microscopic picture of chronic venous congestion of the (٢) liver Describe gross and microscopic picture of chronic venous congestion of the (٣) lung Describe gross and microscopic picture of chronic venous congestion of the (٤) spleen :LONG QUESTION Discuss systemic venous congestion (chronic venous congestion).
What are types of shock and give a cause of each one(١)
:SHORT QUESTIONS . lung and (١) .brain OEDEMA :SHORT QUESTIONS Mention four causes of oedema(١) ؟What are the causes of localized oedema(٢) ؟What are the types of generalized oedema(٣) ؟What are the causes of renal oedema(٤) ؟What are the differences between transudate and exudate(٥) :LONG QUESTION Give an account on generalized oedema(١) GANGRENE :SHORT QUESTIONS ..………… ………………………………………Haemothorax means(٢) …………… ………………………………………Haemoarthrosis means(٣) What are effects of hemorrhage(٤) SHOCK :SHORT QUESTIONS .Give an account on pathological calcification(١)
.:LONG QUESTION Give an account on infarction and discuss in detail infarction of kidney. Give 5 differences between dry and wet gangrene(٧) :LONG QUESTION Discuss dry gangrene of the leg(١) Mention sites of wet gangrene and discuss wet gangrene of lower limb(٢) HAEMORRHAGE :SHORT QUESTIONS Give four different causes of haemorrhage(١) .Define dystrophic calcification and mention sites with examples(١) Define metastatic calcification and mention its sites (٢) :LONG QUESTIONS .Mention causes and pathological features of wet gangrene of the lower limb(٣) Mention causes and pathological features of wet gangrene of the intestine(٤) Mention causes and pathological features of wet gangrene of the lung (٥) Mention causes and pathological features of gas gangrene (٦) .Define gangrene and mention its types(١) Mention stages of dry gangrene of the leg(٢) .
Give five differences between benign and malignant tumours(٢) .Define leiomyoma and mention its sites.Define hamartomas and give examples(٢٢) .Mention sites.Define leiomyosarcoma and mention its sites.Define metaplasia.Mention sites. gross and microscopic picture of lipoma(١١) .Define teratoma and mention its sites and classification(١٩) . sites.Define haemochromatosis and mention characteristics of the primary one(٤) Mention the cause and describe gross picture of brown atrophy of the heart(٥) DISORDERS OF CELLULAR GROWTH :SHROT QUESTIONS Define atrophy and mention four different causes(١) Define hyperplasia and mention four different causes with examples(٢) . gross and microscopic features of squamous cell papilloma(٦) . mention its types with examples(٤) .Define embryomas and give four examples(٢١) . gross and microscopic types(١٨) .Mention gross and microscopic features of mature cystic teratoma(٢٠) . gross and microscopic picture(١٦) .Give three examples of diminished melanin pigmentation(٢) .Define naevus and mention its sites.Mention methods of spread of malignant tumours(٣) .Mention.Mention three viruses of carcinogenic effect(٢٣)
.Define dysplasia and mention its sits and cytological features(٥) Define carcinoma in situ(٦) :LONG QUESTIONS Give an account on atrophy(١) Give an account on hyperplasia (٢) Give an account on metaplasia (٣) Give an account on dysplasia(٤)
:SHORT QUESTIONS .DISORDERS OF BODY PIGMENTATION :SHORT QUESTIONS Give three examples of excessive melanin pigmentation(١) . gross and microscopic picture of liposarcoma (١٢) Mention sites.Define adenoma and mention its gross and microscopic features(٧) .Mention. sites.gross and microscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma(٨) Mention sites. gross and microscopic picture(١٠) . gross and microscopic picture of cavernous haemangioma(١٤) Mention sites.Define haemosiderosis .Mention mechanisms of local spread of malignant tumours and its effect(٤) Mention six differences between sarcoma and carcinoma(٥) .Define hypertrophy and mention three examples(٣) . gross and microscopic picture of capillary haemangioma(١٣) Mention sites. mention its types and give two examples of each one(٣) .Define adenocarcinoma and mention sites. gross and microscopic features(١٧) . gross and microscopic picture of cavernous lymphangioma(١٥) .Define locally malignant tumours with examples(١) . gross and microscopic features of basal cell carcinoma (٩) .
Define paraneoplastic syndromes and mention two of them(٢٦) :LONG QUESTIONS .Mention the differences between benign and malignant tumours(١) . Parasitic Diseases & Circulatory Disturbances
:Infrarenal aortic aneurysm may be complicated by ..Mention differences between carcinoma and sarcoma(٣) .Define oncogenes and two mechanisms of its formation(٢٤) .Mention factors which may activate cellular oncogenes(٥)
Questions on Granulomas.Give an account on benign epithelial tumours(٤) .١ Pulmonary thromboembolism * Renal embolism & infarction * Lower limb embolism & ischemia * Oedema of legs *
Pathologic lesions produced by chronic venous congestion include all the .Mention five laboratory methods for diagnosis of cancer (٢٥) .٣ a)A 37 year old male who develops massive scrotal swelling due to infection with Wucheria bancrofti b)A 6 year old boy who develops sudden onset of intense scrotal pain due to testicular torsion c)A 69 year old male who dies due to progressive congestive heart failure and the liver showed a nutmeg cut surface d) A 19 year old medical student who develops a red face after being asked a !!question in the lecture
.٢ :following except a) Nutmeg liver b) Brown induration of the lung c) Splenic Gamma Gandy nodules d) Red swollen leg in cellulitis
؟Active hyperemia is present in which of the following conditions .Discuss methods of spread of malignant tumours(٢) .
٦ experiences malaise. he had hepatosplenomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy with hyperpigmentation of the skin of the extremities. Laboratory investigations revealed pancytopenia. Which of the following : ؟is the most likely diagnosis a) Echinococcosis b) Leishmaniasis c) Schistosomiasis d) Tuberculosis
A 40 year old man complained of progressive enlargement of his leg for the last 6 . Stool analysis was negative for occult blood.A 45 year old dentist works in a clinic notices at the end of the day that her legs & . although there was no swelling at the beginning of the day.٧ years that had an elephantoid appearance. low grade fever. a 45 year old man . There was no pain or redness. The liver & renal function tests were normal. abdominal discomfort. Which of the following organism is most ؟likely to present a) Leishmania tropica b) Echinococcus granulosis c) Enterobius vermicularis d) Wucheraria bancrofti
.٤ feet were swollen. painful on movement and tender. He was hospitalized and undergone . On examination he had enlarged inguinal lymph nodes with scrotal oedema. Which of the following complications is most likely to occur after these ؟events a) Gangrenous necrosis of the foot b) Haematoma of the thigh c) Pulmonary thromboembolism d) Fat embolism
About 10 months after returning from a tropical country. fatigue.٥ hip replacement. Which of the ؟following mechanisms that best explains this case a) Increased hydrostatic pressure b) Lymphatic obstruction c) Hypoproteinemia d) Inflammation of subcutaneous tissue
A 78 year old man had fracture neck femur. Two weeks later his legs were swollen. On physical examination.
Chest .٨ x ray revealed areas of consolidation in the lower lobe of the left lung. Which of the following organisms is : ؟the most likely to produce these findings a) Actinomyces Israeli b) Mycobacterium tuberculosis c) Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis d) Leishmania donovani :Oedema in renal failure is due to . Several weeks later (١ the liver regains its size as shown by CT. Which of the following process explains ؟this finding Apoptosis * Dysplasia * Hyperplasia * Metaplasia *
.A 60 year old woman had a fever and a cough productive of yellow sputum. The condition was complicated by abscess formation with bronchopleural fistula.١٠ a) Thrombocytopenia b) Pancreatic carcinoma c) Amniotic fluid infusion d) Severe burns
:Red infarcts are usually found in all the following except . Faten Ghazal A small part of left lobe of liver was removed after an injury.١١ a) Pulmonary embolism b) Torsion of testis c) Superior mesenteric artery embolism d) Coronary artery thrombosis
Multiple Choice Questions on Disturbance of Growth & Neoplasia
Presented by Dr.٩ a) Lymphatic obstruction b) Decreased osmotic pressure c) Increased vascular permeability d) Increased hydrostatic pressure :Disorders that predispose to thrombosis include all the following except . Biopsy shows small yellow sulphur granules.
Which of the following neoplasms is she ؟most likely to have Choristoma * Hamartoma * Myxoma * Teratoma *
:Grading of tumours depends on the following except (٤ Degree of anaplasia * Metastatic spread * No. and fibrous connective tissue.4 d: 4 only e: all A 32-year-old woman had a pelvic mass. of mitotic figures * Degree of differentiation * :Factors that are assessed in the staging of a malignant tumour include except (٥ Numbers of lymph nodes containing metastases * Size of the primary tumour * Degree of local invasion of the primary tumour * Number of mitoses in the primary tumour *
:The best description of an invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon is (٦ A disorganized masses of cells forming keratin * A disorganized masses of cells forming glandular structures * A uniform proliferation of glandular structures * A uniform proliferation of cells forming keratin *
. On microscopic examination there is squamous epithelium. On gross inspection and sectioning. An abdominal ultrasound reveals an 8 (٣ cm right ovarian cystic mass. and is filled with hair and sebaceous material.3 b: 1. tall columnar glandular epithelium. is not adherent to surrounding pelvic structure. the surface of the mass is smooth.Cancers that occur in tissues that have undergone metaplasia then become (٢ :dysplastic and finally become malignant include Squamous cell carcinoma of the endocervix * Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder * Bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma * Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus * a: 1.2. cartilage.3 c: 2. The mass is surgically excised.
On physical examination there is an enlarged. which is most likely to ؟indicate that the neoplasm is malignant Pleomorphism * Atypia * Invasion * Increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio *
A 45-year-old woman has noted a lump on her left shoulder that has enlarged (٨ over the past 4 months. (٩ with serologic confirmation of past viral infection.A study is performed to analyze characteristics of malignant neoplasms in (٧ biopsy specimens. Which of the following conditions is ؟most likely to be statistically unrelated to subsequent malignancy Endometrial atypical hyperplasia * Chronic alcoholism with hepatic cirrhosis * Cervical squamous dysplasia * Chronic ulcerative colitis * Uterine leiomyoma *
. Which of the following is the most ؟likely primary neoplasm Adenocarcinoma of the colon * Fibroadenoma of the breast * Liposarcoma of the retroperitoneum * Laryngeal papilloma *
It is observed that some neoplasms appear to develop from viral oncogenesis. non-tender supraclavicular lymph node. Which of the following ؟neoplasms is most likely to arise in this manner Retinoblastoma * T-cell leukemia * Prostatic adenocarcinoma * Hepatic angiosarcoma *
Some pre-existing conditions are observed to precede development of (١٠ malignant neoplasms. A biopsy of the node is done and on microscopic examination there is a metastatic neoplasm. Of the following microscopic findings. while others do not.
١٤ size that are firm and tan exhibiting umbilication with central necrosis.١١ afebrile. Which of the following statements would best characterize the significance of such an ؟appearance .A carcinogen was the underlying cause for the neoplasm * The neoplasm has an advanced stage *
. a slightly erythematous 1 cm diameter area is seen on the bladder mucosa. Fine needle .١٢ aspiration biopsy is performed & was diagnosed as a ductal carcinoma. Which of the following terms ؟best describes these biopsy findings Metaplasia * Minimal dysplasia * Microinvasion * Hyperplasia * Carcinoma in situ *
A 50-year-old woman had a 2 cm firm mass in her left breast.There is multicentric origin of a benign neoplasm * . He is .١٣ diameter "coin lesion" in the right mid-lung field. This area is biopsied and on microscopic examination shows cells with marked hyperchromatism. pleomorphism and increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio involving the full thickness of the epithelium. a chest x-ray was taken and shows a peripheral 2. & not a ؟granuloma Recurrence following excision * Rapid increase in size * Uncontrolled (autonomous) growth * Necrosis * The liver of a 55-year-old man contains multipletumor masses from 2 to 5 cm in . A poorer prognosis for the patient is most closely associated with which of the following ؟findings Aneuploidy by flow cytometry * Positive immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor * A well-differentiated histologic appearance * Intraductal growth pattern * Stage of T1 N0 M0 *
For a 40 year old woman. On cystoscopy.The neoplasm has a high grade * . Which of the following biologic characteristics best distinguishes (diagnoses) this lesion as a neoplasm.A 62-year-old man has complained of pain on urination for the past week.5 cm .
١٥ movable located in the upper outer quadrant. It was diagnosed as a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Which of the following findings would you consider most relevant in her past history to indicate a risk factor for this ؟neoplasm Chronic alcoholism * Radiation therapy in childhood * Blunt trauma from a fall * Exposure to arsenic compounds *
The most important feature in differentiating a malignant from a benign tumour . Which of the following findings will best predict a ؟better prognosis The tumor cells are strongly estrogen receptor positive * No metastases are found in the sampled lymph nodes * She has one relative who had a similar type of breast cancer * The tumor has a high grade *
A 22-year-old woman had a palpable nodule in the right lobe of her thyroid .١٩ ؟cellular alteration will be seen in the myocardium a) Atrophy b) Hyperplasia c) Hemosiderosis d) Hypertrophy e) Metaplasia
.A 44-year-old woman notes a lump in her left breast 3 cm firm. The mass is removed with lumpectomy along with an axillary lymph node dissection. A fine needle aspiration revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma.١٦ gland.١٨ ؟normal adipose tissue a) Anaplasia b) Uniform population of cells c) Numerous mitosis d) Fibrous capsule
If a hypertensive patient remains untreated for years. irregular. No cervical lymph node metastases & no distant metastases.. non. which of the following .١٧ :is a) Lack of encapsulation b) Presence of mitotic figures c) Presence of metastases d) Nuclear pleomorphism Which of the following features that favours a diagnosis of lipoma rather than .
:The decrease in the size of an immobilized leg in a cast is due to .٢٠ a) Aplasia b) Atrophy c) Agenesis d) Hypoplasia
:The increase in size of the uterus of a pregnant woman is due to . Microscopically the ovarian tumour was a granulosa theca cell tumor that secretes oestrogen.١ Chest x ray revealed a cavitary lung lesion near the right hilum. On examination an ovarian mass . Which of the following best describes the relationship of ؟the 2 tumours a) Paraneoplastic syndrome b) Promotion of carcinogenesis c) Mutation of a tumour suppressor gene d) Genetic susceptibility to tumorigenesis
Multiple Choice Questions on Diseases of Respiratory System ((07-08
A 60 year old man. Abdominal hysterectomy was done. His laboratory findings were normal except for evidence of hypercalcaemia.٢٢ was found. What is the possible ؟diagnosis Bronchioalveolar carcinoma * Adenocarcinoma * Squamous cell carcinoma * Hamartoma *
. Bronchoscopy revealed a right bronchial mass obliterating its lumen.٢١ a) Endometrial glandular hyperplasia b) Myometrial fibroblast proliferation c) Endometrial stromal hypertrophy d) Myometrial smooth muscle hypertrophy
A 60 year old woman had vaginal bleeding. . The uterus showed endometrial carcinoma. heavy smoker had persistent cough over the past 6 months.
The pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive lung disease. What is your diagnosis Adenocarcinoma * Bronchioalveolar carcinoma * Hamartoma * Squamous cell carcinoma *
A 68 year old female had shortness of breath that was more severe in the last 2 .٣ even at rest. Which of the ؟following sets of pathological changes is the most likely to be found in his lungs .٢ was feverish. He had no fever. The chest x ray revealed interstitial linear opacities.Chronic inflammation of bronchial walls with prominent eosinophilic infiltrate * Chronic inflammation of bronchial walls with hyperplasia & hypertrophy of * .mucus glands . Aspiration of the pleural effusion was done and the fluid was clear slightly yellow tinged (straw ؟coloured). Repeated chest x ray revealed right upper lobe collapse. A wedge resection of the lobe was done.obstructing well circumscribed massdiagnosis? Bronchoscopic examination revealed an arising from the main bronchus. He . After antibiotic therapy his fever improved but the cough and haemoptysis did not improve.٤ opaque peripheral mass.A 45 year old man had an increasing cough with haemoptysis for 2 weeks. The gross description of the pathologist was a well circumscribed mass having greyish white ؟gelatinous glistening lobulated cut surface with few clefts. Chest x ray revealed an area of consolidation in the right upper lobe. revealed a 3cm. Chest x ray revealed bilateral pleural effusion.٥ months.Honey comb lung with widespread alveolar septal fibrosis *
On routine chest x ray for a 45 year old man . Which of the following tumour is the most likely the Carcinoid Tumour * Hamartoma * Adenocarcinoma * Large cell carcinoma *
A 50 year old man complained of progressive dyspnea first on exertion then now . She was afebrile. well circumscribed .Uniform dilatation of airspaces distal to respiratory bronchiole * . Which of the following is the most probable the cause of these findings Metastatic adenocarcinoma * Congestive heart failure * Mediastinal lymphoma * Pneumonia *
She now has a productive cough of large amount of purulent sputum. The . Which of the ؟following mechanisms is the cause of bronchial dilatation Unopposed action of neutrophil derived elastase * Congenital weakness of supporting structures of the bronchial wall * Destruction of bronchial walls by recurrent inflammation * Damage to bronchial mucosa by inflammatory mediators released from * eosinophils
A 60 year old man is a smoker with a 10 year history of cough productive of . The sputum examination showed also increased number of eosinophils.A 40 year old woman had suffered from multiple attacks of necrotizing . Which of the following histological features are characteristic for this ؟patient’s acute condition Dilatation of the respiratory bronchiole and distention of alveoli * Dilatation of the bronchi with inflammatory destruction of the walls *
. Within the lung parenchyma adjacent to the mass many golden brown beaded rods and fusiform bodies are ؟seen. The lungs are hyper resonant (increased air). During the attack.٦ pneumonia.٨ Chest x ray revealed a mass ensheathing the left lung. he is afebrile. Physical examination showed lower limb oedema and an enlarged soft liver. wheezes and difficulty in breathing. Laboratory findings showed high IgE level and eosinophils. Which of the following is the possible chest x ray findings Left upper cavitary lesion * Diaphragmatic pleural calcified plaques * Left lower lobe bronchial dilatation * Left lower lobe consolidation *
A 11 year old boy complained of cough. Over the past 6 months he has developed progressive dyspnea. He complained of progressive dyspnea. The chest x ray suggested dilatation of right lower lobe bronchi.٧ copious mucopurulent sputum. . The patient was put on a ventilator and died 6 days later.٩ attacks are common in spring. Chest x ray showed bilateral pleural effusion and an enlarged heart. Which of the following microscopic findings is most likely to be characteristic of his underlying ؟lung disease Infiltrates of eosinophils in bronchial wall * Extensive interstitial fibrosis * Carcinoma filling the lymphatic spaces * Hypertrophy of bronchial submucosal glands * A man worked in a shipyard for 20 years.
Which of the following points contributes in the ؟pathogenesis of his lung disease Release of elastase from the neutrophils * Impaired hepatic formation of alpha1 antitrypsin * Decreased ciliary motility * Recruitment of eosinophil in bronchial mucosa * A 65 year old woman complained of pain in her right arm and forearm.She also suffered from . headache and fever . He had normal blood ؟picture and had no fever. He is heavy smoker.١١ eating. What is your ؟diagnosis Suppurative bronchopneumonia * Tuberculous bronchopneumonia * Bronchogenic carcinoma * Hamartoma *
.١٠ respiratory difficulty for 5 days. Chest x ray was done for her and revealed right upper lobe opacity. meiosis and enophthalmos on her right eye.Thickening of bronchial epithelial basement membrane by collagen and * hypertrophy of smooth muscle Patchy areas of consolidation surrounding the bronchioles with neutrophilic * infiltrate in affected alveoli
A 6 year old girl had cough. One day later. On . A chest CT was done and revealed a hemicircular area of density in the right lower lobe.١٣ examination she had as well ptosis. What is the possible diagnosis Bronchiectasis * Lung abscess * Pneumthorax * Lung lobe collapse *
A 55 year old man had gradual increasing dyspnea.١٢ a barrel shaped chest. Respiratory syncytial virus was isolated from the sputum sample. He had . he developed slight dyspnea. Which of the following chest x ray findings is most likely to be ؟present Lobar consolidation * Interstitial infiltrate * Upper lobe cavitation * A peripheral mass *
A 8 year old boy has accidently aspirated one of the peanuts while he was . His chest x ray revealed a bilateral hyperinflation of lungs more in the upper lobes.
١٤ and increasing dyspnea with no fever or sputum production. Which of the following ؟cells are responsible for the pathogenesis of his disease Eosinophils * Mast cells * Macrophages * Neutrophils *
A 50 year old man . He was advised to stop smoking and begin a course of chemotherapy. Cytological examination of the bronchial washings from bronchoscopy revealed round to oval cells with little cytoplasm and increased mitotic figures. heavy smoker complained of persistent nonproductive . Which is the ؟possible diagnosis Adenocarcinoma * Large cell carcinoma * Squamous cell carcinoma * Small cell carcinoma *
:Bronchioalveolar carcinoma is characterized by the following except .A patient working in sandblasting business for 20 years complained of cough . The chest x ray shows an ill defined 3 cm mass involving the right hilum of the lung.١٧ Attracts neutrophils into the lung * Stimulates the release of neutrophil elastase * Inhibits the ability of pulmonary neutrophils to clear bacteria * Directly inhbits alpha 1 antiyrypsin * Stimulates macrophage elastase activity *
.١٥ cough observed gain of weight especially in the trunk over the past 5 months .١٦ It doesn't destroy the alveolar wall * It mimics bronchopneumonia on chest x ray * It is formed of small to oval sheets of cells having high number of mitotic * figures It has a better prognosis than other lung cancers *
:Cigarette smoke contributes in the pathogenesis of emphysema by all except .
.١٨ It may resemble an adenocarcinoma histologically * It may resemble sarcoma histologically * It is related to asbestos exposure * It is related to cigarette smoke *
A 23 year old man had difficulty in breathing through his nose for 2 years.١٩ Examination showed glistening semitransluscent polypoid masses filling the nasal cavity. The possible associated condition is a) Infection by corynaebacterium Diphtheriae b) Increased serum Ig E level c) Infection by papilloma virus d) Fever. On examination there was an enlarged nontender anterior cervical lymph node. . Which of the following etiologic factors most likely played the greatest role in the :؟development of this lesion a) Human Papilloma virus b) Type I Hypersensitivity c) Smoking Tobacco d) Corynaebacterium Diphtheria
. Microscopic examination of the excised masses revealed polypoid tissue covered by respiratory epithelium with underlying oedematous stroma heavily infiltrated by acute & chronic inflammatory cells with scattered plasma cells & : eosinophils.:The following statements are correct for mesothelioma except. On laryngoscopy an irregular fungating mass was seen on the vocal cord with infraglottic extension.٢٠ months.chills& enlarged painful cervical lymph nodes A 70 year old man complained of persistent hoarseness of voice for the last 6 . Laryngeal biopsy followed by laryngectomy was done.
Microscopic examination of the excised masses showed fingerlike polypoid tissue covered by orderly arranged stratified squamous epithelium overlying a fibrovascular connective tissue core. a 6 year old boy had difficulty in breathing with .٢١ changing in the character of his voice.Over the last 3 months .٢٢ for the past 3 years. The teacher was unfortunatelya smoker. On examination there were no palpable head & neck masses but there were two tiny hemispherical smooth surfaced masses about few millimeters in diameter seen on both vocal cords. Excisional biopsy was recommended by her otolaryngologist because the :most likely diagnosis was a)Laryngeal Polyp b)Juvenile Papillomatosis c)Squamous cell Papilloma d)Squamous cell Carcinoma
. On examination multiple masses were seen on the vocal cords extending to the subglottic region. :؟Which of the following statements is the best advice to his parents
a)Laryngectomy is necessary b)The boy should not overuse his voice c)The lesions are likey to recur d)Poststreptococcal glomerulonehritis may follow
An active primary stage school teacher had noticed that her voice had changed .