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SUG532 - Advanced Geodesy Final Report

# SUG532 - Advanced Geodesy Final Report

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04/13/2013

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# MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method

ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space based radio navigation system that provides space-based reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis freely available to all. For anyone with a GPS receiver, the system will provide location receiver, and time. GPS provides accurate location and time information for an unlimited number of people in all weather, day and night, anywhere in the world. The GPS is made up of three parts: satellites orbiting the Earth; control and monitoring stations control on Earth; and the GPS receivers owned by users. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that are picked up and identified by GPS receivers. Each GPS receiver then provides three threedimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the time. This system consists of three segments: the space segment, the control segment, and the user segment.

The space segment consists of a nominal constellation of 24 operating satellites that transmit one-way signals that give the current GPS satellite position and time. way The control segment consists of worldwide monitor and control stations that maintain the satellites in their proper orbits through occasional command maneuvers, and adjust the satellite clocks. It tracks the GPS satellites, uploads updated navigational data, and satellites, maintains health and status of the satellite constellation. The user segment consists of the GPS receiver equipment, which receives the signals from the GPS satellites and uses the transmitted information to calculate the user’s to three-dimensional position and time. dimensional

There are also several methods on how to observe the satellite. The most popular method of observing satellite today is static, kinematic, DGPS and etc. In our practical we use the static method. The basis of the GPS technology is a set of 24 satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These satellites are equipped with atomic clocks and send out radio signals as to the exact time and their location. These radio signals from the satellites are picked up by the GPS receiver. satellites Once the GPS receiver locks on to four or more of these satellites, it can triangulate its location from the known positions of the satellites

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.0

FIELD WORK AND LOCATION

GPS Observation, Traversing and F – leveling nearby the UITM Canseleri area , Fly

The green line is the GPS observation network and the red line is the traverse 3.0 OBJECTIVES To learn and experienced in observing satellite by using static method To analyze the accuracy in determining coordinate of a position by using GPS coordinate To determine the different results between conventional and GPS observation data.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.0

INSTRUMENTS 4.1 Set of Traversing Equipment

Topcon Total S Station is the most important instrument in survey works. It is used in traversing and to obtain bearings and distance. Prism used as a reflector unit where it will give the information about bearing and distance during the observation 4.2 Set of Levelling Equipment

Levelling Instrument is to measure the geodetic height which taking a backsight and a foresight from the known height reference to a proposed site. Levelling Staff is to give a value of height which marked on it. 4.3 Set of GPS Single Frequency Equipment

Magellan Promark 3 is single frequency GPS equipment. It equipment allows centimeter level static surveys.

4.4

Set of GPS Dual Frequency Equipment

Topcon HiPer Ga/Gb is model receiver has standard GPS satellite tracking capability with the added bonus of GLONASS satellite tracking upgradeability via OAF activation code. No hardware changes or modifications are required. Use the HiPer Ga as a cable free RTK base and rover system; or as two rover receivers from a fixed base station or a GNSS network system base by way of radio or cellular communication.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. 5.1

PROCEDURES Procedure of Traverse

i.

The traverse started with the total station is being set up at station 2 and the back bearing is station 1 and the front bearing is at station 3. The height of instrument and the back station and front station is taken.

ii. iii.

The bearing, horizontal distance, vertical angle is observed with the both face. observed The procedure is repeated to the next station 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. until the traverse is close back to the line of 1 to 2

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.2

Procedure of GPS Observation

a) Setup instrument at Station 1 and set as “Base” and another instrument at Station 4 and set as “Rover”. b) Configure both instruments for a static mode observation and measure the height of antenna. c) After finish configuring for both instruments, wait for the receiver to detect at the sa satellite at every quadrant. d) Observation can be started when the receiver displays the sufficient satellite signal. And r the minimum is 4 satellites required. e) Also aware about the GDOP reading at the receiver, if the reading shows more than 6, we must wait until the reading of the GDOP is less than 6. til f) The observation took for 20 minutes duration for each rover station before moved to another station. g) The base is just remained at the Station 1 and the above process is repeated to the ed tation station 6, 7, and 10 before it is completed.
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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3

Procedure of Levelling

a) Put the staff on the BM as a back sight b) Put another staff on station 1 as forward sight c) Stand the level instrument in between both staff d) Make sure that the distance between staff and level for back and forward sight are equal level e) Then observe the staff at the back sight first and record the reading f) Next observed for forward sight staff and record the reading station 2 and observe h) Repeated the step f until the last station and then we must go back to the 1 station. i) The same procedure go on and observation are made and record g) Move level on next point and put staff at station 1 as back sight and put another sta on staff

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.0 6.1
FR 1 1 1 1

RESULTS Distance Comparison
BEARING AND DISTANCE FROM CONVENSIONAL METHOD NORTHING -11464.245 -11464.245 -11464.245 -11464.245 EASTING -22207.873 -22207.873 -22207.873 -22207.873 TO 4 6 7 10 NORTHING -11425.033 -11539.944 -11618.315 -11540.230 EASTING -22075.600 -22028.846 -22048.338 -22149.832 BEARING 73 29 15.63 112 55 13.35 134 00 05.91 142 37 32.40 DISTANCE 137. 963 194.373 221.786 95.616

BEARING AND DISTANCE FROM GPS SINGLE FREQUENCY (PROMARK) METHOD

BASE 1 ROVER 10 ROVER 4 ROVER 6 ROVER 7

Conversion of the observed Global WGS84 Coordinate to the Local Cassini Coordinate

FR BASE 1 BASE 1 BASE 1 BASE 1

NORTHING -11464.245 -11464.245 -11464.245 -11464.245

EASTING -22207.873 -22207.873 -22207.873 -22207.873

TO ROVER 4 ROVER 6 ROVER 7 ROVER 10

NORTHING -11425.053 -11539.951 -11618.336 -11540.215

EASTING -22075.590 -22028.820 -22048.309 -22149.771

BEARING 73 29 48.55 112 55 09.45 134 00 01.23 142 35 28.22

DISTANCE 137. 967 194.400 221.821 95.641

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

BEARING AND DISTANCE FROM GPS DUAL FREQUENCY (TOPCON) METHOD

BASE 1 ROVER 4 ROVER 6 ROVER 7 ROVER 10

Conversion of the observed Global WGS84 Coordinate to the Local Cassini Coordinate

FR * BASE 1 BASE 1 BASE 1 BASE 1

NORTHING -11465.518 -11465.518 -11465.518 -11465.518

EASTING -22207.332 -22207.332 -22207.332 -22207.332

TO ROVER 4 ROVER 6 ROVER 7 ROVER 10

NORTHING -11426.337 -11541.238 -11619.622 -11541.495

EASTING -22075.042 -22028.284 -22047.755 -22149.231

BEARING 89 55 17.79 112 55 25.19 134 00 01.53 142 35 39.10

DISTANCE 132.290 194.401 221.840 95.646

* The Observation 1 – 4 is a mistake. The station 4 was being observed not at the same station with the previous observation.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

THE BEARING AND DISTANCE COMPARISON FROM ALL METHODS

FR 1

TO 4

METHOD Traverse GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency

INSTRUMENT TOPCON Total Station PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS TOPCON Total Station PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS TOPCON Total Station PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS TOPCON Total Station PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS

BEARING 73 29 15.63 73 29 48.55 89 55 17.79 112 55 13.35 112 55 09.45 112 55 25.19 134 00 05.91 134 00 01.23 134 00 01.53 142 37 32.40 32.4 142 35 28.22 142 35 39.10

DISTANCE 137. 963 137. 967 132.290 194.373 194.400 194.401 221.786 221.840 221.840 95.616 95.641 95.646

1

6

Traverse GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency

1

7

Traverse GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency

1

10

Traverse GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency

* The Observation 1 – 4 is a mistake. The station 4 was being observed not at the same station with the previous observation.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.2

The Elevation Height Comparison

THE ELEVATION HEIGHT (REDUCED LEVEL) FROM CONVENSIONAL METHOD (FLY (FLY-LEVELLING) FR (Stn) 1 1 1 EVELATION (Reduced Level) 42.731 42.731 42.731 TO (Stn) 4 6 7 ELEVATION (Reduced Level) 31.111 40.965 52.407 DIFFERENCES (Meter) 11.260 1.766 -9.676

THE ELEVATION HEIGHT (ELLIPSOIDAL) FROM GPS SINGLE FREQUENCY METHOD (PROMARK)

BASE 1 ROVER 10 ROVER 4 ROVER 6 ROVER 7

FR

EVELATION (Ellipsoidal Height)

TO

ELEVATION (Ellipsoidal Height)

DIFFERENCES

1 1 1 1

39.066 39.066 39.066 39.066

4 6 7 10

27.346 37.162 48.551 58.923

11.720 1.904 -9.485 9.485 -19.857 19.857

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

THE ELEVATION HEIGHT (ELLIPSOIDAL) FROM GPS DUAL FREQUENCY METHOD (TOPCON)

BASE 1 ROVER 4 ROVER 6 ROVER 7 ROVER 10

FR 1 1 1 1

EVELATION 38.752 38.752 38.752 38.752

TO 4 6 7 10

ELEVATION 27.051 36.893 48.284 58.641

DIFFERENCES 11.701 1.859 -9.532 -19.889

THE ELEVATION HEIGHT DIFFERENCES COMPARISON FROM ALL METHODS FR 1 TO 4 METHOD Fly - Levelling GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency 1 6 Fly - Levelling GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency 1 7 Fly - Levelling GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency 1 10 Fly - Levelling GPS Static Single Frequency GPS Static Dual Frequency INSTRUMENT Levelling PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS Levelling PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS Levelling PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS Levelling PROMARK GPS TOPCON GPS DIFFERENCES IFFERENCES 11.260 11.720 11.701 1.766 1.904 1.859 -9.676 -9.485 -9.532 Not available -19.857 -19.889 -

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.0

DISCUSSIONS

While finishing this fieldwork, we had same problem which are: Based on data above, it showed that there are differen differences reading value between conventional method and single frequency GPS method (L1) and dual frequency GPS ) method (L1 & L2). These sequences may occur based on several factors: . 1. While observing by using total station, errors occur due to human error and le station, environmental error. 2. We might not accurately stand the GPS and t total station right on the station point. point For example for the station 4 of GPS dual frequency observation, we are mistakenly or set up the rover at the wrong point. Then we cannot get the appropriate result. 3. Instead for the leveling we cannot reach to the station 10. It is because since the station 10 is on the car park, so when is the time we do the leveling, It has been placed with a car. So we had to leave the station. We are not familiar with the GPS instrument, and we take much time to understand and studying the function and how to uses the GPS i instruments. Weather conditions also affect our project work because we have not been properly studied and understood about GPS. But, after our lecturer explains that we can do GPS observation in all condition of weather, then finally we do it although it is raining. Error in booking is also one of our problems in finishing the fieldwork. This is because if we do a booking wrongly, the data cannot be process perfectly. So, we do the leveling twice and do a proper booking on the next observation. We are also not familiar with the GPS processing software of GNSS and the Topcon o Tools. This is our first time using it and it takes a lot of time and tries to get a better result.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Fieldwork Report BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Comparison Between Conventional Method ADVANCED GEODESY (SUG532) and Single & Dual GPS Frequency Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8.0

CONCLUSION

It can be conclude that GPS system accurately can determined the coordinate of a point. Generally it can be said that GPS receiver pairs are set up over stations of either known or unknown location. Typically one of the receivers is positioned over a point whose coordinates are known (or have been carried forward as on a traverse), and the second is positioned over another point whose coordinates are s unknown, but are desired. Both GPS receivers must receive signals from the same four (or more) satellites for a period of time that can range from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the several conditions of observation and precision required

The Station occupation time is dependent on baseline length, number of satellites observed, and the GPS equipment used. In general, 30 min to 2 hr is a good approximation for baseline occupation time for baseline shorter baselines of 1 - 30kilometers.

For the satellite visibility requirements, the stations that are selected for survey must have an the unobstructed view of the sky for at least 15 deg or greater above the horizon during the "observation window." An observation window is the period of time when observable satellites are in the sky and the survey can be successfully conducted.

It is critical for a static survey baseline reduction/solution that the receivers simultaneously obse observe the same satellites during the same time interval. For instance, if receiver No. 1 observes a satellite set during the time interval 1,000 to 1,200 and another receiver, receiver No. 2, observes that same satellite set during the time interval 1,100 to 1,300, only the period of common observation, 1,100 to 1,200, can be processed to formulate a correct vector difference between these receivers.

In data post-processing, after the observation session has been completed, the received GPS signals fter from both receivers are then processed (i.e., "post processed") in a computer to calculate the 3D baseline "post-processed") vector components between the two observed points. From these vector distances, local or geodetic coordinates may be computed and/or adjusted. Mean while, in Receiver Operation and Data Reduction a specific receiver operation and baseline data post processing requirements are very manufacturerpecific post-processing manufacturer dependent. The user is strongly advised to consult and study manufacturer's operations manuals thoroughly along with the baseline data reduction examples. e

The accuracy of Static is the most accurate and can be used for any order survey.

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