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The Seven Churches of Revelation

The Seven Churches of Revelation

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Published by Prof.M.M.Ninan
A study of the first three chapters of the Revelation of Jesus Christ as given John from Patmos
A study of the first three chapters of the Revelation of Jesus Christ as given John from Patmos

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Published by: Prof.M.M.Ninan on Oct 20, 2007
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The 8even 6hurches

A 8tudy of the F|rst Three 6hapters
0f
The ßook of Reve|at|ons




0r.H.H.N|nan


















60NTENT8
6hAPTER 0NE
|NTR00U6T|0N
6hAPTER Tw0
REVELAT|0N 1
ThE UNVE|L|NC 0F RE8URRE6TE0 6hR|8T
6hAPTER ThREE
EPhE8U8
6hAPTER F0UR
8HYRNA

6hAPTER F|VE
PERCAH08

6hAPTER 8|X
ThYAT|RA

6hAPTER 8EVEN
8AR0|8

6hAPTER E|ChT
Ph|LA0ELPh|A

6hAPTER N|NE
LA00E6|A

6hAPTER TEN
ThE 8EVEN 6hUR6hE8

The ßook of Reve|at|on
The 8even 6hurches

6hapter 0ne
|ntroduct|on
|. T|t|e
T|e l|l|e cores lror l|e l|rsl Word |r l|e |eller, aooka|yos|s, ard lrars|aled ¨reve|al|or¨. Fror l|e 0ree| Word cores l|e a|lerral|ve l|l|e lor
l|e ooo|: T|e Apoca|vpse. T|e 0ree| Word |lse|l rears, ¨lo expose l|al W||c| Was lorrer|v ||dder, ve||ed or secrel¨. lr l|e NeW Teslarerl, |l
|s used exc|us|ve|v |r l|e re||d|ous serse ol a d|v|re d|sc|osure.
||. Author and 8ett|ng
A. Author
T|e aul|or ol Reve|al|or |derl|l|es ||rse|l as Jo|r |r 1:1, 1, 9 ard 22:8. T||s seers reasorao|e, s|rce l|e or|v ol|er Jo|rs We |roW aooul |r
l|e NeW Teslarerl are Jo|r l|e 8apl|sl ard Jo|r Var|, re|l|er ol W|or seers a |||e|v card|dale as l|e aul|or, arvrore l|ar l|e suddesl|or
l|al |l Was Wr|ller ov arol|er, ol|erW|se ur|roWr persor rared Jo|r.

Ju3TlN VARTYR [0|a|odue W|l| Trvp|o, p. 308ì |A.0. 139-1ê1) cuoles lror l|e Apoca|vpse, as Jo|r l|e aposl|e's Wor|, l|e
prop|ecv ol l|e r|||err|ur ol l|e sa|rls, lo oe lo||oWed ov l|e derera| resurrecl|or ard juddrerl.
|e savs l|al ¨l|e Reve|al|or |ad oeer d|ver lo Jo|r, ore ol l|e lWe|ve aposl|es ol C|r|sl.¨ T||s lesl|rorv ol Ju3TlN |s relerred lo
a|so ov Eu3E8lu3 [Ecc|es|asl|ca| l|slorv, 1.18ì.

VELlT0, o|s|op ol 3ard|s |aooul A.0. 1Z1), ore ol l|e sever c|urc|es addressed, a successor, l|erelore, ol ore ol l|e sever
arde|s, |s sa|d ov Eu3E8lu3 [Ecc|es|asl|ca| l|slorv, 1.2êì lo |ave Wr|ller lreal|ses or l|e Apoca|vpse ol Jo|r. T|e lesl|rorv ol l|e
o|s|op ol 3ard|s |s l|e rore |rparl|a|, as 3ard|s |s ore ol l|e c|urc|es severe|v reproved |Rev_3:1).

TlE0PllLu3 0F ANTl0Cl |aooul A.0. 180), accord|rd lo Eu3E8lu3 [Ecc|es|asl|ca| l|slorv, 1.2êì, cuoled lesl|ror|es lror l|e
Apoca|vpse ol Jo|r.
Eu3E8lu3 savs l|e sare ol Apo||or|us, W|o ||ved |r As|a V|ror |r l|e erd ol l|e secord cerlurv.

lRENÆu3 |aooul A.0. 180), a |earer ol P0LYCARP, l|e d|sc|p|e ol Jo|r, ard supposed ov ARCl8l3l0P u3lER lo oe l|e arde|
ol l|e C|urc| ol 3rvrra, |s rosl dec|ded ada|r ard ada|r |r cuol|rd l|e Apoca|vpse as l|e Wor| ol l|e aposl|e Jo|r [Ada|rsl
leres|es, 1.20.11, 1.21.3, 1.30.1, 5.3ê.1, 5.30.3, 5.35.2ì. lr [5.30.1ì, a||ud|rd lo l|e rvsl|ca| ruroer ol l|e oeasl, s|x |urdred s|xlv-
s|x |Rev_13:18), lourd |r a|| o|d cop|es, |e savs, ¨we do rol |azard a corl|derl l|eorv as lo l|e rare ol Arl|c|r|sl, lor |l |l |ad oeer
recessarv l|al ||s rare s|ou|d oe proc|a|red oper|v al l|e preserl l|re, |l Wou|d |ave oeer dec|ared ov ||r W|o saW l|e
apoca|vpl|c v|s|or, lor |l Was seer al ro |ord l|re oac|, oul a|rosl |r our dereral|or, loWards l|e erd ol 0or|l|ar's re|dr.¨
lr ||s Wor| Ada|rsl leres|es, puo||s|ed ler vears aller Po|vcarp's rarlvrdor, |e cuoles l|e Apoca|vpse lWerlv l|res, ard ra|es
|ord exlracls lror |l, as |rsp|red 3cr|plure.
.
TERTuLLlAN, ol Norl| Alr|ca |aooul A.0. 220), [Ada|rsl Varc|or, 3.11ì, cuoles l|e aposl|e Jo|r's descr|pl|ors |r l|e Apoca|vpse ol
l|e sWord proceed|rd oul ol l|e Lord's roul| |Rev_19:15), ard ol l|e |eaver|v c|lv |Rev. 21:1-2Z). Corpare 0r l|e Resurrecl|or
ol l|e F|es| [2Zì, A Treal|se or l|e 3ou|, [8, 9, &c.ì, T|e Prescr|pl|or Ada|rsl lerel|cs, [33ì.

T|e VuRAT0Rl lradrerl ol l|e caror |aooul A.0. 200) relers lo Jo|r l|e aposl|e Wr|l|rd lo l|e sever c|urc|es.

llPP0LYTu3, o|s|op ol 0sl|a, rear Rore |aooul A.0. 210) [0r Arl|c|r|sl, p. êZì, cuoles Rev. 1Z:1-18, as l|e Wr|l|rd ol Jo|r l|e
aposl|e. Arord llPP0LYTu3' Wor|s, l|ere |s spec|l|ed |r l|e cala|odue or ||s slalue, a lreal|se ¨or l|e Apoca|vpse ard 0ospe|
accord|rd lo Jo|r.¨

CLEVENT 0F ALEXAN0RlA |aooul A.0. 200) [V|sce||ar|es, ê.13ì, a||udes lo l|e lWerlv-lour seals or W||c| l|e e|ders s|l as
rerl|ored ov Jo|r |r l|e Apoca|vpse |Rev_1:5), a|so, [w|o ls l|e R|c| Var w|o 3|a|| 8e 3aved? 12ì, |e rerl|ors Jo|r's relurr
lror Palros lo Ep|esus or l|e deal| ol l|e Rorar lvrarl.

0Rl0EN |aooul A.0. 233), [Correrlarv or Vall|eW, |r Eu3E8lu3 Ecc|es|asl|ca| l|slorv, ê.25ì, rerl|ors Jo|r as l|e aul|or ol
l|e Apoca|vpse, W|l|oul express|rd arv douols as lo |ls aul|erl|c|lv, a|so, |r Correrlarv or Vall|eW, [1ê.êì, |e cuoles Rev_1:9,
ard savs, ¨Jo|r seers lo |ave oe|e|d l|e Apoca|vpse |r l|e |s|ard ol Palros.¨

\lCT0RlNu3, o|s|op ol Pellau |r Parror|a, W|o sullered rarlvrdor urder 0|oc|el|ar |r A.0. 303, Wrole l|e ear||esl exlarl
correrlarv or l|e Apoca|vpse. T|oud| l|e 0|d 3vr|ac Pesc||lo vers|or does rol corla|r l|e Apoca|vpse, vel EPlREV TlE
3YRlAN |aooul A.0. 3Z8) lrecuerl|v cuoles l|e Apoca|vpse as caror|ca|, ard ascr|oes |l lo Jo|r.
Jar|esor, Fausel ard 8roWr Correrlarv
T|e o|d oojecl|or lo aposlo||c aul|ors||p |s l|al ol l|e slv|e ol |ls 0ree| W||c| |s lola||v d|llererl lo l|e slv|e ol 0ree| used |r l|e dospe| ard
ep|sl|es.
8|m||ar|t|es w|th the Cospe| of John
Relererce lo l|e |odos, Jo|r 1:1 cl. Rev 19:13
lraderv ol l|e Laro, Jo|r 1:29, 3ê Rev 5:ê elc.
T|e Waler ol ||le, Jo|r 1:10, cl. Rev 8:10, 21:ê, 22:1, 22:1Z
le l|al overcores, 1 Jo|r 2:13 cl. 2:Z elc., 21:Z
Keep|rd l|e corrardrerls, 1 Jo|r 2:3, cl. Rev 12:1Z, 11:12
8ol| |ave slr|||rd lorrs ol Zec| 12:10 |Jo|r 19:3Z, Rev 1:Z)
Ar |rv|lal|or lo ||r W|o |s l||rslv, Jo|r Z:3Z cl. Rev 21:ê, 22:1Z
w||le c|ol||rd lor arde|s, Jo|r 20:12 |a|l|oud| |r Reve|al|or arde|s Wear s||r|rd c|ol|s |15:ê), l|e sa|rls Wear W||le |3:1, 5, 18, ê:11, Z:9,
19:11))
A corrardrerl rece|ved ov C|r|sl lror l|e Fal|er, Jo|r 10:18
0l|er l|eres lror l|e dospe|:
T|e or|de ard l|e or|dedroor |Jo|r 3:29 cl. Rev 19:Z)
True Wors||ppers |Jo|r 1:23 cl. Rev 11:1)
T|e dead W||| l|e vo|ce ol 0od W||| r|se lo ||ve... W||| r|se lo oe corderred |Jo|r 5:25-29 cl. Rev 20:11 ll.)
For l|e Fal|er |oves l|e 3or ard s|oWs l|r a|| |e does |Jo|r 5:20 cl. Rev 1:1)
... l s|a|| |ose rore ol a|| l|al |e |as d|ver re, oul ra|se l|er up al l|e |asl dav |Jo|r ê:39 cl. Rev Z:1, 11:1)
Vv leac||rd |s rol rv oWr. ll cores lror ||r W|o serl re |Jo|r Z:1ê cl. Rev 1:1)
T|e lesl|rorv ol lWo |s va||d |Jo|r 8:1Z cl. Rev 11:3)
... |e |s a ||ar ard l|e lal|er ol ||es |Jo|r 8:11 cl. Rev 12:15, 20:8 )
oelore Aora|ar Was oorr , l ar |Jo|r 8:58 cl. Rev 1:1Z-18)
T|e l||el cores or|v lo slea| ard |||| ard deslrov |Jo|r 10:10 cl. Rev 9:11)
l ar l|e dood s|ep|erd |Jo|r 10:11 cl. Rev 8:1Z)
T|e rar W|o |oves ||s ||le W||| |ose |l, oul l|e rar W|o |ales |l W||| |eep |l lor elerra| ||le |Jo|r 12:25 cl. Rev 2:10)
w|oever serves re rusl lo||oW re |Jo|r 12:2ê cl. Rev 11:1)
T|e vo|ce ol 0od sourd|rd |||e l|urder |Jo|r 12:28-29 )
T|e pr|rce ol l||s Wor|d W||| oe dr|ver oul |Jo|r 12:31 cl. 12:9)
l W||| core oac| ard la|e vou lo oe W|l| re l|al vou a|so rav oe W|ere l ar |Jo|r 11:3, cl. 22:3)
ll l|e Wor|d |ales vou, |eep |r r|rd l|al |l |aled re l|rsl |Jo|r 15:18)
... arvore W|o ||||s vou W||| l||r| |e |s oller|rd a serv|ce lo 0od |Jo|r 1ê:2)
l|e pr|rce ol l||s Wor|d roW slards corderred |Jo|r 1ê:11, cl. 12:12)
....vou W||| Weep ard rourr W|||e l|e Wor|d rejo|ces |Jo|r 1ê:20 cl. 11:10)
lr l||s Wor|d vou W||| |ave lrouo|e. 8ul la|e |earll l |ave overcore l|e Wor|d |Jo|r 1ê:33 cl. Rev 3:21)
lo|v Fal|er, prolecl l|er ov l|e poWer ol vour rare |Jo|r 1Z:11 cl. Rev Z:1, 11:1)
l |ave d|ver l|er vour Word ard l|e Wor|d |as |aled l|er, lor l|ev are rol ol l|e Wor|d arv rore l|ar l ar ol l|e Wor|d |Jo|r 1Z:11
cl. Rev ê:9).
l Warl l|ose vou |ave d|ver lo re lo oe W|l| re W|ere l ar, ard lo see rv d|orv |Jo|r 19:15 cl. Rev 21:23)
T|ev W||| |oo| or l|e ore l|ev |ave p|erced |Jo|r 19:3Z cl. Rev 1:Z)
l ar relurr|rd lo.... rv 0od ard vour 0od |Jo|r 20:1Z cl. Rev 3:2, 3:12)


8|m||ar|t|es w|th John's f|rst ep|st|e
0vercor|rd l|e ev|| ore |1 Jo|r 2:11)
0vercor|rd l|e arl|c|r|sl |1 Jo|r 1:1)
0vercor|rd l|e Wor|d |1 Jo|r 5:1)
0o rol |ove l|e Wor|d or arvl||rd |r l|e Wor|d |1 Jo|r 2:15)
T|e Wor|d ard |ls des|res pass aWav, oul l|e rar W|o does l|e W||| ol 0od ||ves lorever |1 Jo|r 2:1Z)
T|e |asl |our ard l|e arl|c|r|sl |1 Jo|r 2:18, 2:22, 1:3)
0o rol oe surpr|sed |l l|e Wor|d |ales vou |1 Jo|r 3:13)
l Wr|le l|ese l||rds lo vou W|o oe||eve... so vou rav |roW vou |ave elerra| ||le |1 Jo|r 5:13)
T|e ev|| ore carrol |arr l|e ore oorr ol 0od |1 Jo|r 5:18)
T|e W|o|e Wor|d |s urder l|e corlro| ol l|e ev|| ore |1 Jo|r 5:19)
Keep vourse|ves lror |do|s |1 Jo|r 5:21)
Corl|rue |r ||r, so l|al W|er |e appears We rav oe uras|ared oelore ||r al ||s cor|rd |1 Jo|r 2:28)

8|m||ar|t|es w|th John's second ep|st|e
Arv suc| persor |s l|e dece|ver ard l|e arl|c|r|sl |2 Jo|r 1:Z)
walc| oul l|al vou do rol |ose W|al vou |ave Wor|ed lor so l|al vou rav oe reWarded lu||v |2 Jo|r 1:8 cl. Rev 3:11).
0ther s|m||ar|t|es
• Jo|r |s l|e or|v dospe| lo reler lo a spear l|rusl |rlo C|r|sl's s|de |Rev 1:Z cl. Jo|r 19:31).
• Jo|r |s l|e or|v ore lo use l|e Word 'laoerrac|e' |dWe|||rd) $kenoo |1 l|res |r Reve|al|or see 21:3) ard Jo|r 1:11.
• le ca||s Jesus l|e Looos Rev 19:13 cl. Jo|r 1:1, 1 Jo|r 1:1.
T|e |arduade ard drarral|ca| slv|e ol Reve|al|or are d|llererl lror W|al ore l|rds |r l|e 0ospe| ol Jo|r ard ||s l|ree |ellers, |oWever l|e
|raderv, ||lerarv lorrs, ||lurd|ca| lrareWor| ard svroo||sr oear a resero|arce lo W|al ore l|rds |r l|e ol|er Wor|s allr|ouled lo Jo|r. Per|aps
l|e d|llererces |r |arduade ard slv|e car oe exp|a|red oecause ol l|e d|llererce |r l|e l|ere |rvo|ved. w|||e l|e 0ospe| Was a dospe| ol |ove,
Reve|al|or Was juddererla| ard jarr|rd lo Jo|r's serl|rerl.
Apost|e John
T|e d|sc|p|e W|or Jesus |oved, ore ol l|e TWe|ve Aposl|es, lrad|l|ora| aul|or ol l|e lourl| 0ospe|, l|ree |ellers, ard l|e 8oo| ol
Reve|al|or lr l|e 0ospe|s |e ard ||s orol|er, 3l. Jares |l|e 0realer), are |derl|l|ed as sors ol Zeoedee, Jesus ca||ed l|er
8oarerdes or 3ors ol T|urder. T|e lWo orol|ers, lodel|er W|l| Peler, Were l|e l|ree aposl|es c|osesl lo Jesus, l|ev W|lressed l|e
Trarsl|dural|or ard accorpar|ed Jesus lo 0el|serare. Jo|r |as oeer l|oud|l lo |ave oeer l|e d|sc|p|e ¨W|or Jesus |oved. Jesus,
|r ||s dv|rd rorerls, corr|lled Varv lo Jo|r's care. Jo|r loo| Varv W|l| ||r W|er |e roved lo Ep|esus. le |s rerl|ored
occas|ora||v |r l|e Acls ol l|e Aposl|es, ard Pau| relers lo ||r |r 0a|al|ars. Accord|rd lo 2d-cerlurv aul|or|l|es Jo|r d|ed al ar
advarced ade al Ep|esus |c.A.0. 100). l|s svroo| as evarde||sl |s ar ead|e.
ß. 0ate
ll |s d|ll|cu|l lo oe prec|se or l|e dale ol l|e ooo| ol Reve|al|or. 0ales ol corpos|l|or ol e|l|er A0 51-ê8 or A0 81-9ê seer rosl |||e|v. ll
Was Wr|ller c.A.0. 95 or Palros ls|ard oll l|e coasl ol As|a V|ror ov ar ex||e rared Jo|r, |r l|e Wa|e ol |oca| persecul|or ov l|e Erperor
0or|l|ar |A.0. 81-9ê).
T|e l|rsl C|r|sl|ar Wr|ler lo reler express|v lo l|e Reve|al|or Was Jusl|r Varlvr |c. A0. 110). T|e l|rsl |roWr correrlarv or |l Was Wr|ller
aooul A0. 1Z0 ov Ve||lo ol 3ard|s, l|e c|urc| |r ||s c|lv oe|rd ore ol l|e c|urc|es rerl|ored |r l|e Apoca|vpse. Cvpr|ar ol Carl|ade, aooul l|e
r|dd|e ol l|e 3rd cerlaurv ||d||v |orored l|e Apoca|vpse, W|||e Euseo|us ol Caesarea |d|ed c. A0. 310) Was rol sure aooul |ls aul|erl|c|lv, oul
perr|lled |ls read|rd. 0redorv ol Naz|arzus |d|ed A0. 389) puo||s|ed a ||sl ol NT ooo|s or|ll|rd l|e Reve|al|or as d|d Cvr|| ol Jerusa|er |d|ed
A0. 38ê). ll Was rol url|| l|e ¨Easler Leller¨ ol Al|aras|us |r A0. 3êZ l|al l|e 2Z ooo|s roW corpos|rd l|e NT Were a|| rerl|ored lodel|er as
caror|ca|.

Arguments for Late 0ate:
T|e corsersus dare |s arourd A0. 95 dur|rd l|e re|dr ol 0or|l|ar |81-9ê), sore d|ves ar ear|v dale dur|rd Nero's re|dr 51-ê8. 0ur|rd
0or|l|ar's re|dr erperor Wors||p oecare W|despread. 0or|l|ar Was |r l|e |ao|l ol oar|s||rd ||s erer|es, W|ereas Nero Was rol, ||s
persecul|or Was |oca| lo Rore. 0or|l|ar's po||cv Was |eda| ard ore W|despread. Jo|r Was re|eased lror Palros or 0or|l|ar's deal|. le le||s
us l|al |e Was or Palros, suller|rd oecause ol l|e Word ol 0od ard l|e lesl|rorv ol Jesus |1:9). ll s|ou|d oe rol|ced l|al Jo|r Was lo|d lo Wr|le
W|al |e |ad seer ard serd |l lo l|e sever c|urc|es |1:11, cl. 1:19). T|us |e Wrole l||s ooo| or Palros ard serl |l lo l|e c|urc|es, presurao|v
oelore ||s re|ease. T|al Ep|esus |ad |osl |ls l|rsl |ove ard 3ard|s Was dead ool| po|rls lo a |ale dale.
Reve|al|or Was c|ear|v Wr|ller |r a l|re ol persecul|or |Vorr|s):
1. Arl|pas |ad oeer ||||ed |2:13).
2. Jo|r Was ex||ed lo Palros oecause ol ||s la|l| |1:9).
3. T|e c|urc| |r 3rvrra Was aooul lo suller |rc|ud|rd |rpr|sorrerl |2:10).
1. T|ere are l|e sou|s s|a|r oecause ol l|e Word ol 0od ard l|e|r lesl|rorv |ê:9).
5. T|e Worar |s drur| W|l| l|e o|ood ol l|e sa|rls |1Z:ê).
w|al |s a|so c|ear |s l|al l|e rajor|lv ol l|e NT W||| |ave oeer Wr|ller ov l|e l|re Reve|al|or Was Wr|ller. 8ol| Pau| ard Peler d|ed dur|rd Nero's
re|dr. Jo|r ra|es use ol ool| 0T ard NT sources |r Reve|al|or.
Corpare l|e dale l|al Reve|al|or Was Wr|ller W|l| l|e dales l|al ol|er ooo|s |r l|e 8|o|e Were Wr|ller:
Rorars A0 5Z
2 T|r: dur|rd l|e re|dr ol Nero 51-ê8 Pau| Was rarlvred aller l|e o|d l|re ol Rore |r ê1.
2 Peler: Peler Was rarlvred dur|rd re|dr ol Nero < ê8
Jares: 50s or ear|v ê0's
leoreWs: oelore l|e deslrucl|or ol l|e lerp|e |r A0 Z0.
Acls: A0 ê3.
Lu|e: A0 59-ê3 or Z0's or 80's
Var|: A0 50's or ê0's or oelore A0 Z0.
Vall|eW: A0 50's lo Z0's
Jo|r: Lale |r l|rsl cerlurv
Reve|al|or |lse|l s|oWs l|al Jo|r Wrole l|e ooo| W|||e |e Was rece|v|rd l|e v|s|ors. w|||e l|e repealed corrards: 'wr|lel' |r 1:19, 11:13, 19:9
r|d|l |eave l|e cuesl|or oper as lo jusl W|er Jo|r Was lo do l||s Wr|l|rd, Jo|r's oWr slalererl |r 10:1, |rlorrs us l|al |e Was aooul lo Wr|le
oul Was loro|dder ov l|e arde| lor Wr|l|rd W|al l|e sever l|urders sa|d. Jo|r |s lo Wr|le '|rlo a ooo|' |1:11), |r 22:ê-19 We see 'l||s ooo|'
corp|eled save lor l|e |asl leW serlerces. T|e arde| |22:Z-15) ard Jesus |22:18,19) spea| ol 'l||s ooo|' as ore l|al |as a|readv oeer Wr|ller,
see 22:19. ll |s l|erelore, |rcorrecl lo l||r| l|al Jo|r Wrole |r Palros sore l|re aller |e saW l|ese v|s|ors or Wa|led ever url|| |e relurred lo
Ep|esus. Lers|| a|so po|rls oul l|al l||s does preserl Jo|r as Wr|l|rd |r 'exc|lererl' oecause |e Was |r l|e sp|r|l |1:10, 1:2, 1Z:3, 21:10), oul
ral|er, Jo|r's rerla| lacu|l|es Were |r ro Wav d|sluroed, or l|e corlrarv, l|ev Were sl|ru|aled, exa|led, ard lurcl|ored W|l| perlecl|or.
Arguments for an Ear|y date: [6h||ton and Centry}
'8elore Jerusa|er Fe||
ll ar ear|v dale |s proposed |c A0 ê1) l|er rosl ol l|e juddrerl v|s|ors |r Reve|al|or |c|s 1-19) cou|d eas||v oe app||ed lo l|e ||slor|ca| lurro||
W||c| care lo a |ead s|orl|v aller Jo|r Wrole. T|e lu|l|||rerl ol l|e rajor|lv ol |ls prop|ec|es Wou|d l|er app|v lo l|e verv oed|rr|rd ol
C|r|sl|ar|lv, ral|er l|ar lo |ls corc|us|or. Corla|red |r Reve|al|or r|d|l oe prop|el|c a||us|ors lo l|e l|rsl Rorar persecul|or ol C|r|sl|ar|lv |A0
ê1-ê8), l|e JeW|s| War W|l| Rore |A0 êZ-Z0), l|e deal| ol C|r|sl|ar|lv's l|rsl perseculor |Nero Caesar, A0 ê8), l|e Rorar C|v|| wars |A0 ê8-
ê9), ard l|e deslrucl|or ol Jerusa|er ard l|e lerp|e |A0 Z0). Reve|al|or la|es |l lo oe a prop|ecv aooul l|e la|| ol Jerusa|er |r A0 Z0.
T|e ra|r ardurerl lor ar ear|v dale are as lo||oWs:
1. T|eral|c ev|derce: |Rev 1:Z Nl\) Loo|, |e |s cor|rd W|l| l|e c|ouds, ard everv eve W||| see ||r, ever l|ose W|o p|erced ||r, ard a||
l|e peop|es ol l|e earl| W||| rourr oecause ol ||r. 3o s|a|| |l oel Arer. 'l|ose W|o p|erced ||r' ard 'peop|es ol l|e earl|' reler lo
l|e l|rsl cerlurv JeWs.
'w|er vou see Jerusa|er oe|rd surrourded ov arr|es' |Lu|e 21:20-21). T|e cor|rd ol C|r|sl |r 1:Z relers lo ||s cor|rd |r juddrerl
upor l|e JeWs |r A0 êê-Z0.
lr Val 21:1-2 Jesus relers lo l|e deslrucl|or ol l|e lerp|e, |r Val 21:30 ¨Al l|al l|re l|e s|dr ol l|e 3or ol Var W||| appear |r l|e s|v,
ard a|| l|e ral|ors ol l|e earl| W||| rourr. T|ev W||| see l|e 3or ol Var cor|rd or l|e c|ouds ol l|e s|v, W|l| poWer ard dreal d|orv¨.
lr Val 21:31 Jesus savs, ¨l le|| vou l|e lrul|, l||s dereral|or W||| cerla|r|v rol pass aWav url|| a|| l|ese l||rds |ave |appered.¨ T||s |s
l|e preler|sl v|eW W||c| sees Val 21:30 relerr|rd lo l|e cor|rd |r juddrerl ada|rsl Jerusa|er ral|er l|ar l|e ood||v secord cor|rd ol
C|r|sl.
2. Po||l|ca| ev|derce: l|e s|xl| ||rd ol Rev 1Z:9-10 W|o re|drs roW |s Nero.
3. Arc||leclura| ev|derce: lderl|l|es l|e lerp|e ol 11:1-2 W|l| lerod's lerp|e |r Jerusa|er. c.l. Lu|e 21:21 Jerusa|er W||| oe lrarp|ed or
ov l|e 0erl||es url|| l|e l|res ol l|e 0erl||es are lu|l|||ed.
1. Ecc|es|asl|ca| ev|derce: T|e lacl l|al |l |s l|e JeWs W|o are lrouo||rd l|e sever c|urc|es |2:9, 3:9) |s slrord ev|derce ol ar ear|v dale
s|rce aller A0 Z0 l|e leW JeWs |ell a||ve aller l|e deslrucl|or ol Jerusa|er Were d|spersed arord l|e ral|ors. Acls |s lu|| ol
|||uslral|ors ol JeW|s| persecul|or ol C|r|sl|ar|lv.
5. l|slor|ca| ev|derce: l||s ev|derce |s surveved ard s|oWs l|al l|e ev|derce ol lreraeus |s rol overW|e|r|rd

6anon|c|ty Prob|ems
Per|aps ro s|rd|e ooo| |r l|e NeW Teslarerl preserls so rarv ard so lorr|dao|e proo|ers as l|e Apoca|vpse ol Jo|r. T|ese d|ll|cu|l|es
corcerr l|e aul|ors||p, l|e dale, l|e apoca|vpl|c rel|od, l|e re|al|or lo l|e ol|er Jo|arr|re ooo|s, l|e purpose, l|e ||slor|ca| erv|rorrerl, l|e
recepl|or ol l|e ooo| |r l|e NeW Teslarerl caror, l|e use ard r|suse ol l|e ooo| l|roud| l|e ades, elc. lr l|e easlerr c|urc|es l|e
recodr|l|or ol l|e Apoca|vpse ol Jo|r Was s|oWer l|ar |r l|e Wesl, s|rce |l Was rol |r l|e Pes||lla 3vr|ac \ers|or. Ca|us ol Rore allr|ouled l|e
ooo| lo Cer|rl|us l|e 0rosl|c, oul |e Was ao|v arsWered ov l|ppo|vlus, W|o allr|ouled |l lo l|e Aposl|e Jo|r. T|e Courc|| ol Laod|cea |aooul
A.0. 3ê0) or|lled |l, oul l|e l||rd Courc|| ol Carl|ade |A.0. 39Z) accepled |l. T|e d|spule aooul r|||erar|ar|sr |ed 0|orvs|us ol A|exardr|a
|r|dd|e ol l|e l||rd cerlurv, A.0.) lo derv l|e aul|ors||p lo l|e Aposl|e Jo|r, l|oud| |e accepled |l as caror|ca|. Euseo|us suddesled a secord
Jo|r as l|e aul|or. 8ul l|ra||v l|e ooo| Was accepled |r l|e easl as leoreWs Was |r l|e Wesl aller a per|od ol douol.
|Rooerlsors Word P|clure)

Poor 8tate 0f The Text
T|ere are or|v l|ve urc|a|s l|al d|ve l|e lexl ol Jo|r's Apoca|vpse |A|ep| A C P 0).
0l l|ese A|ep| oe|ords lo l|e lourl| cerlurv, A ard C lo l|e l|ll|, 0 |rea||v 82, 8 erd|rd W|l| leo_9:13, ool| |r l|e
\al|car L|orarv) lo l|e e|d|l|, P lo l|e r|rl|.
0r|v A|ep| A 0 |=82) are corp|ele, C |ac||rd Rev_1:1, 3:19-5:11, Rev_Z:11-1Z, 8:5-9:1ê, 10:10-11:3,11:13-18:2,
19:5-21, P |ac||rd Rev. 1ê:12-1Z:1, 19:21-20:9, 22:ê-21.
8ol| C ard P are pa||rpsesls. lr l|e 100 verses ol l|e ooo| ¨over 1,ê00 var|arls |ave oeer courled¨ |Vollall).
Erasrus |ad or|v ore curs|ve |ol l|e lWe|ll| cerlurv ruroered lr) lor ||s l|rsl ed|l|or, ard l|e |asl s|x verses ol l|e
Apoca|vpse, save verse 20, Were a lrars|al|or lror l|e \u|dale.
T|e resu|l |s l|al l|e vers|ors are ol spec|a| |rporlarce lor l|e lexl ol l|e ooo|, s|rce |r ro s|rd|e V3. or droup ol
V33. do We |ave a la|r|v accurale lexl, l|oud| A|ep| A C ard A C \u|dale are l|e oesl lWo droups. |RwP)
6. |nterpret|ve Approaches
ll l|e corlerls ol l|e 8oo| ol Reve|al|or are la|er lo oe a Wover lapeslrv ol s|ons ano symoo|s, l|er l|e|r decod|rd rusl oe |rlerra||v
cors|slerl, l|e decod|rd rusl use del|r|l|ors der|ved lor l|er |r l|e corlexl ol l|e lapeslrv |lse|l, l|al |s lo sav l|e s|drs ard svroo|s
corla|red W|l||r l|e lapeslrv are se|l-oel|n|no. \er|l|cal|or ol l|e correcl decod|rd ol l|e s|drs ard svroo|s rusl a|so oe lourd |r l|e
ol|er ooo|s ol l|e 8|o|e, as l|e rvl|o|od|ca| ard a||edor|ca| corverl|ors ol l|e 3cr|plures |ssue lror or are parl ol l|e corl|ru|lv,
W||c| We ca|| l|e ¨Juoeo-0nr|sr|an¨ lrad|l|or. 3ore exlrareous |rlorral|or lror our |roW|edde ol l|e harure, ard lror l|e l|srory
rusl ol recess|lv oe erp|oved lor l|e corp|ele successlu| decod|rd ol l|e 8oo|, ard l||s |s uravo|dao|e.
1. Futur|st
w|l| l|e excepl|or ol c|aplers ore l|roud| l|ree, l|e ooo| ol Reve|al|or |s lo oe urderslood as descr|o|rd l|e per|od arourd l|e 3ecord
Adverl ol Jesus C|r|sl ard l|e erd ol l|e ade. T|e sea|s, l|e ooW|s, l|e lrurpels, l|e p|adues reler lo everls vel lo oe. T|e oeasls ol c|aplers
l||rleer ard severleer re|ale lo l|e cor|rd Arl|c|r|sl. Arl|c|r|sl W||| ar|se jusl oelore l|e erd ol a|| l||rds, ard l|er Jesus W||| arr|ve, deleal ||r,
ard sel up ||s earl||v r|||err|a| ||rddor.
ll |s l|e v|eWpo|rl |e|d ov ear|v expos|lors suc| as Jusl|r Varlvr |d|ed A0 1ê5), lreraeus |d|ed aooul A0 195), l|ppo|vlus |d|ed A0 23ê)
ard \|clor|rus |d|ed aooul A0 303). Todav, |l |s l|e rosl popu|ar v|eW arord evarde||ca| C|r|sl|ars.

2. h|stor|c|st
Ar |rlerprelal|or l|al apparerl|v oedar W|l| Joac||r ol F|or|s W|o d|ed |r 1202. lr ||s v|eW, l|e ooo| Was a prop|esv ol l|e everls ol
weslerr ||slorv lror l|e l|res ol l|e aposl|es url|| l|e erd ol l|re. 0erera||v, l|e papacv |s v|eWed as l|e Arl|c|r|sl. T||s |rlerprelal|or Was
popu|ar W|l| l|e ear|v relorrers Lul|er ard Ca|v|r.
ll |s rol a popu|ar po|rl ol v|eW lodav, pr|rc|pa||v oecause ol a |ac| ol corsersus arord var|ous exedeles as lo l|e ||slor|ca| |derl|l|cal|or
ol l|e var|ous everls |r l|e ooo|.
3. |dea||st
Ar |rlerprelal|or, W||c| la|es Reve|al|or as oas|ca||v poel|c, svroo||c ard sp|r|lua|. T|e ooo| ol Reve|al|or does rol pred|cl arv spec|l|c
||slor|ca| everls, oul ral|er s|rp|v sels lorl| l|e l|re|ess lrul|s corcerr|rd l|e oall|e oelWeer dood ard ev|| l|al rades l|roud|oul l|e c|urc|
ade. T|e approac| |s s|r||ar lo l|e derera| a||edor|z|rd pr|rc|p|es ol |rlerprelal|or used dur|rd l|e r|dd|e ades, |l |s rol a parl|cu|ar|v W|de|v |e|d
v|eWpo|rl lodav, ada|r oecause ol |ls derera| suojecl|v|lv ard |ac| ol corsersus arord exedeles.
4. Preter|st
Ar |rlerprelal|or, W||c| sees Reve|al|or as re|aled lo W|al |appered dur|rd l|e l|re, |l Was Wr|ller. T|e ra|r corlerls ol c|aplers lour
l|roud| al |easl r|releer are v|eWed as descr|o|rd everls l|al |appered dur|rd l|e l|res ol l|e Rorar Erp|re, e|l|er dur|rd l|e ||lel|re ol
Jo|r or s|orl|v l|erealler, l|e ooo| ol Reve|al|or |s l|er seer as oe|ord|rd lo l|e derre ol JeW|s| apoca|vpl|c ||leralure, des|dred as a ¨lracl lor
l|e l|res¨ lo ercourade la|l|lu|ress dur|rd persecul|or. 0r|v c|aplers r|releer l|roud| lWerlv-lWo are v|eWed as sl||| lulure |r our dav.
T|e oeasls ol c|aplers l||rleer ard severleer are |derl|l|ed W|l| |rper|a| Rore ard l|e |rper|a| pr|esl|ood.
T|e |rlerprelal|or Was apparerl|v l|rsl deve|oped aooul 1ê11 ov l|e 3par|s| Jesu|l A|casar. T||s |s l|e v|eW |e|d ov l|e rajor|lv ol sc|o|ars
lodav.
6hapter Two
REVELAT|0N 1
ThE UNVE|L|NC 0F RE8URRE6TE0 6hR|8T
'T|e Reve|al|or ol Jesus C|r|sl, W||c| 0od dave l|r lo s|oW l|s servarls, l||rds W||c| rusl s|orl|v la|e p|ace. Ard le serl ard s|dr|l|ed |l ov
l|s arde| lo l|s servarl Jo|r, W|o oore W|lress lo l|e Word ol 0od, ard lo l|e lesl|rorv ol Jesus C|r|sl, lo a|| l||rds l|al |e saW. 8|essed |s |e
W|o reads ard l|ose W|o |ear l|e Words ol l||s prop|ecv, ard |eep l|ose l||rds W||c| are Wr|ller |r |l, lor l|e l|re |s rear.¨ Rev 1:1 -3
T|e 0ree| Word lrars|aled 'reve|al|or¨ |ere |s apoca|upse W||c| rears 'urve|||rd¨ or 'urcover|rd¨. A reW porlra|l ol Jesus |s oe|rd urve||ed
oelore rar.
ll |s l|e sare Word l|al |s used |r 2 T|essa|or|ars 1:Zo-8
0ospe| preserls Jesus as l|e 'l|e Laro ol 0od¨, l|e 'ree| ard |oW|v¨ ore W|o Was appo|rled lor sacr|l|ce lor l|e s|rs ol l|e Wor|d, l|e ore
W|o Werl cu|el|v lo l|e cross |||e a s|eep lo l|e s|aud|ler.

8ul |ere |r Reve|al|or C|r|sl |s s|oWr lo oe a d|llererl persor. le |s l|e 'L|or ol l|e lr|oe ol Juda|¨, l|e judde ol l|e ||v|rd ard l|e dead.
Reve|al|or ol Jesus C|r|sl, W||c| 0od dave l|r. T||s relers lo l|e everls ol l|e secord cor|rd W||c| accord|rd lo Vall|eW 21:3ê ...¨8ul ol
l|al dav ard |our |roWel| ro ore, rol ever l|e arde|s ol |eaver, re|l|er l|e 3or, oul l|e Fal|er or|v.¨. 8ul aller l|e resurrecl|or Jesus lo|d
l|er Acls 1:Z le sa|d lo l|er: 'll |s rol lor vou lo |roW l|e l|res or dales l|e Fal|er |as sel ov ||s oWr aul|or|lv.
Jo|r savs l|al l|e Reve|al|or care lror l|e Fal|er lo l|e 3or W|o |r lurr |as d|ver |l lo ||s servarls
'l||rds W||c| rusl s|orl|v core lo pass¨. 2 Peler 3:8 ...
'8ul, oe|oved, do rol lordel l||s ore l||rd, l|al W|l| l|e Lord ore dav |s as a l|ousard vears, ard a l|ousard vears as ore dav.¨
'serl ard s|dr|l|ed |l ov ||s arde| lo ||s servarl Jo|r
'3aW¨ Reve|al|or |s ||s eveW|lress lesl|rorv.
o|ess|rd or a|| W|o 'read¨ or '|ear¨ ard '|eep¨
Rev 1:1-ê 'Jo|r, lo l|e sever c|urc|es W||c| are |r As|a: 0race lo vou ard peace lror l|r W|o |s ard W|o Was ard W|o |s lo core, ard lror
l|e sever 3p|r|ls W|o are oelore l|s l|rore, ard lror Jesus C|r|sl, l|e la|l|lu| W|lress, l|e l|rsloorr lror l|e dead, ard l|e ru|er over l|e ||rds ol
l|e earl|.
To l|r W|o |oves us ard lreed us lror our s|rs |r l|s oWr o|ood, ard |as rade us a ||rddor ard pr|esls lo l|s 0od ard Fal|er, lo l|r oe
d|orv ard dor|r|or lorever ard ever. Arer.¨
T|ese 'sever c|urc|es¨ Were |ocaled |r As|a V|ror W||c| |s l|e preserl dav Tur|ev.
3a|ulal|or lror
1. 0od l|e Fal|er - l|r W|o |s ard W|o Was ard W|o |s lo core,
2. T|e sever sp|r|ls - W|o |s oelore ||s l|rore
3. Jesus C|r|sl - la|l|lu| W|lress, l|rsl oorr lror l|e dead, ru|er over l|e ||rds ol l|e earl|.
'8ul roW C|r|sl |s r|ser lror l|e dead, ard |as oecore l|e l|rsllru|ls ol l|ose W|o |ave la||er as|eep¨
'T|erelore 0od a|so |as ||d||v exa|led l|r ard d|ver l|r l|e rare W||c| |s aoove everv rare, l|al al l|e rare ol Jesus everv |ree s|ou|d
ooW, ol l|ose |r |eaver, ard ol l|ose or earl|, ard ol l|ose urder l|e earl|,¨
Jo|r orea|s oul |rlo pra|se.
Rev 1:Z-8 '8e|o|d, le |s cor|rd W|l| c|ouds, ard everv eve W||| see l|r, ever l|ev W|o p|erced l|r. Ard a|| l|e lr|oes ol l|e earl| W||| rourr
oecause ol l|r. Ever so, Arer.
'l ar l|e A|p|a ard l|e savs l|e Lord 0od, W|o |s ard W|o Was ard W|o |s lo core, l|e A|r|d|lv.'¨

6om|ng w|th c|ouds
'everv eve W||| see l|r, ever l|ev l|al p|erced l|r. Ard a|| l|e lr|oes ol l|e earl| W||| rourr oecause ol l|r¨.
'....'l pul vou urder oal| ov l|e ||v|rd 0od: Te|| us |l vou are l|e C|r|sl, l|e 3or ol 0odl' Jesus sa|d lo ||r, 'll |s as vou sa|d. Neverl|e|ess, l sav
lo vou, |erealler vou W||| see l|e 3or ol Var s|ll|rd al l|e r|d|l |ard ol l|e PoWer, ard cor|rd or l|e c|ouds ol |eaver.¨ Vall|eW. 2ê:ê3o-ê1.
'Ard l W||| pour or l|e |ouse ol 0av|d ard or l|e |r|ao|larls ol Jerusa|er l|e 3p|r|l ol drace ard supp||cal|or, l|er l|ev W||| |oo| or Ve W|or
l|ev p|erced. Yes, l|ev W||| rourr lor l|r as ore rourrs lor ||s or|v sor, ard dr|eve lor l|r as ore dr|eves lor a l|rsloorr.¨ 'Ard ore W||| sav lo
||r, 'w|al are l|ese Wourds oelWeer vour arrs?' T|er |e W||| arsWer, 'T|ose W|l| W||c| l Was Wourded |r l|e |ouse ol rv lr|erds.'¨
Zec|ar|a| 12:10, 13:ê
w||| a|| l|e JeWs core a||ve lo see l|e secord cor|rd? 8ecause ol l||s slalererl sore |rlerprelers oe||eve l|al l|e ear|v c|urc| oe||eved l|al
Jesus Wou|d core oac| W|l||r l|e|r ||le. 0l|erW|se |oW W||| l||s oe lu|l|||ed ||lera||v? ls |l or|v a l|dural|ve Wav ol sav|rd - ever l|e JeWs W|||
ec|o Zec|ar|a|?
'lrred|ale|v aller l|e lr|ou|al|or ol l|ose davs l|e sur W||| oe dar|ered, ard l|e roor W||| rol d|ve |ls ||d|l, l|e slars W||| la|| lror |eaver, ard
l|e poWers ol l|e |eavers W||| oe s|a|er. T|er l|e s|dr ol l|e 3or ol Var W||| appear |r |eaver, ard l|er a|| l|e lr|oes ol l|e earl| W||| rourr,
ard l|ev W||| see l|e 3or ol Var cor|rd or l|e c|ouds ol |eaver W|l| poWer ard dreal d|orv.¨
3ecord Cor|rd Wou|d la|e p|ace 'aller l|e lr|ou|al|or ol l|ose davs¨. we reed lo luc| l|al |rporlarl dela|| aWav |r our rerorv oar|s.
"The c|ouds of heaven".
'l Was Walc||rd |r l|e r|d|l v|s|ors, Ard oe|o|d, 0re |||e l|e 3or ol Var, cor|rd W|l| l|e c|ouds ol |eaverl le care lo l|e Arc|erl ol 0avs,
Ard l|ev oroud|l l|r rear oelore l|r. 0ar|e| Z:13-11
'T|er We W|o are a||ve ard rera|r s|a|| oe caud|l up lodel|er W|l| l|er |r l|e c|ouds lo reel l|e Lord |r l|e a|r.¨ F|rsl T|essa|or|ars. 1:1Za
w|al are l|ese 'c|ouds¨?
3|e||ra| 0|orv
T|e c|oud |s l|e oe||evers. leo 12:1 T|erelore, s|rce We are surrourded ov suc| a dreal c|oud ol W|lresses,
"| am A|pha and the 0mega".
Rev 1:9-11 'l, Jo|r, vour orol|er ard corpar|or |r l|e lr|ou|al|or ard ||rddor ard pal|erce ol Jesus C|r|sl, Was or l|e |s|ard l|al |s ca||ed
Palros lor l|e Word ol 0od ard lor l|e lesl|rorv ol Jesus C|r|sl. l Was |r l|e 3p|r|l or l|e Lord's 0av, ard l |eard oe||rd re a |oud vo|ce, as ol
a lrurpel, sav|rd, 'w|al vou see, Wr|le |r a ooo| ard serd |l lo l|e sever c|urc|es lo Ep|esus, lo 3rvrra, lo Perdaros, lo T|val|ra, lo 3ard|s,
lo P|||ade|p||a, ard lo Laod|cea.'¨

Palros |0er|ved lror |uxur|arl pa|r droves - Pa|rosa - 0ree| lrars|al|or ol Kera|a) ol lodav coro|res louc||rd re||d|ous alrosp|ere W|l|
v|dorous cosropo||lar ||le. ll |s dor|raled ov l|e roraslerv - a radr|l|cerl Ved|eva| Forlress- |r W||c| sacred re||es, a L|orarv ard sore rea||v
ur|cue raruscr|pls car oe lourd. we car a|so l|rd l|ere l|e cave |r W||c| 3a|rl Jo|r l|e Aposl|e Wrole l|e Apoca|vpse.


' Al l|e l|re W|er Jo|r Wrole Reve|al|or |e Was |r ex||e or l|e roc|v |s|ard ol Palros |r l|e Aedear 3ea oll l|e coasl ol Tur|ev. le |ad oeer
l|e paslor ol l|e c|urc| al Ep|esus jusl across l|e Waler ard |r|ard a Wavs lror ||s |s|ard pr|sor. Jo|r savs l|al |e Was oul l|ere lor l|e 'Word
ol 0od¨.
, 'lor l|e lesl|rorv ol Jesus C|r|sl¨. lr ol|er Words oecause ol ||s spea||rd ard preac||rd aooul C|r|sl.
l Was |r l|e sp|r|l or l|e Lord's dav¨. , '|r l|e sp|r|l¨, lo sav l|al Was |oW |e Was caud|l up |rlo |eaver. T|e Aposl|e Pau| recourled a s|r||ar
exper|erce W|er |e loo Was la|er up lo |eaver |2 Cor|rl||ars12: 2). T|ere, |e savs l|al |e cou|dr'l le|| |l |e Was |r ||s oodv or oul ol |l.
'T|e Lord's dav¨ |s a lerr co|red ov l|e l|rsl cerlurv c|urc| lo des|drale 3urdav, l|e|r dav ol Wors||p. ll le|| or l|e l|rsl dav ol l|e Wee|. T|e
C|urc| adopled l|al dav lor l|e|r Wors||p oecause |l Was l|e dav l|al Jesus arose lror l|e dead. T|ev ce|eoraled |l |r oppos|l|or lo l|e JeW|s|
3aooal| W||c| Was or 3alurdav.
"what you see, wr|te |n a book and send |t to the seven churches".
3ever c|urc|es÷As l|ere Were rarv ol|er c|urc|es |r Procorsu|ar As|a |lor exarp|e, V||elus, Vadres|a, Tra||es), oes|des l|e sever
spec|l|ed, douol|ess l|e ruroer sever |s l|xed upor oecause ol |ls rvsl|ca| s|dr|l|cal|or, express|rd lola||lv ard ur|versa||lv. T|e Words, 'W||c|
are |r As|a¨ are rejecled ov l|e o|desl raruscr|pls, A, 8, C, CYPRlAN, \u|dale, ard 3vr|ac, Copl|c a|ore supporls l|er ol o|d aul|or|l|es. T|ese
sever are represerlal|ve c|urc|es, ard, as a corp|ex W|o|e, |dea||v corp|ele, eroodv l|e c||el sp|r|lua| c|aracler|sl|cs ol l|e C|urc|, W|el|er
as la|l|lu| or urla|l|lu|, |r a|| ades. T|e c|urc|es se|ecled are rol la|er al rardor, oul |ave a rarv-s|ded corp|eleress.
Rev 1:12-1ê¨T|er l lurred lo see l|e vo|ce l|al spo|e W|l| re. Ard |av|rd lurred l saW sever do|der |arpslards, ard |r l|e r|dsl ol l|e sever
|arpslards 0re |||e l|e 3or ol Var, c|ol|ed W|l| a darrerl doWr lo l|e leel ard d|rded aooul l|e c|esl W|l| a do|der oard. l|s |ead ard |a|r
Were W||le |||e Woo|, as W||le as sroW, ard l|s eves |||e a l|are ol l|re, l|s leel Were |||e l|re orass, as |l rel|red |r a lurrace, ard l|s vo|ce as
l|e sourd ol rarv Walers, le |ad |r l|s r|d|l |ard sever slars, oul ol l|s roul| Werl a s|arp lWo-edded sWord, ard l|s courlerarce Was |||e
l|e sur s||r|rd |r |ls slrerdl|.¨
w||r||rd aooul lo see W|o |ad spo|er W|l| suc| rajeslv ard aul|or|lv, Jo|r lourd ||rse|l |oo||rd upor a scere ard persorade exlraord|ra|rel
Lel's exar|re |l.
F|rsl, |e lourd ||rse|l daz|rd upor 'sever do|der |arpslards¨. T|e 0ree| Word |ere lor |arpslards |s |uxr|as.
"0ne ||ke the 8on of Han".
Cerla|r|v W|o Jo|r saW Was |urar oul rol jusl arv |urar lor l||s Was l|e 'Var¨ lror 0ar|e|'s v|s|or |r 0ar|e| Z, W|ose exacl l|l|e Jo|r
uses.
¨l Was Walc||rd |r l|e r|d|l v|s|ors, Ard oe|o|d, 0re |||e l|e 3or ol Var, cor|rd W|l| l|e c|ouds ol |eaverl le care lo l|e Arc|erl ol 0avs,
ard l|ev oroud|l l|r rear oelore l|r.¨ 0ar|e| Z:13
T||s l|l|e |s a We||-recodr|zed rare lor Vess|a| ard erp|as|zes C|r|sl's |urar|lv. w|er l|e '3or ol Var¨ care ard ||ved arord us |e loo|
upor ||rse|l l|es|. le lru|v oecare ore ol us. As vou |ave |l |r leoreWs 2:11, 1ê-1Z... 'lrasruc| l|er as l|e c|||drer |ave parla|er ol l|es|
ard o|ood, le l|rse|l |||eW|se s|ared |r l|e sare, l|al l|roud| deal| le r|d|l deslrov ||r W|o |ad l|e poWer ol deal|, l|al |s, l|e dev||,¨ 'For
|rdeed le does rol d|ve a|d lo arde|s, oul le does d|ve a|d lo l|e seed ol Aora|ar. T|erelore, |r a|| l||rds le |ad lo oe rade |||e l|s
orel|rer, l|al le r|d|l oe a rerc|lu| ard la|l|lu| l|d| Pr|esl |r l||rds perla|r|rd lo 0od, lo ra|e prop|l|al|or lor l|e s|rs ol l|e peop|e.¨
Lu|e |s l|e dospe| l|al erp|as|zes C|r|sl's |urar|lv. T|ere, Jesus repealed|v relers lo ||rse|l as l|e '3or ol Var¨....
¨lor l|e 3or ol Var |as core lo see| ard lo save l|al W||c| Was |osl.¨ Lu|e 19:10
l saW sever do|der card|esl|c|s. T|e l|rsl l||rds seer W|er |e lurred lo see W|erce l|e vo|ce care Were l|e sever do|der card|esl|c|s, W||c|
svroo||zed l|e c|urc|es |Rev_1:20).
Ard |r l|e r|dsl. ll |s a oeaul|lu| l|oud|l l|al |e W|o sa|d 'l W||| oe W|l| vou a|Wavs¨ |s represerled as rov|rd |r l|e r|dsl ol l|e c|urc|.
L||e urlo l|e 3or ol rar. A lerr used |r 0ar_Z:13 ard app||ed ov l|e 3av|or lo l|rse|l, oul rever app||ed lo ||r ov l|e NeW Teslarerl Wr|lers
excepl |ere, Rev_11:11 ard Acl_Z:5ê.
A darrerl doWr lo l|e lool. T|e |ord rooe ol a ||d| pr|esl d|rl aooul W|l| l|e do|der d|rd|e ol a ||rd. leoreWs 5:ê ... 'You are a pr|esl lorever
accord|rd lo l|e order ol Ve|c||zede|.¨
¨d|rded aooul l|e c|esl W|l| a do|der oard - K|rd ol l|e JeWs. 'K|rd ol ||rds¨ l|al 0ar|e| saW |r 0ar|e| Z:11 ... 'T|er lo l|r Was d|ver
dor|r|or ard d|orv ard a ||rddor, l|al a|| peop|es, ral|ors, ard |arduades s|ou|d serve l|r. l|s dor|r|or |s ar ever|asl|rd dor|r|or, W||c|
s|a|| rol pass aWav, ard l|s ||rddor l|e ore W||c| s|a|| rol oe deslroved.¨
l|s |ead ard ||s |a|r Were W||le. w||le |s l|e co|or ol pur|lv ard ol lr|urp|. T|e |dea |ere |s rol ade oul |eaver|v d|orv. T|e Arc|erl ol 0avs.
l|s eves Were as a l|are ol l|re. 8r|d|l, p|erc|rd, a|| see|rd, l|as||rd ||d|l, ard a|so a corsur|rd l|re ol l|e W|c|ed. 'Car arvore ||de ||rse|l |r
secrel p|aces, so l s|a|| rol see ||r?¨ savs l|e L0R0, 'do l rol l||| |eaver ard earl|?¨ savs l|e L0R0.¨ Jerer|a| 23:21
A leoreWs 1:13...¨Ard l|ere |s ro crealure ||dder lror l|s s|d|l, oul a|| l||rds are ra|ed ard oper lo l|e eves ol l|r lo W|or We rusl d|ve
accourl.¨
Feel |||e urlo l|re orass. 3|edd|rd lorl| sp|erdor |||e ourr|s|ed orass |ealed |r a lurrace. T|ese leel spea| ol juddrerl. 'For l|e Fal|er
juddes ro ore, oul |as corr|lled a|| juddrerl lo l|e 3or, l|al a|| s|ou|d |oror l|e 3or jusl as l|ev |oror l|e Fal|er. le W|o does rol |oror
l|e 3or does rol |oror l|e Fal|er W|o serl l|r.¨ Jo|r 5:22-23
l|s vo|ce. l|s vo|ce Was r|d|lv |||e l|e sourd ol surd|rd Walers. walers represerls peop|e ard ral|ors. T|e vo|ce l|al |s l|e vo|ce ol a||
rar||rd. 'T|e vo|ce ol l|e L0R0 |s over l|e Walers, l|e 0od ol d|orv l|urders, l|e L0R0 |s over rarv Walers. l|e vo|ce ol l|e L0R0 |s
poWerlu|, l|e vo|ce ol l|e L0R0 |s lu|| ol rajeslv. walers s|dr|lv ral|ors. waler ol lo|v 3p|r|l ard word
lr ||s r|d|l |ard sever slars. 'T|e sever slars are l|e arde|s ol l|e sever c|urc|es¨ |Rev_1:20).
Ard oul ol ||s roul| Werl a s|arp lWo-edded sWord. T||s lWo-edded sWord |s a svroo| ol l|e Word ov W||c| C|r|sl's corcuesls are Wor. 3ee
Ep|_ê:1Z, leo_1:12, ard corpare Rev_19:15. leoreWs 1:12, 'For l|e Word ol 0od |s ||v|rd ard poWerlu|, ard s|arper l|ar arv ll lWo-edded
sWord, p|erc|rd ever lo l|e d|v|s|or ol sou| ard sp|r|l, ard ol jo|rls ard rarroW, ard |s a d|scerrer ol l|e l|oud|ls ard |rlerls ol l|e |earl.¨
Ep|es|ars ê: 1Z...¨Ard la|e l|e |e|rel ol sa|val|or, ard l|e sWord ol l|e 3p|r|l, W||c| |s l|e Word ol 0od,¨
l|s courlerarce. T|e d|orv ol ||s courlerarce |s l|e sare l|al Was rar|lesled al l|e Trarsl|dural|or. |Vall|eW1Z ard Var| 9),
F|rsl T|rol|v ê:15 -1ê, savs...¨... le W||| rar|lesl |r l|s oWr l|re, le W|o |s l|e o|essed ard or|v Polerlale, l|e K|rd ol ||rds ard Lord ol |ords,
W|o a|ore |as |rrorla||lv, dWe|||rd |r urapproac|ao|e ||d|l, W|or ro rar |as seer or car see, lo W|or oe |oror ard ever|asl|rd poWer.
Arer.¨
Rev 1:1Z-20 'Ard W|er l saW l|r, l le|| al l|s leel as dead. 8ul le |a|d l|s r|d|l |ard or re, sav|rd lo re, '0o rol oe alra|d, l ar l|e F|rsl
ard l|e Lasl.' l ar le W|o ||ves, ard Was dead, ard oe|o|d, l ar a||ve loreverrore. Arer. Ard l |ave l|e |evs ol lades ard ol 0eal|. wr|le
l|e l||rds W||c| vou |ave seer, ard l|e l||rds W||c| are, ard l|e l||rds W||c| W||| la|e p|ace aller l||s. T|e rvslerv ol l|e sever slars W||c|
vou saW |r Vv r|d|l |ard, ard l|e sever do|der |arpslards: T|e sever slars are l|e arde|s ol l|e sever c|urc|es, ard l|e sever
|arpslards are l|e sever c|urc|es.¨
Jo|r Was Jesus' cous|r ard ||s oe|oved d|sc|p|e. le |ad a|| l|e lreedor dur|rd l|e per|od ol r|r|slrv ever lo |ear ada|rsl Jesus ard as| ||r a
persora| cuesl|or dur|rd l|e Lasl 3upper. Jo|r |ad rever seer Jesus |r l||s rarrer |excepl prooao|v al l|e lrarsl|dural|or) l|s reacl|or Was lo
la|| doWr ard Wors||p.

Jesus roW arrources ||s lrue d|v|re |derl|lv.
lsa|a| 11:ê ... 'T|us savs l|e L0R0, l|e K|rd ol lsrae|, ard ||s Redeerer, l|e L0R0 ol |osls: 'l ar l|e F|rsl ard l ar l|e Lasl, oes|des re
l|ere |s ro 0od.¨
'l ard rv Fal|er are ore.¨
Jesus roW exp|a|rs l|e purpose ol ||s |rcarral|or ard l|e resu|l l|ereol: 'l ar le W|o ||ves, ard Was dead, ard oe|o|d, l ar a||ve loreverrore.
Arer. Ard l |ave l|e |evs ol lades ard ol 0eal|¨. Jesus |as corcuered deal| so l|al |e car redeer rar||rd ard redeer l|e W|o|e
creal|or |r l|al process.
'wr|le l|e l||rds W||c| vou see, ard l|e l||rds W||c| are, ard l|e l||rds W||c| W||| la|e p|ace aller l||s¨. You r|d|l sav l||s |s C|r|sl's oul||re ol
l|e ooo|. ll |s as lo||oWs:
"... the th|ngs wh|ch you see
• '... l|e l||rds W||c| are¨ .... C|aplers 2-3 Preserl c|urc| ade.. l|e sever c|urc|es
• '... l|e l||rds W||c| W||| la|e p|ace aller l||s¨ .... C|aplers 1 - 22 lulure
lrlerprelal|or ol l|e 3ever Larpslard
'l|e sever slars are l|e arde|s ol l|e sever c|urc|es. Ard l|e sever |arpslards W||c| vou saW are l|e sever c|urc|es¨. Lel's cors|der eac|
ol l|ese svroo|s ard our Lord's exp|aral|or separale|v.
T|e Word 'arde|s¨ |r l|e 0ree| |s arde|o|.
Eac| ol l|e |ellers lo l|e c|urc|es |r c|aplers 2 ard 3, oed|r W|l| l|e Words 'urlo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| al |suc| ard suc|) Wr|le¨.
'arde|¨ s|rp|v rears 'resserder¨ ll Wou|d s|rp|v rear 'To l|e resserder ol l|e c|urc| al ....... Wr|le¨, elc. lr l||s corlexl |l Wou|d reler lo l|e
paslor-leac|er - e|der ol l|ese c|urc|es
Ep|es|ars 1:11 ... 'Ard le l|rse|l dave sore lo oe aposl|es, sore prop|els, sore evarde||sls, ard sore paslors ard leac|ers,¨
T|e '|arpslards¨ represerl l|e sever c|urc|es l|erse|ves.
P||||pp|ars 2:15-1êa, savs ... 'l|al vou rav oecore o|are|ess ard |arr|ess, c|||drer ol 0od W|l|oul lau|l |r l|e r|dsl ol a croo|ed ard
perverse dereral|or, arord W|or vou s||re as ||d|ls |r l|e Wor|d, |o|d|rd lasl l|e Word ol ||le, ...¨




















Chapter Three
EPHESUS
Rev. 2:1-7

Rev 2:1 To l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r Ep|esus Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| |e l|al |o|del| l|e sever slars |r ||s r|d|l |ard, |e l|al Wa||el| |r l|e
r|dsl ol l|e sever do|der card|esl|c|s:
Rev 2:2 l |roW l|v Wor|s, ard l|v lo|| ard pal|erce, ard l|al l|ou carsl rol oear ev|| rer, ard d|dsl lrv l|er l|al ca|| l|erse|ves aposl|es, ard
l|ev are rol, ard d|dsl l|rd l|er la|se,
Rev 2:3 ard l|ou |asl pal|erce ard d|dsl oear lor rv rare's sa|e, ard |asl rol droWr Wearv.
Rev 2:1 8ul l |ave rn|s ada|rsl l|ee, l|al l|ou d|dsl |eave l|v l|rsl |ove.
Rev 2:5 Rereroer l|erelore W|erce l|ou arl la||er, ard reperl ard do l|e l|rsl Wor|s, or e|se l core lo l|ee, ard W||| rove l|v card|esl|c| oul
ol |ls p|ace, excepl l|ou reperl.
Rev 2:ê 8ul l||s l|ou |asl, l|al l|ou |alesl l|e Wor|s ol l|e N|co|a|lars, W||c| l a|so |ale.
Rev 2:Z le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es. To ||r l|al overcorel|, lo ||r W||| l d|ve lo eal ol l|e lree ol ||le,
W||c| |s |r l|e Parad|se ol 0od.


T|e rare Ep|esus rears ¨des|rao|e, lu|| purposed or l|e c|lv ol l|e roor¨.
ll |s s|lualed or l|e sea coasl ard Was l|e cerler ol a l|our|s||rd sea lrade acl|rd as l|e cerler ol l|e lrall|c oelWeer Easl ard wesl. ll Was a o|d
c|lv doverred ov |lse|l. ll Was a|so a re||d|ous cerler |av|rd l|e larous lerp|e ol Arler|s W||c| Was ore ol l|e sever Worders ol l|e arc|erl
Wor|d. 0ol|s deslroved |l |r A0 2ê2 a|ord W|l| l|e erl|re c|lv. Arler|s |s l|e 0ree| rare lor l|e roor doddess 0|ara ol Rore. 3orel|res s|e
|s represerled as oe|rd covered W|l| oreasls, a svroo| ol lerl|||lv, |asc|v|ousress ard sexua||lv. As a pror|rerl Rorar c|lv |l Was a|so l|e cerler
ol redu|ar padearlrv ard |e|d s|oWs ard arera coroals ard l|d|ls. T|e lerp|e ol Arler|s Was ar |rpos|rd slruclure over a |arde area ol
severa| acres ol |ard |ous|rd evervl||rd lror a rar|el p|ace lo sex lrade. ll Was ar asv|ur lor cr|r|ra|s. ll Was a rar|el p|ace exce|||rd arv
superrar|els, W|ere ore car l|rd arvl||rd. lerac||lus, l|e dreal p|||osop|er W|o ||ved |r l|al c|lv ca||s |l ¨As|a's lorerosl c|lv¨ ard dec|ared l|al
¨ore carrol ||ve |r l||s c|lv W|l|oul corl|rua||v Weep|rd over |ls |rrora||lv¨. lr l|e r|dsl ol l||s Was a c|urc|.
Pau|, Appo|os, Pr|sc|||a Acu|||a ard Jo|r Were l|e ear|v ou||ders ol l||s c|urc| |r Ep|esus. A revea||rd descr|pl|or ol l|e c|lv ard |ls oac|drourd
car oe lourd |r Acls 19 W|ere Pau| |s seer preac||rd. T||s Was Jo|r's |ore loWr lo ||s erd W|ere |e relurred lror Palros ard d|ed a ralura|
deal|..
Jesus |rlroduces ||rse|l as:
Rev 2:1 "To the ange| of the church |n Ephesus wr|te: These are the words of h|m who ho|ds the seven stars |n h|s r|ght hand and
wa|ks among the seven go|den |ampstands:
T|e sever slars are l|e lulure ol l|e c|urc|. Jesus |o|ds l|e sever slars |r ||s |ards. le |s l|e duard|ar ol a|| l|ese c|urc|es. le |s l|e Lord ol
l|ese c|urc|es.
Rev 2:2 | know your deeds, your hard work and your perseverance. | know that you cannot to|erate w|cked men, that you have tested
those who c|a|m to be apost|es but are not, and have found them fa|se.
Rev 2:3 You have persevered and have endured hardsh|ps for my name, and have not grown weary.
Rev 2:4 Yet | ho|d th|s aga|nst you: You have forsaken your f|rst |ove.
le correrds l|er lor l|e|r acl|ve orl|odoxv, l|e|r lo||, pal|erce ard |rlo|erarce ol ev|| ard oppos|l|or lo la|se doclr|res. lr l|e process ol
ou||d|rd up a c|urc| l|ev |osl l|e|r l|rsl |ove - l|e depl| ard des|re Was |osl. lr l|e process ol ou||d|rd ar |rsl|lul|ora| c|urc| capao|e ol
W|l|slard|rd l|e ordo|rd ev|| l|ev |osl l|e|r pr|or|l|es - Jesus Was rol d|ver l|e pror|rerce. T|e superslruclure Was ou||l up. we car see l||s
ever lodav |r l|e droWl| ol arv c|urc|. w|er l|e c|urc| oed|rs l|e peop|e are so erl|us|asl|c ard l|||ed W|l| |ove lor eac| ol|er ard l|e ||le ol
l|e c|urc| |s cerlered or Jesus. As l|re Werl or |eda||sr ard superslruclures oecare recessarv ard everlua||v l|ev r|ssed l|e cerlra||lv ol
Jesus ard rera|red as ar ed|l|ce ol slruclure al l|e ou||d|rd |eve| ard l|e soc|a| |eve|.
Rev 2:5 Remember the he|ght from wh|ch you have fa||en! Repent and do the th|ngs you d|d at f|rst.
T|e re|rslalererl cors|sls ol l|ree parls:
Rereroer Reperl 0o
A|| corvers|ors |ave l|ese l|ree parls.
Rereroer vour pasl. Reperl ol vour r|sla|es. Turr arourd ard acl|ve|v pracl|ce.
lr l|e corvers|or ol a s|rrer lo sa|rl l|ese l|ree sleps are recessarv.
KroW vou are a s|rrer. Reperl ol vour s|r.
Accepl Jesus as sav|or ard acl|ve|v corless ||r W|l| vour ||ps.
T|e re|rslalererl ol oro|er lar||v re|al|or |s |||eW|se cores |r l|ree sleps.
Rereroer vour |orevroor per|od Reperl or des|re lo del oac|
C|arde vour Wavs.
T||s |s l|e prescr|pl|or ol Jesus lor lodav's oro|er re|al|ors||ps rol or|v W|l| ||r oul a|so W|l||r l|e lar||v ard l|e corrur|lv as a W|o|e.
Rev 2:ô ßut you have th|s |n your favor: You hate the pract|ces of the N|co|a|tans, wh|ch | a|so hate.
N|co|a|lar |eresv |s ar exlrere lorr ol 0rosl|c|sr W||c| Was rarparl dur|rd l|e Aposlo||c Ade. T|ev laud|l l|al, s|rce l|e|r ood|es Were
p|vs|ca|, |l d|d rol raller W|al l|e oodv d|d. 3o l|ev resorled lo |rd|scr|r|rale sexua| re|al|ors ard d|d W|alever l|ev |||ed W|l| l|e|r ood|es.
lrareas reporls l|al l|e secl Was so ca||ed oecause l|e|r |eader Was N|co|aos. 3ex |s ever lodav a polerl|a| darder ol c|ose |ov|rd C|r|sl|ar
corrur|l|es. we car loresee l|e droWl| ol cu|ls |||e l|e C|||drer ol 0od ard ol|ers |r l|e N|co|a|lar leac||rds.
T||s rare |as arol|er rear|rd. N|co rears ru|er. 3o N|co|a|lar Wou|d rear ru|er ol l|e |a|lv. lerce l||s rav |rd|cale l|e droWl| ol c|erdv |r
l|e c|urc|. T|e r|se ol l|e Pr|esl|ood |r C|r|sl|ar|lv |s a copv ol l|e Pr|esl|ood |r l|e Rorar padar re||d|or. T|ese cu|lura| lrad|l|ors Were
r|xed W|l| Aaror|c Pr|esl|ood ard Was readopled |rlo l|e |rsl|lul|ora| c|urc|es. T|ere |s rol||rd Wrord |r l|e adopl|or ol cu|lura| selup |rlo
C|r|sl|ar lrsl|lul|ora||zal|or as |ord as |l does rol produce a oas|c corlrad|cl|or |r l|e l|eo|od|ca| oas|s ol C|r|sl|ar la|l|. lr l||s case as l|re
Werl or c|erdv s|oW|v oecare l|e ru|ers ard loo| over sp|r|lua| aul|or|lv |r corlrasl lo l|e rova| pr|esl|ood ol a|| oe||evers. T||s esserl|a||v |s l|e
d|llererce ol op|r|or ol evarde||ca|s W|l| l|e orl|odox ard Rorar Cal|o||c|sr.
1 Pel 2:9 8ul vou are a c|oser peop|e, a rova| pr|esl|ood, a |o|v ral|or, a peop|e oe|ord|rd lo 0od, l|al vou rav dec|are l|e pra|ses ol ||r
W|o ca||ed vou oul ol dar|ress |rlo ||s Worderlu| ||d|l.
Jesus rer|rds l|er ol l|e|r |orev roor per|od, W|er a|| Was surs||re ard jov ard exc|l|rd. Relurr ard do l|e l|rsl Wor|s Was ||s adv|se.
Rev 2:7 he who has an ear, |et h|m hear what the 8p|r|t says to the churches. To h|m who overcomes, | w||| g|ve the r|ght to eat from
the tree of ||fe, wh|ch |s |n the parad|se of Cod.
T||s |s lrue ol l|e |ove ol |usoard ard W|le a|so. w|l| |ove, rarr|ade oecores a |eaver. ll |s ver||v a lree ol ||le ard a parad|se. ll l||s |s lrue ol
earl||v rarr|ade |oW ruc| rore |s |l lrue ol sp|r|lua| |ove. ll |s l||s rarr|ade oelWeer l|e c|urc| ard Jesus l|al |s do|rd lo or|rd lorl| l|e lree ol
||le ard parad|se. lr lacl parad|se |s W|ere |ove |s. le|| |s W|ere |ale |s, W|ere se|l|s|ress |s. T|e |e|| ard |eaver are dec|ded or l|e oas|s ol
re|al|ors||ps ard rol or l|e oas|s ol a p|ace soreW|ere or raler|a| possess|ors. 3alre |as v|v|d|v descr|oed |eaver ard |e|| as |derl|ca|
oarcuel |a||s. 8arcuel |s spread over l|e lao|e ard peop|e s|l arourd |l. 8ul l|ev a|| |ave |ord spoors ard lor|s l|ed lo l|e|r arrs. lr l|e |e||
l|ev lourd |l |rposs|o|e lo leed l|erse|ves ard l|ev a|| slarved. T|ev cursed ard screared ard Were lar|s|ed. lr l|e |eaver l|e s|lual|or |s
l|e sare. 8ul l|ev Were We|| led ard rour|s|ed oecause |r l|e|r |ove l|ev led eac| ol|er. Love |s l|e |ev lo |eaver. Varr|ade |r |urar soc|elv
|s l|e lorelasle ol l|e dreal rarr|ade ol C|urc| W|l| Jesus.
l|slorv le||s us l|al Ep|esus d|d del oac| lor a W|||e ard Was correrded lor l|e|r orol|er|v |ove ov ldral|us |r l|e secord cerlurv. 8ul l|ev d|d
rol slav l|ere. lr A0 2ê2 0ol|s deslroved l|e c|lv. A courc|| ol 8|s|ops Were |e|d |r Ep|esus |r A0 131 W||c| ral|l|ed l|e courc|| ol N|cea. 8ul
C|r|sl|ar|lv le|| al l|e ors|aud|l ol ls|ar|c |rvas|or. Tur|s lo||oWed Araos ard l|ra||v care l|e Vordo|s |r 1103. Todav l|e c|lv's orce larous
sea porl |s or|v a rars|, covered W|l| reeds. T|e v|||ade |as a leW C|r|sl|ars W|o do rol |roW Pau|, Peler or Jo|r. T|e card|esl|c| Was
reroved.
Rev 2:5 Rereroer l|e |e|d|l lror W||c| vou |ave la||erl Reperl ard do l|e l||rds vou d|d al l|rsl. ll vou do rol reperl, l W||| core lo vou ard
rerove vour |arpslard lror |ls p|ace.
T||s c|urc| descr|oes l|e slale ol alla|rs ol l|e Aposlo||c era lror A0 30 lo A0 100. Jo|r d|ed |r A0 100. T||s |s l|e per|od a|so descr|oed |r l|e
parao|e ol l|e 3oWer. T|e Word Was soWr ard |l ercourlered rea| p|vs|ca| s|lual|ors. 3ore v|e|ded 100, sore ê0 ard sore 30 lo|d.

The Tree of L|fe what |s the Tree of L|fe?

T|e p|rase occurs or|v 11 l|res |r l|e 8|o|e oul ol W||c| 1 are lror Proveros. Ard 3 lror 0eres|s ard 1 lror Reve|al|ors.
|0er 2:9 Nl\) Ard l|e L0R0 0od rade a|| ||rds ol lrees droW oul ol l|e drourd--lrees l|al Were p|eas|rd lo l|e eve ard dood lor lood. lr l|e
r|dd|e ol l|e darder Were l|e lree ol ||le ard l|e lree ol l|e |roW|edde ol dood ard ev||.
|0er 3:22 Nl\) Ard l|e L0R0 0od sa|d, ¨T|e rar |as roW oecore |||e ore ol us, |roW|rd dood ard ev||. le rusl rol oe a||oWed lo reac| oul
||s |ard ard la|e a|so lror l|e lree ol ||le ard eal, ard ||ve lorever.¨
|0er 3:21 Nl\) Aller |e drove l|e rar oul, |e p|aced or l|e easl s|de ol l|e 0arder ol Eder c|eruo|r ard a l|ar|rd sWord l|as||rd oac| ard
lorl| lo duard l|e Wav lo l|e lree ol ||le.
|Prov 3:18 Nl\) 3|e |w|sdor) |s a lree ol ||le lo l|ose W|o erorace |er, l|ose W|o |av |o|d ol |er W||| oe o|essed.
|Prov 11:30 Nl\) T|e lru|l ol l|e r|d|leous |s a lree ol ||le, ard |e W|o W|rs sou|s |s W|se.
|Prov 13:12 Nl\) lope delerred ra|es l|e |earl s|c|, oul a |ord|rd lu|l|||ed |s a lree ol ||le.
|Prov 15:1 Nl\) T|e lordue l|al or|rds |ea||rd |s a lree ol ||le, oul a dece|llu| lordue crus|es l|e sp|r|l.|Rev 2:Z Nl\) le W|o |as ar ear, |el
||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l savs lo l|e c|urc|es. To ||r W|o overcores, l W||| d|ve l|e r|d|l lo eal lror l|e lree ol ||le, W||c| |s |r l|e parad|se ol
0od.
|Rev 22:2 Nl\) doWr l|e r|dd|e ol l|e dreal slreel ol l|e c|lv. 0r eac| s|de ol l|e r|ver slood l|e lree ol ||le, oear|rd lWe|ve crops ol lru|l,
v|e|d|rd |ls lru|l everv rorl|. Ard l|e |eaves ol l|e lree are lor l|e |ea||rd ol l|e ral|ors.
|Rev 22:11 Nl\) ¨8|essed are l|ose W|o Was| l|e|r rooes, l|al l|ev rav |ave l|e r|d|l lo l|e lree ol ||le ard rav do l|roud| l|e dales |rlo l|e
c|lv.
|Rev 22:19 Nl\) Ard |l arvore la|es Words aWav lror l||s ooo| ol prop|ecv, 0od W||| la|e aWav lror ||r ||s s|are |r l|e lree ol ||le ard |r l|e
|o|v c|lv, W||c| are descr|oed |r l||s ooo|.
Tree ol ||le |s a slale ol ex|slerce W||c| |s l|e resu|l ol lola| |ea||rd - rederpl|or. Ard |s ar ordo|rd process ol |ea||rd. Ev|| |s sl||| poss|o|e oul
are dea|l W|l|. T|us We are |ed oac| lo l|e 0arder ol Eder. Aller |av|rd lasled l|e Tree ol l|e 0ood ard Ev|| We |ave oeer redeered oac|
|rlo l|e l|e or|d|ra| slale |r l|e preserce ol 0od as ore ol l|e Tr|r|lv -as parla|ers |r l|e d|v|re ralure.3ore ear|v lal|ers d|d l||r| l|al l|e lree
W||| ard ev|| l|al ersued Were parl ol l|e process ol ra||rd Var |||e ||s Fal|er. T|e la|| ard l|e suosecuerl slale ol ex|slerce W|l| pa|r ard
suller|rd are a parl ol l|e process l||| We alla|r l|e lu|| slalure ol Jesus.


Artem|s of Ephesus

TW|r s|sler lo Apo||o, s|e Was doddess ol c|asl|lv, v|rd|r|lv, l|e |url, l|e roor, ard l|e ralura| erv|rorrerl. 3|e Was c||el |urler lo l|e dods
ard doddess ol |url|rd ard ol W||d ar|ra|s, espec|a||v oears. 3|e |s l|e daud|ler ol Zeus ard Lelo. Ever l|oud| s|e |s a v|rd|r doddess, s|e
a|so pres|des over c|||do|rl|. 3acred lo |er are l|e |aure|, l|r lree, l|s|, slad, ooar, oear, dod, doal, oee ard ol|er ar|ra|s. A|l|oud| lrad|l|ora||v
l|e lr|erd ard proleclor ol voul|, espec|a||v vourd Worer, Arler|s preverled l|e 0ree|s lror sa|||rd lo Trov dur|rd l|e Trojar War url|| l|ev
sacr|l|ced a ra|der lo |er. Accord|rd lo sore accourls, jusl oelore l|e sacr|l|ce, s|e rescued l|e v|cl|r, lp||der|a.

Ard l|ere |s ro douol l|al l|e lerp|e Was |rdeed radr|l|cerl. ¨l |ave seer l|e Wa||s ard lard|rd 0arders ol arc|erl 8aov|or,¨ Wrole P|||or ol
8vzarl|ur, ¨l|e slalue ol 0|vrp|ar Zeus, l|e Co|ossus ol R|odes, l|e r|d|lv Wor| ol l|e ||d| Pvrar|ds ard l|e loro ol Vauso|us. 8ul W|er l
saW l|e lerp|e al Ep|esus r|s|rd lo l|e c|ouds, a|| l|ese ol|er Worders Were pul |r l|e s|ade.¨
3o W|al |appered lo l||s dreal lerp|e? Ard W|al |appered lo l|e c|lv l|al |osled |l? w|al lurred Ep|esus lror a ousv porl ol lrade lo a leW
s|ac|s |r a sWarp?
T|e l|rsl s|r|re lo l|e 0oddess Arler|s Was prooao|v ou||l arourd 800 8.C. or a rars|v slr|p rear l|e r|ver al Ep|esus.

T|e Ep|esus 0oddess Arler|s, sorel|res ca||ed 0|ara, |s rol l|e sare l|dure as l|e Arler|s Wors||ped |r 0reece.

T|e 0ree| Arler|s |s l|e doddess ol l|e |url.
T|e Ep|esus Arler|s Was a doddess ol lerl|||lv ard Was oller p|clured as draped W|l| edds, or ru|l|p|e oreasls, svroo|s ol lerl|||lv, lror |er
Wa|sl lo |er s|ou|ders.
T|al ear||esl lerp|e corla|red a sacred slore, prooao|v a releor|le, l|al |ad ¨la||er lror Jup|ler.¨ T|e s|r|re Was deslroved ard reou||l severa|
l|res over l|e rexl leW |urdred vears. 8v ê00 8.C., l|e c|lv ol Ep|esus |ad oecore a rajor porl ol lrade ard ar arc||lecl rared C|ers|p|ror
Was erdaded lo ou||d a reW |arde lerp|e. le des|dred |l W|l| ||d| slore co|urrs. Corcerred l|al carls carrv|rd l|e co|urrs r|d|l del r|red |r
l|e sWarpv drourd arourd l|e s|le, C|ers|p|ror |a|d l|e co|urrs or l|e|r s|des ard |ad l|er ro||ed lo W|ere l|ev Wou|d oe erecled.
T||s lerp|e d|dr'l |asl |ord. lr 550 8.C. K|rd Croesus ol Lvd|a corcuered Ep|esus ard l|e ol|er 0ree| c|l|es ol As|a V|ror. 0ur|rd l|e l|d|l|rd,
l|e lerp|e Was deslroved. Croesus proved ||rse|l a drac|ous W|rrer, l|oud|, ov corlr|oul|rd dererous|v lo l|e ou||d|rd ol a reW lerp|e.
T||s Was rexl lo l|e |asl ol l|e dreal lerp|es lo Arler|s |r Ep|esus ard |l dWarled l|ose l|al |ad core oelore. T|e arc||lecl |s l|oud|l lo oe a
rar rared T|eodorus. T|eodorus's lerp|e Was 300 leel |r |erdl| ard 150 leel W|de W|l| ar area lour l|res l|e s|ze ol l|e lerp|e oelore |l.
Vore l|ar ore |urdred slore co|urrs supporled a rass|ve rool.
T|e reW lerp|e Was l|e pr|de ol Ep|esus url|| 35ê 8.C. W|er a lradedv, ov rare ol leroslralus, slruc|. leroslralus Was a vourd Ep|es|ar
W|o Wou|d slop al ro cosl lo |ave ||s rare do doWr |r ||slorv. le raraded l||s ov ourr|rd l|e lerp|e lo l|e drourd. T|e c|l|zers ol Ep|esus
Were so appa||ed al l||s acl l|ev |ssued a decree l|al arvore W|o spo|e ol leroslralus Wou|d oe pul lo deal|.
3|orl|v aller l||s |orr|o|e deed, a reW lerp|e Was corr|ss|ored. T|e arc||lecl Was 3copas ol Paros, ore ol l|e rosl larous scu|plors ol ||s
dav. Ep|esus Was ore ol l|e drealesl c|l|es |r As|a V|ror al l||s po|rl ard ro experse Was spared |r l|e corslrucl|or. Accord|rd lo P||rv l|e
E|der, a Rorar ||slor|ar, l|e lerp|e Was a ¨Worderlu| rorurerl ol 0rec|ar radr|l|cerce, ard ore l|al rer|ls our deru|re adr|ral|or.¨
T|e lerp|e Was ou||l |r l|e sare rars|v p|ace as oelore. To prepare l|e drourd, P||rv recorded l|al ¨|avers ol lrodder c|arcoa| Were p|aced
oereal|, W|l| l|eeces covered W|l| Woo| upor l|e lop ol l|er.¨
T|e ou||d|rd |s l|oud|l lo oe l|e l|rsl corp|ele|v corslrucled W|l| raro|e ard ore ol |ls rusl urusua| lealures Were 3ê co|urrs W|ose |oWer
porl|ors Were carved W|l| l|dures |r ||d|-re||el (|elrI. T|e lerp|e a|so |oused rarv Wor|s ol arl |rc|ud|rd lour ororze slalues ol Arazor Worer.
P||rv recorded l|e |erdl| ol l||s reW lerp|e al 125 leel ard l|e W|dl| al 225 leel. 3ore 12Z co|urrs, ê0 leel |r |e|d|l, supporled l|e rool. lr
corpar|sor l|e Parl|eror, l|e rera|rs ol W||c| slard or l|e acropo||s |r Al|ers lodav, Was or|v 230 leel |ord, 100 leel W|de ard |ad 58
co|urrs.
Accord|rd lo P||rv, corslrucl|or loo| 120 vears, l|oud| sore experls suspecl |l rav |ave or|v la|er |a|l l|al l|re. we do |roW l|al W|er
A|exarder l|e 0real care lo Ep|esus |r 333 8.C., l|e lerp|e Was sl||| urder corslrucl|or. le ollered lo l|rarce l|e corp|el|or ol l|e lerp|e |l
l|e c|lv Wou|d cred|l ||r as l|e ou||der. T|e c|lv lal|ers d|dr'l Warl A|exarder's rare carved or l|e lerp|e, oul d|dr'l Warl lo le|| ||r l|al. T|ev
l|ra||v dave l|e lacllu| resporse: ¨ll |s rol l|ll|rd l|al ore dod s|ou|d ou||d a lerp|e lor arol|er dod¨ ard A|exarder d|dr'l press l|e raller.
P||rv reporled l|al earl|er rarps Were erp|oved lo del l|e |eavv slore oears perc|ed or lop ol l|e co|urrs. T||s rel|od seered lo Wor|
We|| url|| ore ol l|e |ardesl oears Was pul |rlo pos|l|or aoove l|e door. ll Werl doWr croo|ed|v ard l|e arc||lecl cou|d l|rd ro Wav lo del |l lo ||e
l|al. le Was oes|de ||rse|l W|l| Worrv aooul l||s url|| |e |ad a drear ore r|d|l |r W||c| l|e 0oddess |erse|l appeared lo ||r sav|rd l|al |e
s|ou|d rol oe corcerred. 3|e |erse|l |ad roved l|e slore |r l|e proper pos|l|or. T|e rexl rorr|rd l|e arc||lecl lourd l|al l|e drear Was lrue.
0ur|rd l|e r|d|l l|e oear |ad sell|ed |rlo |ls proper p|ace.
T|e c|lv corl|rued lo prosper over l|e rexl leW |urdred vears ard Was l|e desl|ral|or lor rarv p||dr|rs cor|rd lo v|eW l|e lerp|e. A souver|r
ous|ress |r r|r|alure Arler|s |do|s, per|aps s|r||ar lo a slalue ol |er |r l|e lerp|e, dreW up arourd l|e s|r|re. ll Was ore ol l|ese ous|ress
propr|elors, a rar rared 0erelr|us, l|al dave 3l. Pau| a d|ll|cu|l l|re W|er |e v|s|led l|e c|lv |r 5Z A.0.
3l. Pau| care lo l|e c|lv lo W|r corverls lo l|e l|er reW re||d|or ol C|r|sl|ar|lv. le Was so successlu| l|al 0erelr|us leared l|e peop|e Wou|d
lurr aWav lror Arler|s ard |e Wou|d |ose ||s ||ve|||ood. le ca||ed ol|ers ol ||s lrade lodel|er W|l| ||r ard dave a rous|rd speec| erd|rd W|l|
¨0real |s Arler|s ol l|e Ep|es|arsl¨ T|ev l|er se|zed lWo ol Pau|'s corpar|ors ard a rear r|ol lo||oWed. Everlua||v l|e c|lv Was cu|eled, l|e
rer re|eased, ard Pau| |ell lor Vacedor|a.
ll Was Pau|'s C|r|sl|ar|lv l|al Wor oul |r l|e erd, l|oud|. 8v l|e l|re l|e dreal Terp|e ol Arler|s Was deslroved dur|rd a ra|d ov l|e 0ol|s |r
2ê2 A.0., ool| l|e c|lv ard l|e re||d|or ol Arler|s Were |r dec||re. w|er l|e Rorar Erperor Corslarl|re reou||l ruc| ol Ep|esus a cerlurv
|aler, |e dec||red lo reslore l|e lerp|e. le |ad oecore a C|r|sl|ar ard |ad ||ll|e |rleresl |r padar lerp|es.
0esp|le Corslarl|re's ellorls, Ep|esus dec||red |r |ls |rporlarce as a crossroads ol lrade. T|e oav W|ere s||ps doc|ed d|sappeared as s||l lror
l|e r|ver l|||ed |l. lr l|e erd W|al Was |ell ol l|e c|lv Was r||es lror l|e sea, ard rarv ol l|e |r|ao|larls |ell sWarpv |oW|ard lo ||ve |r l|e
surrourd|rd ||||s. T|ose l|al rera|red used l|e ru|rs ol l|e lerp|e as a source ol ou||d|rd raler|a|s. Varv ol l|e l|re scu|plures Were pourded
|rlo poWder lo ra|e ||re lor Wa|| p|asler.
lr 18ê3 l|e 8r|l|s| Vuseur serl Jo|r Turl|e wood, ar arc||lecl, lo searc| lor l|e lerp|e. wood rel W|l| rarv ooslac|es. T|e red|or Was
|rlesled W|l| oard|ls. wor|ers Were |ard lo l|rd. l|s ouddel Was loo sra||. Per|aps l|e o|ddesl d|ll|cu|lv Was l|al |e |ad ro |dea W|ere l|e
lerp|e Was |ocaled. le searc|ed lor l|e lerp|e lor s|x vears. Eac| vear l|e 8r|l|s| Vuseur l|realered lo cul oll ||s lurd|rd ur|ess |e lourd
sorel||rd s|dr|l|carl, ard eac| vear |e corv|rced l|er lo lurd ||r lor jusl ore rore seasor.
wood |epl relurr|rd lo l|e s|le eac| vear rarv desp|le |ards||ps. 0ur|rd ||s l|rsl seasor |e Was l|roWr lror a |orse, orea||rd ||s co||ar oore.
TWo vears |aler |e Was slaooed W|l||r ar |rc| ol ||s |earl dur|rd ar assass|ral|or allerpl upor l|e 8r|l|s| Corsu| |r 3rvrra.
F|ra||v |r 18ê9, al l|e oollor ol a ruddv lWerlv-lool deep lesl p|l, ||s creW slruc| l|e oase ol l|e dreal lerp|e. wood l|er excavaled l|e W|o|e
lourdal|or rerov|rd 132,000 cuo|c vards ol l|e sWarp lo |eave a |o|e sore 300 leel W|de ard 500 leel |ord. T|e rera|rs ol sore ol l|e
scu|plured porl|ors Were lourd ard s||pped l|e lo 8r|l|s| Vuseur W|ere l|ev car oe v|eWed ever lodav.
lr 1901 arol|er 8r|l|s| Vuseur exped|l|or urder l|e |eaders||p ol 0.0. lodral| corl|rued l|e excaval|or. lodral| lourd ev|derce ol l|ve
lerp|es or l|e s|le, eac| corslrucled or lop ol l|e ol|er.
Todav l|e s|le ol l|e lerp|e |s a rars|v l|e|d. A s|rd|e co|urr |s erecl lo rer|rd v|s|lors ol a lerp|e l|al Was.


6hapter Four
8HYRNA
Rev. 2:8-11

Rev 2:8 Ard lo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r 3rvrra Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| l|e l|rsl ard l|e |asl, W|o Was dead, ard ||ved aoa|n:
Rev 2:9 l |roW l|v lr|ou|al|or, ard l|v poverlv |oul l|ou arl r|c|), ard l|e o|asp|erv ol l|er l|al sav l|ev are JeWs, ard l|ev arl rol, oul
are a svradodue ol 3alar.
Rev 2:10 Fear rol l|e l||rds W||c| l|ou arl aooul lo suller: oe|o|d, l|e dev|| |s aooul lo casl sore ol vou |rlo pr|sor, l|al ve rav oe lr|ed,
ard ve s|a|| |ave lr|ou|al|or ler davs. 8e l|ou la|l|lu| urlo deal|, ard l W||| d|ve l|ee l|e croWr ol ||le.
Rev 2:11 le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es. le l|al overcorel| s|a|| rol oe |url ol l|e secord deal|.


3rvrra, a |arde arc|erl c|lv or l|e Weslerr coasl ol As|a V|ror, al l|e |ead ol a du|l W||c| reac|es 30 r||es |r|ard, Was
or|d|ra||v peop|ed ov l|e As|al|cs |roWr as l|e Le|ades.
T|e c|lv seers lo |ave oeer la|er lror l|e Le|ades ov l|e Aeo||ar 0ree|s aooul 1100 8C, l|ere sl||| rera|r lraces ol l|e cvc|opear rasorrv ol
l|al ear|v l|re.

lr ê88 8C |l passed |rlo l|e possess|or ol l|e lor|ar 0ree|s ard Was rade ore ol l|e c|l|es ol l|e lor|ar corlederacv, oul |r ê2Z 8C |l Was
la|er ov l|e Lvd|ars.
0ur|rd l|e vears 301 lo 281 8C, Lvs|rac|us erl|re|v reou||l |l or a reW s|le ard surrourded |l ov a Wa||.

ll Was ce|eoraled lor |ls sc|oo|s ol sc|erce ard red|c|re, ard lor |ls |ardsore ou||d|rds
Arord l|er Was l|e lorer|ur, lor 3rvrra Was ore ol severa| p|aces W||c| c|a|red lo oe l|e o|rl|p|ace ol l|e poel lorer.
0r l|e s|ope ol Vl. Padus Was a l|ealer W||c| sealed 20,000 speclalors.

lr l|e 23 A0 vear a lerp|e Was ou||l |r |oror ol T|oer|us ard ||s rol|er Ju||a,
ard l|e 0o|der 3lreel, correcl|rd l|e lerp|es ol Zeus ard Cvoe|e, |s sa|d lo |ave oeer l|e oesl |r arv arc|erl c|lv.

L||e rarv ol|er c|l|es ol As|a V|ror, 3rvrra sullered lrecuerl|v, espec|a||v dur|rd l|e vears 1Z8-80 A0, lror earl|cua|es, oul |l a|Wavs
escaped erl|re deslrucl|or.
0ur|rd l|e V|dd|e Ades l|e c|lv Was l|e scere ol rarv slrudd|es, l|e rosl l|erce ol W||c| Was d|recled ov T|rur ada|rsl l|e C|r|sl|ars.
Trad|l|or re|ales l|al l|ere |e ou||l a loWer, us|rd l|e |eads ol a l|ousard capl|ves W||c| |e pul lo deal|.

3rvrra Was l|e |asl ol l|e C|r|sl|ar c|l|es lo |o|d oul ada|rsl l|e Vo|arredars.
lr 1121 |l le|| |rlo l|e |ards ol l|e Tur|s.

ll Was l|e d|scoverv ol Arer|ca ard l|e resu|l|rd d|scoverv ol a sea roule lo lrd|a W||c| ru|red l|e 3rvrra lrade.
Voderr 3rvrra |s sl||| l|e |ardesl c|lv |r As|a V|ror, W|l| a popu|al|or ol aooul 250,000, ol W|or |a|l are 0ree| ard |ess l|ar ore-lourl| are
Vo|arredars.
lls roderr rare, lsr|r, |s oul a Tur||s| corrupl|or ol l|e arc|erl rare. ll |s l|e cap|la| ol l|e A|d|r v||avel, ard l|erelore l|e |ore ol a
doverror.

3evera| ra||roads lo||oW l|e courses ol l|e arc|erl roules |rlo l|e d|slarl |rler|or. lr |ls |aroor s||ps lror a|| parls ol l|e Wor|d rav oe seer.
T|e arc|erl |aroor ol Pau|'s l|re |as oeer l|||ed |r, ard l|ere l|e roderr oazaars slard.
T|e o|d slad|ur |as oeer deslroved lo ra|e roor lor roderr ou||d|rds, ard a |arde parl ol l|e arc|erl c|lv ||es our|ed oereal| l|e roderr
|ouses ard l|e 10 roscues ol W||c| l|e c|lv ooasls.

Traces ol l|e arc|erl Wa||s are sl||| lo oe lourd. wesl ol Vl. Padus |s l|e Ep|es|ar dale,
ard l|e 8|ac|-dale, as l|e Tur|s ca|| |l, |s rear l|e ra||road slal|or.
T|e casl|e upor Vl. Padus, 1ê0 ll. aoove l|e sea, dales lror 8vzarl|re l|res.
T|e prosper|lv ol 3rvrra |s due, rol or|v lo l|e |aroor ard l|e porl ol erlrv lo l|e |rler|or, oul parl|v lo l|e perlecl c||rale ol spr|rd ard aulurr-
-l|e W|rlers are co|d ard l|e surrers are |ol, ard a|so lo l|e lerl|||lv ol l|e surrourd|rd courlrv.
F|ds, drapes, va|or|a, op|ur, spordes, collor ard ||cuor|ce rool are arord l|e c||el arl|c|es ol lrade.

Po|ycarp
Some think the present angel or pastor of this church, was Polycarp, the disciple of John. Irenaeus, who knew him, says he was
appointed bishop of Smyrna by the apostles.

Here he suffered martyrdom, and was buried: the large amphitheatre, in which he was put to death, is still to be seen, and his
sepulcher is yet preserved in this place.
Esuo|us la||s aooul ar ep|sl|e, serl ov l||s c|urc| al 3rvrra lo l|e c|urc|e al Porlus, d|v|rd ar accourl ol l|e rarlvrdor ol Po|vcarp,
Accord|rd lo l|e Aposlo||ca| Corsl|lul|ors, l|e l|rsl o|s|ops ol 3rvrra Were Ar|slo 3lralaeas ard Ar|slo l|e secord, ard Ape||es, ol W|or
rerl|or |s rade |r Ror_1ê:10, ard W|o |s rec|ored arord l|e severlv d|sc|p|es. T|er |r success|or Was Po|vcarp.

Ror 1ê:10 3a|ule
Z82
Ape||es
559
approved
1381
|r
1Z22
C|r|sl
551Z
. 3a|ule
Z82
l|er
3588
W||c| are ol
153Z
Ar|sloou|us
Z11
' nouseno|o . |ouse|o|d: or, lr|erds

T|ere Po|vcarp, l|e o|s|op ol 3rvrra, Was rarlvred, l|oud| W|l|oul l|e sarcl|or ol l|e Rorar doverrrerl. ll seers l|al l|e JeWs ol 3rvrra
Were rore arlador|sl|c l|ar Were l|e Rorars lo l|e spread ol C|r|sl|ar|lv, lor |l |s sa|d l|al ever or 3alurdav, l|e|r sacred dav, l|ev oroud|l
Wood lor l|e l|re |r W||c| Po|vcarp Was ourred. l|s drave |s sl||| s|oWr |r a cerelerv l|ere.






















P0LYCARP, rarlvred |r A.0. 1ê8, e|d|lv-s|x vears aller ||s corvers|or, Was o|s|op, ard prooao|v ¨l|e arde| ol l|e C|urc| |r 3rvrra¨ rearl
|ere. T|e a||us|ors lo persecul|ors ard la|l|lu|ress urlo deal| accord W|l| l||s v|eW.

l0NATlu3 [T|e Varlvrdor ol ldral|us 3ì, or ||s Wav lo rarlvrdor |r Rore, Wrole lo P0LYCARP, l|er |A.0. 108) o|s|op ol 3rvrra, |l ||s
o|s|opr|c correrced ler or lWe|ve vears ear||er, l|e dales W||| |arror|ze.

TERTuLLlAN [T|e Prescr|pl|or ada|rsl lerel|cs, 32ì, ard lRENÆu3, W|o |ad la||ed W|l| P0LYCARP |r voul|, le|| us P0LYCARP Was
corsecraled o|s|op ol 3rvrra ov 3l. Jo|r.
Po|vcarp, l|e vererao|e o|s|op ol 3rvrra, |ear|rd l|al persors Were see||rd lor ||r, escaped, oul Was d|scovered ov a c|||d Aller leasl|rd l|e
duards W|o appre|erded ||r, |e des|red ar |our |r praver, W||c| oe|rd a||oWed, |e praved W|l| suc| lervercv, l|al ||s duards reperled l|al
l|ev |ad oeer |rslrurerla| |r la||rd ||r. le Was, |oWever, carr|ed oelore l|e procorsu|, corderred, ard ourrl |r l|e rar|el p|ace.
T|e procorsu| l|er urded ||r, sav|rd, ¨3Wear, ard l W||| re|ease l|ee,--reproac| C|r|sl.¨
Po|vcarp arsWered, ¨E|d|lv ard s|x vears |ave l served ||r, ard |e rever orce Wrorded re, |oW l|er s|a|| l o|asp|ere rv K|rd, w|o |al|
saved re?¨ Al l|e sla|e lo W||c| |e Was or|v l|ed, oul rol ra||ed as usua|, as |e assured l|er |e s|ou|d slard |rrovao|e, l|e l|ares,
or l|e|r ||rd||rd l|e ladols, erc|rc|ed ||s oodv, |||e ar arc|, W|l|oul louc||rd ||r, ard l|e execul|orer, or see|rd l||s, Was ordered lo p|erce ||r
W|l| a sWord, W|er so dreal a cuarl|lv ol o|ood l|oWed oul as exl|rdu|s|ed l|e l|re. 8ul ||s oodv, al l|e |rsl|dal|or ol l|e erer|es ol l|e 0ospe|,
espec|a||v JeWs, Was ordered lo oe corsured |r l|e p||e, ard l|e recuesl ol ||s lr|erds, W|o W|s|ed lo d|ve |l C|r|sl|ar our|a|, rejecled. T|ev
reverl|e|ess co||ecled ||s oores ard as ruc| ol ||s rera|rs as poss|o|e, ard caused l|er lo oe decerl|v |rlerred.


ThE 6hUR6h 0F 8HYRNA ThR0UCh 6ENTUAR|E8

A o|s|op lror 3rvrra allerded l|e courc|| al N|cea.

lr l|e 5c. 8|s|op Prol|er|us, Was preserl |r l|e svrod al C|a|cedor.

8|s|op Ael|er|cus, ass|sled al l|ree svrods |r l||s cerlurv, al Corslarl|rop|e, Ep|esus, ard C|a|cedor.

lr l|e êc l|ere Was a o|s|op ol 3rvrra |r l|e l|ll| svrod |e|d al Rore ard Corslarl|rop|e: ard ever |r l|e ¨e|d|l|¨ cerlurv, ore Arlorv, a
ror|, supp||ed l|e p|ace ol l|e o|s|op ol 3rvrra |r l|e N|cere svrod.

T|e Tur|s |ave |r l||s p|ace roW l||rleer roscues, l|e JeWs lWo svradodues, ard ol l|e C|r|sl|ars l|ere are lWo
c|urc|es oe|ord|rd lo l|e 0ree|s, ard ore lo l|e Arrer|ars .



A Persecuted 6hurch

T||s c|urc|, ard |ls paslor, represerl l|e slale ol l|e c|urc| urder l|e persecul|ors ol l|e Rorar erperors.

myrrh
3rvrra s|dr|l|es ¨rvrr|¨, W||c| oe|rd o|ller ol lasle, |s express|ve ol l|e o|ller all||cl|ors, ard persecul|ors, ard deal|s, l|e peop|e ol 0od |r l||s
|rlerva| erdured,
ard vel, as rvrr| |s ol a sWeel sre||, so Were l|ose sa|rls, |r l|e|r suller|rds lor C|r|sl, exceed|rd dralelu| ard We|| p|eas|rd lo ||r.
Myrrh
Vvrr| |s a res|rous suoslarce l|al cores lror l|e oro|er orarc|es ol a |oW s|ruo-|||e lree lo oe lourd |r deserl areas |r l|e V|dd|e Easl. T|e
sap lorrs a |ard oc|er-co|ored res|r l|al Was dal|ered ard used |r a ruroer ol producls. T|e o|| used lor aro|rl|rd l|e ar| ard l|e laoerrac|e
W|er l|ev Were corsecraled |Exod. 30.23-33) corla|red rvrr|. |l Was used |r l|e pur|l|cal|or r|les lor Worer ard, oecause ol |ls lradrarl
p|eas|rd odor, as a oase |r cosrel|c o||s ard perlures. T|e rad| |rc|uded rvrr| arord l|e|r d|lls lo Jesus.
Vvrr| |as a poWerlu| rarcol|c ellecl ard Was coro|red W|l| W|re as a pa|r||||er ard sopor|l|c. Al ||s cruc|l|x|or, Jesus relused a r|xlure ol
W|re ard rvrr|. Laler |e drar| v|redar, or a lerrerled ac|d|c dr|r| corror|v used ov |aoorers ard so|d|ers lo cuerc| l|e|r l||rsl. Vvrr| Was
a|so used lo aro|rl corpses. T|e poWerlu| arora courleracled l|e slerc| ol decorpos|l|or. N|coderus ard Josep| ol Ar|ral|ea used a
|urdred pourds ol rvrr| ard a|oes W|er l|ev Wrapped l|e oodv ol Jesus |r a ||rer s|roud Jo|r 19.38-39). T|e Worer W|o Werl lo l|e loro
prooao|v |rc|uded rvrr| arord l|e sp|ces l|ev oroud|l as ar express|or ol l|e|r |ove lor Jesus.
Nol||rd |s sa|d ov Wav ol corp|a|rl lo l||s c|urc|, rol l|al s|e Was W|l|oul lau|l, oul |l Was proper lo use |er lerder|v |r |er all||cled slale.

Vvrr| Was used |r l|e eroa|r|rd ol dead ood|es, |l rav po|rl lo l|e rarv deal|s ard rarlvrdors ol l|e sa|rls |r l||s per|od, W|ereov l|e|r
rares ard reror|es are perpelualed ard elerr|zed.

These th|ngs sa|th the f|rst and the |ast, wh|ch was dead, and |s a||ve.
0l l|ese c|araclers ol C|r|sl, d|ve ercouradererl lo l|e perseculed l|e sa|rls.
T|oud| vou are ca||ed lo urderdo l|e o|lleresl deal|s lor ||s sa|e, oe ol dood c|eer, vou W||| oe ra|sed ada|r as |e Was, ard ||ve W|l| ||r lor
ever.

And | know the b|asphemy. Rev|||ng of the Jews aga|nst the Lord.

3av l|ev are JeWs. T|ose W|o sav l|al l|ev are JeWs Were ol l|e JeW|s| race, oul Were rol ol l|e lrue lsrae|. ¨le |s rol a |lrue) JeW W|o |s ore
oulWard|v,¨ elc. |Ror_2:28). Jo|r der|es l|e r|d|l ol l|ese JeW|s| opposers lo use l|e lerr ¨JeWs¨ |r l|e serse ol 0od's c|oser peop|e.
T|e|r svradodue Was l|e svradodue ol 3alar. 3uc| slrord |arduade |rp||es a corp|ele separal|or ol l|e c|urc| ard svradodue, ar everl l|al
occurred al l|e per|od ol l|e deslrucl|or ol Jerusa|er. 3ee Acl_21:20-2ê.
Fear rore, elc. T|e c|urc| s|a|| suller, oul |l reed rol lear lor l|e reasors aooul lo oe d|ver.
T|e dev|| s|a|| casl. le rav use l|e JeWs as |rslrurerls oul |e |s l|e rea| aderl.


8ha|| have tr|bu|at|on ten days.
3|orl l|re w|el|er l|e ¨ler davs¨ ol persecul|or rears a s|orl l|re, or a del|r|le per|od svroo||zed ov ¨ler davs¨ |s urcerla|r.
0av= vear
A dav |s oller a svroo| ol a vear.
Ter persecul|ors are rared ov c|urc| ||slor|ars ard lWo persecul|ors ol ler vears eac|. ll r|d|l reler lo ore ol l|e |aller W||c| s|ou|d oear
verv |eav||v or l|al c|urc|. T|e 0|oc|el|ar persecul|or corl|rued ler vears ard l|ree rorl|s.
T|e per|od descr|oed |ere l|ls l|e per|od ol rarlvrs ol l|e persecul|or Per|od lror A0 100 lo A0 325. T|e ler davs prooao|v relers lo l|e ler
lrper|a| Persecul|ors. C|r|sl|ars sullered l|rarc|a||v ard ||ved |r poverlv lo oedd|rd. T|ev sullered s|arder oe|rd accused ol Carr|oa||sr
|eal|rd l|e l|es| ol C|r|sl ard |r corrur|or dr|r||rd o|ood) 8ul l|ev Were lu|| overcorers, oe|rd la|l|lu| urlo deal|. T|ere |s a oeaul|lu| slorv ol
Po|vcarp, l|e o|s|op ol 3rvrra |arded doWr lo us |r ||slorv. Read |l |r Fox's ooo| ol Varlvrs..
The Ten Pr|m|t|ve Persecut|ons
1. Nero (Roman emperor AD 54–68), persecution stirred up in AD 64. In this persecution the apostle Paul was
killed and the apostle Peter crucified in Rome. This first persecution ceased under Vespasian ( AD 69–79).
2. Domitian (Roman emperor AD 81–96). John, the apostle and evangelist was exiled to Patmos . After the death
of Domitian, John was released and came to Ephesus in AD 97, where he wrote his Gospel and where he lived
until the time of Trajan.
3. Trajan (Roman emperor AD 98–117). Ignatius, the bishop of Antioch suffered in this persecution.
4. Marcus Aurelius, his other name being Antoninus Verus (Roman emperor AD 161–180). Polycarp, the bishop
of Smyrna, and the Christian martyrs of Lyons and Vienne, two cities in France, were martyred in this
persecution.
5. Septimius Severus (Roman emperor AD 193–211). This persecution extended to northern Africa, which was a
Roman province.
6. Maximinus, Gaius Julius Verus (Roman emperor AD 235–238).
7. Decius (Roman emperor AD 249–251). Fabian martyred; Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, forced into exile; and
Origen was imprisoned and tortured.
8. Valerian (Roman emperor AD 253–260).
9. Aurelian (Roman emperor AD 270–275).
10. Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, reigned AD 284–305) and Maximian (reigned AD 285–305)
governed as emperors together. Diocletian began his furious persecution against the Christians in 303. The
emperor ordered the doors of the Christian church at Nicomedia, the capital, to be barred, and then burnt the
edifice with 600 Christians within. Many edicts were issued by him against Christians. Churches were
demolished, Christian books were seized and burnt, Christians were persecuted, imprisoned, tortured and killed.
The persecution brought a considerable number of martyrs, and it continued until 313, when Emperor
Constantine set Christians free and proclaimed religious freedom.
Church History of Eusebius of Caesarea. (AD 260–340)

The crown of ||fe.

Nol a rova| croWr oul l|e dar|ard croWr ol v|clorv over deal|. 3ee 2T|_1:8.

Jar 1:12 8|essed
310Z
|s l|e rar
135
l|al
3Z39
erdurel|
52Z8
lerplal|or
398ê
: lor
3Z51
W|er |e |s lr|ed
1381, 109ê
, |e s|a|| rece|ve
2983
l|e croWr
1Z35
ol
||le
2222
, W||c|
3Z39
l|e Lord
29ê2
|al| pror|sed
18ê1
lo l|er l|al |ove
25
||r
81ê
.

T|e sare p|rase occurs |r Rev_2:10. ll |s l|e der|l|ve ol appos|l|or, ||le |lse|l oe|rd l|e croWr as |r 1Pe_5:1. T||s croWr |s ¨ar |ororao|e
orrarerl¨ |Ropes), W|l| poss|o|v ro relererce lo l|e v|clor's croWr |dar|ard ol |eaves) as W|l| Pau| |r 1Co_9:25, 2T|_1:8,

ll prooao|v s|dr|l|es lu|l|||ed aourdarl ||le - ||le as |l s|ou|d oe - d|orv lo d|orv ||le rol dv|rd

3|a|| rol oe |url ol l|e secord deal|. T|ose W|o W|r l|e v|clorv s|a|| ||ve lorever. To d|e l|e secord deal| |s lo oe serl lror l|e juddrerl
l|rore |rlo |e||. 3ee Rev_20:11.




Chapter Five
PERCAH08
Rev. 2:12-17

Rev 2:12 ard lo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r Perdarur Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| |e l|al |al| l|e s|arp lWo-edded sWord:
Rev 2:13 l |roW W|ere l|ou dWe||esl, even W|ere 3alar's l|rore |s, ard l|ou |o|desl lasl rv rare, ard d|dsl rol derv rv la|l|,
ever |r l|e davs ol Arl|pas rv W|lress, rv la|l|lu| ore, W|o Was ||||ed arord vou, W|ere 3alar dWe||el|.
Rev 2:11 8ul l |ave a leW l||rds ada|rsl l|ee, oecause l|ou |asl l|ere sore l|al |o|d l|e leac||rd ol 8a|aar, W|o laud|l 8a|a|
lo casl a sluro||rdo|oc| oelore l|e c|||drer ol lsrae|, lo eal l||rds sacr|l|ced lo |do|s, ard lo corr|l lorr|cal|or.
Rev 2:15 3o |asl l|ou a|so sore l|al |o|d l|e leac||rd ol l|e N|co|a|lars |r |||e rarrer.
Rev 2:1ê Reperl l|erelore, or e|se l core lo l|ee cu|c||v, ard l W||| ra|e War ada|rsl l|er W|l| l|e sWord ol rv roul|.
Rev 2:1Z le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es. To ||r l|al overcorel|, lo ||r W||| l d|ve ol l|e
||dder rarra, ard l W||| d|ve ||r a W||le slore, ard upor l|e slore a reW rare Wr|ller, W||c| ro ore |roWel| oul |e l|al
rece|vel| |l.



0ur Lord |derl|l|es ||rse|l lo |l as l|e ore |av|rd ¨l|e s|arp, douo|ed-edded sWord.¨ T|e word ol 0od cor|rd lror ||s ||ps |s douo|e-edded, |l
culs lWo Wavs. ll culs doWr l|e erer|es ard |l culs l|e ev|| W|l||r l|e c|urc|. 0od |s ro respecler ol persors. le culs doWr ev|| ard s|r
W|erever |l |s seer. 8ol| Wavs - W|l||r ard W|l|oul. T||s C|urc| |ad erer|es ouls|de |r l|e Wor|d ard W|l||r l|e c|urc| Was |eresv ard ev||
pracl|ces.

NoW We la|e a r|de ê0 r||es rorl| lo l|e |rler|or ol As|a V|ror lo l|e p|ace ca||ed Perdarur or Perdaros. T||s Was orce l|e cap|la| ol As|a
oelore |l Was s||lled lo Ep|esus. Perdaros Was ar arc|erl 0ree| c|lv |ar Arcad|ar co|orv) ou||l arourd a |||| rorl| ol r|ver Ka||os, lour
|||orelers aWav lror l|e sea. Perdaros exper|erced ||d| droWl| dur|rd l|e successors ol A|exarder l|e 0real. K|rd Lvs|ra|os depos|led ||s
lreasures l|ere ard ass|dred F||erelos lo oe l|e|r duard|ar. Aller l|e deal| ol Lvs|ra|os |283 8C), F||erelos oecare l|e aulororous ru|er ol
l|e c|lv. l|s orol|er Alla|os lourded l|e K|rddor ol Perdaros. T|e Alla||ar 0vraslv ru|ed l|e K|rddor lor approx|rale|v 150 vears ard, dur|rd
l||s era, Perdaros dreW |rlo a d|or|ous ard |rporlarl c|lv, a|ords|de l|e l|er l|our|s||rd c|l|es ol A|exardr|a ard Arl|oc||a. ll Was ar |rporlarl
lrade, |rduslr|a|, sc|erl|l|c ard arl cerler. Perdaros le|| |rlo l|e Rorar |ards |r 133 8C. T|e Araos corcuered ard |ooled l|e c|lv |r A0 Z1ê
ard Tarer|are |ooled |l |r 1101. T|e c|lv |osl |ls sp|erdor ard le|| |rlo ru|rs. lr 1êZ5 l|ere Were ro rore l|ar 20 C|r|sl|ar lar|||es. 0ur|rd l|e
1821 le||er|c Revo|ul|or |r W||c| l||s c|lv loo| parl devasled l|e c|lv lurl|er.
Jesus savs l|al l||s |s l|e |ocal|or ol l|e ¨l|rore ol 3alar.¨ Ard |l Was. ll Was l|e cap|la| ol l|e Rorar prov|rce ol As|a, ard Was lared lor |ls
s|le or a 1000 lool |||| W||c| |e|d |ls acropo||s, ded|caled lo Zeus, Al|era, 0|orvsus ard Asc|ep|us |arourd W||c| cerlered a cu|l ded|caled lo
red|c|re), ard |l a|so Was l|e cerler ol l|e lrper|a| cu|l, l|e Wors||p ol Auduslus Caesar.
T||s Was ar |rle||eclua| c|lv W|l| a c|lv ||orarv |o|d|rd over 20,000 vo|ures, secord or|v lo l|e arc|erl ||orarv ol A|exardr|a al l|al l|re. T|e
Word 'parc|rerl' aclua||v cores lror l|e c|lv's rare Perdaros. P||rv savs l|al |l Was |rverled |r l|e secord cerlurv 8C |r Perdarur, |erce
l|e lerr `parc|rerl' lror l|e Lal|r perdarera - `ol Perdarur'. 3||r |ad oeer used as a Wr|l|rd raler|a| oelore |r severa| ol|er courlr|es. 8ul
l|e rel|red rel|ods ol c|ear|rd ard slrelc||rd so l|al l|e parc|rerl car oe scr|oed or ool| s|des ol a |eal , |ead|rd everlua||v lo l|e ra||rd ol
l|e raruscr|pl ro||s ov l|e o|rd|rd l|e |eaves lo lorr a ooo| Was reW. \e||ur |s a parc|rerl rade lror l|e de||cale s||rs ol vourd ar|ra|s
ard l|e super|or cua||lv ores Were rade spec|a||v lror uroorr or sl||| oorr oaov ar|ra|s.
Nol lar lror l|e C|lv Was l|e cerler ol Wors||p ol Zeus - l|e lerp|e al 0|vrp|a |r l|e slale ol E||s |r Pe|oporresus. lr l|e cerler ol l|e Wors||p
ol l|e Acropo||s |r l|e c|lv slood l|e Terp|e ol Al|era ard or lop ol l|e rourla|r 800 leel aoove l|e p|a|r |ed ov a |ord l||d|l ol sleps slood l|e
|rpos|rd a|lar ol Zeus over a 100 leel scuare |ard. ll Was arol|er ol Wor|d's 3ever worders ol l|e arc|erl Wor|d.. ll Was |ere l|al l|e 0|vrp|c
dares slarled . T|e lerp|e ol Zeus |oused a co|ossa| do|d ard |vorv slalue ol Zeus, rade ov P|e|d|as ol Al|ers |r l|e l|ll| cerlurv 8C. T|e
slalue Was ore ol l|e sever Worders ol l|e arc|erl Wor|d. Arl|oc|us l\ rade a lerp|e lor Apo||o al 0ap|re, rear Arl|oc| us|rd l|e sare
pallerr ard d|rers|ors. Pausar|us prov|des a descr|pl|or ol l|e slalue ol Zeus ard l|e lerp|e area al 0|vrp|a. Pausar|us savs a Woo|er
curla|r, ol easlerr des|dr, ¨adorred W|l| Assvr|ar Weav|rd ard P|oer|c|ar purp|e¨, Was ded|caled lo Zeus al 0|vrp|a ov Arl|oc|us l\. 3ore
sc|o|ars oe||eve l|al l|e curla|r Was la|er lror l|e lerp|e |r Jerusa|er, W|er Arl|oc|us p|urdered |ls lreasures |r 8C 530. T|e co|urrs Were
rade ol Perle||c raro|e, |r l|e Cor|rl||ar slv|e. T||s erorrous slruclure, l|e |ardesl lerp|e |r 0reece, Was l|ra||v corp|eled ov l|e Erperor
ladr|ar l|ree cerlur|es |aler, |r l|e 2rd cerlurv A0. lls ru|rs car oe sl||| seer.
Perdarur Was a|so l|e cerler lor l|e Wors||p ol 3erperl dod Aescu|ap|us - l|e dod ol red|c|re. Perdarur |ad l|e drealesl p|vs|c|ars ol l|al
l|re. we sl||| |ave l|e |rlerlW|red serperl svroo| lor red|c|re - l|oud| |l |s roW oe|rd dradua||v rep|aced ov l|e red cross svroo|. url|| a leW
decade ado l|e red|ca| svroo| Was l|e |rlerlW|red serperl ca||ed Asc|e|p|or.


Caduce and the Cross as symbol of Medicine



Worship of the Aeshelpion
(Pergamum Coin)
The 8even wonders of the wor|d
T|e usua| ||sl cors|sls ol |1) l|e Pvrar|ds, |2) l|e lard|rd 0arders ol 8aov|or, |3) l|e 3lalue ol Zeus al 0|vrp|a, |1) l|e Terp|e ol Arler|s al
Ep|esus |5) l|e Vauso|eur ol la||carrassus, |ê) l|e Co|ossus ol R|odes, ard |Z) l|e L|d|l|ouse al A|exardr|a. T|e 0ree|/le||er|sl|c ores |a||
oul 1 & 2) dale lror l|e |ale 5l| cerlurv 8C l|roud| lo l|e |ale 3rd 8C, ard l|ree ol l|ese |1, 5, ê) are rear lo l|e coasl ol soul|err Tur|ev.
Crude|v, We r|d|l sav l|al a|| l|ese rorurerls are |r l|e ||sl oecause ol l|e|r dreal s|ze ard erorrous cosl. 0|ll|cu|lv overcore |s ar add|l|ora|
cr|ler|or |r l|e case ol l|e Terp|e ol Arler|s |l|e sWarpv s|le) ard l|e Co|ossus ol R|odes ||ls |e|d|l), W|||sl arl|sl|c va|ue s|rd|es oul l|e
3lalue ol Zeus al 0|vrp|a ard l|e Vauso|eur.
Vade W|l| o|ac| raro|e |ouse l|e A|lar ol l|e 3erperl W||c| |s relerred lo |r l|e |eller as l|e T|rore ol 3alar. 0r a co|r ol 3epl|rus 3everus,
l|e a|lar al Perdarur |s dep|cled, covered ov a oa|dac||r, or caropv, supporled ov lour co|urrs.


Ru|rs ol l|e Zeus lerp|e |r Al|ers ou||l ov Arl|oc|us l\

Ev|derl|v, Perdaros Was l|e cerler ol a salar|c cu|l ol l|e arc|erl Wor|d. Varv sc|o|ars l||r| l|al l|e ¨3eal ol 3alar¨ relers lo l|e dreal a|lar ol
Zeus W||c| Was or l|e ||||s|de over|oo||rd l|e c|lv. T|e seal |lse|l Was a dreal c|a|r, or l|rore, lorlv leel ||d| |epl ||d| up al l|e cerler ol l|e
slruclure lo oe seer ov arv ore. A larous lour|sl ooo| ov 8edec|er rerl|ors, |r a secl|or ded|caled lo 8er||r, l|al s|rce 1911, l|e A|lar ol
Perdaros Was p|aced |r ore ol 8er||r's ruseurs aller |l Was excavaled ov 0errar arc|eo|od|sls. For 100 vears 3alar's l|rore |as oeer |r
Easl 8er||r. ll l|al |as arv correcl|or W|l| l|e r|se ol l|l|er ard l|e Naz|s l |eave lo vou lo judde. 8ul Easl 8er||r |s a|so W|ere l|l|er's
|eadcuarlers Were |ocaled. T|e 3Wed|s| paper ¨3Wers|a 0ado|adel¨ reporled or Jaruarv 2Z, 1918 l|al aller caplur|rd 8er||r, l|e 3ov|el Arrv
reroved l|e or|d|ra| 3alar|c a|lar lo VoscoW. loWever l|e a|lar d|d rol appear |r l|e ruseur lor a |ord l|re. w|er l|e Arc||lecl 3c|usev, ou||l
Ler|r's loro, |e loo| l|e Perdaros a|lar as l|e prololvpe lor ||s slruclure. T|e arc|eo|od|sl Feder|cc Pau|sor ass|sled ||r W|l| dela||s. T||s
Was |r 1921.
¨T|ou |o|desl lasl rv rare¨, |s arol|er vers|or W||c| sore peop|e cors|der |s d|ver rore |r a lore ol reproac| l|ar correrdal|or. T|e Word
Perdaros rears ¨ruc| rarr|ed¨. Fror l|e sare rool We del l|e Words rorodarv ard o|darv, po|vdarv elc.. Jusl as ar urla|l|lu| W|le
corl|rues lo |o|d |er |usoard's rare, l|e c|urc|es Were l||rl|rd W|l| l|e Wor|d ard ol|er re||d|ors W|||e proless|rd lo oe C|r|sl|ars. loWever
l|e |rlerprelal|or seers lo re as lar lelc|ed. Jesus |s correrd|rd l|e dreal slrerdl| ol la|l| al |easl sore ol l|e C|r|sl|ars s|oWed |r l|e
r|dsl ol suc| 3alar|c cu|ls.
T|e c|urc| |ere |ad a loud| l|re. we do rol |roW ruc| aooul Arl|pas excepl ov orl|odox lrad|l|or. Accord|rd lo l||s lrad|l|or l||s sa|rl ||ved
dur|rd l|e re|dr ol erperor 0orel|ar |r 83 A0 le Was corlerporarv W|l| l|e Aposl|es. Arl|pas Was corsecraled o|s|op ol Perdaros ov l|e
Aposl|e Jo|r. w|er |e Was o|d , |e Was caud|l ov l|e |do|alers ol Perdaros. T|e derors, W|or l|ev Wors||pped, appeared lo l|er ard lo|d
l|er l|al l|ev cou|d re|l|er ||ve |r l|al p|ace ror accepl l|e|r sacr|l|ces oecause Arl|pas Was lorc|rd l|er oul. 3o, Arl|pas Was oroud|l lo l|e
doverror, W|o lr|ed lo corv|rce ||r l|al o|der l||rds are ruc| rore |ororao|e. T|us, l|e doverror corc|uded l|al l|e re||d|or ol l|e 0ree|s
Was rore |ororao|e s|rce |l Was o|der ard dreW W|l| l|e pass|rd ol l|re. Arl|pas courlered l|e ardurerl us|rd Ca|r's slorv as prool. Ever
l|oud| Ca|r Was o|der |r ade l|ar Aoe|, Aoe| Was accepled ov 0od ard rol Ca|r. w|er l|e doverror ard l|e 0ree|s |eard l||s arsWer l|ev
ourrl W|l| arder ard pul l|e o|d Arl|pas |r a red-|ol orazer ou|| ard roasled ||r a||ve . 0r Apr|| 11 l|e rerorv ol |o|v |ero rarlvr Arl|pas,
8|s|op ol Perdaros |s sl||| ce|eoraled ov l|e 0rl|odox C|urc|es arourd l|e Wor|d. Arl|pas rears ¨ada|rsl a||¨ ard |e slood ada|rsl a|| odds lor
l|e la|l| l|al Was orce ard lor a|| |arded doWr lo ||r ov l|e Aposl|es.
8ul l|e c|urc| |r Perdaros Was oeselled ov lWo proo|ers:
1. T|e leac||rd ol 8aa|ar
2. N|co|a|lar|sr.
The Teach|ng of ßa|aam
T|e 3lorv ol 8a|aar |s exp|a|red |r Nuroers 22 lo 25, oul l|e doclr|re ol 8a|aar |s c|ar|l|ed |r Nur. 31:15-1ê. Nuroers 22-21 erurerales |oW
8a|a| l|e K|rd ol Voao Warled 8a|aar, l|e Prop|el lo curse lsrae|. 3o |e ollered 8a|aar ar exlravadarl reWard. 8ul l|e prop|el ever l|oud|
lerpled lo ||s core rera|red lrue lo ||s 0od Ya|We|. le cou|d rol curse lsrae|. 3o |e course|ed l|e K|rd 8a|a| lo ra|e peace W|l| lsrae| ard
|rv|le l|er lo jo|r |r l|e|r leasls ard |rlerrarrv. T||s |s |rd|caled |r Nur 31:15-1ê W|ere 0od's arder Was ||rd|ed W|er corlrarv lo l|e d|v|re
|rslrucl|ors lsrae| |ell a|| l|e Worer a||ve aller l|e corcuesl ol Voao - l|e verv l||rd 0od Warled deslroved. T|ese Worer Were as|ed lo
seduce l|e rer ol lsrae| ov K|rd 8a|aar W|l| l|e slraledv suddesled ov 8a|aar.
Nur 21:25 T|er 8a|aar dol up ard relurred |ore ard 8a|a| Werl ||s oWr Wav.
Nur 25:1 w|||e lsrae| Was slav|rd |r 3||ll|r, l|e rer oedar lo |rdu|de |r sexua| |rrora||lv W|l| Voao|le Worer, Nur 25:2 W|o |rv|led l|er lo
l|e sacr|l|ces lo l|e|r dods. T|e peop|e ale ard ooWed doWr oelore l|ese dods. Nur 25:3 3o lsrae| jo|red |r Wors||p|rd l|e 8aa| ol Peor. Ard
l|e Lord's arder ourred ada|rsl l|er.
Nur 31:11 Voses Was ardrv W|l| l|e oll|cers ol l|e arrv--l|e corrarders ol l|ousards ard corrarders ol |urdreds--W|o relurred lror l|e
oall|e. Nur 31:15 ¨lave vou a||oWed a|| l|e Worer lo ||ve?¨ |e as|ed l|er. Nur 31:1ê ¨T|ev Were l|e ores W|o lo||oWed 8a|aar's adv|ce ard
Were l|e rears ol lurr|rd l|e lsrae||les aWav lror l|e L0R0 |r W|al |appered al Peor, so l|al a p|adue slruc| l|e Lord's peop|e. Nur 31:1Z
NoW |||| a|| l|e oovs. Ard |||| everv Worar W|o |as s|epl W|l| a rar, Nur 31:18 oul save lor vourse|ves everv d|r| W|o |as rever s|epl W|l| a
rar.
Yo|e a|ord W|l| 8aa| Was l|e doclr|re ol 8a|aar. ll cors|sls ol:
¯eal|rd l|e l||rds sacr|l|ced lo l|e |do|s
¯¯ lo corr|l lorr|cal|or.
Corcerr|rd l|e lood ollered lo |do|s We |ave Pau|'s leac||rd |r 1 Cor. 8:1-9. T|e po|rl |ere |s W|er |l oecores a corpror|se |l oecores
dead|v. 0ell|rd |rvo|ved |rlo l|e leasls ol l|e lerp|e drads vou aWav |rlo l|e l||rds ol l|e ev||. Nol or|v l|al, vou rav oecore a dead W|lress, |l
rav ever oecore a lrap.
R|lua| lorr|cal|or Was a parl ol rosl padar cu|ls. 3o Was |l arord l|e Carar|les ard l|e Voao|les. ll Was a|so parl ol l|e Wors||p ol l|e 0ree|
ard Rorar cu|ls. Todav |l |s l|e cerler ol 3alar wors||p ard |s pracl|ced W|de|v arord l|e ous|ress corrur|lv lor lurl|er|rd dood W||| arord
ous|ress radrels. For l|ose derl||es W|o care lror suc| oac|drourd, l|ese lWo oecare a dreal lerplal|or arord l|e C|r|sl|ar orol|er|ood
ol l|e per|od. T||s |s W|v l|e verd|cl ol l|e 3vrod ol Jerusa|er pul doWr l|e lo||oW|rd cord|l|ors. T|e courlerparl We lace |r our dav |s l|e
pracl|ce ol porrodrap|v ard lorr|cal|or arord C|r|sl|ars ard l|e acceplarce ol ||v|rd lodel|er W|l|oul rarr|ade, l|al |s oller W|despread |r l|e
c|urc|es lodav. T|al |s l|e error ol 8a|aar.
= Aosla|r lror po||ul|or ol |do|s
lror lorr|cal|or
lror W|al |s slrard|ed
ard lror o|ood.
Jares spo|e up:
Acls 15:20 lrslead We s|ou|d Wr|le lo l|er, le|||rd l|er lo aosla|r lror lood po||uled ov |do|s, lror sexua| |rrora||lv, lror l|e real ol
slrard|ed ar|ra|s ard lror o|ood.
Forr|cal|or |s l|e sex |rvo|vererl ol lWo persors |r W||c| al |easl ore |s rarr|ed lo a d|llererl parlrer. ll |s l|e svroo| ol urla|l|lu|ress lo ||le
parlrers ard |s l|erelore l|e svroo| ol rar's urla|l|lu|ress lo 0od. T|us lorr|cal|or |s a v|s|o|e lorr ol |do| Wors||p ard |as a|Wavs oeer
assoc|aled W|l| |l. T|e pur|s|rerl lor l||s soc|a| s|r |r l|e 0|d Teslarerl Was deal| ov slor|rd. T|e pur|s|rerl ol oodv lorr|cal|or |s l|e
rea||zal|or ol l|e ex|sl|rd separal|or ol l|e ||le parlrer lo elerra| separal|or ov |||||rd l|e lorr|calor. lr l|e sare Wav l|e pur|s|rerl lor sp|r|lua|
lorr|cal|or |s l|e rea||zal|or ol l|e separal|or lo oe elerra| |.e. elerra| separal|or lror C|r|sl.
lr lodav's soc|a| corlexl, ||v|rd arord ar urc|r|sl|ar |l rol arl|-c|r|sl|ar surrourd|rds We ||ve |r l|e sare cord|l|or as l|al ol l|e Perdaros. Are
We do|rd a|ord W|l| l|e resl ol l|e corrur|lv lo|eral|rd W|al |s ev|| ard |rrora|?
N|co|a|tans
Vvslerv s|rouds l|e cu|l ol N|co|a|lars. T|ree poss|o|e exp|aral|ors car oe lourd.
1.T|ese rav oe l|e lo||oWers ol N|co|aus ol Arl|oc| W|o |s sa|d lo |ave aposlal|zed due lo ||s la|se doclr|re ol 0rosl|c|sr ard Arl|ror|ar|sr,
or
2.T|ese Were a droup W|o lo||oWed 8a|aar |r leac||rd l|al |l Was perr|ss|o|e lor 0od's peop|e lo erdade |r |do|alrv ard |rrora||lv, or
3.ll |s a d|recl relererce lo l|e ol l|e c|er|ca| svsler, or l|e deve|opererl ol a c|ass ol Pr|esls W|l||r l|e c|urc|.
1. N|co|aus of Ant|och.
N|co|aus ol Arl|oc| Was ore ol l|e sever or|d|ra| deacors, appo|rled ov l|e Aposl|es lo serve al l|e lao|es. le Was a JeW|s| prose|vle |Acls
ê:5). T||s N|co|as dev|aled lror l|e doclr|re r|x|rd 0rosl|c|sr ard Arl|ror|ar|sr W|l| l|e l|slor|c C|r|sl|ar doclr|res. T||s slorv |s lo|d ov
lreraeus , Terlu|||ar, l|ppo|vlus, 0orol|eus ol Tvre, Jerore, Audusl|re ard Euseo|us. T|ev a|| sav l||s Was a secl ol ||cerl|ous arl|ror|ar
0rosl|cs W|o |apsed |rlo l|e|r arl|ror|ar ||cerse oecause ol ar over-slra|red ascel|c|sr. l|ppo|vlus adds l|al N|co|aus Was l|e lorerurrer ol
lvreraeus ard P|||elus W|o Was corderred |r 2 T|rol|v 2:1Z. Euseo|us adds l|al aller l|e droup Was cersured ov Jo|r |r l|e Apoca|vpse,
l|e secl d|sappeared |r a verv s|orl l|re.
w|al |s 0rosl|c|sr? T|e 0rosl|cs c|a|rs lo |ave spec|a| d|recl reve|al|or super|or lo l|e Aposl|es l|erse|ves. 3ecrel leac||rds are d|ver lo
l|er ov 0od d|recl|v . 3ore ol l|e 0rosl|cs der|ed l|e lrue |urar|lv ol C|r|sl. T|ev laud|l l|al l|e l|l|e ol C|r|sl Was s|rp|v a d|v|re aro|rl|rd
l|al care oul lror 0od ard resled upor l|e rar, Jesus, al l|s oapl|sr. As |ord as l||s 3p|r|l Was or l||s rar Jesus , |e Was C|r|sl. T|e
aro|rl|rd |ell Jesus |r l|e 0arder ol 0el|serare, jusl oelore l|s cruc|l|x|or. Jesus Was rar, oul C|r|sl Was 0od. T|ere are var|ous s|ades ol
0rosl|cs l|al We carrol rea||v del|re l|e cu|l |r ore s|ade ol co|or.
Cerla|r orarc|es ol 0rosl|c|sr leac| l|al oelWeer 0od ard crealures l|ere are var|ous drades ol oe|rds, sore sp|r|lua| ard ol|ers raler|a|.
3|rce 0od oe|rd dood carrol oe l|e crealor ol ev||, l|ese secordarv oe|rds Were l|e cause ol l|e ev|| . 3o l|ev poslu|aled a ser|es ol
eraral|ors, aeors, sp|r|ls, arde|s elc. l|al care |r oelWeer 0od ard raller. Eac| dereral|or |s reroved lror cerlra| dod|ead ov a d|slarce
ard |erce |r |ls rora| perlecl|or. T|e lurl|esl arord l|er |s l|e erood|ed oe|rds. T|e oodv |s |r|ererl|v s|rlu|, ard |erce l|e 0rosl|cs
pracl|ced ascel|c|sr, se|l-lorlure ard se|l-der|a|, |r ar ellorl lo alla|r a ||d|er sp|r|lua| slale.
Arol|er droWl| ol l||s rovererl Was Arl|ror|ar|sr. Arl|ror|ar|sr |s l|e leac||rd l|al a persor W|o |s saved ov drace ard |s urder drace
reeds rol pracl|ce se|l-corlro|. T|e sors are lree. T|e sors car do W|alever l|ev Warl oecause l|ere |s lola| lreedor |r C|r|sl. A C|r|sl|ar rav
d|ve lu|| sal|slacl|or lo ||s ood||v des|res ard appel|les ard pass|ors W|l|oul |rcurr|rd arv corderral|or. ll |s l|ese proo|ers l|al Were
addressed ov Pau| |r l|e C|urc| ol Co||os|a |co|. 1:1-11) . A|| l|e errors W||c| ex|sled |r l|e Aposlo||c Ade are sl||| W|l| us lodav. 0rosl|c|sr |as
reappeared |r C|r|sl|ar 3c|erce, Je|ova|'s W|lresses ard |r l|e ur|lar|ar c|urc|. Arl|ror|ar|sr |s c|aracler|sl|c ol a|| W|o sav l|al oecause
We are urder drace, We car ||ve as We p|ease.
2. N|co|a|tans were a sect who encouraged 6hr|st|ans to engage |n |do|atry and |mmora||ty
ll rusl |ave oeer a d|recl corsecuerce ol l|e |ov|rd car|rd c|urc| as a ur|lv. 3o N|co|a|lars |rlroduced sex ord|es as ar express|or ol
C|r|sl|ar |ove |r l|e|r |ove leasls. 3ex |s |a||oWed ov 0od as ar express|or ol la|l|lu|ress ard |ove ard as ar exper|erce ol leaver ard |ls jov
as a resu|l ol |rlerse persora| ur|lv. T||s |s oased or lola| corr|lrerl oelWeer a coup|e. Po|vardrv |0re rar- severa| W|ves) Was a||oWed ov
0od |r l|e 0|d Teslarerl per|od, 'oecause ol l|e|r |ard |earledress'. Po|vdarv |0re Worar - severa| |usoards) lared oeller |r ol|er cu|lures.
loWever l|ev Were lar lror |dea|. Ever |r l|e |dea| l|rdu Tarlr|c cu|l ol sex as a rea||zal|or ol 0od|ead, lola| corr|lrerl lo ore parlrer |s
recu|red. Laler cu|ls dedereraled |l lo pror|scu|lv as We |ave seer |r Rajrees| ard ol|er cu|ls. N|co|a|lar|sr Was l|e Rajrees| cu|l ol
C|r|sl|ar|lv ard Was a corrupl|or ol Trul|. Corrupl|or Was a|Wavs l|e lrurp card ol 3alar. T|e cu|l ol l|e C|||drer ol 0od |T|ev |ave oeer
c|ard|rd l|e|r rares as a caral|adue. w|al |s l|e|r currerl rare?) |s l|e roderr dav vers|or ol N|co|a|lar|sr. lr everv c|ose|v-|r|l C|r|sl|ar
le||oWs||p, l||s darder sl||| |ur|s. Varv a r|d|lv preac|ers |ave la||er urder l||s lerplal|or.
3. N|co|a|tan|sm |s the teach|ng of the 6|er|ca| 8upremacy.
T|e 0ree| Word r||os rears v|clorv or corcueror ard |aos rears . peop|e or |a|lv. 3o We del l|e rear|rd ¨corcueror ol l|e peop|e.¨ T||s |s
s|r||ar lo l|e rear|rd ol l|e leoreW Word ¨8a|aar¨ W||c| rears ¨sWa||oWer ol l|e peop|e.¨ T|e rvsl|ca| |rlerprelal|or ol ¨l|e leac||rd ol
8a|aar¨ |r 2:11 |s sa|d lo po|rl lo l|e ¨leac||rd ol l|e N|co|a|lars¨ |r 2:15, prov|d|rd supporl lor l||s |derl|l|cal|or. Jo|r oller uses leoreW ard
0ree| Words lo rare l|e sare oojecl as |r |Apo||vor ard Aoaddor) Reve|al|or 9:11. lerce l||s |s a verv p|aus|o|e |rlerprelal|or. L||e
lorr|cal|or, pr|esl crall |s a|so a corrupl|or ol a c|urc| arrardererl. 8|s|ops, e|ders ard deacors Were orda|red |r l|e ear|v c|urc| lo serve l|e
peop|e al l|e lao|es |oecause |r l|e ear|v c|urc| rea|s Were served as a roul|re - everv dav) ard lo la|e care ol l|e adr|r|slral|ors. T|ev Were
rol cors|dered sp|r|lua| aul|or|l|es over peop|e. lr a serse leac|ers ard evarde||sls, ever l|oud| rol orda|red Were l|e aclua| sp|r|lua|
aul|or|l|es. T|ev Were rol orda|red, oul c|ar|sral|c. T|e pr|esl|ood |s a carrvover lror l|e JeW|s| lerp|e cu|l. w|l| l|e ur|versa| pr|esl|ood
corcepl ol l|e C|r|sl|ar|lv l|e separale |urar |rlerred|arv oelWeer rar ard 0od Was lor a l|re aoardored. loWever Aposl|es d|scovered
l|al l|e rurr|rd ol ar |rsl|lul|or recu|red |rsl|lul|ora| aul|or|l|es - W|o Were lo over|oo| l|e rallers redard|rd adr|r|slral|or ard d|slr|oul|or.
lerce l|e orda|r|rd ol 0eacors as |r Acls
Acls ê:2 3o l|e TWe|ve dal|ered a|| l|e d|sc|p|es lodel|er ard sa|d, ¨ll Wou|d rol oe r|d|l lor us lo red|ecl l|e r|r|slrv ol l|e Word ol 0od |r
order lo Wa|l or lao|es. Acls ê:3 8rol|ers, c|oose sever rer lror arord vou W|o are |roWr lo oe lu|| ol l|e 3p|r|l ard W|sdor. we W||| lurr l||s
respors|o|||lv over lo l|er Acls ê:1 ard W||| d|ve our allerl|or lo praver ard l|e r|r|slrv ol l|e Word.¨
lr a|| ear|v c|urc|es, lruslees lror l|e |a|lv |ard|ed l|e adr|r|slral|ve rallers ever W|er l|ere Was ar orda|red pr|esl lor ||lurd|ca| ard sp|r|lua|
purposes. loWever l|e Pr|esls W|o lorred a reW c|ass separaled l|erse|ves lror l|e |a|lv ard loo| aul|or|lv over l|e |a|lv |N|co- |a|lv) T|e
separal|or loo| |r lWo sleps.
1. lr creal|rd a separale Pr|esl|v C|ass. Arord ar ur|o|v peop|e pr|esls Were lo oe |o|v urlo l|e Lord. T||s |s W|v lsrae| |ad a lr|oe so
separaled. 8ul l||s |s ro lruer lor C|r|sl|ars. 3ee Peler 2:1-10 ard leo. 10:19-25. As C|r|sl|ar|lv erlered lo 0ree| ard Rorar cu|lure, l|e
C|r|sl|ar pr|esls adopled l|e dress ol l|e JeW|s| Pr|esls. lr so do|rd l|e |a|lv dol oul ol louc| W|l| l|e Word ol 0od ard re|edaled evervl||rd
lror l|e sludv ol l|e Word, preac||rd, W|lress|rd, ard ever prav|rd lo l|e Pr|esl W|o Were pa|d lor l|al purpose.
2. lr corverl|rd l|e Wors||p |rlo a r|lua| rvslerv over W||c| |a|lv |ad ro corlro| |ell oul l|e |a|lv |r l|e assero|v |a|| as pass|ve parl|c|parls
W||c| s|rp|e resporses. ll Was lo l|e advarlade ol l|e Pr|esls lo |rlroduce as ruc| r|lua|s ard rvslerv ard ur|rle|||d|o|||lv lo l|e Wors||p as
poss|o|e. T||s |rlroduced l|e rvsl|c ard 0rosl|c e|ererls |rlo l|e c|urc|. As a resu|l ord|rarv rer ard Worer |r l|e c|urc| oecare |drorarl
ard cors|dered l|e leac||rds ol C|r|sl|ars as a rvslerv ard oevord ||s urderslard|rd. Ada|r 0rosl|c lerderc|es |ave crepl |r |ere.
ll |s prooao|v lo l||s rove l|al Jesus |s relerr|rd lo. As ||slorv |as s|oWr, l||s deve|oprerl everlua||v |ed l|e c|urc| |rlo a dar| per|od. 0r|v l|e
Word ol 0od cou|d rev|ve l|e c|urc| l|roud| relorral|or |r l|e 18l| cerlurv. we cou|d sl||| see l|e lWo lorces W|l||r l|e c|urc|es. T||s |s rore
lrue W|l||r l|e Cal|o||c c|urc| ard l|e Perlecosla| C|urc|es. Lav rovererls ard C|ar|sral|c rovererls are |oo|ed upor W|l| susp|c|or.
Ever |r l|e |rdeperderl c|urc|es, persora||lv cu|ls creale l|e sare proo|er. Courlerle|l rev|va|s ol lodav are ar exarp|e ol l||s. T|oud| l|ev
do rol Wear separale dresses ard ca||s l|erse|ves 8rol|ers, l|e cu|l droWs arourd l|e|r aul|or|lv ard reve|al|or pecu||ar lo l|er ard rol or l|e
oas|s ol l|e Word ol 0od. 3lrarde|v eroud| l|ese persora| reve|al|ors - W||c| are oller corlrarv lo l|e Word ol 0od- are d|ver a slalus ecua| lo
l|e scr|plures.
T|e reWards pror|sed |r verse 1Z lo||oWs l|e corcepl ol l|de||lv lo Jesus as |usoard.
l W||| d|ve vou l|e ||dder rarra. Varra Was l|e lood l|al susla|red lsrae| l|roud| l|e|r W||derress lrave|. Jesus pror|ses eroud| slrerdl| lo
slard ada|rsl l|e loes ol l|e 3alar|c C|lv.
l W||| d|ve vou a W||le slore W|l| a persora| rare. As l|e |usoard ard W|le |ave l|e|r oWr secrel persora| rares lor eac| ol|er, Jesus
pror|ses a c|ose re|al|or W|l| l|ose W|o overcore.
w||le slores Were used |r l|ose davs
1. As a lo|er ol accu|lla| lror l|e courl. T|ere |s l|erelore ro corderral|or lor l|ose W|o are |r C|r|sl Jesus.
2. As a lo|er lor ral|or W||c| prov|des lood ard prov|s|or lor lar|||es.
3. As a |uc|v c|arr lo |eep l|er lorr l|e ev|| ores.
0|spersal|ora|v l||s relers lo a per|od |roWr as l|e
3lale C|urc| Per|od
|A0 325 lo 590)

w|er Erperor Corslarl|re accepled C|r|sl|ar|lv as l|e oll|c|a| re||d|or ol l|e 3ale. T|e reasors lor suc| a rove Was ool| po||l|ca| ard
re||d|ous. 8v l|e l|re ol l|e ascers|or ol Corslarl|re, l|e C|r|sl|ars |ad corcuered l|e pa|ace ard l|e rova| lar||v Wor||rd urderdrourd. l|s
predecessor Erperor 0|oc|el|ar ordered severe purde ol l|e erl|re c|v|| serv|ce, ard l|e pa|ace serv|ce or|v lo d|scover l|al ||s oWr W|le ard
c|||drer Were C|r|sl|ars. lr order lo ra|rla|r l|e ur|lv ol l|e Erp|re accord|rd lo l|e l|er ex|sl|rd |deas ol ¨ore ral|or - ore re||d|or - ore dod¨,
l|e oll|c|a| re||d|or Was c|arded lo C|r|sl|ar|lv. lr order lo oecore a re||d|or ol l|e slale, C|r|sl|ar|lv |lse|l |ad lo urderdo drasl|c dress|rd up ov
aosoro|rd Rorar lec|r|cues, svroo|s, cereror|es ard pracl|ces. Pr|esl crall, rvslerv svroo|s, cereror|es assoc|aled W|l| Wors||p ard
separal|or corror peop|e ard c|erdv, da||v sacr|l|ces, perarce, ||erarc|v ol dods ard sa|rls ard ever |do| Wors||p |as lo core |rlo |l so l|al
everv ore cou|d accepl |l. A soc|a||v acceplao|e re||d|or lor everv ore Was so dereraled. we cou|d see l|e sare lrerd |r roderr NeW Ade
rovererls. we cou|d see l|e sare lrerd |r c|r|sl|ar c|urc|es lodav. Are We W||||rd lo lordo l|e oas|c lererls ol C|r|sl|ar|lv ard l|e cerlra||lv
ol Jesus oecause |l rav rol oe acceplao|e lo l|e ol|er re||d|ors. T|ese are aclua||v l|e corl|rual|or ol l|e 0rosl|c lrad|l|ors or W||c| Jesus
prorources ||s |rlo|erarce. Jesus descr|oed l||s |r ||s K|rddor Parao|es ol Val|eW 13 |r l|e parao|e ol l|e Vuslard Tree. Vuslard |s ar |ero
ard car rever oecore a lree, oul |l d|d. ll dreW so o|d ard oroud|l lorl| orarc|es ard ¨l|e o|rds ol l|e a|r¨ lourd s|e|ler |r |l. we |ave |ere l|e
radr|l|cerl 3lale C|urc| ol l|e ear|v per|od.
8ul lordel l|e lree ard l|e o|rds ard l|e parap|erra||a. Jesus ca||s vou lo oe ||s spec|a| or|de. le pror|ses a re|al|ors||p

6hapter 8|x
ThYAT|RA
Rev. 2:18-29


Rev 2:18 Ard lo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r T|val|ra Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| l|e 3or ol 0od, W|o |al| ||s eves |||e a l|are ol l|re,
ard ||s leel are |||e urlo ourr|s|ed orass:
Rev 2:19 l |roW l|v Wor|s, ard l|v |ove ard la|l| ard r|r|slrv ard pal|erce, ard l|al l|v |asl Wor|s are rore l|ar l|e l|rsl.
Rev 2:20 8ul l |ave rn|s ada|rsl l|ee, l|al l|ou sulleresl l|e Worar Jezeoe|, W|o ca||el| |erse|l a prop|eless, ard s|e leac|el|
ard seducel| rv servarls lo corr|l lorr|cal|or, ard lo eal l||rds sacr|l|ced lo |do|s.
Rev 2:21 Ard l dave |er l|re l|al s|e s|ou|d reperl, ard s|e W|||el| rol lo reperl ol |er lorr|cal|or.
Rev 2:22 8e|o|d, l casl |er |rlo a oed, ard l|er l|al corr|l adu|lerv W|l| |er |rlo dreal lr|ou|al|or, excepl l|ev reperl ol |er
Wor|s.
Rev 2:23 Ard l W||| |||| |er c|||drer W|l| deal|, ard a|| l|e c|urc|es s|a|| |roW l|al l ar |e l|al searc|el| l|e re|rs ard |earls:
ard l W||| d|ve urlo eac| ore ol vou accord|rd lo vour Wor|s.
Rev 2:21 8ul lo vou l sav, lo l|e resl l|al are |r T|val|ra, as rarv as |ave rol l||s leac||rd, W|o |roW rol l|e deep l||rds ol
3alar, as l|ev are Worl lo sav, l casl upor vou rore ol|er ourder.
Rev 2:25 Neverl|e|ess l|al W||c| ve |ave, |o|d lasl l||| l core.
Rev 2:2ê Ard |e l|al overcorel|, ard |e l|al |eepel| rv Wor|s urlo l|e erd, lo ||r W||| l d|ve aul|or|lv over l|e ral|ors:
Rev 2:2Z ard |e s|a|| ru|e l|er W|l| a rod ol |ror, as l|e vesse|s ol l|e poller are oro|er lo s||vers, as l a|so |ave rece|ved ol rv
Fal|er:
Rev 2:28 ard l W||| d|ve ||r l|e rorr|rd slar.
Rev 2:29 le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es.


T|val|ra 8rorze-sr|l|
T|e arc|erl c|lv ol T|val|ra |s |ocaled approx|rale|v 80 Krs lo l|e rorl|-easl ol 3rvrra |lzr|r) ard |s |roWr lodav as A|||sar. 0l l|e arc|erl
c|lv or|v l|e lerp|e ol Apo||o, ar arc|erl c|urc| ard a co||oraded road rera|r. T|e c|lv Was lourded ov Lvd|ars W|er |l Was ca||ed Pe|op|o.
Years |aler 3e|ucus N|calor, ore ol l|e derera|s ol A|exarder l|e 0real, corcuered l|e c|lv dur|rd l|e 3rd cerlurv 8C ll Was 3e|ucus W|o
c|arded l|e rare lo T|val|ra. 8v 100 8C l|e c|lv care urder l|e |rl|uerce ol l|e Rorars ard rajor|lv ol l|e peop|e Were JeW|s| sell|ers. ll
Was s|lualed al l|e jurcl|or ol lWo va||evs ard l|erelore Was ar |rporlarl lrall|c corlro|||rd slal|or. T|ere Was a Rorar darr|sor slal|ored l|ere
lor l||s purpose. A rar|el deve|oped arourd l||s ard oecare larous lor purp|e c|ol| ard pollerv. As ar |rporlarl ard slraled|ca||v p|aced lrade
roule jurcl|or, l|e lWo lrades - l|e purp|e c|ol| ard pollerv - l|our|s|ed l|ere. T|e T|val|ra|ar purp|e c|ol| Was |roWr a|| over l|e Wor|d ard Was
used ov Erperors, K|rds ard C||els as l|e|r rova| dress. T|ev Were rade oul ol a dve la|er lror a sea ar|ra| ard Was cors|dered a lrade
secrel ol T|val|r|ar corrur|lv ol lraders. Trade du||ds |r suc| a s|lual|or Was parl ol a padar cu|l. T||s Was recessarv lo ersure ur|lv ol l|e
separale du||ds as a lar||v. T|ev rel lor Wors||p, d|scussed lrade rallers ard |l Was l|er lo||oWed W|l| a ous|ress d|rrer. T|ese d|rrers Were
apperded ov r|lua| ord|es. T|ese ord|es |rc|uded r|lua| lorr|cal|or oe||eved lo ellecl oeller urderslard|rd oelWeer l|e reroers ol l|e du||d. ll
a|so ersured l|al l|e aoso|ule rvslerv ard l|e lrade secrels oe corla|red W|l||r l|e reroers ol l|e du||d.
lr Acls 1ê:11 We |ear aooul Lvd|a l|e purp|e c|ol| se||er lror T|val|ra.
Acls 1ê:12 Fror l|ere We lrave|ed lo P||||pp|, a Rorar co|orv ard l|e |ead|rd c|lv ol l|al d|slr|cl ol Vacedor|a. Ard We slaved l|ere severa|
davs.
Acls 1ê:13 0r l|e 3aooal| We Werl ouls|de l|e c|lv dale lo l|e r|ver, W|ere We expecled lo l|rd a p|ace ol praver. we sal doWr ard oedar lo
spea| lo l|e Worer W|o |ad dal|ered l|ere.
Acls 1ê:11 0re ol l|ose ||sler|rd Was a Worar rared Lvd|a, a dea|er |r purp|e c|ol| lror l|e c|lv ol T|val|ra, W|o Was a Wors||per ol 0od. T|e
Lord opered |er |earl lo respord lo Pau|'s ressade.
Acls 1ê:15 w|er s|e ard l|e reroers ol |er |ouse|o|d Were oapl|zed, s|e |rv|led us lo |er |ore.
Lvd|a |s rerl|ored as a Wors||pper ol 0od ar|dsl a padar Wor|d. 0od used |er as l|e ruc|eus ol a C|urc| |r T|val|ra. ler |ore Was l|e l|rsl
c|urc| |r T|val|ra. lr l||s c|lv l|ere Was a c|urc|. T|e c|urc| dreW. 8ul l|ev |ad pressure lror l|e|r du||ds. Nol lo jo|r a du||d Was s|rp|v
corr|ll|rd ous|ress su|c|de. You W||| oe prooao|v l|roWr oul ol ous|ress. urder suc| pressures c|urc| reroers Were lorced lo la|e parl |r
l|ese du||d reel|rds. A|| corcerred |reW l|e sp|r|lua| |rp||cal|ors ol l|ese, oul e|l|er jusl|l|ed |l, l|eo|od|zed |l or p|a|r d|sredarded |l. T|ev
s|rp|v corpersaled |l ov dererous corlr|oul|ors ard doral|ors lo re||d|ous rallers so l|al 0od W||| W|r| l|s eve |r sore ol|er d|recl|or.
Jesus |rlroduces ||rse|l as ¨... l|e 3or ol 0od ...¨ |2:18). T|e 3or ol Var W|o spea|s lo l|er |s l|e 3or ol 0od. T|ev are rer|rded ol l|e de|lv
ol l|e|r Lord, ard l|e|r oWr reW re|al|ors||p as adopled sors ol 0od. T|e|r reW re|al|ors||p as sors oroud|l W|l| l|er reW respors|o|||l|es ard
c|ardes |r oe|av|or. 3o Jesus po|rls oul ||s eves |||e ourr|rd l|re W||c| car see l|roud| ouler cover|rds. le ourrs oul l|e lacade ard sees our
ra|edress. T|ere |s rol||rd ||dder lror ||r. 3ure eroud| l|ev |ad l|e|r jusl|l|cal|ors as soc|a| pressure. Terlu|||ar ore ol l|e Arle-N|cere
lal|ers preac|ed ada|rsl suc| p|lla||s. A C|r|sl|ar W||| |ave lo lace l|e Wor|d. le |as lo ||ve |r l||s Wor|d W||c| |s rol corduc|ve lo lo|v ||v|rd.
T|e proo|er lodav |s jusl l|e sare as |l Was l|er. 8ul l|e C|r|sl|ar arsWer |s ¨rol lo corlorr, oul lo lrarslorr¨ T|e 3or |as leel |||e ourr|s|ed
ororze. T|e leel, porlrav|rd rovererl ard rora| slard, are slrord, sure ard oeaul|lu| |Ror. 10:15). T|e 3or's leel are cors|slerl W|l| l|e
3or's eves. T|e leel rove |r accordarce lo l|e eves' d|scerrrerl. T|e T|val|rars, as adopled sors ol 0od |0a|. 3:2ê, 1:1 ll.), slard l|rr |r
l|e|r reW lourd pos|l|or as sors ol 0od. T|ev s|ou|d rove as sors ol dod, l|rr|v ard dec|s|ve|v |r l|e r|d|l d|recl|or. lo|v re|al|ors||p |¨3or ol
0od¨) s|ou|d resu|l |r |o|v acl|ors.
Jesus accepls l|e Wor|, l|e |ove, l|e la|l|, l|e|r r|r|slrv ard pal|erce |v.19) T|ev Were verv correrdao|e. 8ul l|ere Was l||s - Jezeoe| |v.20)
Apparerl|v |r l|e c|urc| l|ere Was a verv |rporlarl ard |rl|uerl|a| |adv W|o ca||ed |erse|l as a prop|eless W|o ercouraded l|e c|urc|
reroers lo do a|ord W|l| l|e soc|a| cu|lure. 3|e jusl|l|ed l|e pracl|ce ol lorr|cal|or, |do| Wors||p ard eal|rd ol real sacr|l|ced lo l|e |do|s |v.21).
3exua| |rvo|vererl |s a lorr ol Wors||p |r a|| |eal|er re||d|ors. lr rosl sop||sl|caled re||d|ors l|ev appear |r a rore suo||raled lorr e|l|er as
lerl|||lv Wors||p |as |r 3|va L|rda) or as rol|er Wors||p |as |r Var|o|alorv). Pr|eslesses |0eva 0asees) ol lerp|e Were r|lua| prosl|lules. T|ev
Were l|e ur|lv|rd lorce |r l|e corrur|lv. T|ev prov|ded ur|versa| |ove. Vosl peop|e W|o oecare C|r|sl|ars |r T|val|ra sl||| |e|d l||s appea||rd
aspecl. lr C|r|sl|ar|lv a|so sex |s a Wors||p as ar |rade ol re|al|or oelWeer Jesus ard ||s C|urc| W|l| aoso|ule l|de||lv oelWeer ore rar ard
ore Worar. ll |s a lorelasle ol leaver or earl|. ll |s l|erelore lerpl|rd lo l|eo|od|ze ard sav |l prov|des |ove lo a||. w|er sore |rsp|red
prop|eless ercourades ard de||vers |l as a rears ol 0od-rea||zal|or, |l |s rol surpr|s|rd l|al rosl peop|e Werl a|ord.
The prophetess teaches and seduces.
Vosl peop|e l||r| l|al l||s |adv - ca||ed |ere as Jezeoe| - Was l|e W|le ol l|e e|der |r T|val|ra. 3o s|e rol or|v laud|l oul acl|ve|v seduced l|e
c|urc| reroers |rlo |l. To ra|e c|urc| as l|e du||d W||| oe a so|ul|or. wor'l |l? ll |s, oul l|er |l oe|aves d|llererl|v.
l|slor|ca||v Jezeoe| Was l|e 0ueer ol K|rd A|ao. lr l|e l|re ol E||ja|, lsrae| |reW Jezeoe| as l|e 3|dor|ar |do|-Wors||pper rarr|ed lo l|e W|c|ed
||rd A|ao. Furcl|or|rd |||e a prop|eless, s|e |ad laud|l |do|alrv lo lsrae| W|||e rurder|rd l|e prop|els ol 0od ard |rsp|r|rd |er |usoard lo ev||
3|e Was l|e drealesl ol a|| 8aa| Wors||ppers. ler slorv car oe lourd |r 1 K|rds 1ê:31 - 33 ard |r dela|| |r c|aplers 18-21 ard |r 2 K|rds 9. T|e
erl|re lsrae| |excepl 100 rer ol la|l|) lo||oWed |er ev|| Wavs. T|e pur|s|rerl ol 0od lor l|al Was severe. A|| l|ose W|o prolessed 8aa| Were
||||ed W|l||r l|e lerp|e ol 8aa| ard Jezeoe| |erse|l Was l|roWr doWr ard ealer ov |er oWr W||d dods. A s|r||ar pur|s|rerl |s prorourced |r
Rev. 2:22-23. we do rol |ave arv ||slor|ca| docurerls lo l|e execul|or ol l|e verd|cl ol Jesus. 8ul We s|ou|d rol oe surpr|sed |l ar d|sease
s|r||ar lo l|e Al03 or vererea| d|seases lo |ave loo| up l|e order. ll |s a ralura| corsecuerce ol s|r l|al |l oreeds deal|. For l|e Wades ol s|r |s
deal|.
T|e rare Jezeoe| as d|ver |r 0|d Teslarerl rears ¨W|ere vou res|de¨. T|e |rp||cal|or |ere |s lo l|e doclr|re ol lr|erds||p W|l| l|e Wor|d
W||c| |s l|e slrordesl Weapor ol 3alar lo corrupl l|e c|urc|. A ||ll|e var|al|or ol |ove, ol sex ol jov, ol p|easure, a r|sp|aced erp|as|s, l|al |s a||
W|al |s recu|red lo d|ve a lola||v var|arl |eresv. T|e ||slor|c Jezeoe| Was do|rd l|e sare l||rd. As 8aa| Wors||p Was parl ol l|e adr|cu|lura| lorr
ol ||v|rd |r Caraar, so Was l|e T|vr|ar Prop|eless leac||rd |r a corrur|lv ol leuda| du||ds. lr our l|res, l|e corrur|lv |s d|llererl. we are
esserl|a||v a cap|la||sl|c soc|elv cerlered |r se|l|s|ress W|ere va|ues are reasured |r lerrs ol rorev. To oe successlu| |r ous|ress recu|res
ol|er lorrs ol lo|erarce ard corpror|ses. w|al are l|ev |r vour c|urc|, |r vour corrur|lv? Are l|ere pracl|ces l|al are |rrora|, W||c| are
corlrad|clorv lo |o|v ||v|rd? 0o We cordore l|er or l|e oas|s ol soc|a| recess|lv? 0o We c|a|r l|e lreedor |r C|r|sl lo cover l|er up?
lr l||s c|urc| N|co|a|lar|sr |s rol rerl|ored ov rare. 8ul ev|derl|v l|e l|ere |s l|e sare. ll |as oecore so |rdra|red |r l|e c|urc| l|al |l |s ro
rore relerred lo ov l|al |erel|c rare. lrslead |l |s ca||ed l|e ¨deep l||rds¨, l|e dreal rvslerv urlal|orao|e ov reasor|rd, l|al car or|v oe
exper|erced. - ¨l|e deep l||rds ol 3alar¨ urder l|e |eaders||p ol a prop|eless.
0|spersal|ora|v l||s c|urc| per|od relers lo l|e C|urc| Ade or papacv
Per|od slarl|rd lror arourd A0 350 ard |asled lor over 1200 vears. lrc|derla||v Jesus Wr|les l||s |ordesl |eller lo l||s c|urc| |rd|cal|rd |ls |erdl|.
ll Was pa|rled ov 0ur Lord |r l|e Parao|e ol l|e Leaver |r Vall|eW 13:33.
T|e Worar |ere relers lo Jezeoe| W|o ||des l|e |eaver |r l|e d|v|re c|urc| |l|ree reasures ol rea|) url|| a|| ol Was |eavered. T|e ||slorv ol
l|e per|od |s lru|v a rep||ca ol l|e ru|e ol A|ao ard Jezeoe| l|||ed W|l| corrupl|or ol doclr|res, |rlroducl|or ol padar r|les ard r|lua|s, |do| Wors||p
ard parl|cu|ar|v Vadora Wors||p. T|ere Were leuds ard Wars W|l||r l|e c|urc| over poWer ard aul|or|lv.
urder l|ese d|ll|cu|l l|res Jesus derard or|v a ||d|l ourder lror l|ose W|o '|ave rol l|e leac||rd¨, v|z. ¨lo|d lasl lo l|al W||c| vou |ave.¨ T|||
|e cores W|l| poWer ard d|orv.
To l|e overcorers |e pror|ses aul|or|lv over l|e ral|ors. \erse 2Z relers lo l|e cua||lv corlro| superv|sors ol l|e pollerrv du||d, W|o sourded
eac| pol lor cua||lv. le W||| derl|v slr||e l|e pol lo dererale a v|oral|or. ll l|e v|oral|ors d|d rol produce a ||d| p|lc|ed role s|oW|rd l|al l|e
corslrucl|or Was perlecl, |l Was s|allered lo p|eces W|l| a s|aller|rd o|oW. Ar |ror rod Was used lor l||s purpose. T|e p|clure ol l|e aul|or|lv
over l|e ral|ors |s a lola| aul|or|lv lo deslrov l|al W||c| are lourd urWorl|v. T|e aul|or|lv |s over l|e ral|ors, W||c| ev|derl|v |s or l|e earl|.
T||s l|erelore Wou|d s|rp|v |rp|v l|e d|clalor|a| ru|e ol Jesus dur|rd l|e r|||err|a| per|od W|er l|ese overcorers are d|ver aul|or|lv.
T|e verse 28 |s prooao|v l|e rosl d|ll|cu|l verse lor |rlerprelers. T|e Word ¨ rorr|rd slar¨ occurs or|v l|ve l|res |r l|e o|o|e ard l|al |s |r l|e
ooo|s ol reve|al|ors, ls|a|, Joo ard Peler.
|lsa 11:12 Nl\) loW vou |ave la||er lror |eaver, 0 rorr|rd slar, sor ol l|e daWrl You |ave oeer casl doWr lo l|e earl|, vou W|o orce |a|d
|oW l|e ral|orsl
T||s |s assured lo oe relerr|rd lo l|e la|| ol l|e Arc|arde| W|o oecare l|e 3alar. T||s arc|arde| ev|derl|v Was a rorr|rd slar lror W|ere |e
Was l|roWr doWr lo earl|. le Was ru||rd l|e ral|ors ol l|e earl|.
|2 Pel 1:19 Nl\) Ard We |ave l|e Word ol l|e prop|els rade rore cerla|r, ard vou W||| do We|| lo pav allerl|or lo |l, as lo a ||d|l s||r|rd |r a
dar| p|ace, url|| l|e dav daWrs ard l|e rorr|rd slar r|ses |r vour |earls.
lere Peler |s relerr|rd lo l|e Wr|ller Word ol 0od as du|de url|| l|e u|l|rale rea||zal|or ol Jesus |r our |earls occurs. T||s |oo|s lorWard lo l|e
l|re W|er We W||| oe |||e Jesus. Ev|derl|v rorr|rd slar |ere relers lo Jesus
|Rev 22:1ê Nl\) ¨l, Jesus, |ave serl rv arde| lo d|ve vou l||s lesl|rorv lor l|e c|urc|es. l ar l|e Rool ard l|e 0llspr|rd ol 0av|d, ard l|e
or|d|l Vorr|rd 3lar.¨
T||s verse c|ear|v |derl|l|es Jesus as l|e or|onr Vorr|rd 3lar. Nol|ce l|e adjecl|ve or|d|l added.
|Joo 3:9 Nl\) Vav |ls rorr|rd slars oecore dar|, rav |l Wa|l lor dav||d|l |r va|r ard rol see l|e l|rsl ravs ol daWr,
|Joo 38:Z Nl\) W|||e l|e rorr|rd slars sard lodel|er ard a|| l|e arde|s s|ouled lor jov?
Ta||rd l|e ev|derce ol l|ese lWo verses We |ave lo duess a ||erarc|v ol crealures al l|e l|re ol l|e creal|or ol earl| as l|e Vorr|rd 3lars ard
l|e 3ors ol 0od. we |ave ro c|ear descr|pl|or ol l|ese crealures. 8ul ev|derl|v arord l|e Vorr|rd 3lars Jesus |as l|e preer|rerce as l|e
8r|d|l Vorr|rd 3lar.
w|v |s Jesus relerred lo as l|e 8r|d|l Vorr|rd 3lar. we reed lo |oo| |rlo l|e rear|rd ol l|e Word W||c| ||lera||v rears ¨l|al W||c| |s slreWr al
l|e daWr or l|e oed|rr|rd.¨ T|us Jesus oe|rd l|e crealor - W||c| Jo|r oo|d|v proc|a|red
Jo|r 1:1 lr l|e oed|rr|rd Was l|e word, ard l|e word Was W|l| 0od, ard l|e word Was 0od.
Jo|r 1:2 le Was W|l| 0od |r l|e oed|rr|rd.
Jo|r 1:3 T|roud| ||r a|| l||rds Were rade, W|l|oul ||r rol||rd Was rade l|al |as oeer rade.
Jesus l|erelore |s l|e 8r|d|l Vorr|rd 3lar W|o crealed a|| Vorr|rd 3lar. Jusl as |e |derl|l|ed W|l| rar||rd lo oe l|e F|rsl 8orr ol NeW Creal|or
Var, |e a|so |derl|l|ed ||rse|l lo oe l|e F|rsl 8orr ol a|| creal|ors - |r l||s case W|l| l|e Vorr|rd 3lars. As |e |s l|e 3or ol Var so |e |s a|so l|e
8r|d|l Vorr|rd 3lar. 3o a|so |e |s l|e 3or ol 0od arord l|e 3ors ol 0od. we see l|e oeaul|lu| p|clure ol a 0od W|o |derl|l|es ||rse|l W|l| ||s
crealures l|oud| |e |s l|e crealor ol a|| l||rds. Nol or|v l|al Y|v| |s lrarscerd, oul |e |s a|so |rrarerl |r ||s oWr creal|or.
T|us
|Rev 2:28 Nl\) l W||| a|so d|ve ||r l|e rorr|rd slar, - |s a pror|se ol |r|er|larce |r l|e reW creal|or. 0oes |l rear l|ev W||| oe p|aced |r a
rorr|rd slar? Nol or|v l|ev W||| re|dr W|l| Jesus l|roud| l|e r|||err|ur, oul l|ev W||| oe arp|v reWarded.
0|spersal|ora|v l||s ressade |s lor l|e C|urc| 3lale Per|od, W|er Papacv Was |r |ls zer|l|. T||s per|od |s oller relerred lo |r l|slorv as l|e
0ar| Ades. Jesus pror|ses l|er a Vorr|rd 3lar W||c| ev|derl|v care upor l|e c|urc| W|l| l|e oper|rd up ol l|e word ol 0od ard l|e rereWa|
ol l|e lo|v 3p|r|l dur|rd l|e Relorral|or per|od W||c| lo||oWed.
urder l|ese lerse s|lual|ors Jesus derards l|er lo |o|d lasl lo W|al ||ll|e l|ev |ave. A lu||er lreedor ard orea|l|roud| ol l|e lo|v sp|r|l |s
pror|sed lo l|slorv |ead|rd lo Rera|ssarce ard Relorral|or.

6hapter 8even
8AR0|8
Rev. 3:1-ô
Rev 3:1 Ard lo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r 3ard|s Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| |e l|al |al| l|e sever 3p|r|ls ol 0od, ard l|e sever
slars: l |roW l|v Wor|s, l|al l|ou |asl a rare l|al l|ou ||vesl, ard l|ou arl dead.
Rev 3:2 8e l|ou Walc|lu|, ard eslao||s| l|e l||rds l|al rera|r, W||c| Were readv lo d|e: lor l |ave lourd ro Wor|s ol l||re
perlecled oelore rv 0od.
Rev 3:3 Rereroer l|erelore |oW l|ou |asl rece|ved ard d|dsl |ear, ard |eep |r, ard reperl. ll l|erelore l|ou s|a|l rol Walc|, l W|||
core as a l||el, ard l|ou s|a|l rol |roW W|al |our l W||| core upor l|ee.
Rev 3:1 8ul l|ou |asl a leW rares |r 3ard|s l|al d|d rol del||e l|e|r darrerls: ard l|ev s|a|| Wa|| W|l| re |r W||le, lor l|ev are
Worl|v.
Rev 3:5 le l|al overcorel| s|a|| l|us oe arraved |r W||le darrerls, ard l W||| |r ro W|se o|ol ||s rare oul ol l|e ooo| ol ||le, ard l
W||| corless ||s rare oelore rv Fal|er, ard oelore ||s arde|s.
Rev 3:ê le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es.
3ard|s Was a c|lv 30 r||es lror T|val|ra s|lualed or l|e rourla|r c||ll ol T|ro|us. ll Was ou||l |r 8C 500 ard Was prooao|v ore ol l|e l|rsl all|uerl
c|l|es ol l|e Wor|d. ll Was |rpredrao|e oecause ol |ls pos|l|or, se|l sull|c|erl W|l| respecl lo lood ard Waler ard ol|er resources. ll Was
approac|ao|e or|v lror ore s|de ov a s|rd|e road. L||e Jerusa|er, 3ard|s cou|d |ave ooasled l|al W|l| or|v l|e |are ard l|e |rl|rr cou|d delerd
l|e c|lv.
2 3ar 5:ê T|e Jeous|les sa|d lo 0av|d, ¨You W||| rol del |r |ere, ever l|e o||rd ard l|e |are car Ward vou oll.¨ T|ev l|oud|l, ¨0av|d carrol del
|r |ere.¨ |2 3ar 5:Z Neverl|e|ess, 0av|d caplured l|e lorlress ol Z|or, l|e C|lv ol 0av|d)
Neverl|e|ess l|e c|lv Was la|er lW|ce orce |r 8C 119 ard l|er |r 8C 218. lr ool| cases l|e procedure Was l|e sare. lr ool| cases l|e |e|rel
ol ore ol l|e so|d|ers le|| doWr l|e c||ll s|de. As |e loo| ||s pal| doWr lo exlr|cale |l, l|e erer|es Walc|ed. lr l|e r|d|l l|ev lraced l|e lool|o|ds
|r s|rd|e l||e ard erlered l|e c|lv. T|e serlr|es Were surpr|sed ov l|e allac| ard l|e c|lv le|| W|l|oul a l|d|l. T|ev Were corl|derl ard l|erelore
care|ess.
Rev 3:2 wake up! 8trengthen what rema|ns and |s about to d|e,
ll Was r|c|. T|erelore ar all|uerl soc|elv ||v|rd |r aoso|ule |uxurv ||ved l|ere. 8e|rd ous|ress peop|e, |l Was |ere l|e l|rsl r|rled co|rs Were used
|r lrade. T|e rourla|r area Was ar earl|cua|e zore. w|er |l Was deslroved ov ar earl|cua|e |l Was reou||l W|l||r e|d|leer rorl|s |r rore
|l|er) roderr des|dr ard arc||leclure, ruc| rore sop||sl|caled ard p|arred W|l|oul arv exlerra| a|d. 3uc| Was l|e Wea|l| ol l|e peop|e.
lr l||s c|lv Was a c|urc| lo||oW|rd l|e |aoors ol Jo|r. T|ev |ad oeaul|lu| cal|edra|s ard r|c| lreasures. T|e c|urc|es Were a|Wavs lu|| ard l|ev
Were a|Wavs do|rd l||rds lor 0od. T|ev |ad Worderlu| expers|ve projecls W||c| prooao|v |rc|uded up||ll|rd ol l|e poor ard l|e reedv -
orp|arades ard re|ao|||lal|or cerlers ard W|al rol.
| know your deeds; you have a reputat|on of be|ng a||ve, but you are dead.
T|ev |ad a lorr ol dod||ress, rol l|e poWer. T|ev Wors||pped 0od, oul l|e sp|r|l Was r|ss|rd.
Val 15:8-9 ¨'T|ese peop|e |oror re W|l| l|e|r ||ps, oul l|e|r |earls are lar lror re. Val 15:9 T|ev Wors||p re |r va|r, l|e|r leac||rds are oul
ru|es laud|l ov rer.'¨
T|ev prolessed lo oe C|r|sl|ars oul |ac|ed C|r|sl. T|e ralure ol l|e soc|elv |rvar|ao|v Was rel|ecled |r l|e c|urc|. w|ere l|ere |s ro Warl, vou
rav la|| lo re|v or 0od |r vour da||v ||le. T||s |s W|v l|e lsrae| Was d|ver ore davs oread a dav ard rol rore. Ar all|uerl c|urc| |s se|dor ca||ed
|r lor all|rral|or. T|ev |ad |l easv ard l|ev Were care|ess. T|erelore l|e la|| Was |rev|lao|e.
0|spersal|ora||v l||s reelers lo l|e Relorral|or C|urc|es. As soor as l|e dreal Waves ol relorral|or Were over, l|e c|urc| lourd |lse|l |r cozv
s|lual|or ard l|e sp|r|l Was |osl. T|ev d|d a |ol ol reordar|zal|or, recl|l|cal|or ard rerar|rd oul Werl ro lurl|er.
for | have not found your deeds comp|ete |n the s|ght of my Cod.
L||e l|e c|lv ol 3ard|s, l|e c|urc| oecare care|ess ard le|| v|cl|rs lo l|e erer|es due lo s|eer care|essress. T|e r|se ol l|d|er Cr|l|c|sr |r
1800s ass|sled ov l|e ral|ora||sl|c rovererls ol l|e per|od ard l|e NeWlor|ar Vec|ar|sl|c v|eW ol |aW oased ur|verse |ed lo l|e co||apse ol
la|l|. Karl, lede|, K|r|edaard, Varx, Freud ard Ler|r Were or|v l|e ouldroWl| ol l||s soc|a| s|lual|or. lr l|e lace ol l|ese slrord ral|ora||sl|c ard
cr|l|ca| ouloursls c|urc| s|rar| oac| lo erp|as|ze soc|a| relorrs ard oulWard Wor| lo l|e uller red|ecl ol esserl|a| dospe| ol Jesus. T|e Word
¨3ard|s¨ rears ¨escap|rd¨ or ¨l|al W||c| rera|rs¨.
T|ere Was ro jusl|l|cal|or lor l|e 3ard|s C|urc| lor l|e|r |ac| ol W|lress|rd oecause l|ev |eard ard rece|ved l|e lu|| reve|al|or. Relorral|or Was
corp|ele. T|ev |ad l|e lu|| word ol 0od |r evervore's |ard. Jesus relers lo l||s c|urc| ade |r l|e parao|e ol l|e ||dder lreasure. T|roud| l|e
r|d|lv poWer ol l|e lo|v 3p|r|l l|e c|urc| Was d|ver l|e lu|| ||dder lreasures ol sa|val|or lu|| ard lree. T|ev |ave rece|ved |l W|l| jov. 3o Jesus
as|s l|er
Rev 3:3 Remember, therefore, what you have rece|ved and heard; obey |t, and repent.
To l|ose |osl l|e|r la|l| |e |as or|v ore adv|se - reperl.
T|e rorra| resu|l ol Walc||rd l|e c|urc| |s l|al l|e ererv W||| la|| upor l|er W|er l|ev are |easl expecled. T|al |s W|al |appered lo l|e
c|urc| |r l|e relorral|or per|od. 8ul Jesus savs:
8ul |l vou do rol Wa|e up, l W||| core |||e a l||el, ard vou W||| rol |roW al W|al l|re l W||| core lo vou.
T|e sare |dea ol Walc||rd |s exp|a|red |r l|e parao|e: Var| 13:32-3Z
Forlurale|v l|ere Were peop|e W|o |epl l|e l|re do|rd ever |r l|ese s|lual|ors. 0re spec|a|lv ol 3ard|s Was |ls W||le lur coals - l|e svroo| ol
ar|slocracv. Jesus relers lo l||s svroo| ol Wea|l| ard d|orv |r verse 1
Rev 3:1 Yel vou |ave a leW peop|e |r 3ard|s W|o |ave rol so||ed l|e|r c|ol|es. T|ev W||| Wa|| W|l| re, dressed |r W||le, lor l|ev are Worl|v.
w||le ev|derl|v represerls pur|lv ard urdel||ererl. T|e ooo| ol ||le relerred lo ear||er |r l|e o|o|e |r P||||pp|ars 1:3.
loWever |l |s |rp||ed ever |r l|e 0|d Teslarerl W|er Voses spea| lo 0od or oe|a|l ol ||s la||er peop|e.
Exo 32:32-33 8ul roW, p|ease lord|ve l|e|r s|r--oul |l rol, l|er o|ol re oul ol l|e ooo| vou |ave Wr|ller.¨ Exo 32:33 T|e L0R0 rep||ed lo
Voses, ¨w|oever |as s|rred ada|rsl re l W||| o|ol oul ol rv ooo|.
lr l||s passade 0od c|ear|v del|res l|e cord|l|ors urder W||c| le W||| o|ol l|e rare oul ol l|e ooo| ol L|le. Vore dela||ed relererce lo l|e 8oo|
ol L|le |s rade |r var|ous p|aces |r l|e ooo| ol Reve|al|ors al l|e l|re ol w||le T|rore Juddererl. ll |s oller relerred lo as ¨l|e |aro's ooo| ol
||le¨. T|e |rp||cal|or |s l|us l|al |l corla|rs l|e rares ol l|ose W|o |ave alla|red l|e c|l|zers||p ol l|e K|rddor ol 0od. As |r Rore ol Jo|r's
per|od, l|ese c|l|zers Were rol ||ao|e lo rorra| code ol procedures as app||cao|e lo ror-Rorar c|l|zers. |T||s |s |r corlrasl lo l|e LaW ol l|e
ur|led 3lales W|ere l|e code ol procedures |r case ol cr|re |s l|e sare). T|e peop|e W|ose rares are Wr|ller |r l|e ooo| ol L|le do rol slard
|r juddererl oelore l|e W||le l|rore.
Ror 8:1-2 T|erelore, l|ere |s roW ro corderral|or lor l|ose W|o are |r C|r|sl Jesus, Ror 8:2 oecause l|roud| C|r|sl Jesus l|e |aW ol l|e
3p|r|l ol ||le sel re lree lror l|e |aW ol s|r ard deal|.
w|alever oe l|e|r ol|er oas|c cua||l|cal|ors lor l|e c|l|zers||p lo l|e K|rddor, lor l|ose |r 3ard|s, l|e lacl l|al l|ev |epl l|erse|ves lror l|e
Jezeoe||ar lorr|cal|or Was sull|c|erl . T|ev s|a|| Wa|| W|l| C|r|sl - |r l|e slo|a, l|e W||le rooes ol jusl|l|cal|or, ard adopl|or, ard corlorl, or |r
l|e W||le rooes ol |oror ard d|orv |r l|e ol|er Wor|d. .Jesus pror|ses l|er l|al le W||| ac|roW|edde l|er oelore l|e Fal|er as a reroer ol l|e
C|urc| - as ||s or|de.



6hapter E|ght

Ph|LA0ELPh|A
Rev. 3 : 7 - 13




Rev 3:Z Ard lo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r P|||ade|p||a Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| |e l|al |s |o|v, |e l|al |s lrue, |e l|al |al| l|e |ev
ol 0av|d, |e l|al operel| ard rore s|a|| s|ul, ard l|al s|ullel| ard rore operel|:
Rev 3:8 l |roW l|v Wor|s |oe|o|d, l |ave sel oelore l|ee a door opered, W||c| rore car s|ul), l|al l|ou |asl a ||ll|e poWer, ard
d|dsl |eep rv Word, ard d|dsl rol derv rv rare.
Rev 3:9 8e|o|d, l d|ve ol l|e svradodue ol 3alar, ol l|er l|al sav l|ev are JeWs, ard l|ev are rol, oul do ||e, oe|o|d, l W||| ra|e
l|er lo core ard Wors||p oelore l|v leel, ard lo |roW l|al l |ave |oved l|ee.
Rev 3:10 8ecause l|ou d|dsl |eep l|e Word ol rv pal|erce, l a|so W||| |eep l|ee lror l|e |our ol lr|a|, l|al nour W||c| |s lo core
upor l|e W|o|e Wor|d, lo lrv l|er l|al dWe|| upor l|e earl|.
Rev 3:11 l core cu|c||v: |o|d lasl l|al W||c| l|ou |asl, l|al ro ore la|e l|v croWr.
Rev 3:12 le l|al overcorel|, l W||| ra|e ||r a p|||ar |r l|e lerp|e ol rv 0od, ard |e s|a|| do oul l|erce ro rore: ard l W||| Wr|le
upor ||r l|e rare ol rv 0od, ard l|e rare ol l|e c|lv ol rv 0od, l|e reW Jerusa|er, W||c| corel| doWr oul ol |eaver
lror rv 0od, ard r|re oWr reW rare.
Rev 3:13 le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es.


P|||ade|p||a rears ¨8rol|er|v Love¨. T||s c|lv Was ou||l ov All|||us W|o ou||l |l |r rerorv ol ||s orol|er. ll Was l|e daleWav lo l|e Exol|c Easl as
lar as l|e wesl Was corcerred. All||us ou||l |l lo spread ||s re||d|or lo a|| l|e Wor|d. T|us P|||ade|p||a Was ou||l as a r|ss|orarv c|lv lor l|e
Padar re||d|or. lls rajor exporls Were w|re ard l|e re||d|or ol l|e W|re dod 0|orvs|us. we cou|d Wr|le urder rajor exporls co|urr: 3p|r|l ard
sp|r|l. 0oWr l|e ra|r slreels ol l|e c|lv Were a ser|es ol p|||ars W|l| l|e rares ol er|rerl c|l|zers a|ord W|l| l|e rare ol Erperor W|o |orored
l|er. ll Was corror pracl|ce lor l|e c|lv as a lorr ol c|lal|or lor l|e c|l|zers W|o corlr|ouled lo l|e soc|elv. ll |s l||s pracl|ce l|al |s relerred lo |r
verse 11. T|e c|lv |lse|l Was |r l|e vo|car|c zore ard a|Wavs urder corslarl l|real ol deslrucl|or. lls so|| Was o|ac| so||, W||c| Was |dea| lor
droW|rd drapes - a corlr|oul|or ol l|e vo|car|c rourla|rs. lrcessarl|v l|e Wa||s ol l|e |ouses are crac|ed, d|llererl parls ol l|e c|lv oe|rd l|us
allecled al d|llererl l|res. For l||s reasor leW peop|e ||ve |r l|e c|lv, ard rosl ol l|er sperd l|e|r ||ves as larrers |r l|e courlrv. T|e c|lv Was
verv Wea|l|v ard excaval|ors |rd|cales l|al l|e |ouses |r l|e c|lv |ad rurr|rd |ol ard co|d Waler. T|e |ol Waler Was p|ped lror |ol Waler
spr|rds W||c| aoourded |r l|e vo|car|c rourla|r area. ll |s oe||eved l|al C|r|sl|ars care |r l||s area |r a |urar|lar|ar r|ss|or lo |e|p l|e
v|cl|rs ol vo|car|c deslrucl|or ard Wor l|e c|lv. Recerl excaval|ors |ave urcovered a sra|| 8vzarl|re c|urc|, ar acropo||s, a svradodue ard
|ord slelc|es ol Rova| Road W|l| |arde co|urrs or e|l|er s|de. Farous res|derls ol l|e area |rc|ude K|rd V|das ard Aesop.
W|o |s |o|v ard lrue, W|o |o|ds l|e |ev ol 0av|d. w|al |e opers ro ore car s|ul, ard W|al |e s|uls ro ore car oper.
The Key of 0av|d
T|e Kev ol 0av|d rerl|ored |ear |s a d|recl relererce lo lsa|a|'s prop|ecv:
lsa 22:20 Ard |l s|a|| core lo pass |r l|al dav, l|al l W||| ca|| rv servarl E||a||r l|e sor ol l||||a|:
lsa 22:21 ard l W||| c|ol| ||r W|l| l|v rooe, ard slrerdl|er ||r W|l| l|v d|rd|e, ard l W||| corr|l l|v doverrrerl |rlo ||s |ard, ard
|e s|a|| oe a lal|er lo l|e |r|ao|larls ol Jerusa|er, ard lo l|e |ouse ol Juda|.
lsa 22:22 Ard l|e |ev ol l|e |ouse ol 0av|d W||| l |av upor ||s s|ou|der, ard |e s|a|| oper, ard rore s|a|| s|ul, ard |e
s|a|| s|ul, ard rore s|a|| oper.

T|al |s a relererce lo ar |rc|derl recorded |r l|e 22rd c|apler ol l|e prop|ecv ol lsa|a|. lr l|e davs ol leze||a| l|e ||rd l|ere Was a courl|er
W|ose rare Was 3|eora. le |ad oeer caud|l |r a persora| scar ard as a resu|l 0od savs ¨l W||| la|e ||r ard W||r| ||r arourd ard arourd ,
ard |ur| ||r |rlo a lar courlrv.¨ ll Was a pred|cl|or l|al |e Wou|d oe serl |rlo 8aov|or. le Wou|d oe rep|aced ov a rar rared E||a||r, ol W|or
0od sa|d, ¨l W||| p|ace or ||s s|ou|der l|e |ev lo l|e |ouse ol 0av|d. w|al |e opers, ro ore car s|ul, ard W|al |e s|uls, ro ore car oper.¨
E||a||r Was ore ol Jesus' arceslors. E||a||r |s ol|erW|se rol relerred lo |r arv ol|er ||slor|ca| corlexl. Ev|derl|v l||s relers lo Jesus' ro|e |r l|e
sa|val|or. Jesus |s l|e door. As l|e 3or ol 0av|d |e |o|ds l|e |evs lor rar||rd.
T||s |ev |s P|||ade|p||a - 8rol|er|v |ove. ll |ed Jesus lo l|e Cross. ¨T|ere |s ro drealer |ove l|ar l||s - l|al a rar |avs doWr ||s ||le lor ||s
orel|rer.¨ w|al l|er |s l||s Kev. ll car oe rore ol|er l|ar l|e o|ood ol Ca|varv. T|ere |s ro ol|er Wav. T|ere |s ro ol|er door.
Acls 1:12 3a|val|or |s lourd |r ro ore e|se, lor l|ere |s ro ol|er rare urder |eaver d|ver lo rer ov W||c| We rusl oe saved.¨
Jo|r 10:Z T|erelore Jesus sa|d ada|r, ¨l le|| vou l|e lrul|, l ar l|e dale lor l|e s|eep. Jo|r 10:9 l ar l|e dale, W|oever erlers l|roud| re W|||
oe saved. le W||| core |r ard do oul, ard l|rd paslure.
lr corlrasl lo l||s We |ave l|e slalererl |r reve|al|or:
Never aga|n w||| he |eave |t.
T||s |as oeer |rlerpreled ov re|rcarral|ora||sls as a prool ol re|rcarral|or. lr a serse a|| C|r|sl|ars oe||eve |r re|rcarral|or. Al l|e secord
cor|rd ol Jesus a|| rer W||| oe ¨re|rcarraled¨ or resurrecled lo erler |rlo le||oWs||p W|l| 0od or lo oe aWav lror 0od. ll |s l||s pr|v||ede ol oe|rd
W|l| Jesus elerra||v |s relerred lo |ere ov rever |eav|rd |l. T|ose W|o ||ved urr|d|leous|v, ard l|ose W|o W|||lu||v rejecled l|e oller ol sa|val|or
l|roud| Jesus, W|o relused lo Wa|| l|roud| l|e door |rlo l|e reW ||le, W||| l|ev ever |ave arol|er opporlur|lv lo sa|val|or? 8|o|e rever dea|s
W|l| l|al proo|er ard We W||| rever oe ao|e lo arsWer l|al proo|er. T|e reasor |s s|rp|v l|al l|e 8|o|e |s Wr|ller lor rar||rd |r ||slorv. ll does
rol ever descr|oe |eaver. ll or|v |rd|cales |r lerrs ol |rposs|o|e |urar lerrs. ll does rol descr|oe |e||. ll or|v |rd|cales |r lerrs ol |rposs|o|e
|urar lerrs. 8|o|e cors|slerl|v relused lo descr|oe arvl||rd oevord |urar ||slorv. ll |s s|rp|v oevord l|e scope ol reve|al|or ard oevord l|e
scope ol |urar urderslard|rd. Ard l oe||eve l|al Was |rlerl|ora|.
ll relers oac| |rlo l|e cord|l|or ol P|||ade|p||a c|lv W|ere peop|e ||ved rosl|v ouls|de l|e c|lv lor lear ol earl|cua|es. NoW Jesus savs l|ev W|||
rever |eave l|e c|lv lor lear. T||s c|lv |s lourded or so||d drourd ard carrol oe s|a|er. T||s |s l|e u|l|rale relude.
Jesus savs l|al |e 's|uls ard ro ore opers¨. T|e door lo sa|val|or |s roW oper. T||s |s l|e Kev ol 0av|d l|al |as opered l||s doorWav. 8ul |l
W||| oe soor s|ul. 0|spersal|ora||v al l|e c|ose ol l||s C|urc| ade, l|e door W||| oe s|ul ard ro ore W||| oe ao|e lo erler |r l|roud| l|e door ol
drace. Per|od ol 0race |s do|rd lo oe s|ul.
Val 25:10 ¨8ul W|||e l|ev Were or l|e|r Wav lo ouv l|e o||, l|e or|dedroor arr|ved. T|e v|rd|rs W|o Were readv Werl |r W|l| ||r lo l|e Wedd|rd
oarcuel. Ard l|e door Was s|ul. Val 25:11 ¨Laler l|e ol|ers a|so care. '3|rl 3|rl' l|ev sa|d. '0per l|e door lor usl' Val 25:12 ¨8ul |e rep||ed, 'l
le|| vou l|e lrul|, l dor'l |roW vou.' Val 25:13 ¨T|erelore |eep Walc|, oecause vou do rol |roW l|e dav or l|e |our.
Jesus W||| core lor ||s or|de - l|e Wa|l|rd c|urc| ard l|er l|e door W||| oe s|ul.
T||s relererce lo l|e c|os|rd ol l|e door |s ore slrord ardurerl lor l|e prelr|ou|al|or raplure ol l|e c|urc| W||c| W||| la|e p|ace al l|e c|ose ol
l|e P|||apdep||ar C|urc| Ade. T||s |s supporled slrord|v ov l|e verses l|al lo||oWs |l.
Rev 3:9 l W||| ra|e l|ose W|o are ol l|e svradodue ol 3alar, W|o c|a|r lo oe JeWs l|oud| l|ev are rol, oul are ||ars--l W||| ra|e l|er core
ard la|| doWr al vour leel ard ac|roW|edde l|al l |ave |oved vou.
T|e excaval|ors l |ave rerl|ored ear||er |rd|cales a svradodue ard a c|urc| |r c|ose prox|r|lv. C|r|sl|ars Were cors|dered as a cu|l ard
|eresv W|l||r l|e JeW|s| re||d|or. JeWs |ad a spec|a| slalus W|l||r l|e Rorar Erp|re W|ere l|ev Were exerpl lror Wors||pp|rd l|e ldo| ol
Caesar. NoW l|ev |ad a r|va| |r C|r|sl|ar la|l|. C|r|sl|ars cors|slerl|v relused lo pav |orade lo l|e |do|s. T||s |as |ed lo a |ol a oelrava| ard
r|va|rv oelWeer l|e lWo la|l|s. ll Was rol urcorror lor JeWs lo oelrav l|e|r le||oW JeWs |r C|r|sl as a |erel|c W|o Were l|er |ed lo l|e ||ors ard
co||seurs as sporl oojecls. ll |s l||s Jesus relerr|rd lo |r l||s passade. Jesus d|ves l|e C|urc| l|e aul|or|lv ard slalus lo s|l W|l| ||r or l|e
l|rore al l|e w||le T|rore W|ere JeW|s| W||| ac|roW|edde l|al l|e C|urc| |s l|e or|de ol l|e C|r|sl.
Rev 3:10 3|rce vou |ave |epl rv corrard lo erdure pal|erl|v, l W||| a|so |eep vou lror l|e |our ol lr|a| l|al |s do|rd lo core upor l|e W|o|e
Wor|d lo lesl l|ose W|o ||ve or l|e earl|.
T||s |s a c|ear relererce lo lacl l|al l|ose W|o are v|clor|ous |r l|e P|||ade|p||a C|urc| Era W||| oe |epl lror l|e lr|a| - l|e dreal lr|ou|al|or- l|al
|s do|rd lo core upor l|e W|o|e Wor|d. T||s verse l|er |rd|cales l|al l|e raplure ol l|e c|urc| |s p|ace oelWeer l|e P|||ade|p||ar ard
Laodec|ar C|urc| Era. T|e secuerce ol l|e l|oud|l paller |s ev|derl|v ol Jesus' secord cor|rd ard ol l|e raplure W||c| |s preceded ov l|e
dreal lr|ou|al|or. 3oor aller l|al cores l|e 0real w||le T|rore W|ere l|e C|urc| Raplured ard rade perlecl s|ares |r l|e d|orv ol Jesus.
Rev 3:11 l ar cor|rd soor. lo|d or lo W|al vou |ave, so l|al ro ore W||| la|e vour croWr.
Nol|ce l|e relererce lo l|e croWr W||c| recessar||v relers lo l|e pos|l|or ol C|urc| raplured.
Rev 3:8 l |roW vour deeds. 3ee, l |ave p|aced oelore vou ar oper door l|al ro ore car s|ul.
The open door
Reve|al|or 1:1 Al l||s po|rl l |ad arol|er v|s|or ard saW ar oper door |r |eaver. [proceeds lo le|| v|s|or ol |eaver|v l|rores ard
crealures Wors||pp|rd 0od.ì
Jo|r 10:Z-8, l ar l|e dale lor l|e s|eep. w|oever cores |r ov re W||| oe saved, ard W||| core |r ard do oul ard l|rd paslure.¨
P|||ade|p||a oe|rd al l|e cross roads ol easl ard Wesl Was ar opporlur|lv ol W|lress|rd l|roud| l|e|r corlacls ard |osp|la||lv lo rarv W|o
passed l|al Wav. Ar oper |ouse ol |ove lor l|ose W|o pass ov |s a sure Wav ol express|rd vour |ove ard |erce corv|rc|rd Wav ol C|r|sl|ar
express|or ard evarde||zal|or. Jesus W|l||r l|e|r |earls, eac| oe||ever oecores a door - a rears ol sa|val|or lor ol|ers. T|ese doors W||| oe
la|er aWav orce l|e raplure |as la|er p|ace.

0|spersal|ora||v l||s roderr era |as lourd lrererdous r|ss|orarv rovererls W||c| |s l|e recessarv cord|l|or lor l|e erd ol l|e ades. A|| rer
rav |ave a la|r opporlur|lv lo |ear l|e Word so l|al W|er judd|rd |e rav oe la|r. V|ss|or l|e|ds are dell|rd opered |r urreac|ao|e areas. 8ul
l|re |s c|ose W|er |l W||| oe s|ul ard a reW per|od ol d|spersal|or W||| us|er |r.
From ph||eo, to |ove and ade|phos, brother.
1 Peler 1:22 3|rce vou |ave |r ooed|erce lo l|e lrul| pur|l|ed vour sou|s lor a s|rcere |ove ol l|e orel|rer, |p|||ade|p||a) lerverl|v |ove
ore arol|er lror l|e |earl,
2 Peler 1:5-Z NoW lor l||s verv reasor a|so, app|v|rd a|| d|||derce, |r vour la|l| supp|v rora| exce||erce, ard |r vour rora| exce||erce,
|roW|edde, ard |r vour |roW|edde, se|l-corlro|, ard |r vour se|l-corlro|, perseverarce, ard |r vour perseverarce, dod||ress, ard |r
vour dod||ress, orol|er|v ||rdress, |p|||ade|p||a) ard |r vour orol|er|v ||rdress, |ove.
Rorars 12:10 8e devoled lo ore arol|er |r orol|er|v |ove, |p|||ade|p||a) d|ve prelererce lo ore arol|er |r |oror,
1 T|essa|or|ars 1:9 NoW as lo l|e |ove ol l|e orel|rer, |p|||ade|p||a) vou |ave ro reed lor arvore lo Wr|le lo vou, lor vou vourse|ves
are laud|l ov 0od lo |ove ore arol|er,
leoreWs 13:1 Lel l|e |ove ol l|e orel|rer |p|||ade|p||a) corl|rue.
Jo|r 13:35 ¨8v l||s a|| rer W||| |roW l|al vou are Vv d|sc|p|es, |l vou |ave |ove lor ore arol|er.¨
Corlrasl l||s W|l| arol|er |ove P|||ardur|a - l|e |ove ol s||ver . | p|||eo= lo |ove , arduros= s||ver)
w|||e P|||ade|p||a or|rds |eaver doWr lo earl| P|||ardur|a or|rds |e||.
1 T|rol|v ê:5-10 ard corslarl lr|cl|or oelWeer rer ol depraved r|rd ard depr|ved ol l|e lrul|, W|o suppose l|al dod||ress |s a
rears ol da|r. 8ul dod||ress aclua||v |s a rears ol dreal da|r, W|er accorpar|ed ov corlerlrerl. For We |ave oroud|l rol||rd |rlo
l|e Wor|d, so We carrol la|e arvl||rd oul ol |l e|l|er. Ard |l We |ave lood ard cover|rd, W|l| l|ese We s|a|| oe corlerl. 8ul l|ose W|o
Warl lo del r|c| la|| |rlo lerplal|or ard a srare ard rarv loo||s| ard |arrlu| des|res W||c| p|urde rer |rlo ru|r ard deslrucl|or. For
l|e |ove ol rorev |s a rool ol a|| sorls ol ev||, ard sore ov |ord|rd lor |l |ave Wardered aWav lror l|e la|l|, ard p|erced l|erse|ves
W|l| rarv a pard. 8ul vou, rar ol 0od, l|ee lror a|| l||s, ard pursue r|d|leousress, dod||ress, la|l|, |ove, erdurarce ard derl|eress.
1 T|r ê:12 F|d|l l|e dood l|d|l ol l|e la|l|. Ta|e |o|d ol l|e elerra| ||le lo W||c| vou Were ca||ed W|er vou rade vour dood corless|or
|r l|e preserce ol rarv W|lresses.
Vall|eW ê:21 ¨No ore car serve lWo raslers, lor e|l|er |e W||| |ale l|e ore ard |ove l|e ol|er, or |e W||| |o|d lo ore ard desp|se l|e
ol|er. You carrol serve 0od ard rarror.
NoW |e le||s l|e c|urc|, oed|rr|rd |r verse 8, |oW |e W||| use l||s poWer lo oper ard s|ul. A|| r|ss|orarv acl|v|l|es are d|recled ov Jesus ||rse|l
l|roud| l|e lo|v 3p|r|l. we |ave severa| exarp|es ol l|ese |r l|e Acls ol Aposl|es.

0r ||s secord r|ss|orarv jourrev |e lr|ed lo do |rlo l|e prov|rce ol As|a lo preac| l|e dospe| oul Was loro|dder ov l|e lo|v 3p|r|l, |l Was a s|ul
door. T|er |e lr|ed lo do |rlo 8|l|vr|a, or l|e soul|err s|ore ol l|e 8|ac| 3ea, oul Was rol a||oWed lo do |r - arol|er s|ul door. 8ul W|er |e
care lo Troas |e |ad a v|s|or ol a rar lror Vacedor|a, ard |e |earred l|al l|e Lord |ad opered a door lor ||r |rlo Europe. .
Three Names
l W||| Wr|le or ||r l|e rare ol rv 0od
ard
l|e rare ol l|e c|lv ol rv 0od, l|e reW Jerusa|er, W||c| |s cor|rd doWr oul ol |eaver lror rv 0od,
ard
l W||| a|so Wr|le or ||r rv reW rare.

T||s ada|r relers lo l|e P|||ars l|al are lourd |r l|e P|||ade|p||ar l|d| Wavs W|ere l|e erperor |orored l|e c|l|zers lor l|e|r dreal serv|ces. 0r
|l Were Wr|ller l|e Erperors rare |r |arde |ellers, l|er l|e rare ol l|e c|lv ard l|er l|e rare ol l|e c|l|zer W|o |s |orored. 0ller |e |s d|ver a
reW l|l|e. C|r|sl|ars ol course W|ere a droup W|l| verv ||ll|e poWer. 8ul corlorls l|er ov sav|rd l|al ||s |oror|rd W||| oe lar rore drealer l|ar
l|ose Wr|l|rds or l|e p|||ars. You W||| oecore a p|||ar W||c| W||| elerra||v slard|rd. w|er a persor |s oorr ada|r |e oecores a reW creal|or ard
Jesus d|ves ||r a reW rare.


6hapter N|ne

LA00E6|A
Rev. 3:14-22

Rev 3:11 Ard lo l|e arde| ol l|e c|urc| |r Laod|cea Wr|le: T|ese l||rds sa|l| l|e Arer, l|e la|l|lu| ard lrue W|lress, l|e oed|rr|rd
ol l|e creal|or ol 0od:
Rev 3:15 l |roW l|v Wor|s, l|al l|ou arl re|l|er co|d ror |ol: l Wou|d l|ou Werl co|d or |ol.
Rev 3:1ê 3o oecause l|ou arl |u|eWarr, ard re|l|er |ol ror co|d, l W||| speW l|ee oul ol rv roul|.
Rev 3:1Z 8ecause l|ou savesl, l ar r|c|, ard |ave doller r|c|es, ard |ave reed ol rol||rd, ard |roWesl rol l|al l|ou arl l|e
Wrelc|ed ore ard r|serao|e ard poor ard o||rd ard ra|ed:
Rev 3:18 l course| l|ee lo ouv ol re do|d rel|red ov l|re, l|al l|ou ravesl oecore r|c|, ard W||le darrerls, l|al l|ou ravesl
c|ol|e l|vse|l, ard rnar l|e s|are ol l|v ra|edress oe rol rade rar|lesl, ard evesa|ve lo aro|rl l||re eves, l|al l|ou ravesl
see.
Rev 3:19 As rarv as l |ove, l reprove ard c|asler: oe zea|ous l|erelore, ard reperl.
Rev 3:20 8e|o|d, l slard al l|e door ard |roc|: |l arv rar |ear rv vo|ce ard oper l|e door, l W||| core |r lo ||r, ard W||| sup
W|l| ||r, ard |e W|l| re.
Rev 3:21 le l|al overcorel|, l W||| d|ve lo ||r lo s|l doWr W|l| re |r rv l|rore, as l a|so overcare, ard sal doWr W|l| rv Fal|er
|r ||s l|rore.
Rev 3:22 le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es.

T|e rare Laod||e|a cores lror lWo Words Lao=peop|e ard dec|a = jusl|ce.. 3o Laod|cea rears = ¨jusl|ce lor l|e peop|e¨ ll Was lourded ov
Arl|oc|us ll oelWeer 2ê0 ard 21ê 8C, ard Was rared |r |oror ol ||s W|le, Laod|ce. 8ul Laod|ce allerWards po|sored Arl|oc|us. T||s |s l|e
sare Arl|oc|us W|o lorred l|e rarr|ade |eadue W|l| Plo|erv P|||ade|p|us, ||rd ol Edvpl, |r lu|l|||rerl ol 0ar|e| 11:ê.
T|e c|lv Was |ocaled aooul lorlv r||es soul|easl ol P|||ade|p||a ard ore |urdred r||es easl ol Ep|esus. 3|lualed or l|e r|ver Lvcus rol lar lror
Co|osse |l Was surrourded ov r|c| larr|rd area W||c| prov|ded lor l|e c|lv |r aourdarce. 8ul |ls |rporlarce cores lror |ls pos|l|or. Laod|cea
Was or l|e crossroads oelWeer l|e |rporlarl lor|ar c|l|es ol l|al l|re. T||s produced a v|dorous lrade cerler ard a oar||rd cap|la|. As a resu|l
peop|e oecare verv Wea|l|v. Laod|cea Was rosl|v popu|aled W|l| 3vr|ars ard JeWs lrarsporled lror 8aov|or. JeWs |||e l|e|r courler parls
e|seW|ere |r l|e Wor|d - oecause ol l|e|r |ard Wor| ard c|everress - corlro||ed rosl ol l|e lrade ard correrce |r l|e c|lv. ll |s assessed l|al
l|ere Were over Z,500 JeW|s| lar|||es al l|e l|re l||s |eller Was Wr|ller. C|cero |s |roWr lo |ave ||ved |r l||s c|lv arourd 50 8C. lr A0 ê0 ar
earl|cua|e deslroved l|e c|lv ard l|e c|l|zers Were ao|e lo reou||d |l W|l|oul l|e |e|p pl Rore. lr A0 êê l|e c|lv Was deslroved ov arol|er
earl|cua|e ard Was reou||l ov Varcus Aure||us.
Laodec|a Was l|e |eadcuarlers ol red|ca| pracl|ces ol l|al per|od. 3|l|rd or a vo|car|c rourla|rs|de l|e c|lv |ad a ruroer ol |ol, co|d, ard
|u|eWarr spr|rds. Vosl ol l|ese Walers corla|red |arde ruroer ol r|rera|s ard Was supposed |ave |ea||rd properl|es. T|ese prov|ded l|e r|c|
W|l| a ser|es ol |ea|l| resorls W||c| Were superv|sed ov a |ead|rd p|vs|c|ar. T|ousards ol s|c| peop|e jourreved lo Laod|cea lo l|ese spas lo
oerel|l lror l|e red|ca| lrealrerls ollered ov l|e p|vs|c|ars, l|e eve sa|ve, l|e r|rera| Waler, ard l|e |ol ard |u|eWarr spr|rds. A|l|oud| l|e
Waler Was p|eas|rd lo l|e oodv , |l Was rauseal|rd lo dr|r|.
lr l||s r|c| c|lv Was a r|c| C|r|sl|ar C|urc|.
Amen, the fa|thfu| and true w|tness, the ru|er of Cod's creat|on.
Jesus |rlroduces ||rse|l lo l||s c|urc| W|l| l|ree ep|l|els.
Arer - T|e u|l|rale rea||zal|or ol a|| pror|ses ol 0od lo rar||rd.
Jo|r 3:18 w|oever oe||eves |r ||r |s rol corderred, oul W|oever does rol oe||eve slards corderred a|readv oecause |e |as rol oe||eved |r
l|e rare ol 0od's ore ard or|v 3or.
w|al Jesus |s sav|rd |s l|al |e W||| core oac| lo d|ve lo eac| persor l|e jusl|ce l|al |s rer|led - Laodec|a. T||s |s erp|as|zed |r l|e secord
ep|l|el ol la|l|lu| ard lrue W|lress.
Jesus |s la|l|lu| oul |e |s l|e W|lress lo a|| rer. ll |s l|e rejecl|or or acceplarce ol Jesus l|al u|l|rale|v dec|ded evervore's lale. le |s a|so l|e
Ru|er ol a|| 0od's creal|or.
le |s l|e judde oecause a|| aul|or|lv |r |eaver ard earl| are d|ver lo Jesus.
Val 28:18 T|er Jesus care lo l|er ard sa|d, ¨A|| aul|or|lv |r |eaver ard or earl| |as oeer d|ver lo re.
Jo|r 5:22 Voreover, l|e Fal|er juddes ro ore, oul |as erlrusled a|| juddrerl lo l|e 3or,
Rev 3:15 | know your deeds, that you are ne|ther co|d nor hot. | w|sh you were e|ther one or the other!
Rev 3:1ô 8o, because you are |ukewarm--ne|ther hot nor co|d--| am about to sp|t you out of my mouth.
Laodec|ar C|urc| Was a |u|e Warr C|urc|. 8ul l|ev d|d do a |ol ol dood Wor|s. T|ev Were acl|ve |r soc|a| up||ll|rd ard corrur|lv projecls elc.
T|ev expecled lo oe jusl|l|ed ov l|e|r Wor|s aparl lror Jesus. T|e cross Was r|ss|rd. T|ev |reW ol l|e |u|eWarr spr|rds W||c| Were
rauseal|rd lo dr|r|. L||e l|ose Walers Jesus savs |e W||| |ave lo sp|l l|er oul - rejecl l|er oul lror ||s c|o|ce. lr sp|r|lua| rallers We reed lo
ra|e a c|o|ce. we carrol oe reulra|. You rusl e|l|er rejecl or accepl l|e derards ol Jesus. T|ere are or|v lWo c|asses ol peop|e. T|ose W|o
are saved ard l|ose W|o are rol saved. T|ere |s ro purdalorv ous|ress |ere. T|e |u|eWarrress ol l|e c|urc|es arourd l|e Wor|d |s l|e resu|l
ol We||-oe|rd. T|ev lee| ro recess|lv . 0roWl| a|Wavs cores l|roud| corl||cl |r a s|rlu| Wor|d. T||s |s W|v Adar Was d|ver l|e o|ess|rd upor l|e
la||
0er 3:18 ll W||| produce l|orrs ard l||sl|es lor vou, ard vou W||| eal l|e p|arls ol l|e l|e|d.
0er 3:19 8v l|e sWeal ol vour oroW vou W||| eal vour lood url|| vou relurr lo l|e drourd, s|rce lror |l vou Were la|er, lor dusl vou are ard lo
dusl vou W||| relurr.¨
0r|v |r ar urla||er slale car corl||cl oe e||r|raled W|l|oul |arr. url|| l|er everv rar |ave l||s c|o|ce W||c| |e s|ou|d ra|e.
Rev 3:17 You say, '| am r|ch; | have acqu|red wea|th and do not need a th|ng.' ßut you do not rea||ze that you are wretched, p|t|fu|,
poor, b||nd and naked.
Jesus la|||rd lo l|e r|c| Laod|c|ars |r l|e|r oWr lerrs. T|ev Were proud ol l|e|r r|c|es ard dreal accu|s|l|ors. 3uc| prosper|lv deve|ops ar
arl|pal|v lo sp|r|lua| rallers.
0eu 8:1Z You rav sav lo vourse|l, ¨Vv poWer ard l|e slrerdl| ol rv |ards |ave produced l||s Wea|l| lor re.¨
0eu 8:18 8ul rereroer l|e L0R0 vour 0od, lor |l |s |e W|o d|ves vou l|e ao|||lv lo produce Wea|l|, ard so corl|rrs ||s coverarl, W||c| |e
sWore lo vour lorelal|ers, as |l |s lodav.
0eu 8:19 ll vou ever lordel l|e L0R0 vour 0od ard lo||oW ol|er dods ard Wors||p ard ooW doWr lo l|er, l lesl|lv ada|rsl vou lodav l|al vou
W||| sure|v oe deslroved.
0eu 8:20 L||e l|e ral|ors l|e L0R0 deslroved oelore vou, so vou W||| oe deslroved lor rol ooev|rd l|e L0R0 vour 0od.
Rev 3:18 | counse| you to buy from me go|d ref|ned |n the f|re, so you can become r|ch; and wh|te c|othes to wear, so you can cover
your shamefu| nakedness; and sa|ve to put on your eyes, so you can see.
T|e c|lv Was a|so roled lor l|e o|ac| c|ol| rarulaclured l|ere lror o|ac| Woo| produced |r l|e va||ev. T|e Woo| Was d|ossv o|ac| ard ol a soll
lexlure a|rosl |||e s||| ard larous l|roud|oul l|e W|o|e red|or,. 8|ac| darrerls Were a|rosl ur|versa||v Worr ov l|e Laod|cears ard |l
svroo||zed l|e|r soc|a| slalus. T|ev a|so Wore do|d orrarerls. C|r|sl adv|sed l|e C|r|sl|ars ol l|e c|lv lo ouv ol l|r, ¨do|d rel|red |r l|e l|re, ....
ard W||le c|ol|es lo Wear¨. T|e peop|e ol Laod|cea Were lar|||ar W|l| l|e W||le loda Worr ov Rorar c|l|zers ard oll|c|a|s. 0r|v l|e Rorar
c|l|zers Were pr|v||eded lo Wear l||s W||le darrerl ard |l Was a ||d| |oror. ll Was svroo| ol v|clorv ard aul|or|lv. T|ev Were l|e ru|ers. lr l|e
8|o|e W||le represerls pur|lv ard r|d|leousress. Jesus as|s l|e Laodec|ars lo Wear l|e |rpuled r|d|leousress ol Jesus so l|al l|ev oecore
v|clors ard ru|ers ol l|e earl|. Core ard oe parl ol l|e K|rd W|o |s cor|rd lo judde.
we |ave e|seW|ere relerred lo l|e 3c|oo| ol Ved|c|re ard Aescu|ap|us. T|ere Were over lWo |urdred Terp|es ol Karu ded|caled lo
Aescu|ap|us, l|e 0ree| dod ol red|c|re. lr l||s lerp|e l|ev rade l|e larous P|vd|ar eve sa|ve, ca||ed co||vr|ur. Jesus l|e 0real P|vs|c|ar,
prescr|oes lo l||s l|e sp|r|lua||v o||rd Laod|cears lo ouv eve sa|ve lror l|r l|al l|ev r|d|l |ave sp|r|lua| v|s|or |rslead ol l|e eve sa|ve lror l|e
|eal|er dods.
Rev 3:19 Those whom | |ove | rebuke and d|sc|p||ne. 8o be earnest, and repent.
lr l|e r|dsl ol p|erlv ard aourdarce Jesus savs |e W||| reou|e ard d|sc|p||re so l|al l|ev rav or|rd lorl| reperlarce. Reou|e ard d|sc|p||r|rd
|r l|e ||ves ol C|r|sl|ars are rearl lo produce reperlarce ard droWl|. T||s d|ves us l|e |rs|d|l lor ore ol l|e reasors lor pa|r ard sullerr|rd.
leo 12:5-15 Ard vou |ave lordoller l|al Word ol ercouradererl l|al addresses vou as sors: ¨Vv sor, do rol ra|e ||d|l ol l|e Lord's
d|sc|p||re..
Rev 3:20 here | am! | stand at the door and knock. |f anyone hears my vo|ce and opens the door, | w||| come |n and eat w|th h|m, and he
w|th me.
Rev 3:21 To h|m who overcomes, | w||| g|ve the r|ght to s|t w|th me on my throne, just as | overcame and sat down w|th my Father on
h|s throne.
T||s larous verse |s used lo s|oW l|al Jesus |s |roc||rd al l|e doors ol |urar |earl. 3o |e |s. w|v |s |l l|al Jesus l|e ru|er ol a|| creal|or
slard|rd ouls|de ard |roc|. le |s l|e ru|er. le |as a|| l|e aul|or|lv over a|| ||s creal|ors. 8ul |e W||| rol |rpose ||s aul|or|lv or rar's |earl.
Everv rar |s d|ver lreedor ol c|o|ce. ll |s a lreedor le |as d|ver al l|e l|re ol creal|or. lr sp|le ol a|| l|e ev|| l|al |as core oul l||s lreedor,
0od |s rol do|rd lo la|e |l aWav. ll |s sorel||rd 0od respecls - ever W|er |l |urls lo l|s core. 0od |s rol a lvrarl, ror rar a v|cl|r. T|e rea||lv
ol l|e |rcarral|or ard l|e cross |s l|e slalererl ol l||s lacl. lrcarral|or |lse|l W||| oe rear|rd|ess ur|ess We urderslard l||s dreal lrul|. Jesus
|roc|s al l|e |earl. le W||| rol oper l|e door. T|e |alc| |s d|ver lo rar |r l|e |rs|de. ll |e opers |l, Jesus pror|ses lo core |r ard |ave
le||oWs||p W|l| ||r.
T|e corsecuerce ol l||s |s l|al |e d|ves l|e r|d|l lo s|l W|l| Jesus or l|e l|rore.
0|spersal|ora||v l||s |asl C|urc| represerls l|e erd l|re c|urc| W||c| |as dore aposlale. T|ev oecare poWerlu|, Wea|l|v ard corlro||ed l|e
correrce. For |l l|ev |ave lo oecore re|l|er co|d rol |ol. T|ev sl||| |o|ds or l|e rare. 8ul l|ev W||| rever proc|a|r Jesus as Lord. To|eral|or
ol padar re||d|ors ard svrcrel|sr W||| oe |a||rar| ol l||s c|urc|. Evervl||rd |s acceplao|e. Al l|e erd ol l||s era |s l|e W||le l|rore - l|e
juddrerl seal ol Jesus W||c| W||| d|ve jusl|ce lo a|| rer. T|er l|e overcorers W||| oe s|ll|rd W|l| ||r or l|e l|rore. T||s ada|r |rd|cales raplure
|ord oelore l|e W||le l|rore. 3|rce l||s ade |as ro correrdal|or |l |s assured l|al l|e rea| c|urc| |as oeer raplured oll sorel|re dur|rd or
oelore l||s ade. w|er l|e preserce ol l|e sa|l |s r|ss|rd decav |s lasler ard |rev|lao|e. w|l| ro oppos|l|or lo ev||, |l oecore predor|rarl.
Ever dur|rd l||s l|re peop|e do core lo sa|val|or ov oper|rd l|e door ol l|e|r |earls.




6hapter Ten
ThE 8EVEN 6hUR6hE8
A 8tudy on the f|rst three 6hapters |n Reve|at|on

T|ese sever |ellers We |ave exar|red lo||oW a sel pallerr ol Wr|l|rd. T|ere are 3ever Kev E|ererls |r eac| |eller . T|ev are:
1. T|e rear|rd ol l|e rare ol l|e c|urc| oe|rd addressed,
2. T|e l|l|e ol Jesus, l|e aul|or ol l|e |eller, eac| c|oser re|evarl lo l|e ressade lo l|al parl|cu|ar c|urc|,
3. T|e correrdal|or ol l|e C|urc|- T|e|r slrord po|rls ard rer|ls,
1. T|e reprool ard reou|e ol l||rds l|ev la||ed |r,
5. T|e ex|orlal|or ard course| spec|l|c lo l|e cord|l|or ol l|e parl|cu|ar c|urc|, re|evarl lo l|e deodrap|v ard ||slorv ol l|e c|lv,
ê. T|e pror|se lo l|e ¨overcorer¨,
Z. T|e corc|ud|rd p|rase, ¨le l|al |al| ar ear, |el ||r |ear W|al l|e 3p|r|l sa|l| lo l|e c|urc|es.¨
we car |derl|lv eac| ol l|ese c|urc|es W|l| l|e ades ol l|e c|urc| roud||v. T|e oed|rr|rd ard l|e erds ol eac| ade |s rol s|arp. T|ev a||
over|ap eac| ol|er ard eac| ade corl|rue lo oe W|l| us a|| l|e l|re.

The
Hean|ng
of
Names
T|t|es that
Jesus uses
6ommendat|ons Reproof 6ounse|

Prom|se to
0vercomers
ACE
Ephesus T|e
0es|red
0re: lu||
purposed
w|o le W|o
|o|ds l|e
sever slars |r
||s r|d|l |ard
ard Wa||
arord l|e
sever do|der
|arpslards
deeds, |ard Wor|,
perseverarce,
erdured |ards||p,
d|d rol lo|erale
W|c|ed rer
lorsa|er l|e|r
l|rsl |ove
oe la|l|lu| lo
l|e po|rl ol
deal|





w||| rol oe |url al a||
ov l|e secord deal|.

Ephesus
Aposlo||c Per|od:
soW|rd ol l|e
seeds
l||| 100 A0
8myna: Vvrr|,
0ller|rd ol
3acr|l|ce
T|e F|rsl ard
l|e Lasl, W|o
d|ed ard
care oac| lo
||le ada|r.
l|roud| all||cl|or
ard poverlv d|d rol
|eave la|l|
reperl,
ol|erW|se l
W||| core ard
l|d|l ada|rsl
l|er
l W||| d|ve sore ol l|e
||dder rarra, l W|||
a|so d|ve ||r a W||le
slore W|l| a reW rare
Wr|ller or |l, |roWr
or|v lo ||r W|o
rece|ves |l.
8myna:
Persecul|or
Per|od 90 - 325
A0

Pergamos Vuc|
Varr|ed,
Adu|lerous
w|o |as l|e
s|arp
douo|e-
edded sWord
arord l|e salar|sls
|epl l|e la|l| ard
d|d rol rerource
la|l|
leac||rd ol
8a|aar
leac||rd ol
N|co|a|lars
|o|d or lo
W|al vou
|ave url|| l
core
l W||| d|ve ||r l|e
aul|or|lv over l|e
ral|ors.
l W||| d|ve ||r l|e
rorr|rd slar
Pergamos
3lale C|urc|
Per|od 325 - 590
A0
Parao|e ol Vuslard
3eed
l|al droWs |rlo a
lree





Thyat|ra 3acr|l|ce
ol Laoor
3or ol 0od,
W|ose eves
are |||e
o|az|rd l|re
ard W|ose
leel are |||e
ourr|s|ed
ororze.
deeds, |ove ard
la|l|, serv|ce ard
perseverarce
lo|erales
Jezeoe|





Rereroer
W|al vou
|ave rece|ved
ard |eard,
ooev |l ard
reperl



T|ev W||| Wa|| W|l| re ,
dressed |r W||le.
l W||| rever o|ol oul ||s rare
lror l|e ooo| ol ||le, oul W|||
ac|roW|edde ||r oelore rv
Fal|er ard ||s arde|s
Thyat|ra
Per|od ol
leresv 550 -
1ê00 A0
Parao|e ol l|e
Leaver
8ard|s Rerrarl w|o |o|ds
sever sp|r|ls
ol 0od ard
l|e sever
slars.
0eeds




0ead





lo|d or lo
W|al vou
|ave
l W||| Wr|le or ||r l|e rare
ol rv 0od, l|e reW
Jerusa|er, W||c| |s cor|rd
doWr lror |eaver lror rv
0od,
l W||| a|so Wr|le or ||r rv
reW rare.

8ard|s
Relorral|or
Per|od 15Z0 -
1Z50 A0
Parao|e ol l|e
l|dder
Treasure
Ph||ade|ph|a 8rol|er|v
Love
w|o |s |o|v
ard lrue, W|o
|o|ds l|e |ev
ol 0av|d.
0re W|o
opers l|e
door W||c|
ro ore car
s|ul.
deeds, |epl l|e
Word, d|d rol derv
rv rare






ouv lror re
do|d rel|red
|r l|re so vou
cr oe
r|c|,ard W||le
c|ol|es lo
Wear, so vou
car cover
vour
ra|edress,
ard s|ave lo
pul or vour
eves so l|al
vou car see
l W||| d|ve l|e r|d|l lo s|l W|l|
re or rv l|rore.
Ph||ade|ph|a
V|ss|orarv
Per|od A0
1Z50 -
Parao|e ol l|e
0real Pear|
Laod|cea Jusl|ce lo
Peop|e,
Juddrerl
T|ee Arer,
l|e la|l|lu|
ard lrue
W|lress, l|e
ru|er ol 0od's
creal|or.
0eeds






Ne|l|er |ol
ror co|d ard
|s |u|eWarr
ll vou
|rereroer
vour l|rsl |ove
reperl ard do
l|e l||rds vou
d|d l|rsl




l W||| d|ve l|e r|d|l lo eal
lror l|e lree ol ||le W||c| |s
|r l|e parad|se ol 0od.


Laod|cea
Erd l|re
Aposlale
C|urc| Per|od
T|e Parao|e ol
l|e 0rad Nel

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