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**REPORT ON THE SEMINAR TOPIC
**

Analysis of Companding and Windowing Techniques to reduce Peak-to-Average Power Ratio(PAPR) in Orthogonal Frequency Division Division Multiplexing(OFDM)

delivered by

Student name (s) ASHWINI S. DESAI MADHURI R. MOHOD Exam Seat no.(s) B3203028 B3203080

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor Of Engineering In

**ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION of UNIVERSITY OF PUNE ,
**

in

CUMMINS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN , KARVENAGAR , PUNE -411052 , in the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication under the guidance of

Name of Internal guide ( Prof.Mr. A.R. Khedkar )

in the Academic year 2008 - 09

_____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering, Pune

1

Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________

This is to certify that Student names MOHOD MADHURI RAMESH DESAI ASHWINI SRINIVAS have successfully delivered a SEMINAR on their PROJECT TOPIC

ANALYSIS OF COMPANDING AND WINDOWING TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCTION OF PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO (PAPR) IN ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (OFDM)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION of UNIVERSITY OF PUNE , in CUMMINS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN , KARVENAGAR , PUNE-52 .

Sign. of Internal guide (Name : - Prof. Mr. A.R. KHEDKAR)

Sign. of H.O.D. Sign. & Seal of Principal

_____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering, Pune

2

Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank Prof. Mr. A.R. Khedkar for his continuous valuable guidance, support, valuable suggestions and his precious time in every possible way inspite of his busy schedule throughout our project activity. We would also like to express our gratitude towards our Project Co-ordinator Prof. Mr. M.S. Patankar for his constant guidance during our project. We would also like to thank our H.O.D. Prof. Mr. S.V. Kulkarni for his continuous encouragement. We take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to all the staff members of Electronic and Telecommunication Department for their help whenever required. Finally we express our sincere thanks to all those who helped us indirectly or directly in this project.

Student Names:1. Ashwini S. Desai Exam no:-B3203028 2. Madhuri R. Mohod Exam no:-B3203080

_____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering, Pune

3

_____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. The data are divided into several parallel data streams or channels. feasible or lead to sub optimal results. namely-Companding and Windowing we intend to obtain transmitted data with reduced Peak-to-Average Power Ratio. OFDM is especially suitable for high-speed communication due to its resistance to intersymbol interference (ISI). one for each sub-carrier. sinusoidal. attempts to recover the input data. simulates a channel. and performs an analysis to determine the PAPR of the system. Companding and Windowing techniques are then applied to obtain the same data with reduced PAPR.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT Digital multimedia applications create an ever increasing demand for broad band communication systems. maintaining total data rates similar to conventional single-carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth. Matlab programming is used to implement OFDM transmitter and receiver. In OFDM system. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a method that allows to transmit high data rates over extremely hostile channels at a comparatively low complexity than the traditional single carrier techniques. or random data. This project aims at implementing OFDM system in Matlab and at observing its performance in the presence of noise. Matlab simulation accepts inputs of text or audio files as well as binary. Pune 4 . The technical requirements for related products are very high but it is desired that the solutions must be cheap to implement. By utilizing two techniques. a large number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers are used to carry data. Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase shift keying at a low symbol rate. It then generates the corresponding OFDM transmission.

…..….2 4th Generation Wireless System……………………………...…18 4.6 2.11 3.2 Windowing…………………………………………………..21 4.2 Interleaving………………………………………………..….26 _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.…19 4.....25 5..2.3 Orthogonality………………………………………………….. Techniques to overcome high PAPR…………………………….3 Frequency to time domain conversion…………………….19 4.4 Guard Period……………………………………………..10 3.….2 Need for multiple carrier system………………………………..…21 4.19 4.1 3rd Generation Wireless System………………………….12 3.23 6.. Abbreviations and symbols……………………………………..1 Serial to parallel conversion……………………………….2..2..1 How is OFDM system different from other communication system……………………………………11 3..25 5..22 4. Study of basic communication systems……………………………8 2..…23 5.….….20 4..19 4.4.1 Companding………………………………………………. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing……………………..Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ Index 1.16 4.2 Subcarrier modulation……………………………………..4.5 Cyclic Prefix………………………………………….. Pune 5 ...4 Channel Coding…………………………………………….9 3... Peak-to-Average Power Ratio(PAPR)……………………………...17 4.1 Frequency Selective Fading…………………………………...3 Effect of White Gaussian Noise……………………………….2.1 Advantages of Orthogonality…………………………………12 4.....1 OFDM Transmitter………………………………………..2 OFDM Receiver…………………………………………….......….2.……8 2....3. OFDM Transceiver…………………………………………….

IS-95) Third Generation mobile phone system (systems using WCDMA) Fourth Generation mobile phone system Amplitude Modulation Additive White Gaussian Noise Bits per second per hertz (unit of spectral efficiency) Bit Error Rate Bits per second Binary Phase Shift Keying Base Station Code Division Multiple Access Crest Factor (peak to average power ratio of the RF envelope) Digital Audio Broadcasting Decibel (ratio in log scale) Direct Current (0 Hz) Discrete Fourier Transform Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Frequency Division Multiplexing Fast Fourier Transform Finite Impulse Response (digital filter) Frequency Modulation Sample Frequency Frequency Shift Keying Gigahertz . Pune 6 .103 Hz Kilometer (103 m) Metre Mega bits per second (106 bps) Megahertz .106Hz Moving Picture Experts Group (Video compression standard) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Peak to Average Power Ratio Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality Of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.109 Hz Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Global System for Mobile communications High Definition Television Inverse Fast Fourier Transform Inter-Symbol Interference Kilo bits per second (103 bps) Kilohertz .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ Abbreviations and Symbols 2G: 3G: 4G: AM: AWGN : B/s/Hz: BER: Bps: BPSK: BS: CDMA: CF: DAB: dB: DC: DFT: DSSS: FDM: FFT: FIR: FM: Fs: FSK: GHz: GMSK: GSM: HDTV: IFFT: ISI: kbps kHz: km : mv: Mbps: MHz: MPEG OFDM: PAPR QAM QOS QPSK Second Generation mobile phone system (GSM.

Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ RF RMS SNR SSB TDM: TDMA: UMTS: Ms: W-CDMA: WLAN: WLL: Radio Frequency Root Mean Squared Signal to Noise Ratio Single Side Band Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiple Access Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Microsecond (10-6 s) Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Local Loop Introduction important chapters Introduction important chapters _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Pune 7 .

remote logging. such as wireless appliances.4kbps). These systems shift to more data oriented services such as Internet access. and allows a greater cellular spectral efficiency than 2G systems. Third generation systems use Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) as the carrier modulation scheme. Study of basic techniques of communication: 1. voice communications and mobile videophones. flexible data rate.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 1. notebooks with built in mobile phones. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. wireless web cameras. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.1 3rd Generation Wireless System: Third generation mobile systems such as the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and CDMA2000 are striving to provide higher data rates than current 2G systems. Third generation systems provide a significantly higher data rate (64 kbps – 2 Mbps) than second-generation systems (9. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. car navigation systems.6 – 14. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony. The higher data rate of 3G systems will be able to support a wide range of applications including Internet access. Pune 8 . This modulation scheme has a high multipath tolerance. all in a mobile environment. video calls. In addition to this. they offer permanent network connectivity. and so forth. and broadband wireless data.

allowing a greater range of applications.2 4th Generation Wireless System: The commercial rollout of these systems is likely to begin around 2008 . Pune 9 . and improved universal access. In addition to high data rates.e. This will allow 4G networks to replace many of the functions of WLAN systems. such as High Definition Television (HDTV) (4 .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 1.2012. and will replace 3rd generation technology It is likely that they will be able to extendthe capabilities of 3G networks. The spectral efficiency of 3G networks is too low to support high data rate services at low cost. This will become inadequate as more systems become dependent on wireless networking.95% of the area of the cell. which are designed to achieve 90 95% coverage i. future systems must support a higher Quality Of Service (QOS) than current cellular systems.5%.100 Mbps).20 Mbps) and computer network applications (1 . _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. network connection can be obtained over 90 . Thus. 4G networks should encompass broadband wireless services.As a consequence one of the main focuses of 4G systems will be to significantly improve the spectral efficiency. As a result 4G systems are likely to require a QOS closer to 98-99.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) can be termed as an alternative wireless modulation technology to CDMA. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 2. OFDM System: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is becoming the chosen modulation technique for wireless communications. In 1966 Chang patented the structure of OFDM and published the concept of using orthogonal overlapping multi-tone signals for data communications. It is only recently that the advances in integrated circuit technology have made the implementation of OFDM cost effective. This presented an opportunity for an easy implementation of OFDM. eliminating the requirement for banks of analog subcarrier oscillators. This suggested that the easiest implementation of OFDM is with the use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP). The reliance on DSP prevented the wide spread use of OFDM during the early development of OFDM. with the introduction of the Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) system. especially with the use of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). History: The origins of OFDM development started in the late 1950’s with the introduction of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) for data communications. which are an efficient implementation of the DFT. Pune 10 . Many research centers in the world have specialized teams working in the optimization of OFDM for countless applications. In 1971 Weinstein introduced the idea of using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for implementation of the generation and reception of OFDM signals. OFDM has the potential to surpass the capacity of CDMA systems and provide the wireless access method for 4G systems. It wasn’t until the late 1980’s that work began on the development of OFDM for commercial use. which can implement FFT algorithms.

_____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. the receiver sees more than one copy of the signal. ISI occurs when a transmission interferes with itself and the receiver cannot decode the transmission correctly. Since the indirect paths take more time to travel to the receiver. the same transmission is sent in all directions. In communication terminology. Because the signal reflects from large objects such as mountains or buildings. causing ISI. this is called multipath.1 How is OFDM different from other communication systems?? A common problem found in high-speed communication is inter-symbol interference (ISI). Pune 11 . the delayed copies of the signal interfere with the direct signal. in a wireless communication system such as that shown in the following figure.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 2. For example.

This results in a low symbol rate reducing the amount of ISI. For example. In addition to this. the time for each transmission necessarily becomes shorter. Traditional vs.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Another reason to consider OFDM is low-complexity implementation for high-speed systems compared to traditional single carrier techniques. On the other hand. Since the delay time caused by multipath remains constant. OFDM would send the four pieces simultaneously as shown on the right. each piece of data has a duration of four seconds. each piece of data in the left picture has a duration of one second. OFDM overcomes the effects of multipath by breaking the signal into many narrow bandwidth carriers. OFDM avoids this problem by sending many low speed transmissions simultaneously. removing the effects of ISI for multipath signals delayed less than the guard period. In this case. As communication systems increase their information transfer speed. a guard period is added to the start of each symbol. the figure below shows two ways to transmit the same four pieces of binary data.2 Need For Multiple-Carrier System: OFDM is especially suitable for high-speed communication due to its resistance to ISI. This longer duration leads to fewer problems with ISI. ISI becomes a limitation in high-data-rate communication. Pune 12 . OFDM Communication Suppose that this transmission takes four seconds. Then. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.

divide the available transmission bandwidth. transmitted in parallel. but in a multi-carrier system. There are 2 main reasons: During transmission. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. But the question arises…why we use a multi-carrier system. a large number of orthogonal. we do not lose the whole stream It helps combat frequency-selective channel fading. overlapping. Pune 13 .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ In an OFDM scheme. data may be lost in one or two sub-carriers. narrow band Sub-channels or sub carriers. The separation of the sub carriers is theoretically minimal such that there is a very compact spectral utilization.

3 Orthogonality: Orthogonality: Signals are orthogonal if they are mutually independent of each other. without interference. Orthogonality is a property that allows multiple information signals to be transmitted perfectly over a common channel and detected.5(n+m) These two components are each a sinusoid. Pune 14 .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 2.yhis is equal to a sum of two sinusoids of frequency (n-m) and (n+m) = 0. Let’s take a sine wave of frequency m and multiply it by sinusoid of a frequency n. Loss of orthogonality results in blurring between these information signals and degradation in communications.5(n-m) + 0. The integral or the area under the product is given by: f(t) = sin mwt x sin nwt By simple trigonometric relationship. Two signals are said to be orthogonal when their dot product is equal to zero. where both m and n are integers.so the integral is equal to zero over one period. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.

As a consequence the subcarriers are orthogonal to each other The orthogonal nature of the transmission is a result of the peak of each subcarrier corresponding to the nulls of all other subcarriers.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ The subcarriers in an OFDM signal are spaced as close as is theoretically possible while maintain orthogonality between them. with each corresponding to a subcarrier. 2.1 Advantages of Orthogonality: • • • • There is no need of introducing guard bands Orthogonality offers high spectral efficiency It simplifies design of transmitter and receiver Cross-talk is eliminated 15 _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. When this signal is detected using a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) the spectrum is not continuous . resulting in all subcarriers having an integer number of cycles per symbol. but has discrete samples. OFDM achieves orthogonality in the frequency domain by allocating each of the separate information signals onto different subcarriers.3.This will be elaborated in the transceiver section of OFDM. OFDM signals are made up from a sum of sinusoids. The baseband frequency of each subcarrier is chosen to be an integer multiple of the inverse of the symbol time. Pune .

OFDM Transceiver _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Pune 16 . OFDM Transceiver 3.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ OFDM Transceiver 3.

The complex numbers are modulated in a base band fashion by the IFFT and converted back to serial data for transmission. and the process results in the formation of a complex modulated waveform at the output of the transmitter.The incoming serial data is first converted from serial to parallel and grouped into x bits each to form a complex number. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 3. The discrete symbols are converted to analog and lowpass filtered for RF up-conversion.1 OFDM TRANSMITTER OFDM transmitters generate both the carrier and the data signal simultaneously with purely digital circuits residing in the specialized DSP(Digital Signal Processor) microchips. Pune 17 . The specific process of digital signal generation used in OFDM is based on the series of mathematical computations known as an Inverse Fourier Transform. A guard interval is inserted between symbols to avoid intersymbol interference (ISI) caused by multipath distortion.

The IFFT and the FFT are complementary function and the most appropriate term depends on whether the signal is being received or generated. then using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to analyse the signal in the frequency domain. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.2 OFDM RECEIVER The receiver performs the reverse operation of the transmitter. mixing the RF signal to base band for processing. In cases where the signal is independent of this distinction then the term FFT and IFFT is used.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 3. The amplitude and phase of the subcarriers is then picked out and converted back to digital data. Pune 18 .

Pune 19 . In the receiver. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. mapping the received IQ vector back to the data word performs subcarrier demodulation.2. For example for a single carrier BPSK modulation. they are mapped using a modulation scheme to a subcarrier amplitude and phase.2. all unused subcarriers are set to zero. resulting in a symbol rate that is Nc times lower than the single carrier transmission. An IFFT is then used to convert this signal to the time domain. However for OFDM the system bandwidth is broken up into Nc subcarriers. In OFDM.4 GUARD PERIOD For a given system bandwidth the symbol rate for an OFDM signal is much lower than a single carrier transmission scheme. and so for a transmission using 100 sub carriers the number of bits per symbol would be 400.4000 bits. which is represented by a complex Inphase and Quadrature-phase (IQ) vector. This sets up the OFDM signal in the frequency domain. 3.2.3 FREQUENCY TO TIME DOMAIN CONVERSION After the subcarrier modulation stage each of the data subcarriers is set to an amplitude and phase based on the data being sent and the modulation scheme.2. and so a serial to parallel conversion stage is needed to convert the input serial bit stream to the data to be transmitted in each OFDM symbol.2 SUB CARRIER MODULATION Once each subcarrier has been allocated bits for transmission. 3. the symbol rate corresponds to the bit rate of the transmission. This low symbol rate makes OFDM naturally resistant to effects of InterSymbol Interference (ISI) caused by multipath propagation. for a sub carrier modulationof 16-QAM each sub carrier carries 4 bits of data. each symbol typically transmits 40 . The data allocated to each symbol depends on the modulation scheme used and the number of sub carriers. 3. allowing it to be transmitted.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 3. For example.1 SERIAL TO PARALLEL CONVERSION Data to be transmitted is typically in the form of a serial data stream.

2.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 3.5 Cyclic Prefix: In an OFDM symbol the cyclic prefix is a repeat of the end of the symbol at the beginning The purpose is to allow multipath to settle before the main data arrives at the receiver The length of the cyclic prefix is often equal to the guard interval _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Pune 20 .

OFDM signals have a flat spectral density and a Gaussian amplitude distribution provided that the number of carriers is large. and IMD also have AWGN properties for OFDM signals. because convolution coding offer good performance with low implementation cost. Pune 21 . interference or jamming. This noise has a uniform spectral density making it white and a Gaussian distribution in amplitude also referred to as a normal distribution or bell curve. or error control coding. electrical noise in the receiver amplifiers. is to improve bit error ratio (BER) performance by adding structured redundancy to the transmitted data.3 EFFECT OF ADDITIVE WHITE GAUSSIAN NOISE ON OFDM: Noise exists in all communications systems operating over an analog physical channel. and Inter-Modulation Distortion (IMD). Because of this the inter-cellular interference from other OFDM systems have AWGN properties.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 3. In addition to this noise can also be generated internally to the communications system as a result of Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). noise. fading. Coding is performed on serial data before symbol mapping. Most types of noise present in radio communication systems can be modelled accurately using Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In OFDM channel coding is done with convolution coding. 3. The main sources are thermal background noise. and inter-cellular interference. Basic channel coding methods are block coding and convolution coding. ultimately limiting the spectral efficiency of the system. Channel impairments can cause errors to the signal.g. Convolution coding operates with bit streams _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Channel coding means that additional redundant bits are added to the signal to enable error detection and error correction. such as radio. Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI). These sources of noise decrease the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). these impairments can be e. For the same reason ICI. ISI.4 CHANNEL CODING The goal of channel coding.

Below is an example of a two-path transmission. From memory length can be derived constraint length using the equation given below. Constraint length tells how many output bits are influenced with single input bit. of a multipath component corresponds to the number of wavelengths the signal has travelled from the transmitter. This is due to the phase response of the multipath components varying with frequency. Encoder maps k input bits into n output bits. The wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency and so for a fixed transmission path the phase will change with frequency. The received phase. Pune 22 . _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. relative to the transmitter.4. number of input bits k and memory depth L.1 FREQUENCY SELECTIVE FADING Multipath causes fading changes with frequency. Convolution encoder is defined with three variables: number of output bits n. C=n (L+1) 3. The path distances of each of the multipath component is different and so results in a different phase change. The error correction capacity is related with this value.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ and has memory that utilizes previous bits to encode or decode following bits.

it is desirable to reduce the PAPR. To make errors appear more randomly. By definition we have. Pune 23 . 3. which results in a reduction in the signal amplitude at this frequency. A commonly used interleaving method is block interleaving. interleaving is performed on the coded bit stream.4. This effect causes errors to occur in bursts rather than being randomly scattered. In block interleaving data is written in to a matrix row-by-row and read out column-by-column. leading to intermodulation products among the sub carriers and disturbing out of band energy. PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO The main disadvantage of OFDM is high peak to average power ratio(PAPR). in OFDM certain sub channels can be located in a deep fades in channel and information carried by these sub carriers are lost. while the second path is a reflection with a longer transmission distance of 25 m. 4. Interleaving is a way to permute bits in a certain way and at the receiver reverse permutation is performed. PAPR= Peak Amplitude of the Signal Average value of the Signal _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ Path 1 is a direct signal and has a transmission distance of 10m. This makes the two paths out of phase.2 INTERLEAVING Because of frequency selective fading.A high peak to average power ratio causes saturation in power amplifiers. Therefore.

Minimizing the PAPR allows higher. By definition we have. As a result. When N signals are added with the same phase. linear behavior of the system over a large dynamic range is needed and the efficiency of the output amplifier is reduced. which can give a large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) when added coherently. they produce a peak power that is N times the average power. The average power must be kept low in order to prevent the transmitter amplifier saturation. Pune 24 .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ An OFDM signal consists of a number of independent sub carriers. PAPR= Peak Amplitude of the Signal Average value of the Signal PAPR = ((xk)^2)max / E{(xk)^2 1<=k<=N Where E{(xk)^2} stands for the expected value or average value of the time domain signal. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.

Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 5. The power is adaptively allocated for each subcarrier according to the distribution in each block. Companding Transform Our strategy in this work involves applying u-law companding at the transmitter to reduce the PAPR of the transmitted waveform so as to reduce distortion through the transmit amplifier and allow operation closer to amplifier saturation.1 Companding In companding method. In the case of u-law companding for a selected u.125 and 64 were used in the study since the optimal performance was found to reside within this range of operation. Values of u ranging between 0. TECHNIQUES TO OVERCOME HIGH PAPR: A) Companding B) Windowing 5. sc(n). is formed as: Sc(n)= K(u) Smax{ ln[1+ u |Sdat (n)|]} {ln[1+u]} * sign[Sdat (n)] Where Smax = max (Sdat (n)) and where K(u) is a normalization constant such that the average power of the companded signal is equal to the average power of the uncompanded signal. compression is used in the transmitter and expansion in the receiver. By considering the approximate Rayleigh distribution of the OFDM amplitudes. This transformation essentially changes the probability distribution of the amplitude of OFDM signal and achieves the PAPR reduction by both enlarging the small amplitudes and compressing large signals. Let sdat(n) be the baseband OFDM signal associated with the data symbol. the compressed OFDM signal. we compress the dynamic range with a memory-less transformation at the transmitter and expand the amplitude level at the receiver. A proposed approximation for K(u) is K(u) = ln(1 + u) u _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Pune 25 .

To mitigate errors introduced by normalization inaccuracies.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ However. and in practice. where long-term power averages of both uncompanded and companded OFDM symbols were numerically estimated to find K(u). The resulting values are plotted in the figure along side the approximation. would lead to unnecessary degradation in the demodulation performance. numerically-determined values of K(u) were computed and employed instead. Normalization Constant for Different Values of the Companding Parameter. with No=64 and 4x Oversampling _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Pune 26 . this approximation is not highly accurate.

In the figure. The net result is that companding increases the low-level signal components and reduces the high-level signal components. Uncompanded and Companded Signals with Equal Average Power _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. and the dashed line corresponds to the companded signal.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ An example of a time-domain signal associated with a data symbol before and after companding (with u = 16) is shown in the figure below. Pune 27 . where the companded signal is scaled to yield an average power equal to the uncompanded signal. the solid line corresponds to the uncompanded signal.

it is necessary to relate OFDM parameters with peak windowing. Generally. because that implies that many signal samples are affected. Here. However. Examples of suitable window functions are the Cosine. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Kaiser and Hamming window. Pune 28 . Peak windowing technique offers reasonably good reduction in PAPR achieved independent from number of sub-carriers. So. s = N for a baseband signal and s = N / 2 for a bandpass signal.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ 5. is defined as Clipping ratio= S/σ Where σ is the rms power of the OFDM signal and it can be shown that. at the cost of a slight increase in BER and out of band radiation. OFDM signal is clipped whenever it exceeds a clip level say S.2 Windowing A different approach to reduce the PAPR is to multiply large signal peak with a Gaussian shaped window or any other window with good spectral properties. Windowing parameters. On the other hand. which increases the bit error ratio. called the clipping ratio. OFDM signal is multiplied by the window function when the signal peak exceeds the clipping level. window width and attenuation factor. Peak windowing method is implemented by first considering the clipping ratio. the OFDM signal within the windowing width is modified. ideally the window should be as narrow band as possible. Unlike the clipping. Since the OFDM signal is multiplied with several of these windows the resulting spectrum is a convolution of the original OFDM spectrum with the spectrum of the applied window. The normalized clipping level. Further. This results in a smoothed OFDM signal. the window should not be too long in the time domain. it is difficult to find a relationship between windowing parameters and PAPR since the PAPR is random. the window width should be small in order to avoid distorting many sample values and the attenuation factor should be selected by considering PAPR reduction and signal distortion. should be selected such a way that it will reduce the PAPR. for an OFDM signal with N subchannels.

the average value of OFDM signal can be shifted up. These results in PAPR reduction. as the average value of the OFDM signal.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ The PAPR reduction is achieved at the expense of bit error rate (BER) performance degradation and the out of band radiation. which have low probability of occurrence. the amount of peaks removed is high. By increasing these bottoms above certain level. which in turn increases the PAPR. with low probability of occurrence.8. On the other hand PAPR can not be reduced beyond a certain limit by removing peaks. we will call it "bottoms". Power Spectral Density of an OFDM Signal _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Thus. but. When clipping ratio is low. this is like inverted windowing. also decreases. signal has been distorted very much and BER performance degrades. OFDM signal exhibits some low values. Figure 4. Peak windowing method concerns only removing the peak values. Peak Windowing distorts the OFDM signal causing inband distortion and out of band radiation. Inband distortion causes to BER performance degradation.5dB loss in SNR at 10-4 BER and PAPR is reduced by 5dB. Pune 29 . When clipping ratio is 1. Basically. like peaks. the reduction in PAPR is not much. there is about 0.6 shows the BER performance of an OFDM signal after windowing for different value of clipping ratio. When clipping ratio is increased the BER performance is better.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a form of multi-carrier modulation technique with high spectral efficiency. the companding system can outperform a system without companding. We have also inferred that by implementing Windowing and Companding. _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Impairments from AWGN noise from the channel. robustness to channel fading. uniform average spectral density capability of handling very strong echoes and less non linear distortion. the high PAPR of the OFDM system reduces and we obtain a better quality signal at the receiver. Pune 30 . and noise amplification due to the expansion transform at the receiver were considered. MATLAB Simulation was employed to investigate performance trends. immunity to impulse interference. We have seen that with an appropriate choice of u and amplifier backoff. Thus.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: We have investigated the performance of OFDM system with companding and windowing as a PAPR reduction strategy.

www.com 3. www.com 2. Leslie Smee. Adaptive Techniques for Multiuser OFDM Eric Phillip LAWREY BE (Hons) _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ References: 1.skydsp. OFDM Link Performance with Companding for PAPR Reduction in the Presence of Non-Linear Amplification Thomas G. Pratt. and Michael Torrey 4. Pune 31 .complex2real. Nathan Jones.

Pune 32 .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.

Pune 33 .Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering.

Implementation of OFDM ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ MKSSS’s Cummins College of Engineering. Pune 34 .

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