Report Writing

REPORT WRITTING

Submitted To: Ma¶am Summera Malik Comsats University Islamabad Chak Shahzad Campus

Report Writing

Muhammad Nauman Rashid
FA09-BBA-061

Khadija Sikandar
FA09-BBA-041

Fizza Ateeq
FA09-BBA-111

Zara Hassan
FA09-BBA-108

Mariam Bashir
FA09-BBA-046

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Report Writing

LONG REPORTS ...................................................................................................... 2 TYPES OF LONG REPORTS ....................................................................................... 3 ELEMENTS OF A LONG REPORT............................................................................... 3 HOW TO WRITE ................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTIONS ................................................................................................. 5 SUMMARIES AND ABSTRACTS ............................................................................. 5 CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................... 6 RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................... 7 EDITING A LONG REPORT ....................................................................................... 7 FORMATTING A LONG FORMAL REPORT ................................................................ 8 REFERENCES........................................................................................................... 8

LONG REPORTS
A long report is simply an extension of shorter report. It involves the discussion of complex problems in greater depth and more detail. Some long reports extend from a few pages to several hundred. They are a mix of informative and persuasive information. They tend to be long because they are a result of an intensive investigation. In style, the long or formal report is impersonal and restrained in tone. The writer or writers generally do not use the first person (I or WE), but used third-person reference in some such ways. "It was found" and "the writers are of the opinion"

Report Writing

TYPES OF LONG REPORTS
All business reports, whether long or short, can be categorized by the extent of the contribution they make to the decision making process. The informational report, which presents data without interpretation, is valuable and ever present. However, it has little application in decision making. An example is a weekly absenteeism report that indicates only who was absent, when, the employee¶s department, number of absences to date. A step above the Informational report, the interpretive report adds meaning to the data. The facts presented in the informational report are examined and implications are drawn to the absenteeism report already described, the writer would add an explanation: which employees are absentee problems, whether some departments experience higher rates than others, and what cost in time, dollars, or materials is attributable to absenteeism. The third level of decision making reports and the one that makes the most contribution to the decision making process is the problem-solving report. Because the problemsolving report not only informs with data and interprets the data, but also analyzes the problem situation, reviews alternatives, examines implications, draws conclusions, and makes recommendations, it is frequently referred to as an analytical report. The absenteeism report already described might; for example, include a recommendation that two employees be interviewed by their supervisors to determine the cause of their extreme absenteeism.

ELEMENTS OF A LONG REPORT
A long formal report usually has the following basic structure  FRONT SECTION : Title page It includes title, name of author and receiver, and date. Letter of Transmittal

Report Writing

Itexplains the purpose and content of the report and also highlights parts of the report that may be of special interest. Table of Contents It includes sections of report with corresponding page numbers. 

MAIN SECTION: Although the form and content of the main section will vary with different kinds of report, the basic elements of this section are the following. Summary Concisely describes the content and scope of the writing. Introduction A paragraph introducing the topic and what you plan on writing about in the report. Discussion of findings Itdiscusses the details of your investigation, the facts on which you have based your conclusions or recommendations. It should be subdivided, with numbered and descriptive subheadings. Conclusions It is a concise interpretation of the facts that are covered in the body of the report. Recommendations Actions to be taken based on the conclusions of the report. 

BACK SECTION: References If you have referred in your report to any facts or figures that are not general knowledge or part of the organization¶s internal operation, you should give the source in a reference. Appendixes Additional material that is useful but not essential to understanding the body of the report

Report Writing

HOW TO WRITE«
INTRODUCTIONS
The purpose of the introduction is to lead the reader into the topic of the report; its nature will depend on the gap between the topic and the reader's background knowledge. An introductory paragraph of a report should be written such that it clearly introduces the topic and captures readers¶ attention. Beginning with the attention grabber, it should outline all those points or ideas which are to be discussed further. Providing the background information to the report it includes the following: Who authorized the report What the report is about Why it is being prepared Research methods Limitations (if relevant) Scope of the report.

Keep the introduction brief by adopting a light tone and staying away from long-winded explanations. Use correct language and grammar and avoid slang or paraphrasing. Ensure that the introduction is structurally correct and arranged into manageable sentences and paragraphs. Finish with a final statement or question that should lead naturally and automatically to the main body of your essay. Leave your audience with a sense of anticipation that makes them want to continue to the end.

SUMMARIES AND ABSTRACTS
The summary is a report in miniature, normally of not more than 200 words. It will state the main objectives of the work, and the principal results and conclusions; it will omit all inessential detail. A summary should not merely describe what the report is about; it should also give some information about the results. Where appropriate, it may include quantitative results. The summary must stand alone; it must be intelligible without reading any other part of the report except the title.It reduces a body of material to its bare essentials. Creating a summary is, therefore, an exercise in compression. The principles of writing summary are Be brief

Report Writing

Key in on main ideas Focus on important details Organize your ideas carefully Write clearly An executive summary differs from an abstract in that an abstract will usually be shorter and is intended to provide a neutral overview or orientation rather than being a condensed version of the full document. The format of abstract will depend on the work being abstracted. All abstracts share several mandatory components, and there are also some optional parts that you can decide to include or not. While preparing to draft an abstract, the following key process elements should be kept in mind Reason for writing Problem Methodology Results Implications

CONCLUSIONS
The Conclusion section indicates the writer¶s sense of the meaning of all the fact findings. It should be a very short summing-up of the main findings from the results and the discussion. It should summarize the Findings and what they mean to the writer and provide a logical basis and reason for proposing certain recommendations that follow. It summarizes, interprets, and synthesizes. In the conclusion you restate the problem and then answer the questions that initiated the analysis.It should evaluate the significance of the report, and reemphasize the main points. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the question and enables a broader consideration of issues, makes new connections, and elaborates on the significance of the findings.

Report Writing

The conclusion section should not introduce any new information. It should communicate a feeling of finality and closure. It should be written in plain English for readers to easily understand it.

RECOMMENDATIONS
This section proposes ways to solve the identified problems (with alternatives) and rectify or improve a situation. The problem identification and the recommended solutions must have a logical connection, obviously. They are the writer's own ideas and are fully supported by the conclusions and research findings. Work your way up to the recommendations, which should track against all that comes before them. Furthermore, sometimes you can propose an Implementation/Action Plan explaining exactly how to implement the recommendations to solve the problems. In this section state who should act, when, and why. . State your recommendations in order of priority, and in plain English. Place recommendations always at the end of the report.

EDITING A LONG REPORT
The final stage in the process of writing a report is editing and this stage is a significant one. Thorough editing helps to identify Spelling mistakes; Awkward grammar; Breakdowns in the logic of the report's organization or conclusion. If you have really fulfilled the requirements of the report and answered all parts of the question.

Report Writing

Text editing and revising functions are easily accomplished on a word processor. A few key strokes permit condensing, changing or adding words, rearranging paragraphs, adjusting margins, detecting spelling errors, and a host of other functions.

FORMATTING A LONG FORMAL REPORT
Following are some general guidelines which should be kepr in mind at the time of formatting a long formal report Follow the generally accepted format for a report: Summary, Introduction, Main Body, Conclusions, Recommendations and Appendices. Organize your information in each section in a logical fashion, putting things in order of priority - most important first. No indentation, left justify only. Generally use double-spaced typing except in those areas where single-spacing is shown. Page numbers in upper right corner. No page number on title page Use 1- or 1-1/2-inch margins for all four margins of the report. 1 blank line between new paragraphs and before and after subheadings. Final report must be bound, with loose letter of transmittal clipped to cover. Only one side of the page should be used. Written in the passive voice, no first person "I" or "we" except in the analysis.

REFERENCES
(Herta A. Murphy., 1972)Effective Business Communication 7th Edition. http://www.ehow.com/how_2272372_format-business-report.html http://www.io.com/~hcexres/textbook/final.htm http://www.lsu.edu/faculty/jpullia/2002longreportformatting.htm http://www.ncistudent.net/studyskills/writingskills/Reports1.htm

Report Writing

http://www.whitesmoke.com/how-to-write-a-conclusion

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