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INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

This project work has been conducted in FENNER (INDIA) LIMITED. It is the one
of the largest manufacturer of Industrial and Automotive V-Belts, Oilseals and Power
Transmission Accessories in India

“A STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM OF EMPLOYEES ” is the study conducted at


FENNER (INDIA) LIMITED . The main objective of the study is to find the level of
absenteeism among the employees. The secondary objectives of this study are to know the
causes for the absenteeism.

This study has been compiled with the help of primary data and secondary data.
Primary data were collected from 50 respondents with the help of structured Questionnaire
method. Since the study was the absenteeism of employees , the data were collected from all
the employees in the organization. The Secondary sources of data were collected through
company profile, organization Website, internet and other related books.

The type of research design used is descriptive in nature and the required data has been
generated using a research instrument called the questionnaire. The research design used in
this project is descriptive research and sampling design used is convenience sampling.

The collected data has been analyzed using various statistical tools like chi-square test and
graphs like pie chart, etc. After analyzing the data general specific findings are sought out
through interpretation. Suggestions and recommendations are formulated from the summary
of findings.

ABSENTEEISM THE PROBLEMS OF INDIAN

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INDUSTRY

It hardly needs mention that one of the major problems before the Indian industry is
absenteeism among the workmen. This means that at the beginning of the shift, the managers
are suddenly faced with the problem of finding extra people to make up the production crew;
either they have to carry large numbers as absentee reserve or will have to shut down
machines, for want of crew. This naturally upset the production schedules.

LET US LOOK AT THIS PROBLEM MORE CLOSELY:

A worker, who absents himself when he is expected to be on duty without previous


information to the management, is said to be absent. The problem of absenteeism arises when
large numbers of workers absent themselves from duty. Many studies have been undertaken
to find out the causes for absenteeism. It must however, be borne in mind that all factors
crises-cross in this field, and hence it is not possible categorically to generalize the problem
in such a vast country as India.
However, the main causative factors are follows. Generally, workers in India, though
working in urban centers, have retained their strong links with village life, through a small
piece of land and social contacts, e.g., marriage, deaths, litigation, etc., which they continue
to maintain with village life. Hence, as and when their presence is required in the village,
which is frequent, they absent themselves from work and just go home.The lopsided social
spending that they indulge in lands them in heavy debts and then it is a game of hide and seek
with the money lender which adds to the high incidence of absenteeism.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

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Study of Absenteeism among Industrial Worker is very important in terms of both the
industries and the employees. While an employee is been absent from work the output from
the employee towards the production is lost. Further the efficiency and discipline of the
company suffers a great loss.

As “No work No pay” is usually the general rule, the loss to workers absenteeism is quite
obvious when the workers fail to attend to the regular work, there income is reduced and the
workers become still poorer. Hence, Health and efficiency of the worker is affected by the
irregularity of the workers attendance.

Finally there may be various reasons for any employee being absent from work like
health issues, work related issues. So it’s necessary to know them as the employees are the
back bone of any company.

Thus the above discussions show how the problem of absenteeism is very important
to the organization. So, I have selected this problem of study.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

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Primary objective:

The Study aims at assessing the level absenteeism among workers.

Secondary objective:

➢ To conduct a detailed study on Absenteeism of Fenner India ltd.


➢ To find out the rate of Absenteeism in Fenner India ltd
➢ To identify the various factors that lead to Absenteeism.
➢ To identify the variables that reduces the rate of Absenteeism
➢ To find out causes of Absenteeism & suggest remedies to reduce it.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

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➢ The study attempts to analyze the effectiveness and employee’s individual
opinion about reason for the absenteeism.
➢ The study emphasizes to reveal the reasons behind the absenteeism in fenner (India)
ltd.
➢ The study aims to work on the feedback given by the employees and come up with
valuable suggestions for the improvement of the Absenteeism.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

➢ The study was limited only to fenner (India) ltd only.


➢ As sampling is taken as an element of the study there might always be sampling errors.

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➢ The sample under consideration may not reflect the whole population.
➢ Survey and study has been carried out in a span of only 1 month due to time constraint.
➢ Since absenteeism is a vast topic to be discussed, the study may not reflect each and
every aspect.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

According to a famous Hudson maxim, “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is


often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry & inquiry leads to invention”

Research objective:

• To study the reasons for absenteeism in fenner (India) ltd.


• To study the working conditions prevailing in the organization

RESEARCH DESIGN:

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It is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that
aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In this study
descriptive and diagnostic research design has
been adopted to determine with specific predictions to with the narration of facts and
characteristics relating to an individual group or situation.

NATURE OF RESEARCH:

Descriptive Approach: is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It


seeks to describe a field or a problem by using questionnaires. This approach was used in the
research.

SAMPLING DESIGN:

Sampling technique was adopted for the study as there were various constraints
regarding time and resources. The sample size considered was of 50 respondents. The sample
considered was from various departments and categories of workmen in the factory. The
sample type was individual and the questionnaire was filled by the workers of their own and
some with the help of their supervisors.
Sample Size : 50 respondents of workers from various departments and categories.

Sampling Procedure:
The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also known as
chance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an equal chance of
inclusion in the sample.
Methods of Data Collection:
The data’s were collected through Primary and secondary sources.

Primary Sources:
Primary data are in the form of “raw material” to which statistical methods are applied for the
purpose of analysis and interpretations.
The primary sources are discussion with employees, data’s collected through questionnaire.

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Secondary Sources:
Secondary data’s are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated
statistically in some form or other.
The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company
websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data were
also collected from journals, magazines and books.

Collections of Questionnaires and Schedules:

A questionnaire comprising of 20 questions were framed covering various aspects of


the employees work.

ANALYSIS

The collected data were analyzed and findings were made.

For the purpose of analysis certain statistical tools like percentage analysis and chi-square
method are used. Graphs are used to represent the data for the better and accurate
interpretation of the data.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Some Definitions of Absenteeism:
– “Absenteeism” is a practice or a habit of being an “absence” and an “absentee” is
one who habitually stays away.
- WEBSTER’S DICTIONARY
- ‘Absenteeism’ is the failure of a worker to report for work when he is scheduled
to work.

- LABOUR BUREAU SIMLA


Meaning:
Employees’ presence at the work place during the schedule time is highly essential for
the smooth running of the production process in particular and the organization in general.

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Despite the significance of presence, employees sometime fail to report to the work place
during the scheduled time, which is known as “Absenteeism”.

According to PICOARS AND MAYERS: Unexpected absence disturbs the efficiency


of the group as the jobs are inter connected, if one single man remains absent without prior
notice the whole operation process is distributed. This Absenteeism results in production
losses because, due to Absenteeism, workers cost increases and thus efficiency of operations
is affected.

Features of Absenteeism:

Research Studies undertaken by different authors reveal the following features of


Absenteeism

i. The rate of Absenteeism is the lowest on pay day; it increases considerably on the
days following the payment of wages and bonus.
ii. Absenteeism is generally high among the workers below 25 years of age and those
above 40 years of age.
iii. The rate of Absenteeism varies from department to department within an
organization.
iv. Absenteeism in traditional industries is seasonal in character.

Types of Absenteeism

Absenteeism is of four types viz….


1. Authorized Absenteeism.
2. Unauthorized Absenteeism.
3. Willful Absenteeism.
4. Absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond one’s control.
Calculations of Absenteeism rate:
Absenteeism can be calculated with the help of the following formula.

Absenteeism rate = No of days lost x 100


No of days scheduled to work

Causes of Absenteeism

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The following are the general causes of the Absenteeism

1. Maladjustment with the working conditions:


If the working conditions of the company are poor, the workers cannot adjust
themselves with the company’s working conditions. Then they prefer to stay away
from the company.
2. Social and religious ceremonies:
Social & religious functions divert the workers attention from the work.
3. Unsatisfactory housing
Conditions at the working place.
4. Industrial housing
The industrial fugue compels workers to remain outside the work place.
5. Unhealthy working conditions
The poor and intolerable working conditions in the factories irritate the working
excess heat, noise, either too much or too low lighting, poor ventilation, dust, smoke
cause poor health of the workers. This factory causes the workers to be absent.

6. Poor welfare facilities


Though a no of legislation concerning welfare facilities are enacted, many
organizations fail to provide welfare facilities. This is either due to the poor financial
position of the companies (or) due to the exploitative attitude of the employs. The
welfare facilities includes poor sanitation, washing, bathing first aid appliances,
ambulance, restrooms drinking water, canteen, shelter, crèches etc.. The dissatisfied
worker with these facilities prefers to be away from the workplace.
7. Alcoholism
Workers mostly prefer to spend money on the consumption of liquor and
enjoyment after getting the wages. Therefore, the rate of absenteeism is more during
the first week every month
8. Indebtness
The low level wages and unplanned expenditure of the workers force then to borrow
heavily. The research studies indicate that workers borrow more than 10 times of

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their net pay. Consequently workers fail to repay the money. Then they try to escape
the place in order to avoid the money lenders. This leads to absenteeism.
9. Maladjustment with job demands
The fast enhancing technology demand higher level skills from the workers fail to
meet these demands due to their lower level education and/or absenteeism of training.
10. Unsound personnel policies
The improper and unrealistic personnel policies result in employee dissatisfaction.
The dissatisfied employee in tune prefers to be away from the work.
11. Inadequate leave facilities
The inadequate leave facilities provided by the employer forces him to depend on ESI
leave which allows the workers to be away from the work for 56 days in a year on
half pay.
12. Low level of wages
Wages in some organizations are very poor and they are quite inadequate to meet the
basic needs of the employees. Therefore, employers go for other employment during
their busy seasons and earn more money. Further, some employees take up part time
jobs. Thus the employees resort to moonlighting and absent themselves from the
work.

Absenteeism has been variously defined by the Authorities from time to time. Thus
the term Absenteeism refers to the workers absence from his regular task, when he is
scheduled to work. Any employees stay away from work if he has taken leave to which he is
entitled or on the grounds of sickness or some accident without any previous sanction of
leave.

Nevertheless usually, involuntary lay off, lack of work, authorized leave or vacation
period of work stoppage are not counted as absence. Strikes, lock outs and late attendance are
treated as absence.

Absenteeism occurs when an employee of a company does not come to work due to
scheduled time off, illness, injury, or any other reason. The cost of absenteeism to business,
usually expressed in terms of lost productivity, is difficult to determine. Studies from
government sources such as the U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics put the direct losses at more than $40 billion a year; the Social Security

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Administration determined that, in one year, workers missed more than half a billion days.
Various private studies and polls studying particular elements of absenteeism sometimes put
the figure much higher. One recent Gallup poll did not put a price tag on the sniffles and
swollen eyes, but claimed that more than 3 million workdays per year are lost when working
people stay home because their allergies are acting up. The Massachusetts Institute of
Technology released a study in 1994 claiming that clinical depression alone resulted in more
than 213 million lost workdays, costing $24 billion.

There is little written history of absenteeism in business literature, probably because until the
20th century businesses had a simple rule, "No work: no pay." The practice of offering paid
"sick days" did not become widespread until labor unions forced companies into contracts
allowing employees to take time off for illness or vacation. While practices vary among
companies and union contracts, an average of four to ten sick days per year is standard.

Although companies were originally unwilling to offer paid leave to workers, they have come
to realize that humane absence-management policies are cost-effective. In fact, it is estimated
that companies with effective employee absence strategies reduce their overall payroll costs
by 10 percent. Furthermore, a 1995 study discovered a correlation between absenteeism and
employee turnover. Companies with high rates of absenteeism were found to be more likely
to have their employees leave for jobs with other firms. In light of such findings, employers
have recognized that a generous absence policy can be profitable and contribute to employee
satisfaction and stability.

Guidelines for Absenteeism Control:

There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of
approach.

1. Innocent Absenteeism

Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their
control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is
blameless. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by
disciplinary measures.

2. Culpable Absenteeism

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Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for
reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even
though he is not sick, and it can be proven that employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable
absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a labour relations context this means
that progressive discipline can be applied.

Identifying Excessive Absenteeism

Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee’s sick-


leave days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor suspects that an
employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance
records if all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to
gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation. The
employee’s files should be reviewed and the employee’s immediate supervisor should
document all available information on the particular employee’s history.

Individual Communication

After all available information has been gathered, the administrator or supervisor
should individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than
average or questionable absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns
regarding attendance to the employee’s attention. It is also an opportunity to discuss with the
employee, in some depth, the causes of his attendance problem and possible steps he can take
to remedy or control the absences. Often, after the initial meeting employees reduce their
absenteeism. The meeting shows that you are concerned and that absenteeism is taken
seriously.

After the Initial Interview

If after the initial interview, enough time and counseling efforts, as appropriate, have
passed and the employee’s absenteeism has not improved, it may be necessary to take further
action. Further action must be handled with extreme caution- a mistake in approach, timing,
or severity can be crippling from both an administration and labour relation’s point of view.

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Determining whether counseling or disciplinary action is appropriate,
depends on whether the employee’s absences are innocent or culpable. If the employee’s
absenteeism is made up of both innocent and culpable absences, then each type must be dealt
with as a separate issue. In a labour relation’s context innocent absenteeism and culpable
absenteeism are mutually exclusive. One in no way affects the other.

Counseling Innocent Absenteeism

Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is


not justified. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his
control. Absenteeism no matter what the cause imposes losses on the employer who is also
not at fault. The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee’s
right to be sick. There is a point at which the employer’s right to expect the employee to
attend regularly and fulfill the employment contract will outweigh the employee’s right to be
sick. At such a point the termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed.

The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows:

• Initial counseling
• Written counseling
• Reductions of hours and job reclassification
• Discharge

Initial Counseling

If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he returns to work.
If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the
status of his condition.

Written Counseling

If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him
with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should
be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be

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stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves,
termination may be necessary.

Reduction of Hours and job reclassification

In between the first and second letters the employee may be given that option to
reduce his hours to better fit his personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily
accepted by the employee and cannot be offeredas an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a
reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.

Discharge

Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and
everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An
Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case.

Establishing a System for Tracking Absences

Absenteeism policies are useless if the business does not also implement and
maintain an effective system for tracking employee attendance. Some companies are able to
track absenteeism through existing payroll systems, but for those who do not have this option,
they need to make certain that they put together a system that can:
• keep an accurate count of individual employee absences
• tabulate companywide absenteeism totals
• calculate the financial impact that these absences have on the
• business
• detect periods when absences are particularly high and
• differentiate between various types of absences.

STATISTICAL TOOLS

CHI-SQUARE TEST

The chi-square test, also known as non-parametric test or a distribution free test is used when
it is impossible to make any assumptions about the populations or when researcher is unable

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to estimate the population’s parameters. The main advantage of using non-parametric test is
that, the researcher can analyze qualitative data. The name Chi-square is generally denoted by
the symbol (ψ2)

FORMULA

The Chi-square test is given by the formula,

ψ2 = ∑(Oi - Ei)2 / Ei

where,

O = Observed frequency

E = Expected frequency

HYPOTHESIS

It is a statement of universe and it is of two types,

➢ Null hypothesis(H0): The attributes are independent,


➢ Alternate Hypothesis (H1): The attribute are not independent
DEGREE OF FREEDOM

As ψ2 is used to test a contingency table,

Degree of freedom = (r-1)(c-1)

Where,

r = the number of rows in the table

c = the number of columns in the table

RUBBER INDUSTRY

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INTRODUCTION
The rubber industry is one of the key sectors of the Indian economy. India is the fourth
largest producer of natural rubber and the third largest consumer of the polymer. As far as
consumption of natural and synthetic rubber together is concerned, the country occupies the
fourth position. Although, rubber product manufacture started in India, in the year 1920, the
industry has been mostly inward oriented, catering to the needs of the vast domestic market.
But in the recent past the country has been transforming itself into a major rubber product
exporter as well, thanks to the economic policies being pursued by the government and the
market integration brought about by the WTO / Regional Trade Agreements.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE GROWTH
Like most of the producing countries, natural rubber production in India was solely export
oriented during the first quarter of the 20th century. However, sustained growth of the rubber
product manufacturing industry was evident since the mid 1930s. Historically, the
commercial impetus for this growth revolved around three inter-related developments: (1) the
implementation of the International Rubber Regulation Agreement (IRRA) in 1934 and the
consequent domestic availability of NR at a lower price in India, (2) the entry of foreign
companies in rubber product manufacture to capitalize the advantages arising from cheaper
raw material and labour and a growing domestic market and (3) government patronage to the
industry in the backdrop of the increased industrial requirements during the inter-war years
and the second world war period. The post-war period witnessed a steady expansion of the
industry. But the bulk of the consumption of rubber was accounted for by a few large units.
But small scale units also could survive because of the relative profitability of rubber product
manufacture and the extent of protection from external competition. Government patronage
to the industry resulted in liberalized import of rubber and other raw materials and protection
from imports of rubber products. The net result was the graduation of India from an exporter
of raw natural rubber to a net importer of the rubber and an exporter of finished rubber goods,
although in a limited manner, by the late 1940s.
One of the important characteristics of the Indian rubber product manufacturing industry right
from the beginning has been the dominance of dry rubber based products. The major
contributing factors for this unique pattern of development have been a highly protected,
import-substituting and inward-oriented production and the supplementary status of the
sector, mainly catering to the requirements of the larger industrial base in the country.
At present there are over 4300 manufacturing units, including 58 tyre factories, turning out
products worth US$ 7.7 billion, which is about 1.7% of the total industrial output of the
country. The total employment generation by the rubber product manufacturing industry is

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465,000. The natural rubber / synthetic rubber consumption ratio is 75:25, while globally the
ratio stands at 44:56. The per capita consumption of rubber remaining at 1.0 kg, the market
for rubber products in India, with its large population, is likely to grow significantly in the
years ahead.
GROWTH IN RUBBER PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
The growth of the industry can be judged from the data on production and consumption of

Type of rubber 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09


Natural rubber 849,197 861,455 871,720
Synthetic rubber 251,745 277,155 292,950
Reclaimed rubber 81,127 83,165 86,030
Total 1,182,049 1,241,775 1,250,700
Type of rubber 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

Natural rubber 842,752 825,345 864,500


Synthetic rubber 102,516 101,265 96,739
Reclaimed rubber 80,477 83,075 86,390
Total 1,025,749 1,009,685 1,047,629

different types of rubbers in the country. which are given in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1.Production of different types of rubbers ( MT)

Table 2.Consumption of different types of rubbers (MT)

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STRUCTURE OF INDUSTRY
The two broad groups of the Indian rubber industry are the tyre and the non-tyre sectors, the
former promoted mostly by large industrial houses and multinational companies and the latter
comprising mostly by small and medium scale units. Many of the units in the small scale
sector are tiny units consuming less than 10 tonnes of rubber per annum. It is pertinent to
point out that the total number of units decreased from 5066 in 2001-02 to 4327 units in
2008-09. This is mostly on account of the closure of many SSI / tiny units which could not
survive the present highly competitive environment and the high cost of raw materials.
FOREIGN TRADE
The above data show that, in spite of the economic recession in most parts of the world, the
Indian rubber industry has performed reasonably well, although the growth rate has reduced
to some extent in 2008-09. But as per the latest information available, the industry has been
growing further during the current financial year, both with respect to total turnover and
exports. It may also be noted that with the opening up of the economy, import of rubber
products is also taking place. During the last seven years while the value exports has grown at
an average annual growth rate of 16.18 %, that of imports has grown at an average rate of
29.32 %. Though the overall balance of trade in rubber products is in favour of the country,
the data indicates that India is becoming a favorable destination for rubber products. It is also
noticed that while tyres/tubes, beltings etc are being imported to the country, the bulk of the
imports comprises technical goods, sheetings etc. Considering the size of the Indian market,
manufacture of rubber products is an area suitable for further investment.

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IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIAN RUBBER INDUSTRY
The following are the special characteristics of the rubber industry in the country, which
make India a little different from many of the other natural rubber producing countries:
• India is a major producer and consumer of natural rubber.
• The rubber products manufacturing industry in India had been mostly inward
oriented, catering to the domestic market.
• In recent years India has entered the global market exporting both raw natural rubber
as well as rubber products.
• With its large population base, India is emerging as a large market for rubber products
and with the opening up of the economy, import of rubber products has also been
increasing in recent years.
• The rubber product mix in India is based mostly on dry forms of rubber, dictated by
the requirements of the domestic market.
• The natural rubber / synthetic rubber consumption ratio in the country is presently
75:25.
• While the Indian tyre companies have been performing well, multinational tyre
manufacturers are establishing production facilities in India.
• Manufacture of non-tyre products particularly high-value technical goods needs
further investments

CONCLUSION
Indian rubber industry is unique in the sense it is a major producer and consumer of natural
rubber. Though rubber products manufacture started in the country in the year 1920, rapid
growth in the last four decades has transformed the rubber products manufacturing industry
one of the important sectors of the Indian economy. Considering the large population and the
large manufacturing base particularly in the automobile industry and the availability of
competitive labour, the country offers great opportunities for rubber product manufacture.
With further investments in R&D and infrastructure, the country is poised to become a leader
in rubber products manufacture in the years ahead

COMPANY PROFILE:

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Fenner (India) Limited is the largest manufacturer of Industrial and Automotive
V-Belts, Oilseals and Power Transmission Accessories in India. With a large Sales and
Distribution network across the country and a strong brand image, Fenner is undoubtedly the
market
Leader in India.

Fenner India's emphasis on quality and customer satisfaction has earned respect and
endorsement from major OEMs. The company is a pioneer and has been a market leader both
in terms of new product development and market reach. Fenner India has regularly
introduced state-of-the-art latest products both for domestic and international markets. Today
eight out of ten automobiles in India have at least one Fenner Belt or Oil Seal in it.

Apart from being the domestic market leader, Fenner India is also one of the big exporters of
V-Belts and Auto Belts in the country with products being exported to over 40 countries,
including North and South America, Europe, Australia and South Africa.
BACKGROUND OF FENNER (INDIA) LIMITED:

Dr.R.P.Jinghania is the chairman of this company and he was felicitated with “CEU with HR
orientation award” at Asian pacific HR congress held in Mumbai. In 1929, JH fenner & co
(India) ltd was established in kolkatta to supply industry with products imported from fenner
head quarters in UK later in 1955, the company started functioning under the name fenner
cockily limited and a factory was established at Madurai in 1956 to manufacture over belling,
spindle taps and industrial v-belts.

The company gradually started expanding project range by manufacturing fan belt
with cable cord construction. Press belts, oil seals, o-rings, molded rubber products and
fenaplast conveyor belting.

In 1975, the company name was changed to fenner (India) Limited. A new plant was
established in Hyderabad in the year 1978. In 1987, JK groups acquires majority stake in
fenner the only company in india and among five in the globe to have coveted API (American
petroleum institute) accreditation for v-belts. First belt manufacturing company in india to be
certified by international organization for standardization (ISO-9002) In the year 1992.

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Fenner has acquired an international organization for standardization technique
specification 16949(ISOTS/16949) in the year 2003. International organization for
standardization environment standards (ISO14001) in the year 2004 and occupational health
safety and system (OHSAS 18001) in the year 2006.

Fenner India has 3 state-of-art manufacturing facilities at Madurai, Chennai and Hyderabad.
The first manufacturing facility was established in 1955 in the 'Temple City' Madurai,
southern India, which is the largest facility today.

In-process Quality control, careful choice of raw materials, technological up gradation has
ensured complete product reliability and high levels of customer satisfaction.

Best Manufacturing Practices followed by Fenner India:

· Lean Manufacturing
· TQM
· Poka Yoke (Error Proof)
· 5S

Technology

Our Technology Center employs state-of-the-art techniques, starting from simulation studies
using Finite Element Analysis, all the way to validation through rigorous indoor testing. The
Center has the best in class testing facilities for Raw Materials, In-Process components and
Finished Products like Industrial and Automotive Wrapped Belts, Raw Edge Cogged Belts,
Poly-V belts, Timing Belts and various types of Oil Seals.

Apart from product development, our experts also work closely with OEMs for Continuous
Upgradation of belt drive system and provide sealing solutions.
Our technological efforts have made it possible for us to remain fully competitive in the
global market by continuous development of a large range of new products such as Poly F
Plus belts, Heavy Duty belts, Kevlar Cord belts, EPDM belts and many others.

Products

For the Indian market

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Industrial Power Transmission Products

Belts
Power Transmission Accessories

belts

• V-Belt drive for dual motor drive Textile ring frame


• Wedge Belt Drive (30 SPC Belts) for Rolling Mill Application
• Poly-V drive with 21-PM-8410
Belt for Slurry pump Application in Steel Plant
• Poly-V Belt and V-Belt Drive in a Wire Drawing Machine
Banded Belt drive for Gas Compressor Application
• V-Belt Drive for Dual Motor drive Textile Ring Frame
• Raw Edge Cogged Belt – Fenner Textile Application

Multi-Pull Poly V-Belts


Multi-Pull Ribbed belts offer high power capacity in a single flexible low stretch belt. The
continuous high tensile synthetic cord makes maximum utilization of the face width and
ensures a uniform tension through the belt.

Automotive Products
OEM
Replacement Market
Automotive Belts
Oilseals

Automobile Belts and Oil Seals form an important part in almost all vehicle segments. Belts
are used in a variety of application in power transmission for alternator, Air conditioning,
power steering applications. Oil Seals are used as a sealing medium for oil used in various
automobile applications such as engine, transmission, wheel, front fork, valve stem etc.

23
Fenner is the market leader in the Automobile segment both in belts and oil seals. Our
presence in the Automobile trade is in both the segments of OE and also the Replacement
market trade.

In OE trade we offer our products to prominent OE customers who have very high quality
standards to be complied with. Our Auto belts and Oil Seals are a part of major OE customers
in all major vehicle segments. We also offer products for OE spares trade. Our state-of-the-art
R&D facilities, personnel and quality certifications ensure that the best products are
developed based on the OE customers' requirements.

In Replacement Market we cater to markets, both urban and rural all over India through over
400 distributors who in turn offer products to over 20000 retailers dealing in Automobile
belts and oil seals. The market is driven by specifiers or mechanics who use Automobile
Belts and Oil Seals for servicing vehicles. These specifiers are the ultimate users of the
products and are driven to use a product based on its quality. Majority of the specifiers insist
on Fenner Belts and Pioneer Oil Seals as we offer the best quality. Fenner and Pioneer Brand
names have become synonymous with Belts and Oil Seals over the past 50 years.

FOR CUSTOMERS OUTSIDE INDIA

Industrial Power Transmission Products


Belts
Power Transmission Accessories

Agricultural Products
Belts

Automotive Products
Belts ,oil seals.

24
Data analysis and interpretation:

TABLE : 4.1 Nature of the work

Response No of respondents Percentage


Hard 20 40%
Moderate 20 40%
Easy 10 20%
Total 50 100%

CHART: 4.1

Nature of work

25
Interpretation:

• 40% of the employees find their nature of work at moderate condition.

• 40% of the employees find their nature of work is harder.

• 20% of the employees find their nature of work as easy.

Table: 4.2 find job interesting

response No of respondents percentage


Yes 38 76%
no 12 24%
total 50 100%

Chart: 4.2

Interpretation:

• 76% of them find their job interesting,


• While 24% of them don’t feel so

Table: 4.3 more convenient shift

26
response No of respondents percentage
8-4 13 26%
4-12 33 66%
12-8 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.3 more convenient shift

Interpretation:
• 66% of the employees are convenient with 4-12 shift,

• 26% of them with 8-4 shift.

• 8% of them with 12-8 shift.

Table: 4.4 find stress full, when given over time

Response No of respondents Percentage


Always 31 62%
Sometimes 16 32%
Never 3 6%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.4 find stress full, when given over time

27
Interpretation:

When given overtime,

• 32% of the employees find its always stress full

• 62% of the employees sometimes feel stress full.

• 6% never find it stress full.

Table: 4.5 possible to get leave when required

Response No of respondents percentage


Always 10 20%
Sometimes 36 72%
Never 4 8%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.5 possible to get leave when required

Interpretation:

• 32% of the employees find its always find possible to take leave when required.

• 72% of the employee sometimes find possible to take leave when required.

• 8% of them never find possible to take leave when required.

28
Table: 4.6 How often you take leave in a month?

response No of respondents percentage


0-1day 19 38%
1-2days 27 54%
>2days 4 8%
total 50 100%

Chart: 4.6 How often you take leave in a month

Interpretation:

In a month,

• 38% of the employees take 0-1 day leave

• 54% of them takes 1-2 days leave,

• 8% of them take more than 2 days leave.

Table: 4.7 The main reason for taking leave


Response No of respondents Percentage
Health problem 21 42%
Family reasons 18 36%
Work stess 6 12%
No reasons 5 10%

29
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.7 The main reason for taking leave

Interpretation:

• 42% of the employees take leave due to health problem.

• 36% of the employees take leave for personal reasons.

• 12% of the employees are been absent for work stress.

• 10% of them take leave for no reasons.

Table:4.8 supervisors relation with employees

Response No of respondents Percentage


Satisfied 31 62%
Moderate 19 38%
Not satisfied 0 0%
total 50 100%

supervisors relation with employees

Interpretation:

• 62% of the employees feels satisfied with their supervisors relation with them.

30
• 38% of the employees feels moderate with their supervisors relation with them.
• None of the employees are not satisfied with their supervisors relation with them.

Table: 4.9 Do supervisors help in work related problems

response No of respondents percentage


yes 46 92%
No 4 8%
total 50 100%

Chart: 4.9 Do supervisors help in work related problems

Interpretation:
• 92% of the employees feels that their supervisors help them in work related problem.

• 8% of the employees feels that their supervisors are not helping them in work related
problem.

Table:4.10 level of satisfaction with supervisors help


response No of respondents Percentage
Satisfaction 25 50%
Moderate 25 50%

31
Not satisfied 0 0%
total 50 100%

Chart:4.10 level of satisfaction with supervisors help

Interpretation:

• 50% of the employees are satisfied with supervisors help.

• Other 50% of the employees are moderately satisfied with supervisors help regarding
their work.

Table: 4.11 Being recognized for excelling in job


response No of respondents Percentage
Always 33 66%
Sometimes 17 34%
Never 0 0%
total 50 100%

Chart: 4.11 Being recognized for excelling in job

32
Interpretation:

• 66% of the employees find that they are always recognized for excelling in their jobs

• 34% of the employees find that they are sometimes recognized for excelling in

their jobs.
Table: 4.12 relationship with co-workers

response No of respondents Percentage


Satisfied 25 50%
Moderate 23 46%
Not satisfied 2 4%
total 50 100%

Chart: 4.12 relationship with co-workers

Interpretation:

• 50% of the employees are satisfied with their co workers relationship with them.
• 46% of the employees are moderately satisfied with their co workers relationship
with them.
• 4% of the employees are not satisfied with their co workers relationship with them.

33
Table:4.13 Opinion about current absenteeism policy

response No of respondents percentage


Satisfied 16 32%
Moderate 32 64%
Not satisfied 2 4%
total 50 100%

Chart:4.13 Opinion about current absenteeism policy

Interpretation:

• 32% of the employees are satisfied with current absenteeism policy.


• 64% of the employees are moderately satisfied with current absenteeism policy.
• 4% of the employees are not satisfied with current absenteeism policy.

Table: 4.14 Opinion about the wages related to job

response No of respondents Percentage


Satisfied 18 36%
Moderate 30 60%
Not satisfied 2 4%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.14 Opinion about the wages related to job

34
Interpretation:

• 36% of the employees are satisfied with the wages,

• 60% feels its moderate.

• 4% are not satisfied with the wages.

Table: 4.15 Workers coming to work regularly

response No of respondents Percentage


Yes 33 66%
No 17 34%
total 50 100%

Chart: 4.15 Are you coming to work regularly

Interpretation:

• 66% of the employee said they come to work regularly.


• 34% of the employee said they do not come to work regularly.

35
Table: 4.16 Does the job require more pressure
Response No of respondents Percentage
Yes 20 40%
No 30 60%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.16 Does the job require more pressure

Interpretation:

• 40% of the employees feel that their job require pressure.


• 60% of the employees feel that their job does not require pressure.

Table: 4.17 Does the superior force to work overtime


Response No of respondents Percentage
Yes 32 64%
No 18 36%
Total 50 100%

36
Chart: 4.17 Does the superior force to work overtime

Interpretation:

• 64% of employees feel that their supervisors force them to do overtime.


• 36% of employees feel that their supervisors do not force them to do overtime.

Table: 4.18 is the organization better than other organization


Response No of respondents Percentage
Yes 38 76%
No 12 24%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.18 In all aspect is your organization better than other organization

Interpretation:

• 24% of the employees feels that their organization better than other organization.
• 76% of the employees feels that their organization is not better than other
organization.

37
Table: 4.19 opinions about the preventive measure taken for absenteeism
Response No of respondents Percentage
Good 43 86%
Average 7 14%
Bad 0 0%
Total 50 100%

Chart: 4.19 opinions about the preventive measure taken for absenteeism

Interpretation:

• 86% of the employees feel that the preventive measure taken for absenteeism is good.
• 14% of the employees feel that the preventive measure taken for absenteeism is
average.
• None of the employees feel that the preventive measure taken for absenteeism is
average.

Table: 4.20 opinions about the working environment


Response No of respondents Percentage
Good 31 62%
Average 15 30%
Bad 4 8%
Total 50 100%

38
Chart: 4.20 opinions about the working environment

Interpretation:

• 62% of the employee feels that working condition is good.


• 30% of the employee feels that working condition is average.
• 8% of the employee feels that working condition is bad.

CHI – SQUARE TEST

Aim : To test the relationship between the experience of the employee and nature of work

Ho : There is no significant difference between the experience of the employee and nature of work

H1 : There is significant difference between the experience of the employee and nature of work.

EXPERIENCE AND EMPLOYEE’S OPINION TOWARDS NATURE OF WORK

Experience Nature of work

Of respondents hard moderate easy total

1-2 years 14 5 1 20

3-5 years 3 10 2 15

>5 years 3 5 7 15

39
total 20 20 10 50

EXPECTED FREQUENCY

8 8 4

6 6 7.5

6 6 3

CALCULATION OF CHI-SQUARE

O E (0-E) (0-E)2 (0-E)2/E

14 8 6 36 4.5

5 8 -3 9 1.125

1 4

3 6 -6 36 3.6
4 10

10 6 4 16 2.67

2 7.5 -5.5 30.25 4.033

3 6 -3 9 1.5

5 6 -1 1 0.167

7 3 4 6 5.33

22.925

Calculated Chi-Square Value = 22.925

TABLE VALUE:

Degrees of freedom = (r-1)(c-1)

(3-1)(3-1)

40
= 4

The Table value of χ2 at α 0.05, for 4 degrees of freedom is χ20.05.12 =9.026

RESULT: The calculated χ2 value (22.925) is more than the table value (9.026). Hence Ho is
rejected.

CONCLUSION: There is significant difference between the experience of the employee and
nature of work.

5.1 FINDINGS

GENERAL FINDINGS
• 40% of the employees find their nature of work at moderate condition.
• 38% of the employees take 0-1 day leave
• 54% of them takes 1-2 days leave,
• 8% of them take more than 2 days leave.
• 42% of the employees take leave due to health problem.
• 36% of the employees take leave for personal reasons.
• 12% of the employees are been absent for work stress.
• 10% of them take leave for no reasons.
• 62% of the employees feel satisfied with their supervisor’s relation with them.
• 38% of the employees feel moderate with their supervisor’s relation with them.
• None of the employees are not satisfied with their supervisor’s relation with them.
• 50% of the employees are satisfied with their co workers relationship with them.
• 46% of the employees are moderately satisfied with their co workers relationship
with them.
• 4% of the employees are not satisfied with their co workers relationship with them.
• 32% of the employees are satisfied with current absenteeism policy.
• 64% of the employees are moderately satisfied with current absenteeism policy.
• 4% of the employees are not satisfied with current absenteeism policy.
• 32% of the employees find its always stress full
• 62% of the employees sometimes feel stress full.
• 6% never find it stress full.
• 36% of the employees are satisfied with the wages,
• 60% feels it’s moderate.
• 40% are not satisfied with the wages.

41
STATISTICAL FINDINGS

There is significant difference between the experience of the employee and nature of
work. Experienced persons find the work nature to be more comfortable.

SUGGESTIONS

• From the findings it’s found that more number of employees is absent due to health
problems, so the company may concentrate on welfare programs for employees, like
conducting medical check ups regularly and may have campaign related to health and
safety measures while working.
• Training in technical aspect of work like workshops and lecture from experts may be
conducted regularly for less experienced persons.
• Allocation of overtime may be reduced. As most of the employees feel it stress full.
• Only 36% of the employees are satisfied with their wages. For this the company may
provide incentives to the employees.
• The supervisors may build a better relationship with the employees as only 50% of the
employees find satisfied with their supervisor’s relation with them.

42
CONCLUSION

Employee’s regular presence is a must to every company as work progress can take
place effectively only if the employees are working without any break. Same wise an
employee can excel in his job and can know his level of expertise in his job only he goes
to work regularly. Studying the absenteeism helps to find out the reason for major
absenteeism and eliminate them.

There by the absenteeism rate is very low. And this benefits both
the organization and the employee.

43
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:

1. Absenteeism In Industry: Problem And Management, P B Appa Rao


2. Social Psychology of Absenteeism, Colin Brown, J K Chadwich Jones, J K Chadwick
Jones
3. The Missing Workforce: Managing Absenteeism, Andrew Sargent
4. Human Resource Management, C.B.Gupta
5. Human Resource Management. L.M.Prasad.

Websites

6. www.google.com - dictionary.bnet.com, ir.dut.ac.za:8080/xmlui/handle


7. www.employerssurveys.com
8. www.humancapital.com
9. www.citehr.com
10. www.scribed.com

B0034OJE6U

Andrew Sargent (Author)


› Visit Amazon's Andrew Sargent Page
Find all the books, read about the author, and more.
See search results for this author
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44
QUESTIONNAIRE
Name …………… Age………………

Sex…………….. Marital Status……………

Department……………… experience………….

1. Nature of the work

a) Hard b) Moderate c) Better

2. Do you find your job interesting?

a) Yes b) No

3. Which shift do you find more convenient to work?

a) 8 - 4 b) 4 - 12 c) 12 - 8

4. Do you find stress full when given overtime?

a) Always b) sometimes c) Never

5. Is it possible for you to get leave whenever you require?

a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

6. How often do you take leave in a month?

a) 0-1 b) 1-2 c) more than 2


7. Which of the following do you avail often?

a) Health problem b) family reasons c) work stress d) no reasons

8. What is the level of satisfaction regarding your relationship with Supervisors?

a)Satisfied b)Moderate c) Dissatisfied

9. Does your supervisors help in work related problems?

a) Yes b) No

10. If yes, what is the satisfactory level?

a) Satisfied b) Moderate c) Dissatisfied

45
11. Are you being recognized for excelling in your job?

a) Always b) Sometimes c) Never

12. What is the level of satisfaction regarding your relationship with Co-workers?

a) Satisfied b) Moderate c) Dissatisfied

13. Your opinion regarding current absenteeism policy followed in company?

a) Good b)average c)poor

14. What is your opinion about your wages related to your work?

a) Satisfied b) moderate c) Not satisfied

15. Whether you are coming for work regularly?

a) Yes b) No

16. Does your job have more work pressure?

a) High b) Medium c) Low

17. Does your superior force you to work over time?

a) Yes b) No

18. Having considered everything would you say your organization is better than other
organization?

a) Yes b) No

19. What do you think about the preventive measures taken by the company for absenteeism?

a) Good b) average c) poor

20. What is your opinion about the working condition


Offered by the organization?

a) Good b) average c) poor

46