STANDARDS OF THE TUBULAR EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

EIGHTH EDITION

TUBULAR EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, INC. 25 North Broadway Tarrytown, New York 10591 Richard C. Byrne, Secretary www.tema.org

NO WARRANTY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED The Standards herein are recommended b Inc. to assist users, engineers and designers wi:o specify, design and install tubular exchangers. These standards are based upon sound engineering principles, research and field experience in the manufacture, design, installation and use of tubular exchangers, These standards may be subject to revision as further investigation or experience may show is necessary or desirable. Nothing herein shall constitute a warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, and warranty responsibility of any kind is expressly denied. ,-,

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0 Copyright 1968, 1970, 1972, 1974,1978, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1999 Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc. TEMA is a trademark of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc This document may not be copied hotocopied, reproduced, translated, modified or reduced to any electronic medium or machinerea bp able form in whole or in part, without prior written consent of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS TUBULAR EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, INC. Comprising Manufacturers of Various Types of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Equipment API Heat Transfer, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2777 Walden Avenue Buffalo, NY 14225 Cust-0-Fab, Inc ._._.____.._.__.....................,,...................,................................ 8888 West 21st Street Sand Springs, OK 74063

Energy Exchanger Company . . . . .._.._.______._................................................. 1844 N. Garnett Road Tulsa, OK 74116 Engineers and Fabricators Company .____.__......_.____......... _._._._........__........ 3501 West 1 Ith Street Houston, TX 77008-60011 Fabsco Shell and Tube, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P.O. Box 988 Sapulpa, OK 74666 Graham Corporation . . . ..__.............................................................................. 20 Florence Avenue Batavia, NY 14020 Heat Transfer Equipment Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P.O. Box 580638 Tulsa, OK 74158 Hughes-Anderson Heat Exchangers, Inc . . . . .._................................ 1001 N. Fulton Avenue ~“~~ Tulsa, OK 74115 ITT Standard, IIT fluid Technology Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P.O. Box 1102 Buffalo, NY 14227 Joseph Oat Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2500 Broadway Camden, NJ 08104 Manning and Lewis Engineering Company .._______.__.................................... 675 Rahway Avenue Union, NJ 07083 Nooter Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P.O. Box 451 St. Louis, MO 63166 Ohmstede, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 North Main Street Beaumont, TX 77701 RAS Process Equipment, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . <~..................... 324 Meadowbrook Road Robbinsville, NJ 08691

Southern Heat Exchanger Corporation ._._......_._...._.............................................. P.O. Box 1850 Tuscaloosa, AL 35483 Struthers Industries. Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1500 34th Street Gulfport, MS 39501 Box Wiegmann and Rose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P.O. 4187 Oakland, CA 94614 Subsidiary of Xchanger Mfg. Corp. Box Yuba Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P.O. 3158 A Division of Connell Limited Partnership Tulsa, OK 74101

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TECHNICAL COMMITTEE OF THE TUBULAR EXCHANGER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

. Ken O’Connor ..........................................................................................AP I Heat Transfer, Inc. ..Cust-0-Fab. Inc. Doug Werhane .................................................................................................. Energy Exchanger Company Ken Fultz ......................................................................................... E Cris Smelley ....................................................................... ngineers and Fabricators Company Graham Corporation Philip Marks ..I ............................................................................................... H Monte Davis ......................................................................... eat Transfer Equipment Company
Jim Harrison

“, .“.

...............................................................Hughes-Anderson Heat Exchangers, Inc.

In Nick Tranquilli ........................................................................................................... Standard Joseph Oat COpOratiOn Michael Holtz.. ......................................................................................
Ted

M Rapczynski .................................................................. anning and Lewis Engineering Co.

Nooter Corporation Steve Meierotto.............................................................................................. Ohmstede, Inc. Michael Tmcy ........................................................................................................ Russell Miller Todd Allen .,._........... Dan Stenman .._.......................... Southern Heat Exchanger Corp. Struthers Industries, Inc.

Gary L. Berry . ..__.._.._....._.._...................,,..............,.,.,.,,,.....,,...................

Jack E. Logan ,..__.____,.__._.__,........,.......,...,,,,..,,.....,,...,.,.........,,,..,,...,,.~.......... Wiegmann and ROSS Subsidrary of Xchanger Mfg. Corp. Heat Transfer Larry Brumbaugh . . ..___........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~..~..~ _......_..._..........Y$a A Divwon of Connell Lrmrted Partnership

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CONTENTS
Symbol & Section Paragraph
MEMBERSHIP LIST ................................................................................................................................ TECHNICAL COMMITTEE ..................................................................................................................... PREFACE.. ............................................................................................................................................. NOTES TO USERS.. ............................................................................................................................. 1 N 1 2 2 F 1 2 3 4 3 G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 E 1 2 3 4 5 RCB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 6 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 NOMENCLATURE .. Size Numbering and Type Deslgnatton-Recommended Practice .......................................................... Nomenclature of Heat Exchanger Components.. ................................................................................... FABRICATION TOLERANCES External Dimensions, Nozzle and Support Locations.. ........................................................................... Recommended Fabrication Tolerances.. ............................................................................................... Tubesheets, Parttiions, Covers, and Flanges ........................................................................................ Flange Face lmperiections ................................................................................................................... GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION Shop Operation .................................................................................................................................. Inspection .......................................................................................................................................... Nameplates ....................................................................................................................................... Drawings and ASME Code Data Reports.. .......................................................................................... Guarantees ........................................................................................................................................ Preparation of Heat Exchangers for Shipment.. ................................................................................... General Construction Features of TEMA Standard Heat Exchangers.. ................................................. INSTALLATION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE Performance of Heat Exchangers ....................................................................................................... Installation of Heat Exchangers .......................................................................................................... Operation of Heat Exchangers. ........................................................................................................... Maintenance of Heat Exchangers ....................................................................................................... MECHANICAL STANDARD TEMA CLASS RCB HEAT EXCHANGERS Scope and General Requirements.. .................................................................................................... Tubes ................................................................................................................................................ Shells and Shell Covers ..................................................................................................................... Baffles and Support Plates ............................................ ~,:................................................................... Floating End Construction .................................................................................................................. Gaskets ............................................................................................................................................. Tubesheets ........................................................................................................................................ Flexible Shell Elements ...................................................................................................................... Channels, Covers, and Bonnels.. ....................................................................................................... Nozzles.............................................................................................................................................. End Flanges and Batting.. ................................................................................................................... FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION Scope and General ............................................................................................................................. Vibration Damage Patterns ................................................................................................................. iii iv ”

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1 3 6 7 8 9 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 17’ 17 18 19 23 27 30 31 38 43 45 75
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91 93

95 95 ....... .95 Failure Regions .......................................................................................................................... 96 Dimensionless Numbers ..................................................................................................................... 97 104 104 107

Natural Frequency.. ............................................................................................................................ Axial Tube Stress.. ........................................................................................................................... Effective Tube Mass.. ....................................................................................................................... Damping ..........................................................................................................................................

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.......................................................................................................................................................... THERMAL RELATIONS Scope and Basic Relations ..................................................1 1 G-7................................................................................................................................. Tubesheets............................................................................................... Acoustic Vibration .......... :....‘ ......................................... ..................................................................... Selected References... Plugging Tubes in Tube Bundle ......................................... 109 112 114 116 121 122 124 Fouling.............12 G-7.......................... ...................................................................... Heat Content of Petroleum Fractions................... Lifting Lugs ... .................................. ..................... End Flanges and Bolting............................... ....................................................................................................................................................................... 125 Fluid Temperature Relations...................................261 263 291 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE Horizontal Vessel Supports........... Viscosity ....................................................................................................... ................................................................. Properties of Gas and Vapor Mixtures .......... ................... 150 150 151 151 151 152 152 153 :............................................................ Vertical Vessel Supports .........................................................................................................2 G-7............................ Selected References.................................................................................................. ..........................................................................................&“I: r_ f? e c? fy 62 h ..................................................................................................... Fi c....................................... INDEX......................................... Vibration Amplitude .............................................................................................................................................................................. Nozzles ................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... 126 tiean Metal Temperatur& Of Shell and Tubes .............. Critical Properties....3 RCB-2 RCB-4 RCB-6 RCB-7 RCB-9 RCB-10 RCB-11 T-2 9 D 6 P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 7 T 1 2 3 4 27 CONTENTS Symbol & Section Paragraph 6 V 9 10 11 12 13 14 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION (continued) Shell Side Velocity Distribution ....................................................... Fouling ............................................................................................................................................................................................._ f? c r? ??-! !-z 0 A 0 sz h3 a is: e 6 $?? &? @? c1 e”l h c h”! ?? p? 10 RGP G-7. ................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................. Thermal Conductivity ..........................................................................................................................................................:............................. Covers.................................. Gaskets ......... GENERAL INFORMATION (See detailed Table of Contents] ....................................................................................................................... I.............................................................. Estimate of Critical Flow Velocity ......................................................................... Wind and Seismic Design........................................................................................................ 126 PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF FLUIDS Fluid Density .. Channels........................................................................................................................................ .................. 0 #?-% c1 r” $? I?? ......................................................... Specific Heat ............. Entrance and Exit Areas ................................................... 163 253 267 269 273 273 274 279 279 260 261 ................................................................... and Bonnets ....................................................... Design Considerations ..........................................................................................................................

The reference paragraph in the RGP section has the identical paragraph number. 1999. Tarrytown.C and B. Questions requiring development of new or revised technical Information will only be answered through an addendum or a new edition of the Standards. The user should refer to the definition of each class and choose the one that best fits the specific need. Paragraph numbers preceded by RCB indicates that all three classes are identical. reflecting acceptable designs for various service applications are presented. R. Paragraphs in the Standards having additional information in the RGP section are marked with an asterisk (*). Corresponding subject matter in the three Mechanical Standards is covered by paragraphs identically numbered except for the prefix letter. but with an “RGP” prefix. The Recommended Good Practice section has been prepared to assist the designer in areas outside the scope of the basic Standards. Any reference to a specific paragraph must be preceded by the class designation. and that its requirements supersede those of the previous edition six months from such date of issuance. Upon agreement between purchaserand fabricator. It is the intention of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association that this edition of its Standards may be used beginning with the date of issuance. For this purpose the date of issuance is June 1.- viii . NY 10591. ^ . except for heat exchangers contracted for prior to the end of the six month period. An exchanger may still be considered as meeting TEMA requirements as long as the exception is documented. exceptions to TEMA requirements areacceptable. Questions on interpretation of the TEMA Standards should be formally addressed to the Secretary at TEMA 25 North Broadway.NOTES TO USERS OF THE TEMA STANDARDS Three classes of Mechanical Standards.

3 TYPICAL EXAMPLES N-l . single pass shell. 2323~A~~ mm) insrdedrameter wrth tubes 16 (4877 mm) long. as follows: N-l.32 U-tube exchanger with bonnet type stationary head. N-l.2.2 TYPE Type designation shall be by letters describing stationary head. N-1. 17” (432 mm) inside diameter with tubes lti’(4877 mm) long.31 Split-ring floating head exchanger w. N-l.HEAT EXCHANGER NOMENCLATURE SECTION 1 N-l SIZE NUMBERING AND TYPE DESIGNATION-RECOMMENDED PRACTICE It is recommended that heat exchanger size and type be designated by numbers and letters as described below.33 Pull-through floating head kettle type reboiler having stationary head integral with tubesheet.1 SIZE Sizes of shells (and tube bundles) shall be designated by numbers describing shell (and tube bundle) diameters and tube lengths. as indicated in Figure N-l . N-l. SIZE 19-84 (483-2134) TYPE BGU. For kettle reboilers the nominal diameter shall be the port diameter followed by the shell diameter. bonnet type rear head. each rounded off to the nearest integer. and rear head. SIZE 23-192 (5914877) N-l. N-l. split flow shell.34 Fixed tubesheet exchanger with removable channel and cover.35 Fixed tubesheet exchanger having stationary and rear heads integral with tubesheets. 23” (584 mm) port diameter and 37” (940 mm) inside shell diameter with tubes 16’(4877 mm) long. SIZE 17-192 (4324877) TYPE NEN.12 NOMINAL LENGTH The nominal length shall be the tube length in inches (mm). shell (omitted for bundles only).4 SPECIAL DESIGNS Special designs are not covered and may be described as best suits the manufacturer. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 1 . SIZE 33-96 (841-2438) T’fP 6 AFM.4877) TYPE CKT.ith removable channel and cover. rounded off to the nearest mteger. fixed tubesheet exchanger with conical heads may be described as “TYPE BEM with Conical Heads”.11 NOMINAL DIAMETER The nomina! diameter shall be the inside diameter of the shell in inches (mm). A pull-through floating head exchanger with an integral shell cover may be described as “TYPE AET with Integral Shell Cover”. N-l. For U-tubes the length shall be taken as the approximate straight length from end of tube to bend tangent. 19” (483 mm) inside diameter with tubes 7’(2134 mm) straight length. N-l. For example. two pass shell. single pass shell. in that order. a single tube pass. SIZE 23/37-192 (584/940 . N-l. 33-1 8” (841 mm) inside diameter with tubes 8’(2438 mm) long. Tube length for straight tubes shall be taken as the actual overall length.

X T 1 - Y - CROSS FLOW 2 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .C ? 5 J A A Iv i u K -1 I3 .I---. -\ .SECTION 1 HEAT EXCHANGER NOMENCLATURE FIGURE N-i.A E A 1 .-.2 -.-. F H . - IB G H N 17 - P - .1 h. ‘-i A IHEU NPES - - A .

Floating Head Support Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 3 . Packing Gland 26. Lifting Lug . Pass Partition 32. Floating Head Cover Flange 16. Floating Head Backing Device 19. Expansion Joint 15. Longitudinal Baffle 31. Transverse Baffles or Support Plates 29.: Sue$~~rt Bracket 39. Stationary Head Nozzle 7: %&&nary Tubesheet 6. Impingement Plate 30. Slip-on Backing Flange FiGURE N-2 . TABLE N-2 1. Channel% over 5. Instrument Connection 35. Typrcal parts and connections. for illustrative purposes only. Shell Cover 10. Tierods and Spacers 26.. Floating Tubesheet 16. Drain Connection 34. Stationa Head Flange-Channel or Bonnet 4. Packing 25. Shell Nozzle 13.HEAT EXCHANGER NOMENCLATURE SECTION 1 N-2 NOMENCLATURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER COMPONENTS For the purpose of establishing standard terminology. Shell Cover Flange 14. Vent Connection 33. Split Shear Ring 20. Stationary Head-Channel 2. Figure N-2 illustrates various types of heat exchangers. 21. Liquid Level Connection 40. Packing Box 24. Floating Tubesheet Skirt 23. Support Saddle 36. Shell 9.~ . Shell Flange-Stationary Head End 11. floating Head Cover-External 22. Shell Flange-Rear Head End 12. Stationary Head-Bonnet 3.. Floating Head Cover 17. Lantern Ring 27. are numbered for identfficatfon in Table N-2.

./ . ” -._ SECTION 1 HEAT EXCHANGER NOMENCLATURE FIGURE N-2 (continued) . .--\ A 4 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . .-.A.

d AJW Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 5 .HEAT EXCHANGER NOMENCLATURE SECTION 1 FIGURE N-2 (continued) Q .

SECTION 2 HEAT EXCHANGER FABRICATION TOLERANCES F-l EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS. FIGURE F-l c f1/4”(6.4) I 11/8”(3.2) STACKED EXCHANGERS ALLOWABLE CENTERLINE ROTATION CONNECTION NOZZLE ALIGNMENT AND SUPPORT TOLERANCES 6 ROTATIONAL TOLERANdE ON NOZZLE FACES AT BOLT CIRCLE Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Dimensions in () are millimeters. NOZZLE AND SUPPORT LOCATIONS Standard tolerances for process flow nozzles and support locations and projections are shown in Figure F-l.

Dimensions in () are millimeters. $2” fl/B”(3.2) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 7 .4) f1/4”(6. These tolerances may be adjusted as necessary to meet the tolerances shown in Figure F-l. FIGURE F-2 f l/4-(6.HEAT EXCHANGER FABRICATION TOLERANCES SECTION 2 F-2 RECOMMENDED FABRICATION TOLERANCES Fabrication tolerances normally required to maintain process flow nozzle and support locations are shown in Figure F-2.4) .

(4. DEWLS ARE IYFwl AN0 w NO1 PRECLUOE THE USE OF OTHER OETIULS WHICH ARE FUNCTIDRALLY EOUNALENI.a) 8 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . FOR PERIPHER8.-l/32’ (+D -0.8)~ R2=1/4’ (6.W?.. SECllON 2 IS NOT INTENOEO TO PROHlBll UNWINEO NEESHER FACES Ml FIAT PDKR .4) +1/X’ -0’ (t0. NEWTM TOLERANCES SWILL NOT BE CIMTRUED TO NUN TK41 FlEUL DIMENS#)NS CAN BE LESS ItW TM REOUIREO BI DESIGN CWULATIONS.-__.(+6.W. OMENSIONS II 0. COVERS AND FLANGES The standard clearances and tolerances applying to tubesheets.= J/16. F#. 5.4) R. = S/IS....6) +D. FIGURE F-3 STANDARD CONLlNED JOINT CONSTRUCTION S T A N D A R D UNCONflNED PIAIN FACE JOINT CONSlTWCTlON 1.B) *l/16. PARTITIONS.L CASKETS... *l/32’ (fO.a -0) -l/32’ (-0.~ _. 3.3 . FOR UNITS OVER 60’ (1524) TO 1OD’ (2540) OWWXR.8) (KE NOTE 1) R.-f/a. __.XFS~ THFREFDRE N O PLUS IOLERWCE IS SHOW ON R4. .O6 TOLERANCES ir/4.~~. TOLERANCES a’ MD -VI* WY BE INCRWXD IO f1/16’(1. D5.(4. 2 ) *l/32’ (i0. partitions. .6) 2. I R. %DNflNEDUEANS %MIFINED ON THE OD’. Dimensions in ( ) are millimeters.6).. 0. covers and Ranges are shown in Figure F-3.SECTION 2 HEAT EXCHANGER FABRICATION TOLERANCES F-3 TUBESHEETS. DI..8) W. 4.(*1. II._.4 .=1/4’ (6..

.HEAT EXCHANGER FABRICATION TOLERANCES SECTION 2 FIGURE F-4 PERMISSIBLE IMPERFECTIONS IN FLANGE FACING flNlSH FOR RAISED FACE AND LARGE MALE AND FEMALE FLANGES l-2 NPS Maximum Radial Projection of /. (mm) . Protrusions above the serrations are not permitted. in. in. (mm) Mwimum Depth and Radial Projection of Imperfections Which Are Deeper Than the Bottom of the Serrations.mperfections Which Aie No Deeper Than the Bottom of the Serrations.~ i l-1/4 l-1/2 2-F/2 3 3-1 I2 NOTES: Imperfections must be separated by at least four times the permissible radial projection. FLANGE PERIPHERY \ \ \ I bIPE SORE Sketch showing Radial Projected Length (RPL) serrated gasket face damage Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 9 .

. Flanae Load Concentration Factors are factors used to compensate for the uneven application of bolting moments due to large bolt spacing.condftions to the time that flow of both process streams has ceased. Pulsatino Fluid Conditions are conditions of flow generally characterized by rapid fluctuations in pressure and flow rate resulting from sources outside of the heat exchanger. Conseauential Damaaes are indirect liabilities lying outside the heat exchanger manufacturer’s stated equipment warranty obligations. The possibility for induced vibration has not been considered in establishing these values. 10 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . . Shell and Tube Mean Metal Temoeratures are the average metal temperatures through the shell and tube thicknesses integrated over the length of the heat exchanger for a given steady state operating condition. 4. 16. 15. Effective Shell and Tube Side Desian Pressures are the resultant load values expressed as uniform pressures used in the determination of tubesheet thickness for fixed tubesheet heat exchangers and are functions of then shell side design pressure.GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION DEFINITIONS 1.. 1 7 . Minimumand Maximum Baffleand Suooott Soacinasaredesignlimitationsforthe spacing of bafflesto provide for mechanical integrity and thermal and hydraulic effectiveness of the bundle. ‘. Welded Tube Joint is a tube-to-tubesheet joint where the tube is welded to the tubesheet. 13. Expansion Joint “J” Factor is the ratio of the spring rate of the expansion joint to the sum of the axial spring rate of the shell and the spring rate of the expansion joint. 20. _ r.’ Start-Uo Conditions are the conditions of operation which exist from the timethat flow of either or both process streams is initiated to the time that steady state operating condtions are achieved. 14. 2. Eauivalent Differential Exoansion Pressure is the pressure equivalent resulting from the effect of tubesheet loadings in a fixed tubesheet heat exchanger imposed by the restraint of differential thermal expansion between shell and tubes.. Baffle is a device to direct the shell side fluid across the tubes for optimum heat transfer. DoubleTubesheet Construction is a type of construction in which two (2) spaced tubesheets or equivalent are employed in lieu of the single tubesheet at one or both ends of the heat exchanger. 8. 12. 7. 5. 9. Tubesheet Liqament is the shortest distance between edge of adjacent tube holes in the tube pattern 19. the tube side design pressure. the equivalent bolting pressure. such as those resulting from earthquakes. Shut-Down Conditions are the conditions of operation which exist from the time of steady state operating . 6. Eauivalent Boltina Pressure is the pressure equivalent resulting from the effects of bolting loads imposed on tubesheets in a fixed tubesheet heat exchanger when the tubesheets are extended for bolting as flanged connections. the equivalent differential expansion pressure and. SECTION 3 Baffle and Suooort Plate Tube Hole Clearance is the diametral difference between the nominal tube CD and the nominal tube hole diameter in the baffle or support plate. 3. Suooort Mate is a device to support the bundle or to reduce unsupported tube span without consideration for 18. Normal Oaeratina Conditions of a shell and tube heat exchanger are the thermal and hydraulic performance requirements generally specified for sizing the heat exchanger.:heat transfer. Seismic Loadings are forces and moments resulting in induced stresses on any member of a heat exchanger due to pulse mode or complex waveform accelerations to the heat exchanger. 11. Exoanded Tube Joint is the tube-to-tubesheet joint achieved by mechanical or explosive expansion of the tube into the tube hole in the tubesheet. 10.

GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION FIGURE G-5.2 HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHEET SECTION 3 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 11 .

Date Inem No.2M HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION SHE!3 TYpe Job No..SECTlOk43 GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION FIGURE G-5.Shell (Grass/Eff.xias Sqm Tube Side I I I I I I --. (HorNeft) Connected in Sq m: SheUslUnil Swf.-.rShe.) PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT Shell Side kglHr Rev. Propcwal No._ U-Send Tub&c-Tub&wet Joint Type Bundle Enhance Tube sic Type Bundle Exit 12 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .Min ---.. Par&l S. ____. _ Temp. Max. km%“. Reference No.

3 TEMA REGISTRATION PLATE The TEMA organization has adopted a voluntary registration system for TEMA members only. G-4 DRAWINGS AND ASME CODE DATA REPORTS G-4. Such information can be noted on the name plate or on a supplemental plate attached to the exchanger at the name plate location. G-3. supports and weigM. A TEMA registration plate.1 DRAWINGS FOR APPROVAL AND CHANGE The manufacturer shall submit for purchaser’s approval three (3) prints of an outline drawing showing nozzle sizes and locations. By referencing this registration number. The manufacturer shall carry out the inspections required by the ASME Code. are. Name plates for exchangers manufactured in accordance with Classes “R” and “B” shall be austenitic (300 series) stainless. Inspection by the purchaser shall not relieve the manufacturer of his responsibilities. The manufacturer shall not make any changes Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 13 . G-2.11 NAME PtATE DATA In addition to all data required by the ASME Code. G-2 INSPECTION G-2. When insulation thickness is specified by the purchaser. It is anticipated that a reasonable number of minor drawing changes may be required at that time.1 MANUFACTURER’S INSPECTION Inspection and testing of units will be provided by the manufacturer unless otherwise specified. the name plate shall be attached to a bracket welded to the exchanger. to be supplied by the purchaser and supplement rather than replace the manufacturers name plate. This would include information pertaining to differential design and test pressure conditions. G-3 NAME PLATES G-3.12 SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION The manufacturer shall supply supplemental information where it is pertinent to the operation or testing of the exchanger. and also inspections required by state and local codes when the purchaser specifies the plant location. Purchaser’s oes not relieve the manufacturer of responsibility for compliance wkh this approval of drawings dy Standard and applicable ASME Code requirements. Changes subsequent to receipt of approval ma cause additional expense chargeable to the purchaser. When a heat exchanger is registered with TEMA. overall dimensions.GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION~ G-t SHOP OPERATION SECTION 3 The detailed melhods of shop operation are left to the discretion of the manufacturer in conformity with these Standards. when used. or other restrictrve conditions applicable to the design and/or operation of the unit or its components. Advance notification shall be given as agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. a name plate shall also include the following (if provided): User’s equipment identification User’s order number G-3.2 PURCHASER’S INSPECTION The purchaser shall have the right to make inspections during fabrication and to witness any tests when he has so requested. G-3. a copy of the ASME Code data report may be obtained by the purchaser from the TEMA office. a unique number is assigned to the heat exchanger. G-3. is affixed to the heat exchanger and the ASME Code data report is placed on file at the TEMA office.1 MANUFACTURERS NAME PLATE A suitable manufacturer’s name piate of corrosion resistant material shall be permanently attached to the head end or the shell of each TEMA exchanger. showing this number.2 PURCHASER’S NAME PLATE Purchaser’s name plates. restrictions on operating conditions for fixed tubesheet type exchangers. Other drawings may be furnished as agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer.

G-5. Finished materials and accessories purchased from other manufacturers. G-4.4 ASME CODE DATA REPORTS After completion of fabrication and inspection of ASME Code stamped exchangers.O.2.B. G-4. or shown on the exchanger specificatron s1 eet furnished by the manufacturer (Figure G-5.-.2 PERFORMANCE The purchaser shall furnish the manufacturer with all information needed for clear understanding of performance requirements.. Test conditions and procedures shall be selected by agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer to permit extrapolation of the test results to the specified design conditions. silt.. The thermal guarantee shall not be applrcable to exchangers where the thermal performance rating was made by the purchaser. his plant any parts proven defective within the guarantee period. scale. are warranted only to the extent of the original manufacturer’s warranty to the heat exchanger fabricator. Shop detail drawings. or mternal use by the fabricator. at his option. the manufacturer shall furnish three (3) prints or.2M). regardless of when such deterioration occurs after leaving the manufacturer’s premises._ “-“> .4 CORROSION AND VIBRATION The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for deterioration of any part or parts of the equipment due to corrosion. they will only be supplied after outline drawings have been approved. except as provided for in Paragraphs G-5.SECTION 3 GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION on the ap roved drawings without express agreement of the purchaser. G-4. Unless otherwise agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser. erosion. G-5. G-5.21 THERMAL PERFORMANCE TEST A performance test shall be made if it is established after operation that the performance of the exchanger is not satisfactory.1 GENERAL The specific terms of the guarantees should be agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser. The manufacturer shall guarantee thermal performance and mechanical design of a heat exchanger. . -_ I. flow induced tube vibration. a transparency of all approved drawings. G-5 GUARANTEES G-5.2 and G-5.22. including tubes.3 PROPRIETARY RIGHTS TO DRAWINGS The drawings and the design indicated by them are to be considered the property of the manufacturer and are not to be used or reproduced without his permission. G-5. when operated at the desi n conditions specified by the purchaser in his order. When detail drawings are requested.? 14 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . except by the purchaser for his own internal use.2 DRAWINGS FOR RECORD After approval of drawings. the manufacturer shall furnish three (3) copies of the ASME Manufacturer’s Data Report. G’S22 DEFECTIVE PARTS The manufacturer shall repair or replace F. This guarantee shall extend for a period of twelve (12) months after shipping date. or any other causes. while primarily P. provided the thermal performance rating was made by the manufacturer. including any special requirements. G-5. may be furnished to the purchaser upon request. the following paragraphs in this section will be applicable. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for excessive fouling of the apparatus by material such as coke. . or any forergn substance that may be deposited.3 CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES The manufacturer shall not be held liable for any indirect or consequential damage.

wind and seismic events are assumed to be negligible unless the purchaser specifically details the requirements. the supports should be of sufficient size to allow clearance for the body flanges. Horizontal units are normally provided with at least two saddle type supports. oil! or other liquids used for cleaning or hydrostatic testing are to be drained from all units before shrpment. G-7 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF TEMA STANDARD HEAT EXCHANGERS G-7. the manufacturer is to guarantee satisfactory fit of such parts only if he was the original manufacturer.6 EXPANSION JOINT PROTECTION External thin walled expansion bellows shall be equipped with a protective cover which does not restrain movement.2 DRAINING Water. the combinations need not be assumed to occur simultaneously.1 SUPPORTS All heat exchangers are to be provided with supports. leg or skirt type.GENERAL FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE INFORMATION G-5. forces from external nozzle loadings. G-6.1 3 may be used for calculating resulting stresses due to the saddle supports. or other parts are purchased. For purposes of support design.11 HORIZONTAL UNITS The supports should be designed to accommodate the weight of the unit and contents. For units with removable tube bundles. G-6.12 VERTICAL UNITS Vertical units are to be provided with supports adequate to meet design requirements. rtrons.1 CLEANING Internal and external surfaces are to be free from loose scale and other foreign material that is readily removable by hand or power brushing. G-6. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 15 . The supports may be of the lug. G-6. annular ring. G-6. G-6 PREPARATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR SHIPMENT G-6. The holes in all but one of the sup arts are to be elongated to accommodate axial movement of the unit under operating con c!. This is not to imply that the unrts must be completely dry. The references under Paragraph G-7. If the unit is to be located in a supporting structure. Parts fabricated to drawings furnished by the purchaser shall be guaranteed to meet the dimensions and tolerances specified.5 REPLACEMENT SECTION 3 AND SPARE PARTS Whenreplacement or spare tube bundles.5 DAMAGE PROTECTION The exchanger and any spare pans are to be suitably protected to prevent damage during shipment. shells. and axial movement is accommodated.4THREADED CONNECTION PROTECTION All threaded connections are to be suitably plugged. Other types of support may be used if all design criteria are met.3 FLANGE PROTECTION All exposed machined contact surfaces shall be coated with a removable rust preventative and protected against mechanical damage by suitable covers. *G-7. When these additional loads and forces are required to be considered. with holes for anchor bolts. *G-7. supports should be designed to withstand a pulling force equal to l-1/2 times the weight of the tube bundle. including the flooded weight during hydrostatic test.

.

as they allow the bolt center to be adjusted after the foundation has set. E-2 INSTALLATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS E-2. provide sufficient clearance at the stationary head end to ermit removal of the bundle from the shell and provide adequate space beyond the rear R ead to permit removal of the shell cover and/or ffoating head cover.INSTALLATION.1 PERFORMANCE FAILURES The failure of heat exchanger equipment to perform satisfactorily may be caused by one or more factors. provide sufficient clearance at the stationary head end’to permit withdrawal of the tube bundle. E-2. pipe sleeves at least one size larger than bolt diameter slipped over the bolt and cast in place are best for this purpose. E-2.21 CONNECTION PROTECTORS All exchanger openings should be inspected for foreign material.22 DIRT REMOVAL The entire system should be clean before starting operation. Slotted holes in suppotts are provided for this purpose. provide sufficient clearance at one end to permit withdrawal and replacement of the tubes. (6) Improper thermal design The user’s best assurance of satisfactory performance lies in dependence upon manufacturers competent in the design and fabrication of heat transfer equipment.11 CLEARANCE FOR DISMANTLING For straight tube exchangers fitted with removable bundles. For fixed tubesheet exchangers.14 LEVELING Exchangers must be set level and square so that pipe connections may be made without forcing. In concrete footings. Foundation bolts should be set to allow for setting inaccuracies. Protective plugs and covers should not be removed until just prior to installation. the use of strainers in the piping may be required. or at the opposite end to permit removal of the shell. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 17 . and enough space beyond the head at the opposite end to permit removal of the bonnet or channel cover. Correct installation and preventive maintenance are user responsibilities. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE E-l PERFORMANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS SECTION 4 Satisfactory operation of heat exchangers can be obtained only from units which are properly designed and have built-in quality. Under some conditions. E-2. ‘E-i.2 CLEANLINESS PROVISIONS E-2.1 HEAT EXCHANGER SETTINGS E-2. E-2. (5) Excessive clearances between the baffles and shell and/or tubes. due to corrosion. (4) Maldistribution of flow in the unit.12 FOUNDATIONS Foundations must be adequate so that exchangers will not settle and impose excessive strains on the exchanger. (2) Air or gas binding resulting from improper piping installation or lack of suitable vents (3) Operating condftions differing from design conditions.13 FOUNDATION BOLTS Foundation bolts should be loosened at one end of the unit to allow free expansion of shells. For U-tube heat exchangers. such as: (1) Excessive fouling. E-2.

the unit must be shut down in a manner to minimize differential expansion between shell and tubes. For fixed tubesheet exchangers. During start-up all vent valves should be opened and left open until all passages have been purged of air and are completely filled with fluid. E-2. reference should be made to the exchanger drawings. E-2. If it is necessary to stop the flow of cold medium.2 OPERATING PROCEDURES Before placing any exchanger in operation. Special consideration must be given to discharge of hazardous or toxic fluids.SECTION 4 INSTALLATION. E-3. the circulation of hot medium through the exchanger should also be stopped.35 PULSATION AND VIBRATION In all installations. may cause leaking of tube-to-tubesheet and/or bolted flanged joints. all units should be drained completely when there is the possibility of freezing or corrosion damage. lf permissible.1 DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS Equipment must not be operated at conditions which exceed those specified on the name plate(s). To guard against water hammer. E-2.” Paragraph E-4. thermometer well and pressure gage connections should be installed close to the exchanger in the inlet and outlet piping.33 VENTS Vent valves should be provided by purchaser so units can be purged to prevent vapor or gas binding. E-2. The purchaser will prow. For fixed tubesheet exchangers.36 SAFETY RELIEF DEVICES The ASME Code defines the requirements for safety relief devices. the manufacturer will provide the necessary connections for the safety relief devices. Improper start-up or shut-down sequences. E-2. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE E-Z. followed by the gradual introduction of the hot medium. Local safety and health regulations must be considered. or into a vessel at lower pressure. E-3. the units may be shut down by first gradually stopping the flow of the hot medium and then stopping the flow of the cold medium. The size and ty e of the required connections will be specified by the purchaser. When shumng down the system. When specified by the purchaser.22 SHUT-DOWN OPERATION For exchangers with removable bundles. E-3. care should be taken to eliminate or minimize transmission of fluid pulsations and mechanical vibrations to the heat exchangers. flutds must be introduced in a manner to minimize differential expansion between the shell and tubes. E-2. specification sheet(s) and name plate(s) for any special instructions.3 FITTINGS AND PIPING E-2.21 START-UP OPERATION Most exchangers with removable tube bundles may be placed in service by first establishing circulation of the cold medium.32 TEST CONNECTIONS When not integral with the exchanger nozzles. e E-3 OPERATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS E-3.31 BY-PASS VALVES It may be desirable for purchaser to provide valves and by-passes in the piping system to permit inspection and repairs. They should not be piped to a common closed manifold.s and tnstall the required relief devices.34 DRAINS Drains may discharge to atmosphere. particularly of fixed tubesheet units.23 CLEANING FACILITIES Convenient means should be provided for cleaning the unit as suggested under “Maintenance of Heat Exchangers. condensate should be ‘i 18 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

25 START I I 16 IS I * E-4 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS E-4. the tube side of water cooled exchangers should be blown out with air. an examination should be made of the interior and exterior condition of the unit. except for special high pressure closures when the instructions of the manufacturer should be followed. FIGURE E-3. However. E-3. the intervals between cleanings should not be excessive. A marked increase in pressure drop and/or reduction in performance usually indicates cleaning is necessary. nor cold fluid suddenly introduced y when the unit is hot. after the exchanger has reached operating temperature. as illustrated in Figure E3. E-3. Hot fluid must not be sudden 7.E-4. or structural damage to other components. if necessary. The umt should first be checked for air or vapor binding to confirm that this is not the cause for the reduction in performance. E-3. Therefore.25.23 TEMPERATURE SHOCKS Exchangers normall should not be subjected to abrupt temperature fluctuations. when provided.25 RECOMMENDED BOLT TIGHTENING PROCEDURE It is important that all bolted joints be tightened uniformly and in a diametrfcally staggered pattern.INSTALLATION. all external bolted joints may require retightening after installation and. . To reduce water retention after drainage.Introduced when the unit is cold. leaking tube joints. A light sludge or scale coating on the tube greatly reduces its efficiency. Sacrificial anodes. Since the difficulty of cleaning increases rapidly as the scale thickness or deposit increases. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE SECTION 4 drained from steam heaters and similar apparatus during start-up or shut-down. should be inspected to determine whether they should be cleaned or replaced.1 INSPECTION OF UNIT At regular intervals and as frequently as experience indicates. normal relaxing of the gasketed joints may occur in the interval between testing in the manufacturer’s shop and installation at the jobsite.11 INDICATIONS OF FOULING Exchangers subject to fouling or scaling should be cleaned periodically. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 19 .24 BOLTED JOINTS Heat exchangers are pressure tested before leaving the manufacturer’s shop in accordance with ASME Code requirements. Neglect in keeping all tubes clean may result in complete stoppage of flow through some tubes which could cause severe thermal strains.

FIGURE E-4. See Figure E-4.13-2. Leaking tube joints may then be located by sighting through the tube lanes. (4) Hydrostatic test should be performed so that the temperature of the metal is over 60” F (16OC) unless the materials of construction have a lower nil-ductility transition temperature. and apply hydraulic pressure in the shell. vented and drained. C. remove bonnet (2) Rear Head End (a) Type L. remove shell cover and floating head cover (d) Type W. For fixed tubesheet units where tubesheets are not an integral part of the shell and for units with removable bundles.12 DISASSEMBLY FOR INSPECTION OR CLEANING Before disassembly. remove cover only (b) Type 6. Care must be exercised when testing partially assembled exchangers to prevent over extension of expansion joints or overloading of tubes and/or tube-to-tubesheet joints. whichever is applicable.13 LOCATING TUBE LEAKS The following procedures may be used to locate perforated or split tubes and leaking joints between tubes and tubesheets. remove bonnet (c) Type S &T. the entire front face of each tubesheet will be accessible for inspection.. remove bonnet. . the following procedures should be used: (1) Stationary Head End (a) Type A. . A r* . Apply hydraulic pressure in the shell. When a test ring is not available t is possible to locate leaks m the floating head end by removing the shell cover and applying hydraulic pressure in the tubes.t.” r7 (3) Units with Type S or T floating head: Remove channel cover or bonnet. 20 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Install test ring and bolt in place with gasket and packing. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE E-4.$l.13-1 -. shell cover and floating head cover. N & P.SECTION 4 INSTALLATION.. remove channel cover or bonnet E-4. The point where water escapes indicates a defective tube or tube-to-tubesheet joint. remove bonnet and apply hydraulic pressure in the shell. remove cover only (b) Type M. A typical test ring is shown in Figure E-4. (l)i. re-bolt tubesheet to shell or install test flange or gland. To inspect the inside of the tubes and also make them accessible for cleaning. D & N.13-1 for typical test flange and test gland. neutralized and/or purged of hazardous material. the user must assure himsdf that the unit has been depressurized.removable channel cover: Remove channel cover and apply hydraulic pressure (2) Unfts with bonnet type head: For fixed tubesheet units where tubesheets are an integral part of the shell. In most cases.

If the tubesheet does not have tapped holes for eyebolts. Following are several cleaning procedures that may be considered: (1) Circulating hot wash oil or light distillate through tubes or shell at high velocity may effectively remove sludge or similar soft deposits. (5) Scrapers. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE FIGURE E-4. (3) Commercial cleaning compounds are available for removing sludge or scale provided hot wash oil or water is not available or does not give satisfactory results. coke.31 CLEANING METHODS . or other deposits. Convenient means for cleaning should be made available. steel rods or cables inserted through tubes and attached to bearing plates may be used. E-4.INSTALLATION. rotating wire brushes. The bundle should be supported on the tube baffles.~ The heat transfer surfaces of heat exchangers should be kept reasonably clean to assure satisfactory performance. (2) Some salt deposits may be washed out by circulating hot fresh water.13-2 SECTION 4 FLOATING TUGESHEET SHELL FLANGE. The method selected must be the choice of the operator of the plant and will depend on the type of deposit and the facilities available in the plant. supports or tubesheets to prevent damage to the tubes.3 CLEANING TUBE BUNDLES E-4. Heat exchangers may be cleaned by either chemical or mechanical methods.REAR HEAD END E-4. and other mechanical means for removing hard scale.2 TUBE BUNDLE REMOVAL AND HANDLING To avoid possible damage during removal of a tube bundle from a shell. Gasket and packing contact surfaces should be protected. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 21 . a pulling device should be attached to eyebolts screwed into the tubesheet. (4) High pressure water jet cleaning.

furnish proper solvents and/or acid solutions containing inhibitors. or loosening of the tube-to-tubesheet joint. QPERATION AND MAINTENANCE (6) Employ services of a ualified organization that provides cleaning services. In so doing they are work hardened and. 22 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . When a nubbin is used. and other information from the name plate. may prowde an imperfect seal or result in deformation and damage to the gasket contact surfaces of the exchanger. Any leakage at a gasketed joint should be rectified and not permitted to persist as it may result in damage to the gasket surfaces. Defective tubes may be plugged using commercially available tapered plugs with ferrules or tapered only plugs which may or may not be seal welded.Fhanically cleaning a tube bundle. the nubbin should bear on the seamless side. It is recommended that when a heat exchanger is dismantled for any cause. E-4. Substitution of a gasket of different construction or improper dimensions may result in leakage and damage to gasket surfaces. the gasket should be installed so that the tongue bears on the seamless side of the gasket jacket. This will tend to prevent future leaks and/or damage to the gasket seating stirfaces of the heat exchanger. Gaskets should be properly positioned before attempting to retighten bolts. deformation of the tube. E-4. as shown in 8ectlon 1. Composition gaskets become dried out and brittle so that they do not always provide an effective seal when reused.. Metal jacketed type gaskets are widely used.6 SPARE AND REPLACEMENT PARTS The procurement of spare or re lacement parts from the manufacturer will be facilitated if the correct name for the part. Bolted joints and flanges are designed for use with the particular type of gasket specified. Table N-2. together with the serial number. of these Standards is given.4 TUBE EXPANDING A suitable tube expander should be used to tighten a leaking tube joint. E-4. These R organizations will chec the nature of the deposits to be removed. size. When these are used with a tongue and groove joint without a nubbin. Therefore. Excessive tube plugging may result in reduced thermal performance. and/or mechanical damage. care should be exercised to avoid damaging (3) Cleaning compounds must be compatible with the metallurgy of the exchanger. (2)t. it may not be feasible to remove and replace defective tubes. E-4.b. and other exchangers of special design.. it be reassembled with new gaskets.5 GASKET REPLACEMENT Gaskets and gasket surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned and should be free of scratches and other defects.. Metal or metal jacketed gaskets. It is the user’s responsibility to remove plugs and neutralize the bundle prior to sending it to a shop for repairs. if reused. type. any gasket substitutions should be of compatible design.32 CLEANING PRECAUTIONS (1) Tubes should not be cleaned by blowing steam through individual tubes since this heats the tube and may result in severe expansion strain.7 PLUGGING OF TUBES In U-tube heat exchangers. Replacement parts should be purchased from the original manufacturer. Care should be taken to ensure that tubes are not over expanded. E-4. higher pressure drop. and provide equipment and personnel for a complete cleaning job.SECTION 4 INSTALLATION. when compressed initially: flow to match their contact surfaces.

SECTION 5

MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B

RCB-1 SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS RCB-1.1 SCOPE OF STANDARDS RCB-1.11 GENERAL The TEMA Mechanical Standards are applicable to shell and tube heat exchangers which do not exceed any of the following criteria: (1) inside diameters of 100 inches (2540 mm) (2) product of nominal diameter, inches (mm) and design pressure, psi (kPa) of 100,000 (175x106) (3) a design pressure of 3,OW psi (20664 kPa) The intent of these parameters is to limit the maximum shell wall thickness to approximately 3 inches (76 mm), and the maximum stud diameter to approximately4 inches (102 mm). Criteria contained in these Standards may be applied to units which exceed the above parameters. R-1.12 DEFINITION OF TEMA CLASS “R” EXCHANGERS The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class “R” heat exchangers specify design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for the generally severe requirements of petroleum and related processing applications. C-1.12 DEFINITION OF TEMA CLASS “c” EXCHANGERS The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class “c” heat exchangers specify design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for the generally moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications. B-1.12 DEFINITION OF TEMA CLASS “B” EXCHANGERS The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class “B” heat exchangers specify design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for chemical process service. RCB-1.13 CONSTRUCTION CODES The individual vessels shall comply with the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, hereinafter referred to as the Code. These Standards supplement and define the Code for heat exchanger applications. The manufacturer shall comply with the construction requirements of state and local codes when the purchaser specifies the plant location. It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to inform the manufacturer of any applicable local codes. Application of the Code symbol is required, unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. RCB-1.14 MATERIALS-DEFINITION OF TERMS For purposes of these Standards, “carbon steel” shall be construed as any steel or low alloy falling within the scope of Part UCS of the Code. Metals not included by the foregoing (except cast iron) shall be considered as “alloys” unless otherwise specifically named. Materials of construction, including gaskets, should be specified by the purchaser. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for deterioration of parts for any reason. RCB-1.2 DESIGN PRESSURE RCEJ-1.21 DESIGN PRESSURE ” Designpressures~ftir the shell and tube sides shall be specified separately by the purchaser. Rc~~1.3 TEST& ~‘. ~~~-1.31 STAN DARD TEST The exchanger shall be hydrostatically tested with water. The test pressure shall be held for at least 30 minutes. The shell side and the tube side are to be tested separately in such a manner that leaks at the tube joints can be detected from at least one side. When the tube side design pressure is the higher pressure, the tube bundle shall be tested outside of the shell only if specified by the purchaser and the construction permits. Welded joints are to be

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

23

SECTION 5

MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B
sufficiently cleaned prior to tasting the exchanger to permit proper inspection during the test. ;;dEinimum hydrostatrc test pressure at room temperature shall be in accordance with the RCB-1.311 OTHER LIQUID TESTS Liquids other than water may be used as a testing medium if agreed upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer.

RCB-1.32 PNEUMATIC TEST When liquid cannot be tolerated as a test medium the exchanger may be given a pneumatic test in accordance with the Code. It must be recognized that air or gas is hazardous when used as a pressure testing medium. The pneumatic test pressure at room temperature shall be in accordance with the Code. RCB-1.33 SUPPLEMENTARY AIR TEST When a supplementary air or gas test is specified by the purchaser, it shall be preceded b the hydrostatic test required by Paragraph RCB-1.31. The test pressure shall be as agreedy upon by the purchaser and manufacturer, but shall not exceed that required by Paragraph RCB-1.32. RCB-1.4 METAL TEMPERATURES RCB-1.41 METAL TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS FOR PRESSURE PARTS The metal temperature limitations for various metals are those prescribed by the Code. RCB-1.42 DESIGN TEMPERATURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER PARTS RCB-1.421 FOR PARTS NOT IN CONTACT WITH BOTH FLUIDS Design temperatures for the shell and tube sides shall be specified se arately by the purchaser. The Code provides the allowable stress limits for parts to g e deslgned at the specified design temperature. RCB-1.422 FOR PARTS IN CONTACT WITH BOTH FLUIDS The design temperature is the design metal temperature and is used to establish the Code stress limits for design. The design metal temperature shall be based on the operating temperatures of the shellside and the tubeside fluids, except when the purchaser specffies some other design metal temperature. When the design metal tern erature is less than the higher of the design temperatures referred to in Paragraph RCfir-1.421, the design metal temperature and the affected parts shall be shown on the manufacturers nameplate(s) as described in Paragraph G-3.1. RCB-1.43 MEAN METAL TEMPERATURES RCB-1.431 FOR PARTS NOT IN CONTACT WITH BOTH FLUIDS The mean metal temperature is the calculated metal temperature, under specified operating conditions, of a part in contact with a fluid. It is used to establish metal properties under operating conditions. The mean metal temperature is based on the specified operating temperatures of the fluid in contact with the part. RCB-1.432 FOR PARTS IN CONTACT WITH BOTH FLUIDS The mean metal temperature is the calculated metal temperature, under specified operating conditions, of a part in contact with both shellside and tubeside fluids. It is used to establish metal properties under operating conditions. The mean metal temperature is based on the specified operating temperatures of the shellside and tubeside fluids. In establishing the mean metal temperatures, due consideration shall be given to such factors as the relative heat transfer coefficients of the two fluids contacting the part and the relative heat transfer area of the parts contacted by the two fluids. RCB-1.5 STANDARD CORROSION ALLOWANCES The standard corrosion allowances used for the various heat exchanger parts are as follows, unless the conditions of service make a different allowance more suitable and such allowance is specified by the purchaser.

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Standards

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RCB-1.51 CARBON STEEL PARTS R-1.511 PRESSURE PARTS

SECTION 5

All carbon steel pressure parts, except as noted below, are to have a corrosion allowance of l/5’ (3.2 mm). CB-1.511 PRESSURE PARTS All carbon steel pressure parts, except as noted below, are to have a corrosion allowance of l/16” (1.6 mm). RCB-1.512 INTERNAL FLOATING HEAD COVERS Internal floating head covers are to have the corrosion allowance on all wetted surfaces except gasket seating surfaces. Corrosion allowance on the outside of the flanged portion may be included in the recommended minimum edge distance. :, ,,,: ., ; ~. ,, y-‘y TUBEsHEETs Tubesheets are to have the corrosion allowance on each side with the provision that, on the grooved side of a grooved tubesheet, the depth of the gasketed groove may be ” considered as available for corrosion allowance. RCB-1.514 EXTERNAL COVERS Where flat external covers are grooved, the depth of the gasketed groove may be considered as available for corrosion allowance. RCB-1.515 END FLANGES Corrosion allowance shall be applied only to the inside diameter of flanges where exposed to the fluids. RCB-1.516 NONPRESSURE PARTS Nonpressure parts such as tie-rods, spacers, baffles and support plates are not required to have corrosion allowance. RCB-1.517TUBES, BOLTING AND FLOATING HEAD BACKING DEVICES Tubes, bolting and floating head backing devices are not required to have corrosion allowance. RCB-1.518 PASS PARTITION PLATES Pass partition plates are not required to have corrosion allowance. RCB-I .52 ALLOY PARTS Alloy parts are not required to have corrosion allowance. R-l.53 CAST IRON PARTS Cast iron pressure parts shall have a corrosion allowance of l/8” (3.2 mm). CB-1.53 CAST IRON PARTS Cast iron pressure parts shall have a corrosion allowance of I/l 6” (1.6 mm). RCB-1.6 SERVICE LIMITATIONS RB-1.61 CAST IRON PARTS Cast iron shall be used only for water service at pressures not exceeding 150 psi (1034 kPa). C-1.61 CAST IRON PARTS Cast iron shall not be used for pressures exceeding I50 psi (1034 kPa), or for lethal or flammable fluids at any pressure.

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Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

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SECTION 5

MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B

RCB-1.62 EXTERNAL PACKED JOINTS Packed joints shall not be used when the purchaser specifies that the fluid in contact with the joint is lethal or flammable. RCB-1.7 ANODES Selection and placement of anodes is not the responsibility of the heat exchanger manufacturer. If a heat exchanger is to be furnished with anodes, when requesting a quotation, the purchaser is responsible for furnishing the heat exchanger manufacturer the following information: (1) Method of anode attachment. (2) Quantity of anodes required. (3) Size and manufacturer of the anodes. (4) Anode material. (6) Sketch of anode locations and spacing. If the heat exchanger manufacturer chooses to install anodes for a customer, the manufacturer is not responsible for the suitability of the anodes for the service it is installed in, the life of the anodes, the corrosion protection provided by the anode, or any subsequent damage to the heat exchanger attributed to the anode, the method of anode installation, or the installed location of the anode in the heat exchanger.

26

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B
*RCB-2 TUBES RCB-2.1 TUBE LENGTH

SECTION 5

The following tube lengths for both straight and U-tube exchangers are commonly used: 96 (2438), 120 (3048), 144 (3658), 192 (4877) and 240 (6096) inches (mm). Other lengths may be used. Also see Paragraph N-l .12. RCB-2.2 TUBE DIAMETERS AND GAGES RCB-2.21 BARE TUBES Table RCB-2.21 lists common tube diameters and gages for bare tubes of copper, steel and alloy. Other diameters and gages are acceptable. TABLE RCB-2.21 BARE TUBE DIAMETERS AND GAGES O.D. Inches (mm) Copper and Copper Alloys Carbon Steel, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys B.W.G. Other Alloys

B.W.G. 27 24 22

B.W.G. 27 :z 22 20 18

I

(X,

20 18 20 :“6

4: 14 16 14 12 14 12 10

20 18 20 ;“6 1: 14 1: 12

(zl )

20 18 16 :: 14

Notes: 1, Wall thickness shall be specified as either minimum or average. 2. Characteristics of tubing are shown in Tables D-7 and D7M. RCB-2.22 INTEGRALLY FINNED TUBES The nominal fin diameter shall not exceed the outside diameter of the unfinned section. Specified wall shall be based on the thickness at the root diameter.

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

27

SECTION 5
RCB-2.3 U-TUBES

MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B

RCB-2.31 U-BEND REQUIREMENTS When U-bends are formed, it is normal for the tube wall at the outer radius to thin. The minimum tube wall thickness in the bent portion before bending shall be:

where

do t,=t, 1
I l’z
to = t, =

Original tube wall thickness, inches (mm)

Minimum tuba wall thickness calculated by Coda rules for a straight tube subjected to the same pressure and metal temperature, inches (mm) do= Outside tube diameter, inches (mm) R= Mean radius of bend, inches (mm) More than one tuba gage, or dual gage tubes, may be used in a tube bundle. When IJ-bends are formed from tube materials which are rafatively non-work-hardening and of suitable temper, tube wall thinning in the bends should not exceed a nominal 17% of original tube wall thickness. Flattening at the bend shall not exceed 10% of the nominal tube outside diameter. U-bends formed from tube materials having low ductility, or materials which are susceptible to work-hardening, may require special consideration. Also refer to Paragraph RCB-2.33. RCB-2.32 BEND SPACING RCB-2.321 CENTER-TO-CENTER DIMENSION The center-to-center dimensions between parallel legs of U-tubes shall be such that they can be inserted into the baffle assembly without damage to the tubes. RCB-2.322 BEND INTERFERENCE The assembly of bends shall be of workmanlike appearance. Metal-to-metal contact between bends in the same plane shall not be permitted. RCB-2.33 HEATTREATMENT Cold work in forming U-bends may induce embrittlement or susceptibility to stress corrosion in certain materials and/or environments. Heat treatment to alleviate such conditions may be performed by agreement between manufacturer and purchaser. RCB-2.4 TUBE PATTERN Standard tube patterns are shown in Figure RCB-2.4. FIGURE RCB-2.4

Triangular

Rotated Triangular

square

Rotated square

Note: Flow arrows are perpendicular to the baffle cut edge.

28

Stantfards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

4 mm) shall be provided.42 TRIANGULAR PATTERN Triangular or rotated triangular pattern should not be used when the shell side is to be cleaned mechanically. minimum cleaning lanes of t/4” (6.diameter is 12 inches (305 mm) or less. B-2. minimum cleaning lanes of 3/16” (4. When mechanical cleaning of the tubes is specified by the purchaser and the nominal shell.25 times the outside diameter of the tube. For shell diameters greater than 12 inches (305 mm). C-2.25 times the outside diameter of the tube.9 mm) or less and tuba-to-tubesheet joints are ” expanded only.4 mm) shall be provided.8 mm) shall be provrded.20 times the outside diameter.5 TUBE PITCH Tubes shall be spaced with a minimum center-to-center distance of 1. When mechanical cleaning of the tubes is specified by the purchaser. when mechanical cleaning of the tubes is specified by the purchaser. tuba lanes should be continuous.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 RCB-2. RCB-2. R-2.41 SQUARE PATTERN In removable bundle units.5 TUBE PITCH Tubes shall be spaced with a minimum center-to-center distance of 1. Where the tube diameters are 5/8” (15.25 times the outside diameter of the tube. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 29 . the minimum center-to-center distance may be reduced to 1. minimum cleaning lanes of l/4” (6.5 TUBE PITCH Tubes shall be spaced with a minimum center-to-center distance of 1.

:j 1 112 :i: ) 6/8 (9. pEEL& t 610 737 I 762 1 991 (10161524) (1549-2032) (2057-2540) 5116 5116 7$? t/2 ‘I2 (l% I (12. 40 lil . TABLE R-3.7) (t2.13 MINIMUM SHELL THICKNESS Shell thickness is determined by the Code design formulas.:g 61 -HO Carbon Steel Plate 118 318 7116 (12.12 TOLERANCES RCB-3.5) ) TABLE CB-3.121 PIPE SHELLS The inside diameter of pipe shells shall be in accordance with applicable ASTM/ASME pipe specifications. The nominal total thickness for clad shells shall be the same as for carbon steel shells.7j SCH. RCB-3. STD SCH. plus corrosion allowance..2 mm) as determined by circumferential measurement. but in no case shall the nominal thickness of shells be less than that shown in the applicable table..122 PLATE SHELLS The inside diameter of any plate shell shall not exceed the design inside diameter by more than l/8” (3.13 MINIMUM SHELLTHICKNESS Dimensions In Inches (mm) Minimum Thickness Nominal Shell Diameter Pipe 6 13-29 8-12 . 40 SCH. 30 Alloy * (3.11 SHELL DIAMETERS It shall be left to the discretion of each manufacturer to establish a system of standard shell diameters within the TEMA Mechanical Standards in order to achieve the economies peculiar to his individual design and manufacturing facilities.2) 11521 I 203:305) 330-737) (762-991) j: . 30 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .1 SHELLS RCB4.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-3 SHELLS AND SHELL COVERS RCB-3.13 MINIMUM SHELL THICKNESS Dimensions In Inches (mm) Minimum Thickness Nominal Shell Diameter Pipe SCH. RCB-3.7) (12.:::. RCB-3.7) 24-29 30-39 40-60 61 -80 81 100 Carbon Steel Plate IAlloy * *Schedule 5s is permissible for 6 inch (152 mm) and 8 inch (203 mm) shell diameters.

where such clearance has no significant effect on shell side heat transfer coefficient or mean temperature difference. Baffle cuts may be vertical.3. or outside the tube pattern. tube holes may be smaller than standard. standard tube holes are to be l/32 inch (0.015 Inch (0. Typical baffle cuts are illustrated in Figure RCB-4. horizontal or rotated. Any burrs shall be removed and the tube holes given a workmanlike finish. of a tube lane.3 mm) except that 4% of the holes are allowed an over-tolerance of 0. RCB-4 BAFFLES AND SUPPORT PLATES RCB-4.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 RCB-3. RCB-4. However. Other type baffles are permissible. Baffles shall be cut near the centerline of a row of tubes.1.8 mm) diameter and smaller. Baffle holes will have an over-tolerance of 0. Where the unsupponed tube length exceeds 36 inches (914 mm) for tubes 1 -l/4 inches (31. FIGURE RCB-4. (See Paragraph RCS-4. shall be at least equal to the thickness of the shell as shown in the applicable table.) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 31 .2 SHELL COVER THICKNESS Nominal thickness of shell cover heads.4 mm) over the OD of the tubes. The number of tube rows that overlap for multi-segmental baffles should be adjusted to give approximately the same net free area flow through each baffle.cJ c3 6 BAFFLE CUTS FOR MULTI-SEGMENTAL BAFFLES DOUBLE SEGMENTAL TRIPLE SEGMENTAL RCB-4.010 inch (0. of a pass lane. or for tubes larger in diameter than l-1 /4 inches (31.1 BAFFLE CUTS FOR SEGMENTAL BAFFLES .2 TUBE HOLES Where the maximum unsupported tube length is 36 inches (914 mm) or less. Baffles shall have a workmanlike finish on the outside diameter.1 TYPE OF TRANSVERSE BAFFLES The segmental or multi-segmental type of baffle or tube support plate is standard. before forming.43.8 mm) over the OD of the tubes. For pulsating conditions. these maximum clearances may be increased to twice the tabulated values.4 mm). standard tube holes are to be l/64 inch (0. Baffle cut is defined as the segment opening height expressed as a ercentage of the shell inside diameter or as a percentage of the total net free area inside the shell P shell cross sectional area minus total tube area).8 mm) OD.3 TRANSVERSE BAFFLE AND SUPPORT CLEARANCE The transverse baffle and support plate clearance shall be such that the difference between the shell design inside diameter and the outside diameter of the baffle shall not exceed that indicated in Table RCB-4.

. The U-bend length shall not be constdered in determining the unsupported tube length for required plate thickness..SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE RCB-4.)rand Over 24 (610) Over 36 (914) to 36 (914) tq..3 Standard Cross Baffle and Support Plate Clearances Dimensions In Inches (mm) Nominal Shell ID 6-17 18-39 40-54 55-69 .lilj. RCB-4. : & Design ID of Shell Minus Baffle OD The design inside diameter of a pipe shell is defined as the nominal outside diameter of the pipe. the design inside diameter may be taken as the actual measured shell inside diameter. The design inside diameter of a plate shell is the specified inside diameter.‘ZZe Nominal Shell ID 32 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .4 THICKNESS OF BAFFLES AND SUPPORT PLATES RCB-4. TABLE R-4..?t2t) (1219) to 60 (1524) Inclusive l. minus twtce the nominal wall thickness. The thickness of the baffle or support plates for U-tube bundles shall be based on the unsupported tube length in the straight section of the bundle. End spaces between tubesheets and baffles are not a consideration. Over 46 Over 60 24 (.41 TRANSVERSE BAFFLES AND SUPPORT PLATES The following tabfes show the minimum thickness of transverse baffles and support plates applying to all materials for various shell diameters and plate spacings. In any case.41 BAFFLE OR SUPPORT PLATE THICKNESS Dimensions in Inches (mm) Plate Thickness Unsupported tube length between central baffles.

.15241 (1549-25401 R-4.. .42 LONGITUDINAL BAFFLES Longitudinal carbon steel baffles shall not be less than l/4” (6.52 for the tube material used..42 LONGITUDINAL BAFFLES Longitudinal baffles shall not be less than l/4” (6. . CB-4. Longitudinal alloy baffles shall not be less than l/8” (3. RCB-4. whichever is greater. . (2) Baffles and support plates engaging finned tubes. 6-14 5-28 19-38 I9 .100 (. special design considerations may dictate a closer spacing. (4) Support of tube bundles when larger clearances allowed by RCB-4.52 MAXIMUM SPACING Tube support plates shall be so spaced that the unsupported tube span does not exceed the value indicated in Table RCB-4.2 mrn)~ nominal metal thickness. RCB-4.5 SPACING OF BAFFLES AND SUPPORT PLATES RCB-4. (3) Longitudinal baffles subjected to large differential pressures due to high shell side fluid pressure drop.60 il . RCB-4. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 33 .43 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS (1) Baffles and support plates subjected to pulsations.41 BAFFLE OR SUPPORT PLATE THICKNESS Dimensions in Inches (mm) Plate Thickness Nominal Shell ID SECTCON 5 Unsupported tube length between central baffles.4 mm) nominal metal thickness.3 are used.4 mm) nominal metal thickness.closer than l/5 of the shell ID or 2 inches (51 mm). .51 MINIMUM SPACING Segmental baffles normally should not be spaced. End spaces between tubesheets and baffles are not a consideration.::..:: i 737-985) 991.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R’C B TABLE CB-4. However.

52. tube and baffle materials.53 BAFFLE SPACING Baffles normally shall be spaced uniformly.52 do not consider potential flow induced vibration problems.52 MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED STRAIGHT TUBE SPANS Dimensions in Inches (mm) 1 Tube Materials and Temoerature Limits O F g9r$on Steel & High Alloy Steel.52. 600 (316) Nickel. Existing predictive correlations are inadequate to insure that any given design will be free of such damage. ACB-4. Refer to Section 6for vibration criteria. consideration should be given to alternative flow arrangements which would permit shorter spans under the same pressure drop restrictions.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE RCB-4. (2) In the case of circumferentially finned tubes. and or tubesheets. If the span under these circumstances approaches the maximum permitted by Paragraph RCE-4. The remaining bad normally shall be spaced uniformly. shall be located as les close as practical to the shell nozzles. 850 (464) Nickel-Chromium-Iron. unsupported spans shall be as short as pressure drop restrictions permit. spanning the effective tube length.56TUBE BUNDLE VIBRATION Shell side flow may produce exdation forces which result in destructive tube vibrations. maximum spans shall be reduced in direct proportion to the fourth root of the ratio of elastic modulus at temperature to elastic modulus at tabulated limit temperature. Section 6 of these Standards contains information which is 34 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . The vulnerability of an exchanger to flow induced vibration depends on the flow rate. RCB-4.54 U-TUBE REAR SUPPORT The support plates or baffles adjacent to the bends in U-tube exchangers shall be so located that. tube field layout. the tube OD shall be the diameter at the root of the fins and the corresponding tabulated or interpolated span shall be reduced in direct proportion to the fourth root of the ratio of the weight per unit length of the tube. Where bend diameters prevent compliance. special provisions in addition to the above shall be made for support of the bends. RCB-4. if stripped of fins to that of the actual finned tube. 759 Tube OD Low Alloy Steel. for any individual bend. and inlet/outlet configuration. the sum of the bend diameter plus the straight lengths measured along both legs from supports to bend tangents does not exceed the maximum unsupported span determined from Paragraph RCB-4.55 SPECIAL CASES When pulsating conditions are specified by the purchaser. the baffles nearest the ends of the shell. shell diameter. RCB-4. unsupported tube spans. 1000 (538) 26 f660) (1) Above the metal temperature limits shown. 850 (454) Nickel-Copper. (3) The maximum unsuppolted tube spans in Table RCB-4. When this is not possible.

61 SHELL SIDE IMPINGEMENT PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS An impingement plate. For all other gases and vapors. single phase fluids. (2) Liquid p V a is in excess of 6000 (8928) where V is the linear velocity in feet per second (meter per second). RCB-4. all other liquids. In any case.623 BUNDLE ENTRANCE OR EXIT AR’EA WITH IMPINGEMENT PLATE When an impingement plate is provided under a nozzle.000 (5953) where V is the linear velocity of the fluid in feet per second (meters per second) and P is its density in pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter). 500 (744). *RCB-4. the flow area shall be the unrestricted area between the tubes within the compartments between baffles and/or tubesheet.63 TUBE SIDE Consideration shall be given to the need for special devices to prevent erosion of the tube ends under the following conditions: (1) Use of an axial inlet nozzle. including all nominally saturated vapors.. ‘RCB-4. or other equivalent means of tying the baffle system together.7 TIE RODS AND SPACERS Tie rods and spacers. shall be provided to retain all transverse baffles and tube support plates securely in position.’ MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 intended to alert the designer to potential vibration problems.6 IMPINGEMENT BAFFLES AND EROSION PROTECTION The following paragraphs provide limitations to prevent or minimize erosion of tube bundle components at the entrance and exit areas.622 SHELL ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA WITHOUT IMPINGEMENT PLATE For determining the area available for flow at the entrance or exit of the shell where there is no impingement plate. the flow area shall be considered the unrestricted area between the inside diameter of the shell at the nozzle and the face of the impingement plate.62 SHELL OR BUNDLE ENTRANCE AND EXIT AREAS In no case shall the shell or bundle entrance or exit area produce a value of p V2 in excess of 4. *RCB-4. or other means to protect the tube bundle against impinging fluids. RCB-4. and consistent with Paragraph G-5. shall be provided when entrance line values of p I/’ exceed the following: non-abrasive.624 BUNDLE ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA WITHOUT IMPINGEMENT PLATE For determining the area available for flow at the entrance or exit of the tube bundle where there is no impingement plate. and for liquid vapor mixtures. 1500 (2232). the flow area between the tubes within the compartments between baffles and/or tubesheet may be considered. the manufacturer is not responsible or liable for any direct. RCB-4. *RCB-4. impingement protection is required. I/ is the linear velocity of the fluid in feet per second (meters per second) and p is its density in pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter). A properly designed diffuser may be used to reduce line velocities at shell entrance.621 SHELL ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA WITH IMPINGEMENT PLATE When an impingement plate is provided. indirect. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 35 . or consequential damages resulting from vibration. the flow area between the tubes within the projection of the nozzle bore and the actual unrestricted radial flow area from under the nozzle or dome measured between the tube bundle and shell inside diameter may be considered. including a liquid at its boiling point. *RCB-4. RCB-4. These limitations have no correlation to tube vibration and the designer should refer to Section 6 for information regarding this phenomenon. and p is its density in pounds per cubic foot (kilograms per cubic meter).

sealing devices should be installed when necessary to prevent excessive. Any baffle segment requires a minimum of three points of support. Bundle hold-downs are not required for fixed tubesheet kettles.71 TIE ROD STANDARDS Dimensions in inches (mm) Nominal Shell Diameter Tie Rod Diameter Minimum Number of Tie Rods I 1X-4. One method is shown in Figure R Cp B-4.5 mm) shall be used.71 shows suggested tie rod count and diameter for various sbes of heat exchangers. no fewer than four tie rods.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B R-4. and no diameter less than 3/8” (9. 36 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .9 KETTLE TYPE REBOILERS For kettle ty e reboilers. TABLE R-4. fluid by-passing around or through the tube bundle.5 mm) shall be used above 15 inch (381) nominal shell diameter. skid bars and a bundle hold-down may be provided. Other combinations of tie rod number and diameter with equivalent metal area are permissible. no fewer than four tie rods.71 shows suggested tie rod count and diameter for various sizes of heat exchangers. RCB-4. Sealing devices may be seal strips. or combinations of these.71 TIE ROD Dimensions Nominal Shell Diameter 4NDARDS Inches (mm) 6-15 (152-381) RCB-4. and no diameter less than 3/8” (9. Other methods which satisfy the intent are acceptable.9. Any baffte segment requires a minimum of three points of support. Other combinations of tie rod number and diameter with equivalent metal area are permissible: however. tre rods wrth spacers.71 NUMBER AND SIZE OF TIE RODS Table R-4.8 SEALING DEVICES In addition to the baffles. dummy tubes.71 NUMBER AND SIZE OF TIE RODS Table CB-4. TABLE CB-4. however.

MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B FIGURE RCB-4.9 SECTION 5 CROSS-SECTION END VIEW OF TUBE BUNDLE AND SHELL Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

RCB-5. inches (mm) B= . RCB-5. For single pass floating head covers the depth at nozzle centerline shall be a minimum of one-third the inside diameter of the nozzle. RCB-5.141 BACKING DEVICE THICKNESS (TyPE S) The required thickness of floating head backing devices shall be determined by the following formulas or minimum thickness shown in Figure RCB-5. RCB-5.1 using K = A/ 5 z = Tubesheet OD. inches (mm) w = Design bolt load (as ref. BENDING ?= (1J)(N)(Y) (B)(S) I’* gr. in Code Appendix 2). CB-5. inches (mm) Bolt circle.1 INTERNAL FLOATING HEADS (Types S and T) R-5.mm c= As shown in Fig. (kN) Y = From Code Fig.stgf”“* inches Metric ~= (I.J)(N)(Y) [ (B)(S) 1 “zx1o3 . inches (mm) H = (C-B)/Z.11 MINIMUM INSIDE DEPTH OF FLOATING HEAD COVERS For multipass floating~ head covers the inside depth shall be such that the minimum cross-over area for flow between successive tube passes is at least equal to the flow area through the tubes of one pass. inches W Metric t=(n)(zj(s.mm SHEAR W f =(Jo(z)(s*) where A = Ring OD.12 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT Fabricated floating head covers shall be postweld heat treated when required by the Code or specified by the purchaser.141.3 times the flow area through the tubes of one pass. 2-7. lb. inches (mm) L= Greater of 7or 1.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C I3 RCB-5 FLOATING END CONSTRUCTION RCB-5. For single pass floating head covers the depth at nozzle centerline shall be a minimum of one-third the inside diameter of the nozzle.inches(mm) 38 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .14 FLOATING HEAD BACKING DEVICES The material of construction for split rings or other internal floating head backing devices shall be equivalent in corrosion resistance to the material used for the shell interior. RCB-5.jx)06 .141. using whichever thickness is greatest.13 INTERNAL BOLTING The materials of construction for internal bolting for floating heads shall be suitable for the mechanical design and similar in corrosion resistance to the materials used for the shell interior.1 1 MINIMUM INSIDE DEPTH OF FLOATING HEAD COVERS For multipass floating head covers the inside depth shall be such that the minimum cross-over area for flow between successive tube passes is at least equal to 1.

Division 1.’ NOTES 1. 3.4) STYLE "D" STYLE "C" Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 39 .3 RAD) MAX SiYLE "A" STYLE "B" t (MN) t t l/64-(0. Other styles are permissible. psi (kPa) SECTION 5 .8s psi (kPa) S DT = S of backing ring. <St. All references above are to ASME Coda Section VIII.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B S = Code allowable stress in tension (using shell design temperature). psi (kPa) S. FIGURE RCB 5. = 0. Caution: For styles “A”. psi (kPa) S l... psi (kPa) S. 75 (1. See Figure RCB-5.8 PAD) MIN.. < S..141 for illustration of suggested styles. = S of tubesheet.141 ANGLE=4$ (0..i = Sof split key ring. “B” & “D” check thickness in shear of the tubesheet if S. 2. Caution: Style”C” check thickness in shear of the tubesheet if S.

shall be provided to support the floating head end of the tube bundle. For pressures less than 150 PSI (1034 kPa). a partial support plate. or other suitable means. Figure RCB-5.21 PACKED FLOATING HEADS The cylindrical surface of packed floating head tubesheets and skirts. fewer rings of packing may be used. (Type P) 40 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . RCB-5.22 PACKING BOXES A machine finish shall be used on the shell or packing box where the floating tubesheet or nozzle passes through. RCB-5.17 PASS PARTITION PLATES The nominal thickness of floating head pass partitions shall be identical to those shown in RCB-9.16 FLOATING HEAD NOZZLES The floating head nozzle and packing box for a single pass exchanger shall comply with the requirements of Paragraphs RCB-5.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CL(GS R C 8 RCBd. a minimum of three rings of packing shall be used for 150 PSI (1034 kPa) maximum design pressure and a minimum of four rings shall be used for 300 PSI (2066 kPa) maximum design pressure. If packing of braided material is used.41 as applicable for unsupported tube lengths over 60 inches (1524 mm).2 OUTSIDE PACKED FLOATING HEADS RCB-5.22 and Table RCB-5.23.21. where in contact with packing (including allowance for expansion). temperatures below 3OO’F (149” C).22 and RCB-5. shall be given a fine machine finish equivalent to 63 microinches.41 or CB-4. and non-hazardous service.13 for channels and bonnets. RCB-5. RCB-5.removable shell cover is utilized. the thickness shall equal or exceed the support plate thickness specified in Table R-4. If a plate is used.22 show typical details and dimensions of packing boxes. RCB-5.lSTUBE BUNDLE SUPPORTS When a.

29 17.45 53.53 9.70 15.75 44.70 12.11 11.53 9.75 31.53 12.45 44.98 i B C D I B( NO..70 12. rs SIZE Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Ml6 Note: Nominal size of packing is same as dimension ‘A” Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 41 .11 11.88 15.11 11..88 11.46 31.22 TYPICAL DIMENSIONS FOR PACKED FLOATING HEADS 150 PSl(1034 kPa) AND 300 PSt(2068 kPa) WITH 600 ‘F (316 “C) MAX. and Shape May Be Used TABLE RCB-5.:::. Dimensions.29 14.53 9. TEMP.11 11.75 31.75 31. 762-838 864-l 092 1118-1295 1321-1524 9.45 44. 1 1 i-i/8 i-1/8 l-l/8 I-114 ?-1 j4 Dimensions in Millimeters A SIZE 152-203 229-330 356-432 457-533 .53 9.22 SECTION 5 c E J/ Design Based On Square-I Braided Packing I F \ L Pocking of Other Suitable Materials.29 14.46 17.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B FIGURE RCB-5. Dimensions in Inches B C D E (MIN) 1 .98 53.11 14.75 31.

25 PASS PARTITION PLATES The nominal thickness of floating head pass partitions shall be identical to those shown in Paragraph RCB-9. Design temperature.31 LANTERN RING The externally sealed Roating‘tubesheet using square braided packing materials shall be used only for water. pressure and shell diameter shall be limited by the service. For braided packing materials with a seam. a minimum of two rings of packing shall be used on each side of the lantern ring. RCB-5. with the seams staggered during assembly.31 and C-5.31 MAXIMUM DESIGN PRESSURE FOR EXTERNALLY SEALED FLOATING TUBESHEETS Nominal Shell Inside Diameter Inches (mm) (152610) 6-24 (635-1067 25 .24 FLOATING TUBESHEET SKIRT The floating tubesheet skrrt normally shall extend outward.3 EXTERNALLY SEALED FLOATING TUBESHEET (Type W) RB-5. TABLE RB-5. RCB-5. Design temperature shall not exceed 375 0 F (191 o C) Design pressure shall be limited according to Table RB-5. RCB-5. When the skirt must extend inward. one ring of packing shall be used on each side of the lantern ring. When endless packing rings are used. joint configuration.34 SPECIAL DESIGNS Special designs incorporating other sealing devices may be used for the applications in Paragraph RB5. or similar services.32 LEAKAGE PRECAUTIONS The design shall incorporate provisions in the lantern ring so that any leakage past the packing will leak to atmosphere.31 LANTERN RING The externally sealed floating tubesheet shall be used only for water.31 or other special service requirements. air. lubricating oil. RCB-5. or similar services.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-5. 42 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . RCB-5.42 43 .60 (1092-l 524 61 100 H644-25Ar-r Maximum Design Pressure PSI (kPa) 300 (2066) 150 I 1034) 75 517) Fin 13051 C-5.23 PACKING MATERIAL Purchaser shall specify packing material which is compatible with the shell side process conditions. packing material and number of packing rings. steam. lubricating oil. air. a suitable method shall be used to prevent stagnant areas between the shell side nozzle and the tubesheet. Provisions for leak detection shall be considered.13 for channels and bonnets. steam.33 PACKING MATERIAL Purchaser shall specify packing material which is compatible with the process conditions. RCB-5. to a maximum design pressure of 600 psi (4137 kPa).31.

but neither gasket is crushed at the required bolt load.Gaskets shall be selected which have a continuous periphery with no radial leak paths.31 The minimum width of peripheral ring gaskets for external joints shall be 3/S (9.33 Peripheral gasket contact surfaces shall have a flatness tolerance of * l/32” (0.5 GASKET JOINT DETAILS Gasketed joints shall be of a confined type.33 Flatness of peripheral gasket contact surfaces shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of Paragraph RCE-1. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 43 . CBS. CB-6. Metal jacketed. Other ” ~’ gasket materials may be specified by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer to meet special service conditions and flange design.7 mm) for all larger shell sizes. but neither gas Ret is crushed at the required bolt load. provisions shall be made so that both gaskets seat. R-6. composition gaskets may be used for external joints.7 mm) for all larger shell sizes. This maximum deviation shall not occur in less than a 20 o (0. 0 r”l Cs 9 e.5 mm) for shell sizes through 23 inches (584 mm) nominal diameter and l/2” (12.4 mm) for all shell sizes. When two gasketed joints are corn ressed by the same bolting. and floating heads shall be not fess than l/4” (6. When two gasketed joints are compressed by the same bolting.4 mm) for shell sizes through 23 inches (584 mm) nominal diameter and not IeSS than 3/8” (9. bonnets.~ F. Full face gaskets shall be used for all cast Iron flanges. 0 Q c Q c 0 g: 8 Q c. all joints for pressures of 300 psi (2068 kPa) and over.3 Rad) arc.8 mm) maximum deviation from any reference plane.~. RCB-6. unless temperature or corrosive nature of contained fluid indicates otherwise.32 The minimum width of peripheral ring gaskets for internal joints shall be l/4” (6.31 The minimum width of peripheral ring askets for external joints shall be 3/V (9. RCB-6.2 GASKET MATERIALS Metal jacketed or solid metal gaskets shall be used for internal floating head joints.1 TYPE OF GASKETS . ACE-6. R-6. B-6. provisions shall be made so that both gaskets seal.2 GASKET MATERIALS For design pressures of 300 psi (2068 kPa) and lower. and for all joints in contact with hydrocarbons.4 PASS PARTITION GASKETS The width of gasket web for pass partitions of channels. This shall not exclude gaskets made continuous by welding or other methods which produce a homogeneous bond.3.5 mm) for all larger shell sizes. filled or solid metal gaskets shall be used for all joints for design pressures greater than 300 psi (2068 kPa) and for internal floating head joints. 0 0 0 fi Q 0 Q a 0 Q a 0 0 rQ 0 0 0 0 RCB-6 GASKETS MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 RCB-6. R-6.5 mm) for shell sizes through 23 inches (584 mmB nominal drameter and l/2” (12.3 PERIPHERAL GASKETS RC-6. Other gasket materials may be specified by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer to meet special service conditions and flange design.

see Figure F-3. spare gaskets include only main body flange gaskets. A A Confined Gasket SPIRAL WOUND GASKET WITH OUTER METAL RING RCS-6. ” .SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B CB6. -_e__ Confined Gasket Unconfined Gasket For dimensions and tolerances.5 .5 GASKET JOINT DETAILS Gasket joints shall be of a confined or unconfined type. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . flGURE RCS-6.6 SPARE GASKETS Unless specifically stated otherwise.

8 mm) OD. RCB-7.3 which is referenced.1 TUBESHEETTHICKNESS RCB-7.1 mm) OD. welded or otherwise constructed such as to effectively contribute to the support of the tubesheets (except U-tube tubesheets) (3) Tubes are uniformly distributed (no large untubed areas) Abnormal conditions support or loading are considered Special Cases. 7/8” (22.tubes are to be expanded. 1” (25.13i MINIMUM TUBESHEET THICKNESS WITH EXPANDED TUBE JOINTS In no case shall the total thickness minus corrosion allowance. including corrosion allowance.1 mm).4 mm) 00 and smaller.25 are applicable.2 mm) for 1-l /4” (31. In no case shall the total tubesheet thickness..4 mm) for l-1 /2” (38.122.~ RCB-7. in the areas into which tubas are to be expanded. of any tubesheet be less than three-fourths of the tube outside diameter for tubes of 1” (25.8 mm) for 2” (50.1 through RCB-7. or l-1 /4” (31.166 are satisfied. the formulas and design criteria contained in Paragraphs RCB-7. RCB-7.131 MINIMUM TUBESHEETTHICKNESS WITH EXPANDED TUBE JOINTS In no case shall the total thickness minus corrosion allowance. in subsequent paragraphs. .13 REQUIRED EFFECTIVE TUBESHEETTHICKNESS The required effective tubesheet thickness for any type of heat exchanger shall be determined from the following paragraphs.1 mm).12 EFFECTIVE TUSESHEETTHICKNESS Except as qualified by Paragraphs RCB-7.1 mm) OD.121 APPLIED TUBESHEET FACINGS The thickness of applied facing material shall not be included in the minimum or effective tubesheet thickness. 7/8” (22. of any’tubesheet be less than the outside diameter of tubes. unless the provisions of Paragraph RCB-7. the effective tubesheet thickness shall be the thickness measured at the bottom of the tube side pass partition groove and/or shell side longitudinal baffle groove minus corrosion allowance in excess of the groove depths. when pertinent. or 1-l /4” (31. when the following normal design conditions are met: (1) S&$ pressure are within the scope of the TEMA Mechanical Standards. and are defined in Paragraph RCB-7. R-7. ” Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 45 . in the areas into which tubes are to be expanded. B-7. with limitations noted. Both tubesheets of fixed tubesheet exchangers shall have the same thickness.SECTION 5 RCB-7 TUBESHEETS MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7.4 mm) OD and smaller.8 mm) D 6: In no case shall the total tubesheet thickness. including corrosion allowance.8 mm) for 2” (50.8 ~mm) O D . of any tubesheet be less than three-fourths of the tube outside diameter for tubes of 1” (25. corroded or uncorroded.4) for l-1 /2” (38. Paragraph (2) Tube-to-tubesheet joints are expanded.2 mm) for l-1 /4” 31 8 mm) OD. in the areas into which . using whichever thickness is greatest. of RCB-7.122 INTEGRALLY CLAD TUBESHEETS The thickness of cladding material in integrally clad plates and cladding deposited by welding may be included in the effective tubesheet thickness as allowed by the Code. for both tube side and shell side conditions.i31 MINIMUM TUBESHEETTHICKNESS WITH EXPANDED TUBE JOINTS In no case shall the total thickness minus corrosion allowance. C-7. be less than 3/4” (19.11 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND LIMITATIONS Subject to the requirements of the Code.121 and 7. 1” (25. be less than 3/4” (19.

G shall be the shell inside diameter.. For other type exchangers.. depending upon the side under consideration. inches (mm). Pressure acting on an integral side of a tubesheet. 2 Mf F2 G3 and M *is defined in Paragraph RCB-7.41(d) where d is the length of the shortest span measured over centerlines of gaskets.BENDING where T = Effective tubesheet thickness. where Pb= P= . psi (kPa).SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7. S = Code allowable stress in tension. where the tubesheet is extended as a flange for bolting to heads or shells with ring type gaskets. For fixed tubesheet exchangers. Pshall be asdefined in Paragraph RCB-7. where the tubesheet is extended for bolting to heads with ring type gaskets. G = the inside diameter of the integral pressure part. For floating tubesheets (Type T). psi (kPa).142. For fixed tubesheet exchangers. For outside packed floating head exchangers (Type P). psi (kPa).-PBS orP. orP=P. Pshall be the design pressure. for tubesheet material at design metal temperatures.: Pressure acting on the gasketed side of a tubesheet. Gshall be the Gused for the stationary tubesheet using the Pas defined for other type exchangers. psi (kPa).P. (See Paragraph RCB-1. G shall be either in the corroded or uncorroded condition.163. psi (kPa). (e. P = P 5 + P b or P t + P . or differential pressure when specified by the purchaser.162 in terms of equivalent tube side and shell side bolting pressures except G shall be the gasket G of the floating tubesheet. TypeT tubesheets shall also be checked using the pressure P defined above with bolting and using the actual gasket G of the floating tubesheet G = For a divided~floating tubesheet. For kettle type exchangers. corrected for vacuum when present on the op osite side. Pshall be as defined in Paragraph RCB-7. G shall be 1. G shall be the port inside diameter. the effect of the moment acting upon the extension is defined in Paragraph RCB-7. shell side or tube side. dependent upon which condition is under consideration. Pshall be as defined in Paragraph RCB-7.42).132 TUBESHEET FORMULA.+P. inches (mm).166.) 46 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger ManufWurers Association . G = the diameter at the location of the gasket load reaction as defined in the Code. For other type exchangers.164 or RCB-7. P psi (kPa) is given by the greatest absolute value of the followlng: P=P. OrP=P.1342. for the floating tubesheet. For any floating tubesheet (except divided).g. over which the pressure under consideration is acting. psi (kPa P For U-tube tubesheets (Type U). For packed floating end exchangers with lantern ring (Type W). G shall be the diameter.6 .141. RCB-7.

05 . 1.: fixed tubesheets and Roating type ubesheets) gasketed both SI3es.15 1.05 0.10 1.00 0.132 for illustration of the application of the above equations. Wall Thickness and ID are to be based on the side yielding the smaller value of F. F shall be the value determined bv the curve U in :igure RCB-7.09 0. .g.132 1. \or unsupported tubesheets (e.04 0. letermined by the curve H in Figure RCB-7.: U-tube tubesheets) integral with either rr both SI8es. the CD of the tube in the tubesheet shall be used.06 0.: U-tube tubesheets) gasketed both ides.60 0.90 0.02 0.i32 F= FIGURE RCB-7.66 0.132.00 0. ‘or unsup orted tubesheets (e. See Table RCB-7.25.g. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 47 .30 1.O.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B 0.95 0. F = 1.785 for square or rotated square tube patterns SECTION 5 1 -!“s.01 0. F = 1 .06 0.26 1.07 0.75 0.03 0.20 1.‘R: 2 for triangular or rotated triangular tube patterns For integrally finned tubes.10 Wall Thickness/ID Ratio For Integral Tubesheets 4OTE: If the tubesheet is integral with both the tube side and shell side. :or supposed tubesheets (e.

7.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE RCB .0 inside diameter Table RCB .132 continued next page Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . psi (kPa). Nate: F Max = I.7.132 Design pressure.

per Paraaraoh RCS-7. or differential pressure when specified by customer. 1. or differential pressure when specified by customer.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE I?( F 7. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 49 . shell side. shell side. or tube side. psi (kPa). psi (kPa). 1. per Paragraph RCE7. psi (kPa). psi (kPa).00 Design pressure.132 corre&d for YBCUU~ when present on opposite side. ortube side.132 Jy!~)l nket G ell side Channel ID e note 1 Note: F Max = 1.0 Same Gas used for stationary tubesheet Design pressure.132 corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side.0 Gasket G = the diameter at the location of the gasket load reaction as defined in the Code. or differential pressure when specified by customer.132 SECTION 5 (Continued) P See Figure RCE7.Shortest span measured over center lines of gaskets.0 llell ID or port iide diameter ‘kettle type changers Channel ID Same C as used for stationary tubesheet Same C as used for stationary Ibesheet Also check using gasket G of the floating tubesheet see note 1 _ 1.0 Design pressure.25 F Min = 1.41(d) .132 corrected for vacuum when present on the shell side. per Paraaraoh X8-7.0 See Paragraph RCB-7.132 1. 1. tube side per paragraph RCS-7.132 con&d for vacuum when present on opposite side. shell side. 1. Design pressure. or tube side.

.133 shows the application to typical triangular and souare tube patterns FIGURE RCB-7.164 or RCB-7. RCB-7. ’ C” (perimeter) is the length of the heavy line A = Total area enclosed by perimeter C.165.163. inches (mm) Perimeter of the tube layout measured stepwise in increments of one tube pitch from center-to-center of the outermost tubes. .141.133 TUBESHEET FORMULA .133 DL = y = c= i . psi (kPa).. inches (mm) Equivalent diameter of the tube center limit perimeter. Figure RCB-7. A r_ r? 7 Code allowable stress in tension. d.. square inches (mm 2. the OD of the tube in the tubesheet shall be used.SHEAR where T= Effective tubesheat thickness. psi (kPa). shell side or tube side. P shall be as defined in Paragraph RCB-7. For other type exchangers. Pshall be the design pressure. inches (mm). See Table RCB-7. for integrally finned tubes. psi &Pa).42.= Outside tube diameter. or differential pressure when specified by the purchaser. psi (kPa).) NOTE: Shear will not control when s= II-. (See Paragraph RCB-1. inches (mm). corrected for vacuum when present on the opposite side.133 for illustration of the application of the above equations. P= For fixed tubesheet exchangers. .SECTION5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7. _--. Pshall be as defined in Paragraphs RCB-7. for tubesheet material at design metal temperature. Pitch = Tube center-to-center spacing. inches (mm) For outside packed floating head exchangers (Type P). . 50 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

or differential pressure when specified by customer Perimeter of tube layout measured stepwise in increments 0‘ one tube-to-tube pitch oenter-to-center of the outermost tubes. in inches (mm). For integrally finned tubes. as defined rn paragraphs RCB-7. For tubesheet material at design metal temperature. psi (kPa). shell side or tube side. or for fixed tubesheet t pe units. or differential pressure when specified by customer D.(See paragraph RCS-1. whichever is oontmlling. corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side. See?= igure RCS-7. ?-‘) Design pressure. See Figure RCS-7.163 txru WE-7. the OD of the tube in the tubesheet shall be center-to-center.133 Design pressure.133 Continued fleXI page Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 51 . corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side. psi (kPa)._ MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 TABLE RCB-7. Pitch = Tube spacing. psi (kPa). do = Outside tube diameter.42. shell side or tube side.133 total area enclosed by C in s “are inches (mm 2).) I P Design pressure.133 TUBESHEET THICKNESS FOR SHEAR Note: Must be calculated for shell side or tube side pressure. psi (kPa). shell side or tube side. =Code allowable stress in tension. inches (mm). corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side. inches (mm).165 TABLE RCB-7. or differential pressure when specified by customer..

See Figure RCS-7. or differential pressure when specified by customer = Perimeter of tube layout measured stepwise in increments of one tube-to-tube pitch center-to-center of the outermost tubes.133 total area endosed by C in square inches (mm2). corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side.133 = Design pressure. shell side or tube side. See Figure RCS-7. corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side. in inches (mm). Design pressure.133 Continued P Design pressure. or differential pressure when specified by customer Design pressure. corrected for vacuum when present on opposite side. corrected for vacuum when present on the shell side Defined in Paragraph RCB-7.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE RCB-7. tube side. psi (kPa). psi (kPa). psi (kPa). psi (kPa). Shell side or tube side.1412 52 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . or differential pressure when specified by customer D. shell side or tube side.

as applicable.132.= where 7r= 1.1+3.134 TUBESHEET FORMULA .=0.132 P = P s or P r or maximum differential pressure.S and Gare defined in Paragraph RCB-7. inches (mm) M'= ~u#PG~(. The peripheral portion extended to form a flange for bolting to heads or shells with ring type gaskets may differ in thickness from that portion inside the shell calculated in Paragraph RCB-7.TUBESHEET FLANGED EXTENSION This paragraph is applicable only when bolt loads are transmitted.132 RCB-7.162 Note: The moments may differ from the moments acting on the attached flange .1342 U-TUBE TUBESHEET EXCHANGERS T. at the bolt circle.132.--L A4 (r*. inches (mm) A = Outside diameter of the tubesheet. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 53 .1341 FIXED TUBESHEET OR FLOATING TUBESHEET EXCHANGERS 7-. Note: See Paragraph RCB-7.98 r .~~WPG~ G+!$($ T = Effective tubesheet thickness calculated from Paragraph RCB-7.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 IKE-7.86 2n r.38 M*+M+0. The minimum thickness of the extended portion may be calculated from the following paragraphs.39 P G2 w "' (A-G) S 1 Minimum thickness of the extended portion. RCB-7.l”” J i-2) where T. to the extended portion of a tubesheet.13421 for procedure.71r2 s (A-G)(1+1. I:. inches (mm) A r= G M = the larger of M I or M 2 as defined in Paragraph RCB-7. as dafined in Paragraph RCB-7.= Minimum thickness of the extended portion. inches (mm) u)= (A-G) 2 M = the larger of M I or M. G and n are defined in Paragraph RCB-7.)~-MG-O.162 Note: The moments may differ from the moments acting on the attached flange.

. (2) Calculate P.(ALTERNATIVE METHOD) (l)SetM*=-M (2) Calculate P . Method 2 . _ 54 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . (Note 7 ~/T must be 2 1). Use T.. IT ratio is calculated using actual corroded thickness of the part). (5) Recalculate M * = .132. Do not proceed to Step (7). repeat Step (2) using M * calculated in Step (5). Then repeat Steps (3) through (5). (8) If last calculated I M * I is less than the previous I A4 * I used to calculate P D. (5) Compare T and T ?. calculation is terminated. (3) Calculate 7’from Paragraph RCB-7.132. calculation is terminated. (9) If last calculated I M * I is greater than the previous I M * I used to calculate P D repeat Step (2) using last calculated M *. (4) Calculate T r from Paragraph RCB-7.Musing values of T and T ._ S E C T I O N MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B 5 ITERATIVE FINE-7. Do not proceed to Step (6). (6) If I M* I obtained in Step (5) is less than I A4 lfrom Step (l).1342.132.132. calculated. .1342. Continue this process until Step (8) is satisfied. Then repeat Steps (3) through (5). or if it is desired to reduce T r below T. (6) If T r is greater than T. (3) Calculate Tfrom Paragraph RCB-7..13421 CALCULATION METHODS Method 1 (1) Calculate M * assuming T I = T. if T is greater than T I. (Note: T.1342. calculated in Step (4). Use T . select a new ratio of T r 1 T that is less than 1 and repeat Steps (I) through (5). (7) If I A4 * 1 obtained from Step (5) is greater than I M 1 from Step (l). then P from Paragraph RCB-7. then P from Paragraph RCB-7. Use last calculated value of T. calculation is terminated. obtained in Steps (3) and (4) and as defined in Paragraph RCB-7. (4) Calculate T r from Paragraph RCB-7.

RCB-7.151 MINIMUM THICKNESS Neither component of a double tubesheet shall have a thickness less than that required by Paragraph RCB-7.14 PACKED FLOATING TUBESHEET TYPE EXCHANGERS EFFECTIVE PRESSURE RCB-7.1411 EFFECTIVE DESIGN PRESSURE .133 P. PI is negative.133 is given by: using terms as defined in Paragraph RCB-7.154. RCB-7. inches (mm) Equivalent diameter of the tube center limit perimeter. The diversity of construction types makes it impractical to specify design rules for all cases..BENDING The effective design pressure to be used with the formula shown in Paragraph RCE-7. psi (kPa). corrected for vacuum when present on the shell side.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 RCB-7. using Aas defined in Paragraph RCB-7. psi (kPa).= D= D. I where P. PI is negative. inches (mm).1412 EFFECTIVE DESIGN PRESSURE-SHEAR The effective design pressure to be used with the formula shown in Paragraph RCB-7.132 is given by: p=p. tube side (For vacuum design. shall be calculated as for gasketed stationary tubesheet exchangers.132 RCB-7.131. RCB-7.) Design pressure. It is incorrect to utilize the shell side pressure.= Design pressure. RCB-7.155 and RCB-7. ” RCB-7.) DF2G2 . Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 55 . Paragraphs RCB-7.141 OUTSIDE PACKED FLOATING HEAD (TYPE P) The thickness of tubesheets in exchangers whose ffoating heads are packed at the outside diameter of the tubesheet or a cylindrical extension thereof shall be calculated like stationary tubesheets using the formulas for Pas defined below.= F and Gare as defined in Paragraph RCB-7.25(D2-Dc *)(D-0.15 DOUBLE TUBESHEETS Double tubesheets may be used where the operating conditions indicate their desirability.1411.+p P 1.) Outside diameter of the floating tubesheet. psi (kPa). using P defined as the tube side design pressure..156 provide the design rules for determining the thickness of double tubesheets for some of the most commonly used construction types.142 PACKED FLOATING TUBESHEET WITH LANTERN RING (TYPE W) The thickness of floating tubesheets in exchangers whose floating tubesheets are packed at the outside diameter with return bonnet or channel bolted to the shell flange. shell side (For vacuum design.

psi (kPa).152VENTS AND DRAINS Double tubesheets of the edge welded type shall be provided with vent and drain connections at the high and low points of the enclosed space.1541 TUBESHEET THICKNESS Calculate the total combined tubesheet thickness (7) per Paragraph RCB-7. inches (mm). It is assumed that the element is rigid enough to mutually transfer all thermal and mechanical radial loads between the tubesheets. Lower of the Code allowable stress. G= S= F= All other variables are per Paragraph RCB-7. for either component tubesheet at its respective design temperature. RCB-7. and t . = Thickness of tube sidetubesheet. inches (mm). where t.154 RCS 7. special attention shall be given to the ability of the tubes to withstand. as applicable.13. RCB-7.= t. it is understood that the tubes are rigid enough to mutually transfer all mechanical and thermal axial loads between the tubesheets.133 using the following variable definitions: Per Paragraph RCB-7. Per Paragraph RCB-7.154 INTEGRAL DOUBLE TUBESHEETS The tubesheets are connected in a manner which distributes axial load and radial thermal expansion loads between tubesheets by means of an interconnecting element capable of preventing individual radial growth of tubesheets. using worst case values of shell side or tube side tubesheets at their respective design temperature.13. 56 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . without damage. inches (mm).132 or RCB-7.13. resulting from Paragraphs RCB-7.13 Establish the thickness of each individual tubesheet so that tZ + tL 2 Tand the minimum individual tubesheet thicknesses ( t .134. the mechanical and thermal loads imposed on them by the construction. Additionally. using worst case values of shell side or tube side tubesheets at their respective design temperature. Thickness of shell side tubesheet.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCE7.153 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS When double tubesheets are used.) shall be the greater of Paragraphs RCB-7.7. where T = Greater of the thickness. __=_-_-__----_____ - _t2 9 Tt - FIGURE RCB-7.13 or RCB. inches (mm).

= (kN/mm).= a. Coefficient of thermal expansion for tubesheet 1 at mean metal temperature. a2 = AT. is given by: 0.. = Difference in temperature from ambient conditions to mean RCB-7.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7. where where F. Ibf/in E. o F e C). inches/inch/O F (mm/mm/ OC). The shear is defined as: .+O. o F (” C).~1. Modulus of Elasticity of tubesheet 1 at mean metal temperature.5 times the Code allowable stress (S) of the interconnecting element. inches/inch/ a F (mm/mm/ a C).= E. The combined total stress of interconnecting element (0 d.1543 INTERCONNECTING ELEMENT DESIGN . at attachment due to differential thermal expansion of tubesheets shall not exceed 80% of the lower Code allowable stress (. Difference in temperature from ambient conditions to mean metal temperature for tubesheet 1.1542 INTERCONNECTING ELEMENT DESIGN -SHEAR SECTION 5 The radial shear stress (-c). = AT. psi (kPa). = Force per unit measure due to differential radial expansion.5.+0. psi (kPa). inches (mm). psi (kPa).8S I. psi (kPa). = Thickness of interconnecting element.S) of either of the tubesheet materials or the interconnecting element at their respective design temperature. metal temperature for tubesheet 2.s Stancizirds Of The Tubular &changer Manufacturers Association 57 .HS (Metric) Z=Fx 106<0.=0. Coefficient of thermal expansion for tubesheet 2 at mean metal temperature. Modulus of Elasticity of tubesheet 2 at mean metal temperature.BENDING AND TENSILE The combined stresses from bending due to differential thermal expansion of tubesheets and axial tension due to thermal expansion of tubes shall not exceed 1.

(xE = Coefficient of thermal expansion of interconnecting element at mean metal temperature.J r = Total cross sectional area of tubes between tubesheets.. o F e C). g= Spacing between tubesheets. o F e C). Ibf (kN). (YT = Coefficient of thermal expansion of tubes at mean metal temperature. psi (kPa).AT.1562.A.)(E. square inches (mm2). Difference in temperature from ambient conditions to mean metal temperature for tubes. AT’r = ATs = E ~ = Modulus of Elasticity of tubes at mean metal temperature. For other types of double tubesheets. psi (kPa).6 The stress due to bending caused by differential thermal expansion of tubesheets CI B. The spacing between tubesheets for an integral double tubesheet is left to the discretion of the manufacturer.AB)X (E*AT)+(EsAE) *o. psi (kPa). Difference in temperature from ambient conditions to mean metal temperature for interconnecting element. A E = Total cross sectional area of interconnecting element. inches (mm).SECTION5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B The stress due to axial thermal expansion of tubes (0 TE) . as applicable. . E E = Modtilus of Elasticity of interconnecting element at mean metal temperature. psl (kPa). the minimum spacing is determined in accordance with Paragraphs RCB-7.)(E.1552 or RCB-7. F. inches/inch/ “F (mm/mm/ 0 C). 5 8 . is defined as: (Metric) flg=~x lo6 The bending moment is defined as: ~MB where MB= Bending moment per unit measure acting on interconnecting element.x lo6 AE (Metric) F TE = (a. is defined as: urE= (Metric) 0 r6 = FTE n. F TB = Resultant force due to the difference in thermal expansion between tubes and element. inches/inch/ 0 F (mm/mm/ ’ C). . square inches (mm2).ATT-u. inch-pounds per inch (mm-kN/mm).

is defined as: d _Pn(G*-NC!:) P 4~4. is defined by: . It is assumed the interconnecting cylinder and tubes are rigid enough to mutually transfer all mechanical and thermal axial loads between the tubesheets. psi (kPa). psi (kPa).13. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 59 .1551 TUBESHEET THICKNESS Calculate the total combined tubesheet thickness (7) per Paragraph RCB-7. inches (mm).1544 TUBE STRESS CONSIDERATION -AXIAL STRESS The axial stresses in the tubes due to thermal expansion and pressure load ” shall not exceed the Code allowable stress (S) of the tubes at design temperature.~S The axial stress due to pressure (up). Per Paragraph RCB-7.=u. The effect of the differential radial growth between tubesheets is a major factor rn tube stresses and spacing between tubesheets.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 RCB-7. FIGURE RCB-7.13.155 RCB-7. (Metric) cTT = xx lo6 RCB-7. The stress due to axial thermal expansion of tubes (0 &. inches (mm). Tube OD between tubesheets. Number of tubes. where P= G= Ndo = Greater of shell side or tube side design pressure. The total combined stress of the tubes (a r). psi (kPa).155 CONNECTED DOUBLE TUBESHEETS The tubesheets are connected in a manner which distributes axial load between tubesheets by means of an interconnecting cylinder.+a.. psi (kPa).. is given by: a.

1553 INTERCONNECTING ELEMENT DESlGN -AXIAL STRESS The interconnecting element axial stress (0 rE).27YT r.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C 6 where T= Greater of the thickness. resulting from Paragraphs RCB-7.. psi (kPa).132 or RCB-7.1552 MINIMUM SPACING BETWEEN TUBESHEETS The minimum spacing (g).. inches (mm). * Y. + t . inches (mm) RCB-7.133 using variables as defined in Paragraph RCB-7.‘. where t..‘7 .= . = Outer tube limit. inches (mm). between tubesheets required to avoid overstress of tubes resulting from differential thermal growth of individual tubesheets is given by: !J= where d. J d. due to the thermal expansion of the tubes shall not exceed the Code allowable stress (.? _. ._. inches (mm).= t. The axial stress is defined as: Or&=- FTE AE (Metric) drE = 2x lo6 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .ArE. = Tube OD between tubesheets. A 4 ?. and t 2) shall be the greater of Paragraph RCB-7. 2 T and the minimum individual tubesheet thickness (t .T-. psi Al-= Differential radial expansion between adjacent tubesheets. inches (mm). . A h /7 RCB-7. ? .--/7. inches (mm).S) of the interconnecting element at design temperature. 0. inches (mm). when applicable.. .13 or RCB-7.. AJ-=l where D.)strength of the tube material at maximum metal temperature. . = Thickness of tube side tubesheet. (Measured from center of tubesheet to D rL).1541. Thickness of shell side tubesheet. Establish the thickness of each individual tubesheet so that t.134.

is determined by: FTE (Metric) crr=flrX lo6 RCB-7. inches (mm).+br. N = Number of tubes. ! 3andards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 61 ..13. = Tube OD between tubesheets. It is assumed that no loads are transferred between the tubesheets.156 SEPARATE DOUBLE TUBESHEETS The tubesheets are connected only by the interconnecting tubes. psi (kPa). The total combined stress of tubes (or).. d. I . psi (kPa).*) P where 4Ar P = Greater of shell side or tube side design pressure. psi (kPa). MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7. is given by: b.156 .. inches (mm). ~. The effect of differential radial growth between tubesheets is a major factor in tube stresses and spacing between tubesheets. is defined as: d = Pn(G'-Nd. The stress due to axial’thermal expansion of tubes (d TT). =-w-_ (2 9 rr FIGURE RCB-7.1554 TUBE STRESS CONSIDERATIONS -AXIAL STRESS SECTION 5 The axial stresses in the tubes due to thermal expansion and pressure load shall not exceed the Code allowable stress (5) of the tubes at design temperature. psi (kPa) G = Per Paragraph RCB-7.<S The axial stress due to pressure (d p).=U.I.

166 are satisfied.161 throuah RCB-7. is given by: 4 J F. for shells with expansion joints.163 through RCB-7.) F. (Do-t.22 and RCB-7. neglecting all considerations of shell side design conditions.13.161 EQUIVALENT DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION PRESSURE The pressure due to differential thermal expansion. between tubesheets required to avoid overstress of tubes resulting from differential thermal growth of individual tubesheets is given by: d&-E. whichever is greater.Z5+(F-0.1562 MINIMUM SPACING BETWEEN TUBESHEETS The minimum spacing (g).16 FIXED TUBESHEET EFFECTIVE PRESSURE This paragraph shall apply to exchangers having tubesheets fifed to both ends of the shell.O for shells without expansion joints J= S/L SjL+n(D. Calculate shell side tubesheet thickness per Paragraph RCB-7.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7.165for use in Paraoraohs RCB-7. N cd.=O.27Yr r RCB-7. psi (kPa).25 to assess the need for an expansion joint.1561 TUBESHEET THICKNESS Calculate tube side tubesheet thickness per Paragraph RCB-7. See Note (1) Sj= K= Spring rate of the expansion joint.733’.13. Use all variables as defined per TEMA.132.23 and RCB-7. r* (Y) (l+JKF.) P”=(D. where J = 1 .) Note: Algebraic sign must be retained for use in Paragraphs RCB-7. RCB-7. with or without a shell expansion joint except as required or permitted by Paragraph RCB-7.3.22. and shell are defined in terms of equivalent and effective design pressures in Paraaraohs RCB-7.-t. t. Use all variables as defined per TEMA.) RCB-7. unless the provisions of Paragraph RCB-7. Both tubesheets of fixed tubesheet exchangers shall have the same thickness.) Fand Gare asdefined in Paragraph RCB-7. the mutually interdependent loads exerted on the tubesheets. inches (mm).2.-t. Ibs/inch (kN/mm) E.166.-3t. RCB-7. These pressures shall also be used (with J = 1) in Paragraphs RCB-7. For fixed tubesheet exchangers. (See Paragraph E-3.132 and RCB-7. 62 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . g= O.)f. RCB-7. t.O.) E. The designer shall consider the most adverse operating conditions specified by the purchaser.6) (Use the calculated value of F 9 or 1 .23.E. neglecting all considerations of tube side design conditions. tubes.

t. A: = Number of tubes in the shell. inches (mm). t. inches (mm). = Axial length of kettle cone.)I where E sn = Elastic modulus of the shell material at mean metal temperature. psi (kPa). ESHL E’ = (2L. L.)l+[(L.)T. inches (mm) (See Section 7. Paragraph T-4.432). RCB-7 . d. = Elastic modulus of the tube material at mean metal temperature. A L = Differential thermal growth (shell -tubes).MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 T = Tubesheet thickness used.D.7pDp)/(D.I62 EQUIVALEMT BOLTIt& PfiESSU’RE When fixed tubesheets are extended for bolting to heads with ring type gaskets. inches (mm). but not less than 98. psi (kPa). (See Paragraph RCB-1.)/((D .432). inches (mm). inches (mm). (See Paragraph RCB-1.133.5% of the greater of the values defined by Paragraph RCB-7. L. d D is root diameter of fin). E = Elastic modulus of the tubesheet material at mean metal temperature. See Note (3). t. = Length of kettle cylinder. inches (mm). inches (mm). psi (kPa). = Tube length between outer tubesheet faces.= Shell wall thickness. inches (mm) 7 c = Kettle cone thickness. See Paragraph RCB-7.5%) See Note (2). (The value assumed in evaluating F 4 must match the final computed value within a tolerance of * 1. psi (kPa). (See Paragraph RCB-1. D p = Mean diameter of kettle port cylinder. L = Tube length between inner tubesheet faces.431).= Outside diameter of the tubes (for integrally finned tubes.431).132 or X6-7.T.134. 7 p = Kettle port cylinder thickness.2. = Tube wall thickness (for integrally finned tubes. = Mean diameter of kettle cylinder. inches (mm). the extension and that portion of the tubesheets inside the shell may differ in thickness. D. L p = Length of kettle port cylinder. The effect Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 63 . E. inches (mm).T. The extension shall be designed in accordance with Paragraph RCB-7.5). Notes: (1) Jean be assumed equal to zero for shells with expansion joints where &&-t&E* / 1OL (2) Tubesheets thicker than computed are permissible provided neither shall nor tubes are overloaded. (3) For Kettle type. inches (mm). inches (mm). D. is wall thickness under fin).)+[(4L. E . (See Paragraph RCB-1. inches (mm). inches (mm). inches (mm) L. 7 x = Kettle cylinder thickness.= Outside diameter of the shell or port for kettle type exchangers. L = Tube length between inner tubesheet faces.+D. = Elastic modulus of the shell material at mean metal temperature.

defined by the Code as M o under fiange design.163 EFFECTIVE SHELL SIDE DESIGN PRESSURE The effective shell side design pressure is to be taken as the greatest absolute value of the following: P= or or or P. Equivalent bolting pressure when tube side pressure is not acting.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B of the moment acting upon the tubesheet extension shall be accounted for in subsequent paragraphs in terms of equivalent tube side and shell side bolting pressures which are defined as: Pm = Plh= where FandG are defined in Paragraph RCB-7.1-[(~)(~-~)~ l+J K F..132.’ P=P& P= P= P. = G when no expansion joint is present).= Total moment acting upon the extension under operating conditions. psi (kPa) (For vacuum design..161 and RCB-7. M.‘-P. Other symbols are as defined under Paragraphs RCB-7. I P 5 = Shell side design pressure. Total moment acting upon the extension under bolting-up conditions.162 64 Standards &The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Assbtiiation . FZ F* G3 G3 6 . psi (kPa). 2 6. psi (kPa). RCB-7. inch-pounds (mm-kN). PI is negative) 2 G = Inside diameter of the shell. inches (mm) D. . 2 M. inch-pounds (mm-kN).*.‘-P& ~. inches (mm) (D.1. 2 or or where pas+pir 2 P=P.5+.. defined by the Code as MD under flange design. P-P.-P.2 M . = Maximum expansion joint inside diameter.s+.-P. Equivalent bolting pressure when tube side pressure is acting.l.

4JK(1.165 EFFECTIVE DIFFERENTTAL DESIGN PRESSURE Under certaln’circumstances the Code and other regulatory bodies permit design on the basis of simultaneous action of both shell and tube side pressures. RCB-7. X5-7.163. The effective differential design pressure for fixed tubesheets under such circumstances is to be taken as the greatest absolute value of the following: Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 65 .22 and RCB-7.+P. (3) Delete the term P Br in the above formulae for use in Paragraph RCB-7. = Tube side design pressure.133. BCB-7.164. inches (mm). psi (kPa) (For vacuum design. G = port inside diameter. RCB-7. p=Pt’-P*‘+P8t+Pd 2 orP=P. ’ must be used above...22 and RCB-7. Other symbols are as defined under Paragraphs RCB-7. G = port inside diameter.165.-P. RCB-7. (2)When J=O: a) Formulae containing P d will not control.) 1 +JKF. (2) When J = 0. (4) For kettle type. RCB-7.161.+. in the above formulae for use in Paragraph RCB-7.23.166.‘+P.+Pd 2 When P o ’ is positive orP=P. and must be retained for use in Paragraphs RCB-7.166.164 EFFECTIVE TUBE SIDE DESIGN PRESSURE The effective tube side design pressure is to be taken as the greatest absolute value of the following: P= P. [ 1 When PI ’ is negative P. RCB-7.133. and RCB-7.=p I t 1+0.+P8. RCB-7..165. (4) For kettle type. and must be retained for use in Paragraphs RCB-7. Notes: (1) Algebraic sign of P t ’ must be used above.23.5+. where p . G = Inside diameter of the shell. formulae containing P. will not control.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B Notes: SECTION 5 (1) Algebraic sign of P. b) When PI and P t are both positive the following formula is controlling: (3) Delete the term P. P t is negative).162.

(2) When J = 0.163 and RCB-7.165 assuming that both tubesheets have the properties of subscript A and L n L L.164. RCB-7.. or or where P= P.t. F..161.161 through RCB-7. ” .+L..165 and RCB-7.’ in Paragraph RCB-7. to calculateP. or P=P.E.iPd .. ’ in Paragraph RCB-7. .163.133.164.aL.. . ‘I 66 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .-) in place of PI to calculate P.P*..2.161 through RCB-7. 2 P=P..'+PB. (2) Calculate 7.Pt) in place of P.'-P..=ZL EasE. If a fixed tubesheet exchanger has different bolting moments at each tubesheet.162..L.andE~‘..andF.d..N and S i must remain constant throughout this analysis.'+P. Conditions can exist where it is appropriate to use tubesheets of differing thicknesses. RCB-7..P.SECTION5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B P=P.2 are intended for fixed tubesheet exchangers where both tubesheets are the same thickness.andL. P... LasL. These conditions may result from significantly differing elastic moduli and/or allowable stresses. and M zthat produce the conservative design. The-following procedure may be used for such cases: (1) Separate the design parameters as defined in previous paragraphs for each tubesheet system by assigning subscripts A and B to each of the following terms: Tas7. RCB-7.asF. and it is not permissible to use (P j .‘-P.'-P.P St s PI ‘and PI ’ are as defined in Paragraphs RCB-7.. the formulae containing P dwill not control.'-P.whereL.. Notes: (1) It is not permissible to use (P.G.F. the designer should use the values of M . (3) Delete the terms P B( and P Br in the above formulae for use in Paragraph RCB-7.andT. r-k .M.'+P.E. 2 or P=P...166 FIXED TUBESHEETS OF DIFFERING THICKNESSES The rules presented in Paragraphs RCB-7. Note: Thevaluesofn/i.D. or P= P. per Paragraphs RCB-7.

See the “Recommended Good Practice” section of these Standards for additional information. which are normally the most highly stressed tubes.165 using the properties of subscript A and L n from step 4.5% of the values calculated in step 5 for T n and step 6 for T B. RCB-7. RCB-7. The designer shall consider the most adverse operating conditions specified by the purchaser.161 through RCB-7.= 1. RecalculateT. Round T n and T B up to an appropriate increment and recalculate L A and LB per step 4. Recalculate T. = L (4) Calculate L A and LB as follows: L=L.)p. (See Paragraph E-3. however.2 SHELL AND TUBE LONGITUDINAL STRESSES .FIXED TUBESHEET EXCHANGERS Shell and tube longitudinal stresses.per Paragraphs RCB-7.161 through RCB-7. except as noted below Note (2) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 67 .* s 4t.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 (3) Calculate T.25 consider only the tubes at the periphery of the bundle.2 for each tubesheet svstem using the appropriate bubscrip~ed’properties. +(.165 assuming that both tubesheets have the properties of subscript Band L. Additional consideration of the tube stress distribution throughout the bundle may be of interest to the designer under certain conditions of loading and/or geometry. Small differences may exist.(Do-~.23 through RCB-7.-T. which depend upon the equivalent and effective pressures determined by Paragraphs RCB-7. Calculate the shell and tube stresses and the tube-to-tubesheet joint loads per Paragraph RCB-7.*=p.22 SHELL LONGITUDINAL STRESS The effective longitudinal shell stress is given by: s = c. (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Note: * RCB-7.) Note: The formulae and design criteria presented in Paragraphs RCB-7. The shell and tube stresses and tube-to-tubesheet joint loads for each tubesheet system should theoretically~be identical. where c.165 using the properties of subscript Band LB from step 4. Repeat steps 4 through 6 until values assumed in step 4 are within 1.161 through RCB-7.164. because of rounding the calculated tubesheet thicknesses in step 8.g?.21 HYDROSTATIC TEST Hydrostatic test conditions can impose excessive shell and/or tube stresses.2.161 through RCB-7. per Paragraphs RCB-7.0 p.161 through RCB-7.per Paragraphs RCB-7.=2L-L.y L. These stresses can be calculated by substituting the pressures and temperatures at hydrostatic test for the appropriate design pressures and metal temperatures in the paragraphs that follow and in Paragraphs RCB-7. L”=[. shall be calculated for fixed tubesheet exchangers with or without shell expansion joints by using the following paragraphs.-T.2. The tube stress and the tube-to-tubesheet joint loads from the two systems should be averaged before comparing these values to the allowablevalues as calculated in Paragraph RCB-7.164 where applicable.

164. = P .P. or when the greatest negative value of S .* = Pz+ P.23 TUBE LONGITUDINAL STRESS .‘v Other symbols are asdefined in Paragraphs RCB-7. orP.*=P.164.161..o P. Notes (1) and (2) Notes (1) and (2) Note (1) Note (2) Note (1) RCB-7. using actual shell and tubesheet thicknesses and retaining algebraic signs..163 and RCB-7..5. 66 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .‘=P.la is not applicable for differential pressure design per Paragraph A condition of overstress shall be presumed to exist when the lar est absolute value of S I .. = 1 . . orp.* = P. RCB-7.* G2 t.-t.* = P. Notes: (1) If the algebraic sign of P.161. psi (kPa).‘-P.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B orP.9 exceedsthe Code allowable stress in tension for the shell matena at design temperature.(d. ‘I=4 where c.=p. orP. orP. OrP. ’ Other symbols are as defined in Paragraphs RCB-7. where P. .* = -P3+Pa”~’ orP. at the periphery of the bundle is given by: C. or 90% of teld stress at hydrostattc test.+P.P .*=-P.* = P._F.163 and RCB-7.( + 1 P.=P. * is positive.’ orp.-P. = 0. orP.*=P..+P.’ orP. orP. RCB-7.exceeds the Code alYowable stress in compression at design temperature.-P.*=P.PERIPHERY OF BUNDLE The maximum effective longitudinal tube stress.+P. C.‘-Pd orP.) ( $5 1 p.+=P. using actual shell and tubesheet thicknesses and retaining algebraic signs.*=-P. (2).q N P. where Notes (1) and (2) Notes (1) and (2) Note (1) except as noted below Note (2) Note (2) Notes (1) and (2) /.*=P.

= Yield stress.S. r = Radius of gyration of the tube. exceeds the Code allowable stress in tension for the tube material at design temperature. inches (mm). RCB-7. inches (mm).42). Note: FE shall not be less than 1.0.PERIPHERY OF BUNDLE The maximum effective tube-to-tubesheet joint load.PERIPHERY OF BUNDLE The’allowable tube compressive stress. h-l = Equivalent unsupported buckling length of the tube..=3. at the periphery of the bundle is given by: Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 69 .25 TUBE-TO-TUBESHEET JOINT LOADS . RCB-7.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B Notes: (1) If the algebraic sign of P. or when the greatest negative value of . or 90% of yield stress at hydrostatic test. * is positive. Note: The allowable tube compressive stress shall be limited to the smaller of the Code allowable stress in tension for the tube material at the design metal temperature (see Paragraph RCB-1. 2+(d0_2fr)z (SeeTableD-7). of the tube material at the design metal temperature..5.42) or the calculated value of S.la is not applicable for differential pressure design per Paragraph A condition of overstress shall be presumed to exist when the largest positive value of S. = 0.O for unsupported spans between two tube supports F I = Factor of safety given by: F. given by: r=6.6 for unsupported spans between two tubesheets k = OBfor unsupported spans between a tubesheet and a tube support 1 . Other symbols are as defined in Paragraph RCB-7. C. (See Paragraph RCB-1. 0..25-OSF.25 o.161.24 ALLOWABLE TUBE COMPRESSIVE STRESS .25 and need not be taken greater than 2. (kN). psi (kPa). exceeds the allowable compressive stress as determined in accordance with Paragraph RCB-7.>’ r S. for the tubes at the periphery of the bundle is given by: w h e n c. The largest value considering unsupported tube spans shall be used.24. inches (mm). psi (kPa)._l. SECTION 5 (2)T$l. 1= Unsupported tube span. Ibs.

~e. Note (1) Note (1) RCB-7. RCB-7. e.4 TUBE HOLES IN TUBESHEETS RCB-7.*=P2-P3 P.41 and RCB7. Other symbols are as defined in Paragraphs RCB-7.3 SPECIAL CASES Special consideration must be given to tubesheet designs with abnormal conditions of support or loading. (3) The adequacy of the sta ing action of the tubes during hydrostatic test.163 and RCB-7. or types J and W. and P. The tube-to-tubesheet joint loads caused by restrained differential thermal expansion between shell and tubes are considered to be within acceptable limits if the requirements of Paragraph RCB-7. 70 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Internal surfaces shall be given a workmanlike finish. RCB-7. a closer fit between tube OD and tube ID as shown in column (b) may be provided when specified by the purchaser. drill drift and recommended maximum tube wall thicknesses. (4) Vertical exchangers where weight and/or pressure drop loadings produce significant effects relative to the design pressures. (5) Extreme interpass temperature differentials.41 TUBE HOLE DIAMETERS AND TOLERANCES Tube holes in tubesheets shall be finished to the diameters and tolerances shown in Tables RCB-7.41M.42 and RCB-7. *RCB-7.g. orp. fixed tubesheets with kettle type shell.164. column (a). RCB-7.* =-Ps orP.23 are met.42 TUBESHEET LIGAMENTS Tables RCB-7. using the actual shell and tubesheet thicknesses. with test rings for types S and T.43 TUBE HOLE FtNlSH The inside edges of tube holes in tubesheets shall be free of burrs to prevent cutting of the tubes. or with wide untubed rims. (2) Exchangers with large differences in shell and head inside diamr8ers.165. The tube-to-tubesheet joint loads calculated above consider only the effects of pressure loadings.‘= P. The allowable tube-to-tubesheet joint loads as calculated by the Code or other means may be used as a guide In evaluating W. Note: (1) This formula is not applicable for differential pressure design per Paragraph RCB-7.. To minimize work hardening.161.23.g. Following are some typical examples: (1) Tubesheets with portions not adequately stayed by tubes.42M give permissible tubesheet ligaments. are as defined in Paragraph RCB-7.SECTION 5 where MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B P. Consideration may also be given to special design configurations ad/or methods of analysis which may justify reduction of the tubesheet thickness requirements.

002 0.007 0. When integrally clad or applied tubesheets facings are used.513 2. Remainder may not exceed value in column (d) (C) 0.018 0.257 0.65 32.cO3 0.003 I 0.382 Under TC+Xa”Ce 0. the tube holes for expanded joints for tubes 5/8” (15.007 I 1.007 Nominal Diameter 0. grooves shall be l/4” (64mm) wide.010 TABLE RCB-7.8 38.4mm) may be provided with one groove.05 0.41 TUBE HOLE DIAMETERS AND TOLERANCES (All Dimensions in Inches) Nominal Tube Hole Diameter and Under Tolerance Stan4”. Strength welded tubes do not require grooves.08 0.03 0. grooves shall be l/4” (6.4mm) wide.003 0.259 0.4mm) may be provided with :~: one groove.002 0.9 mm) OD and larger shall be machined with at least two grooves.26 0.18 0.25 0.514 2.8 25. Strength welded tubas do not require grooves.002 1-l/2 2 1.41 M TUBE HOLE DlA&lETERS AND TOLERANCES (All Dimensions in mm) Over Tolerance: 96% of tube Special Close Fit 25.022 I 0.004 0.9mm) OD and larger shall be machined with at least two grooves.08 0. When integrally clad or applied tubesheet facings are used. for additional longitudinal load resistance.010 0.46 51.4 mm) deep. C-7. each approximately i/8” (3mm) wide by l/64” (0. Tubesheets with thicknesses less than 1” (25.70 32.44 TlJ@E HOLE GROOVING For design pressures over 300 psi (2068 kPa) and/or temperatures in excess of 350 a F (177 o C). Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 71 . When utilizing hydraulic expansion.03 38.08 0.4 31.25 0.2mm) wide by l/64” (0.05 0.d Fit a Nominal Diameter a.44TUBE HOLE GROOVING Tube holes for expanded joints for tubes 5/8” (15.003 o. When utilizing hydraulic expansion. Tubesheets with thicknesses less than 1” (25.004 Specia\C&ose Fit SECTION 5 Nominal Tube OD 114 3/3 Over Tolerance: 96% of tube holes must meet value in column (c).56 51.35 0. for additional longitudinal load resistance.08 0.11 33.384 Under TOlWanCe 0. all grooves should be in the base material unless otherwise specified by the purchaser.25 FIB-7.25 0.1 50.002 (d) 0.007 0.15 0.18 25.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE RCB-7.4mm) deep. each approximately i/8” (3. all grooves should be in the base material unless otherwise specified by the purchaser.10 0.08 0.

265 0.255 0. 2” (50.195 0.258 0.253 0. In no case shall the expanded portion extend beyond the shell side face of the tubesheet.a: ment Tube Fit Width KY?: Tubesheet Thickness Minimum Permissible Ligament Width 1 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 716 1-l/2 2 z-1/2 3 4 5 ) 6 -i11/4 11/2 2 I . inches *RCB-7.263 0.203 0.185 0. Drill drift tolerance = 0. C-7.264 1.367 0.25 1.266 0.022 0.25 Notes: The above table of minimum standard ligaments is based on a ligament?olerance not exceeding the sum of twice the drill drift tolerance plus 0.314 0.150 0. or the tubesheet thickness minus l/8” (3.518 2. When specified by the purchaser.0016 (thickness of tubesheet in tube diameters).322 0.263 0.5 TUBE-TO-TUBESHEET JOINTS RCB-7.445 0.325 .266 0.511 LENGTH OF EXPANSION Tubes shall be expanded into the tubesheet for a length no less than 2” (50.42 TABLE OF TUBESHEET LIGAMENTS AND RECOMMENDED HEAVIEST TUBE GAGES (All Dimensions in Inches) Minimum Std.261 0. 0.- 0.192 0.238 0.26.268 0.31 1. In no case shall the expanded portion extend beyond the shell side face of the tubesheet.446 0. tubes may be expanded for the full thickness of the tubesheet.38 5116 318 5/16 318 712 ‘j4 4” 9 9 a 6 1.301 0.363 0..440 0. m e n d e d . whichever is smaller.030’ for tube holes S/w OD and larger.314 0.2 mm). 0.2 mm).324 0.25 1.261 0.256 0.323 0.264 0. whichever is smaller.02V for tubes less than S/8” OD and 0.51 EXPANDED TUBE-TO-TUBESHEET JOINTS Expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints are standard.443 0.205 0.328 0.51 1 LENGTH OF EXPANSION Tubes shall be expanded into the tubesheet for a length no less than two tube diameters.325 0. Ligaments (96% of ligaments must equal or exceed va. da Tube Pitch P -_ n do H e a v i e s t T u b e NominRecomHole al Ligap . 72 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .262 0.323 0.299 0. ~~-7.180 0.250 1.25 1.8 mm).MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B TABLE RCB-7.8 mm) or the tubesheet thickness minus 1 /e” (3.316 0. When specified by the purchaser.200 0.478 0.169 0.202 0.316 0.d.32..442 0.“es tabulated below) Tube Dia.330 0.320 0.012 1.198 0.321 0. tubes may be expanded for the full thickness of the tubesheet.251 0.317 0.438 EZ 0.444 0.

the tube joints shall be subject to the rules of Paragraphs RCB-7.37 4.nce plus 0. RB-7.53 1.17 1.9mm OD and larger. 7 8 1.33 3. .42 M TABLE OF TUBESHEET LIGAMENTS AND RECOMMENDED HEAVIEST TUBE GAGES (All Dimensions in mm) E do P-d Iieaviest Tube Recom.52 WELDED TUBE-TO-TUBESHEET JOINTS When both tubes and tubesheets. and tube loads are carried by the expanded joint.76 6. ve table of minimum standarc . Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers AsSOCiatiOI’I 73 .94 I.52 1.43 9.18 1.59 3.42 1. RCB-7.36 7.96 1. without a sharp transition to the unexpanded portion. lbesheet in tube diameters).512 CONTOUR OF THE EXPANDED TUBE The expanding procedure shall be such as to provide substantially uniform expansion throughout the expanded portion of the tube.9mm 00 and 0.98 1. 9 7 1.40 6.76mm for tube holes 15.31 3 ..38 9.30 4 .33 1.18 1. except that tubes shall be flush with the top tubesheet in vertical exchangers to facilitate drainage unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. Fit 2.35 7.4 through RCB-7.60 4. the tube joints may be welded.513 TUBE PROJECTION Tubes shall be flush with or extend by no more than one half of a tube diameter beyond the face of each tubesheet.42 3. RCB-7.94 9. mm.53 c :::z E 1. are of suitable materials. .94 1.5lmm for tubes 18: ~Merance = 0.95 1.25 3. 3 5 1.50 1.51.H o l e mended Dia.31 7.36 1. or tubesheet facing.25 3.25 1.76 1. Tube Std.041 (thickness d RCB-7.71 laments is based on a ligament tolerance not exceeding the sum of twice the drill than 15.25 1.521 SEAL WELDED JOINTS When welded tube joints are used for additional leak tightness only. Tubesheet Thickness 1.25 6 .25 1.25 7.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 TABLE RCB-7..25 9x 12.

or other suitable means for retaining the gaskets in place. The nominal cladding thickness on the shell side face shall not be less than 3 8” (9.2 mm) when tubes are welded to the tubesheet.131 do not apply.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-7. the stationary tubesheet shall be provided with two tapped holes in its face for pulling eyes. by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser. CB-7. ” r. RCB-7. and l/8” (3.131. shall have at east i/8” (3. j . Consideration should be given to modifying the relevant parameters (e.523 FABRICATION AND TESTING PROCEDURES Welding procedures and testing techniques for either seal welded or strength welded tube ioints shall be by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.8 mm) deep grooves for pass partition gaskets.8 mm) when tubes are expanded only.5 mm).4 through RCB-7.131 and B-7.522 STRENGTH WELDED JOINTS When welded tube joints are used to carry the longitudinal tube loads.6 TUBESHEET PASS PARTITION GROOVES Tubesheets shall be provided with approximately 3/16” (4. shall have at least l/8’ (3. R-7.53 EXPLOSIVE BONDED TUBE-TO-TUBESHEET JOINTS Explosive bonding and/or explosive expanding may be used to attach tubes to the tubesheets where appropriate. C7. other than in the area into which tubes are expanded.when tubes are welded to the tubesheet.” /-.2 mm) nominal thickness of cladding r-l ” L. RCB-7.g. consideration may be given to modification of the requirements of Paragraphs RCB-7.8 CLAD AND FACED TUBESHEETS The nominal cladding thickness at the tube side face of a tubesheet shall not be less than 3/16’ (4. other than in the area into which tubes are expanded. RCB-7.5 / mm). These holes shall be protected in service by plugs of compatible material.51.P -7 . Clad surfaces.2 mm). tubesheets shall be provided with pass partition grooves approximately 3/16” (4. and i/8” (3..7 TUBESHEET PULLING EYES~ In exchangers with removable tube bundles having a nominal diameter exceeding 12” (305 mm) and/or a tube length exceeding 96’ (2438 mm). .8 mm) when tubes are expanded only. Provision for means of pulling may have to be modified or waived for special construction..6 CLAD AND FACED TUBESHEETS The nominal cladding thickness at the tube side face of a tubesheet shall not be less than 5/16’ (7. Minimum tubesheet thicknesses shown in Paragraphs R-7. Clad surfaces.- 74 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . C-7.6 TUBESHEET PASS PARTITION GROOVES For design pressures over 300 psi (2068 kPa).8 mm) deep. RB-7. The nominal cladding thickness on the shell side face shall not be less than 3/8” (9. tube-to-tubesheet hole clearances and ligament widths) to obtain an effective joint.2 mm) nominal thickness of cladding. such as clad tubesheets or manufacturer‘s standard.

12 CORROSION ALLOWANCE The shell flexible elements shall be analyzed in both the corroded and uncorroded conditions. RCB-8. RCB-8. The analysis contained within these paragraphs is based upon the equivalent geometry used in “Expansion Joints for Heat Exchangers” by S. (3) Calculate the element flexibility factors per Paragraph RCB-8. (2) Determine the effective geometry constants per Paragraph RCB-8. Torsional loads are negligible. RCB-8. (9 Compare the ffexible element stresses to the appropriate allowable stresses per the Code.1 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND LIMITATIONS The formulae contained in the following paragraphs are applicable based upon the following assumptions: Applied loadings are axial.21. Kopp and M. RCB-8. (4) Calculate the element geometry factors per Paragraph RCB-84. (10) Repeat steps 1 through 9 as necessary.22. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 75 .6. (7) Calculate the induced axial force per Paragraph RCB-8.2. when used.21 defines the nomenclature used in the following paragraphs based upon nominal dimensions of the flexible elements. Poisson’s ratio is 0.5 (6) Calculate the equivalent flexible element stiffness per Paragraph RCB-8.7 for each condiiion as shown in Table RCB-8. Sayer: however.21 PHYSICAL GEOMETRY CONSTANTS Figure RCB-8. Flanged-only and Ranged-and-flued types of expansion joints are examples of flexible shell element combinations.3. RCB-8.) ACE-E. (6) Calculate the stiffness multiplier per Paragraph RCB-8. the formulae have been derived based upon the use of plate and shell theory modified to account for the stiffness of the knuckle radii. (See Paragraph E-3.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 RCB-8 FLEXIBLE SHELL ELEMENTS This paragraph shall apply to fixed tubesheet exchangers which require flexible elements to reduce shell and tube Ion itudinal stresses and/or tube-to-tubesheet joint loads. The flexible elements are axisymmetric. The flexible elements are sufficiently thick to avoid instability.13 HYDROSTATIC TEST CONDITIONS The shell flexible elements shall be evaluated for the hydrostatic test conditions. The designer shall consider the most adverse operating condrtions specified by the purchaser. F. All dimensions are in inches (mm) and all forces are in pounds (kN).8.7.3. Light gau e bellows ty e ax nsion R joints within t e scope of the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers il ssoctatron (EJMA p” not are ” included within the purview of this paragraph.11 CALCULATION SEQUENCE The sequence of calculation shall be as follows: (1) Select a geometry for the flexible element per Paragraph RCB-8. for the load conditions as noted in step 7. (8) Calculate the flexible element moments and stresses per Paragraph RCB-8.2 GEOMETRY DEFINITION The geometry may be made up of any combination of cylinders and annular plates with or without knuckle radii at their junctions.

1. +X t. The applicable cylinder length.22 ?5L to 1.22 defines the nomenclature used in the following paragraphs based upon the equivalent flexible element model.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B FIGURE RCB-8. 2 0 or 1 i used for calculation with the FSE shall be half the actual cylinder length.22 EFFECTIVE GEOMETRY CONSTANTS Figure RCB-8. : ’ 4 7 t. the applicable cylinder length. NOTE: All dimensions shown in Figure RCE-8.21 (b) where ID and I iare the lengths of the cylinders welded to single Rexible shell elements.21 are in inches (mm). Yb . When two flexible shell elements are joined with a cylinder. 7x+ u t 76 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . RCB-8. 1 0 and 1 i shall be 0 when a cylinder is not attached. c Y. FIGURE RCB-8.

+2 fE l.t.rb. inches (mm) Note: Cylindrical sections beyond the limit. = t.O916E.3 ELEMENT FLEXlBlLlPl FACTORS The effective flexibility factors are given by: 1.t. need only meet the Code requirements for cylinders. if the flexible element does not have a knuckle radius at the inside junction.5fE :inches(mm) K = Stiffener multiplier (See Paragraph RCB 8.3x10 . inch-pounds -d D. inches (mm) . Y* = 2 a.areindicatedinFigureRCB-8. = 0. inches (mm) Note: Cylindrical sections beyond the limit. RCB-8.=0.mm-kN D. G.+2 ’ . + I ‘ .=r. if the flexible element does not have a knuckle radius at the outside junction.0916E. inches (mm) t. inches (mm) .21.ro.5tE inches (mm) ra=ra+0. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 77 . =O.fD.fo. mm-kN Metric.ti and l. inches (mm) t.inches(mm) r.OD.5) . t E if the flexible element has a knuckle radius at the inside junction. 3. inches (mm) t p if the flexible element has a knuckle radius at the outside junction.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B where t.+r.=0.tE.285 radians/inch (radians/mm) “a== 1 . need only meet the Code requirements for cylinders. b=2 I1=b-U 16 L=f. D. .0916E. Y b = 2 a. = SECTION 5 .0916Eatb ‘.285 radians/inch (radians/mm) D. inches (mm) . Lc. a=2 OD-t. inches (mm) inches (mm) G+t. 3~10-6. inch-pounds Metric.t.+0.=f.

= k. if the flexible element does not have a knuckle radius at the outside junction.mm-kN 0. . t E1 y .=cosflcoshI2 2’1.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B DE = O.Q.CI k. = PO Yo for the inner cylinder.and y bare defined in Paragraph RCB-8. b . k. radians for the outer cylinder.and e b are given by the fOlIOwing: at the inside junction e. psi (kPa) a. where Modulus of elasticity of the inner cylinder.=sinhfl+sinn coshCI+ cos. = Pa YCI Q. 3. 78 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .t. psi (kPa) E E if the flexible element has a knuckle radius at the inside junction. DE=0. t cI . psi (kPa) Ea = E if the flexible element does not have a knuckle radius at the inside junction. C 2 and C 3 for the inside and outside junction. = e Note: If there is no outer cylinder s*= 1 Eb = Calculate C 4.sin Cl ko coshn. C . psi (kPa) E. p. = k. = e at the outside junction e.O916E.0916EEtE 3~10-6. = sinnsinhn j. (kPa) E E if the flexible element has a knuckle radius at the outside junction. psi (kPa) E E = Modulus of elasticity of the flexible shell element. e . RCB-8. +12 2 2 k. t D. C s. C 6. and C 8 with the appropriate values of C . psi (kPa) Modulus of elasticity of the outer cylinder.22. inch-pounds Metric.= sinh Cl . at the inner cylinder as well as nbat the outer cylinder.31 CYLINDER-TO-CYLINDER FLEXIBILITY FACTORS The cylinder-to-cylinder flexibility factors.cosn k. radians j. E. = En = Thesevalues must be calculated for .

707962C2+0. is less than 0.O c. e shall be set equal to 1.320037C..00749C. * C6=-0.0 c.403287 + 0. RCB-8.X2= 2.. 3 C. x = -ac(0.=_.0.9186S6C.4. C z shall be set equal to 0.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS when Cz is less than 1.-5.O307508C.=clz cb e.364661+ 0.718” Notes: (1) When C. 2 Note: kvalues are evaluated using C.0696709+ 1.4 ELEMENT GEOMETRY FACTORS Calculations for the stiffness and stresses are dependent upon the ffexible element geometry factors given by: Note: kvalues are evaluated using 0. = -0.O.0.4. for the inner cylinder.7641X.46103C.201334+0.338172 0.142734+0.2~~ d2 DE Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 79 .428d’) I DC .+1.for the outer cylinder.3 when C z is greater than or equal to 1 .769+ 1.0157280Czz a n d cb c7 -c5 . = -0.’ c3 e = 2.684978+0.~l164_0.0366351 z CZ C.0547812C2 CT=-0.37310.1.-_3+---i-cq c.582549C2-0. RCB SECTION 5 c. (2) When Cz and C 3 are both equal to 1.=-0.= 3.226216C2z 1000 C.-2.122627 z C* C2 C6 =0. 0687.168201Cz-0.

0.=2.c(2+3.2bc 4 DE x =bc(0.385-1.385a2+ 1.22and13.3. X..andk.538+ln(d){2+..51.=0.357g~+3.(3.429cln(ci))bZ q.D. are defined in Paragraph RCB-8. x =-2.k. X=(x.e. = XZX6-X3X5-X3Y2 X q.635g2 +g* m.SECTION 5 X3= MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B -a2[1. = 0.~D.k.714cln(d)) 6 40.428) 5 DE x =-ab(l..714c(in(d))2 -------n(s) 9*=1_g2 m. 80 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .429cb21n(d) q.-y.25ab2 ! ~+3.635(1-g’)+g* m.=(-0.714d2)}] 40.538+5.+y..)-x.x.714g* g4 aandbaredefinedinPamgraphRCB-8. = 0.769d2+ 1.D...e.)(x... =0.

m from Fig.YaYo km. RCB-8./G 2 0.54.51 If y. K= 3 49 4 r3 ” =mhm.30(G/1E)~0~*87 For:> 160. y.1 1.52 using r’_ Calculate m as shown in Paragraph RCB-8.~=2.. and m 02 from Figure RCB-8.21 (b) . RCB-8. Determine m “from Figure RCB-8. y.and rb are present. Fig.92(G/tE)~0~21’ The final stiffness multiplier is represented by the product.56 If both r .86(G/tE)~“‘22 The final stiffness multiplier is represented by the product. from Fig. according to the following equations: m.and rD are present.903(y. I.and rb equal 0 . RCR-8.5 STIFFNESS MULTIPLIER SECTION 5 c RCR-8. y0 = 1 Ify.. Ify. K .21 (a) and rm = rb.13(G/tE)~0”49 ..21 (c) determine m from Figure RCB-8. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 81 . Fig.calculatey. = .51 using r ‘o and calculate = .073. ./G)+450.-=m+=mhm. K = y 0 v “. RCB-8. ~‘RCB-8.c(mmnIzy.075. determine m from Figure RCB-8.53 If both r .075.55 If only r cL is present..= 1. .L 3 h ‘.52 using r Ib.52 If both r.c c MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-8.h=2.pertheformulagivenbelow. h . RCB-8. 4. Fig.54 If onlyrb is present. Fort t 160.961. RCB-8.=O.pertheformula given below Ifyb/G>0.52 using r ‘o = r ‘” and calcutate. RCB-8.52 above. ~j For: < 160. Fig.y. determine m 0. K = hm y. but not equal. K = =m y0 v b RCB-8../G)2-5647(~~/G)3+23140(y~/C)~ RCB-8. The final stiffness multiplier is represented by the product. Fig. A . from Paragraph RCB-8.h= 1.293(y.21 (d).51 and calculate the term.. RCB-8.~G<O. determine value of mfrom Figure RCB-8.O75.21 (a).51 using r ‘= . The final stiffness multiplier is represented by the product.52. from Paragraph RCB-8.v.~~4. calculatey.52 and calculate the term./G < 0. according to the following equations: Fort< 160. RCB-8.

000 2.51 Stiffness Multiplier as a Function of Flexible Shell Element Dimensionless Parameks (Inner and Outer Knuckle Radii Equal) .w 3.200 ti g 2. r/t = 8 Fl ? H tn r/h FIGURE RCB-8.600 -2.000 1 i l'*O" Q-J 1. 2.600 /' Ratios not within the range of the r/t and r/h values shown are considered outside the scope of this analysis.400 E3 2.800 -.

400 1.800 1.2.52 Stiffness f&Mptief 89 a Function of Flexible Shell Element (No Inner thuckte) DimSIISiOnlSSS l%WimStSrS .100 1 .ooo r/h FIGURE RCB-8. .600 1.OGO 1.500 1.700 1.200 1.300 1.900 1.

and RC6-8. RCB-8.=P.+P. K x7qi+x8qz+q3 where the terms are defined in Paragraphs RCB-8.= 2naD.. When two or more flexible elements are used in a shell. Ibs/inch (kN/mm) Note: A single convolute consists of two flexible shell elements. (2) a is defined in Paragraph RCB-8. the overall effective spring rate of the system of flexible elements is given by: si= 1 ‘+’ . = Fx tom6 .2) in a shell.7 INDUCED AXIAL FORCE The calculation of the flexible shell element stresses is contingent upon calculating an induced axial force acting on each element. s jEn = RCB-8..4.. calculated mdrvrdually from the above formula.22.11 through RCB-8.‘-Pd and P.’ F.5. kN/mm where P.* TABLE RCB-8.-P./inch (Metric) F. .EZ S/E” where s j = Overall effective spring rate.*=P.7 F cI* PARAMETER VARIATIONS Notes: (1) This condition is not applicable for differential pressure design per Paragraph RCB-7.13 and is given by: CZP. s jE.. This axial force on the inner shell circumference shall be calculated for each condition as described in Paragraphs RCB-8.3.+-1_ SjEl a ..6 EQUIVALENT FLEXIBLE ELEMENT STIFFNESS When there is only one flexible shell element (See Paragraph RCB8.165. s iE2.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-8. Ibs/inch (kN/mm). . RCB-8..22. 84 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .=y I Ibs. is given by: sj. as used in Paragraph RCB-7..161 Respective spring rates of each flexible shell element. Ibs/inch (kN/mm). the spring rate.

i P. RCB-8. *at the outer cylinder The remaining terms are as defined in Paragraphs RCB-8.81 MOMENTS AT THE JUNCTIONS ~. RCB-8.+0.=-cM.The stresses in the annular flat plate and the cylindrical portions of a flexible element are dependent upon the moments.163 and RCB-7. The moments are given by: P.5-g’) 8D.3 and RCB-8.161. as applicable) F yx = The term as calculated in Paragraph RCB-8.22. at the inside and outside junctions.11.+cdZM.-0.13 from the following formula: where A. shall be calculated for each condition specified in Paragraphs RCB-8.b3 0. The following paragraphs provide the formulae to calculate the predicted stress levels in each flexible element. psi (kPa).b2) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 3 85 . psi (kPa).-m. ALGEBRAIC SIGNS MUST BE RETAINED.325m. = .8 FLEXIBLE ELEMENT MOMENTS AND STRESSES .5 fi 9 n Fs 9 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B SECTION 5 (3) Other symbols are as defined in Paragraphs RCB-7.-y$g%(g) 80.b3 e* = m. using actual shell and tubesheet thicknesses for each condition under consideration par Paragraphs RCB8.7 dependent upon the condition under consideration k .13.=b’(cM.-2gm.+0. Each flexible element configuration will have a unique set of stresses for each condition analyzed.82 ANNULAR PLATE ELEMENT STRESSES The~annular plate meridional bending stress.11 through RCB-8.P.4 ACB-8. 12 and RCB8. for the condition under consideration (including 0 or negative value if vacuum.65acF. RCBB.-CM.. inch-lbs per inch (mm-kN per mm) of circumference. using 0..In(g)-P. (-* PI = Shell side design pressure.4l25a2) A.(0. and ki = The terms as calculated in Paragraph RCB-8.3. RCB-7. RCB-8.0875m.164.b2+0.65acFa~ln(g)+0.

)+B. (5) The maximum annular plate stress will be located where: or r=a err-b ~c~3-8.r-O. =13(y-x) =E(6+u.cos(v.3 and 86 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . s. RCB-8.=0. inches (mm) $eBr. as applicable).21.) 6=$P. PI = Shell side design pressure.22.5aP. as shown in Figure RCB-8.22.) r v.Aning terms are as defined in Paragraphs RCBS. (4) s..". psi (kPa).W.] x = The distance under consideration.) F Cl. (3) S R = S bcalculated for all conditions as specified in Table RCB-8.13 from the following formula: S m where u.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B A. psi (kPa)..65a(F. in the cylinders shall be calculated for each condition specified in Paragraphs RCB-8. RCB-8.11.7 dependent upon the condition under consideration.133 CYLINDRICAL EL E MENT STR E S S ES The circumferential membrane stresses.22. = The term as calculated in Paragraph RCB-8. and S mmd as defined by the Code. for the condition under consideration (including 0 or negative value if vacuum. r = Radial distance. are negligible for the annular plate element within the scope of Paragraph RCB8.7. from the shell centerline to the point under consideration. RCB-8.)sinh(v..sin(v. RCB-8..)cosh(v.12 and RCB-8.81 Note: (1) SW = S b calculated for the shell side pressure only condition (2) S rnbd = S b calculated for the differential expansion only or tube side pressure only condition.. .=B. inches (mm).-0. The remaining terms are as defined in Paragraphs RCB-8.4 and RCB-8.

t=t. or t (1 for (Yh-X)= I.=F. for a particular set of conditions. t = the smaller of t E or t c1 For the outer junction M=M. e=&? 0 E-E. B=P.-x)< 1. t = smaller oft.-x)>lj t=smalleroft. E=E. for the outer cylinder.84 MAXIMUM CYLINDER STRESS FOR CYCLE LIFE CALCULATIONS The maximum stress.or t. for use in the evaluation of cycle life is given by: where F 2 is defined in Paragraph RCB-8. (4) The maximum value of S m will be located where x = y y or x = 1 a for the inner cylinder and where x = yb or x = 1.83 and For the inner junction M=M.“. RCB-8. calculated for the combined pressure and differential expansion . M=M.for(ya-x)>I.for(y.. (3) s Cmpd = S. = S m calculated for the shell side pressure only condition. for(y. (2) s cm. F.for(y. M=M.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B where For the inner cylinder r=CI f=t.-x)= Ii For the outer cylinder SECTION 5 r=b t=t. psi (kPa). D=D.? = S m calculated for the differential expansion only or tube side pressure only condition.. condition.for(yb-x)<lo t=l. e= eb D=D.3 Y=Ya (1) SC. t = the smaller oft E or t b Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 87 .

RCB-8. The nominal total thickness for clad channels and bonnets shall be the same as for carbon steel channels.for the cylindrical element is equal to S.3 times the flow area through the tubes of one pass.4 mm) for nominal diameters greater than 30” (762 mm). plus corrosion allowance..1 CHANNELS AND BONNETS R-9. RCB-9.131 MINIMUM THICKNESS The thickness of pass partitions shall not be less than the greater of that shown in Table RCB-9. Pass partition plates may be tapered to gasket width at the contact surface.13.132.12 MINIMUM INSIDE DEPTH For multipass channds and bonnets the inside depth shall be such that the minimum cross-over area for flow between successive tube passes is at least equal to 1. (2) S. AND BONNETS RCB-9.11 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF CHANNELS AND BONNETS Channel and bonnet thickness is determined by the Code design formulae.11 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF CHANNELS AND BONNETS Channel and bonnet thickness is determined by the Code design formulae. RCB-9 CHANNELS.2 mm) for nominal diameters 18” (457 mm) and smaller.10 MINIMUM THICKNESS The minimum thickness of flexible shell elements shall be as determined by the rules of Paragraphs RCB-8. CB-9. TABLE RCB-9.8 mm) for nominal diameters 19” 9 483 mm) through 30” (762 mm).9. However.13.131 NOMINAL PASS PARTITION PLATE THICKNESS Dimensions are in Inches (mm) 1 Nominal Size Less than 24 (616) 24to66 (610-1524) 61 to 100 (1549-2540) I Carbon Steel Alloy Material 88 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .9 ALLOWABLE STRESSES The allowable flexible element stresses shall be as defined by the Code. COVERS. When an axial nozzle is used. RCB-8.. 3/16’ (4.SECTION 5 Note: MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B (1) A positive value of M establishes a compressive stress in the outer fiber of the cylinder under consideration. but in no case shall the nominal thickness of channels and bonnets be less than the minimum shell thicknesses shown in Table R-3.131 or calculated in Paragraph RCB-9. the depth at the nozzle centerline shall be a minimum of one-third the inside diameter of the nozzle.13 PASS PARTITION PLATES RCB-9. The nominal total thickness for clad channels and bonnets shall be the same as for carbon steel channels.1 throu h RCB-8. in no case shall the thickness in the uncorroded condition be less than i/8” 3. (3) S. plus corrosion allowance. RCB-9.. or l/4” (6. but in no case shall the nominal thickness of channels and bonnets be less than the minimum shell thicknesses shown in Table CB3. using an appropriate stress concentration factor for the geometry under consideration. is a possible outer limit for establishing a stress range.

Also. psi (kPa) b = Plate dim&&n. in&h& (mm) Table value (linear interpolation may be used) Pressure drop across plate.539 0. Other types of attachments are allowed but shall be of equivalent strength.4971 0.132 PASS PARTITION DIMENSION FACTORS Three sides fixed One side simply supported a/b Long sides fixed Short sides simply supported a/b 1. RCB-9. undue restraints or detrimental deflections under specified operating conditions or unusual start-up or maintenance conditions specified by the purchaser.307 0.0 B 0.0 1.0 1. psi (kPa) .7146 0.4 I .MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-9.132 PASS PARTITION PLATE FORMULA - SECTION 5 where t 2 B= g= Minimum pass partition $ate rhickne&.173 0.0 3.0 1.4968 0.718 0.4182 0.4860 0.0.6540 0.0 1.657 0.8 2.0 a7 B 0.2 1.2 1. consideration should be given to potential bypass of tubeside fluid where the pass partition might pull away from the gasket due to deflection.S = Code allowable stress in tension.4 1.134 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS Special con&ier&tior&&t be given to reinforcement or thickness requirements for internal partitions subjected to pulsating fluids.4973 0.6 1.6912 0.8 2. at design metal temperature.5000 Short sides fixed Long sides simply supported a/b B 0.133 PASS PARTITION WELD SIZE The pass partition plate shall be attached with fillet welds on each side with a minimum leg of 3/4 t from Paragraph RCB-9.14 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT Fabricated channels and bonnets shall be postweld heat treated when required by the Code or specified by the purchaser.7500 RCB-9.4182 ::KZ 0.020 0. RCB-9.5 2.6 1. &&Table RCB-&132.132. Standards Or The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 89 .4626 0.081 0. Consideration may also be given to special design configurations and/or methods of analysis which may justify reduction of pass partition plate thickness requirements.75 1. extreme differential pressures and/or temperatures. inches (&) TABLE RCB-9.50 .25 0.

R-9.) where Y= G= E = T = P= s*= Ag= h. inches (mm) Modulus of elasticity at design temperature. psi (kPa) Actual total cross-sectional root area of bolts. or others in which there is no pass partition gasket seal against the channel cover.21 FLAT CHANNEL COVER DEFLECTION .8 mm) deep grooves for pass partitions.R gasket seating surfaces. including gasket seating surfaces. shall have at least l/8” (3. In clad or applied facings.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B ~’ RCB-9.O435G’P+ 0. psi (kPa) Thickness under consideration.2 mm) nominal thickness of cladding.= Channel cover deflection at the center.03” (0.h.8 mm) deep grooves for pass partitions. all surfaces exposed to the fluid. The recommended limit for channel cover deflection is: 0. inches (mm) Design pressure. Use of strong backs. inches (mm) If the calculated deflection is greater than the recommended limit. CB-9.8 mm) for nominal diameters thru 24” (610 mm) 0. inches (mm) Gasket load reaction diameter as defined by the Code. including . channel covers shall be provided with approximately 3/16” (4.MULTIPASS UNITS The effective thickness of a flat channel cover shall be the thickness at the bottom of the pass partition groove (or the face if there is no groove) minus corrosion allowance in excess of groove depth. no deflection criteria need be considered. 90 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . square inches (mm2) Radial distance from diameter Gto bolt circle.22 CHANNEL COVER PASS PARTITION GROOVES Channel covers shall be provided with approximately 3/16” (4. or other suitable means for holding the gasket in place. Note: For single pass channels.SBA.125% of nominal diameter (nominal diameter/800) for larger sizes A method for calculation of channel cover deflection is: Y = -+(O. shall have at least i/8” (3. all surfaces ex osed to fluid. the deflection may be reduced by acceptable methods such as: Increase channel cover thickness by the cube root of the ratio of calculated deflection to the recommended limit.2mm) nominal thrc ness of cladding.2 FLAT-CHANNEL COVER *RCB-9. Change type of construction. In clad or applied facings.22 CHANNEL COVER PASS PARTITION GROOVES For design pressures over 300 psi (2068 kPa). The thickness is to be at least that required by the appropriate Code formula and thicker if required to meet proper deflection criteria. psi &Pa) Allowable bolting stress at design temperature.5.

. except cast iron plugs shall not be used. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 91 .33 THERMOMETER CONNECTIONS All flanged nozzles 4” NPS or larger shall be provided with one connection of 1” minimum NPS for a thermometer unless special considerations allow it to be omitted. C-10. See Paragraph RB-10. See Paragraph C-10. RCB-10. Each connection shall be fitted with a round head bar stock plug conforming to ASME 816. they shall be flush with the inside contour of the shell or channel wall.32 PRESSURE GAGE CONNECTIONS Pressure gage connections shall be as specified by the purchaser. C-10. Flange dimensions and facing shall comply with ASME B16. Bolt holes shall ” straddle natural center lines. R-10. Bolting in flanges of mating connections between stacked exchangers shall be removable without moving the exchangers.33 THERMOMETER CONNECTIONS Thermometer connections shall be as specified by the purchaser.4 B-10. RB-10. RB-10.5 shall be in accordance with Code.32 PRESSURE GAGE CONNECTIONS All flanged nozzles 2” NPS or larger shall be provided with one connection of 1 2” minimum NPS for a pressure gage unless special considerations allow it to be omitted.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-10 NOZZLES SECTION 5 RCB-10.5. C-10.11 of the same material as the connection. Each connection shall be fined with a bar stock plug of the same material as the connection. Flanges outside the scope of ASME 816. Alternate plug materials may be used when galling is anticipated. Shell or channel nozzles which protrude beyond the inside contour of the main cylinder wall must be self venting or draining by notching at their intersection with the high or low point of the cylinder.3 PIPE TAP CONNECTIONS All pipe tap connections shall be a minimum of 6000 psi standard couplings or equivalent.4.31 VENT AND DRAIN CONNECTIONS .3 PIPE TAP CONNECTIONS All pipe tap connections shall be a minimum of 3000 psi standard couplings or equivalent. by agreement between manufacturer and purchaser. See Paragraph RB-10. except cast iron plugs shall not be used.1 NOZZLE CONSTRUCTION Nozzle construction shall be in accordance with Code requirements.2 NOZZLE INSTALLATION Radial nozzles shall be considered as standard. WE-lo.4. Pressure gage and thermometer connections may be omitted in one of the two mating connections of units connected in series. All high and low points on shell and tube sides of an exchanger not otherwise vented or drained by nozzles shall be provided with 3/4” minimum NPS connections for vent and drain.32 PRESSURE GAGE CONNECTIONS All flanged nozzles 2” NPS or larger shall be provided with one connection of 3/4” minimum NPS for a pressure gage unless special considerations allow it to be omitted.4. Alternate plug materials may be used when galling is anticipated. R-10.4 STACKED UNITS Intermediate nozzles bemeen units shall have flat or raised face flanges. See Paragraph C-10. Shell nozzles shall not protrude beyond the inside contour of the shell if they interfere with bundle insertion or removal.4.3 PIPE TAP CONNECTIONS All pipe tap connections shall be a minimum of 3000 psi standard couplings or equivalent B-10. If separate vent and drain connections are used. See Paragraph RB-10. Other types of nozzles may be used.

T-7 a-% . The “Recommended Good Practice” section of these standards provides the designer with additional information regarding imposed piping loads. double split ring flanges may be used in accordance with the Code.4 STACKED UNITS intermediate nozzles between units shall have flat or raised face flanges. RCG-10.SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B C-10. installation.6 NOZZLES LOADINGS Heat exchangers are not intended to serve as anchor points for piping. Under these conditions.-- 92 Standards Of The Tubular Exchange Manufacturers Association .5 SPLIT FLANGE DESIGN Circumstances of fabrication. unless the purchaser specifically detarls such loads rn his inquiry as indicated in Figure RGP-RCB-10. Pressure gage and thermometer connections may be omitted in one of the two mating connections of units connected in series. or maintenance may preclude the use of the normal integral or loose full ring nozzle flanges. The analysis and any modifications in the design or construction of the exchanger to cope with these loads shall be to the purchasers account. therefore.6. for purposes of design. *RCB-10. nozzle loads are assumed to be negligible.

RCE-11. subject to the limitations set forth in the following paragraphs. Sizes l”and smaller shall be CoarseThread Series. Table D-5 or RCE-11. R-11. In special cases. If bolting smaller than l/2” (M14) is used. centerline to centerline. Table D-5. the total flange moment determined by Code design methods shall be multiplied by a correction factor equal to: B E--mex Jwhere B is the actual bolt spacing as defined by Paragraph RCB-11. and larger sizes shall be S-Pitch Thread keries. precautions shall be taken to avoid overstressing the bolting. inches (mm) dB = Nominal bolt diameter. Table D-5M.1 MINIMUM BOLTSIZE The minimum permissible bolt diameter is 3/4” M20). Table D-5M. RCE-11.24 BOLT ORIENTATION Bolts shall be evenly spaced and normally shall straddle both natural centerlines Of the exchanger.21 MINIMUM RECOMMENDED BOLT SPACING . inches (mm) m = Gasket factor usad in Code flange calculations RCB-11.22 MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED BOLT SPACING The maximum recommended spacing between bolt centers is: where B = Bolt spacing. inches (mm) t = Flange thickness.. RCB-11. B-11.hzMminimum recommended spacing between bolt centers is given in Section 9. Table D-5 and Table D6M.22.1 MINIMUM BOLT SIZE The minimum permissible bolt diameter shall be 5/8” (M16).1 MINIMUM BOLT SIZE The minimum recommended bolt diameter is l/2” (M14).2 BOLT CIRCLE LAYOUT RCB-I 1. the natural centerlines shall be considered to be the horizontal and vertical centerlines of the exchanger. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 93 . Table D-5.. Table D-5. For horizontal units. C-11. Dimensional standards are included in Section 9. Table D-5M. Dimensional standards are included in Section 9.. the bolt count may be changed from a multiple of four. Metric bolting is shown in Section 9. Dimensional standards are included in Section 9. Metric bolting is shown in Section 9.MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B RCB-I 1 END FLANGES AND BOLTING SECTION 5 Flanges and bolting for external joints shall be in accordance with Code design rules.3 MINIMUM RECOMMENDED WRENCH AND NUT CLEARANCES Minimum recommended wrench and nut clearances are given in Section 9. Metric thread pitch is shown in Section 9.23 LOAD CONCENTRATION FACTOR When the distance between bolt centerlines exceeds recommended B.

threaded full lenath with a removable nut on each end.4 BOLT TYPE Except for special design considerations. *ACB-11. *RCB-11.6 BOLTING-ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE See “Recommended Good Practice” section. *-* 94 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .SECTION 5 MECHANICAL STANDARDS TEMA CLASS R C B ” ” A RCB-11. flanges shall be through-bolted with stud bolts. One full stud thread shall extend beyond each nuTto indicate full engagement.5 LARGE DIAMETER LOW PRESSURE FLANGES See “Recommended Good Practice” section.

due to large amplitudes of the vibrating tube.2) over the tube outer diameter to facilitate fabrication. inter-related with heat exchanger geometry. The maximum unsupported tube spans in Table RCB-4. Corrosion and erosion can add to such failure mechanisms.span. the stresses due to any lateral deflection of the tube are also maximum at the location where the tube emerges from the tubesheet. boat shape spot. contributing to possible tube breakage. Damage can result from any of the following independent conditions.$be wail and the tubesheet hole. This section defines the basic data which should be considered when evaluatin potential flow induced vibration problems associated with heat exchangers. V-2. The natural frequency of the tube span adjacent to the tubesheet IS Increased by the clamping effect. usually the width of the baffle thickness.52 do not consider potential flow induced vibration problems. V-2. the tube can impact the baffle hole causing thinning of the tube wall in a circumferential. Due to the complexity of the problem. Locations of relatively flexible tube spans and/or high flow velocities are regions of primaty concern. The frequency. accompanied with loud noise. V-3 FAILURE REGIONS Tube failures have been reported in nearly all locations within a heat exchanger. althou h the heat exchanger shell and the attached piping may vibrate.1 SCOPE Fluid flow. generally at the mid-span of the unsupported P ength. In those cases. where the analysis indicates the probability of destructive vibration. the TEMA guarantee does not cover vibration damage.) V-l SCOPE AND GENERAL SECTION 6 V-l. flattened.~ v-2 VIBRA T ION AMAGE PASTERN S Mechanical failure of tubes resulting from flow induced vibration may occur in various forms. can readily propagate and actuate tube failure. Flaws contained wlthin the material and strategically oriented with respect to the stress field. V-l. The tube wall eventually wears thin. any oscillation creates an acoustic vibration of a standing wave type. The impacted area of the tube develo s the characteristic. V-2. can cause heat exchanger tubes to vibrate.3 TtiBESHEtiT CLAMPING EFFECT Tubes may be expanded into the tubesheet to minimize the crevice between the outer. This phenomenon is highly complex and the present state-of-the-art is such that the solution to this problem is difficult to define. When 7 .4 MATERIAL DEFECT PROPAGATION Designs which were determined to be free of harmful vibrations will contain tubes that vibrate with very small amplitude due to the baffle tube hole clearances and the flexibility of the tube. V-2.FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION (Note: This section is not metricated. uneven manner..1 COLLISION DAMAGE Impact of the tubes against each other or against the vessel wall. However. causing failure. Continuous thinning over a period of time results in tube failure. The generated sound wave will not affect the tube bundle unless the acoustic resonant frequency approaches the tube natural tendency toward tube vibration will be accentuated with possible tube failure. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 95 .potentiai low Induced vibration problems are requested to be evaluated. the relationships presented in this section and/or other methods may be used.2 GENERAL Damaging tube vibration can occur under certain conditions of shell side flow relative to baffle configuration and unsupported tube span.2 BAFFLE DAMAGE Baffle tube holes require a manufacturing clearance (see Paragraph RCB-4. the user should refer to Paragraph V-13. V-2. . When large fluid forces are present.5 ACOUSTIC VIBRATION Acoustic resonance is due to gas column oscillation and is excted by phased vortex shedding. or combinations thereof. Such low level stress fluctuations are harmless in homogeneous material. 8 hen the acoustic resonant frequency approaches the tube natural frequency. can result in failure.

‘.~ .. .V-3. V-4.~‘.~.. ft/sec do= Outside diameter of tube. i .. ~ . i. 96 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Mantifacttirers Association .. “. V-3.4 BAFFLE REGION Tubes located in baffle windows have unsupported spans equal to multiples of the baffle spacing.... .1 STROUHAL NUMBER Shedding of vortices from isolated tubes in a fluid medium is correlated by the Strouhal Number....11 . . ...2 FLUID ELASTIC PARAMETER A dimensionless parameter used in the correlations to predict flow induced vibration is given by: 144w..:_i*..3 TUBESHEET REGION Unsupported tube spans adjacent to the tubesheet are frequently longer than those in the baffled region of the heat exchanger.’ “’ ~’ For integrally finned tubes: d0= Fin root diameter.6. The possible high local velocities. inches ~. .SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION V-3. which is given by: to .... therefore. sealing strips and impingement plates may cause high localized velocities which can initiate vibration in the immediate vicinity of the obstruction.. ” “..... . large outer tube limits and small nozzle d&net&s can contribute restricted entrance and exit areas..i~. and result in lower natural frequencies.__” _..._f.* . ._~......do 12v where fs= Vortex shedding frequency.. V-3. . Entrance and exit areas are common to this region.. V-4 DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS V-4. the rhythmic shedding of vortices degenerates into a broad turbulence and a correlation based on Strouhal Number alone is inadequate. are more susceptible to flow induced vibration failures than the inner rows..._ . ....___.. These restricted areas usually create high local velocities which can result in producing damaging flow induced vibration. . “~’ ” ‘~“.2 NOZZLE ENTRANCE AND EXIT AREA Impingement plates.. .5 OBSTRUCTIONS Any obstruction to flow such as tie rods. 2 .” ..1 U-BENDS Outer rows of U-bends have a lower natural frequency of vibration and... .~. inches Note: In closely spaced tube arrays.. make this a region of primary concern in preventing damaging vibrations. V-3. cycies/sec v = Crossflow velocity of the fluid relative to the tube. Long unsupported tube spans result in reduced natural frequency of vibration and have a greater tendency to vibrate. ._ . ~....... .... . ->.. in conjunction with the lower natural frequency.. .:F: . I. X= Pod0 I.

defined in Paragraph V-7.1. with the velocity and natural frequency considered being that of the unsupported span under examination.FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION where SECTION 6 w0 = Effective weight of the tube per unit length. Calculation of the natural frequency of the heat exchanger tube is an essential step in estimating its potential for flow induced vibration failure.1. defined in Paragraph V-7. Ib/ft3 d. CyCleS/Sec I = Tube unsupported span as shown in Table V-5. (2) Simply supported at each baffle.43) Effective weight of the tube per unit length. Ib/ft Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 97 . Ib/ft 5.3.2 FACTORS AFFECTING NATURAL FREQUENCY The individual unsupported span natural frequency is affected by: (1) Tube elastic and inertial properties and tube geometry.3 where Fin root diameter. the “built-in” assumption IS only approximate. inches For integrally finned tubes: d0= V-5 NATURAL FREQUENCY V-5. These approximations are known to have minor effects on the calculated natural frequency. psi (see Paragraph RCB-1. The current state-of-the-art flow induced vibration correlations are not sophisticated enough to warrant treating the multi-span tube vibration problem (or mode shapes other than the fundamental) in one comprehensive analysis.22 SPAN SUPPORTS The common support conditions are: ( I) Fixed at the tubesheet and simply supported at the baffle. V-5. V-5.f a = Fundamental natural frequency of the tube unsupported span. = Outside diameter of tube. (4) Axial loading on the tube unsupported span. For more complex mode shapes and multi-spans of unequal lengths. Therefore. (3) Type of support at each end of the unsupported span. (2) Span shape. V-5.3 FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL FREQUENCY CALCULATION The value of the fundamental natural frequency of a tube unsupported span can be calculated for the combinations of span shape and end support conditions using Table V-5. the potential for vibration is evaluated for each individual unsupported span. (see Paragraph V-6) V-5. inches Elastic modulus of tube material at the tube metal temperature. inches .21 SPAN SHAPES The basic span shapes are the straight span and the U-bend span. = Logarithmic decrement in the tube unsupported span (see Paragraph V-8) p 0 = Density of the shell side fluid at its local bulk temperature. The tubesheet is not rigid and.1 GENERAL Most heat exchangers have multiple baffle supports and varied individual unsupported spans. see Paragraph V-14 Reference (10). therefore. The baffle supports have clearances which render them non-linear when analyzed as a support.

inches do = Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . inches Outside diameter of tube. Inches 4 is given by I = &(d.4) di= Tube inside diameter. inches For integrally finned tubes: dD= Fin root diameter.SECTION 6 I - FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION Moment of inertia of the tube cross section. 4-d.

= Mode constant of U-bend D Edge condition: both ends simply supported (5) I- ED Edge condition: both ends simply supported Span Geometry C.3.3.3.I Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 99 .FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION TABLE V-5. other I end simply supported (31 Tubesheets Span Geometry 1 I c 9.37 2 3 Edge condition: both ends fixed (4) I- ___i__ r = Mean bend radius.3 (7) Edge condition: both ends simply supported d 6 II . Figure v-5. See Paragraph V-6 = Constant depending on edge condition geometry.3 FUNDAMEkTAL NATURAL FREQUENCY Span Geometry (1) Baffles = Edge condition: both ends simply supported (2) Tubesheet SECTION 6 Eouation Nomenclature Tube axial stress multiplier.9 15.2 v-5. I Edge condition: one end fixed.1 Edge condition: both ends simply suPported v-5.3 v-5.42 22. inches c.

SECTION.3 U-BEND MODE CONSTANT.6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION FIGURE V-S. c L1 8 d 2 d !2 d 2 d Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

C SECTION 6 I( .FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION FIGURE V-5.1 U-SEND MODE CONSTANT. / L- 0 id Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 101 .3.

C u $ d s c5 :: d d d z 102 Stancfards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .3.2 U-SEND MODE CONSTANT.SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION FIGURE V-5.

.3..FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION FIGURE V-5.3 U-BEND MODE CONSTANT. r.. C u SECTION 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - 6% . Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 103 .

SECTION 6
V-6 AXIAL TUBE STRESS

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION

V-6.1 AXIAL TUBE STRESS MULTIPLIER By the very function of a heat exchanger, the tubes are subjected to axial loads. Compressive axial loads decrease the tube natural frequency, and tensile loads tend to increase it. The resulting tube axial stress multiplier for a given tube unsupported span is determined by the tube end support conditions. 1/Z?

where F=S,A,

S,= Tube longitudinal stress, psi (for fixed tubesheet exchanger, s, may be
calculated from Paragraph RCB-7.23)

A, = Tube metal cross sectional area, inches ’ (see Table D-7)
K’EI F CR= 12

K = Jtfor both ends simply supported K= E=
l= 4.49 for one end fixed, other end simply supported

K = 2 Ft for both ends fixed
Elastic modulus of tube material at the tube metal temperature, psi (see Paragraph RCB-1.43) Tube unsupported span, inches Moment of inertia of the tube cross-section, inches 4 (see Paragraph V-5.3 and Table D-7)

I=
V-6.2 U-TUBES

For some applications U-tubes may develop high levels of axial stress. A method to compute the tube axial stresses in the legs of U-tube exchangers is given in Paragraph V-14, Reference (1).

V-7 EFFECTIVE TUBE MASS To sim lify the application of the formulae, the constants have been modified to enable the use of weight instea dpof mass. V-7.1 EFFECTIVE TUBE WEIGHT Effective tube weight is defined as:

w,=w,+w,~+H,

w t = Total metal weight per unit length of tube, Ib/ft (see Table D-7) Wfl = 0.00545p idi s = Weight of fluid inside the tube per unit length of tube, Ib/ft H m = Hydrodynamic mass from Paragraph V-7.1 1

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION
where pi= di=

SECTION 6

Density of fluid inside the tube at the local tube side fluid bulk temperature, Ib/ft 3 Inside diameter of tube, inches

V-7.11 HYDRODYNAMIC MASS Hydrodynamic r&S is an S&t d&h increases the apparent weight of the vibrating body due to the displacement of the shell side fluid resulting from: (1) Motion of the vibrating tube (2) The proximity of other tubes within the bundle (3) The relative location of the shell wall Hydrodynamic mass is defined as: H, = C,w,, where cm = Added mass coefficient from Figure V-7.1 I

wfo= o.oomp,d, ‘= Weight of fluid displaced by the tube per unit length of tube,
where pe =

Ib/ft

Density of fluid outside the tube at the local shell side fluid bulk temperature, ib/ft3 (For two phase fluids, use two phase density.)

d, = Outside diameter of tube, inches For integrally finned tubes: d, = Fin root diameter, inches

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association I

105

SECTION 6

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION

FIGURE V-7.1 1

k*+Y’_il: ~,
,.LC.“, i, i

ADDED MASS COEFFICIENT - C, 1
,.:. ,,~,

.,m,

:,,:

:.,,

,.,.,i-

TUBE PITCH TUBE ODE’;

106

Standards Of ihe Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION

SECTION 6

0
8 0

V-8 DAMPING The mechanisms involved in damping are numerous, and the various effects are nor readily measured or quantified. The following expressions for logarithmic decrement, 6 p are based strictly on experimental observations and idealized models. For shell side liquids, 6 Tis equal to the greater of 6 1 or 6, 3.41 do 6,=wof, where IL = Shell side liquid viscosity, at the local shell side liquid bulk temperature, centipoise d 6 = Outside diameter of tube, inches. For integrally finned tubes, or 6,= O.O12d, w0

0

do = Fin root diameter, inches
p 6 = Density of shell side fluid at the local bulk temperature, Ib/ft 3 f n = Fundamental natural frequency of the tube span, cycles/set zUO = Effective weight of the tube as defined in Paragraph V-7.1, lb/r?

f3

For shell side vapors 6 T = 6 v as follows: 6, = 0.3,4& where

!? /e3

N = Number of spans t b = Baffle or support plate thickness, inches 1 = Tube unsupported span, inches ,, For two phase shell side media

0
8

0
Q

,,
where

6,-p= O.‘=Wf(s,)f(si)
f ( e o ) = Void fraction function Eg =6x = 1

for

Eg < 0.4

for

0.4 5 tp 5 0.7

= I-(s) f o r t,>0.7 V, E =0 v,+v, ~ I/ 9 = Volume flowrate of gas, ft3/sec I/ I = Volume flowrate of liquid, ft3/sec f (s 7 j = Surface tension function

ST =ST70

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

107

SECTION 6

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION
s I = Surface tension of shell side liquid at the local bulk temperature. (See Paragraph V-14, Reference (20))

srm-

Surface tension of shell side liquid at ambient temperature. (See Paragraph V-14, Reference (20))

P I = Density of shell side liquid at the local bulk temperature, Ib/ft3 P ~ = Density of shell side gas at the local bulk temperature, lb/ft3 di, = Outside diameter of tube, inches. For integrally finned tubes, d 0 = Fin root diameter, inches w, = Effective tube weight as defined in Paragraph V-7.i,Ib/ft Note: Use two phase density in the calculation for hydrodynamic mass P rp = Two phase density at local bulk temperature Ib/ft3 =PJ-e.)+P,c. c,, = Confinement function, seeTable V-8 Total two phase damping

6,=6,,+6,+b, Note: Use two phase properties for density and hydrodynamic mass. TABLE V-8 CONFINEMENT FUNCTION C,” Triangular Pitch C,” 1.20 1.25 1.33 1.50 2.25 2.03 1.78 1.47 Square Pitch CW 1.87 1.72 1.56 1.35

,,

,:,

,~,~.

108
,i

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

.,,

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION

sECTION 6

V-9 SHELL SIDE VELOCITV DISTRIBUTION ,, V-9.1 GENERAL One of the most important and least predictable parameters of flow induced vibration is fluid velocity. To calculate the local fluid velocity at a particular point in the heat exchanger is a difficult task. Very complex flow patterns are resent in a heat exchanger shell. Various amounts of fluid bypass the tube bundle or leak throug t: clearances between baffles and shell, or tube and baffle tube holes. Until methods are developed to accurately calculate local fluid velocities, the designer may use average crossflow velocities based on available empirical methods. V-9.2 REFERENCE CROSSFLOW VELOCITY The crossflow velocity in the bundle varies from span to span, from row to row within a span, and from tube to tube within a row. The reference crossflow velocity is calculated for each region of interest (see Paragraph V-3) and is based on the average velocity across a representative tube row in that region. The presence of pass partition lanes aligned in the crossflow direction, clearance between the bundle and the shell, tube-to-baffle hole annular clearances, etc. reduce the net flow rate of the shell side fluid in crossflow. This should be considered in computing the reference crossflow velocity. V-9.21 REFERENCE CROSSFLOW VELOCITY CALCULATIONS The following method of calculating a reference crossflow velocity takes into account f$id bypass and leakage which are related to heat exchanger geometry. The method is valrd for single phase shell side fluid with single segmental baffles in TEMA E shells. Other methods may be used to evaluate reference crossflow velocities. Reference crossflow velocity is given by: v ‘(Fh)W) (M)(o,)(~0)(3600) ‘ft’sec

V-9.21 1 CALCULATION OF CONSTANTS The constants used in the calculation of the reference crossflow velocity are given by:

d,-d, c, = d, C3= DI-D, D,

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

109

26 0.26 0.93 TABLE V-9.61 I 90” 1.90 0.40 I 1.74 0.21 1B C 8 vs h z C* 0.25 0.67 M= ax = (b)(Dd(Col) where D j = Shell inside diameter. 1.20 0.38 I 1.10 0.40 0.50 0.54 0.80 0.90 0.62 0. inches D z = Baffle diameter.30 0.86 h cut-to-diameter ratio z 0.17 0.35 0.09 0. inches D 3 = Outer tube limit (OTL).45 0.49 Linear interpolation is permitted 1 1.SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION TABLE V-9.15 0.87 “~ I 1.2ilA TUBE PAlTERN (See Figure RCB-2.82 1 I I CC5 m 1.66 I I 45” 0.28 0.80 0.56 C4 C.4) 30” 60” 1.68~ 0.94 0.85 0. inches d I = Tube hole diameter in bafk inches 110 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

inches v-e. V-9. C.6 are furnished for protection against tube erosion.6 INTEGRALLY FINNED TUBES In computing the reference crossflow velocity. resulting in a lower average crossflow velocity. inches P = Tube pitch. but do not necessarily prevent vibration damage. inches For integrally finned tubes: cl 0 = Fin outside diameter.31 REFERENCE CROSSFLOW VELOCITY WITH SEAL STRIPS The reference crossflow velocfty is calculated by using a modified value for c 1 in the equations in Paragraph V-9. V-9. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 111 .2 to calculate a reference crossflow velocity. A number of documented vibration problems have been caused by high inlet fluid velocities.) v-e. (See Paragraph V-14. if they are not blocked by some type of special baffle. Local fluid velocity in the vicinity of seal strips may be significantly higher than the average crossflow velocity. the fin diameter should be used in place of the nominal tube OD for integrally finned tubes.FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION d. or other bypass lanes. inches 1 3 = Baffle spacing. tubes adjacent to these lanes may be subjected to high local velocities.s)(c. For the purposes of using the equations In Paragraph V-9. Seal strips force fluid from the bypass stream back into the bundle.21 1. inches SECTION 6 P o = Density of shell side fluid at the local bulk temperature.) V-9. lb/t” W = Shell fluid flow rate. The net effect is for less fluid to cross the tube bundle.4-f REFERENCE CROSSFLOW VELOCITY WITH PASS LANES PARALLEL TO FLOW To account for pass lanes rallel to flow.3 SEAL STr3fP. = Outside diameter of tube. v-9. Reference 6. This increases the reference crossflow velocity and should be considered in a vibration analysis. These standards provide guidelines for maximum velocity in this region and set criteria for the use of impingement plates.S Seal strips are often usad to help block the circumferential bypass space between a tube bundle and shell. the presence of fins shall be taken into account.4 PASS LANES PARALLEL TO FLOW When pass lanes are oriented parallel to flow (at 9O”to the baffle cut) they create a relatively low resistance path for fluid to follow. Ib/hr h = Height from baffle cut to shell inside diameter. a modified value of 5a can be used where D3 = Outer tube limit minus (number of parallel pass lanes inches x width of pass lanes).6 BUNDLE ENTRANCE REGION AND IMPINGEMENT PLATES Tubes directly beneath inlet nozzles and impingement plates can be subjected to local fluid velocities greater than those in other parts of the bundle. The number and width of these lanes should be considered when the reference crossflow velocity is calculated.=l+ i (31 4 1 +(l. The p 1/s limits in Paragraph RCB-4. However.

I/c . at every location. is defined by: [/ =Df.1 Fundamental natural frequency. inches For integrally finned tubes: cl 0 = Fin root diameter. The critical velocity. V c . inlet and outlet regions. is less than I/c for that location.do c 12 _I ft/sec where D= Value obtained from Table V-10. 112 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .3) Outside diameter of tube. The critical flow velocity for tube spans in the window. for a tube span is the minimum cross-flow velocity at which that span may vibrate with unacceptably large amplitudes. U-bends. and all atypical locations should be calculated. = The user should ensure that the reference crossflow velocity V. inches fn = d. cycles/set (see Paragraph V-5.SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION V-10 ESTIMATE OF CRITICAL FLOW VELOCITY The critical flow velocity. overlap.

’ where p o = Shell side fluid density at the corresponding local shell side bulk temperature. inches 144w..01 to 1 60” over 1 to 300 2.1) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 113 .‘~ 8. = Fluid elastic parameter x= pod.80~‘.1 to 300 450 4.03 to 0.1 to 1 30” over 1 to 300 8.10x0.4) Parameter Range for X 0. Ib/ft 6 T = Logarithmic decrement (See Paragraph V-8) W 0 = Effective weight of the tube per unit length.13(-+5]x~~~ P = Tube pitch.+‘~ SECTION 6 Dimensionless Critical Flow Velocity Factor. D Tube Pattern (See Figure RCB-2.” 0.” 2. = lube OD or fin root diameterfor integrally finned tubes. Ib/ft (See Paragraph V-7.35x0.80x0.7 to 300 2.6.7 2._ FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION TABLE V-10.86(-&0.‘5 over 0.1 FORMULAE FOR CRITICAL FLOW VELOCITY FACTOR. inches d.86(++’ 0. D 0.

. Fluidelastic instability is the most damaging in that it results in extremely large amplitudes of vibration with ultimate damage patterns as described in Paragraph V-2. ft/sec (see Paragraph V-9. lb/t3 Outside diameter of tube.mplftude of vibration at midspan for the first mode. Ib/ft (see Paragraph V-7.doV’ 2rc26T. Lift coefficient for vortex shedding. = CLp.= 12Sk/d. .<Zf. vortex shedding. and acoustic resonance.3 TURBULENT BUFFETING AMPLITUDE where Yta = Maximum amplitude of vibration for single phase fluids.3) LOO= Effective tube weight per unit length of tube.\.2).2 VORTEX SHEDDING AMPLITUDE yus = c. d 0 = fin root diameter. inches Reference crossflow velocity.O2d.wheref.. Vortex shedding may be a problem when there is a frequency match with the natural frequency of the tube.2) Logarithmic decrement (see Paragraph V-8) .(see Paragraph V-12. inches cF= Force coefficient (see Table V-l 1.SECTION 6 V-l 1 VIBRATION AMPLITUDE FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION V-11.f. inches V-11.2) Density of fluid outside the tube at the local shell side fluid bulk temperature. Estimation of amplitude and respective limits are shown below.O2d.. The first three mechanisms are accompanied by a tube vibration ampktude while acoustic resonance causes a loud acoustic noise with virtually no increase in tube amplitude. . Y". = Fundamental natural frequency of the tube span.3) V-11.. inches For integrally finned tubes. These are the fluidelastic instability.1) V-11. Vortex shedding and turbulent buffeting vibration amplitudes are tolerable within specified limits. V-l 1. Vortex shedding degenerates into broad band turbulence and both mechanisms are intertwined deep inside the bundle. Only then should the amplitude be calculated. This frequency match may result in a vibration amplitude which can be damaging to tubas in the vicinity of the shell inlet and outlet connections. (see Table V-l 1. turbulent buffeting. = pc..31 RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE Yrs 5 O.f~uJ. The destgn approach in this case is to avoid the fluidelastic instability situation thereby avoiding the accompanying large amplitude of vibration (see Paragraph V-10).1 GENERAL There are four basic flow induced vibration mechanisms that can occur in a tube bundle. Vibration due to vortex shedding is expected when J. cycles/set (see Paragraph V-5. = PO= do= v = 6.21 RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE YrS 5 O. for single phase fluids. inches 114 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

0.2 LIFT COEFFICIENTS C.049 ‘TABLE V-11.f.00045. TUBE PATTERN (See Figure RCB-2. Location Bundle Entrance Tubes fn <40 >40<88 288 C.4) P SECTION 6 30” 60” 90” 45” d.O0025f. 1.010 0.070 0.090 0.012 -O.091 0.025 0.3 FORCE COEFFICENTS C.04 0 Interior Tubes 240 >40<88 288 0.33 1.068 0.FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION TABLE V-l 1.022 -0.047 ::k% 0. + 0.065 0.090 0.20 1.017 0.022 0 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 115 .070 0.50 0.070 0.091 0. + 0.25 1.

dimensionless P o = Shell side fluid density at local fluid bulk temperature. d.a=?( pn(PI&j)“” . = Operating shell side pressure. = Outside diameter of tube. inches For integrally finned tubes: do = Fin outer diameter. a coupling may occur and kinetic energy in the flow stream is converted into acoustic pressure waves. = Transverse pitch.2B) do = Outside diameter of tube. inches (see Figures V-12. where 1/ = Reference crossflow velocity. = Fin outer diameter.2) S = Strouhal number (see Figures V-12.28) d. inches p.1 ACOUSTIC FREQUENCY OF SHELL Acoustic frequency is given by: . Gas column oscillation can be excited by phased vortex shedding or turbulent buffeting.2A and V-12. inches i = mode (1.SECTION 6 V-12 ACOUSTIC VIBRATION FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION Acoustic resonance is due to a gas column oscillation. 2.fus =12sv cycles/set d.2 VORTEX SHEDDING FREQUENCY The vortex shedding frequency is given by: . inches (see Figures V-12. For integrally finned tubes.. Ib/ft 3 pi = Longitudinal pitch.2A and V-12. V-12. 4) V-12.26) p. ft/sec (see Paragraph V-9. psia Y = Specific heat ratio of shell side gas. Acoustic resonance may occur independently of mechanical tube vibration. 3. inches.cycles/sec where w = Distance between reflecting walls measured parallel to segmental baffle cut.2A and V-t2. Oscillation normally occurs perpendicular to both the tube axis and flow direction. inches 116 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . When the natural acoustic frequency of the shell approaches the exciting frequency of the tubes.

1.43 CONDITION C PARAMETER “>j.<I.?f.2B) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 117 .28] d0= d.<1. or 0. = Outside diameter of tube.2. inches (see Figures V-12.42 CONDITION B PARAMETER v>.f. V-12.2) p1= pr = V= V-12. V-12.FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION V-f23 TURBULENT BUFFETING FREQUENCY The turbulent buffeting frequency is given by: SECTION 6 f.2A and V-12.4 ACOUSTIC RESONANCE Incidence of acoustic resonance is possible if any one of the following conditions is satisfied at any operating condition. and 60” tube patterns .8.. inches For integrally finned tubes: .2B) Transverse pitch.2A and V-12.5) 6 V-12. inches (see Figures V-12.Rf”.0.(1-~)‘+0.1) S = Strouhal number (see Figures V-12.f”. cycles/set (see Paragraph V-12.< 1.41 CONDITION A PARAMETER o.cycles/sec where a0 x ’ =E! do Longtudinal pitch.d. ft/sec (see Paragraph V-9. 1z. 45”.<f.f”&(~~-0.ft.2A and V-12.. inches Fin outer diameter. = Acoustic frequency.=~[.b and where x0=xr x0 = 2x j for go-tube patterns for 30°.26) Reference crossflow velocity.

.- .SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION R. the standing wave forms are limited to the first or the second mode. The simplest method is to install deresonating baffle(s) in the exchanger bundle to break the wave(s) at or near the antinode( This can be done without significantly affecting the shell side flow pattern. 116 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Failure to check both modes can result in acoustic resonance.q . evaluated at the reference cross flow velocity R.= 124. = Reynolds number.~p. even with deresonating baffles. In shell and tube exchangers.13d. centipoise V-12. UP p = Shellside fluid viscosity. but most could have some effect on exchanger performance.5 CORRECTIVE ACTION There are several means available to correct a resonant condition.

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION FIGURE V-1231 STROUHAL NUMBER FOR 90 “TUBE PATTERNS SECTION 6 FLOW pr/do = 3.0 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 119 .

6 FLOW S 13 f * 2.9 0. 7 0.8 0.2B STROUHAL NUMBER FOR 30 O. 46” AND 60’ TUBE PATTERNS 0.625 PI/do = 3.SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION FIGURE V-12.95 120 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

V-13. Sufficient untubed space may have to be provided at the shell inlet/outlet connections to reduce entrance/exit velocities. TEMA type X shells provide the opportunity to use multiple support plates to reduce the unsupported tube span. compared to single pass shells. V-13. Entrance and exit velocities should be calculated and compared to critical velocities to avoid vibration of the spans in question. The use of distribution belts can be an affective means of lowering entrance/exit velocities by allowing the shell side fluid to enter/exit the bundle at several locations.3 TUBE PITCH Larger pitch-to-tube diameter ratios provide increased ligament areas which result in a reduced crossffow velocity for a given unsupported tube span. thereby effectively increasing the sttffness of the tube for a given length. Consideration may also be given to protecting the bends f:om Row induced vibration by appropriately locating the shell connection and/or adjacent baffles.1 TUBE DIAMETER Use of the largest reasonable tube diameter consistent with practical thermal and hydraulic design economics is desirable. Larger diameters increase the moment of inertia.5 U-BEND REGIONS Susceptibility of U-bends to damaging vibration may be reduced by optimum location of adjacent baffles in the straight tube legs and/or use of a s ecial bend support device.1 1. High values of elastic moduli inherent in ferritic steels and austenitic stainless alloys provide greater resistance to vibratory flexing than materials such as aluminum and brass with relatively low elastic moduli. a divided flow shell will result in approximately one-half the span length for an equal crossflow velocity. without appreciably affecting the crossfiow velocity. The shorter the tube span. One must be cognizant of these parameters and their effects should be accounted for in the overall heat exchanger design.FLOW IN’DUCED VIBRATION SECTlOti 6 V-13 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Many parameters acting independently or in conjunction with each other can affect the flow induced vibration analysis. baffle design and the unsupported tube length.6TUBlNG MATERIAL AND THICKNESS The natural frequency of an unsupported tube span is affected by the dastic modulus of the tube. Consideration may be given to the use of partial supports to reduce unsupported tube spans in the entrance/exft regions. For example. Impingement plates should be sized and positioned so as not to overly restrict the area available for flow. V-13. The thermal and hydraulic design of an exchanger is significant in determining the type of shell. V-13. Corn ared to the conventional segmental baffle flow arrangement.2 UNSUPPORTED TUBE SPAN The unsupported tube span is the most significant factor affecting induced vibrations. V-13. Tube metallurgy and wall thickness also affect the damping characteristic of the tube. or a reduced unsupported tube span for a given crossflow velocity. The increased tube to tube spacing reduces the likelihood of mid-span collision damage and also decreases the hydrodynamic mass coefficient given in Figure V-7. “No tubes in window” flow arrangement baffles provide support to all tubes at all baffle locations and also permit the use of multiple intermediate supports without affecting the crossflow velocity while reducing the unsupported tube span. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 121 . multi-segmental baffles~ sign il? scantly reduce the tube unsupported span for the same shell side Row rate and pressure drop. the greater its resistance to vibration. It should be noted that compliance with Paragraph RCB-4.4 ENTRANCE/EXIT AREAS Entrance and exit areas are generally recognized to be particularly susceptible to damage in vibration prone exchangers. V-13.62 alone is not enough to insure protection from flow induced vibration at the entrance/exit regions of the bundle.

R.ASME. and Soler.M.40 (1981) (14) Kissel. M. (1975) (10) Pettigrew. “Flow Induced Vibrations In Heat Exchangers-A Practical Look”. 9 (7) Chen. Part 1: In Gases. Argonne National Laboratory. Vol. Cherry Hill. H. Kim. and Chung.. Presented at the 13th National Heat Transfer Conference. S.. or tightening of the baffle hole clearance. H. A. B. selective removal of tubes along baffle cut lines may be advantageous. S. “Design Guide For Calculatin Hydrodynamic Mass. And Lowery.. C.G..L. Second National Congress On Pressure Vessel And Piping.) V-14 SELECTED REFERENCES (I) Singh. “Mechanical Design Of Heat Exchangers And Pressure Vessel Components”.J. (1984) (2) Paidoussis. Argonne National Laboratory. “Flow Induced Vibration Of Circular Cylindrical Structures”.g T-78-49 (6) .. therefore.D. John Wiley&Sons.‘~ion Of Heat Transfer”.J. “Free Vibration Analysis Of Beams 8 Shafts”. ANL. dated February 1994 122 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Goyder. Vol. “Design Guide For Calculating Hydrodynamic Mass. The use of an expansion joint in such cases may result in reduction of the tube compressive stress. H. P. F. ASME. Report No.J.. Denver (1972) (15) Moretti. fixed tubesheet exchangers where the hot fluid is in the tube side. Report No. Axisa. 1978) (5) Chen. (See Paragraph V-6.. Chemical Engineering Progress. 104. 82-1 (1982) (3) Barrington.SECTION 6 FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION V-13. (1986). A.. S. Institution Of Mechanical Engineers. Report No.. V-13. “Damping of Multispan Heat Exchanger Tubes”. New York (1970) (13) Chen...S. K. I. S... 2. M. and Chen. Arcturus Publishers. McGill University. “Flow Induced Vibration In A Heat Exchanger With Seal Strips”. ASME paper No. Argonne National Laboratory. 1988 International Symposium on Flow-Induced Vibration and Noise -Volume 2. A. The Pressure Vessel and Piping Division .gdj J. Part I: Circular Cylindrical Structures”. P. Merl Report No. Flow-Induced Vibration (1986) ASME PVP Vol. This is particularly significant for tubes in single pass. “Vibration of Tube Bundles In Two-Phase Cross Flow: Part I -Hydrodynamic Mass and Damping”. pp 8187 (11) Pettigrew. P.. V-13..9 TUBE AXIAL LOADING The heat exchanger designer must recognize the potential adverse impact on vibration by compressive axial loading of tubes due to pressure and/or temperature conditions. S. S. “Cure Exchanger Acoustic Vibration”. For instance. 7 (1973) (4) Barrington. L.. S. Part II: Noncircular Cylindrical Structures’.8 OMISSION OF TUBES Omission of tubes at predetermined critical locations within the bundle may be employed to reduce vibration potential.. ASME HTD. No. ANL-CT-81. “Fluidelastic Vibration Of Tube Arrays Excited By Crossflow”. Taylor. Ho. Hydrocarbon Processing. “Design Guide For Calculating The Instability Flow Velocity Of Tube Arrays In CrossRow”. The formulae in this section do not quantitatively account for the effects of increasing the baffle thickness.J.7 BAFFLE THICKNESS AND TUBE HOLE SIZE Increasing the baffle thickness and reducing the tube-to-baffle hole clearance increases the system damping (see Paragraph V-8) and reduces the magnitude of the forces acting on the tube-to-baffle hole interface. Flow induced Vibration In Heat Exchangers. N. San Francisco (16) WRC Bulletin 389. E.. M. Ibid. ANL-CT-85-51 (8) ~~~~~. Qiao. 75-PVR 47. pp 79-103 (12) Connors. (July. H. “Flow Induced Vibration Of Cylindrical Structures: A Review Of The State-Of-The-Art”. ANL-CT-76-45 Chung. E.. E.. and in all multiple tube pass fixed tubesheet exchangers. “Hydrodynamic Inertia Coefficients For A Tube Surrounded By Rigid Tubes”. pp (9) German. Joseph H.....S. 69. Daniel J. “Experience With Acoustic Vibrations In Tubular Exchangers”. tubes located on baffle cut lines sometimes experience excessive damage in vibration prone units.

U. Keswick. 7.” Journal Of Engineering For Industry (20) API. Vol. W. and Fitzpatrick.R. “Duct Acoustic Resonances Induced By Flow Over Coiled And Rectangular Heat Exchanger Test Banks Of Plain And Finned Tubas”. Proc. Y. Journal Of Mechanical Engineering Science. 1965 (18) Byrce. 1996 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 123 . (1978) (19) Chen..FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION SECTION 6 (17) Owen. Wharmsby.. J. ‘Technical Data Book _ Petroleum Refining”. BNES International Conference On Vibration In Nuclear Plants. “Flow Induced Vibration And Noise In Tube Bank Heat Exchangers Due To Von Karman Streets. J.B..S. “Buffeting Excitation Of Boiler Tube Vibration”..N.K. P.

0 F T-l. The results are summarized in their “Bulletin No. and other interested organizations.SECTION 7 THERMAL RELATIONS (Note: This section is not metricated. Recommendations for the calculation of shell side and tube side heat transfer film coefficients and pressure losses are considered to be outside rhe scope of these Standards. including extended surface if present 124 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers +sociation . referred to tube outside surface BTU/hr ft2 O F Al m = Corrected mean temperature difference.2 BASIC HEAT TRANSFER RELATION where ~~ = Required effective outside heat transfer surface. BTU/hr Overall heat transfer coefficient. It should be noted. shall be calculated as follows: where U= h. that many of the standard details and clearances can significantly affect thermal-hydraulic performance. including fouling. and procedures for determining mean metal temperatures of shell and tubes. Particularly relevant in this respect is the research conducted bythe University of Delaware Engineering Experiment Station under the joint sponsorship of ASME. 5 (1963) Final Report of the Cooperative Research Program on Shell and Tube Exchangers. however.= Overall heat transfer coefficient (fouled) Film cbefficient of shell side fluid Film coefficient of tube side fluid Fouling resistance on outside surface of tubes Fouling resistance on inside surface of tubes Resistance of tube wall referred to outside surface of tube wall.1 SCOPE This section outlines the basic thermal relationshi s common to most tubular heat transfer P equipment. API. Included are calculation procedures or determining mean temperature difference and overall heat transfer coefficient.3 DETERMINATION OF OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT The overall heat transfer coefficient V.” T-l.= hi = To = ri = I-. especially on the shell side.) T-l SCOPE AND BASIC RELATIONS T-l. TEMA. and discussions of the cause and effect of fouling. ft2 Q= U= Total heat to be transferred.

4 TUBE WALL RESISTANCE T-1. 1949. H.41 BARE TUBES T-1.. McGraw-Hill Book Co. “Heat Exchanger Design”. 1950.42 INTEGRALLY FINNED TUBES t [d+ZNw(d+to)] r. Fmas and M. Katz. 1965. (4) J. 1. BTU/hr ft o F T-l... 1954. “Heat Transfer”. inches Tube wall thickness. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (6) Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. Vol..1 TYPES OF FOUUNG Several unique types of fouling mechanisms are currently recognized. McAdams. L. Third Ed. Jacob. can occur independently or simultaneously.. = 12k (d-t) where d= Lo= t = OD of bare tube or root diameter if integrally finned. They are individually complex. h D and hi are BTU/hr ft2oFandtheunitsofr. Fifth Ed. Kern. “Process Heat Transfer”. G. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (5) W.. inches Fin height. McGraw-Hill Book Co. P. 1958. = Ratio of outside to inside surface of tubing Fin efficiency (where applicable) The units of (/. “Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer”. John Wiley & Sons..rjandr.5 SELECTED REFERENCE BOOKS (1) A. John Wiley & Sons. Q. The major fouling mechanisms are: Precipitation fouling Particulate fouling Chemical reaction fouling Corrosion fouling Biological fouling Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 125 . T-2 FOULING T-2. (3) D. and their rates of development are governed : by physical and chemical relationships dependent on operating conditions. (2) M. 1973. N. Ozisik. inches Number of fins per inch N= k = Thermal conductivity.THERMAL RELATIONS SECTION 7 2= E. Knudsen and D. “Heat Transmission”.arehrft*oF/BTU T-l.

SECTION 7 THERMAL RELATIONS T-2.3) contains the terms to account for the thermal resistances of the fouling layers on the inside and outside heat transfer surfaces. s?I ould specify the design fouling resistances for his particular services and operating conditions. it is important in design to provide a fouling allowance appropriate to the expected operating and maintenance condition. they can be used to adjust typical base values tabulated in the RGP section of these standards. the user may be guided by the values tabulated in the RGP section of these standards. the logarithmic mean temperature difference should be used if the following conditions substantially apply: 126 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .31 PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS Typical physical factors influencing the determination of fouling resistances are: Fluid properties and the propensity for fouling Heat exchanger geometry and orientation Surface and fluid bulk temperatures Local fluid velocities Heat transfer process Fluid treatment Cathodic protection T-2. many of which vary from user to user. In order that heat exchangers shall have sufficient surface to maintain satisfactory performance in normal operation.2 EFFECTS OF FOULING The calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient (see Paragraph T-l . T-2. These fouling layers are known to increase in thickness with time as the heat exchanger is operated. In the absence of specific data for setting proper resistances as described in the previous paragraphs. T-2.3 CONSIDERATIONS IN EVALUATING FOULING RESISTANCE The determination of appropriate fouling resistance values involves both physical and economic factors. Fouling layers normally have a lower thermal conductivity than the fluids or the tube material. therefore. on the basis of past experience and current or projected costs. even for identical services. In the case of inside surface fouling. these values must be multiplied by the outside/inside surface ratio. thereby increasing the overall thermal resistance.T-3. chosen with all physical and economic factors properly evaluated. When these factors are known. The user. with reasonable service time between cleanings. the manufacturer is seldom in a position to determine optimum foulin resistances.4 DESIGN FOULING RESISTANCES The best design fouling resistances.32 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Typical economic factors influencing the determination of appropriate fouling resistances are: Frequency and amount of cleaning costs Maintenance costs Operating and production costs Longer periods of time on stream Fluid pumping costs Depreciation rates Tax rates Initial cost and variation with size Shut down costs Out-of-service costs T-2. By the very nature of the factors involved.1 LOGARITHMIC MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE For cases of true countercurrent or cocurrent flow. T-3 FLUID TEMPERATURE RELATIONS .3. as indicated in Equation T-l . will result in a minimum cost based on fixed charges of the initial investment (which increase with added fouling resistance) and on cleaning and down-time expenses (which decrease with added fouling resistance).

Excessive fluid leakage through the clearance between the cross baffles and the shell or between a longitudinal baffle and the shell can significantly alter the axial temperature profile. Gardner.2A through T-3. For non-stream symmetric configurations represented by Figures T-3.~N~~ “jup.2 CORRECTION FOR MULTIPASS FLOW In multipass heat exchangers. where there is a combination of cocurrent and countercurrent flow in alternate passes. The following references may be useful in determining values of F for various configurations and conditions. 45. Taborek. McGraw-Hill Book Co.er.2M inclusive give values for F as a function of the heat capacity rate ratio R and the required temperature effectiveness P. “New Ideas on Heat Exchanger Design”. Vol. Such a situation indicates that thermal performance will be extremely sensitive to small changes in operating conditions and that performance prediction may be unreliable.“.F. K. respectively.2H are stream symmetric. 30. 1977 (2) A. Gulley. Vol. “Factors Correct Air-Cooler and S&T Exchanger LMTD”. The Oil & Gas Journal. 1972 (2) Three tube passes per shell pass (3) Unequal size tube passes (4) Weighted MTD F. 33. CEP Symposium No. Rohsenow and J. “Handbook of Heat (1) General Transfer”. t and T must be taken as the tube side and the shell side fluid temperatures.3 TEMPERATURE EFFECTIVENESS The temperature effectiveness of a heat exchanger is customarily defined as the ratio of the temperature change of the tube side stream to the difference between the two fluid inlet temperatures. the mean temperature difference is less than the logarithmic mean calculated for countercurrent flow and greater than that based on cocurrent flow. Vol. L. W. 1976 For cases where the above conditions do not apply.“. Pass configurations for Figures T-3. Chem. thus: Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 127 .21 through T-3. These charts are based on the assumption that the conditions listed in Paragraph T-3.. respectively. December. The correct mean temperature difference may be evaluated as the product of the logarithmic mean for countercurrent flow and an LMTD correction factor. M.1 are applicable. Gardner and J. regardless of passage through the tube side or shell side. 92. P. Hartnett. N. “Hydrocarbon Proc. Buthod. Tabbrek. The following references may be used for further information on this subject: (l)~o. therefore.. “Mean Temperature Difference -A Reappraisal”. t and T may be taken as the cold and hot fluid temperatures. p. Vol.2A to T3. Caglayan and P. Engr. “lnd.377 (1936) K. Engr. Hydrocarbon Processing. Fischer. F. This condition may result in significant degradation of the effective mean temperature difference.THERMAL RELATIONS SECTION 7 Constant overall heat transfer coefficient Complete mixino wlthin any shell cross pass or tube sass The number of cross baffles is large ’ Constant flow rate and specific heat Enthalpy is a linear function of temperature Equal surface in each shell pass or tube pass Negligible heat loss to surroundings or internally between passes The followina references contain relevant information on the above items: (1) K. Figures T-3. 116 (1966) T-3. 1215 (1941) D. a stepwise calculation of temperature difference and heat transfer surface may be necessary. (2) J.2M. A. September 6. Palen and J. 1969 T-3.“. AlChE Journal. Chem. 65. Caution should be observed when applying F factors from these charts which lie on the steeply sloped portions of the curves. “lnd. Reference Confiauration W. “Solution of Shellside Flow Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer by Stream Analysis”.

SECTION 7

THERMAL RELATIONS

p_

(fZ-tl) CT,-I,)

where Pis the effectiveness. Figures T-3.3A, T-3.3B, and T-3.3C show the temperature effectiveness of counterflow, single-pass shell and two-pass tube, and two-pass shell and four-pass tube exchangers respectively, in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient, surface, fluid flow rates, and specific heats. In all cases, the lower case symbols (t I , t 2, w and c) refer to the tube side fluid, and upper case (7, , T z. W and C )to the shell side fluid. (This distinction is not necessary in the case of counterflow exchangers, but confusion will be avoided if it is observed.) These charts are based on the same conditions listed in Paragraph T-3.1. T-4 MEAN METALTEMPERATURES OF SHELL AND TUBES T-4.1 SCOPE This paragraph outlines the basic method for determination of mean shell and tube metal temperatures. These temperatures have a pronounced influence in the design of fixed tubesheet exchangers. Knowledge of mean metal temperatures is necessary for determining tubesheet thickness, shell and tube axial stress levels, and flexible shell element requirements. This paragraph provides the basis for determining the differential thermal expansion term, D L, required for the calculation of equivalent differential expansion pressure, P.(see Paragraph RCB-7.161). T-4.2 DEFINITIONS T-4.21 MEAN METAL TEMPERATURE The mean metal temperature of either the shell or tubes is the temperature taken at the metal thickness midpoint averaged with respect to the exchanger tube length. For the case of integrally finned tubes, the temperature at the prime tube metal thickness midpoint applies. The fin metal temperature should not be weighted with the prime tube metal temperature T-4.22 FLUID AVERAGE TEMPERATURE The shell or tube fluid average temperature is the bulk shell or tube fluid temperature averaged with respect to the exchanger tube length. T-4.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEAN METAL TEMPERATURES AND FLUID AVERAGE TEMPERATURES T-4.31 SHELL MEAN METAL TEMPERATURE The shell mean metal temperature, generally assumed to be equal to the shell fluid average temperature, is given by: T,=Y where TM = Shell mean metal temperature, O F 5 = Shell fluid average temperature, ’ F This assumption is valid for cases without abnormal rates of heat transfer between the shell and its surroundings. If significant heat transfer to or from the shell could occur, determination of the effect on the shell metal temperature should be made. In general, most high or low temperature externally insulated exchangers and moderate temperature non-insulated exchangers meet the above assumption.

128

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SECTION 7

T-4.32 TUBE MEAN METAL TEMPERATURE The tube mean metal temperature is dependent not only on the tube fluid average temperature, but also the shell fluid average temperature, the shell and tube heat transfer coefficients, shell and tube fouling resistances, and tube metal resistance to heat transfer, according to the following relationship:

where I M = Tube mean metal temperature, Q F i = Tube side fluid average temperature, O F (see Paragraph T-4.4) All other terms are as defined by Paragraphs T-l .3 and T-4.31. T-4.33 TUBESHEET MEAN METAL TEMPERATURE Untubed portion of tubesheet 7 T.9 = Tr+Ts 2

Tubed portion of tubesheet:

where: T 1 = Tubeside fluid temperature, O F T, = Shellside fluid temperature, ’ F h r = Tubeside heat transfer coefficient, BTU/Hr-ft* - o F h, = Shellside heat transfer coefficient, BTU/Hr-ft* -’ F

K= where k = tubesheet metal thermal conductivity, BTU/Hr-ft a F
L = tubesheet thickness, inches

F=

1 cosh(K)+ysinh(K)

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129

SECTION 7

THERMAL RELATIONS

for triangular pftch

A=ndL/Z a=0.433PZ-ndZ/8

for square pitch

A=ndl. d=P'-ndZ/4
where

d = tube ID, inches
P

-.

= tube pitch, inches
r-z

T-4.4 ESTfMATlON OF SHELL AND TUBE FLUID AVERAGE TEMPERATURES The methods presented in this paragraph are based on equipment operating under steady-state conditions. T-4.41 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Fluid average temperatures in shell and tube heat exchangers are affected by the following: (1) Shell and tube fluid terminal temperatures (2) Shell and tube fluid temperature profiles with respect to enthalpy (the following methods assume linear profiles) (3) Variable heat transfer rates with respect to exchanger length (the following methods assume a constant heat transfer rate through the length of the unit) (4) He-le~sexchanger geometry, specifically pass configuration, of the shell as well as the T-4.42 ISOTHERMAL SHELL FLUID/ISOTHERMAL TUBE FLUID, ALL PASS ARRANGEMENTS

T=T,=T, i=t,=t,
where T I = Shell side fluid inlet temperature, O F T z = Shell side fluid outlet temperature, O F f , =Tube side fluid inlet temperature, ’ F t 2 =Tube side fluid outlet temperature, o F T-4.43 ISOTHERMAL SHELL FLUID/LINEAR NONISOTHERMAL TUBE FLUID, ALL PASS ARRANGEMENTS T=T,=Ts

~=TILMTD
,-

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Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

THERMAL RELATIONS

SECTION 7

T-4.44 LINEAR NONISOTHERMAL SHELL FLUID/ISOTHERMAL TUBE FLUID, ALL PASS ARRANGEMENTS i=t, =t, ?=itLhi’TD T-4.45 LINEAR NONISOTHERMAL SHELL AND TUBE FLUIDS, TYPE “E” SHELL The average shell fluid temperature may be determined from the following equation:

The value of ndepends on tube pass geometry and flow direction as given below: Single pass tubes - cocurrent flow 1t2-t1 I[Td+,] a=-LM7D,, Single pass tubes - countercurrent flow

For cases where 0.99 < CT,-7.2) < 1.01 useT=C.S(T,+T,) (rz-r,) Even number of tube passes

where L M T D , , = Cocurrent flow L M TD LMTD,,, = Uncorrected countercurrent flow L M 7 D t , , t2, T , , 7,. are defined in Paragraph T-4.42 The average tube fluid temperature may then be determined from the following equation: i=TiLMTD(F’) where F = L M T D Correction Factor T-4.46 OTHER CASES For cases involving nonlinear temperature-enthalpy profiles and/or pass geometries other than those given above, other methods must be used to establish mean metal temperatures. However, with the assumption of constant overall heat transfer rate, the following relatronshtp always applies: T-i= *LMTD(F‘) If one fluid average temperature can be established accurately, knowing the effective mean temperature difference allows the other to be determined.

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131

SECTION 7

THERMAL RELATIONS

T-4.5 SELECTION OF THE DESIGN CASE All foreseeable modes of operation should be considered when specifying the metal temperatures to be used for calculation of the equivalent differential expansion pressure. Consideration should be given to the following: (1) Normal operation, as specified by purchaser, under fouled conditions at the design flow rates and terminal temperatures (2) Operation at less than the design fouling allowance (under such conditions, the purchaser should supply details in regard to anticipated operating parameters) Other operating conditions to which the equipment may be subjected, as specified by the purchaser, may include, but are not necessarily limited to: (1) Alternate flow rates and/or terminal temperatures as may be the case during start-up, shutdown, variable plant loads., etc. (2) Flow of a process fluid or clean fluid through one side, but not the other The largest positive and negative values of equivalent differential expansion pressure generally correspond with the cases under which the largest positive and negative differential thermal growths occur: an exception being if varying values of material modulii of elasticity alter the comparison. The differential thermal growth between the shell and tubes is determined as follows: aL=L,(a,[T,-70]-cx,[t.-70]) where n L = Differential thermal growth between the shell and tubes, inches L, =Tube length, face-to-face of tubesheets, inches a, =Coefficient of thermal expansion of the shell, inches/inch/ o F (see Table D-l 1) CL r = Coefficient of thermal expansion of the tubes, inches/inch/ D F (see Table D-i 1) T-4.6 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS T-4.61 SERIES ARRANGEMENTS Individual exchangers in series arrangements are generally subjected to different temperature conditions. Each individual exchanger should be evaluated separately. Alternately, all could be designed for the most severe conditions in the series. T-4.62 OTHER MODES OF OPERATION If fiied tubesheet heat exchangers are to be operated under conditions differing from those for which the initial design was checked, it is the purchaser’s responsibility to determine that such operation will not lead to a condition of overstress. This requires a full re-evaluation of required tubesheet thickness, shell and tube longitudinal stresses, tube-to-tubesheet joint loads, and flexible shell elements based on the new operating conditions.

132

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

THERMAL RELATIONS

SECTION 7

FIGURE T-3.1

CHART FOR SOLVING LMTD FORMULA
LM-,-,, =

W-TD - LTD)

where GTTD = Greater Terminal Temperature Difference. LlTD = Lesser Terminal Temperature Difference.

Greater Terminal Temperature Difference

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

133

/I SECTION 7 THERMAL RELATIONS FIGURE T-32% -! 134 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

SECTION 7 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

I SECTiON 7 THERMAL RELATIONS FIGURE T-3.2C 136 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

i

0.6

P = TEMPERATURE EFFICIENCY

LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR 8 OR MULTIPLE OF 8 TUBE PASSES 4 SHELL PASSES

SECTION 7

THERMAL RELATIONS
FIGURE T-3.2E

138

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

P

s TEMPERATURE EFFICIENCY

LMTO CORRECTION FACTOR t, 6 SHELL PASSES 12 OR MORE EVEN NUMBER OF TUBE PASSES p.+Z$ I- I ~Jzz8 trt1

SECTION 7

THERMAL RELATIONS

FIGURE T-3.2G

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

THERMAL RELATIONS

SECTION 7

FIGURE T-3.2H

0

0

0

0

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

141

SECTION 7

THERMAL RELATIONS
FIGURE T-3.21

0

.

d

d

d

d

142

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

2J T d MOlWj NOIL33MM03 OlRl :j Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 143 .THERMAL RELATIONS SECTION 7 FIGURE T-3.

2K hlo13wj NOILXlUMO3 am = 3 144 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .1 SECTION 7 THERMAL RELATIONS FIGURE T-3.

SECTION 7 . cl Standards Of The Tubul: Exchanger Manufa&rers Association 145 .

c 146 d Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 0 d d d .2M 2 - -It.SECTION 7 THERMAL RELATIONS FIGURE T-3.-Il-r 8 .

f.8 1 2 3 4 II II I II 5 6 8 10 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .r-3.2 I 0..6 I 0.WC/WC See Par.4 I /IllI I 0. __.3 0.THERMAL RELATIONS SECTION 7 FIGURE T-3.__ COUNTL. u ._ FYCMANGERS P. 0. R .-t.3 --. T.3A “-7RATUAE EFFICIENCY IEMI-k :w4 nw ___.-t.1 0.Overall heat transfer coefficienf A = Total Surface w = Flow rate of tube fluid w = Flow rate of shell fluid c .Specific heat of tube fluid = Smcific heat of shell fluid I .

3B TEMPERATURE EFFICIENCY 1 SHELL PASS EVEN NUMBER OF TUBE PASSES P= f.6 0.1 0 0. ~ T.4 0.SECTION 7 THERMAL RELATIONS FIGURE T-3.3 0.7 0.wcrwc u .2A R .Specific heat of tube fluid C _ Specific heat of shell fluid 0. -f.3 0.6 0.4 0. T-3.2 0.Overall heat transfer coefficient A .Total surface u = Flow rate of tube fluid c .-t.1 0.8 1 un/wc 2 3 4 5 6 8 ICI 148 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . T-3.3 & Fig.5 FI 0. See Par.2 0.

ROW rate of shell fluid e .._ 2 SHELL P A S S E S 4 OR MULTIPLE OF 4 TUBE PASSES P.3 & Fia.flow rate of tube fluid IJ .C.28 “ “ [ n .T . T._ TEMPERATURE E!=F.Specific heat of tube fluid 0. __ T.7 I I I I 0.Overall heat transfer coefficient A = Total Surfam w .f*-i.4 I- Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 149 . R-WC/WC see Par T-3.III I I I/ .l .EMC” .3C . -f.THERMAL RELATIONS SECTION 7 FIGURE T-3.-3.

P-2. Figures P-l .3 PURE HYDROCARBON GASES The low pressure specific heats of a number of pure hydrocarbons are shown as functions of temperature in Figures P-2. P-2 SPECIFIC HEAT P-2.1. T / 7 C. The specific heat versus temperature lines shown apply to virgin mid-continent stock and must be corrected for other stocks. P-2.3C and P-2. Figure P-2. Table P-l. P-l . P-2.36 and P-2. or vapor from the as ideal state.4 MISCELLANEOUS LIQUIDS AND GASES The specific heats of miscellaneous Ii uids and gases at various temperatures may be read from the alignment charts. and Tin degrees Rankine.3B.3A. P-2. The dotted curves represent constant values of the pseudo-reduced volume u r ’ = u/( RT.2. 2 1. where P is the absolute pressure. and saturated light h P-l. the numerical value of R is 10. f’ 1 P 0 and reduced temperature.3 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS FOR GASES AND VAPORS The P .! SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (Note: This section is not metric&d) P-l FLUID DENSITY p-1.48.2 DENSITY OF ORGANIC LIQUIDS The general density nomograph Fig. R is a constant which may be found by dividing the universal gas constant R by the molecular weight of the gas. The reference point for a substance may be determined if the density is known for two different temperatures. If Pis expressed in pounds per square inch. zlin cubic feet per pound.) where the subscript crefers to the critical value.2 PETROLEUM VAPORS The specific heats of petroleum vapors of various characterization factors are shown as functions of temperature in Figure P-2.u . P-l .3C are generalized plots of compress. P-2.5 GASES AND VAPORS AT ELEVATED PRESSURES Specific heat data in Figures P-2. P-2.T relationships for gases and vapors may conveniently be expressed by the equation Pv = ZRT. see Paragraph P-6. The intersection point of the two straight lines joining the corresponding values of the known temperatures and densities is the desired reference point of the substance.4B apply only at pressures low enough so that the specffic heats are not significantly affedad by pressure changes. the specific heats may be substantially higher than the low pressure values. Figures P2. At higher pr.-. P-l.3A. Tis the absolute temperature.5 IS a gr+%alized chart which may be used to calculate the approximate correcdon to the low pressure speclflc heat #Y. An inset curve of this correction factor versus characterization factor is provided. These may be used to calculate pressure (or temperature) when the temperature (or pressure) and specific volume are known. and 2 is the compressibility factor.essures. lltiy factor as a function of reduced pressure.2.4A and 8-2.1 LIQUID PETROLEUM FRACTIONS The specific heats of Ii uid petroleum fractions of various API gravities are shown as functions of temperature in Figure 9. ziis the specffic volume.c--- 150 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . For critical properly data.2 permits the approximation of the density of organic liquids at temperatures between -150” F and +5OO” F. 2 has the value of unity for an ideal gas under all conditions and. P-2. is a measure of the extent of the deviation of a real ?&./P. therefore.73.1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIED P FRACTIONS Figure P-l .2 lists the coordinates on the center grid for locating the reference points for 65 compounds.3C. . . P-l .3A. if densities at two temperatures are known.

1 gives factors for converting Viscosity values to various systems of units.forT.3B give tabulated values of thermal conductivity for a number of liquids and gases at atmospheric pressure. _ The latent heats of vaporization of various liquids may be estimated by the use of Figure P-3. provided vrscosities at two temperatures are known. ‘. 11.5.46.Cpf is plotted against reduced pressure. They are. is less than 0.3 for heat capacity ratios for various gases.5 are shown plotted against temperatures in Figures Pd. 3. .95. the following empirical equations are accurate enough for most practical purposes.=5.AC. T. AC. P-5. with reduced temperature. ForT. These charts are so constructed that for any given petroleum oil the viscosity-temperature points lie on a straight line. See Table P-3.2.4B. . Figure P-5.8 and 12. IT.2A. as a parameter.4 MISCELLANEOUS LIQUIDS AND GASES The viscosities of certain liquids are shown as functions of temperature in Figure P-5.2 HYDROCARBON UQUIDS The thermal conductivities of liquid normal paraffinic hydrocarbons are shown in Figure P-4. P-5.1 and P-6.2.3 MISCELLANEOUS LIQUIDS AND GASES Tables P-4. P-3 HEAT CONTENT Heat content of petroleum fractions. The recommended range of use is indicated for the compounds listed.0.1.2.< 1. see Paragraph P-6. P-5 vlsc0sll-Y P-5. This chart is intended for use above 500 psia and when 71 T.8.2 PETROLEUM OILS The viscosities of petroleum oils having Watson and Nelson (UOP) characterization factors of 10. provides a means of converting viscosity from Saybolt: Redwood or Engler time to kinematic viscosity in centistokes. Streams of similar API gravity may have widely different viscosltles. therefore.1.1 VISCOSITY CONVERSION A viscosity conversion plot. The absolute viscosity in centiporses may be determined by multiplying the kinematic viscosity in centistokes by the specific gravity.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 for any gas at high pressure. = C. P-4.4 GASES AND LIQUIDS AT ELEVATED PRESSURES Thermal conductivity for gases at elevated pressure can be corrected by the use of Figure P-4. are shown as functions of temperature and API gravity for various UOP K values in Figure P-3.1 CONVERSION OF UNITS Table P-4. values of viscosity shown here should be considered as typical only.4& The viscosities of certain gases and vapors at one atmosphere pressure are given by Figure P-5. The isothermal change in molal specific heat. P-4.4A.03Pr/T.2B. Table P-5. P. P-5. Outsrde the range of the chart.3A and P-5. P-5. P-4 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY P-4. For critical property data.2and AC p < 2.<2. P-5.2C and P-5.> 1.2D. a convenient means for determining the viscosity of a petroleum oil at any temperature. Thermal conductivity for liquids at elevated pressure can be corrected by the use of Figure P-4.3 LIQUID PETROLEUM FRACTIONS Figures P-5. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 151 . therefore.1 gives factors for converting thermal conductivity values from one set of units to another. . 11. including the effect of pressure. P-4.3A and P-4.3B give viscosity data for a number of typical petroleum fractions plotted as straight lines on ASTM viscosity charts. AC p = 9 P.2andAC.

.. and critical pressures for a variety of pure compounds.2+. .5 EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON GAS VISCOSITY Figure P-5.(M..1 SPECIFIC HEAT c...5.. etc....)1'2+Y2(iC12)I'Z+. for component “N “: 152 Stanciards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .. and rl.. P-6.. and P-5.. etc.)"3+Y2(M2)"3+. see Paragraph P-6.. critical temperatures. . .= Viscosity XN= where. P-2..1 PURE SUBSTANCES Table P-8.5 may be used to estimate the properties of gas mixtures as well as pure substances if pseudo-critical properties are used in place of the critical values... wrth reduced temperature.. . . P-7.Y. the following formulas may be used: P-7.~(.and up are respectively the viscosrhes at atmospheric pressure and at pressure P.+YnP~n .c...1 gives values of the molecular weights... . IS plotted against reduced pressure.Y .T<g+.. I’..nix = CL. The pseudo-critical temperature and pressure are defined as follows: T p..5 is a generalized chart which may be used to estimate the viscosities of gases and vapors at elevated pressure if the critical temperature and pressure and the viscosity at low pressure are known.(MI)"'+C~~Y*(M~)"~+.. .+YN(MN)I'2 Weight Fraction YN= Mole Fraction M.. For the calculation of compressibility factor. uLp/ pLorm. it is recommended that the critical pressures and temperatures of hydrogen. Y 2.+YN(n/lN)"J cl.(M.. are the mole fractions of the individual components and Tr..T." P .2 GAS AND VAPOR MIXTURES Figures P-l .her.+x.. .+C~~Y~(MN)"' YI(1VI.. .+Y2P.. .. CL .)"3+K*Y2(M2)"3+. <2% etc. T rZ . where. 7.+ .. . as a parameter.=Y...3.. and neon be increased by 118 psi and 14.= Molecular Weight C&d= Specific Heat KM= Thermal Conductivity Ir.c.=Y. .+Y. +x.._ SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS P-S..+Y"T..c.. are therr cnhcal temperatures and pressures.P.. The vrscostty raho..4” R respectively...Y..=x. P-7 PROPERTIES OF GAS AND VAPOR MIXTURES To estimate properties of a gas or vapor mixture for which the individual component fractions and properties are known.+KNYN(MN)"3 Y.2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY K mix = K. P-6 CRITICAL PROPERTIES P-6. helium..... For critical property data.

(6) Gallant. W. The M. “Properties of Gases and Liquids”. Houston. 1966. 2nd Ed. (2) Comings. K. C. New York. John Wiley & Sons. McGraw-Hill Book Company. R. Massachusetts. New York. New York. Inc.. 1966. Chemical Engineering”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “Chemical Process Principles”. “Physical Properties. K.. Gulf Publishing Co. McGraw-Hill Book Company.... “Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons”. R. Texas. 0. 1968.T.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 P-8 SELECTED REFERENCES (1) Reid.. 2nd Ed... 1965. (4) Tsederberg. (3) Hougen. “High Pressure Technology”. inc. New York. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 153 . and Sherwood.. W. N. 1 & 2. V.I. Inc. A. M. Part 1. Press. Inc. Watson. E... A. “Thermal Conductivities of Gases and Liquids”. L. Ragatz. R. McGraw-Hilt Book Company. T.. (5)tY’aT~ C.. Cambridge. Vol... 1956.

SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF FLUIDS FIGURE P-l.1 154 Standards ~Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

2 GENERAL DENSITY NOMOGAAPH X AND V VALUES’ FOR DENSITY NOMOGRAPH Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-l.

3A I- d 9 0 a L 3 g’ - %= Z %OKW Allll8lSS3MdYY03 156 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Aseociation .SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-1.

3B Z ‘MO13W Alill’diSS3MdP.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-1.03 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 157 .

SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-1.X 1M x-2 ‘t1013w Allllelss3wwo3 158 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 159 .1 0 .w 2c.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-2.l 300 ml NH) 6W m 800 PW IOGJ 1100 1100 TEMPERATURE 1 DEGREES F.

160 Standarcls Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . ” “~a”Ll I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I f! !_V! ! !/! I -.SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-2.2 I?$ A 13 SPECIFIC HEATS OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS :-.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-2.3A Si tandards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 161 .

38 162 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .SECTIoN 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-2.

- PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-2.4A S P E C I F I C HEATS OF LlQUltjS DEG F 400 ! 300 200 164 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

C 4.000 I.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-2.0 a9 as a7 0.200 1. 005 a06 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 165 .07 .600 -* zpoo 32 0 0 340 1.6 33 ‘.0 C= Specifc heot=Etu/(Lb)(DeqF)=Pcu/(Lb)(DeqC) Deg F o- 200 400 7 600 800 1.46 SPECIFIC HEATS-GASES 1 ATM.09 008 0.400 1 1.1 0.600 y 1.5 ‘0” 0.

SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-2. ( . ! . / III I illIll II/II Standards Of.The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . . .5 .

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-3.1 HEAT CONTENT OF PRROLEUM FRACTIONS INCLUDING THE EFFRCT OF PRESSURE Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 167 .

-t = 707. t.2 LATENT HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF VARIOUS LIQUIDS Example:-For water at 212’F.212 = 495 and the latent’heat per lb is 970 Stu (Latent heat accurate within + 10 per cent) 168 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-3.

410 1.3 HEAT CAPACITY RATIOS (C “1 C v) Acetylene Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Carbon Dioxide Chlorine Dichlorodifiouromethane Ethane Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Ether Ethylene Helium Hexane (n-) Hydrogen Methane Methyl Alcohol Nitrogen Oxygen Pentane (n-) Sulfur Dioxide (All values at 66 0 F and one 1.31 1.26 1.10 (200°F) 1.08 (95 o F) 1.29 atmosphere unless otherwise noted) TABLE P-4.255 1.404 1.403 1.688 1.08(176°F) 1.13 (2OOOF) 1.310 1.22 1.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 TABLE P-3.355 1.1 THERMAL CONDUCTWY .203 (171 “F) 1.086 (189 ’ F) 1.660 (-292 O F) l.139 (7+F) 1.401 1.CONVERSfON FACTORS Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 189 .304 1.

12 .SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-4.2 .I1 170 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

..066 . tt.l Liquid T.077 .074 ...066 He&l A l c o h o l .069 ..106 .. 68 212 68 300 68 320 32 390 32 320 -40 50 160 300 300 -112 88 -112 212 32 390 -100 212 32 390 40 100 250 -80 50 140 32 230 --4o 300 32 390 212 ..056 .045 (Ortho) (Meta) Ethyl Acetate ......076 . ~....071 .069 .054 ..065 .l(sq.. ..3A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUIDS k 7 B..078 11 . A c r y l i c A c i d Ally1 A l c o h o l Amy1 A l c o h o l Aniline Benzene Bromobenzene ~. Cyclohexane .......t...~..I32 .... k .....133 .. “F...087 ..088 .050 . ~.063 ..065 ..095 ..077 ..076 .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-4..072 .395 .050 . (NI .. 0 8 4 Propy.~ .069 ..065 343 ..089 ../(hr.069 Heptone .. Ethyl A l c o h o l Ethyl Benzene ~. 0 9 2 Hexyi A l c o h o l .I85 ./fl..074 .046 ...~. 170 -220 32 32 100 320 68 .363 383 ....~....116 .50 -40 300 -40 140 300 32 390 -40 86 300 32 230 32 100 200 300 420 620 32 176 390 32 176 390 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 171 .085 Methylethyl-Ketone (MEK) ..077 .058 ...080 Xylem 080 .. ~.047 ...~.075 .068 ..072 . ~.072 .376 ..065 .057 ~.. .085 (Methenol) C a r b o n C a r Disulfide b o n Tetrachloride _. .096 .063 I! .048 .~..~.046 . “F k tI Liquid r. -ii0 0 68 68 390 50 300 50 300 68 280 68 250 0 250 -22 300 50 300 50 300 68 176 390 50 2..044 Acetylene .~..137 ..062 .~l”f.161 .068 .075 . .048 .089 M e t h y l A l c o h o l .... . Butyl A l c o h o l (N) .u. ~.072 ....093 . .050 ..080 .110 .181 .076 Glycerine .I/ Toluene .060 V i W n a y l t Acetote e r Dichlorodifluoramethcme ~.081 .~.084 ..~~....~. ..275 .071 Alcohol USO) Chlarobenzene Chloroform Cumene ..092 .~~.067 ...132 ....

0051 .0047 .0068 .0040 .0115 .0109 .0135 . zero pressure * Value at .0255 .0059 .1240 .0095 .1705 I .0148 .0220 .0157 .0052 .0091 .0176 .0200 .0124 .0175 .0089 .0052 .0097’ .0988 .0138 .3 a* 68” F.0095 .0043 .0078 .148 .0056 .0145 .0184 .0177 .0064’ .OlSl .0134 .SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-4.012s .0172 .0293 .0094 .0131 .0279 392 .0091 .0038 .0188 fq .0197 .0224 .0094 .0126 .58’ F.0091 .0338 .0038 .0123 .0150 .0063 212 “0099 .0127 .0069 .0128 .0063 .0140 .0081 ~~.0058 .0181 .0652 .0047 .oow .ene Butane (n-1 Buiane W-1 Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon feirachloride Chlorine Chloroform Cyclohexane Dichlorodifluoromefhon e Ethane Ethyl acefafe Efhyl alcohol Efhyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethylene Helium Heptane (n-1 Hexane (n-1 Hexene Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide Mercury Methane Methyl acefate Methyl alcohol Methyl chloride Methylene chloride Nf?OlI Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide oxygen Pentane (l-l-) Pentane (iso-) PrODane Sulfur dioxide Water vapor.0080 . .0055 .0192 .0103 .0088 JO42 .0161 .1484 .0040 -328 T- TEMPER) 9T URE “F.0075 -t.0109 .0103 .0166 .0037 .0176 .0280 .0612 -L I .0358 .0091 172 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .0040 .3B THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF GASES [k = BTU/(hrXsq ft)(deg.0230 1 . + “al”.0096 .0139 .0112 . . F per ft)] AND VAPORS TSubsiance Acetone Zefylene Ammonia Argon BeXL.

4A m N .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECiiON 8 FIGURE P-4.-I N Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

-.-.-> . * .7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 174 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .C? --i -.-\ b=k..SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-4. . (2) . . kr h h h . .4B . Where.-.? .-.

1 VISCOSITY CONVERSION FACTORS CsntipDiSeS PI >o..42 242 3600 116000 . REDWOOD No..2 1 .0000421 14. .00209 .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 TABLE P-5.000276 .0000209 .set ib.res =cm-set lb il.88 479 .88 ..oi JO0672 .hr 1 100 1486 47900 .00413 . & P.Q311 2. ENGLER TIME Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 175 .0672 1 32.0102 .00000664 i VISCOSITY CONVERS’lON PLOT ENGLER DEGREES TIME IN SECONDS-SAYBOLT IUNIVERSAL d FUROL).000102 .rec -F lb .413 1 .I517 4.

SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-5.2A FIGURE P-5.28 176 6fandards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

CrIIIzITtON WXO”. wien 6 Murphy.P.2D VISCOSITY -TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP FOR PETROLEUM OILS CH*m.6054 (L936.2C FIGURE P-5.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-5.I. Ref: wotson. Standaids Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Indurtrial 6 Enpineelinq ChemiPfry 28.5 LlNrl or CONIIANI DIGllfW /L. I = 11.

.

3B Standards df The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS SECTION 8 FIGURE P-5.

Centicmiser VitCoStfy 10 50 40 0 -I 30 20 -I0 -20 -30 1 IO O -10 -20 .

00 IO00 a009 Q008 a007 Y) > -I 0. 700 .500 1400 BOO 1500 900 1600 1700 4 0 0 ~~ le.006 - 6005 $ .Viscosity Centipcixs 0.1 0.06 0 0 100 0.04 100 200 300 400 a03 100 300 : 300 600 700 800 500 500 9 0 0 1000 1100 1200.09 -MO 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.

1 0. Parent.SECTION 8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS FIGURE P-5. I.5 0.5 1 0.3 0. =g ~e~rin.1 -T- CRITDCAL PROPERTY DATb L z&zjQy- 1 c 182 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . TABLE P-5. No.5 HIGH PRESSURE GAS VISCOSITY 10 8 6 1.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 REDUCED PRESSURE .4 0. D. 16. and R. N. 1955. Peck. J.P.ed by permission from Chemical Engineerinq Progress Sympotium Series. E.2 0. St. Cam.

......... 188 Metric Bolting Data ................................ 232 Internal Working Pressures of Tubes At Various Values of Allowable Stress ................................................................. 240 Thermal Conductivity of Metals (Metric) ......................................................................................................... .............................Recommended Minimum .............................. ...................................................................... 230 Characteristics of Tubing (Metric) ............... ...... 238 TITLE Mean Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (Metric) ..................... ..................................GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 CONTENTS PAGE Dimensions of Welded and Seamless Pipe................ Fittings and Flanges....................................................... ....... 241 Weights of Circular Rings and Discs............................................. 249-250 Conversion Tables for Wire and Sheet Metal Gages............................................... 251 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 183 .......................................... Dimensions of Welded Fittings..... 242-247 Chord Lengths and Areas of Circular Segments...... 189 Pressure -Temperature Ratings for Valves................ Modulus of Elasticity...... ~........... 237 Mean Coefficients of Thermal Expansion ....................................................... ............................................. 231 Hardness Conversion Table........................................... 248 Conversion Factors ... 1 go-229 Characteristics of Tubing ..................... 239 Thermal Conductivity of Metals.................................................................................................................................................. . .............................................. 185 Dimensions of ASME Standard Flanges................................................. ...................................................... ............................................................Recommended Minimum................................ 184 ...................... I........................... .......... 233-235 236 Modulus of Elasticity (Metric). 186-187 Bolting Data .................................

SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION DIMENSIONS OF WELDED AND SEAMLESS PIPE 184 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

2 ‘2 i< ‘? -L :. .* SECTION 9 DIMENSIONS OF WELDING FITTINGS r-.6 0.’ : i I t 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% : : Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 185 .L 2 2 .GENERAL INFORMATION TAB.

2 4% 4. FLANGES -r 4.SECTION’9 GENERAL INFORMATION DIMENSIONS OF ASME STANDARD FLANGES (All Dimensions in Inches) THREllOFD FLANGE 0 LB.X 8.2 4 % i 4. FLANGES 300 LB.F ::$ 4.X 8% L 400 LB. FLA.N( T UT Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . FIANGES A 600 LB.

vided by ihis table.ES (1) Bore to match schedule of attached pipe. Does not include raised face ‘in 400. 1500 and 2500 pound standard. FLA . Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . 900. FLANGES 1500 LB. 600.GENERAL INFC?RMATION SECTION 9 DIMENSIONS OF ASME STANDARD FLANGES 900 LB. (2) Includes l/16” raised face in 150 pound and 300 pound standard. (3) Inside pipe diameters are also pro.

22 Threads C/re National Coarse Se%8 beiow I inch orid eight-pitch fhwa.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-5 BOLTING DATA .3 series 1 inch and above Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .RECOMMENDED MINIMUM (All Dimensions in inches Unless Noted) Nut dimensioris are based on American National Standard 818.

RECOMMENDED MINIMUM (All Dimensions in Millimeters Unless Noted) SECTION 9 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 189 .GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-5M METRIC BOLTING DATA .

SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION D-6 TABLES FOR PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR VALVES.5(1996).4 of ASME B16. AND FLANGES INTRODUCTORY m .600. NY 10017. Products used within the jurisdiction of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the ASME Standard for pressure piping are subject to the maximum temperature and stress limitations upon the material and piping stated therein. The use of these ratings require gaskets conforming to the requirements of Paragraph 5. 1. The ratings for low temperature service of the cast and forged materials listed in ASTM A352 and A350 shall be taken the same as the -20 o F to 100 o F ratings for carbon steel on pages 194 to 229 inclusive. 300. All ratings are the maximum allowable nonshock pressures (psig) at the tabulated temperature degrees F) and may be interpolated between the temperatures shown. The user is responsible for selecting gaskets of dimensions and materials to withstand the required bolt loading without injurious crushing. 400. Therefore. 47th Street. Some of the materials listed in the rating tables undergo a decrease in impact resistance at temperatures lower than -20 ’ F to such an extent as to be unable to safely resist shock loadings. given for the materials covered on pages 194 to 229 inclusive.250O) are those at the head of the tables and shown rn bold face type in the body of the tables.. Temperatures (degrees F) shown in the tables. 1500. 900. sudden changes of stress or high stress concentrations. products that are to operate at temperatures below -20 o F shall conform to the rules of the applicable Codes under which they are to be used. Valves conforming to the requirements of this ASME Standard must. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . used in determining these rating tables. 2. United Engineering Center. The pressure-temperature ratings in the tables apply to all products covered by this ASME Standard. 3. shall also apply at lower temperatures.. All rights resewed. were temperatures on the inside of the pressure retaining structure. merit these ratings. and suitable for the service conditions in all other respects.5-(1996 and 1998 3reprnted with the permission of The American ) Society of Mechanical Engineers. in other respects. 345 E. FITIINGS. New York.. Reference: American Socieby’of Mechanical En ineers Standard Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (ASME Standard 816. The ratings at -20 o F to 100 OF. iJhe pnmary service pressure ratings (150..

F316L A 182 Gr. WCB A 515 Or.. Gr.5. 1 PrOSSUreTemperature Rating Table 2-1. LCl 2-1. CF3M A 351 Gr. LF2 A 350 Gr.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE IA Material Group 1.15 2. C5 A 217 Gr. Fl A 217 Gr. F2 A 217 Gr. 321H 2. C 1. WCS A 515 Gr. F22 Cl. F. 91 Cl. 65 65 A D A 216 Gr. 316H A 240 Gr. LF. LCC castings A 216 Or. 316L A 240 Or. F5a A 182 Gr.4 Reprinted from ASME 816.11CI.3 C-Si C-Mn-Si LIST OF MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS Applicable ASTM Specffics Forgings A 105 A 350 Gr. F12 Cl.1 Nominal Designation C-Si C-Mn-Si C-Mn-Si-V 1.5 1. 321 A 240 Gr. CF3 A 351 Gr.13 A 182 Gr. F91 A 182 Gr. 70 A 637 Cl.10 1. CGBM A 387 Gr. 2 2-1. LC2 A 352 Gr. LCB A 203 Gr. F321H A 240 Gr. 6 A 204 Gr.13 A 217 Gr. F304L A 182 Gr.2 C-Mn-Si C-Mn-Si-V 2’/1Ni 3’%Ni 1. F321 A 182 Gr. Cl.3 A 352 Gr. LF3 2-1. t A 182 Gr. WC1 A 352 Gr. 2 A 217 Gr.1 2-2. 60 A 204 Gr.14 2-1. 1 2-1. E A A A A 515 516 203 203 Gr. All rights reserved Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 191 . Cl2 A 217 Gr. F304 A 182 Gr. C12A A 351 Gr. ~6 A 203 Gr. F304H A 182 Gr. 2 A 350 Gr.7 A 182 Gr. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. LC3 A 362 Gr.14 1.4 3’hNi I A 350 Gr. WC5 Z-l.3 A 182 Gr. 2 1. WCC A 362 Gr.9 A 182 Gr.2 SCr-1Mc SCr-lMo-V 18Cr-8Ni 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 19Cr-lONi-3Mo 2-1. F5 A 182 Gr. F316H A 217 Gr. 304H A 240 Gr. 1 Cl. 316 A 240 Gr. WC6 A 182 Gr.1 2.2 A 387 Or. CFB A 351 Gr.15 2-2.9 A387Gr. 3 A 182 Gr. A A 204 Gr.2 2. F9 A 182 Gr. WC4 A 217 Gr. 2 A 240 Gr.2 A 350 Gr. 60 A 516 Gr. LF6 Cl. Gr.7 C-‘&MO ‘Kr-%Mo Ni-%Cr-%Mo %Ni-%Cr-1Mo lCr-‘&MO i%Cr-%Mo l’%Cr-%Mo-Si 2%Cr-IMo 5Cr-‘/~Mo 1. CFBM A 351 Gr. Gr. 304 A 240 Gr. F316 A 182 Gr.996 and 1996.10 2-1.1 2%Ni 1. LF6 Cl. 70 A 516 Gr. 317 1. 304L A 240 Gr. 22 Cl.

NO8904 B 62.11 2-3. 3105 A 240 Gr.5 2-3. 8 434 Gr. NlOOOl I3 573 Gr. NO8020 8 162 Gr. NO8320 B 682 Gr. CH8 A 351 Gr. F53 A 35.12 8 620 Gr. 532760 B 463 Gr.5Mo-W-Cb 25Cr-7Ni-3. NO2201 8 127 Gr.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 1A LIST OF MA1 UAL SPECIFICATIONS ICONT’DI able APP! lici - F347H Or. N10278 8 564 Gr. Gr. NO8800 B 335 Gr.7 2-3. NO5455 B 554 Gr. N10665 B 56-f Gr. 8 333 Or. F55 B 482 Gr. F348 A 182 Gr. S31803 A 240 Gr. NO8320 8 581 Gr.5-1596 and 1998. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.8 72Ni-15Cr-8Fe 33Ni-42Fe2. NO8800 8 333 Gr. All rights reserved 192 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .8 B 584 Gr. NO2200 B 180 Gr. F348H 25Cr-12Ni 2-2. NO4405 A 240 Gr. 309s A 240 Gr.1Cr 65Ni-28Mo-2Fe 54Ni-16Mo-15Cr 60Ni-22Cr-SMo-3. NO2200 3. F51 A 182 Gr. Gr. NO6625 B 335 Gr. NO6600 B 584 Gr.6 3. 309H 2-2. 8 424 Gr.5Cr-3Mo-2. NO8985 3. N10003 6 574 Gr. NO6002 B 612 Gr.7 3.8 20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo-N 25Cr-7Ni-OMo-N 24Cr-lONi-4Mo-V 25Cr-SNi-2Mo-3Cu 25Cr-7Ni-3. NO4400 6 168 Gr.6 2-3.10 44Fe-25Ni-21Cr-MO 26Ni-43Fe-22Cr-5Mo 47Ni-22Cr-ZOFe-7Mo 2-3. 310H A 240 Gr. N10276 NO5625 NlOOOl N10003 NO6455 NO8825 B 435 Gr. CEBMN A 38. NO8825 B 572 Gr.7 25Cr-20Ni I 2. CK3MCuN A 351 Or.5 3.3Cu 47Ni-22Cr-9Mo-18Fe 2-3. F310 A 351 Gr.7 A 182 Gr. NO6002 1 25Ni-46Fe-2lCr-5Mo 1 2-3.10 3. CD3MWCuN A 182 Gr. NO2201 B 564 Gr. NO6600 8 409 Gr. B 575 Gr. Gr.5Mo-N-Q-W 2-2.8 A 182 Gr.9 I I 6 162 Gr. 532750 I 2.6 A 351 Gr. NO8020 B 160 Gr. Nl0665 8 575 Gr. CH20 A 240 Gr. CK20 A 240 Gr.9 3. NO8985 Reprinted from ASME 816. 8 443 Gr.5Cb 82Ni-28Mo-5Fe 70Ni-16Mo-7Cr-5Fe GlNi-16Mo-160 42Ni-21. CD4MCu A 351 Gr. NO8700 8 649 Gr. 531254 A 240 Gr.11 3.12 2-3. NO4400 B 164 Gr. F44 A 182 Gr.

5Cu-2. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. lc) Material Groups not listed in Table 1A are intended for use in valves. NO8810 1 B 536 Gr.16 2-3. NO6975 8 625 Gr. Reprinted from ASME 816.13 Nominal Desianstion 49Ni-25Cr-IEFe-6Mo Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Low Cu 47Ni-22Cr-19Fe-6Mo 33Ni-@Fe-21Cr LIST OF MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS (CONT’D) I 1 Pr9SKt”reTemperature Retina Table Z-3.15 2-3. see Notes in Table 2. NO8810 Caninaa Plates B 582 Gr.5Mo 1 B 511 Gr. NO8031 8 582 Gr.17 1 SSNi-19Cr-l%Si 29Ni-20. See ASME 816. NO8330 A 351 Gr.34 may also be used with corresponding 816. (b) Plate materials are listed only for use as blind flanges (see para. NO8330 1 GENERAL NOTES: (a) For temperature limitations. Additional plate materials listed in ASME 816. All rights resewed Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 193 .5Cr-3.1).14 2-3. 1 6 3. NO6975 B 564 Gr.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE IA Meterisl Groun 3. 5.34 Standard Class ratings. Section II materials.14 3. NO6007 B 409 Gr. may also be used. NO8031 B 581 Gr. NO6007 B 564 Gr. CN7M 3. which also meet the requirements of the listed ASTM specifications.15 3 . NOTE: (1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.34.17 2-3.13 Applicable ASTM Specifications’ Forainar 8 581 Gr.5-1996 and 1998.

LF2 (11 I C-Mn-Si-V A 350 Gr. WORKING PRESSURES BY CLASSESL m iig CIOSS Temp.900 1795 3705 3375 3280 3170 2995 730 715 710 670 550 1095 1075 1065 1010 826 535 345 205 105 1540 . 70 11.1 Nominal Dssignation C-Si C-Mn-Si RATINGS FOR GROUP 1.1 THROUGH 3. 1 (31 Forgings A 105 (II A 350 Gr. Permissible. All rights reserved III 400 500 900 1500 990 900 876 845 800 1480 1350 1315 1270 . “F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 -I-- 150 285 260 230 200 170 140 126 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 306 740 675 655 635 600 650 535 535 505 410 270 170 105 50 Reprinted from ASME 816.610 1600 . but not recommended for prolonged use above BOO’F. LF6 Cl. the carbide phase of steel may be converted to graohite. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.200 2220 2025 1970 .510 1235 2735 2685 2665 2520 2060 365 230 140 70 805 515 310 155 1340 860 515 2 6 0 2500 6170 5625 5 4 7 0 5280 4990 4560 4475 4440 4200 3430 2230 1430 860 430 194 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . 1 (41 NOTES: (I) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above BOO’F.5-1996 and 1998. 70 111121 A 537 Cl. (4)(kn to be used over 5OO*F. A 516 Gr.17 MATERIALS TABLE 2-1..SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLES 2 PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR GROUPS 1. WC6 II) Plates A 516 Gr. (21 Not to be used over 86O’F. (3) Not to be used over 700°F.1 MATERIALS Castings A 216 Gr.

but not recommended for prolonged use above 900°F.. i PRESSURE ClaSS Temp.4905 4730 4200 3430 2230 1430 650 430 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 195 . 131 Not to be used over MO’F. LF3 A 352 Gr. 'F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 600 650 900 950 1000 150 290 250 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 SO 55 50 36 20 360 750 750 730 705 555 505 590 570 505 410 270 170 105 50 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 765 755 570 550 355 230 140 70 V CLASSES . Permissible.ig 600 1500 1500 1465 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1010 625 535 345 205 105 900 2250 2250 2165 2115 1995 1315 1755 1705 1510 1235 805 515 310 155 Reprinted from ASME 816. LF5 Cl. the carbide phase of steel may be convened to graphite. 2 13) A 352 Gr.2 RATINGS FOR GROUP Forgings 1. WCC (1) A 352 Gr. All rights reserved TT 15w 3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2640 2520 2050 .GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE Nominal Designation C-Mn-Si 2-1.P . by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. LCC (2) C-Mn-Si-V 2’hNi 3%Ni A 350 Gr.6. S Ill A 203 Gr.2 MATERIALS Plates Castings A 215 Gr. E 111 NOTES: I11 Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above BOO’F.1996 and 1996. LC3 A203Gr. (2) Not to ba used over 650’F. LC2 A 350 Gr.340 860 515 250 25M) 6260 5250 6070 5860 5540 5040 .

‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 600 600 660 700 750 600 850 900 950 1000 265 250 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 60 66 50 35 2 0 695 655 640 620 585 535 525 520 475 390 270 170 105 50 400 600 1390 1315 1275 1235 1165 .SECTION 9 Nominal Dssignation c-si C-Mn-Si 2’/ZNi 3%Ni Forgings Castings A 352 Gr. 65 (1) A 516 Gr.065 1045 1035 945 760 535 345 205 105 .. (3) Not to be used we..ig 900 2085 1970 1915 1650 1745 1600 1570 1555 1420 1175 805 515 310 155 1500 3470 3260 3190 3085 2910 2666 2615 2590 2365 1955 1340 860 515 260 2500 5785 5470 5315 5145 4850 4440 4365 4320 3945 3260 2230 1430 860 430 850 825 775 710 695 690 630 520 355 230 140 70 Reprinted from ASME 816. but not recommended for prolonged use abc . (21 Not to be used over 850°F. OS . A Ill A 203 Gr.a” be convened to graphite. by permission 01 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.51996 and 1996.ve 800°F. D (1) NOTES: (I) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800°F. 650°F. the carbide phase of steel “-. WORKI NO PRESSURES BY CIASSE! CISS Temp. 65 (1)121 A 203 Gr. Permissible. All rights reserved 196 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . LCB (3) Plats A 515 Gr.

4 Nominal Designation C-Si C-Mn-Si RATINGS FOR GROUP 1.. All rights resewed I 400 825 750. 730 705 665 610 600 600 590 495 366 230 140 70 600 1236 1125 1095 1060 995 916 695 895 885 740 535 345 206 105 900 1850 1500 3085 2810 2735 2645 2490 2285 2245 2245 2210 1850 1340 860 515 260 620 560 550 530 500 455 450 450 445 370 270 170 105 1665 1640 1585 1495 1370 1345 1345 1325 ItlO 805 615 310 155 50 I I 2500 5145 4680 4560 4405 4150 3805 3740 3740 3685 3085 2230 1430 860 430 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 197 .51996 and 1998. Permissible..4 MATERIALS Castings Plates A 515 G. ChSS - WORKING PRESSURt is 6:V CLt. 60 (I) Forgings A 350 Gr. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (2) Not to ba used over 65O’F. Cl. LFI. 60 [l)(2) NOTES: 11) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above BOO”F. the carbide phase of steel may be convened to graphite. ‘F 150 235 300 l-= -20 tcl 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 760 800 850 900 215 210 200 170 140 125 110 95 60 65 50 35 20 950 '1000 Reprinted from ASME 816.. but not recommended for prolonged use above 800°F. PS i9 Tarno.SSES .GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-1. 1 (1) A 516 Gr.

m 400 925 905 670 855 830 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 375 220 600 1390 1360 1305 1280 1245 .826 1460 1350 845 495 CIOSS Tamp.5 MATERIALS castings A 217 Gr.406 825 2500 5785 5650 5435 5330 5180 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2345 1370 198 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 560 330 900 2085 2035 . A 11) A 204 Gr.. ES iIY CLASSES. (2) Use normalized and tempered material only. Permissible. B (1) Forgings A 182 Gr. (3) Not to be used over 65O’F. ‘F -20 to loo 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 -r 150 265 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 66 50 35 20 300 695 680 655 640 620 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 280 165 Reprinted from ASME 816.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 2-1. All rights resenred I 1500 3470 3395 3260 3200 3105 3025 2940 ‘~‘2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 . Fl (1) NOTES: (1) Upon prolonged exp~~uretotemperatures above 875-F. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.5 Nominal Designation C-‘/&IO RATINGS FOR GROUP 1. the carbide phase ofcarbon-molybdenum steel may be converted to graphite.956 1920 1865 1815 1765 1705 1595 . LCl (3) PlIlteS A 204 Gr. but not recommended for prolonged use above 875’F.6-1996 and 1998. WC1 il)l2l A 352 Gr.

pcdg 600 900 2250 2250 2165 2080 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 945 605 475 1500 3760 3750 3610 3465 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2640 2436 2245 1675 1010 790 2500 6250 6250 6015 5775 5640 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2630 1685 1315 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 Reprinted from ASME 816. WORKI ING PRESSURE 150 -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 660 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 300 750 750 720 695 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 315 200 160 V CLASSES .7 Nominsl Derignation C-%Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 1.210 1175 1135 1065 1015 9 7 5 900 630 405 31. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. but not recommended for prolonged “se above 875°F. WC4 L?)(3) A 217 Gr.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-1. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 199 . WC5 12) NOTES: (11 Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 875°F.7 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates A 204 Gr.51996 and 1998. All rights resewed 1 400 1000 1000 965 925 885 805 785 756 710 675 650 600 420 270 210 1500 1445 1385 1330 . (3) Not to be used over 1000°F. Permissible. C (1) ‘Xr-%Mo Ni-%Cr-%Mo 3/nNi-3/&r-1Mo A 182 Or. FZ (31 A 217 Gr. 12) Use normalized and tempered material only. the carbide phase of carbon-molybdenum steel may be convertedto graphite.

(2) Permissible. but not recommended for prolonged use above 1 lOO*F. All righk reserved 200 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . 2 (l)(Z) A 367 Gr.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 2-1. F12 Cl.. 2 (l)(Z) A 217 Gr. WC6 l1)(31 A 162 Gr.176 1135 1065 1015 975 900 640 430 290 190 125 75 is so0 2250 2250 2165 2080 1995 1815 . Not to be used over 1 IOWF. 600 1500 1500 1445 1385 1330 . “F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 . Reprinted from ASME 816.51996 and 1998.766 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 955 660 430 290 186 115 1500 3750 3760 3610 3465 3325 3025 2940 2640 2660 2540 2435 2245 1595 1060 720 460 310 190 2500 6250 6250 6015 5775 5640 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2655 1600 1200 600 515 315 . Fll Cl.9 MATERIALS Castings Plates Forgings A 182 Gr. (3. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 11 Cl. 2 (21 NOTES: (I) Use normalized and tempered material only.9 Nominal Designation lCr-‘/zMo l’/&r-‘&MO l’/&r-%Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 1. PRESSURE CkSS Temp.210 .000 1050 1100 1150 1200 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 750 750 720 695 665 605 690 670 530 510 485 450 320 215 146 95 60 400 1000 1000 965 925 886 805 765 755 710 675 650 600 425 290 190 130 80 50 I CLASSES.

10 Nominal Designation Z’/.3145 2170 1455 915 570 345 Reprinted from ASME 816.150 1200 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 175 110 70 40 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 505 345 235 145 90 55 600 1500 1500 1455 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 .815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1460 1350 1130 780 525 330 205 125 1500 3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1885 1305 875 550 345 205 6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 . 22 Cl. WC9 (l)(3) Plate* A 387 Gr. 3 (2.. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ClOSS Temp. All rights resarwd Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 201 . (21 Permissible. NOTES: il t Use normalized and tempered material only.GENERAL INFdiiMATlON SECTION 9 TABLE 2-1.Cr-1Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 1. 2 (2) Forgings A 182 Gr. (3) Not to be used over 11OO’F.5-1998 and 1998. ‘F -20 *o 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 .10 MATERIALS Castings A 217 Gr. F22 Cl. PRESSURE SE :Y CLASSES. but not recommended for brolonged use above 11OO’F.015 975 900 520 350 220 135 80 i9 900 2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 .

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.. 380 290 205 2500 6000 5160 4660 4280 3980 3760 3700 3620 3660 3520 3480 3460 3220 2915 2866 2546 1970 1545 1230 970 800 630 485 345 .. A 182 Gr.'F -2oto 100 200 300 400 600 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 150 275 235 216 195 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 720 620 560 515 480 450 445 430 425 420 420 415 385 350 345 305 235 185 145 115 95 75 60 40 400 960 825 745 685 635 600 590 680 570 565 555 555 515 465 460 405 315 245 195 155 130 100 80 56 600 1440 1240 1120 1025 955 900 890 870 855 845 835 830 775 700 685 610 475 370 295 235 190 150 115 85 .317 (1) A351Gr.. Allrightsre&xved Societyof Mechanical 206 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .use I21 Not to be used over850PF. (31 Nat to be used over 1000°F. Reprintedfrom ASME E16.~1996and199B..316lll A 240Gr.. D! iig 900 2160 1860 1680 1540 1436 1365 .CFBM 11) Plates A240 Gr.CF3M (21 A351 Gr.bypermissionofTheAmerican Engineers.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 2-2.2 Nominal Designation lGCr-VNi-ZMo RATINGS FOR GROUP 2.CGBM 131 onlywhenthe carbon contentis0. WORKI NG PRESSURESSYIXASSES ClC3rJ Temp.. .F316H 18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 19Cr-lONi-3Mo NOTES: (II Attfxnperaturos over lOOO"F. .F316 (1) Al82 Gr.2 MATERIALS Forgings Castings A351 Gr.330 1305 1280 1265 1255 1245 1160 1050 1030 915 7 1 0 555 440 350 290 225 175 125 1500 3600 3095 2795 2570 2390 2255 2220 2170 2135 2110 2090 2075 1930 1750 1720 1525 1185 925 735 585 480.04% or higher.316H A 240 Gr. .

3161 A 240 Gr.3 MATERIALS Forgings I I CI16titlllS I Plates A 240 Gr. W O R K I N G PRESSURf Temp. 304L (1) A 182 Gr. F316L A 182 Gr.3 Nominal Designation 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 18Cr-8Ni RATINGS FGR GROUP 2. P! rig 600 1200 1015 910 825 766 720 700 685 670 660 645 I 900 1800 1520 1360 1240 1145 1080 1060 1030 1010 985 965 I 150 230 195 176 160 145 140 125 110 95 80 65 300 600 505 456 415 380 360 360 346 335 330 320 400 800 675 605 550 510 480 470 460 450 440 430 Reprinted from ASME 616.5-1996 and 1998. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved I 1500 3000 2530 2270 2065 1910 1800 1750 1715 1680 1645 1610 2500 5000 4220 3780 3440 3180 3000 2920 2860 2800 2740 2660 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 207 . “F -20 to 100 200 300 400 600 600 650 700 750 800 850 BY CLASSES‘. F304L 11) NOTE: 111 Not to be used over 600°F..GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE Z-2.

321H (1) A 192 Gr. .. P! . .SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 2-2. 12) Notto be usedoverlOOO"F. WORKI NG PRESSURESSYCLASSES . AlI rights resewad 1998.. .170 916 715 545 430 315 .useonlyifthe materialisheattreated byheatingtoa temperature of2000'F. .4 Nominal Designation 18Cr-IONi-Ti RATINGS FOR GROUP 2.ig CISSS Temp. .4 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates A240Gr.F321(2) A 182Gr.... .. . F321H (1) NOTES: (11 At temperatures overlOOO'F. 'F -2oto 100 200 300 400 5 w 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1060 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 150 275 245 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 720 645 595 550 515 485 480 465 460 450 445 440 385 355 315 270 235 185 140 110 85 65 50 40 400 960 860 795 733 685 650 635 620 610 600 695 590 515 475 415 360 315 245 185 145 115 86 70 50 600 1440 1290 1190 1105 1030 975 955 930 915 900 895 885 775 715 625 545 475 370 280 220 170 130 105 75 minimum cm0 2160 1935 1785 1655 1545 1480 1435 1395 1375 1355 1340 1325 1160 1070 940 815 710 555 4 2 0 330 255 195 155 115 1500 3600 3230 2975 2760 2 5 7 0 2435 2390 2330 2290 2255 2230 2210 1930 1785 1565 1360 1185 925 705 550 430 325 255 190 2500 6000 6380 4960 4600 4285 4060 3980 3880 3820 3760 3720 3680 3220 2970 2605 2266 1970 1545 .. Reprintedfrom ASME1996and Engineers. bypermissionofTheAmerican Societyof Mechanical 208 Standards of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .321lZl A240Gr.

600 150 275 265 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 720 660 615 575 540 515 505 495 490 485 485 450 385 365 360 325 275 170 125 95 70 65 40 35 960 860 820 765 720 865 670 660 655 650 645 600 515 465 460 430 365 230 165 125 90 75 55 46 600 1440 1320 1230 1145 1060 . Gr.025 1010 990 965 976 970 900 776 725 720 645 550 345 245 165 135 110 80.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-2.930 1820 1800 . (3) At temperatures over 1000°F.200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 . F347 (2) Gr. All rights reserved Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 209 .5 MATERIALS Nominal Designation 18Cr-lONi-Cb A A A A 162 182 182 162 Forgings Gr. 70 2160 1960 1645 1720 1620 1640 1610 1465 1475 1460 1455 1350 1160 1090 1080 965 625 515 370 2 8 0 205 165 125 105 1500 3300 3070 2870 2700 2570 2520 2470 2460 2435 2426 2246 . (2) Not to be used over 1000°F. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 ..04% or higher.5 RATINGS FOR GROUP 2. Gr. F347H (1) Gr.. use only if the material is heat treated by heating to a minimum temperature of 2000°F. 347 (2) 347H (1) 348 (2) 348H (1) NOTES: (1) For temperatures over 1000°F. WORKI NG’PRESSURES BY CLASSES...610 1370 655 615 465 345 275 205 170 4780 4500 4280 4200 4120 4100 4060 4040 3745 3220 3030 kOo0 2685 2285 1430 1030 770 570 455 345 Reprinted from ASME 816. F346 (2) Gr. F348H (11 castings A 351 Gr. Ds i9 CIESS Tam. use the material only when the carbon content is 0. Gr.51996 and 1996. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. CFBC 131 A A A A 240 240 240 240 PI*te* Gr.150 .

6 Nominal Designation 23Cr-12Ni Forgings RATINGS FOR GROUP 2...6 MATERIALS Castings Plates A 240 Gr. use only when the carbon content is 0. .I L Reprinted from ASME 816. WORK6 Temp.. . All rights reserved 210 Standards’Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . 309s (l)l2)(3) A 240 Gr. CH8 (11 A 351 Gr. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 PRESSURE 400 896 805 760 710 670 635 620 610 695 580 585 555 616 450 390 300 230 175 135 105 80 60 40 30 Y CLASSES 600 1345 1210 1140 1065 1010 955 930 910 895 870 850 630 77s 670 585 445 3 4 5 260 200 160 115 90 60 50 is 900 2015 1615 1705 1600 1510 1435 1395 1370 1340 1306 1275 1245 1160 1010 875 670 515 3 9 0 300 235 176 135 95 70 1500 3360 3025 2645 2665 2 6 2 0 2390 2330 2280 2230 2170 2126 2075 1930 1680 1460 . 309H A 351 Gr. CH20 (1) ZSCr-12Ni NOTES: (1) At temperatures war 1OOVF.2) For temperatures above 1OOO’F..SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 2-2. 1.04% or higher. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.116 860 650 495 395 290 225 155 120 2500 5040 4740 4440 4200 3980 3880 3 8 0 0 3720 3620 3540 3460 3220 2800 2430 1860 1430 1065 830 660 485 370 260 CbSS 150 260 230 220 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 36 20 300 670 605 570 535 505 480 465 465 445 435 425 415 365 335 290 225 170 130 100 80 60 45 30 25 .. (3) This material should be used for service temperatures 1050°F and above only when assurance is provided that grain size is not finer than ASTM 6..5-IS96 and 1998. use only if the material solution is heat treated to the minimum temperature specified in the specification but not lower than 1900°F. and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by other msans.

. 31oi.04% or higher. F310 (l)(3) Plates A _ A 240 Gr. ... . NOTES: 11) At temperatures over 1OOO'F. .l _ _ _ -..3105 11)(2)13) xnn. we only when the carbon content is 0.CK20ill I Foraines A 162 Gr.. (2) For temperatures above 1OOO'F. (31 Service temperatures of1050°F and above should be used onlywhen assurance is provided that grain size is not finer than ASTM 6. use only if the material is hear treated by heating it to a temperature of at least 19OO'F and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by other means.. WORKli NO PRESSURE 53 8YClASSES ..7 Nominal Dssianation 25Cr-20Ni I RATINGS FOR GROUP 2.5-1996and Engineers. All rights resewed 1998.. .bypermissionofTheAmerican Societyof Mechanical Standards Of The Tubulai Exchanger Manufacturers Association 211 .7 MATERIALS Castinas A351 Gr.'F -2ota 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 600 650 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 CbS I .GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-2.p! iig 7150 260 235 220 200 170 140 125 110 95 90 65 50 35 20 300 670 605 570 535 505 460 470 455 450 435 425 420 365 345 335 260 190 13s 105 75 60 45 35 25 400 895 610 760 715 675 6dO 625 610 600 580 570 555 515 460 450 345 250 185 135 100 60 60 45 35 600 1345 1215 1140 1070 1015 960 935 910 900 875 655 835 775 685 670 520 375 275 205 150 115 90 65 50 900 2015 1920 1705 1605 1520 1440 1405 1370 1345 1310 1280 1255 1160 1030 1010 780 565 410 310 225 175 135 100 75 1500 3360 3035 2645 2675 2530 2400 2340 2280 2245 2185 2135 2090 1930 1720 1660 1305 945 665 515 375 290 225 165 130 5600 5060 4740 4460 4220 4000 3900 3800 3740 3640 3560 3480 3220 2665 2800 2170 1570 1145 855 630 405 370 275 215 Temp. 1350 1400 1460 RsprimedfromASME816.

CEEMN (1) A 351 Gr.8 Nominal Designation ZOCr-18Ni-6Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 2.150O 1440 1330 1230 1150 .51996 and 1999.8 MATERIALS Forgings Castings A 361 Gr.5Mo-N-Cu-W A 182 Gr. 532750 ill A 351 Gr. WDRKI 300 750 720 665 615 575 555 550 540 530 i PRESSURE 460 1000 960 885 820 770 740 735 725 710 Y CLASSES.SECTION 4 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE Z-2. prig I 600. F44 A 182 Gr. 531803 Ill A 240 Gr.5Mo-W-Cb 25Cr-7Ni-3. CKJMCuN Plates A 240 Gr. Alkiphts reserved 212 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . CDSMWCuN Ill A 240 Gr. 531254 A 240 Gr. F51 (11 A 192 Gr. F53 IIt 2X2-5Ni-3Mo-N 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N 24Cr-lONi-OMo-V 25Cr-5Ni-2Mo-3Cu 25Cr-7Ni-3. F55 0) NOTE: (1) This steel may become brittle after service at moderately elevated temperatures. by permission of The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers. . CD4MCu (1) A 351 Gr.116 1100 1085 1065 I I 900 2160 1995 1845 1730 1670 1650 1625 1595 I 1500 3750 3600 3325 3070 2980 2785 2750 2710 2660 2500 6250 6000 5540 5120 4600 4640 4580 4520 4430 Reprinted from ASME 616. 532760 11) A 182 Gr. Not to be used over 6OO’F.

GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3.1 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates B 463 Gr.5-1996 and 1998. All rights reserved I 2500 6250 6000 5940 5610 5460 6040 4905 4730 4430 4230 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 213 . WORKING PRESSURES BY CLASSES 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 =--F750 720 715 675 655 1000 960 950 900 875 606 590 570 530 510 805 785 755 710 6 7 5 I 600 1500 1440 1425 1345 1310 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 900 2250 2160 2140 2020 1965 1815 1765 1705 1595 1525 1500 3750 3600 3565 3365 3275 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 6iD 700 160 800 L RBplinted from ASME 816. NO8020 (1) B 462 Cr.1 Nominal Designation 35Ni-35Fe-ZOCr-Cb RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. NO8020 (1) NOTE: Ill Use annealed material only.

and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM 8 564. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification.%% temp.2 Nominal Designation 99.. certification.ONi RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3. NO2200 111 8 160 Gr. The manufacturing procedures. tests. mechanical properties. NO2200 ll)t21 NOTES: (11 Use annealed material only. “F -20 to 100 200 300 ‘loo 500 600 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 a00 360 360 360 360 360 360 400 480 480 480 480 480 480 600 720 720 720 720 720 720 900 1080 1080 1080 1080 1080 1080 1500 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2500 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 Reprinted from ASME B16. heat treating requirements. (21 The chemical composition. All rights resewed 214 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .51695 and 1998. prig Cl. WORKING PRESSURES BY CLASSES.2 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates B 162 Gr. tolerances.

140 1115 1080 1080 1090 1080 1080 1055 1020 1020 695 570 465 370 310 230 185 2500 2000 1900 1860 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1760 1700 1700 1155.bypermissionofTheAm.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTMB564. tests.ONi-Low C RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. certification. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. heat treating requirements. tolerances. 950 770 615 516 385 310 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1160 1200 50 35 20 ReprintedfromASME816.NO2201lll B 160 Gr. The manufacturing procedures. 121 The chemical composition..5-1996and Engineers.3 Nominal Designation SS.ricanSocietyofMeohani~l Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 215 . NO2201 l1112l NOTES: ill Use annealed material only. 'F -20 150 SO 86 85 85 85 85 85 85 80 80 300 240 230 225 215 215 215 216 215 210 205 205 140 115 35 75 60 45 35 499 320 305 300 290 290 230 290 290 280 270 270 185 150 125 100 80 60 50 600 480 a55 445 430 430 430 430 430 420 410 410 280 230 185 150 125 95 75 iig 900 720 685 670 650 650 650 650 650 635 610 610 415 345 280 220 185 140 110 1500 1200 .3 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plate5 6 162 Gr. Wrights resewed 1998. WORKI NO PRESSURI 3 EIYCIASSEZ Class TsmD. mechanical properties.

4 MATERIALS Forgings Castings PIatE% B 127 Gr. NOMOO Ill B 564 Gr. tests.1996 and 1996.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE 2-3. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 Reprinted from ASME 816. WORKII NG PRESSURE St IY CLASSES .4 Nominal Designation 67Ni-30Cu 67Ni-30Cu-S RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. I21 The chemical composition. heat treating requirements. PC iig 400 600 Class Temn. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. B 164 Gr. NO4400 (1. mechanical properties. tolerances. The manufacturing procedures.. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM B 564. All rights resewed III I 150 300 900 230 200 190 185 170 600 530 496 480 475 476 476 475 470 460 800 705 660 635 635 635 635 635 625 610 455 330 1200 1055 990 955 950 1800 1585 1485 1435 1435 2640 2470 2390 2375 140 125 110 96 80 950 950 950 935 915 680 495 1435 1435 1435 1405 1375 2375 2375 2375 2340 2290 66 50 340 248 i i 5000 4400 4120 3980 3960 3960 3960 3960 3900 3820 2830 2055 1020 740 1695 1235 216 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .5. NO4405 (l)(Z) NOTES: (1) Use annealed material only. by permission of The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers. certification.

.5 Nominal Designation 72Ni-15Cr-8Fe NOTE: RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Y CLASSES 600 1500 1500 1465 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 656 430 260 185 135 125 ig 1500 2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1765 1705 1595 1520 1460 1350 980 650 415 280 205 185 3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2245 1635 1080 695 465 340 310 6250 6250 6070 5680 5540 5040 4905 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 2726 1800 770 565 615 RBprintad from ASME B16. All riehts reserved Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 217 .51996 and 1998. NO6600 Ill B 564 Gr. NO6600 I.000 1050 1100 1150 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 465 450 325 215 140 95 70 60 i PRESSURE 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 435 290 185 125 90 80 .GENERAL INFORMATlbN SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3.5 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates B 166 Gr.) WORKI ClfiSS Temp. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 6 0 0 650 700 750 800 850 9 0 0 950 .

NO5500 (1) material only.6 MATERIALS Nominal Designation 33Ni-42Fe-210 NOTE: (1) Use annealed Forgings S 554 Gr. 'F -20 to 100 200 300 $00 500 500 550 700 750 800 550 300 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 ..SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE Z-3. NO5500 (1) Castings Plates 8409 Gr.300 1350 1400 .by permission of The American Society Engineers.6 RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. WORKI NGiPRESSURE! :YCLASSES 500 1440 1325 1250 1200 1155 1145 1140 1130 1055 1015 975 900 775 725 720 545 550 405 250 125 100 70 50 50 2150 1990 1570 1500 1735 1720 1705 1590 1595 1520 1450 1350 1150 1090 1050 955 825 510 390 155 150 100 95 75 3500 3310 3120 3000 2590 2570 2045 2520 2550 2535 2435 2245 1930 1520 1500 1510 1370 1020 550 310 245 170 155 125 5000 5520 5200 5000 4520 4750 4740 4700 4430 4230 4050 3745 3220 3030 3000 2555 2285 1595 1050 515 410 285 255 205 CbSS Temp. .450 1500 150 275 255 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 SO 55 50 35 20 300 720 550 525 500 550 575 570 555 530 505 455 450 395 355 350 325 275 205 130 50 50 35 30 25 450 950 855 830 800 770 755 750 750 710 575 550 500 515 455 450 430 355 270 175 80 55 45 40 35 i . Reprinted from ASME 816.5-1996 and 1998. All rights reserved of Mechanical 218 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

.

-. NO6625 (3)15) B 333 Gr. NO6625 l3)(5) B 335 Gr. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. pri ig -r 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 60 35 20 . NlOZ76 (l)(4) B 443 Gr. . and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM B 564. tolerances. The manufacturing procedures.5-1996 and 1998.S Temp. Alloy NO6625 in the annealed condition is subject to severe loss of impact strength at room temperatures after exposure in the range of 1000DF to 1400°F.5Fe-3Cr-2.. L Reprinted from ASME 816. . (21 The chemical composition. N10276 llI(41 B 564 Gr. NO8825 (3)(7) NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only.. All rights reserved 220 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . tests.3Cu RATINGS FOR GROUP 3.8 Nominal Designation 54Ni-16Mo-15Cr 60Ni-2ZCr-9Mo-3. NlOOOl 0)(61 B 434 Gr. Not to be used over 1OOO’F. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. N10003 (3) B 575 Or. WORKIING PRESSURES 6 IY CLASSES8. 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 385 365 360 325 275 185 145 110 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 515 485 480 430 365 245 195 145 800 900 C1W. heat treating requirements.8 MATERIALS Forgings Castings PIlater B 575 Gr. R .. mechanical properties. L .5Cb 62Ni-28Mo-5Fe 70Ni-16Mo-7Cr-5Fe 6lNi-16Mo-16Cr 42Ni-21. NOM55 (l)wl 8 424 Gr. NlOOOl (1)(21(6l B 573 Or. (51 Not to be used over 1200°F. NO8825 (3)(7l B 584 Gr. (61 Not to be used over 800°F. . certification. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 2500 3750 3750 3640 3530 3325 3025 2940 2840 2660 2540 2435 2246 1930 1820 1800 1610 1370 925 735 540 6250 6250 6070 5880 5540 5040 4906 4730 4430 4230 4060 3745 3220 3030 3000 2685 2285 1545 1220 900 1500 1500 1455 1410 1330 1210 1175 1135 1065 1015 975 900 776 725 720 645 550 370 295 216 2250 2250 2185 2115 1995 1815 1785 1705 1595 1520 1460 1350 1160 1090 1080 965 825 555 440 325 -\ I-. N10003 (2)(3l B 674 Gr. (3) Use annealed material only. (7. NO6455 (1)12116) B 664 Gr. 141 Not to be used over 1250°F.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE Z-3.

300 1350 1400 1450 1500 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 300 750 750 680 600 575 660 660 560 530 610 485 450 386 365 360 326 276 205 180 140 105 75 60 40 50 35 20 .145 860 830 485 Temp. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 .. tests. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification.9 Nominal Designation 47Ni-22Cr-9Mo-18Fe RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. certification.696 1525 1460 1350 1160 1090 1080 965 825 620 645 410 310 225 175 125 1500 3750 3750 3395 2990 2880 2795 2795 2795 2880 2540 2435 2245 1930 1820 1800 . Reprinted from ASME 816. heat treating requirements. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM B 564. The manufacturing procedures.610 1370 1030 910 685 515 380 290 206 2500 6250 6250 5880 4800 4660 4660 4430 4230 4080 3745 3 2 2 0 3030 3000 2686 2285 .GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3. 1680 1660 . (2) The chemical composition. ND6002 (l)(Z) Castings Plates 8 435 Gr. All rights reserved Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 221 . by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.715 1515 . mechanical properties. tolerances.5-1996 and 1998. . WORKI CISS PRESSURE: 400 1000 1000 905 795 770 745 745 7 4 6 710 675 650 600 515 486 480 430 365 276 246 186 140 100 80 55 Y CLASSES 600 1500 1500 1360 1196 1150 1120 1120 1120 1065 1015 975 900 775 725 720 646 550 410 366 275 205 150 115 85 dg 900 2250 2250 2040 1795 1730 1660.9 MATERIALS Forgings 8 572 Gr. NO6002 (1) NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only.

NO8700 (l)(Z) Castings Plates B 599 Gr. tolerances. The manufacturing procedures. 12) The chemical composition. tests.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE Z-3. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM B 564.10 Nominal Designation 25Ni-46Fe-ZlCr-5Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. Ail rights reserved 222 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. mechanical properties. cenification.10 MATERIALS Forgings B 672 Gr. heat treating requirements.. “F -20 to 100 200 300 400 600 600 650 150 275 260 230 200 170 140 125 300 720 720 680 640 610 595 570 400 960 960 905 855 615 790 760 600 1440 1440 1360 1280 1225 1190 1140 900 2160 2160 2040 1920 1835 1780 1705 1500 3600 3600 3400 3205 3060 2970 2645 2500 6000 6000 5670 5340 5100 4956 4740 Reprinted from ASME 616. NO8700 (1) NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only.5-1996 and 1996. WORKING PRESSURES BY CLASSES. by permission of The American Societybf Mechanical Engineers. psig Class Temp.

. prig Cla= Temp. heat treating requirements. AN rights reserved I 600 1260 1200 1065 995 916 665 640 620 900 1920 1605 1630 1490 1370 1296 1266 1230 1500 3205 3006 2720 2465 2266 2160 2105 2060 2500 5340 5010 4530 4140 3610 3600 3510 3420 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 223 . WORKING PREBSURE se IV CIASSES. NO6994 (1) NOTES: (1) Use annealed material only. + -20 to ‘100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 150 245 230 210 190 170 140 125 110 300 640 600 545 496 455 430 420 410 400 865 600 725 660 610 576 560 545 Reprinted from ASME 816. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (2) The chemical composition. mechanical properties. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM B 6M. The manufacturing procedures. certification. tolerances.11 Nominal Designation 44Fe-25Ni-ZlCr-Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. tests.GENERAL INFORMATION S. NO6994 (l)(2) Castings I I Plates B 625 Gr.ECTlON 9 TABLE 2-3.11 MATERIALS I Forgings B 649 Gr.5-1996 and 1996.

PS ig ClW5 Temp. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. NO6985 (1) 5 621 Gr.SECTION 9.5-1996 and 1998.. (2) The chemical composition. GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE Z-3. certifio+cn.245 1175 1075 1000 960 930 900 685 865 900 2016 1870 . NO6965 H)(2) NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only. heat treating requirements. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification.760 1610 1500 1425 1395 1350 1330 1295 3360 3115 2935 2680 2500 2375 2320 2250 2215 2160 2500 5600 5190 4690 4470 4170 3960 3870 3750 3690 3600 1 I i 224 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . WORK6 UG PRESSUREis f1-f CLASSES.12 Nominal Designation 26Ni-43Fe-22Cr-5Mo 47Ni-22Cr-20Fe-7Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 3.12 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates S 620 Gr.. The manufacturing procedures. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM 8 564. NO8320 (1) S 582 Gr. tolerances. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 260 240 225 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 300 670 625 565 635 500 475 465 450 445 430 Reprinted from ASME 816. All rights reserved 1 660 895 830 780 715 665 635 620 600 590 575 1345 . tests. mechanical properties. NO8320 (l)(Z) S 581 Gr.

The manufacturing procedures.016 1685 1660 . ‘F -20 to 100’ 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 I 150 200 300 705 660 635 695 560 555 545 530 510 I 400 940 865 845 790 750 735 726 710 675 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 I 7-I 600 900 1500 1410 1325 1265 1190 2250 2116 1985 I I 1600 3750 3630 3310 3170 2970 2810 2765 2720 2660 2540 2500 6250 5880 5520 5260 4950 4660 4605 4630 4430 4230 1000 1780 1125 1105 1086 . mechanical properties.. heat treating requirements. GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 24. psig ClW3 Temp._. tests. (3) Use annealed material only. WORKING PRESSURES B Y CL&ES. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM 6 564. (2) The chemical composition.-18Fe-6Mo Ni-Fe&Z-Ma-Low Cu RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. All rights reserved Stayfards of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 225 . NO8031 13) Castings Plates 6 662 Gr.695 .625 Reprinted from ASME 816.13 Nominal Designation 49Ni-XC. certification. NO8031 (3) NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only.. NO6975 (1) 6 625 Gr. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. tolerances. NO6975 (l)(Z) B 564 Gr.630 . by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.13 MATERIALS Forgings 6 581 Gr.066 .5-1996 and 1998.

and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification. WORKII Class Temp.51996 and 1998.440 . by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. certification. (21 The chemical composition.ig 900 2160 1935 1795 1685 1605 1555 1535 1520 1505 1490 . The m.+nufacturing procedures. NO6007 (1) MOB 561 Gr. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM B 564.290 . ‘F 150 275 245 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 66 50 35 20 300 720 645 600 560 535 520 510 505 500 495 485 450 385 365 PRESSURE 400 960 860 795 750 715 690 680 675 870 660 660 600 516 485 .14 Nominal Designation 47Ni-22Cr-19Fe-6 RATINGS FOR GROUP 3.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE Z-3. heat treating requirements.160 1090 -io to 100 2w 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 BOO 850 900 950 1000 Reprinted from ASME 816. NO6007 (l)(2) NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only.14 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates B 562 Gr. tolerances.196 1125 1070 1035 1020 1015 1005 995 976 900 775 725 IY CLASSES. . All rights resewed I 1500 3600 3230 2990 2810 2675 2590 2555 2530 2510 2500 6000 5380 4980 4680 4460 4320 4260 4220 4180 4140 4060 3745 3220 3030 2435 2245 1930 1820 226 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . mechanical properties..460 1350 . P? . tests.

by permission of The American Society of Mechanical StsndardS Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .. NOBBlOIl~ CaStillgS B 564Gr.500 PRESSURE 409 BOO 720 675 540 610 585 565 560 550 545 530 530 515 485 435 430 365 275 245 185 140 100 80 55 IBYClASSES rig 900 1500 3000 2700 2530 2400 2280 2195 2125 2100 2065 2040 1990 1980 1930 1620 1625 1605 1370 1030 910 685 515 380 290 205 5000 4500 4220 4000 3800 3660 3540 3500 3440 3400 3320 3300 3220 3030 2710 2675 2285 1715 1515 1145 8 6 0 630 485 345 230 205 195 185 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 600 540 505 460 455 440 425 420 415 410 400 395 385 365 325 320 275 205 180 140 105 75 60 40 1200 1080 1015 960 910 880 850 640 625 815 795 790 775 725 650 640 550 410 365 275 205 150 115 65 1800 1620 1520 1440 1370 1320 1275 1250 1240 1225 1195 1190 1160 1090 975 965 825 620 545 410 310 225 175 125 . N08810.15 MATERIALS Plates B409 Gr.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3.15 Nominal Designation 33Ni-42Fe-210 RATINGS Forgings FOR GROUP 3. WORK11 300 -2oto 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 . NOTE: (1) Use solution annealed material only.. All fights reserved 1998.5.1996and Engineers. Reprinted from ASME 816. 227 .

'F -2oto100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 .100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 PRESSURESl BYCLASSES i.NO8330lll 35Ni-lSCr-l%Si B 511 Gr.090 926 720 655 435 350 285 220 186 140 100 1500 3600 3180 2940 2760 2630 2510 2450 2410 2350 2315 2270 2215 1930 1820 1645 1205 925 725 585 480 370 280 230 170 2500 8000 5300 4900 4600 4380 4180 4060 4020 3920 3860 3780 3 6 9 0 3220 3030 2570 2005 1545 1210 975 795 615 465 385 285 ChSS 150 275 245 226 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 720 636 590 550 525 500 490 480 470 465 455 445 385 365 310 240 185 145 . WORK11 Temp.5-1996 and 1998.1. mechanical propenies. tests. and grain size requirements shall conform to the applicable ASTM specification.330 .16 MATERIALS Forgings Castings Plates B536 Gr.(21 NOTES: (1) Use solution annealed material only. and markings shall be in accordance with ASTM S 564.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION Designation TABLE 2-3. by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.160 . P da 900 2160 1910 1766 1655 1575 1505 1470 1446 1410 1390 1360 . certification. All rights resewed 228 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .15 95 75 55 45 35 400 960 850 785 735 700 670 655 645 625 620 605 590 515 485 410 320 245 195 155 130 100 75 60 45 600 1440 1270 1175 1105 1050 1006 980 965 940 925 SO5 886 775 725 616 480 370 290 235 190 150 110 95 70 . . tolerances.16 Nominal RATINGS FOR GROUP 3. Reprinted from ASME 816. N08330. The manufacturing procedures. (2) The chemical composition.. heat treating requirements.

by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.5-1996 and 1998.17 Nominal Designation ZSNi-20. NuI rights reserved I I 900 1500 3000 2590 2330 2110 1945 1800 1555 1395 1265 1165 1080 l2500 5000 4320 3880 3520 3240 t 1800 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 229 .GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE 2-3.X NOTE: (1) Use solution annealed material only. CN7M (1) I PI&.SCu-2. WORKING PRESSURES BY CLASSES. LX .ig Clsrs Temp.5Cr-3. ‘F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 150 230 200 180 160 150 + 300 600 520 465 420 390 I 600 f 1 I 140 360 L 800 690 620 565 520 480 t 1200 1035 930 a45 780 720 Reprinted from ASME 616.5Mo RATINGS FOR GROUP 3..17 MATERIAL I Forgings I Castings A 351 Gr.

.......I.. A..............I.. 1......................... Titanium ...............112 -i- Keigh Aluminum. 1.......... p...99 LUZ I.. (Sp.............SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBING 1.........._ ..-.S............ Nickel-CJumne-Inn ..............wtors: Nickel .................0) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association ..... ............. _... 3W Series S/steels ................................................. = 1.......... .... . ............... 4CQ Series S/Steels .......... Aluminum Bras .....S.......I.......... ** Liquid Velocity = 0..... of Water at MPF.........35 0...58 0.09 ly by the following f..... Gr....... A..._..................13 Nickel-Copper .... g 2tET&d in feet per sec............06 LO7 1....14 Aluminum l3m~ ........ 1.. in LO4 1.....12 Copper and CupNic!els ............. ........ Admiralty . ...........h......I............_..

....... I.09 kz.... 0.I..... (sp..................:................06 1.. Per Tube Hour ‘* Liquid Velocity = C y sp............6 deg C = 1. 0f water at 15.07 Nicke I.... Go.. ofLiquid in meten per sec.... A.. GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-7M SECTION 9 CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBING - A T l i t u a m n i i n u u m m .... 400 Series S/Steels A.0) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 231 .__... 1 . 300 Series S/Steels ......I..... Nickel-Chrome-Iron Admirality .I... Copper and Cupro-Nickels ........._.99 1......I..........._...:/ ! .... Gr.._...S.......02 A l u m i n u m B r o n z e A l u m i n u m B r a s s .58 0..O4 1....35 0._...... Nickel-Copper ....S.

SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION 1 < R _ - _ 232 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

OOC 2696 3056 3766 4347 4920 5704 6306 7763 9297 2462 3176 3663 4034 4920 5636 7060 6049 9073 10758 2345 2966 3602 4253 5114 5803 6509 7656 6962 105662 __.OW 1079 1222 1514 1739 1966 2281 2522 3105 3719 964 1270 1465 1613 1968 2334 2624 3219 3629 4303 936 1186 1440 1701 2045 2321 2603 3062 3564 4224 936 1136 1336 1603 1615 2030 2377 2766 3242 3629 4140 10.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES (PSI) OF TUBES AT VARIOUS VALUES OF ALLOWABLE STRESS %7 114 Gage BWG 27 26 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 24 22 21 2u 19 18 17 16 15 14 22 20 19 16 17 16 15 14 13 12 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 Tube Code Allowable Svess (PSI) 2.601 2126 2557 2901 3264 3828 4481 5261 1172 1420 1672 2004 2268 2537 2971 3460 4053 4536 5175 12. 2346 2840 3345 4009 4537 5075 5943 6921 6107 9073 10351 Inches 3m l/2 518 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 233 .000 539 611 757 669 964 1140 1261 1552 1859 492 635 732 606 964 1167 1412 1609 1814 2151 469 593 720 650 1022 1160 1301 1531 1792 2112 469 566 669 601 907 1015 1166 1384 1621 1814 2070 6.000 269 305 378 434 492 570 630 776 929 246 317 366 403 492 563 706 804 907 1075 234 296 360 425 511 560 650 765 696 1056 234 264 334 400 453 507 594 692 810 907 1035 4.000 1349 1528 1693 2173 2460 2862 3153 3861 4648 1231 1568 1831 2017 2460 2918 3530 4024 4536 5379 1172 1483 .000 1618 1633 2271 2606 2952 3422 3763 4658 5578 1477 1905 2196 2420 2952 3502 4236 4829 5444 6454 1407 1779 2161 2552 3068 3462 3905 4594 5377 6337 1407 1704 2007 2405 2722 3045 3566 4153 4664 5444 6210 14.000 2156 2444 3029 3478 3936 4563 5045 6210 7438 1969 2541 2930 3227 3936 4669 5646 6439 7258 8606 1676 2372 2861 3402 4091 4642 5207 6125 7169 8449 1676 2272 2676 3207 3630 4060 4754 5537 6465 7258 6261 16.000 609 916 1135 1304 1476 1711 1891 2329 2789 736 952 1099 1210 1476 1751 2116 2414 2722 3227 703 869 1080 1276 1534 1741 1952 2297 2666 3168 703 652 1003 1202 1361 1522 1763 2076 2432 2722 3105 6.000 1866 2139 2650 3043 3444 3992 4414 5434 6508 1723 2223 2564 2624 3444 4065 4942 5634 6351 7530 1641 2076 2521 2977 3680 4062 4556 5359 6273 7393 1641 1968 2342 2606 3176 3553 4160 4845 5674 6351 7246 16.000 2428 2750 3407 3913 4428 5133 5675 6987 6366 2216 2856 3297 3631 4428 5253 6354 7244 8166 9662 2110 2669 3241 3828 4603 5223 5856 6891 8066 9505 2110 2556 3011 3608 4063 4568 5349 6229 7296 8166 9316 20.

000 1357 1930 2306 2911 3399 3946 4aG4 5137 5838 8581 7475 1157 1641 1959 2211 2488 2874 3329 3874 4313 4866 5477 8216 ma 1427 1703 1919 2139 2469 2676 3343 3718 4202 4700 5322 18.000 d 12.% - -r 2.CCG 20 18 17 18 I5 14 13 12 11 10 9 a 20 18 17 18 15 14 13 12 11 IO 9 a 20 1s 17 18 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 775 1102 1318 1489 1883 1942 2255 2631 2Q35 3335 3749 4271 861 936 1119 1263 1409 1842 1902 2213 2464 2792 3129 3553 576 815 973 1097 1222 1422 1845 1910 2123 2401 2636 3041 989 1376 1646 1662 2079 2426 2818 3289 2669 4189 4888 5339 826 1172 i399 1579 1761 2052 2377 2787 3060 3490 3912 4441 720 1019 1218 1371 1526 1778 2056 2388 2854 3001 3357 3801 991 1407 1679 ia95 2114 2483 2653 3320 3837 4166 4894 6329 864 1223 1459 1845 1633 2133 2467 2a85 3185 3602 4029 4682 2110 2519 2643 3171 4260 4960 5645 7042 7994 1298 1635 2169 2466 2750 3200 3701 4298 4776 5403 8043 6843 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .000 193 275 329 372 415 485 563 857 733 633 937 1087 185 234 279 315 352 410 475 553 616 698 762 686 144 203 243 274 305 355 411 477 530 600 871 780 4PJ 387 551 859 744 a31 971 1127 1315 1457 1887 1874 2135 330 469 569 631 704 621 951 1108 1232 1398 1564 1778 286 407 486 548 811 711 a22 955 1081 1200 1343 1520 le Allow stress 1163 1854 1978 2234 2495 2913 3362 3948 4403 5003 5823 6407 (P 14.Obl 1551 2205 2837 2979 3327 3685 4610 5282 5671 6670 7498 8643 1322 1876 2239 2527 ~3616 3284 3804 4427 4929 5584 6259 7108 1152 1831 1946 2194 2444 2644 3290 3821 4247 4602 6372 8082 16.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES (PSI) OF TUBES AT VARIOUS VALUES OF ALLOWABLE STRESS Tube %.ow 581 a27 989 1117 1247 1458 1891 1973 2201 2601 2611 3203 495 703 a39 947 1057 1231 1426 1660 1846 2094 2347 2664 432 811 729 622 918 1066 1233 1432 1592 1801 2014 22al 10.000 1745 2461 2967 3352 3743 4370 5074 5920 8805 6436 9811 1939 2757 3297 3724 4159 4856 6637 6578 7339 8338 9373 10879 1652 2345 2799 3159 3523 4755 5534 8161 7824 8662 1440 2039 2432 2742 3056 3556 4112 4778 6309 6715 7803 8.

000 343 465 651 724 541 071 1124 1247 1407 1569 1771 1952 694 925 1025 1164 1295 1447 515 663 766 649 943 1059 0.000 572 609 1095 1207 1402 1619 1674 2Q79 2345 2615 2951 3254 1157 1543 1709 1924 2142 2412 658 1139 1260 1415 1573 1766 667 971 1302 1449 1683 1942 2249 2405 2814 3136 3642 3905 13aQ 1351 2051 2200 2570 2694 1030 1367 1512 1699 1697 2119 14.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 r INTERNAL WORKING PRESSURES (PSI) OF TUBES AT VARIOUS VALUES OF ALLOWABLE STRESS iic .000 220 323 434 463 561 647 749 631 $38 IO46 1190 1301 463 617 663 769 956 964 343 465 504 566 6B 706 6.i% 20 18 16 I5 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 1-w? 14 12 11 10 9 8 14 12 11 10 9 9 2.000 1145 1616 2170 2415 2505 3236 3749 4159 4690 5231 5903 650Q 2315 3066 3416 3840 4264 4624 1717 2279 2521 2831 3146 3533 2 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 235 .COO 103i 1456 1953 2173 2524 2913 3374 3743 4221 4709 5313 5959 2084 2777 3076 3463 3656 4342 1545 2051 2269 2649 2931 3179 20.000 114 161 217 241 200 323 374 415 469 523 590 660 231 308 341 384 429 432 171 227 252 263 314 363 4.000 601 1133 1519 1690 IQ63 2265 2624 2011 3293 3662 4132 4556 1621 2160 2393 2693 2999 3377 1201 1595 1764 1992 2202 2473 16.000 456 647 669 966 1122 1294 1409 1663 1876 2092 2361 2603 926 1234 1367 1539 1713 1929 666 911 1008 1132 1259 1413 10. 1736 1932 2244 2599 2999 3327 3752 4165 4722 5207 1952 2468 2735 3076 3427 3859 1373 1623 2Ol6 2265 2517 2926 16.000 916 1295.

3 27.k MOEN (COLLECTED PAPERS.8 23.3 26.3 26.5 - 29.0 28.3 27.7 16.3 29.2 215 19.5 29.9 9.0 21.1 27.100 AUSTENITIC STN STL LOW CHROMES THRU 2% 2-l/4 CR-1 MO 4 3 CR-l MO INT CR-MO (5-9X CR) 12.2 24.5 271 xi -iG 26.3 29.1 23._.6 22.5 25.6 26.0 25.4 28.0 - - INTERNATIONAL NICKEL CO.3 9.0 14.4 24.1 31.4 29.6 19.8 28.3 14.9 14.1 15.8 30.0 14.1 15.7 28.2 cl 13.2 25.9 17.8 26.4 15.4 9.9 26.17-19 CR STN STL AL-6XN STN STL (NOa367) Al-29-4-2 29.0 26.8 29.5 24.6 17. BULLETIN #15Ml-76T-42 ALLEGHENY LUDLUM STEEL CORP.: 30.3 24.5 10.1 23.6 27.4 30.7 26.5 la.4 25. SANDVIK TUBE 236 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .9 29.5 12.1 27.1 28.4 30.1 27.0 27.2 28.5 31.1 23.1 25.6 23.7 26.0 28.8 27.1 29.1 29.9 27.1 z 23.8 24.0 28.6 26.7 25.3 29.8 27.5 28.3 28.8 11.8 22.1 22.3 14.1 24.2 27.1 27.8 29.9 15.6 27.4 1201 ir3 21.1 29.9 28.6 30.6 27.5 24.5 21.1 25.0 31.2 24.7 25.3 28.6 21.2 21.5 23.2 27.5 22.9 12.2 24.2 29.7 26.9 26.4 28.8 27.6 16.2 rr0.0 17.2 zi 25.8 27.8 28.1 25.4 29.4 29.4 15.1 26.0 25.6 15.7 22.8 26.16.9 13. 1998 EDITION R.7 11.0 x 15.1 27.0 15.6 13.5 .2 12.0 20.7 13.6 30.0 16.6 27.8 28. ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION # 181 CARPENTER TECHNOLOGY TRENT TUBE AIRCO INC __.9 29.8 30.7 28.5 25.0 15.0 28.8 28.7 23.3 20.8 23.3 26.9 16.0 28. LETTERS k DATA) HUNTINGTON ALLOYS.7 25.7 30.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-IO MODULUS OF ELASTICITY .8 26.1 26.6 29.0 14.6 29.0 31.4 12.8 28.0 700 25.4 15.9 21.6 .1 900 loo0 22.s 27.9 11.1 29.6 a.0 23.5 25.8 14.6 13.3 24.9 13.0 - .0 14.5 Fi 27.2 9.3 28.6 24.1 28.7 a.7 30.5 24.0 28.2 I 29.8 24.5 27.2 iiz 15.8 29..8 26.3 26.1 21.4 23.5 16.7 24.3 24.4 28. D.4 26.C 29.3 14.6 27.0 28.8 25. 15 4 17% CR LOW NI STEELS THRU 3-1/2X NI-CU ALLOY 400 (N04400) 90-10 CU-NI (C70600) ALUMINUM NI-CR-FE ALLOY 600 (NO66OO) NI-FE-CR (NO6aOO k NO6610) NI-MO ALLOY 8 (NlOWl) NI-MO-CR ALLOY C-276 fN10276) NICKEL 200 (NO22OO) .8 zi zi xi 26.3 26.2 23.0 10.1 13.1 25.9 25.1 26.4 14.7 26.2 18.REFERENCES: ASME SECTION II.6 29.7 17.7 27. INC.1 25.6 25.8 25.6 26.0 26.5 28.3 a00 23.4 26.6 14.5 24.9 24. .3 24.4 22.5 26. CABOT-STELLITE TELEDYNE WAH CHANG ALBANY 27.7 24.7 llO( 17.3 16.1 27.5 2411 23.6 26.2 20.8 13.8 27.0 15.9 27.7 -I29.4 25.6 24.9 25.7 28.3 21.2 14.9 30.5 26.8 22.9 25.4 2OQ Jo0 zi F.7 20.9 27.9 16.9 14.3 27.9 14.6 22.3 26.6 27.8 29.9 24.0 la.4 25. COPPER & AL-BRONZE COMYERCLAL BRASS ADMIRALTY TITANIUM 70-30 CU-NI (C71500) NI-MO ALLOY E-2 (~10665) NI-FE-CR-MO-CU (NOaa25) MUNTZ (C36500) ZIRCONIUM (R60702) 28.4 19. 13.

3 109.5 52.0 166.2 163.4 149..5 173.0 188.9 195.9 106.1 125.5 170.8 120.i 1 1 185.5 202.7 COPPER & Al-BRONZE COMMERCLAL BRASS ADMIRALTY TITANIUM 70-30 CU-NI (C71500) NI-MO ALLOY 8-2 (~10665) NI-FE-CR-MO-CU (N08825) MUNTZ (C36500) ZIRCONIUM (~60702) NI-CR-MO-C6 (~06625) -lTt80.4 158.C 179.3 176.3 2ot.: 7 MO (S32900) 7 MO PLUS 15329501 TP 439 STN STL AL-6XN STN STL (N08367) N-29-4-2 SEA-CURE 2205 (S31803) 3RE60 (S31500) 199.9 117.6 i103.5 i100.7 184.9 199.0 175.8 198.0 198.2 82.4 :148.6 57. 15 & 17% CR LOW NI STEELS MRU 3-l/2% NI-CU ALLOY 400 (N04400) 90-10 CU-NI (C70600) ALUMINUM NI-CR-FE ALLOY 213.0 209.1 189.: 103.1 106.5 193.4 68.315.5 204.0 170.f 213.1 186.6 99.1 168.4 REFERENCES: ASME SECTION II.8 180.' ~200.6 C STL.6 196.1 NI-FE-CR (NO6800 & N08810) 214.9 198.1 164.A.6 56.2 64. CABOT-STELLITE TELEDYNE WAH CHANG ALBANY INTERNATIONAL NICKEL CO.6 147.7 139..3~199.f 106.9 198. 13.3 97.2 180.5 2-l/4 CR-l MO & 3 CR-l MO INT CR-MO (5-9X CR) 12.c 216.7 99.3 124.4 159.9 ~204. BULLETIN #lSMl-76T-42 ALLEGHENY LUDLUM STEEL CORP.7 105.4 190.5 194. ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION # 181 CARPENTER TECHNOLOGY TRENT TUBE AlRCO.4 140.8 179. 110.8 203.9 213. MOEN (COLLECTED PAPERS. 1998 EDITION R.5 173. 151.3 107.5 193.4 99.9 199.6 196.4 NICKEL 200 (N02200) 206.6 371.9~186.8 215.6 146. INC.4 102.3 648.4 211.5 146.7 169.0 186.7 95.7 '107.9 182.5 183.1 103.5 195.8 69.4 101.4 180.2 131.9 197.4~260.3 97.8 .9 184.e 38.4 213.2 195. LETTERS & DATA) HUNTINGTON ALLOYS.7 212. C-MO. SANDVlK TUBE Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 237 .8 202.' 600 (~06600) 196.9 123.s~l93.2 112.2 48.7 152.9 189.6 163.6 184.4 175.7 105.2 174.7 482.7 151. INC.8 181.1 192.2 95.5 142.1 66.3 73.2 185. MN-MO 93.3 iiihli& j37.7 188.0 207.4 199.10.9 190.8 199.0 i114.3 155.1 204.4 164.1 193.1 193.5 I 181.c NI-MO ALLOY 8 (NlOWl) N&MO-CR ALLOY C-276 (N10276) 205.7 145.5 79. 201.0 174.3 186:l 183.9 122.6 100.6 199.3 155.7 199.4 110.3 174.6 197.4 100..5 193.8 I 171.5 193.8 178.2 103.0 211.7 96.0 73.1 426.1 92.3 1146.f :202.3 206.1 180.0 .6 174.7 114.1~168.3 106.3 160.6 176.4 152.7 191.0 191. 0.1 191.5 205.5 35.1 1 37.5 91.7 102.3 I 175.2 AUSTENITIC SIN STL LOW CHROMES THRU 2% L 195.7 179.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE D-10 M MODULUS OF ELASTICITY kPo X lot6 21.4 171.3 177.0 176.1 16O.9~~96.1 168.2 116.2 150.2 95.6 158.3 211.5 66.9 165.8 205.7 167.6 193.4 85.5 593.3 191.

66 7.90 7. 23 CR-12 N.20 6.50 5.M 6.72 7.76 6.60 12.122 9.6.4s 5.16 5.73 6...6 7. 6.90 a92 9.4.32 $37 9..59 7. 23-4-2 SEA-CURE 6.9.59 7.285 12..J) 90-10 b 66-20 CU-N.67 6.05 6.90 755 5..97 7. 7. 7.20 9.05 6.16 7.U 6.40 6.21 7.65 6.62 7.3-l/2. uLwEsoF7P 32.52 7.97 655 64.10 6..70 a64 8.76 9.59 7.47 8.47 6.68 SAQ 6.I CR-I IAO 5.06 7.S 6. C-UN-51 STL.w 6.90 9.85 59~ 7.60 5.M) 8.62 9.20 5.90 9.M) am 7.7.21 9.9.M 7.66 6.63 6.26 9.0$ A24 6116 6. $lN 9n MLCRAoE6oflP ?87$lN m 2s CR-12 N.@I 1209 . 9.66 10.6 6.2.67 a43 a26 7.22 9.89 7.61 13. INC.C. LETTERS dt DA T A ) HUNTINGTON ALLOYS.77 7.03 8. SANDVIK TUBE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS D.U 9. ~.49 9.06 6.50 6.95 10.16 a92 9.16 lo.96 a76 .25 6.02 a62 6.--~ .63 a.46 wo 7.9. 9.&3 7.. 263 6.25 6.57 7.76 7.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-l 1 MEAN COEFFICIENTS OF THERMAL EXPANSION -2w -100 .07 9..50 9.07 6.26 9.04 #uY. 9.42 9.64 9.69 7.ea 5.67 7.06 M#WY (CWiXS I.65 9.7: 9.74 7.72 7.10 7.9: 10.38 .3l 9.49 6..29 9.54 9.35 6.25 7.40 6. MOEN (COLLECTED P A P E R S.16 9.17 1.50 6.46 $43 9.10 ass 13.M) 6.70 8.o.12 5.21 6.09 5.60 9.2.5.23 7.W 7.67 6.11 830 6.07 6.LU".?4 711 7. COPPER ERASS .15 .43 5.70 7.20 6.06 2-10 & N.69 9.16 4.w 7.79 9.6j 10.06 7.7o 7.20 6.29 a.52 9.02 6.19 9. 6.42 7. 7.95 REFERENCES: AWE SECTION II.20 5..71 6.07 10.19 9.90 5.23 7.44 6.39 10.29 9.85 IO.45 9.c-l/2 WI & 1 CR-. 6.29 I0.u) 9.N"Y BRONX 7Y0(532wo) 7YOPtUS (9329%) WPER-SILKmN u)LIIRAlY ZIRCWIUY CR-NI-FE-YO-CU-CB (NW 2CCB) III-CR-UO'CB (KLOI 625)(X6625) u.62 9.24 a62 6.10 5.27 6. 0.52 10.08 6.46 6.32 73 .64 7.90 6. 4TH EDITION INTERNATIONAL NICKEL CO.20 3.50 6.60 .00 6. a 2s CR-20 N.0 t son 7.02 10.3 k 7) NI-CU (NiuIM) NI-CR-E (WWCQ) M-FE-CR (timem it NwlO) WI-FE-CR-MC-CU (NwS25) NW0 (ALLOY B) NI-W-CR (AL@+.95 9.72 9.5.20 6.90 650 c-9 m.22 10.&S 7.16 10.6.58 6.69 8.10 9.62 3.34 9.94 .44 6./2 YO 5.54 6.54 9.47 7.37 9.22 7.60 560 5. a23 7.70 7.76 6.71 6.22 6.40 I 6.8 (0. I 700 6u9 900 7.50 5.90 9./4-I/2 NO &.53 "N-U0 STL 5.56 7. C-276) (N10276) t#CKEL (MLOY 2UO)(NO22W) 226S(S3lsoS) JREM) (Wsm) 70-M CU-N.Y 6.55 9. INC.50 6.5.25 7. (C7.11 7.62 6.97 9110 9.N"Y f&l611 llsoil2.w Fihw c4RwN sn a C-YN m 5.7.9s a. JOURNAL OF METALS 239 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .73 9. 8.40 7.30 a33 6.96 7. I loC0 aM) 7.4.20 6. ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PU8LlCATiON # 181 CARPENTER TECHNOLOGY TRENT TUBE AIRCO. 6.41 7. FURMAN.64 5.0.63 7.90 5.5 ay1 IW 7. 7.42 9.33 10.68 7.74 66.06 6. 7.66 6.02 9.71 10. PIPING HANDBOOK.16 7.81 a50 - S.20 647 .64 164 57. .54 .97 9.54 655 9.05 7.2 7.80 6.11 6.39 7.7 BE. 62.66 6.96 7.9. 6.52 7.76 7.66 10.65 7. 6.70 6.97 6.62 7.91 6.25 6.SC. At-6x74 (NW67) AtWIN"" (xm3) 11.90 - 83 6.15 xul 6.66 7.G.77 7% 0.45 6.20 7. 1 . 2-l/4 CR-1 uo s CR-I/2 IJO 7CR-l/2 YO a 9 CR-I uo 12 CR (t 13 CR 15cR&17cR 17-19 CR UP 4391 5.67 9.32 6. 7.4.m 12..56 7.64 Au WUOES OF TP 516 d: 317 9lN Sit Au GRUXS OF TP 304 STK ST. BULLETIN #lSMl-76T-42 ALLEGHENY LUDLUM STEEL CORP.35 6.Jo 140 a07 6.67 a.49 6.61 9.88 7.39 9.45 13.43 676 6.61 6.90 10.70 780 6.. 1998 EDITION RA. CABOT-STELLITE TELEDYNE WAH CHANG ALBANY BRIDGEPORT BRASS COMPANY SABIN CROCKER.50 i2.65 7.x4 1.02 6.62 9.05 9.SO 6.m I 6.

.

1 7. BULLETIN #1%41-76T-42 A.6 a2 9.9 14.9 6.0 13.8 3a.0 27. VOL.3 - - - - b7.6 5.3 11.9s at 51.1 11.8 2.2 14.8 Ku.0 17.0 1.7 19.1 12.5 13.4 12.8 z 116 2.8 G 14.0 15.3 a 7) MUIRWY NML BFNSS COP?ER 90-10 CU-NI 12.4 19.6 0.4 7.2 16.6 ii? 15.6 11.9 1 11.5 13.0 I 10.6 8.8 22.2 1.9 12.2 15.3 IO.3 15.6 6.7 I Il.1 12.0 33.1 13.6 15.6 16.0 tR8 !a7 19.6 16.5 121 9.9 a7 6.0 14.1 9.7 6.7 9. 33.7 16.0 8. 360 & 648 ALLEGHENY LUOLUM STEEL CORP.9 11.3 36.6 15.6 13.2 12.1 20. 0. SANDVIK TUBE 240 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .7 10. TRENT TUBE AlRCO.6 2 9.7 12.1 1.9 11. INC.t 1 12.4 la6 11.9 - 1613 14.S.7 - REFERENCES: ASME SECTION II.5 2.4 11..-.6 .9 991 12. TELEDYNE WAH CHANG ALBANY TRANS. 18.6 15. AMERICAN BRASS CO.1 14.3 13.1 2.2 16. A.6 16.3 11.1 ? .9 15.2 I&O !2.1 20. PAGES 1061-1078 BABCOX a! WILCOX co.2 15.T.0 - .6 116.8 14. 9 13.5 15.5 1.3 2.9 13.9 1.7 7.6 IZI 12.8 14.5 11.6 - .0 12.3 15.7 NI-UO ALLOY 6 NI-MO-CR LilLOY C-276 (N10276) ALUYINUU NLCFf 3W3 &WIN"" ALLOY 6061 MANIUU &RAW 1..3 15.8 13.9 14.6 33.5 13.5 A 21.0 53.0 12.2 - 11.5 15.9 4.c I4.0 12.3 6.4 l-r 10.6 10.9 15.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-12 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS K-l!4.2 3. Il.: 96.I.2 13.i 12.3 1 . PUBLICATIONS NOS 291.3 15.7 12.5 17.5 12. INC.2 0.S.8 Il.E.2 0.3 14.0 t-t r-3 - - - ZIRCONIW CR-U0 MLOY XM-27 CA-Nl-FE-UO-CU-C9 (ALLOY ZCCB) NI-CR-UO-03 (#LLOY 625) AL 29-e-2 S&CURE Al-6XN (NO6367) 8.0 15.0 15.7 18.1 6.6 11.F .1 0.5 12.9 14.6 14.1 9.2 8.0 11.M.6 15. CAEOT-STELLITE CARPENTER TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL NICKEL CD.1 i.8 12.6 16.2 15.4 5.1 14.4 17.1 15.0 11.E 13.9 9.0 14.1 10.e 1.-\ i? r\ 12.6 15.8 iTi TP TP Tp TP 304 316 321 310 mc sn h 317 STN STL h 347 STN ST1 SYN STL 11.4 102.6 !3.5 9. 1998 EDITION HUNTINGTON ALLOY.6 16. TECH.2.8 iiIi 14.a Tii 12s gj iiijii 17. 21.6 14.4 11.4 - 15.

9 10.0 177.7 IO.4 - 19.4 42..1 t4.a 33.1 - 91.1 11.6 zi 22.7 81.0 192 16.0 232 19.0 163 19.8 19.C/ 1 9: 0. !.5 26.3 174.5 16.9 s7.O 19.4 36s.0 23.5 25.4 387.0 t5.6 - -I 7cg 31 .6 21 I.9 20. TECH.3 25.9 n I.8 136.3 T 17.7 x Ls 21 1.3 13. 1998 EDITION HUNTINGTON ALLOY.7 332 27.6 31 2 xI.3 CR 15 CR 17 CR 17-19 CR op 439) PxMNrn Ip 316 a 317 m m rP321&347 STN Sn rF 310 5TN 5lL 2m5 (s31603) 3Sf60(5315co) G 27.9 15.8 102 11.1 17. 360 & 648 ALLEGHENY LUOLUM STEEL CORP.6 24z24I.8 I.4 HI-EE-CR--W-W kdo8825) 14.7 2:!.8 es 27. PUBLICATIONS NOS 291.6 175 16.0 19.4 1223 MB 19.9 1.6 17: la i 1'9.M.7 192 m.0 4A6 65.0 35. VOL.S 53.8 27.4 .0 562 31.4 18.5 13.9 34.0 2! 12 21 3.2 zt z! t.f.0 20.1 12.0 14. INC.8 x I.1 211 13. - --I - - -L - AMERICAN BRbSS CO.0 14. 199I2lJ.9 18D.7 20.6 20.7 I I I NMloMLoYB NI-W)-CR KLW C-276 000276) 57J 36.6 20.6 zi 23. 19.6 21.I 35.1 - - - MWL aws UIFQER 90-10 W-WI 70-M Cu-w (C71rn) 7~(u2900) 7uoRJE(532950) 54.6 371.6 22.9 - 883 57.2 14.0 25.5 TF.2 9.4 / 81: 27 26 25 25 27 26 a 26 .7 32.9 1.1 19.6 20.6 - 19.7 'X I.8 192 la0 16.6 22 1.5 25.1 34.0 21.a 323 29.l 23d 25i 265 25 .6 12.4 11.7 20.2 152 1911 163 16.4 .6 121.4 275 25.7 19.0 312 323 36.5 25.8 21 1.6 152 16.9 57.0 12.3 39.7 2I . BULLfTlN #15Ml-76T-42 AI.7 367. 21.0 54.8 14..1 17.! :EE 18.3 15.6 178 la9 m.9 2.11B16 166.6 39. INC.7 12.2 29a 27.8 51.9 56.8 m2 19.6 36.6 II I REFERENCES: ASME SECTION’ II.6 Tz 21.l 353 .9 !J :7 Ll .8 215 222 20.8 64.9 36.0 17.9 163 17.0 32.9 10.6 192 x1.6 11.0 lo.9 EE 33.3 433 46.6 21 Is 2 il 2: 5.1133.S. 641 - WNR 2lwmlw CR-WI AILW XN-27 CR-NI-FE-LIO-W-CB(ULOI20CB: Nl-CR-UO-CS(WP625) AL m-4-2 SEA-aIRE AL-ani(w&?67) 15. SANOVlK TUBE Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 241 . 2: r. TfLfOYNf WAH CHANG ALBANV TRANS.7 27 '3 31 5 2f i.6 iJ I.1 la0 585 381 22.7 - 20.7 145.1 13.6 12.6 27.3 Il.3139z 3m.i.7 38.1 2: 3. TRENT TUBE AIRCO.3 209 184 17.6 z 34.4 1223128.6 E22.4 22. AS.6 2 28 2 15 .7 175 Ia4 19.5 332 z¶.8 187 14.7 16.0 84.6 21.7 118 12.3182.T.0 32.4 55.9 la3 19.6 27.4 2 3.7 16.1 12. PAGES 1061-1078 fimcox % WILCOX co.6 27.0 32 13 I CR-l/z “0 I CR-1 In s-1/2 NicKa I2 CR & 1.O 25.5 59. CABOT-STELLITE CARPENTER TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL NICKEL CO.5 i.7 5l.7 53.1 33.9 19. 0.6 142 15.O 26 .3 167.1 123.1 176.1 31.a I.9 5.5 22.1 15.3 26.5 z 27.6 25.6 13.5 2? i.9 ?2.0 21.6 27.3 23.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 TABLE D-12 M THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS r I CR-l/Z Ml & l-j/4 CR-I/Z U( !-l/4 CR-7 uo i CR-112 NO 7 15..2 21.7 184 Fl.7 171.6 13.6 II7 13.0 19.2 19.0 16.1 19.3 m.0 30.1 163 23.9 15.1 31.1 177.2 27..9 19.

....28 K1..675 3.I.....26 4.37 33...0x 6.500 10.cco 7...40 23.375 135M) 13....03 0..cCo 5........99 I.61 Diamla IO&l w.675 13...14 242 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association ..57 17.44 45....95 13..750 1.125 1.74 7.23 46..375 w.......35 2.750 5.13 1.56 3.....125 3...63 23.......375 3.......500 15.....70 9..250 3."..259 13...22 0.00 2....06 0... . Alumi.08 16...........625 10. ..S 216.....ooO 1.....96 24............6cO 5..I2 1...79 4.625 12...625 6.10 39.375 Il.....375 5..625 5......35 4211 4266 a..260 4..875 6..41 Diameter lnchu 12mo 12126 12.cm 6.......075 iO...500 7..71 12.53 10..075 s...5w 9..07 1..750 10.._...625 14..58 0.....03 5.x26 l/Y Y l'welgh¶ Rlng46-X361/2'x21/2'wighs +il&S....53 1...17 21..125 5.14 6. 'Titadm .....26 1.. A....._.....goJTllicknoIr Potmda 14....41 9..875 7..55 19.Mo 0.....06 19..."...31 11.375 14....34 26..13 1 ..60 25..00 0..625 15...........125 6..760 7.375 126cO 12..69 .._..51 4......875 0.~." ...._...01 0.65 53.74 26.....250 1...ooo 13.125 13......125 2.625 4..500 2625 2750 2.~ .....78 10.250 15..16 2. .wl 4..002 11..250 10..03 46..375 6....250 9..12 50..a....375 15.I. 0.".39 1..250 0.10 20..28 0...80 52..125 15.38 66...19 ?a.82 2S..625 11.........63 0.675 15...42 24..10 ~30....63 47..93 3..96 51.....05 9..375 4.126 0.~....."...64 36... A..02 a.....42 0.35 0. Nickel .500 3. ....59 41....5UO 0...45lbs 641.~.375 0.... .....760 14....125 14.29 5...05 17.....73 2....S.375 3207 3275 33.750 9.125 4..72 2227 22..750 6....675 14.01 1...62 16.. 1..XQ 6.875 2.260 5.....750 0..95 27....500 11. .125 11.92 37.......54 16.70 15...63 21...._..625 13. 3M Sedc.. 400 Series SiSkdr ...15 10..... Nickel-Cimmc-Inn ..84 2...125 9..13 0.50 36...65 40....01 11...376 9....11 34..~ ." ..16 15.11 12..04 la...125 6..cCQ 2..57 &as 6..07 1.....625 9.750 12.625 a.260 2375 2. SlSurl~ .. Nickel-Copper ... CoPpr 8r CuPm Nickclr .07 Mvnrz taernl _.00 0.46 49..500 a..750 11...76 5.. Bronze ....~...02 4.." .375 7.05 7..15 25..750 6.625 " 3.260 12.03 0........53 12..675 11..gop” lbichlur POETI& 3......250 7........W 1.750 15..64 2.59 0.250 6.w 4......875 9..6co 14.38 13.250 11...I.25 56....625 7........68 1.~.750 4.75 31..51 54.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION WEIGNTS OF CIRCULAR RINGS AND DISCS’) Example: Requked: WelgMOfaRlng~ODx361/2‘IDx2l/~Thick 43'dbmetwdiscl'thkkw&~hs 36 1/Tdbmeterdlxl'thlckw~hs Ring 46....... Admiralty i...46 30....CCO IO..58 20....36 6......13 Aluminum ....02 1..89 1....21 36..09 1..250 14..13lbs Diameter Inshcl OMX) 0..375 10...875 43.........78 0.....34 Diamew Iochu 4.._.56 25......1...m 15..125 7..-..26 14...u..66 44..250 a....13 3...375 6....625 0.....875 l.LS...44 6..ooo 14.125 10..17 0.375 lSO0 1...57 26.. Naval R&d Bn..750 13....760 3..625 1.50 0..35 0.Doo 3.36 7... ..................64 48.

750 32.750 16.675 22.675 m.cQO 17.675 3n.375 28.750 19.76 114.64 253.43 154.760 20.61 6470 65.750 22.66 165.750 26.ct-a 16.57 162.250 26.375 34.626 26.51 2u7.47 93.33 Eimcer Inches 31.125 19.20 193.90 67.26 147.253 21.Ow 33.08 229.750 16.675 33.250 31.$ Thickncsr Pounds 57.94 190.21 76.69 107.375 17.90 210.375 22.53 101.375 16.26 67.71 167.21 91.04 268.653 34.375 25.19 70.500 26.97 270.m 26.500 19.250 16.750 36.375 33.wO 34.375 24.35 80.96 132.31 226.17 72.40 166.Ow 22.96 171.250 33.760 23.go 240.61 94.01 124.64 63.125 17.675 32.wa 31.97 251.25 246.61 142.375 27.07 136.71 255.750 25.675 1S.96 104.SQY 29.77 224.125 25.625 25.36 163.626 32.cal 29.675 27.500 27.125 24.26 221.32 166.61 109.625 24.675 Wpg$ Ihicknerr POtBIdS lM.125 22.70 135.56 244.53 226. 214.11 12u.oM) 24.46 197.750 30.250 35.wl 26.625 36.125 20.60 257.34 160.750 21.55 117.51 112.CCO 16.64 146.ooO 27.675 T*BLE o-1 2-(oo”ll”“.66 274.76 217.95 156.125 19.01 143.625 30.41 61.47 x)214 2fJ3.01 222.5al 28.16 71.260 19.750 29.375 19.62 219.05 215.56 62.5w 21.750 24.9s 129.77 276.675 34.44 137.61 276.625 24.#J a.17 74.62 139.67 266.375 3aca 30.27 70.42 144.40 246.76 179.Oa 30.92 168.37 65.10 90.975 24.750 34.32 66.675 35xoO 35.375 35.675 17.500 24.375 32.500 23.67 StandardS Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 243 .375~ 29.03 110.66 162.goy ?hic!acn Polmds 96.600 32.73 280.5w 22.675 19.32 125.17 73.62 205.625 29.36 160.250 29.90 97.45 169.07 174.675 2S.37 106.14 196.21 140.66 22&c 235.500 31.125 34.79 66.125 27.d) WEIGHTS OF CIRCULAR RINGS AND DISCS “p.250 30.67 231.52 173.125 31.250 24.125 35.64 126.250 17.63 176.02 153.34 133.20 265.375 21.26 116.40 lW.92 59.20 2ca.500 36.625 IS.760 29.92 68.75 95.675 23.375 26.375 16.625 23.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 0 c3 62 Diameter lllchcr lS.13 Diameter lnchcr 2s.49 259.750 17.625 22.125 33.750 27.750 33.57 192.500 25.11 249.125 23.38 261.80 159.69 149.16 105.xX) 273.42 167.125 32.125 IS.250 27.47 62.73 w.125 26.675 “pF.29 263.125 26.21 69.675 25.71 26269 264.06 Diameter [ncher 21.125 30.500 16.64 61.23 77.43 69.70 123.12 267.43 64.40 121.625 20.625 19.625 27.27 111.27 237.a 23S.19 177.92 162.625 31.61 212.125 21.02 57.24 92.64 130.24 66.625 16.250 16.625 28.m 25.19 75.250 34.64 195.31 79.250 32.77 102.1X0 23.500 16.250 26.91 272.m 21.250 23.02 115.KxI 17.30 129.W 32.23 99.975 w.500 33.49 53.250 a375 20.375 31.625 21.375 23.675 29.60 xx).625 33.760 31.51 16411 165.73 242.125 29.260 22.pc Thickruss Pound.m 19.250 26.63 119.625 17.

625 39.56 637.76 3co.625 38.w 381.69 407.80 537.07 534.625 51.375 41.125 55.55 505.42 376.500 36.m 46.79 622.42 319.675 43.24 416.250 44.375 43.66 576.625 46.32 317.04 570.34 426.250 26.625 49.000 36.250 39.09 669.29 695.~cQnlLln”.125 54.51 646.35 532.23 568.125 37.88 328.14 438.ow 43.7% 37.000 42.675 39.88 476.375 49.6% 41.250 50.625 37.25 390.375 44.53 658.85 679.375 55.65 419.39 244 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .ccil 53.60 461.85 619.675 43.79 340.96 343.55 521.67 304.86 573.675 49.125 60.375 44.125 45.05 453.61 469.125 49.58 392.000 44.375 36.67 290.56 456.94 354.63 667.96 402.125 52250 52.67 626.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-.250 64.125 46.14 Poxmds 374.64 414.500 55.19 515.125 39.250 53.625 55.500 45.125 51.675 45scO 45.92 616.53 551.250 43.375 38.06 421.76 5%.375 45.M 323.73 625.67 670.52 656.38 358.77 643.61 369.375 46.32 404.69 294.625 50.74 296.250 41.15 332.76 431.500 40.675 4o.cw 51.22 43348 436.73 673.ow 41.625 44.125 41.sS 309.3n 602.07 556.750 51.075 “ig$= ‘Ibickoua POlllId 579.875 W&k&g lllicknot POUKIS 471.29 554.30 363.10 265.76 593.03 461.63 631.63 596.85 363.01 545.92 68303 666.375 37.750 39.625 52.250 42375 42543 42625 42.5w 46.46 336.125 53.125 36.125 42.250 47.52 321.06 311.67 516.xX) 51.500 47.cul 37.51 lncbts 36.45 478.125 36.30 334.500 30.375 53.61 360.375 39.750 54.503 43.750 42.750 46.71 296.250 46.075 54.21 486.06 443.75 325.750 44.90 613.52 643.26 499.67 372.125 43.125 44.750 55.32 473.125 40.750 43.14 345.675 52co3 52.91 395.71 3JS.675 5o~ocO 60.375 46.7% 41.5w 41.53 349.65 497.750 45.19 692.51 652.250 40.375 40.625 43.62 434.93 3c6.52 513.M 5a7.33 347.5cO 49.42 492.125 46.625 45.625 54.750 50.07 409.675 37.25 397.65 559.34 562.625 40.625 47.54 451.250 55.2% 49.66 466.64 529.253 37.cw 54.94 526.35 367.23 315.90 42s.750 40.wo 46.675 55mO 55.625 53.27 643.56 661.250 45.750 52.46 423.d) WEIGHTS OF CIRCULAR RINGS AND DISCS DkWrW W$t$y lhicknerr Dimmer lnchu 4l.500 53.21 466.675 Pomdr 288.675 42.500 46.375 51.62 338.500 54.86 510.09 611.68 292.Eco 37.766 53.750 46.91 502.19 585.20 507.16 356.250 43.375 54.625 48.59 664.79 676.59 634.250 36.875 63.05 446.03 494.250 51.51 Dimeter Inch Sl.5w 44.53 540.m 36.13 463.375 47.56 446.m 47.53 640.43 565.750 38.60 441.675 “2i&= llxickacsr Diamctcr hchu 46.750 49.01 330.90 590.45 411.19 606.125 47.675 3a.675 47.375 52.500 38.29 605.375 50.73 361.7% 36.62 302.69 399.500 39.24 523.50 649.625 26.64 562.07 456.83 388.14 313.m 40.wo 49.wl ” 39.500 52.750 47.61 385.

03 625.07 944.750 82.125 82.500 63.39 1026.46 941.81 lcw.61 1178.125 60.375 70.750 63.605 72.68 905.04 1195.46 1064.01 762.65 930.60 870.126 66.68 1168.77 1174.750 58.250 82.250 73.67 1154.250 66.626 56.16 1072.750 67.500 61.83 1126.375 62.625 81.Mx) 67.65 822.31 loM1.15 IO-B.wO 61.64 76194 785.21 836.15 1107.750 56.375 75.625 68.5% 73.88 1003.06 926.35 1011.13 866.250 71.500 75.96 1052.66 863.376 66.04 714.c0o 70.21 859.85 937.625 73.125 66.wo 56.34 915.81 832.93 977.77 759.70 1142.29 1207.125 57.625 70.126 70.68 1146.52 801.26 1240.91 919.88 Diameter IRciw 56.85 746.86 1182.125 64.125 81.ccm 71.53 1091.86 805.876 828.750 69.53 1041.250 65.126 72.73 1252.250 61.75 1134.88 1079.wO 72.09 lZl.625 69.11 1226.625 57.wo 63.27 765.23 736.76 1063&l 1087.26 862.96 955.250 75.375 6a.250 63.2% 60.07 1111.67 1160.750 59.250 72.OQO 69.67 1248.63.39 1211.cco 60.42 1095.90 711.125 74.600 67.14 901.m 57.5w 71.625 71.wo 66.69 948.375 72.19 798.93 1116.626 64.07 873.34 720.875 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 245 .750 73.ax 69.91 815.68 726% 730.56 891.97 1232.94 1033.875 "ST llli&r Pounds 1122.250 64.250 63.760 72.84 1227.91 1186.500 63.20 808.626 62.0x 74.CCG 67.61 898.60 1219.875 69.80 772.51 701.05 8ao.03 842.750 61.875 749.10 1014.625 74.625 72.42 .79 1056.69 1162.375 56.43 73Q.08 894.125 75.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 WEIGHTS OF CIRCULAR RINGS AND DISCS Wcightpcr Inchof Thicknur Pounds 970.675 6s.66 811.ccil 64.875 74.55 884.07 775.19 717.876 57.m 70.71 99243 Q-X.875 72.625 75.72 1223.376 61.5a %.875 70.125 69.875 75.35 778.32 951.250 67.47 1269.375 65.85 1018.91 Q66.62 1060.m 65.625 66.625 59.63 704.45 645% 849.125 66.250 69.876 67.43 923.25 973.750 68.51 723.125 68.250 70.376 69.15 999.63 768.31 965.wo 66.74 1170.750 74.375 71.750 70.875 68.600 66.64 742.750 64.500 74.09 1282.750 71.875 6o.88 1278.72 1138.76 1120.875 64.125 69.375 59.82 839.27 1265.500 66.5% 58.250 66.00 1114.29 752.375 74.wQ 75.04 733.16 1029.750 75.500 69.126 58.71 1166.62 981.375 5r.875 898.32 1099.24 933.500 64.05 887.73 1037.750 60.375 60.375 63.125 67.62 1022.31 ! 58.600 62.24 768.56 877.375 64.126 71.91 1267.5x 65.49 1215.20 12Q3.875 73.375 58.28 818.m 59.67 1273.55 791.625 58.750 65.76 707.22 908.98 1191.126 63.625 67.61 959.250 58.375 67.wl 73.625 65.23 1103.63 756.01 966.250 69.625 63.12 1199.750 66.coo $8.02 1075.825 60.78 856.375 73.760 57.32 852.875 Diamctcr inches 7l.34 1046.250 57.250 74.87 795.125 73.41 1244.603 %.07 6l.78 912.875 59.875 620x 82.

500 81.125 91.40 1447. 88.oca 90.77 1623.125 63.675 1644.250 91.84 1368.84 1511.125 95.13 1921.90 1470.ow 83.376 82.25 (624.cco 94.375 83.12 1599.m 79.m 85.625 60.750 91.500 93.47 1931.125 64.57 1376.250 80.29 1829.79 1312.750 88.375 91.14 1359.ooO 91.60 1355.m 62.875 87.625 a7.49 1363.000 95.99 1557.91 1690.750 as.U.88 hchu 61.5.21 1372.375 79.27 1774.125 1547.750 76.260 87.93 mo.250 76.625 76.625 94.26 law.92 1a75.750 66.625 83.375 a7.51 1337.81 2026.500 20.47 1350.500 94.60 1983.875 so.22 2Q1.33 1385.61 1625.250 77.625 86.125 aa.875 246 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .1a 1799.21 1333.250 95.53 1429.500 78.84 1942.500 85.375 a9.625 95.33 1581.675 145l.13 1497.625 81.27 1303.07 166s.m 84.500 92.750 80.14 1885.61 1700.19 1769.675 69.07 1543.09 1425.57 la54.21 1764.18 lm4.375 95.95 1479.675 93.83 1534.375 w.750 82.59 1671.~ 1916.375 90.ooo 85.81 1910.2J3 1999.625 91.375 60.54 1290.750 77.33 1465.78 1666.34 1407.48 1754.375 64.11 1394.m 76.9-l 1637.875 ao.64 1562.CCXl 61.65 1936.675 92.45 1438.63 1421.66 1889.81 1642.24 16a1.M 1416.125 LB.375 94.125 76.500 84.0x 65.02 1299.29 1926.70 1739.99 1434.76 1695.wO 67.50 94.2% 78.62 1744.65 2iw.250 89.625 82.10 1719.93 1403.876 79.76 1295.SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION WEIGHTS OF CIRCULAR RINGS AND DISCS Dimmu inches 76.03 1488.52 1900.77 1412.125 60.12 1973.99 1724.5m 66.125 85.06 1316.39 1895.wQ 92125 92250 92375 92.375 78.625 65.71 1593.02 1520.875 94.50 09.42 1759.750 76.30 1566.625 77.Kx) 83.2.97 1571.22 1529.11 1994.675 aa.79 1734.97 1661.43 1516.62 1324.32 1769.5m 79.44 Sl.41 1595.41 1678.cco 68.36 1456.975 95.06 2t.7$0 87.um 77.125 79.500 77.03 laaO.750 83.63 1342.42 1474.500 76.260 79.65 1859.38 165217 1656.72 1390.126 89.125 78.250 93.625 78.250 63.16 1794.625 66.52 1398.36 1976.76 2042.675 a2.625 92750 92.03 1s1a.375 ffl.5m 87.35 1652.750 89.875 a4.4s 1464.65 1576.750 90.95 1361.55 1749.59 6s.33 lS34.760 93.12 2Q31.500 95.250 61.14 1346.076 7a.ooo 80.253 82.43 2036.000 89.51 2U20.52 1307.22 1715.975 85.&1 1606.42 86.750 64.750 al.875 77.94 1947.125 90.500 83.375 e6.69 1452.71 1546.375 76.46 1705.89 1729.250 93.50 la49.91 1329.750 79.wO S3.125 87.675 s3.125 77.59 1493.52 1628.253 64.67 196289 1968.625 90.24 195245 1957.625 79.125 s4.29 1614.34 1710.375 61.38 1639.375 85.01 1565.OD3 76.24 1779.66 1805.73 la64B3 1669.26 1633.33 1320.125 81.92 1443.750 94.500 82.625 84.759 95.56 1609.500 91.250 a5.625 89.70 150227 1506.26 1764.675 1286.600 88.20 1614.22 1619.375 77.625 93.19 1809.125 82.45 1539.

03 2311.10 2562.07 25sa.375 110.27 2707.Mx) 106.65 2150.125 109.875 97SQJ 97.26 2133.625 115.250 96.56 2637.20 2u79.36 2875.60 2514.ccu 101.80 2794.375 99.Mo 102.69 2506.750 115.375 lOfl.760 114.56 2163.04 2610.750 106.39 2232% 2238.125 102.626 Ic-5.675 102.14 2556.625 101.500 111.2YJ 106.875 107.41 2122.16 2926.04 28co.500 107.625 114.07 2907.86 2644.m 103.32 Bd5.750 105.10 2199.42 2269.90 2689.39 2977.64 2128.375 113.32 2260.37 2894.375 105SCXJ 105.35 ios5.375 98.54 2932.14 2701.58 2ca4.500 114.11 2155.376 97.27 2990.ooo 105.56 2172.30 2645.625 110.70 2451.375 106.72 2901.503 100.250 101.52 261278 2819.375 115.54 2244.02 2696.15 2wJ.c-l 2574.41 2713.m 2263.06 2294.02 2449.28 28c.625 lca.GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 WEIGHTS’OF CIRCULAR RINGS AND DISCS Diameter hchcr %.750 98.750 101.125 97.625 111.625 98.14 2465.375 %.625 97.750 loo.125 105.250 103.750 102.7% 110.625 108.19 2444.75 2101.125 110.750 107.875 109.72 2952.03 25ml.58 2787.625 113.375 104.94 2420.750 104.000 lOS.37 23c6.66 2756.875 2744.875 112wl 112125 1122s 112375 112.625 lffi.57 2111.76 2374.72 %.24 2544.w) 113.59 2161.625 86.375 lOQ.250 102.93 2939.M 2266.250 110.075 2052.18 E34.43 2526.17 2210.45 2866.CCO 111.5% 110.75 2653.27 2479.90 2496.250 115.63 207d.750 86.500 102.58 2403.03 2888.750 97.626 104.43 2658.02 2490.125 114.125 Se.500 98.675 2502.74 24X55 243236 2438.CCO 108.16 2106.15 2775.250 114.375 103SW 103.70 2882.52 2380.11 2063.xO 108.55 2467.125 103.18 2550.125 101.m 107.500 113.28 2366.625 109.71 2300.675 103.82 2227.750 106.125 111.875 115.72 2255.79 2920.40 2473.503 96.14 2414.94 2769.96 2371.63 2205.625 99.503 97.2% 111.04 2625.250 105.m 99.13 2958.70 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 247 .5% 115.500 99.24 x40.63 2984.500 104.125 lI3.625 103.07 2166.93 2266.5co 101.64 lnchu 101.m 99.36 25322Q 2536.625 102.250 107.250 98.85 2456.05 2177.750 113.ooo 98.36 2731.80 lOS.123 107.875 11o.875 2363.06 2869.54 2964.250 108.72 2216.CCO 100.375 114.36 2652.!XO 106.47 2c68.03 2604.27 2221.875 105.ca 110.375 102.750 99.675 114sca 114.375 lOI.13 2249.750 ice.125 1%.51 2664.06 2188.876 99.74 2762.% 2117.625 107.51 25M.%0 115.60 2670.3.80 2397.02 lnchu llI.250 97.36 2409.250 100.16 2277.875 2598.000 104.73 2139.70 Diametsr Inches 106.125 104.7&Y 103.375 100.126 iOa.37 2750.250 106.875 2272.70 2676.10 262214 2628.675 104.76 2068.07 2616.375 107.04 2331.ooo 96.80 2682.125 IW.96 20Q0.125 115.875 lCO.125 99.500 106.& 2719.375 Ill.18 2144.750 111.250 104.Qx 113.31 2531.500 112625 112750 112875 lu.43 2913.58 2194.125 96.

SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION TABLE D-14 CHORD LENGTHS &AREAS OF CIRCULAR SEGMENTS A=CxD2 k=2[h(D-h)]“’ 248 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

.... GENERAL INFORMATION TPlBLE D15 CONVERSION FACTORS SECTION 9 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 249 .

SECTION 9 GENERAL INFORMATION rAl%ED-r6+o”u”“ed. CONVERSION FACTORS 250 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .

in appmdmre decimals of M inch. 0.p “umbu 0.340 %Z 3 : : _ .GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION 9 CONVERSION TABLES FOR WIRE AND SHEET METAL GAGES Value.454 0.AC foe Stanclards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 251 . )w i ’ .

SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP SECTION This section of the TEMA Standards provides the designer with additional information and guidance relative to the design of shell and tube heat exchangers not covered by the scope of the main sections of the Standards. 252 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . indicates that the information should be considered. other suffix designations following RGP indicate other applicable sections of the main Standards. “Recommended Good Practice”. but is not a requirement of the basic Standards. When a paragraph in this section (RGP) is followed by an R. The title of this section. this RGP paragraph is an extension or amplification of a like numbered paragraph in the RCB secbon of the main Standards. C. and/or R. Similarly.

CALCULAE COMPONENT WEIGHTS AND WEIGHT OF CONTENTS (OPERATING AND TESTING).....J FIGURE RGP-G-7. 2.1112 EARTHQUAKE FORCES N-4 MSFm FIXED SADDLE RVFm FIXED SADDLE RVSm SLIDING SADDLE SLIDING SADDLE I .n SLIDING SADDLE 1. CALCULATE VERTICAL SADDLE REACTIONS&LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENTS DUE TO WEIGHT FOR THE EMPTY.L ..111 LOADS RGP-G-7.11 HORIZONTAL VESSEL SUPPORTS RGP-G-7. Cs = SEISMIC FACTOR RLFm = TOTAL EXCH WT x Cs RLSm = 0 (SLIDING SADDLE) SMFm = SMFm x Cs SMSEQ = SMSw x Cs SMMm = SMMwr x Cs RVFm = (RLFm x H) / L RVSEQ = (RLFEQ x ii) IL RHFEQ = RVFwr x Cs RHSEQ = RHFwr x Cs MSFED = RHFEQ x H MSSm = RHSEO x H Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 253 . OPERATING t-a TEST CONDITIONS CONSIDERING ACTUAL COMPONENT WEIGHT AND LOCATION. CALCULATE SEISMIC REACTIONS AND MOMENTS.r = LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENT @ FIXED SADDLE DUE TO WEIGHT SMSwr = LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENT @ SLIDING SADDLE DUE TO WEIGHT SMMw = MAXIMUM LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENT BETWEEN SADDLES DUE TO WEIGHT RGP-G-7.1111 RV3. RVFwr = VERTICAL REACTION @ FIXED SADDLE DUE TO WEIGHT RVSw = VERTICAL REACTION @SLIDING SADDLE DUE TO WEIGHT SMFv.. SLIDING SADDLE FIGURE RGP-G-7.1112 1.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7...1111 LOADS DUE TO WEIGHT SECTION 10 SMMw n Y--h SMSwr f-Y RVFw FIXED SADDLE I RVFwr FIXED SADDLE RVS..

6 fi FOR LUBRICATED PLATE = 0. RLFw = RVSwr x w RLSw = RVSwr x & SMFEXP = RLFEXP x H SMSEXP = RLSw x H SMMmxp = RLSEXP x H p FOR STEEL = 0.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7. . CALCULATE WIND LOADS (CALCULATE TOTAL WIND FORCE). FLw = WEFF x HEFF x EFFECTIVE WIND LOAD (AS DETERMINED BY APPROPRIATE CODE) FHw = HEFF x LER x EFFECTIVE WIND LOAD (AS DETERMINED BY APPROPRIATE CODE) RLFw = FLw (MAY BE CONSIDERED NEGLIGIBLE FOR SMALL EXCHANGERS) RLSw = 0 (SLIDING SADDLE) SMFw = LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENT @ FIXED SADDLE DUE TO TRANSVERSE WIND (SHELL MOMENT DUE TO LONGITUDINAL WIND MAY BE CONSIDERED NEGLIGIBLE) SMSw = LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENT @ SLIDING SADDLE DUE TO TRANSVERSE WIND (SHELL MOMENT DUE TO LONGITUDINAL WIND MAY BE CONSIDERED NEGLIGIBLE\ SMMw = ‘MAXIMUM LONGITUDINAL SHELL MOMENT BETWEEN SADDLES DUE TO T~iAiSVEkSE WIND (SHELL MOMENT DUE TO LONGITUDINAL WIND MAY BE CONSIDERED NEGLIGIBLE) RVFw = (RLFw x HE&!) / L RVSw = (RLFw x HEFF/~) / L RHFw = FHw x ((A + 0.a RGP-G-7. li .5L) / LEFF) RHSw = FHw x ((El + OSL) / LEFF) MSFw = RHFw x Hw/2 MSSw = RHSw x HEFF/~ . CALCULATE LOADS DUE TO THERMAL EXPANSION (WHERE p = COEFFlClENT OF FRICTION BETWEEN FOUNDATION AND BASE PLATE AT SLIDING SADDLE).1113 WIND LOADS MSFw FIXED SADDLE b - - A - - p SLIDING SADDLE RVFw FIXED SADDLE MSSw SLIDING SADDLE FIGURE RGP-G-7.‘1 _/-.1113 1.? .1 254 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .1114 THERMAL EXPANSION LOADS LOADS CAUSED BY LONGITUDINAL GROWlH BETWEEN FIXED 8 SLIDING SADDLES I FIXED SADDLE SLIDING SADDLE FIGURE RGP-G-7.1114 1.

1 I W I-------------A RVFw FIXED SADDLE MSSEFF SLIDING SADDLE FIGURE RGP-G-7. 2. DEAD WEIGHT FLOODED + WIND 2.1116 1. DEAD WEIGHT EMPTY + WIND . DEAD WEIGHT FLOODED + EARTHQUAKE . DEAD WEIGHT EMPTY + EARTHQUAKE . DEAD WEIGHT EMPTY . DEAD WEIGHT FLOODED .‘” SMMEFF = LARGER OF (SMMw?+ SMMw’)‘” OR (SMMd+ SMME~‘)‘~ RGP-G-7.ARCTAN(RH/RV)) x 2 (SEE FIGURE RGP-G-7.1116 EFFECTIVE REACTION LOAD SADDLE ANGLE L / FIGURE RGP-G-7. DEAD WEIGHT OPERATING .1115 1. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 255 . CALCULATE THE EFFECTIVE SADDLE ANGLE FOR EACH SADDLE FOR ALL WIND AND EARTHQUAKE CASES. CALCULATE THE COMBINED SADDLE REACTIONS FOR THE FOLLOWING CASES OR AS APPROPRIAE IN DESIGN CRITERIA: . DEAD WEIGHT OPERATING + THERMAL EXPANSION . DEAD WEIGHT OPERATING + EARTHQUAKE .RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-G-7.1116). CALCULATE RESULTANT SADDLE LOAD 8 SHELL MOMENT FOR WINDIEARTHQUAKE CASES: RVFEFF = LARGER OF (RVFd+ RHF# OR (RVFw 2+ RHFd )” RVSEFF = LARGER OF (RVSwr*+ RHSW*)‘~ OR (RVSw*+ RHSE&‘~ SMFm q LARGER OF (SMFd+ SMFvv’f’ OR (SMFwr*+ SMFm=)” SMSEFF = LARGER OF (SMSw’+ SMSw’)‘” OR (SMSw?+ SMSd . EFFECTIVE SADDLE ANGLE = ((ACTUAL SADDLE ANGLE DIVIDED BY 2) . DEAD WEIGHT OPERATING + WIND OR ANY OTHER APPROPRIATE COMBINATION .1115 COMBINED FORCES RLSw MSFEFF FIXED SADDLE RHSEFF-’ RVSEFF SLIDING SADDLE .

BY L.P.112 STRESSES ONCE THE LOAD COMBINATIONS HAVE BEEN DETERMINED.= CIRCUMFERENTIAL COMPRESSION AT BOTTOM OF SHELL SI= LONGITUDINAL STRESS AT MIDSPAN /l!_ Sz = TANGENTIAL SHEAR . 1972.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7. COMPRESSION AT BOTTOM) 7 SI” = LONGITUDINAL STRESS AT SADDLE WITH STIFFENER 7 i LS. THE STRESSES ON THE EXCHANGER CAN BE CALCULATED. = TANGENTIAL SHEAR IN HEAD iSe = CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS AT HORN OF SADDLE FIGURE RGP-G-7. THE METHOD OF CALCULATING STRESSES IS BASED ON “STRESSES IN LARGE HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL PRESSURE VESSELS ON TWO SADDLE SUPPORTS”. ASME. ZICK SI’ = LONGITUDINAL STRESS AT SADDLES (TENSION AT TOP. PRESSURE VESSEL AND PIPING: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS.112 256 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .RESULTS IN DIAGONAL LINES IN SHELL - S.

1121 LONGITUDINAL STRESS AT MID SPAN (Sr) SECTION 10 LONGITUDINAL STRESS s.=*(w) .1122 LONGITUDINAL STRESS AT THE SADDLE WITHOUT STIFFENERS (S?) THIS AREA IS INEFFECTIVE AGAINST LONGITUDINAL SENDING IN AN UNSTIFFENED SHELL fg 4 a--=+ LONGITUDINAL STRESS s1’ =* d ts SMFEFF or SMSEFF SlN*A A+ SINACOSA .=*( . radians “---I EFFECTIVE SECTION MODULUS OF ARC Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 257 .1115) in-lb (mm-kN) r = OUTSIDE SHELL RADIUS.y”. SMSEFF = MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE SHELL MOMENT AT FIXED OR SLIDING SADDLE (SEE FIGURE RGP-G-7. (mm-kN) r= OUTSIDE SHELL RADIUS. kPa WHERE SMFEFF . inches (mm) ts = SHELL THICKNESS.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7.&F SIN’A nrz ts A + SINACOSA . inches (mm) ts = SHELL THICKNESS.!$ LONGITUDINAL STRESS (METRIC) S. kPa WHERE SMMEFF = MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE SHELL MOMENT AT MID SPAN (SEE FIGURE RGP-G-7. inches (mm) RGP-G-7.1115) in-lb.2 7 ?i(y-COSA) I x 106.2 yq’x( 7 COSA) ‘[ 1 1 -$ SI’ =* lb LONGITUDINAL STRESS (METRIC) SMFEFF or SM.“’ ) x10’. inches (mm) A = % EFFECTIVE SADDLE ANGLE.

THEN THE ENTIRE SECTION MODULUS OF THE CROSS SECTION IS EFFECTIVE.1123 LONGITUDINAL STRESS AT THE SADDLE WITH STIFFENER RINGS OR END CLOSURES CLOSE ENOUGH TO SERVE AS SIIFFENERS (SI-) LONGITUDINAL STRESS S. ALLOWABLE STRESS LIMIT FOR St 3’ 8 52” TENSION -THE TENSILE STRESS + THE LONGITUDINAL STRESS L%JE TO PRESSURE TO BE rE%% ~~~-iiii~%%%3LE TENSION STRESS OF THE MATERIAL AT THE DESIGN TEMPERATURE TIMES THE JOINT EFFICIENCY OF THE GIRTH JOINT COMPRESSION -THE COMPRESSIVE STRESS IS TO BE LESS THAN THE B FACTOR IN THE CODE FOR LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSION OF THE MATERIAL AT THE DESIGN TEMPERATURE.” = * ( SMFEFF or SMSEFF ) x10’.1115) in-lb. kPa lir2 ts SMFEFF . (mm-kN) SECTION MODULUS = d tSI inches3(mm3) r= OUTSIDE SHELL RADIUS.” =* WHERE SMFEFF or SMSEFF lb . A 258 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . SMSw = MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE SHELL MOMENT AT FIXED OR SLIDING SADDLE ISEE FIGURE RGP-G-7. inches (mm) ts = SHELL THICKNESS.-$ LONGITUDINAL STRESS (METRIC) S. inches (mm) IF THE SHELL IS STIFFENED IN THE PLANE OF THE SADDLE OR ADJACENT TO THE SADDLE OR THE SADDLE IS WITHIN A 5 r/2 OF THE END CLOSURE.A A A SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7.

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SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE C) SHELL STIFFENED BY END CLOSURE (A <r/Z) I . degrees p = (180 . & C IS TO BE LESS THAN 0. inches (mm) 1s = SHELL THICKNESS.kPa MAXIMUM SHEAR AT 0 = a WHERE RVFEFF . (mm-kN) 8.1115) in-lb. RVSEFF = MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE SHELL MOMENT AT FIXED ORSLIDING SADDLE (SEE FIGURE RGP-G-7. B. 260 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .$ ).8 TIMES THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS IN TENSION OF THE SHELL MATERIAL AT THE DESIGN TEMPERATURE. degrees a=n-&(i+&) . inches (mm) CONSTANT 1(2 FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF g ALLOWABLE STRESS LIMIT - THE MAXIMUM TANGENTIAL SHEAR STRESS FOR CASES A.radians r q OUTSIDE SHELL RADIUS. I TANGENTIAL SHEAR STRESS S? = Kz(RVFw or RVSEFF) rts le ’ ina TANGENTIAL SHEAR STRESS (METRIC) sz= Kz(RVFw or RVSEFF) rts xlO’.

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 261 .kPa __ RVFw OR RVSEFF) 4ts(b + 1015) - ffi ~(RVFEFF OR RVSEFF jj x106.kPa LSfS! WHERE RVFEFF. RVSEFF = MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE VERTICAL REACTIONAT THE FIXED AND SLIDING SADDLE RESPECTIVELY.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGPC-7. inches (mm) KS = CONSTANT FROM FIGURE RGP-G-7. inches (mm) Ls = SHELL LENGTH BETWEEN TUBESHEETS OR BETWEEN SHELL FLANGES OR BETWEEN SHELL FLANGE TO HEAD TANGENT LINE. inches (mm) b = WIDTH OF SADDLE.1125 CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS AT HORN OF SADDLES UNSTIFFENED (Ss) SECTION 10 CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS AT HORN OF SADDLE RVFEFF OR RVSEFF) 4ts(b + lots) OR - 3K$RVFw OR RVSEFF) 2tsz I lb G2 FOR Ls < 8r Sa= (RVFEFF OR RVSEFF) 4ts(b + lots) 10 ~(RVFEFF OR RVSEFF) Lsts 2 8 z2 lb CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS AT HORN OF SADDLE (METRIC) FOR Ls 2 8r s3= OR FORLs<Sr r -1 RVFER OR RVSEFF) 4ts(b+ lots) - 3K$RVFw OR RVSEFF) .1125 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS LIMIT FOR 53 = 1. lb (kN) r = OUTSIDE SHELL RADIUS.?tsz 1 xlO’.25 TIMES ALLOWABLE STRESS IN TENSION FOR THE SHELL MATERIAL AT DESIGN TEMPERATURE.

inches (mm) r = Outside radius of shell.u.5 RATIO A/r 262 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE Figure RGP-G-7.0 0.1125 VALUE OF CONSTANT & A = Distance from tubesheet or shell flange or head tangent line to center of saddle.5 1.a i+l+ L”“““‘~““““‘:“““~“~““““’ 0.0 1. inches (mm) OSM 0.

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 263 . kPa rth ina 1 Where tt. If the head.25 times the maximum allowable stress in tension of the head material at design temperature.8/Z). = ?-rth or RVS cd YQ x 106. central Angle Q= x- &(. tangential shear stress should be added to the head oressure stress. The tangential shear has horizontal components which cause tension across the head.1126 STRESS IN HEAD USED AS STIFFENER (S. = thickness of head. 0 (RVFcf~ or RWd % lb s. inches (mm) Allowable Stress The tangential shear is to be combined with the pressure stress in the head and should be less than 1. degrees y1= 3 ----sinsa 8 [x . radians g = (180 . + -$).a + sin a COSQ 0.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-G-7.. stiffness is used by locating the saddle close to the head. 1 degrees Constant K4 Value For Various Saddle Contact Angles.

a + sinacosa KS = Constant XC5 Value For Various Saddle Contact Angles. A width of shell equal to 5t. degrees Central Angle a = x . The sum e = (180 . inches(mm) The maximum compressive stress should be less than 0.673 Rine Comoression Stress (RVF.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7.1127 RING COMPRESSION IN SHELL OVER SADDLE (S. Wear plates of greater width than the saddle may be used to reduce the stress. 9 140° 150° I 0.s each side of the saddle plus the saddle width resists this force.697 0. s.-&t + $). This should nof be added to the pressure stress.5 times the yield stress of the material at the design temperature.e/2). radians 1 + cos a Ir . 264 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . = ts(b + lots) I lb in* Rinp Comoression Stress (Metric) Where b = saddle width. or RVSca) K.) of the tangential fdrces on both sides of the saddle at the shell band causes a ring compression stress in the shell band.

Sz-z=SECTION MODULUS ABOUT x-x OR z-z. in-lb (mm-kN) Sb < 90% YIELD STRESS Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 265 . in’(mm’ 1 CHECK WEB & GUSSETS AS COMBINED CROSS-SECTION FOR BENDING BENDING STRESS ABOUT x-x AXIS h-X .h-x X SX-X lO”. in’tmm’ 1 Sx-x.b S b = sx_x *%a BENDING STRESS ABOUT x-x AXIS (METRIC) Sb = . THE FOLLOWING APPROACH IS OFFERED AS ONE OF MANY. BASE PLATE C A L C U L A T E P R O P E R T I E S O F S A D D L E A B O U T X .0 0 0 0 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7.kPo W H E R E M x . in2(mm’ ) Ix-x.X & Z-Z AXIS A=AREA. kPo 52-2 WHERE Mz-z = (MSFEFF OR MSSEFF). WEB & GUSSET ARRANGEMENTS.113 DESIGN OF SADDLE PARTS DETERMINE MAXIMUM LOADS FROM APPLICABLE LOAD CONDmON SECTION 10 THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF BASE PLATE. in-lb (mm-kN) Sb < 90% YIELD STRESS BENDINGz ‘:“A’xss” ABOUT MZ-2 lb S b = 5z_z B x2 BENDING STRESS ABOUT Z -L AXIS (METRIC) Sb :MZ-Z X 106. Iz-z=MOMENT OF INERTIA ABOUT x-x OR z-z.x =(RLFEFF OR RLSEFF) X JEFF .

sc = RVFEFF or RVSEFF A lb ‘q x IO’. - 266 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE CHECK WEB & GUSSETS AS COMBINED CROSS-SECTION FOR COMPRESSION STRESS IN COMPRESSION. sc= RVFEFF o r RVSEFF A STRESS IN COMPRESSION. (kPa) STRESS LIMIT = ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS COMBINE STRESS FROM BENDING AND COMPRESSION (t-3 ACTUAL BENDING STRESS ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESS + ACTUAL COMPRESSIVE STRESS ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS < .

lb (kN) RGP-G-7. inches (mm) Tg = THICKNESS OF GUSSETS. lb (kN) N = NUMBER OF LUG SUPPORTS dB = BOLT CIRCLE. inches (mm) p= LLXEC Ht . APPLIED LOADS TENSION LOAD UPLIFT TOTAL DEAD WT.).121 DESIGN OF VESSEL SUPPPORT LUG SUPPORT WITH TWO GUSSETS LL = LOAD PER LUG(TENSlON OR COMPRESSION). inches (mm) TP = TOP PLATE WIDTH.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-G-7. inches (mm) Ht = DISTANCE BETWEEN TOP PLATE AND BOlTOM PLATE. OPERATION. inches (mm) GE = BOTTOM PLATE WIDTH. PER CONDITION ANALYZING (EMPTY. BASE PL4TE AND TWO GUSSETS. inches (mm) Tt = THICKNESS OF TOP PLATE. ETC.NO UPLIFT EXISTS dB MAX COMPRESSION = -& + f . inches (mm) bw q BEARING WIDTH ON BASE PLATE (USE 75% OF GB IF UNKNOWN).12 VEfiTlCAL VEiSEL’SUiPOliTS SECTION 10 THE VESSEL LUGS DESCRIBED IN THIS PARAGRAPH INCORPORATE TOP PLATE. in-lb (mm-kN) q W MAXTENSION= (UPLIFT) g .f .. lb (kN) EC = LOCATION OF LOAD REACTION. inches (mm) M = OVERTURNING MOMENT AT THE SUPPORTS DUE TO EXTERNAL LOADING. inches (mm) Tb = THICKNESS OF BOTrOM PLATE. OTHER CONFlGURATlONS AND METHODS OF CALCULATIONS ARE ACCEPTABLE. FULL OF WATER.lb(kN) 4M IFW> .. tb (kN) Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 267 .

CONSIDER BASE PLATE AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH A CONCENTRATED LOAD LL. kPa S C 5 THE ALLOWABLE STRESS IN COMPRESSION (COLUMN BUCKLING PER AISC) 266 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association ..122 BASE PLATE RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE CONSIDER BASE PLATE AS A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM SUBJECT TO A UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD o. lb (kN) AT ITS CENTER MT= LL(Q + Tg) 4 z in-lb (mm-kN) BENDING STRESS (METRIC) Sb= Sb < 90% YIELD STRESS M* = GREATER OF MB OR MT RGP-G-7.106.SECTION 10 RGP-G-7.(Tt) x IO: kPa RGP-G-7.123 TOP PLATE ASSUME SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH UNIFORM LOAD P P M= o(Q+ Tg)* in-lb (mm-kN) (bS$rb)2 BENDING STRESS * x. kPa WHERE I I BENDING STRESS lb Sb= (TP)?(Tt) ’ -$ Sb < 90% YIELD STRESS BENDING STRESS (METRIC) S b = cTp. in-lb (mm-kN) WHERE LL o = Q+ZTg &(-$) FOR TENSION DUE TO UPLIFT. lb (kN) Ms = NQ+W* a . . COMPRESSIVE STRESS AT B SC = LL 12 GB x Tg x (COS a)2 X(.124 GUSSETS a =ARCTAN GB-Tp degrees e=eccentricity=EC~-$!. COMPRESSIVE STRESS AT B (METRIC) LL /2 SC = GB x Tg x (COS c@ x (1 +$ )x l@. inches (mm) MAX. +*) * GB ’ m2 MAX.

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 269 . VESSEL REINFORCMENT SHOULD BE PROVIDED AS REQUIRED.2 LIFTING LUGS (SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF LIFTING LUGS) RGP-G-7.___ _ p TAuRUNjQ.21 VERTICAL UNITS /--- t i -4 f I I I I I RABBIT-EAR LUG f COVER LUG +%J TAILING LUG i .4 -a _ TAILING TRUNNION TRUNNIONS SHOULD BE CHECKED FOR BENDING 8 SHEAR.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-G-7.

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5. TOTAL WEIGHT EXAMPLE : R 2.5 MINIMUM.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-G-7. SELECT SHACKLE SIZE. THIS STEP MAY NOT BE NECESSARY FOR ROUTINE LIFTS. DETERMINE LOADS THAT APPLY (SEE ABOVE FIGURES). SHACKLE TABLES ARE AVAILABLE FROM SHACKLE MANUFACTURERS. APPLY IMPACT FACTOR. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 271 . 3. ESTABLISH LIFT PROCEDURE. NO IMPACT FACTOR IS APPLIED UNLESS CUSTOMER SPECIFIED. CALCULATE WEIGHT TO BE LIFTED. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. LIFT PROCEDURE IS ESTABLISHED BY CUSTOMER. 1.24 LIFT PROCEDURE 1. 4.

SIZE LIFTING LUG. inches t= USE GREATER OF THICKNESS REQUIRED FOR BENDING OR SHEAR. inches REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR SHEAR (METRIC) t= P 2(S)(r .d/2) x 10 6 . inches (mm) h = DISTANCE. psi (kPa) L = WIDTH OF LUG. CENTERLINE OF HOLE TO COMPONENT. THICKNESS OF LIFTING LUG IS CALCULATED BY USING THE GREATER OF SHEAR OR BENDING RESULTS AS FOLLOWS: 0 I m-l +-I I ___ -- -p 1 r --- t = REQUIRED THICKNESS OF LUG. NOTE: COMPONENT SHOULD BE CHECKED AND/OR REINFORCED FOR LOCALLY IMPOSED STRESSES.d/2) REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR BENDING Bph Sb(L)z . 272 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . (kN) I = RADIUS OF LUG. inches (mm) REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR SHEAR t= P 2(S)@ . mm t= . inches (mm) p = DESIGN LOAD/LUG INCLUDING IMPACT FACTOR.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE 6. psi (kPa) S = ALLOWABLE SHEAR STRESS OF LUG. inches (mm) d = DIAMETER OF HOLE.mm REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR BENDING (METRIC) Sph Sb(L):! x 106. inches (mm) Sb = ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESS OF LUG. lb.

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 273 . Condition: (1) For U-tube heat exchangers where the leaking tube(s) is more than 2 tubes away from the periphery of the bundle. the designer can refer to the sdected references listed below.S. These forces should be evaluated in the design of the heat exchanger for the pressure containing components. however..RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-G-7. Inc. Prentice Hall. Prentice Hall. 1959. Sharp and Kost. (3) “Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering”. Inc. (7) “Process Equipment Design”.” (2) “Earthquake Engineering”. 1971. Inc. California. 1971. Blume and Associates. When such requirements are specified by the purchaser. Atomic Energy Commission Division (6) “Earthquake Engineering for Nuclear Reactor Facilities (JAB-101)“. San Francisco. (6) “As-built” drawings indicating the location of the plugged tube(s) shall be furnished to the purchaser.D$>lS%t$/?‘?~~ Reactors and Earthquakes”. it may not be possible or feasible to remove and replace defective tubes. References: (1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. “Nuclear Power Plant Components.. Newark and Rosenbluth. (5) The manufacturer maintains the original guarantees. L. ~(4) Steel Construction Manual of the American Institute of Steel Construction. Methods used for the design analysis are beyond the scope of these Standards. 1970. John A. (2) For heat exchangers with limited access or manway openings in a welded-on channel where the tube is located such that it would be impossible to remove the tube through the access opening in the channel. Blume. Section Ill. the designer should consider their effects on thevarious components of the heat exchanger. the manufacturer may plug either a maximum of 1% of the tubes or 2 tubes without prior agreement. the heat exchanger suppotts and the device used to attach the heat exchanger supports to theanchor points. Weigel. (3) For other heat exchanger designs which do not facilitate the tube removal in a reasonable manner. Inc. (5)~~e. (4) The method of tube plugging will be a matter of agreement between manufacturer and purchaser.3 WIND AND SEISMIC DESIGN For purposes of design. Engineers. and other exchangers of special design.. 8th Edition. wind and seismic forces are assumed to be negligible unless the purchaser specifically details such forces in the inquiry. Wiley and Sons. Brownell and Young. U. Fi. RGP-RCB-2 PLUGGING TUBES IN TUBE BUNDLES In U-tube heat exchangers.. Under certain conditions as Indicated below.

6241. where A 5 = Approximate shell entrance or exit area.62tl.6221.621 AND 4. Results are somewhat approximate due to the following considerations: location of tubes at the peri hery of the bundle. 4. + it. inches (mm) h = O. ‘)=] D I = Shell inside diameter.) h = 0. inches (mm) h.=nD.4.6222 may be approximated as follows: A. and/or bypass seal devices. = Factor indicating presence of impingement plate F I = 0 with impingement plate . (4) Impingement plates which are not flat or which are positioned with significant clearance off the bundle. inches (mm) OTL = Outer tube limit diameter.= h. inches 2 (mm 2) D. h . 4. inches (mm) h.62t2.6211. for Figure RGP-RCB-4.S(h.4. inches (mm) F .OTL) for Figures RGP-RCB-4. spacers. The presence of untubed lanes through tK e bundle. Some are listed below: IIG 1 Nozzle located near the bends of U-tube bundles. Full account for such concerns based on actual details will result in improved accuracy.h+F.6231 and 4.6212.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-RCB-4. -O.-(0.F 1 = 1 without impingement plate 274 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .5(D I . ‘-0.6211. Perforated distribution devices.6221.4.62 SHELL OR BUNDLE ENTRANCE AND EXIT AREAS This paragraph provides methods for determining approximate shell and bundle entrance areas for common configurations as illustrated by Figures RGP-RCB-4. RGP-RCB-4. inches (mm) h = Average free height above tube bundle or impingement plate.6222. = Nozzle inside diameter. 4.6221 and 4. Nozzle which is attached in a semi or full tangential position to the shell. Special consideration must be given to other configurations. (3) The presence of tie rods. (6) Annular distributor belts. = Maximum free height (at nozzle centerline).S[D.6212 and 4.622 SHELL ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA The minimum shell entrance or exit area for Figures RGP-RCB-4. = Minimum free height (at nozzle edge).6222.4.

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 275 . for Figure RGP-RCB-4.=0 ItI 2 A. inches (mm) D L =Tube outside diameter.707for + RGP-RCB-4. inches 2 (mm 2. = Approximate bundle entrance or exit area. = Factor indicating tube pitch type and orientation with respect to fluid flow direction Fs =l.OfOr -& a n d + F 2 = 0. =Tube center to center pitch. = Unrestricted longitudinal flow area. inches (mm) F. inches 2 (mm 2.5 4 Ap=lp2 for no impingement plate for round impingement plate for square impingement plate _ I p = Impingement plate diameter or edge length. inches (mm) K = D.623 AND 4.6231 A p = Area of impingement plate.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 P.-. inches (mm) K = Effective chord distance across bundle. inches 2 (mm 2) A.8241 may be approximated as follows: where A.6231 and 4.=.866 for 4 F. ‘0.624 BUNDLE ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA The minimum bundle entrance or exit area for Figures RGP-RCB-4. inches (mm) A. 8 I = Baffle spacing at entrance or exit.

inches (mm) RGP-RCB4. Figure RGP-RCB-4. Shell entrance area may be approximated per Paragraph RGP-RCB-4. A I = 0 for baffle cut normal to nozzle axis A.6241.622.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE The formulae below assume unrestricted longtudinal flow.5( D. . inches (mm) b = Dimension from Figure RGP-RCB-4. = 0.5~1 b for Figure RGP-FlCB-4.6221.6231. inches (mm) c = Dimension from Figure RGP-RCB-4.6241. = 0.625 ROD TYPE IMPINGEMENT PROTECTION Rod type impingement protection shall utilize a minimum of two rows of rods arranged such that maximum bundle entrance area is provided without permitting direct impingement on any tube.0TL)c for Figure RGP-RCB-4.6231.6231 with baffle cut parallel with nozzle axis A.624. 276 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Figure RGP-RCB-4.6241 with baffle cut parallel with nozzle axis a = Dimension from Figure RGP-RCB-4. Bundle entrance area may be approximated per Paragraph RGP-RGB-4.

D. .4.6212.PARTIAL LAYOUT FIGURE RGP-RCB-4.6221 AND 4..4.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 FIGURES RGP-RCB-4.6221 NO MPINGEMENT PLATE.4.FULL LAYOUT D ( .PARTIAL LAYOUT Lft D.6222 SHELL ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA IMPINGEMENT PLATE .6212 IMPINGEMENT PLATE .4. -It) FIGURE RGP-RCB-4.0211 FIGURE RGP .6222 NO IMPINGEMENT PLATE .FULL LAYOUT F I G U R E RBP-RCB. --If I.RCB .DTLv&\ Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers ik&5&iatio~ 277 .6211.

NO IMPINGEMENT PLATE I (0s -OTL)/2 ( 0 .6231 AND 4.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE FIGURES RGP-RCB-4.6241: FULL LAYOUT .6231 PARTIAL LAYOUT.OTL)/2 278 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .WITH OR WITHOUT IMPINGEMENT PLATE VIEW “A A” FIGURE RGP-RCB -4.6241 BUNDLE ENTRANCE OR EXIT AREA FIGURE RGP-RCB-4.

A. Engineering judgement should be used to determlne that the bundle can adequately stay the tubesheets against tensile loadings and remain stable against compressive loadings. K. 133-135. (8) Hayashi K. 621648 and Part Ill. nalysis. 1956.2 provides rules to calculate the tube loads at the periphery of the bundle only. “Heat ExchangerTubesheet Design”. “Heat Exchanger Tubesheet Design-2: Fixed Tubesheets”. Vol. “Fixed Tubesheet Heat Exchangers”. A-377-385.2 are intended for use with an analysis considering only the peripheral tubes. Ser. ASME. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology: Part 1. .A. (5) Boon. create unstable conditions for tubes at the interior of the bundle. R.A. Generally.2 SNELL AND TUBE LONGITUDINAL STRESSES. Typical conditions that can cause this are: Loading: Tube side pressure and/or differential thermal expansion where the shell. Discussion. greaterthan 2. and Walsh. (7) Chiang. Proc. Vol.Y. K. if unrestrained. 1969 and 1970.A.(Paragaph RCB-7.G. pp.. ASME. Eng. 1948.. 86.. A-468-473. ASME. R. Hydrocarbon Processing. upon the tube bundle providing elastic support to the tubesheets throughout the tubed area. Compressive forces might. Design and Analysis. Mech. Design and Inspection.161) -. Vol. Methods similar to those provided in the following references can be used to predict loadings on the tubes at the interior of the bundle: (1) Gardner. pp.132) and have a value of F _. Series E. Vol. Tensile forces are generally not a problem if the requirements of Paragraph RCB-7. It is therefore important to insure that the tubes can provide sufficient staying action against tensile forces and sufficient stability against compressive forces. ASME.16 is based.5. pp. “Analysis of Vertically Mounted Through-Tube Heat Exchangers”. pp. 87. Trans. however. (10) Sfyh.B.1 “A New Approach to Exchanger Tubesheet Design”. (3)1~~~oAi~~_~~~. 70. but can become loaded both in tension and compression. %. ‘Tubesheet Design: A Basis For Standardization”. Inst. ASME.. RGP-RCB-7 TUBESHEETS RGP-ACB-7. “Close Form Design Solutions for Box Type Heat Exchangers”. K.. “Rational Analysis of Heat-Exchanger Tube-Sheet Stresses”. pp. pp. Trans. A-l 59-166. ASME 75WA/DE-15. in part. FIXED TUBESHEET EXCHANGERS The design of fixed tubesheets in accordance with Paragraph RCB-7. Trans. CC. Vo1. 1965.P. 235-236).74. These allowable stresses and loads can be modified if the tubes at the interior of the bundle are included in the analysis.. .. 363373. The tubes at the interior of the bundle are not considered.1 TYPE OF GASKETS Gaskets made integral by welding are often harder in the welds than in the base material. K. (Positive P d per Paragraph RCB-7. 78. Jan. Journal of Engineering for Power. (4) Yu. pp. G. ASME.. those that are simply supported at the edge (F = 1 per Paragraph RCB-7. would lengthen more than the tubes. Paragraph RCB-7. 1977. ASME. pp. Trans. Trans.2 are met. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 279 .. 1964. The allowable tube stresses and loads presented in Paragraph RCB-7. (6) Gardner. K.sign of Tube Plates in Heat Exchangers”. discussion of above. Trans. B.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-RCB-6 GASKETS RGP-RCB-6. 175-180 (See also Gardner. ASME. ASME 77 PGC-NE-19.161) Geometry: Flexible tubesheet systems. (2) Gardner.. 1978. Vol. “An Analysis Procedure for Fixed Tubesheet Exchan ers” Proceedings’of the Third International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology: Part 1. 1. (9) lM&k. 1952. Hardness limitations may be specified by the exchanger manufacturer. Y.A.

In general: (I) A rough tube hole provides more mechanical strength than a smooth tube hole. 280 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .e. Weld defects are to be repaired and tested. minimum cold work for corrosion purposes. effect of interpass leakage on thermal performance. i. etc. RGP-RCB-9 CHANNELS.6 TESTING OF WELDED TUBE JOINTS Tube-to-tubesheet welds are to be tested using the manufacturer’s standard method.21 FLAT CHANNEL COVER DEFLECTION The recommended limit for channel cover deflection is intended to prevent excessive leakage between the cover and the pass partition plate. RGP-RCBJ. tolerance (6) Type of expander used (9) Type of torque control or final tube thickness control (19) Function of tube joint. This is influenced by a complex relationship of modulus of elasticity. etc. (3) Very light wall tubes require a smoother tube hole finish than heavier wall tubes. presence or absence of gasket retaining grooves: and leakage characteristics of the tube side fluid.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE RGP-RCB-7. yield strength and hardness of the materials being used.43 TUBE HOLE FINISH Tube hole finish affects the mechanical strength and leak tightness of an expanded tube-to-tubesheet joint. (11) Length of expanded joint (12) Compatibility of tube and tubesheet materials RGP-RCB-7. tube side pressure drop. COVERS. size of exchanger. Any special testing such as with halogens. (2) Addtional restraint provided by some types of construction such as full face gasket controlled metal-to-metal contact. freedom from leaks. will be performed by agreement between manufacturer and purchaser.5 TUBE WALL REDUCTION The optimum tube wall reduction for an expanded tube-to-tubesheet joint depends on a number of factors. (2) A smooth tube hole does not provide the mechanical strength that a rough tube hole does. (3) Cover bow due to thermal gradient across the cover thickness. Many factors govern the choice of design deflection limits. Some of these are: (1) Tube hole finish (2) Presence or absence of tube hole serrations (grooves) (3) Tube hole size and tolerance (4) Tubesheet ligament width and Is relation to tube diameter and thickness (5) Tube wall thickness (6) Tube hardness and change in hardness during cold working (7) Tube O. ease of replacement. strength in resistance to pulling out.4 TUBE HOLES IN TUBESHEETS RGP-RCB-7. AND BONNETS RGP-RCB-9.D.21 for calculating deflection does not consider: (1) The restraint offered by the portion of the cover outside the gasket load reaction diameter. elastic springback of gasket material. The method shown in Paragraph RCB-9. Some of these factors are: number of tube side passes. or helium. (4) Significant longitudinal scratches can provide leak paths through an expanded tube-to-tubesheet joint and should therefore be removed. but it can provide a pressure tight joint at a lower level of wall reduction.

and Solar.6.1% -10. unless the purchaser specifically details such loads in IS mqutry as Indicated in Figure RGP.L. evaluated as a combination of forces and moments as specified by the purchaser.8 Rodabaugh.21 may be modified if other calculation methods are used whidh accomodate the eIect of reduced cover thickness on the exchanger performance. K. Inc. (5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. R. supports and other components should also be considered. Mershon. J. Fred Forman. C FIGURE RGP-RCB-10. Bijlaard. Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing.G. 297. Blick. “Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessel Components”. P-P. “Nuclear Power Plant Components”.6 NOZZLE LOADINGS For purposes of desi8.p. (4) Pressure Vessel and Piping Design Collected Papers.V.‘ h The recommended cover deflection limits given in Para raph RCB-9. Arcturus Publishers. numerous considerations as described in Appendix S of the Code should be reviewed in order to reduce the amount of flange rotation. G. Mershon. (6) Welding Research Council Bulletin No. A. RGP-RCB-11 END FLANGES AND BOLTING RGP. “Bending Moments and Leakage at Flanged Joints”. (7) Welding Research Council Bulletin No.5 LARGE DIAMETER LOW PRESSURE FLANGES When designing a large diameter.G.L. Wickman.Mokhtarian. For calculation of the combined stresses developed in the wall of the vessel due to piping and pressure loads. Nozzle reactions from piping are transmitted to the pressure containment wall of the heat exchanger. Reference: Singh.MC - vc Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 281 . Each piping load should be . “Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due To External Loadin s on Nozzles-Supplement to WRC Bulletin 107. “Secondary Stress Indices for Integral Structural Attachments to Straight Pipe”. W. AL. K. Robert G. Hopper and J. n nozzle loads are assumed to be ne Ii ible. (1927-1959) The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Another point of consideration is the fact that this type of flange usually has a large actual bolt area 6 + a-----.P.6 Since pipin loads can impose forces and moments in three geometric planes. (3) “Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells”. (2) “Stresses From Radial Loads and External Moments in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels”. K. RGP-RCB-1O’NOZZLES RGP-RCB-10. there is no one set of values whtca can be provided as a maximum by the manufacturer. low pressure flange. Section Ill.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 42 Q F”\ _. “Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loading”.RCB-11. 198. The Welding Journal Research Supplement (1954-1955). Inc. 107. The effects of piping loads transmitted through main body flanges. References: (1) Welding Research Council Bulletin No. Dodge. First Edition (1964) Chapter 12. Ranjan and E. and could result in an over-stressed condition in this area. references are listed below.

See Paragraphs Ea.25 References: (1) Torque Manual.7 PASS PARTITION RIB AREA Gasket pass partition rib area contributes to the required bolt load.Y‘ H. Pass Partition W m2= bnGY+b. the extra bolt area combined with the potential bolt stress can overload the flange such that excessive deflection and permanent set are produced. therefore.r.. Appendix 2 Table 2-5. RGP-RCB-11.. Once the required bolt stress is known. Y’ = Y value of pass partition rib(s)* n’ = mfactor of pass partition rib(s)* b r = Effective seating width of pass partition rib(s)* r ( = Total length of pass partition rib(s)* IJ. Division 1 Appendix 2 and modified below. 1.m’] H = (G)*(P)(O.= As defined in ASME Code Section VIII.andW. Methods are available to determine the initial bolt stress required in order to achieve a leak-free bolted joint. *Note: (1) mand Yvalues for peripheral portion of gasket may be used if greater than m ‘& Y ‘. flange rotation and stress can then be calculated and.r.24 and Ea.6 BOLTING-ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE The following references may be used for assembly and maintenance of bolted flanged joints.1 or as specified by gasket manufacturer 282 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE compared to the minimum requiraci area. One acceptable method to include rib area is shown below.= ZP[bnGm+b. (2) Crane Engineering Data. VC-19OOB. if necessary. Other methods are acceptable. (2) mand Y values are listed in ASME Code Section VIII Div. its effects should be considered in the design of flanges. the designer can take further action to reduce rotation and/or stresses.7854) Seating width of Partition Rib (N) W”ll = H+H. Sturtevant-Richmont Division of Ryeson Corp. Crane Company. RGP-RCB-11.

Biological growth such as algae. but they should not be masked in the fouling resistances. slime. often occurring simultaneously. Often these micro-organisms provide a sticky holding medium for other types of fouling which would otherwise not adhere to clean surfaces. exposed sutfaces of the heat exchanger. or lake water. This scale produces an added thermal resistance to the base metal of the heat transfer surface. These uncertainties may well exist and should be re1 ected in the deagn. where there are potential design changes to reduce the effect of fouling. In most cases. is the result of an electrochemical reaction and forms as a scale on iron-containing. however. It also permtts examination of the relative thermal resistance mtroduced by the ‘~ different terms in the overall heat transfer coefficient equation. are initially suspended in the fluid and form deposits on the heat transfer surfaces. fungt. The maior uncertainty is the assignment of realistic values of the fouling resistances. (3) Chemica. Particles of clay. calcium carbonate. is a common form of this type of fouling. this is most often ignored. This generally means that the exchanger is oversized for clean operation and barely adequate for conditions just before it should be cleaned. etc. it is more common that they must be cleaned periodically. Further. formed on high temperature surfaces. (2) Particulate Fouling Sedimentation is the most common form of particulate fouling. Sedimentation is frequently superimposed on crystallization and possibly acts as a catalyst for certain types of chemical reaction fouling. They are individually complex.“‘:. It also permits the determination of the amount of heat transfer surface area that has been assigned for fouling. The use of thermal resistance permits the assignment of the majority of the fouling fo the side where fouling predominates. Higher fouling resistances are sometimes inappropriately specified to provide safety factors to account for uncertainties in the heat transfer calculation. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 283 . accelerate corrosion and decrease the overall heat transfer coefficient. Although many heat exchangers operate for years without cleaning.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 RGP-T-2 FOULING RGP-T-2. They should be cleariy identffied as appropriate factors in the design calculations. keaction Fouling Surface temperatures and the resence of oxidation promoters are known to significantly thtsfoultng type. silt.1 TYPES OF FOULING Currently five different types of fouling mechanisms are recognized. the hard crust deposit of hydrocarbons influence the rate of build up o P. 8rystallization scale forms as the result of over-saturation of a relatively insoluble salt. degrades the performance of a heat exchanger. and corrosive bacteria represent a potentially detrimental form of fouling. It occurs in many process streams. dynamic. to the designer. and their effects may increase pressure drop. and/or possible plant expansion. river. RGP-T-2. (5) Biological Fouling Organic material growth develops on heat transfer surfaces in contact with untreated water such as sea. ‘~. cooling water and chemical streams. and in time. sand. The most common. . Coking. Values of the fouling resistances to be specified are intended to reflect the values at the point in time just before the exchanger is to be cleaned. rust. These can signal. the most common form of corrosion product. The net result is to provide added heat transfer surface area.2 EFFECTOF FOULING There are different approaches to provide an allowance for anticipated fouling in the design of shell and tube heat exchangers. (4) Corrosion Fouling Iron oxide. these thermal resistances only address part of the impact of fouling as there is an increase in the hydraulic resistance as well. (1) Precipitation Fouling Crystallization is one of the most common types of preci itation fouling. forms on heat transfer surfaces as a result of the thermal decomposition of the bicarbonate ion and the subsequent reaction with calcium ions. Fouling is complex. the actual operatin conditions. it will be combined or superimposed on other types of foulmg such as crystallization and sedimentation.

E) Heat Exchanger Geometry And Orientation The geometry of a particular heat exchanger can influence the unfformlty of the lows on the tube side and the shell side. G) Fluid Purity And Freedom From Contamination Most fluids are prone to have inherent impuriiies that can deposit out as a fouling lsyer.31 PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS A) Properties Of Fluids And Usual Propensity For Fouling The most important consideration is the fluid and the conditions when it produces fouling. RGP-T-2. If these treatments are neglected. as the temperatures increase. At times. it is necessary for the purchaser to supply the anticipated thicknesses of each of the fouling layers. The use of these treatments is a product quality and economic decision. In order to examine the effect of fouling on the pressure drop. Configuration And Surface Finish The selection of tube material is significant when it comes to corrosion. the amount of fouling increases.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE Another inappropriate ap roach to heat exchanger design is to arbitrarily increase the heat transfer surface area to allow for P ouling. J) Cathodic Protection One of the effective ways to reduce the possibility of corrosion and corrosion fouling is to provide cathodic protection in the design. Addftives may also alter the structure of the fouling layers that deposit so that they are easily removed. C) Local Velocities Normally. I) Fluid Treatment To Reduce Fouling There are additives that can disperse the fouling material so it does not deposit. keeping the velocities high reduces the tendency to foul. Some kinds of biological fouling can be lessened by copper-bearing tube materials. The ease of cleaning can be greatly influenced by the orientation of the heat exchanger. Stagnant and recirculation regions on the shell side lead to heavy fouling. rapid fouling can occur. In effect. boiling. the fouling for the exchanger is combined and no longer can be identified as belonging to one side or the other. 284 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . F) Heat Transfer Process The fouling resistances for the same fluid can be considerably different depending upon whether heat is being transferred through sensible heating or cooling. B) Surface And Bulk Temperatures For many kinds of fouling. Velocities on the tube side are limited by erosion. and on the shell side by flow-induced vibration. It is often economically attractive to elimrnate the fouling constituents by filters. a process modification can result in conditions that are less likely to cause fouling. or act as catalysts to the fouling processes. This over-surfacing avoids the use of the appropriate fouling resistances. or condensing. Lower temperatures produce slower fouling build-up and deposits that often are easier to remove. There can be differences between finned and plain tubing. Surface finish has been shown to influence the rate of fouling and the ease of cleaning. H) Fluid Treatment To Prevent Corrosion And Biological Growth Fluid treatment is commonly carried out to prevent corrosion and/or biological growth. D) Tube Material.

bundle removed or in place. The amount and frequency of cleaning varies considerably with user and operation. off-line. RGP-T-2. etc. The cleaning method may require special safety requirements. Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 285 . and. L) Place The More Fouling Fluid On The Tube Side There are two benefits from placing the more fouling fluid on the tube side. but do involve a commitment to ongoing costs. to substantial treatment of brackish water to render it suitable for use. The treatment ranges from simple biocide addition to control biological fouling. The most si nificant rameters involved in deciding upon the amount of fouling allowance that should % e prow . Access.32 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Planned fouling prevention. These values do not recognize the time related behavior of fouling with regard to specific design and operational characteristics of particular heat exchangers. clearances. The amount of treatment may be uneconomical and substitute sources of cooling must be sought.. Failure to include the economic considerations may lead to unnecessary monetary penalties for fouling. valving.the shell side. It is often possible to clean the tube side with tfyfexchanger rn place whrle it may be necessary to remove the bundle to clean the shell RGP-T-2. Companies concerned about fouling continually monitor the performance of their heat exchangers to establish fouling experience and develop their own guidelines for determining the appropriate fouling resistance to specify when purchasing new equipment. With today’s technology. which should be incorporated in the design. and piping also must be considered to permit ease of cleaning.4 DESIGN FOULING RESISTANCES (HR FT2 0 F/Btu) The purchaser should attempt to select an optimal fouling resistance that will result in a minimum sum of fixed. Almost every source of cooling water needs to be treated before it is used for heat exchanger service. maintenance and cleaning make possible lower allowances for fouling. different cleaning procedures and the degree of payback for longer periods of being on stream should be some of the items evaluated in determining an appropriate fouling resistance. shutdown and cleaning costs. it is generally easier to clean the tube side than.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 K) Planned Cleaning Method And Desired Frequency It is important that the cleaning method be planned at the design stage of the heat exchanger. The following tabulated values of fouling resistances allow for oversizing the heat exchanger so that it will meet performance requirements with reasonable intervals between shutdowns and cleaning. Considerations in design involving cleaning are whether it will be done on-line. ed New fluid treatments. the quality of water can be improved to the point that fouling should be under control as long as flow velocities are maintained and surface temperatures controlled. changing first costs and operating costs.d” are the operational and economic factors that change with time. There is less danger of low velocity or stagnant flow regions on the tube side. whether it will involve corrosive fluids.

002 0.002 0.001 0.0005 0.1 SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE Fouling Resistances For Industrial Fluids Fuel Oil #2 Fuel Oil #6 Transformer Oil Engine Lube Oil Quench Oil Gases And Vaoors: Manufactured Gas Engine Exhaust Gas Steam (Non-Oil Bearing) Exhaust Steam (Oil Bearing) Refrigerant Vapors (Oil Bearing) Compressed Air Ammonia Vapor CO 2 Vapor Chlorine Vapor Coal Flue Gas Natural Gas Flue Gas Liquids: Molten Heat Transfer Salts Refrioerant Liouids Hydraulic Fluid Industrial Organic Heat Transfer Media Ammonia Liquid Ammonia Liquid (Oil Bearing) Calcium Chloride Solutions Sodium Chloride Solutions CO 2 Liquid Chlorine Liquid Methanol Solutions Ethanol Solutions Ethylene Glycol Solutions 0.010 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.0015-0.003 0.001 0.010 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.002 (0.010 0.002 IO.005 0.001 0.001 0.005 0.002 ‘Z’ - 266 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .002 0.0005 IO.002 0.003 0.

001-0.001-0.003 Fouling Resistances For Natural Gas-Gasoline Processing Streams Gases And Vapors: Natural Gas 0.001 0.002 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 287 .002 0.002 Rich Oil 0.002 Natural Gasoline And Liquified Petroleum Gases 0.002 Overhead Products 0.001 0.003 0.002 Liquids: Lean Oil 0.002 0.002-0.001-0.002 0.001-0.001-0.002 0.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 Fouling l&stances For Chemical Processing Streams Gases And Vapors: Acid Gases Solvent Vapors Stable Overhead Products Liquids: MEA And DEA Solutions DEG And TEG Solutions Stable Side Draw And Bottom Product Caustic Solutions Vegetable Oils 0.

003 0.002-0.003-0.005 0.002 0.002 <2 0.5 Ft/Sec Minimum) Light Liquid Products 288 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .006 2-4 0. 260 o F Gasoline Naphtha And Light Distillates Kerosene Light Gas Oil Heavy Gas Oil Heavy Fuel Oils Asphalt And Residuum: Vacuum Tower Bottoms Atmosphere Tower Bottoms Cracking And Coking Unit Streams: Overhead Vapors Light Cycle Oil Heavy Cycle Oil Light Coker Gas Oil Heavy Coker Gas Oil Bottoms Slurry Oil (4.002 350 to 450 o F VELOCITY FT/SEC <2 DRY SALT* 0.004 450 0 F and over VELOCITY FT/SEC 2-4 0.004 0.004 0.002-0.004-0.002-0.003 0.005 0.002 0.007 >4 0.006 I IO.003-0.002 0.005 250 to 350 ’ F VELOCITY Fl-/SEC 2-4 0.001 0.010 IO.003 0.004 0.007 IO.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE Fouling Resistances For Oil Refinery Streams 1 Crude And Vacuum Unit Gases And Vaoors: Atmospheric Tower Overhead Vapors Light Naphthas Vacuum Overhead Vapors Crude And Vacuum Liquids: Crude Oil Oto250”F VELOCITY FT/SEC c2 DRY SALT* 0.005-0.002 0.002-0.002 >4 0.003 0.003 2-4 0.003 0.003 0.007 0.001 0.003 0.005 >4 0.003-0.003 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.006 24 0.005 <2 0.002 I *Assumes desalting @ approx.004 0.

001 Asphalt Wax Slurries* Refined Lube Oil Visbreaker: Overhead Vapor Visbreaker Naphtha Hydrotreater: Feed Effluent Naphthas Overhead Vapors Bottoms 0.continued Catalytic Reforming.003 0.I. Hydrocracking And Hydrodesulfurization Streams: Reformer Charge Reformer Effluent Hydrocracker Charge And Effluent* Recycle Gas Hydrodesulfurization Charge And Effluent* Overhead Vapors Liquid Product Over 50 ” A.0015 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .005 0.001 0.002 ~0. 0.010 0.001 0.0015 0.001 *Precautions must be taken to prevent wax deposition on cold tube walls.0015 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.P.003 0.RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE SECTION 10 Fouling Resistances For Oil Refinery Streams.002 0. 0.

005 0.002 0.SECTION 10 RECOMMENDED GOOD PRACTICE Fouling Resistances for Oil Refinery Streams . Overhead Main Fract. Bottoms.002 0. Deprop.003 n~nn7 Fouling Resistances For Water If the heating medium temperature is over 400 a F and the cooling medium is known to scale.004-0.002 0.T. 290 Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association . Main Fract. Sep. Feed All Other Process Streams 0.continued Catalytic Hydro Desulfurizer: Charge Effluent H. Overhead Stripper Charge Liauid Products HF Alky Unit: Alkylate.003 IO. these ratings should be modified accordingly.

....... ............ ...... Channel Cover Formula............................ ... 17 Dismantling Ctearance .................. 237 End Flanges...... ........... . 88. ....93 14 Corrosion and Vibration................. 158 Compressibility................ ......................... ... Tube Holes 31 Tubesheet Holes ..................... 90 Channel Cover Grooves............................................................. 37 16 By-Pass Valves....... ................... D Damages.................................98 Channels............. 127........150 E Elasticity...236......... ...248 ASME Cede Data Reports ................ ....... ASME... ...................................... ................................................................ Dimensions......... ......... ................... ........ 280.. .... ...a.............f4 Connections.... ...........31-34 B B Class Heat Exchanger.152.... .................................a.3* ........... Corrosion Allowance........... .... .................. . ................ ..................... Definition................278 Exchangers (See Heat Exchanger) Expansion Joints.247 Weights cf...... .......................................... 2. ... ........ .... ..... 73 Drilling Tolerance.......... 31 cross... 72............... Definition. . Gas......... ...................... ...... ...... TEMA Definition............. ......................... ........ ........................... . 282 Entrance & Exit Areas..... ................... 74 Alloy Shells......... ..23 Cast Iron.......... ........................................................................13.... .............. 274-278 Segments of Circles ................. .....................................55-e Drain Connections.... 94 Bundle Cleaning .................................19 Bolted Joints ............... Longitudinal .......... ... ......................... Tube Bundles.............. ........ 89 Channels....... _............... ... ........25................................................ ..... .........93 Tightening......................................... ... .. Floating Head .......... . ..................25 Channel Covers.31................... ................. .. ..... ....... Tubesheets ..... cross Baffles & support Plates ..154....282 Size and Spacing................... ..... 1............................. 33 ................................................ ........ ...................9o Channel Pass Partitions .. 19 t7 Cleanliness Provisions .............. .......38....... ... 189 End Flanges........... ...............56. ..........32.................. ...................................... ....... ... .23 38..................................................... Baffle and Support Plate.......... 7................................................ .... ......................... ... 249. ......... . ................................ :....33 33................ 88...... ............... 93.................. . ................ ......................................... .................................... 274.............230... .............. 18.......................... ..................23 Conversion Factors............. .... ................................................ . .......39 Finings......35 Impingement............. ...........a Protection................ ..... 56.............. 147 COVXS................... 39............................................................................................ .....................................34 Special Ca*e*. 25 Counterflow Exchangers .........................f6..... Minimum Thickness........................... 23 Design Temperatures...... .............. ................. ...................... ................. ...................... . ................................ . ................. Bolting......... . ...... .................... 134........ Type Designation &Size Numbering ....248 Cleaning Heat Exchangers.............................. ......... :..................................... .................. ........................ Minimum Thickness.. Inspection....... .................... .. ......... 157.188.. Cirdular Segments........................... ...... 14 Drift Tolerance............... ................. .... . ............. Dimensional Data........... 117 .............................. ......................... 1.............. ............ 189 Code Data Reports. Welded and Seamless .............. .... 133............ ........... 39 Pass Rib Area...........33 31 Type........................... . ...... ........... . . ..... .... .. ............................................................ 40 Shell ........... ......... 234... ............ ... Minimum Thickness . 156............. .................... ... ........................... ... ..................... ...... 182 cross Baffles. Welding......... .............................. internal Floating Head. ....................... ............... .. 19 Type ..... Double Tubesheets.. Mean Coefficients of Thermal .............................................. ...... f4 Compressibility Charts.. .3f cuts . 150............................. 91 Consequential Damages......................... 250 Correction Factors for Mean Temperature Difference...... ............. 28................ ....................................... ......................................................_ .24 Air Teet............................... 72..................... .............................................. .....23 Alloy Clad Tubesheets...........26 Anodes ........................ ............. ......... ................. 14 Data Reports....... .. ............... ....................... . Channel................................... ... ............ . ................... 94. 32 Cross............... 239 Expanded Tube Joints......... ... 280... .......... ........................ 157............ 73......... .... Vent and Drain.. .... 20 ..... ....................................... 34 Spacing ...... . ........... 231 Dirt Removal.. ...... .............................. .... ......... 238.. ... .... ...... .................................. 156... ...............f5... .. ... Baffles and Support Plates ... ....31 Critical Properties ..................... Shell .. ....... 187 Pipe.................................... Bolting............... 184 Tubing... ............................. ............................................. ... . ...................................... .......62 Expansion....... ................ . .......... 91 Draining Exchangers ........... 22 Cleanliness.................................18... .................................................. ..... .. ...........f4 Definitions .......... Area......14 Construction Codes. . 10 Density Gases............................ .................. ... 235 Alloy...................24 Diameters.......... ... . .... 150.....91.............35............. Wrench & Nut.. . 28......................35 Bundle Hold Down..... ......................... Clearance........ ............... ............... ... 14 Defective Parts... .. Modulus of.................. 20 Drawings.. ....... .... .................................... Service Limitation .................... 39 Backing Devices ......... Gener&zed Gas......... Clearances.... Consequential ..... .... .......... ..................... Allowable Working Pressure of Tubes.......... ......188... .. ....... ................... .. 2 Circular Rings and Discs.........22. .................................................................. Bundle Entrance and Exit..... Areas of ....... 122 H&as............. 17 Stacked Units...... ............. 280 Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 291 ......... 92 Thermometer............... 262 fi’ Foundation....... .. 158 Liquids..........146 Correction Factors for Bolting Moment... .......... .......................INDEX A A~custi~‘&&nce Or’Coupling.................. .. ................... ... .......................................................36............... ...... ....................................... Pressure Gage................. ........ ........... 22 Bundle Entrance and Exit Area........................................... ... ...... .................................. ........ ..................... ..21... 17 Disassembly for Inspection .. 28.............................. ...................... ...................... 88...... 242................. 175..........71 c C Class Heat Exchanger..... ......................... ........ 93............................ ....... ...................0...24.............................. ........................................ . ................ . ........... 32 Clearance......... 95.... ...... .......... ... 261.... .. ...................... Special Precautions...186............................ ......... 165 Flanges...............55 Design Conditions..................... ........_ .... .... 169. 233... 16 Design Pressures .......................35.... .. ..... ............................... ......................... ..................... ................ ......... ..........38................ .................................................9......... ...... ........................ .................................................. Tube Hole Drill............. ..................................... ......................................88. .................... ............. . .......................

...... ........... 283.............................. 42 K Kettle Type Reboiler....... ...................185 46....... 39................ 122 Diameter and Tolerance........ Tubesheets Minimum... 129............... .................................43 ............ ..... 284 Effect of .................... .........................................75-88 38 Floating Heads ...................... .................... 42 Packed.......... . Bundle Entrance and Exit Areas.40... Tube Holes . J ............ . ................ 4.......188......... ................. Baffles and Support Plates........... ............................. .... ............... .............................................22 Replacement............. .................................. ...... ASME Standard........................................... ...... ....... Tube Sundie Supports..................................... 53. 24.............20....... ...................................... 41..........27 Gaskets (Peripheral & Pass Partition) ..... ....................40.................................... ..... .................... Standard Diameters.............. ........ ......... 15 Guarantees ......... Natural Gas-Gasoline Processing Streams............... 127 Fouling.............28 292 Standards of the Tubular Exchangei Manufacturers Association .................................88 Minimum Inside Depth Floating Heads. 125 Metal Temperature Limitations................................168 ...................................... Tube..... ..t26..............................92 Split Type............................ i. 5 Standard Dimension Tolerance ......................................................................................................... ..................... 93 ... ............... .. Tube.................... 39... .. ...... 281..15.... 127..................................................... ..INDEX F ....124 Heat Treatment....... Fittings.......................... 158 Grooved Channei Covers........ .126......... ....... ............... 72... 41............272 Lifting Devices....... 2338.............. .....................................................70.............................. ........................ ..... G Gages................... ...................................... ...........................21 Handling Tube Bundles ......................... ................. . 39 Backing Devices................................................................. H .............. ..288. 16........... ...................... 151...................................................... 41... .. Service Limitations............ ........... 285 125.................................. 19 Inspection................... ................... 17 Foundation Bolts ............................................ General Construction Features..I7 Leveling Heat Exchangers ...............Definition of Terms ..... . ......a.... 19 Indication of ...................... ........ ...... ......................................... ........................................... . ... ...... 14 23 Materials.... ............................... ......43 Jacketed Gaskets ................................... .......................3 Outside Packed.................................. ...... ....... .........90 ................ ...........................35 .......................................................................... Material.....38.. ... ...........35 Protection Requirements.......... ..................... 154......I5 Flexible Shell Elements.............................38 Modulus of Elasticity......................... 158 Fluid Density ........................................ ...... ............................6-9 Fabrication Tolerances.................... 289.................... .................................287 Oil Refinery Streams .. 2-5 parts and Nome”ciature...... 25..... .. .............. Facilities for Cleaning Heat Exchangers.......... ..... 130 Mean Temperature Difference............. 126........................... 187 Bolt Clearances .. 71 ................................................13 Inspection.................... ................ ....... .. ................................ Packed... ................................................................................................... Installation of Heat Exchangers . ........................... Fluid Temperature Relations........... 22 70............................ ....................................... y ...................................... ....... ................................. Locating................... Cleanliness...............232 Heat Content Petroleum Fractionr.... Ligaments........................................... 18 .. ............33 Longitudinal Balfles .............74 Grooved Tubesheets.............................................. ................... Finned & Bare Tubing.5-9 Heat Transfer........................................... ........................... ................................ Fabrication .............. Typical Illustration 2. ................ Fouling Resistance............... .........40 Floating Tubesheet........................I9 Bolted..... ....... ........ ............ ......................... 40 Internal Floating Heads .......38..................................................................................................... 5 L Latent Heats of Various Liquids ............. 40 .......23 Hydrostatic Test Pressure............... 239 Mea......... 282 End ................................. 237 134-146 MTD Correction Factors... .................................................. ..................... 35 Shell and Tube Side.................. . ....... ...... 55 150....... Chemical Processing Streams............. ............... I Impingement Baffles....3.......... Metal Temperature .....7t Grooved Tube Holes .......... .................... .. ..................14....... 73 Load Concentration Factor....... ................................................. 236......t5....... Flanges.........................................43... 42 42 Packed Lantern Ring .. Flanges .................186..................... ................................. 128........ M Material Warranties.......................................... 133 (See also MTD) Metal Resistance.................................. .......287 286 Industrial Fluids ........21.... ................ ................ ............................. 280 Finish..... ................ Hardness Conversion T&la........................43 ..... ........ Mean Coefficients of Thermal Expansion. 280 Finish........................ .70.................................................... 31.........t7.... ........ 38........... 190-229 PressureTemperature Rating ..........I3 Fabrication Inspection ... ....70.......... ............ ......................... V-Tubes.......... Dimensions of Welding... 93.................................................... ............... 16 Generalized Compressibility Chats........ Joints................ ............. Economics of............ Nomenclature ....... 157................................................. 94....... ............. ..........nterna........ 62-70 Fixed Tub&wets ................. 156. ................................. .. 290 290 water..................................... 44 Joint D&&s ........... ............... ...... ............. .... 269............21......... 189 ................................................................ ....... ......70 Holes.............. ........ .............. ............................................................................ .......................................... 167 Heat Exchanger Arrangement Diagrams....................... ........... ............. 17 Foundations ......71 Grooving ...... 21 Leaks.. 53.........24 Minimum Inside Depth Channels & Bonn&.... Protection........

.... ...248 Seismic Design .................................................... 21 Thermal Conductivity............ 159 Petroleum Fractions........ Valves.......... ............... 22 Parts....... .................2-S Longitudinal Stress.............. ................................................................................ ..............................3 1-S Ncl?le”c...... ..... 239 Thermal Performance Test.............. 166’ Hydrocarbon Gases................ ............... ................... ............................92 Ring Flanges............ 252 ... ................... ............. ........ ....................... .......... 150........................................................................... . 89 Pass Partition Plates ... F: R3 3 Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association 293 ............ 41............. .................... 33................ ........35......................~ ..... . 151 Gases.... 162...... ....... HCl0S..... 15........ -17 1 Liquid Petroleum Fractions ............... 42 Packing Material ...... ................................ ......... 242........ 151......................................... 153 Liquids....... 22.............................. ...................... ..... ............ 150............... 232.. ..................18.............. Fittings........................... ........................................... 89 Pulsating Fluids ......... ................................................ ..........~ Safety Relief Devices ... 273 Postweld Heat Treatment...................................1... 121 Thickness...... 4................ 15.148 2 Shelf Passes............... Outside Packed Floating Heed... ......... .............................. . Pecking Boxes .....229 and Flanges...... ...................................... Shells.................. ..... Liquid ...... SO Illustrations........... 2 Tolerances .................240... Mean Coefficients of............ 18 Test....................... ....................................... 240............1t........................ Tubes ..... Tubes... ................. ............ 1 Spacers and Tie Rods..............................................170 Metals....................... ....................... 255268 Shell Covers.......92 Stacked Units................................... 21........... ........................ .................................. ....235 Pressure.......... .. ........... ................ ..... ............................ ..................127 Shocks . 190........... .. ...............74.................... Illustration.................. ...................................... ........... 90 ................................. Replacement...13 ...... Plugging Tubes in Tube Bundles..............26............... ........... ........................................... 74 Pulling Mechanisms...150............. G Qa 0 h3 Nomenc.............................. Kettle Type.......9*.............................. 42 .. ............... ... 41....I5 Pressure Gage Connection... ...... 24 Test Fling.............170 Thermal Expansion....... ...... .........15O Pipe.... Mete............. 33 supports............... 42 8 8 8 0 a p ..I................ 19 .................................... . ....... Number and Size of Tie Rods................................................................ . 282 Pass Partition Rib Area...................6..................... Nozzles.... Diameters....................91 Pipe Tap Connections ................. 12 Split Type Nczzle Flanges.................. Dimensions of ...................31 Spacing........... .................. ..............................................................................................24 Multipass Flow.................. .... ..... 253-268 T Temperature............247 Rings.............................. ... .....................................................INDEX 43 0 0 Name P........................................................................................................................35 Impingement.......... Split........................ Preparation of Heat Exchanger for Shipment....................... 19 Temperature Efficiency........... ..................................“re of tieat Exchanger Components......... .. .......... Miscellaneous............... ............. ................... ............................ Preparation of Units ..................... 24 Test......... 54... 241 Conversion Factors ........................ ............................... t 55 Specific Heat ....... ......... 160 Specification Sheet..... ......................I4 19........... ................... 249.......... ........................ Minimum Thickness.................... ......................22.................... 7....150. Miscellaneous ........... ............................ ............. ..................................4O.......... Miscellaneous ... 29 30 Plate............................ ....91 0 0 r3 6 Q ‘. 17 Performance Failures ................. ...................... 40...... 36 0 Operation of Heat Exchangers.... 16........................... Pass Partition Grooves..................... ........ Tube Working............... ............................ 18 Sealing Devices ........................ ..............88.................. ................ .............................. ............ 36 spare Parts.. ..............................I5 Replacement Parts..................... Physical Properties of Fluids.............4O........................ 6 a et: Q d 8 Q 0 Q ......................... ................................. .....................................97 Natural Frequencies... ..................................................... ............. ....................... 68 Minimum Thickness. R Class Heat Exchanger..................238............ ............................. Standard...... Pneumatic or Liquid............................ .................. ..........................................................................15................ t* Stresskeieving (See Postweld Heat Treatment) support Plates. .......... 19 Operating Procedures .................. ................ ... ....... 18 Size Numbering of Heat Exchangers .................................. ....................................................172 Squids. Dimensions of Welded and Seamless...... ............2t Removing Tube Bundles ......... .............................. Atmospherio Pressure....... 92 StertinoOoeration..................................... .... . Q.... 36 Seamless Pipe.......32..... Definition... .............. 161...................... ........... ...........124 Thermometer Connections..........................................184 Segments...... Fittings.. . Circular.......................................................... .. .... Pitch.............................. Floating Heed Covers. 150.................... 281 Piping Loads ........... 128 Counterflow Exchangers...... ................ ..........165 Gases et High Pressure........ .............28............................... ................ ........ Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Valves.................................................“............................ 27................................ . 34.... ........................38 89 Channels and Bonnets.... .lS Shipment....... ..... .............................................. 23...... ....................... ............ Limitations.........................lS........................... .............. Vapor ......... 169.....zS Ratings............ ............... Metals..................... ............. ............................................................... ..........................................14 Thermal Resistance of Uniform Deposits (See Fouling) Thermal Relations.......... .. 18............................... Atmospheric Pressure... and Flanges (See Pressure-Temperature Ratings) Rebailer....................................91....... 0 0 G @ d e & Q c ............ ...... 174 Pure Hydrocarbon Liquids.......... ........147 1 Shell Pass.................................................. .. 20 Periodic Inspection... ......... 31 Shells................................ .. ...........................................149 Test Connections...?h ... .............. RGP Section .......................... ................................. Exchanger ........... ... .................... ................e ........................... 40 Floating Head . Miscellaneous ......................................... .....................23....... .......~......................... ..............30 Size Numbering &Type Designation......... .........91 126 Pressure LOSS ................ .... ..... ........ ........................................... ..............................................184 SO Shells ......... .... 91 Connections ........ SO Shipment.. 241 Pressure correction............ Protection...35........ 44 Specific Gravity..................... ......... ................ ... ............ ... ............................................. Packed Floating Heads ...............173............9................ ........................................... 164 Petroleum Fractions.......................................... .... ................. ........ 250 Gases and Vapors....... Loadings .. 150 Hydrocarbon Liquids ..................... .. ........................... 281 92 Split Flanges ...........t5 Shop Operation.............. .............................. ........................................................................... Weights cf............................................. ...........5 Recommended Good Practice.... ............................... 150............67....................e................... .........e....... 13 Shuttfng Down Operation................... ................. Performance Guarantees.......92......... ........... .

.....30 Tubesheet Drilling ..... ........ ...........74 Type Designation of Heat Exchangers ........................ .................. 69............................................................._ .. ............. 28 Tubesheets . ......................................... Minimum.......................... ....... ......................... ........ 67........................................................ 281 Shells and Shell Covers............................... ..... High Pressure.................... ....... .......... Finned & Bare Tubes................................ ......... .. 72........... ... 68..... ..... .................. .........................................................233...................................... ....................40.. .. ..27 Longitudinal Stress .............. 98.............................................. 34 working Pressure...................................... 96..................... 33 Channels and Bonnets............................ 56........ .................... Characteristics.. 36 Tolerances.......... .............................................73 Special Prec au t(0”s .. ... .. 46............22 Tube Joints.. Cleaning.................. 67.95........................................ 52 Shell Longitudinal Stress ..22............................... .......................... ............ Dimensions Of.... 70........... 280 Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association ..........................................................INDEX Thickness......... 72.......45 .................................. 71 Tube Holes in Baffles .............................. Atmospheric Pressure . 175................................... .. 176................... .................. 71 Tube Joints-Expanded 8 Welded................................... ............ .......... 14...................... 279 Tubeto-Tubesheet Joint Loads...... 22 Finned ....... .... .. 28..........97........................................................................3t iSee Also Support Plates) Tube Wall Metal Resistance........... .. Welded.................. 95-123 Tube Expanding............... .................................... viii V Vent& Drain Connections.................... ..... ....... ......70.......... .............................................. ...................................... .................... .......... ............................69................... ............... 70 Integrally Clad. 71 Tube Bundles..179 Liquids............................... 67 Formulae................................280 Welded . ........................... ...................................................................................... ............ 45 Tie Rods and Spacers. 21 Plugging Tubes................................ Application Instructions & Llmltatlons ......................................... ...... ................................... 27.. ........... ................. .... .........45 Packed Floating Tubesheet Type Exchangers............... 280 Loads .......... .............................................. 99 Tube Natural Frequencies.................................45 Minimum Thickness............................................ ....69 Diameters and Gages . 67 Tube Wtil ReducBon....... ............... ....... ........... ......... ................... 90..............................230................ 117 Vortex Shedding ........40 Vibration.............. 34 “-Tubes..... ............... 22.......................................................... 95......................................45 Fixed Tubesheets .................. ............................... ..................... 51. 99 Turbulent Buffeting ..... ...... ........................................... .......70............... ..... ...... 279 Tube Allowable Compressive Stress.. 116... 91 Vibratiwl........................ 98. 116 Mechanisms Causing .............. .... ............... ................ ....... ..................... (continued) Equivalent Differential Expansion Pressure 62...... ......... ..... Maximum.......... 235 Tubesheats.......... ..... 29 Pitch .............. ... .................... 104 Unsupported Length............ Formulae.............55-62 Effective Tubesheet Thickness. .. 45 Applied Facings....151 Conversion Factors .. ................ ....... 74.................... ........................................................88 Channel Covers...................... ....... ............ 42 Shell and Tube Longitudinal Stresses....S7..... .......................................................................... 180 W Wall Resistance.. ........... ................... .............. 182 Hydrocarbons & Petroleum Fractions ................................................................................................... 28 Users Note............... 97 Pattern............................ ............. ......................... ........... 73....... 125 Tube Working Pressure.................... 14.............. Tube Holes in Tubesheets ................ 66 Effective Shell Side Design Pressure.................... 68 Maximum Recommended Gages .... ....................................... ............... ... 233............. Expanded.......... .. ... ...... ... .......97.........................66........27 Expanding.................... ...................................... 65 Effective Tube Side Design Pressure................... 250 Gases 8 Vapors.......... .................................................................... .... ........35................................ ............................ 21 Length................... ........ 234........... ... 35... .t....125 Water Fouling Resistances .............................................. Miscellaneous ...33.. 230..............t 2 U Unsupported Tube Length.... . ........ ....... ... .. .............65.. .......... ......65 Equivalent Bolting Pressure.................................... 33................ ... ........... 63 Flanged Extension 5 3 ..64..............95 Designs & Conslderabons.......... ...................... ..............46-49 Effective Design Pressures-Floating Head (Type p). 151........... ..............I84 WeldedTube Joints ........... ...................................... ........... ... 20................... .......................... .. 64 Tubesheets..... Maximum... ......... ....32.........................121................................................ .............45 Clad 8 Faced Tubesheets...........30 31 Tubes . ........... .............21 SUppOrts....................23 Acoustic Resonance or Coupling..69 Tube Longitudinal Stress.... ..22............ IS.................. .........................290 Weights of Circular Rings & Discs ....... .......... 122....... ... .................... lnternai ............... Bending........... .......... 242-247 Weights of Tubing .................... ......... 41.............. 273 Removal............ Number and Size................ ....... .. ............................... ... .......... 235 Tubes... 22 Handling.......... ....34 Heat Treatment......................................45 Divided Floating Heads................ 54 Shear............................. 73 Natural Frequencies .................. ......................... 123 Tube Excitation.................................................... 122 S&&d References............... ................................................ 231 Welded and Seamless Pipe........... 151.................. .......... 69..nterna............................. ................tS............................... ....................................... 74 Tube Support Plate Drillkig ...................2SO U-Tubes ................................ 69 Special Cases............... 62-70 Fixed Tubesheets of Differing Thickness .. 27 Leaks ............................5 5 Effective Differential Design Pressure.............. 28 Rear support. 68......... 181 Gases &Vapors............... . ......................74 Tubesheet Pulling Eyes....70 Tube Holes in Tubesheets ................ ..... ............................................................. .... .....27.... ........ 53..........63................... ............... Baffles .... ................ 21..29 Plugging in Tube Bundles .................................... ............... .......................... 231 Compressive Stress .. 280.......... 249....273 Projection........ .... 31 Heat Exchangers and Parts .......50....................... 34................................... .... .... ... ...... ....... 68....................................... 28........ ................ ..................... 70 Testing................ S-9 Shells and Shell Covers ............... 280 Tubesheet Pass Partition Grooves...... ...... ................... 234....................... ... ...............................................46 Double Tubesheeb ....116 Viscosity...................... 74................. ........ ............... ...........

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