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What to Teach and How to Teach it
MACMILLAN BOOKS FOR TEACHERS
Series Editor: Adrian Underhill
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macmillanenglish. Hungary. as well as teachers who are unsure of how to present grammar or those who are looking for new ways to present it. Increases awareness of the classroom situation and covers basic classroom skills. He can be very boring about Bob Dylan if you give him half a chance.com/macmillanelt www. as well as teacher trainers. where he designed the Online Delta course. Director of Education for IH Budapest and is currently Head of Teacher Development for Bell International. Provides information on how to run a successful teaching practice course for teacher trainers. Contains basic guidelines and practical information to allow maximum learning from teaching practice sessions. He has been Head of Teacher Training for International House Hastings. The perfect companion for both trainees and teacher trainers following courses such as the Cambridge CELTA. including Georgia.R.youtube. Kenya. View inside the book before you buy.com Use your Macmillan English Dictionary with this book.facebook. connect with fellow teachers and more. Diploma and specialist teacher development programmes. three in the U. Alex and Ben. Choose from an ever-expanding library of high-quality video content. The book provides teachers with an authoritative and practical handbook on teaching grammar and helps to make preparing grammar lessons easy and straightfoward.macmillanenglish. Macmillan ONLINE About the author: Jim Scrivener Visit our YouTube channel and watch Macmillan authors in action around the world.macmillaneducationbookstore. He has taught and trained in many countries. Teaching English Grammar aims to combine language information and methodological help in a straightforward. Jim Scrivener is an English language teacher who also tutors on initial training. The perfect companion for trainee and newly-qualified EFL Teachers.com What's available? www. Key Features: Presents concept questions.com What's available? Downloadable sample pages and activities from the titles in the series. Jim Scrivener has worked in many different countries. Grammar-to-go: Teachers can read the relevant section and prepare a lesson for tomorrow. Chapters systematically cover the main challenges for new teachers. He is married to Noémi and has two adult sons.S. Visit our Facebook page to learn more about workshops and author events around the world. including titles from the Macmillan Books for Teachers series. www. and a young daughter. including two years in Kenya. Provides ideas and templates to help teachers create and use practice activities for students. Jim Scrivener MACMILLAN BOOKS FOR TEACHERS Series Editor: Adrian Underhill Buy eBook versions of Macmillan books.S. MACMILLAN BOOKS FOR TEACHERS Teaching English Grammar What to Teach and How to Teach it Teaching English Grammar Updates for selected titles featuring the latest Teaching English developments in the field and new weblinks. Jim Scrivener Teaching English Grammar What to Teach and How to Teach it www. timelines and other useful insights to help teachers prepare lessons – using language suitable for students rather than academic prose. Grammar Series Editor: Adrian Underhill A Handbook for Teachers in Training Teaching Practice is an essential reference for both EFL teachers and trainers on pre-service training courses. Romania and Russia. Download your book instantly. He was leader of the team that designed the Euro exams and has been actively involved with Cambridge ESOL exams.com/macmillaneducation . and seven in Hungary. It takes account of current methodology and is suitable for use on Cambridge CELTA courses. and the Trinity Certificate in TESOL.Macmillan WEBSITES www. Maisie. in a number of formats compatible with eBook readers. authoritative way and thus help English language teachers prepare and deliver grammar lessons within their syllabus.
have to. yet and always 00 00 Time words: for and since 00 Present perfect00 progressive 00 00 Past perfect simple 00 00 Past perfect progressive 00 00 Will 00 00 Going to 00 Will contrasted00 going to with 00 00 Present progressive: ‘future arrangements’ 00 00 Future progressive and future perfect 00 00 Requests. can’t couldn’t. ought to 00 Possibility and 00 certainty: may. could. would. be able to 00 Obligation and00 compulsion: must. Presentation Excuses. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 adjective + enough He wants to join the army when he’s old enough. might 00 00 Ability: can. must have. lots of. 00 can’t have 00 00 Modal verbs: an overview 00 00 Zero conditional 00 00 First conditional 00 00 Second conditional 00 Third conditional Passives Causatives Multi-word verbs Direct and reported speech 3/10/10 12:10 PM Used to Question tags Relative pronouns and relative clauses De ning and non-de ning relative clauses ’d better / had better Two verb structures: -ing / in nitive In case 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 xxxxx_batch01. I was too shy to ask her to dance. not as…as. can’t. excuses 1) Draw two characters on the board: a girl and her lazy boyfriend lazing on a sofa. offers. adverb + enough He told me I hadn’t been working hard enough to pass the exam. 79 List of teaching tips Index 3/10/10 10:17 AM . might. the same as. orders. a lot of. quantities and pieces Subject and object pronouns Re exive pronouns Possessives This. these. The crates were much too heavy to carry.Contents About the series About the author Foreword Introduction What are Concept Questions – and how can I use them? Key grammatical terminology The sounds of British English 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Singular and plural Countable and uncountable nouns Containers. too + adverb He ran much too slowly. The water was too cold for a shower. like Comparisons: too and enough Prepositions of place Prepositions of movement Prepositions of time Have and have got Present simple: be Present simple: af rmative Present simple: negative Present simple: questions Imperatives Adverbs of frequency Present progressive: af rmative (‘now’ meaning) Present progressive: negative and questions Present progressive contrasted with present simple Past simple: be Past simple: regular verbs 4 5 6 7 12 14 18 00 00 00 00 Contents 00 00 Past simple: irregular verbs 00 00 Past simple: questions and short answers 00 00 Past simple: negative 00 00 Past progressive: ‘in progress’ 00 00 Past progressive: ‘interrupted actions’ 00 00 Present perfect: Have you ever…? 00 00 Present perfect: just 00 00 Present perfect: ‘up to now’ 00 00 Time words: already. should. those Articles Some and any Much. that. must. little and a little Other quanti ers Adjective order Comparatives Superlatives Comparisons: as…as.indd 79 3 17 Comparisons: too and enough Form too + adjective He’s too ill to come in today. The teachers aren’t strict enough for this class. She played too dangerously. many. will. enough + noun We have enough food for everyone. may. could. a great deal of Few and a few. plenty. permission: can.
run for the bus and fail (I can’t run fast enough). It wasn’t hot enough). Afterwards.indd 81 3/10/10 10:17 AM . ‘I bought a cup of tea at a stall but it was horrible’ (It was too cold. try and fail to pick up a bag (It’s too heavy). (The shelf’s too high.’ (Money) No. Variation You can adapt the conversation to also include examples of enough. Encourage lively intonation. A: Could you bring me the pen from that shelf. B: I’m too tired to get up.) Hand out some new pictures to pairs and get them to discuss and agree reasons. he couldn’t easily understand it). thanks. Meaning and use Too We use too to say that something has more of something (an adjective or adverb) than is good. look worn out (I’m too tired).17 Comparisons: too and enough 17 Comparisons: too and enough 2) Use the pictures to help elicit and build a dialogue in which one person keeps asking for help and the other always has a reason to refuse. thanks. Is it heavy? (Yes) Is it very heavy? (Yes) Can I carry it? (No) Why not? (It’s very heavy) Can someone else carry it? (Perhaps) Who might be able to carry it? (Someone stronger than me!) Bob is old enough to join the army. offering things to students – then get students to repeat the game in pairs. Can Bob join the army now? (Yes) What is the minimum age to join the army? (18) Is Bob 18 or older? (Yes) Is he younger than 18? (No) Is he too young to join the army? (No) Anecdote Tell an anecdote about yesterday including all the things that went wrong. she isn’t able to pick it up and carry it). B: It’s too late for the news. Practice Why can’t he do it? Find pictures showing people in problem situations (a small child trying to reach a sweet on a high shelf). (A book) ‘No. In most cases. It’s too boring. It’s too little.) Variation Imagine you are in a terrible restaurant / museum / shopping mall / sports centre / hotel. Offers game Ask students to offer you things spontaneously – or they could prepare a list rst – or you could provide one. Is the weather hot? (Yes) Is it very hot? (Yes) Are you happy that it’s hot? (No) Is it hotter than you like? (Yes) Would you prefer it to be cooler? (Yes) It’s too heavy for me to carry. thanks. Questions Ask ‘Can you pick up an elephant?’ (No) ‘Why not?’ (It’s too heavy) ‘Can you run a hundred kilometres?’ (No) ‘Why not?’ (I’m not t enough) ‘Can you eat twenty hamburgers?’ (No) ‘Why not?’ Reasons ‘Tell me a place in this town / country / world that you don’t like. look at your watch and look panicky (It’s too late). ‘I saw a nice new widescreen TV that I wanted but I didn’t buy it’ (It was too expensive. Refuse each offer with a too sentence.’ ‘Tell me a kind of food you don’t enjoy. The room isn’t big enough). Give me some reasons why you don’t enjoy it.’ (A free holiday in Barbados) ‘No. ‘I went to the bank but it was shut’ (You were too late). for example. etc. A: Could you help me move this box. reverse roles. Turn the TV on please. It’s too far away. Get students to tell you the missing too sentences. If Janos says that the lecturer spoke English too quickly – he means that the speed of the lecturer’s English was faster than was good (and. A: Make me a cup of coffee please.’ What’s wrong Think of ten reasons that a class might complain about a course (The lessons are too long. He’s not tall enough. suitable or normal. for example. please? B: It’s too high for me to reach. It wasn’t cheap enough). Mime Mime different mini-situations and get students to say the sentences: wipe your brow and shade yourself from the sun (It’s too hot). Give me some reasons why you don’t like it. Ask to speak to the manager and complain about lots of things. please? B: It’s too heavy to lift. 3) Get students to practise repeating and acting out the dialogue. I’m not strong enough. Ask why he can’t do what he is trying to do.indd 80 3/12/10 5:44 PM xxxxx_batch01. A: I want to watch the news. Hand out cards with sentences for students to mime for each other to guess. 80 • • If Mary says that a suitcase is too heavy – she means that it has more weight than is good (and. (Could you help me move this box. The exercises are too boring. 81 TEG_batch01. please? It’s too heavy to lift. the sentence has a negative meaning. Concept questions • • • It’s too hot.
Sorry I’m late. really or very: ✗I like this ice cream too much. The shirt was too small The shirt wasn’t big enough. We left early because it was too hot I thought I could do it but it was too difficult for me. It’s hot sounds like a reasonably objective description of the weather. Each of these sentences is stronger than the one before. make complaints. (She was too rude to me or She was very rude to me. you can often express a parallel meaning. . many sentences using this structure have a de nite on / off rhythm. It’s much too hot in here. Learners often use sentences like this with a positive intention. Students often wrongly assume that they are used to make a exaggerated positive meaning. Taking secondary stresses into account. Can’t you turn the heating down? explain that things didn’t match your predictions or live up to your expectations. Pronunciation The strong forms of too and to are the same. The weak forms are pronounced differently. It’s too hot for me to drink. The bus left three minutes too early and I missed it. to sentences can be used with positive meanings but this is rarer. it is likely to take a main stress.17 Comparisons: too and enough 17 Comparisons: too and enough Using too adds an element of personal opinion to a statement. The main stress could be on the adjective / adverb and on the main verb. The sentence would sound more natural if the speaker added to the sentence: The museum was too interesting to visit in just one hour. Students use too much instead of too. Although this is a possible English sentence. If much is used. Similarly. I can’t help you –it’s too difficult. . We use too to: If much isn’t used. it may sound strange from a student. It’s much too hot for me to drink. Too . give reasons why things didn’t happen or happened in a certain way or to make excuses. • • Enough We use enough to say that something is suf cient – as much as you need. This food is too dry. the main stresses are likely to be either on too and the main verb. (I really like this ice cream. • Students use too instead of very: ✗ I liked your food too much. Consider this sentence: ✗The museum was too interesting. • • • • • give reasons why you don’t want to do things – or can’t do things. It’s much too hot for me to drink! Watch out for these problems . but to a listener it sounds as if the museum was more interesting than was good and that the speaker had a problem with this.) Students get the word order of much too mixed up: ✗ He’s too much tired to go out. It’s too crowded. Compare that with It’s too hot. upset or disappointed. That dessert was too delicious to leave on my plate. not with the museum itself. It’s too hot for me to drink. too /t / to /t / 82 83 xxxxx_batch01. . The word much intensi es the adjective or adverb. Now it is clear that the negative meaning is associated with having to leave the museum.indd 82 xxxxx_batch01. it means that there is not suf cient – less than you need. This also says that the weather is hot but adds in a strong personal opinion that the quantity of heat is more than is good (for the speaker). The box was too heavy for him to pick up He wasn't strong enough to pick up the box.indd 83 3/10/10 10:17 AM 3/10/10 10:17 AM . Many positive too sentences can be changed into negative enough sentences. . It’s crowded. ✗ She is too happy.) ✗ She was too much rude to me. In negative sentences. It’s much too crowded. show that you are angry.
/z/ and /iz/ and call out verbs. Practice Spelling and pronunciation Make sure your students get some basic activities that focus on spelling and pronunciation. Presentation Variation: weekly routines Joanna drives to London every Thursday. y ies. do does. Elicit sentences about the routine. brushes his teeth and puts on his clothes. washes. shops). Daily routines 1) Tell or elicit a story using board pictures or ashcards getting students to repeat each sentence. .23 Present simple: af rmative 23 Present simple: afﬁrmative Form I / You / We / They He / She / It live lives in Prague. listening to teacher’s model again and teacher feedback where useful). .indd 101 3/10/10 10:17 AM xxxxx_batch01. The -s ending and spelling • • • We use -es when the base form ends in /s/. Diego wakes up every day at 7. (He goes to the shops every Thursday. She sleeps at her mother’s house. /z/. Students should come to the board and place the word in the correct column (with discussion.). Note also. go goes. 101 102 h01. discusses. /z/ and /iz/ ). 3) Elicit a second very similar story for a different character (Brigitte wakes up every day at 10 .) Get students to make their own diaries and repeat the task in pairs.15. . She meets her mother and they play tennis together. . using I go. y -ies) and pronunciations ( /s/. catches. carry carries. including all the differently spelt –s endings (especially -s. Simple discrimination and sorting games are often suitable. write three columns on the board labelled /s/. He gets up at 7. We use -ies (to replace the y) when the base form ends in a consonant followed by y.30. 2) Ask students to recap and retell the whole story at various points. have has. / / or /t /.indd 102 3/10/10 10:17 AM .45. He walks to the bus stop and waits for the number 166 bus. Diary Make a diary of someone’s daily / weekly routine using single words for entries (tennis. There is an -s ending on the verb for third person singular. etc. He has a shower. -es. . He leaves his house at 8. rises. She drives back home on Sunday morning. etc.
indd 103 3/10/10 10:17 AM TEG_batch01. Unit 57 First conditional Uses We use the present simple to talk about . The river ows in a south-westerly direction. I feel sorry for him. have. Concept questions • Ildiko works in the bank. feel. taste. etc. etc and things done on certain days or occasions. Past Now Future Spot the lies game Read out ten present simple sentences about yourself. Past Now Future ✘ 5) Timetabled or planned events in the future. This tea tastes funny.05. ✘✘ ✘✘✘ ✘ ✘✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ Guess the job Read out sentences describing a person’s life. Eight should be true and two false (I read three newspapers every day). Has Ildiko got a job? (Yes) What is her job? (She works in the bank) Does she work there on Monday? (Yes. repeated actions: things that are done usually. Past Now Future Link to collocations Teach the present simple alongside common verb–noun collocations for household routines (She cleans the windows / tidies the toys / makes the beds). (Anita works at the laundrette. The match starts at 3 o’clock. My sister lives next door. . 1) Habits. probably) Tuesday? Wednesday? etc. like. 103 104 . Despite its name. the present simple can actually refer to the past.) I usually play in defence. routines.indd 104 3/12/10 4:53 PM . I carry a heavy bag. I don’t trust Hillary. What sport does Henri like? (Football ) Does he play often? (Probably) Is he playing football NOW? (Probably not – but we don’t know) • Ice melts at 0º. I can send it to you by email if you give me your address. We live at 23 Brook eld Avenue. The Blue Café closes on Mondays. using verbs such as believe. sometimes. feel. Past Now Future Meaning and use Core meaning Things which we think of as generally true and unlimited in time ie without a beginning or an ending. 6) The future after the words when or if (when will cannot be used). Things that seem permanently true and don’t have any obvious beginning or end. Here the land rises and falls in gentle hills. present and / or future (and it isn’t very simple). taste. I always get the eight o’clock train. know.) Who can guess the job rst? 2) Permanent situations. senses and feelings that are generally true. etc.23 Present simple: af rmative 23 Present simple: af rmative Soap opera Create an imaginary ‘soap opera’ with varied stereotypical characters. Elicit from students the different lifestyles and routines of these characters. Is she in the bank NOW? (Maybe. truths and things believed to be true: things that happen all the time. live. we don’t know) • Henri plays football. senses and feelings that are happening around now – believe. Students must guess which sentences are false. often. I knock on doors. Is this a fact? (Yes) Is it always true? (Yes) Was it true last week? (Yes) Was it true ten thousand years ago? (Yes) Will be it be true in the year 3000? (Yes) 3) States. She smokes 50 cigarettes a day. Your hair feels so soft. (I walk a lot. . like. have. Just buzz me when the client arrives. know. 4) States. occasionally. The London train gets in at 10. regularly.
stirs). auxiliary do / does is usually inappropriate in af rmative present simple statements: She does walk to school. This bear walks into a petrol station and says . /g/. digs. /d/. the / z/ ending does cause some trouble. grins.indd 106 3/10/10 10:17 AM . Students omit the third person -s ending: ✗ Maria like chocolate. Point out that the rst column shows the base form and can help them select verbs. Using the present simple to talk about things happening NOW Other than uses (4) and (8) above. /k/. /z/ and / z/. ✗ He work in a cafe. rubs. /f/ (slips. gives. 9) Jokes and anecdotes. /t/. laughs). knows. waits. /v/. • • Students add an unnecessary auxiliary verb: ✗ I am live here. . likes. your nger. judges). We normally use the present progressive for actions happening NOW and for events ‘around now’ that are limited in duration with a beginning and end. Base forms are listed in the rst column of a standard verb table. /m/. zzes. it’s simply something that takes a long time to become natural. /r/ (sees. teach the contracted forms (don’t. • /s/ when the base form ends with unvoiced consonants: /p/. /n/. President bans Union 8) Live commentary especially of sports events. rides. • /z/ when the base form ends in a vowel or one of these voiced consonants: /b/. hums. Unit 30 Present progressive contrasted with present simple • Pronunciation The –s ending We pronounce the third person singular -s ending in three different ways: /s/. . Students mispronounce the -s ending: The distinction between /s/ and /z/ is not typically a problem for speakers of many mother tongues (maybe because it’s actually harder to say the endings with the wrong phoneme – and it doesn’t make a big difference to communication even if you get it wrong). ✗ He living in China. washes. Says is pronounced/sez/. /ð/. • / z/ when the base form ends with /s/. form the present simple and spell them correctly. /z/. However. Draw students’ attention to such verb tables in their coursebook or grammar book (they are usually in the back).23 Present simple: af rmative 23 Present simple: af rmative 7) Newspaper headlines (to make a past event seem more ‘live’). it is. doesn’t) as the standard forms – rather than introducing the uncontracted forms (do not. catches. Idea: Students will omit the -s ending. Students may use it to pronounce many -s endings eg cook /k k z/ walks /w k z/. . Watch out for these problems . /l/. Try gentle reminders when they forget: drawing an ‘s’ shape in the air with 105 106 . Students use do and does unnecessarily: When used by low level students. • Does is pronounced /d z/ or /d z/. Idea: Help them by pointing out that words like cooks and walks are one syllable but they are using two. saying ‘ssss’ or pointing at a large ‘s’ on a poster you’ve placed next to the board. 1 buy drive eat 2 bought drove ate 3 bought driven eaten Contractions If your students are learning British English pronunciation. / /. does not) rst and only later showing the contraction. in fact. .indd 105 3/10/10 10:17 AM xxxxx_batch01. the present simple does not usually refer to things happening NOW. rings. especially to disagree with a previous speaker: A: Omar doesn’t live in London. Don’t worry that you taught it badly. /t /. / /. We also use the -es spelling (misses. However. Teaching tip: verb tables The verb form used in present simple is the base form is also known as the ‘in nitive without to’. /d /. Beckham kicks to Ronaldo. calls. • • Students use present progressive instead of present simple: ✗ I smoking a lot. breathes. possible if the speaker wants to emphasise the truth of what he is saying. B: He does live there! NB The auxiliary verb (do/does) is stressed.
He is a training consultant and coach in leadership development. and cover classic theory as well as the latest developments. www. humanistic education. interpersonal skills and storytelling in organisational development. focusing on current methodology and real-world teaching situations. They are insightful and practical books. All of the titles have been written by leaders in their fields.com 9780230412583 . Our series editor is Adrian Underhill Adrian works with educators in many countries on the development of continuous professional learning programmes.macmillanenglish.Macmillan Books for Teachers The titles in the Macmillan Books for Teachers series have been written to inform teachers worldwide.
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