Guide for electrical design engineers

Power Quality
Krzysztof Piatek
AGH-University of Science & Technology

Voltage drop calculation: permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor
Supply system line Lz

400 V Z PPC UN ZL U PPC

Tr PPC 400 V line L1

Zr

Power Quality

M

and cosϕr = PFr is the starting power factor.org Problem An industrial customer plans to connect a new induction motor to the power supply system as shown in the diagram. Thus we obtain Zr = 0.leonardo-energy.rated power: .Power Quality http://www.954 ) = 91.starting power factor: .feeder line Lz impedance (at 0.4 kV level): . For the planned number of 20 starts per hour the voltage change: Kmax = 3% Solution First.rated power . ZL = 65 mΩ Supply system line Lz Tr PPC 400 V line L1 M Using the permissible level of voltage fluctuations as a criterion.55 + j1.4 2 (0. calculate the motor impedance during start then.supply line L impedance: Transformer data: . find the voltage drop during start.rated voltage: . employing Kirchhoff voltage law.43 + j 290.short-cir cuit voltage . Power supply system parameters: . The apparent power during start Sr = kr PN = 7⋅75 = 525 kVA The motor impedance during start Zr = 2 UN (cos ϕr + j sin ϕr ) Sr where ϕrozr is the phase shift angle during start. determine whether the motor should be installed.66 mΩ ZL = 25 + j 60 mΩ. The voltage drop value relative to the rated voltage at PCC is the sought coefficient. The voltage at PCC is UPPC = UN 2 .3 kr =7 kVA/kW SN =1MVA u% =5% X R =5 ZLz =1.74 mΩ 525 Z r + ZL Zr + ZL + ZPPC The voltage drop at PCC is calculated from the voltage divider in the figure.3 + j 0.starting overload coefficient: UN = 400 V PN =75 kW PFr = 0. it has to be compared with the coefficients given for 20 starts per hour.reactance to resistance ratio Motor data: .

196 + j 0.55 + j 360.84 mΩ Summing up with the feeder line Lz impedance.e. 3 .24 379.56 V and. we obtain 400 V Z PPC UN ZL U PPC Z Tr = Zr Z Tr = 8 (0.74 369.56 The relative voltage change coefficient is defined as ΔU K u = PPC UN where ΔUPPC is the voltage drop at PCC during starting.9736 ) =10.56 = = 0.Voltage drop calculation: permissible level of voltage fluctuations for a motor http://www. we obtain ZPPC = 3.leonardo-energy.74 mΩ The power system impedance at PCC equals the sum of the feeder line Lz and the transformer Tr impedances ZPPC = Z Tr + ZLz The transformer impedance Z Tr = Z Tr (cos ϕ Tr + j sin ϕ Tr ) where 2 u% UN 0. the relative voltage drop is ZΣ U ku = PPC = UN Z Σ + ZPPC where Z Σ = Zr + ZL =116.5 mΩ Inserting the calculated impedances to the voltage divider formula.4 2 = 0.56 = 0. we obtain ku = 116.org i. K u = 2.36% 3 119.9736 .57 + j 7. Please refer to the Leonardo ENERGY website. ϕ Tr = 78.43 + j 350. Ku = This publication is subject to copyright and a disclaimer.6% 400 Since this coefficient does not exceed the limit value of 3% the motor can be directly connected to the network.05⋅ = 8 mΩ 100 SN 1 whereas the angle ϕ Tr can be determined from the X/R ratio X tan ϕ Tr = = 5. finally: 10. ku = 97.69 R Inserting the calculated values to the transformer impedance formula.026 .43 + j 350.98 ) =1. It can be determined directly as ΔUPPC = UN − kuUN = 400 (1− 0.12 + j 9.

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