(d) Automatic sprinkler system for fires.
The controller is On/Off and the control i feedback with
respect to temperature.,
M, D, A: temperature element/controller TE/C. Usually a
bimetallic strip that pushes the latch on the mechanism
holding the slice of bread. The bread is released and the
heating element deenergized when the temperature
reaches the value set by the set point.
TE/C
SP
(c) Toaster.
The controller is On/Off and the control is
feedback on the temperature variable.
M: Temperature element TE, usually a gasfilled
bulb
D: Temperature controller TC.
A: Solenoid S that operates the heating element
in the oven
(b) Cooking oven.
TE
TC
S
SP
The controller is On/Off and the control is feedback.
M: Temperature element TE in thermostat TE/C
D: Mercury switch in thermostat TE/C
A: Solenoid S that turns unit (AC/H) on and off.
TE/C
S
AC
/H
SP
(a) House airconditioning/heating.
Identificaton of the MDA components, controller type, instrumentation diagram, and type of control.
Problem 11. Automation in daily life.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Water
main
TE/C
M, D, A: temperature element/controller TE/C, a
rod that gives to the water pressure at a set
temperature, allowing the water to spray over the
fire.
The controller is On/Off with single action, and
the control is feedback.
(e) Automatic cruise speed control.
ST
SC
SP
S
Air
Engine
Transmission
M: Speed sensor and
transmitter ST on the
transmission
D: Speed controller SC
A: Damper on air intake to
the engine throttles the air
varying the power delivered
by the engine
Controller is regulating and
control is feedback.
(f) Refrigerator.
TE/C
S
SP
M: temperature sensor TE, usually a gasfilled bulb
D: Temperature controller C, mechanically linked to the
sensor
A: Solenoid S that turnsd the refrigeration compressor
on and off
The controller is On/Off and the control is feedback.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 12. Automatic shower temperature diagram.
TE
TC
Hot
water
Cold
water
S
SP
M: temperature sensor TE, a gasfilled bulb
D: temperature controller TC, mechanilly integrated
to the sensor, but with a signa output
A: solenoid operated control valve on the hot water
line.
The cold water valve is operated manually.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
F s ( )
s
s
2
ω
2
+
=
1
2
1
s i ω ⋅ −
1
s i ω ⋅ +
+

\

.
=
s i ω ⋅ − s + i ω ⋅ +
2 s i ω ⋅ −
( )
⋅ s i ω ⋅ +
( )
=
2 s ⋅
2 s
2
ω
2
+
( )
⋅
=
s
s
2
ω
2
+
=
1
2
1 −
s i ω ⋅ −
e
s i ω ⋅ − ( )t −
∞
0
⋅
1 −
s i ω ⋅ +
e
s i ω ⋅ + ( )t −
∞
0
⋅ +
=
1
2
0
∞
t e
s i ω ⋅ − ( )t −
⌠
1
⌡
d
0
∞
t e
s i ω ⋅ + ( )t −
⌠
1
⌡
d +
=
F s ( )
0
∞
t cos ωt ⋅ e
st −
⋅
⌠
1
⌡
d =
0
∞
t
e
i ωt ⋅
e
i − ωt ⋅
−
2
e
st −
⌠
1
1
1
⌡
d = f t ( ) cos ωt ⋅ = (c)
F s ( )
1
s a +
=
F s ( )
0
∞
t e
at −
e
st −
⌠
1
⌡
d =
0
∞
t e
s a + ( )t −
⌠
1
⌡
d =
1 −
s a +
e
s a + ( )t −
∞
0
⋅ =
1
s a +
=
where a is constant f t ( ) e
at −
= (b)
F s ( )
1
s
2
=
F s ( )
t −
s
e
st −
∞
0
⋅
1
s
0
∞
t e
st −
⌠
1
⌡
d ⋅ + = 0 0 −
1
s
2
e
st −
∞
0
⋅ − =
1
s
2
=
v
1 −
s
e
st −
= du dt =
dv e
st −
dt = u t = By parts: F s ( )
0
∞
t t e
st −
⋅
⌠
1
⌡
d = f t ( ) t = (a)
F s ( )
0
∞
t f t ( ) e
st −
⌠
1
⌡
d =
Problem 21. Derivation of Laplace transforms from its definition
Smith & Corripio, 3rd. edition
(d) f t ( ) e
at −
coss ωt ⋅ =
F s ( )
0
∞
t e
at −
cos ωt ⋅ e
st −
⋅
⌠
1
⌡
d =
0
∞
t e
at − e
i ωt ⋅
e
i − ωt ⋅
+
2
⋅ e
st −
⌠
1
1
1
⌡
d =
1
2
0
∞
t e
s a + i ω ⋅ + ( )t −
⌠
1
⌡
d
0
∞
t e
s a + i ω ⋅ − ( ) − t
⌠
1
⌡
d +
=
1
2
1 −
s a + i ω ⋅ +
e
s a + i ω ⋅ + ( )t −
∞
0
⋅
1 −
s a + i ω ⋅ −
e
s a + i ω ⋅ − ( )t −
∞
0
⋅ +
=
1
2
1
s a + i ω ⋅ +
1
s a + i ω ⋅ −
+

\

.
=
s a + i ω ⋅ − s + a + i ω ⋅ +
2 s a + i ω ⋅ +
( )
s a + i ω ⋅ −
( )
=
2 s a + ( )
2 s a + ( )
2
ω
2
+
⋅
=
s a +
s a + ( )
2
ω
2
+
= F s ( )
s a +
s a + ( )
2
ω
2
+
=
All the results match results in Table 21.1
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
1
s
1
s 2 +
+ 2
1
s 1 +
⋅ − =
1
s
1
s 2 +
+
2
s 1 +
− =
F s ( )
1
s
1
s 2 +
+
2
s 1 +
− =
Used the linearity property.
(d) f t ( ) u t ( ) e
t −
− t e
t −
⋅ + = F s ( ) L u t ( ) ( ) L e
t −
( )
− L t e
t −
⋅
( )
+ =
1
s
1
s 1 +
−
1
s 1 + ( )
2
+ =
F s ( )
1
s
1
s 1 +
−
1
s 1 + ( )
2
+ =
Used the linearity property.
(e) f t ( ) u t 2 − ( ) 1 e
2 − t 2 − ( )
sin t 2 − ( ) −
= Let g t ( ) u t ( ) 1 e
2 − t
sin t ⋅ −
( )
= Then f t ( ) g t 2 − ( ) =
F s ( ) e
2 − s
G s ( ) = e
2 − s 1
s
1
s 2 + ( )
2
1 +
−
=
Used the real translation theorem and linearity. F s ( ) e
2 − s 1
s
1
s 2 + ( )
2
1 +
−
=
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 22. Derive Laplace transforms from the properties and Table 21.1
(a) f t ( ) u t ( ) 2 t ⋅ + 3 t
2
⋅ + = F s ( ) L u t ( ) 2 t ⋅ + 3 t
2
⋅ +
( )
= L u t ( ) ( ) 2 L t ( ) ⋅ + 3 L t
2
( )
⋅ + =
1
s
2
1
s
2
⋅ + 3
2!
s
3
⋅ + = F s ( )
1
s
2
s
2
+
6
s
3
+ =
Used the linearity property.
(b) f t ( ) e
2 − t ⋅
u t ( ) 2 t ⋅ + 3 t
2
⋅ +
( )
= F s ( ) L u t ( ) 2 t ⋅ + 3 t
2
⋅ +
( )
s 2 +
⋅ =
1
s
2
s
2
+
6
s
3
+

\

. s 2 +
⋅ =
1
s 2 +
2
s 2 + ( )
2
+
6
s 2 + ( )
3
+ =
F s ( )
1
s 2 +
2
s 2 + ( )
2
+
6
s 2 + ( )
3
+ =
Used the complex translation theorem.
(c) f t ( ) u t ( ) e
2 − t
+ 2e
t −
− = F s ( ) L u t ( ) e
2 − t
+ 2 e
t −
⋅ −
( )
= L u t ( ) ( ) L e
2 − t
( )
+ 2 L e
t −
( )
⋅ − =
Must apply L'Hopital's rule:
∞ s
1
1
2
2 s 2 + ( )
+
6
3 s 2 + ( )
2
+
1 = lim
→ Final value:
∞ t
e
2 − t
u t ( ) 2 t ⋅ + 3t
2
+
( )
0 ∞ ⋅ = lim
→
0 s
s
1
s 2 +
2
s 2 + ( )
2
+
6
s 3 + ( )
2
+
0 = lim
→
L'Hopital's rule:
∞ t
0
2e
2t
2
2e
2t
+
6t
2e
2t
+

\

.
0 = lim
→
Check!
(c) f t ( ) u t ( ) e
2 − t
+ 2e
t −
− = F s ( )
1
s
1
s 2 +
+
2
s 1 +
− =
Initial value:
0 t
u t ( ) e
2 − t
+ 2e
t −
−
( )
1 1 + 2 − ( ) 0 + = lim
→ ∞ s
s
1
s
1
s 2 +
+
2
s 1 +
−

\

.
∞
∞
= lim
→
L'Hopital's rule:
∞ s
1
1
1
+
2
1
−

\

.
0 = lim
→
Final value:
∞ t
u t ( ) e
2 − t
+ 2e
t −
−
( )
1 0 + 0 + = 1 = lim
→ 0 s
s
1
s
1
s 2 +
+
2
s 1 +
−

\

.
1 0 + 0 + = 1 = lim
→
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 23. Initial and final value check of solutions to Problem 22
(a) f t ( ) u t ( ) 2 t ⋅ + 3t
2
+ = F s ( )
1
s
2
s
2
+
6
s
3
+ =
Initial value:
0 t
u t ( ) 2t + 3t
2
+
( )
1 = lim
→ ∞ s
s
1
s
2
s
2
+
6
s
3
+

\

.
⋅
∞ s
1
2
s
+
6
s
2
+

\

.
1 = lim
→
= lim
→
Final value:
∞ t
u t ( ) 2t + 3t
2
+
( )
∞ = lim
→ 0 s
1
2
s
+
6
s
2
+

\

.
∞ = lim
→
Check!
(b) f t ( ) e
2 − t
u t ( ) 2t + 3t
2
+
( )
= F s ( )
1
s 2 +
2
s 2 + ( )
2
+
6
s 2 + ( )
3
+ =
Initial value:
0 t
e
2 − t
u t ( ) 2t + 3t
2
+
( )
lim
→ ∞ s
s
1
s 2 +
2
s 2 + ( )
2
+
6
s 2 + ( )
3
+
∞
∞
= lim
→
1 1 0 + 0 + ( ) = 1 =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Check!
0 s
s
1
s
1
s 1 + ( )
2
1 +
−
1 0 + = 1 = lim
→ ∞ t
1 e
2 − t
sin t ( ) ⋅ −
1 = lim
→
Final value:
∞ s
s
1
s
1
s 1 + ( )
2
1 +
−
1 0 − = 1 = lim
→ 0 t
1 e
2 − t
sin t ⋅ −
( )
1 = lim
→
Initial value:
The test of the delayed fnction is not useful. Better to test the term in brackets, g(t):
F s ( ) e
2 − s 1
s
1
s 1 + ( )
2
1 +
−
= f t ( ) u t 2 − ( ) 1 e
2 − t 2 − ( )
sin t 2 − ( ) −
= (e)
Check!
∞ t
1 0 −
1
1 e
t
⋅
+

\

.
1 = lim
→
L'Hopital's rule:
∞ t
u t ( ) e
t −
− t e
t −
⋅ +
( )
1 0 − ∞ 0 ⋅ + = lim
→
0 s
1
s
s 1 +
−
s
s 1 + ( )
2
+
1 0 − 0 + = 1 = lim
→
Final value: ∞ s
1
1
1
−
1
2 s 1 + ( )
+
1 1 − 0 + = 0 = lim
→
L'Hopital's rule:
∞ s
s
1
s
1
s 1 +
−
1
s 1 + ( )
2
+
∞
∞
= lim
→ 0 t
u t ( ) e
t −
− t e
t −
⋅ +
( )
1 1 − 0 1 ⋅ + = 0 = lim
→
Initial value:
F s ( )
1
s
1
s 1 +
−
1
s 1 + ( )
2
+ = f t ( ) u t ( ) e
t −
− t e
t −
⋅ + = (d)
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 24. Laplace transform of a pulse by real translation theorem
f t ( ) H u t ( ) ⋅ H u t T − ( ) ⋅ − =
F s ( ) H
1
s
⋅ H e
sT −
⋅
1
s
⋅ − = H
1 e
sT −
−
s
⋅ = F s ( )
H
s
1 e
sT −
−
( )
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
0 2 4
0
2
f
d
t ( )
t
0 2 4
0
2
f t ( )
t
f t ( ) e
t
0
τ
e
t −
τ
⋅ :=
f
d
t ( ) u t t
0
−
( )
e
t t
0
−
( )
−
τ
⋅ :=
u t ( ) 0 t 0 < if
1 t 0 ≥ if
:= τ 1 := t
0
1 := Sketch the functions:
F s ( )
τ e
t
0
− s ⋅
⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
The result to part (b) agrees with the real translation theorem.
e
t
0
− s ⋅
1 −
s
1
τ
+
⋅ e
s
1
τ
+

\

.
− λ ⋅
⋅ ∞
0
⋅ =
e
t
0
− s ⋅
s
1
τ
+
=
τ e
t
0
− s ⋅
⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
F s ( )
t
0
−
∞
λ u λ
( )
e
λ −
τ
e
s λ t
0
+
( )
−
⌠
1
1
1
⌡
d = e
t
0
− s ⋅
0
∞
λ e
s
1
τ
+

\

.
λ −
⌠
1
1
1
⌡
d ⋅ =
λ t t
0
− = Let
F s ( )
0
∞
t u t t
0
−
( )
e
t t
0
−
( )
−
τ
e
st −
⌠
1
1
1
⌡
d = f t ( ) u t t
0
−
( )
e
t t
0
−
( )
−
τ
=
(b) Function is delayed and zero from t = 0 to t = t
0
:
F s ( )
τ e
t
0
τ
⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= F s ( ) e
t
0
τ 1
s
1
τ
+
=
τ e
t
0
τ
⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= f t ( ) e
t
0
τ
e
t −
τ
=
(from Table 21.1)
(a) Function is nonzero for all values of t > 0:
f t ( ) e
t t
0
−
( )
−
τ
=
Problem 25. Delayed versus nondelayed function
Y t ( ) 2.5 − e
t −
2.5u t ( ) + = (Table 21.1)
(b)
9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 18
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Initial steady state: 4 y 0 ( ) ⋅ 8 x 0 ( ) 4 − =
Subtract:
9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 18
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) =
Y t ( ) y t ( ) y 0 ( ) − = Y 0 ( ) 0 =
X t ( ) x t ( ) x 0 ( ) − =
Laplace transform:
9s
2
Y s ( ) 18s Y s ( ) ⋅ + 4 Y s ( ) + 8 X s ( ) = 8
1
s
⋅ =
Solve for Y(s): Y s ( )
8
9s
2
18s + 4 +
1
s
=
r
1
18 − 18
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅
:= r
1
0.255 − =
r
2
18 − 18
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅
:= r
2
1.745 − =
Expand in partial fractions:
Y s ( )
8
9 s 0.255 + ( ) s 1.745 + ( )s
=
A
1
s 0.255 +
A
2
s 1.745 +
+
A
3
s
+ =
A
1
0.255 − s
8
9 s 1.745 + ( )s
8
9 0.255 − 1.745 + ( ) ⋅ 0.255 − ( ) ⋅
= 2.342 − = lim
→
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 26. Solution of differential equations by Laplace transforms
Input function: X t ( ) u t ( ) = X s ( )
1
s
= (Table 21.1)
(a)
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2 y t ( ) + 5 x t ( ) 3 + =
Initial steady state: 2 y 0 ( ) 5 x 0 ( ) = 3 =
Subtract:
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2 Y t ( ) + 5 X t ( ) = Y t ( ) y t ( ) y 0 ( ) − = X t ( ) x t ( ) x 0 ( ) − =
Laplace transform: sY s ( ) Y 0 ( ) − 2 Y s ( ) + 5 X s ( ) = 5
1
s
⋅ = Y 0 ( ) y 0 ( ) y 0 ( ) − = 0 =
Solve for Y(s):
Y s ( )
5
s 2 +
1
s
=
A
1
s 2 +
A
2
s
+ =
Partial fractions:
A
1
2 − s
5
s
2.5 − = lim
→
= A
2
0 s
5
s 2 +
2.5 = lim
→
=
Y s ( )
5 −
s 1 +
5
s
+ = Invert:
Y 0 ( ) 0 = 9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 12
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) =
Subtract initial steady state:
9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 12
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − = (d)
Y t ( ) 1 − 1.134i + ( )e
0.5 − 0.441i + ( )t
1 − 1.134i − ( )e
0.5 − 0.441i − ( )t
+ 2 u t ( ) + =
Invert using
Table 21.1:
Y s ( )
1 − 1.134i +
s 0.5 + 0.441i −
1 − 1.134i −
s 0.5 + 0.441i +
+
2
s
+ =
A
3
0 s
8
9s
2
9s + 4 +
2 = lim
→
= A
2
1 − 1.134i − =
8
9 2 0.441i ⋅ ( ) 0.5 − 0.441i + ( )
1 − 1.134i + = A
1
0.5 − 0.441i + s
8
9 s 0.5 + 0.441i + ( ) s
lim
→
=
A
1
s 0.5 + 0.441i −
A
2
s 0.5 + 0.441i +
+
A
3
s
+ =
Y s ( )
8
9 s 0.5 + 0.441i − ( ) s 0.5 + 0.441 + ( )s
=
Solve for Y(s), expand:
A
2
1.745 − s
8
9 s 0.255 + ( )s
8
9 1.745 − 0.255 + ( ) 1.745 − ( )
= 0.342 = lim
→
=
A
3
0 s
8
9 s 0.255 + ( ) s 1.745 + ( )
8
9 0.255 ( ) 1.745 ( )
= 2.0 = lim
→
=
Y s ( )
2.342 −
s 0.255 +
0.342
s 1.745 +
+
2
s
+ =
Invert with Table 21.1:
Y t ( ) 2.342 − e
0.255 − t
0.342e
1.745 − t
+ 2 u t ( ) + =
(c)
9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 9
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract initial steady state:
9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 9
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) = Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Laplace transform:
9s
2
9s + 4 +
( )
Y s ( ) 8 X s ( ) = 8
1
s
⋅ =
r
1
9 − 9
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅
:= r
2
9 − 9
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅
:= r
1
0.5 − 0.441i + =
Find roots:
r
2
0.5 − 0.441i − =
A
2
0.027 0.022i − =
3
2 2 2.598i ⋅ ( ) 1 − 2.598i + ( ) 1.5 − 2.598i + ( )
0.027 0.022i + =
A
1
1.5 − 2.598i + s
3
2 s 1.5 + 2.598i + ( ) s 0.5 + ( )s
0.027 0.022i + = lim
→
=
A
1
s 1.5 + 2.598i −
A
2
s 1.5 + 2.598i +
+
A
3
s 0.5 +
+
A
4
s
+ =
Y s ( )
3
2 s 1.5 + 2.598i − ( ) s 1.5 + 2.598i + ( ) s 0.5 + ( )s
=
Solve for Y(s) and expand:
polyroots
9
21
7
2

\



.

\



.
1.5 − 2.598i −
1.5 − 2.598i +
0.5 −

\

.
=
Find roots:
2s
3
7s
2
+ 21s + 9 +
( )
Y s ( ) 3 X s ( ) = 3
1
s
⋅ =
Laplace transform:
Y 0 ( ) 0 =
2
d
3
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
3
⋅ 7
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ + 21
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 9 Y t ( ) + 3 X t ( ) =
Subtract initial steady state:
2
d
3
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
3
⋅ 7
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ + 21
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 9 y t ( ) + 3 x t ( ) = (e)
Y t ( )
4 −
3
t 2 −

\

.
e
0.667 − t
2 u t ( ) + =
Invert using Table 21.1:
A
3
0 s
8
9 s 0.667 + ( )
2
2 = lim
→
=
A
2
0.667 − s
d
ds
8
9s

\

.
0.667 − s
8 −
9s
2
2 − = lim
→
= lim
→
= A
1
0.667 − s
8
9s
4 −
3
= lim
→
=
Y s ( )
8
9 s 0.667 + ( )
2
s
=
A
1
s 0.667 + ( )
2
A
2
s 0.667 +
+
A
3
s
+ =
Solve for Y(s) and expand:
r
2
0.667 − =
r
1
0.667 − = r
2
12 − 12
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅
:= r
1
12 − 12
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅
:=
Find roots:
9s
2
12s + 4 +
( )
Y s ( ) 8 X s ( ) = 8
1
s
⋅ =
Laplace transform:
A
3
0.5 − s
3
2 s 1.5 + 2.598i − ( ) s 1.5 + 2.598i + ( )s
0.387 − = lim
→
=
3
2 1 2.598i − ( ) 1 2.598i + ( ) 0.5 − ( )
0.387 − = A
4
0 s
3
2s
3
7s
2
+ 21s + 9 +
1
3
= lim
→
=
Y s ( )
0.027 0.022i +
s 1.5 + 2.598i −
0.027 0.022i −
s 1.5 + 2.598i +
+
0.387 −
s 0.5 +
+
1
3
1
s
+ =
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y t ( ) 0.027 0.022i + ( )e
1.5 − 2.598i + ( )t
0.027 0.022i − ( )e
1.5 − 2.598i − ( )t
+ 0.387e
0.5 − t
−
1
3
u t ( ) + =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
Y t ( ) u t 1 − ( )
8 −
3
t 1 − ( ) ⋅ 8 −
e
0.667 − t 1 − ( ) ⋅
⋅ 8 e
0.333 − t 1 − ( ) ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ =
Apply the real translation theorem in reverse to this solution:
Y s ( )
8 −
3
1
s 0.667 + ( )
2
8
s 0.667 +
−
8
s 0.333 +
+
e
s −
=
The partial fraction expansion of the undelayed signal is the same:
(Real translation
theorem)
X s ( )
e
s −
s
1
3
+
= X t ( ) u t 1 − ( ) e
t 1 − ( ) −
3
= (b) Forcing function:
Y t ( )
8 −
3
t 8 −

\

.
e
0.667 − t
8e
0.333 − t
+ = Invert using Table 21.1:
Y s ( )
8 −
3
1
s 0.667 + ( )
2
8 −
s 0.667 +
+
8
s 0.333 +
+ =
A
2
0.667 − s
d
ds
8
9 s 0.333 + ( )
0.667 − s
8 −
9 s 0.333 + ( )
2
8 − = lim
→
= lim
→
=
A
3
0.333 − s
8
9 s 0.667 + ( )
2
8 = lim
→
= A
1
0.667 − s
8
9 s 0.333 + ( )
8 −
3
= lim
→
=
8
9 s 0.667 + ( )
2
s 0.333 + ( )
=
A
1
s 0.667 + ( )
2
A
2
s 0.667 +
+
A
3
s 0.333 +
+ =
Y s ( )
8
9s
2
12s + 4 +
( )
s
1
3
+

\

.
=
X s ( )
1
s
1
3
+
= From Table 21.1: X t ( ) e
t −
3
= (a) Forcing function:
Y 0 ( ) 0 = 9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 12
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) =
Problem 27. Solve Problem 26(d) with different forcing functions
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
(Final value theorem)
(b)
9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 18
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract initial steady state: 9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 18
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) = Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y s ( )
8
9s
2
18s + 4 +
X s ( ) =
Find roots: r
1
18 − 18
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
2
18 − 18
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
1
0.255 − min
1 −
=
r
2
1.745 − min
1 −
=
Invert using Table 21.1: Y t ( ) A
1
e
0.255 − t
⋅ A
2
e
1.745 − t
⋅ + =
+ terms of X(s)
The response is stable and monotonic. The domnant root is: r
1
0.255 − min
1 −
=
Time for the response to decay to 0.67% of its initial value:
5 −
r
1
19.6 min =
Final steadystate value for unit step input:
0 s
s
8
9s
2
18s + 4 +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
2 →
(Final value theorem)
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 28. Response characteristics of the equations of Problem 26
(a)
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2 y t ( ) + 5 x t ( ) 3 + =
Initial steady state: 2 y 0 ( ) 5 x 0 ( ) 3 + =
Subtract:
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2 Y t ( ) + 5 X t ( ) = Y t ( ) y t ( ) y 0 ( ) − = X t ( ) x t ( ) x 0 ( ) − =
Laplace transform: s Y s ( ) ⋅ 2 Y s ( ) + 5 X s ( ) = Y 0 ( ) y 0 ( ) y 0 ( ) − = 0 =
Solve for Y(s): Y s ( )
5
s 2 +
X s ( ) =
A
1
s 2 +
= + terms of X(s)
Invert using Table 21.1: Y t ( ) A
1
e
2 − t
⋅ = + terms of X(t)
The response is stable and monotonic.The dominant and only root is r 2 − min
1 −
:=
Time for response to decay to within 0.67% of its initial value:
5 −
r
2.5min =
Final steadystate value for unit step input:
0 s
s
5
s 2 +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
5
2
→ 2.5 =
Time for oscillations to die:
5 −
0.5 − min
1 −
10 min =
Final steady state value for a unit step imput:
0 s
s
8
9s
2
9s + 4 +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
2 →
(Final value theorem)
(d) 9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 12
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract initial steady state:
9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 12
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) =
Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Laplace transform and solve for Y(s):
Y s ( )
8
9s
2
12s + 4 +
X s ( ) =
Find roots:
r
1
12 − 12
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
2
12 − 12
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
1
0.667 − min
1 −
=
r
2
0.667 − min
1 −
=
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y t ( ) A
1
t ⋅ A
2
+
( )
e
0.667 − t
=
+ terms of X(t)
(c) 9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 9
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract initial steady state:
9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 9
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) = Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Laplace transform and solve for Y(s):
Y s ( )
8
9s
2
9s + 4 +
X s ( ) =
Find the roots:
r
1
9 − 9
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
2
9 − 9
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
1
0.5 − 0.441i + min
1 −
=
r
2
0.5 − 0.441i − min
1 −
=
Invert using Table 23.1:
Y t ( ) D e
0.5 − t
⋅ sin 0.441t θ +
( )
=
+ terms of X(t)
The response is stable and oscillatory. The dominant roots are r1 and r2.
Period of the oscillations:
T
2π
0.441min
1 −
:= T 14.25 min =
Decay ratio:
e
0.5 − min
1 −
T
0.00081 =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
(Final value theorem)
0 s
s
3
2s
3
7s
2
+ 21s + 9 +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
1
3
→ Final steady state value for a unit step input:
5 −
r
2
10 min = Time for response to die out: e
1.5 − min
1 −
T
0.027 =
Decay ratio:
T 2.42 min = T
2π
2.598min
1 −
:= The period of the oscillations is:
r
2
0.5 − min
1 −
= The response is stable and oscillatory. The dominant root is
r
1.5 − 2.598i −
1.5 − 2.598i +
0.5 −

\

.
min
1 −
= r polyroots
9
21
7
2

\



.

\



.
min
1 −
:=
Find roots:
Y s ( )
3
2s
3
7s
2
+ 21s + 9 +
X s ( ) = Laplace transform and solve for Y(s):
2
d
3
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
3
⋅ 7
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ + 21
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 9 Y t ( ) + 3 X t ( ) = Subtract initial steady state:
2
d
3
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
3
⋅ 7
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ + 21
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 9 y t ( ) + 3 x t ( ) = (e)
(Final value theorem)
0 s
s
8
9s
2
12s + 4 +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
2 → Final steady state value for a unit step input:
5 −
r
1
7.5min = Time required for the response to decay within 0.67% of its initial value:
r
1
0.667 − min
1 −
= The response is stable and monotonic. The dominant root is
Value of k: k
M − g ⋅
y
0
:= k 1.816
N
m
=
Laplace transform:
M s
2
⋅ Y s ( ) k Y s ( ) ⋅ + F s ( ) =
Solve for Y(s): Y s ( )
1
M s
2
⋅ k +
F s ( ) =
A
1
s i
k
M
⋅ −
A
2
s i
k
M
⋅ +
+ =
+ terms of F(s)
θ 0 :=
D 1 :=
Invert using Table 23.1: Y t ( ) D sin
k
M
t s ⋅ θ +

\

.
⋅ := + terms of f(t)
The mobile will oscillate forever with a period of T 2π
M
k
⋅ := T 1.043 s =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 29. SecondOrder Response: Bird Mobile
Mg
f(t)
y(t)
ky(t)
y = 0
Problem data: M 50gm := y
0
27 − cm :=
Solution:
Force balance:
M
d v t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ M − g ⋅ k y t ( ) ⋅ − f t ( ) + =
Velocity:
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
v t ( ) =
Initial steady state: 0 M − g ⋅ k y
0
⋅ − =
Subtract and substitute:
M
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ k − Y t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) + =
Y 0 ( ) 0 =
0 2 4
1
0
1
Y t ( )
t
To more accurately reflect the motion of the bird mobile, we must add the resistance of the air. If we
assume it to be a force proportional to the velocity:
M
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ k − Y t ( ) ⋅ b
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ − f t ( ) + =
With this added term the roots will have a negative real part, causing the oscillations to decay, as
they do in practice:
Y s ( )
1
M s
2
⋅ b s ⋅ + k +
F s ( ) = r
1
b − b
2
4M k ⋅ − +
2M
=
b −
2M
i
k
M
b
2
4M
2
− ⋅ + =
Invert:
b
2
4M k ⋅ <
Y t ( ) D e
b −
2M
t ⋅
⋅ sin
k
M
b
2
4M
2
− t θ +

\

.
= + terms of f(t)
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
H 1 := T 1 := τ 1 := KH 1 := Invert using Table 21.1, and the real translation theorem:
Y s ( ) K H
1
s
1
s
1
τ
+
−

\

.
⋅ 1 e
sT −
−
( )
=
A
2
0 s
K H ⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K H ⋅ = lim
→
= A
1
1 −
τ
s
K H ⋅
τ s ⋅
K − H ⋅ = lim
→
=
Y s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
H ⋅
1 e
sT −
−
s
⋅ =
A
1
s
1
τ
+
A
2
s
+

\

.
1 e
sT −
−
( )
= Substitute:
X s ( ) H
1 e
sT −
−
s
⋅ =
From Example 21.1b:
(b) Pulse of Fig. 21.1b
0 2 4
0
0.5
1
Y t ( )
t
Y t ( )
K
τ
e
t −
τ
:=
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
X s ( ) 1 = From Table 21.1: X t ( ) δ t ( ) = (a) Unit impulse:
Y s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
X s ( ) = Laplace transform and solve for Y(s):
Y 0 ( ) 0 = τ
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Y t ( ) + K X t ( ) ⋅ =
Problem 210. Responses of general firstorder differential equation
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Y t ( ) KH u t ( ) e
t −
τ
− u t T − ( ) 1 e
t T − ( ) −
τ
−
⋅ −
⋅ :=
X t ( ) H u t ( ) u t T − ( ) − ( ) ⋅ :=
0 2 4
0
0.5
1
Y t ( )
X t ( )
t
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The tank is an integrating process because its ouput, the level, is the time integral of its input, the
inlet flow.
0 5 10
0
5
10
h t ( )
t
f(t)
h(t)
A 1 :=
h t ( )
1
A
t := Invert using Table 21.1: H s ( )
1
A
1
s
2
= Substitute:
(Table 21.1) F s ( )
1
s
= f t ( ) u t ( ) = Response to a unit step in flow:
H s ( )
F s ( )
1
A s ⋅
= Transfer function of the tank:
H s ( )
1
A s ⋅
F s ( ) = Laplace transform and solve for H(s):
h 0 ( ) 0 = A
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f t ( ) =
Problem 211. Response of an integrating process
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
r
2
1.745 − min
1 −
=
τ
e2
1 −
r
2
:=
τ
e2
0.573 min =
5 τ
e1
⋅ 19.64 min =
Time for response to decay within 0.67% of its initial value:
(b) 9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 9
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract initial steady state
and divide by the Y(t) coefficient:
9
4
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅
9
4
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + Y t ( ) + 2 X t ( ) = Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Compare coefficients to standard form: τ
9
4
min := τ 1.5min = ζ
9min
4 2 ⋅ τ ⋅
:= ζ 0.75 =
K 2 :=
Underdamped.
Find roots: r
1
9 − 9
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
1
0.5 − 0.441i + min
1 −
=
Frequency of oscillations: ω 0.441
rad
min
:= Period of oscillations: T
2π
ω
:= T 14.25 min =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 212. Secondorder differeential equations of Problem 26.
Standard form of the secondorder equation: τ
2 d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 2 ζ ⋅ τ ⋅
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + Y t ( ) + K X t ( ) ⋅ =
(b) 9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 18
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract the initial steady state:
9
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 18
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 Y t ( ) + 8 X t ( ) = Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Divide by Y(t) coefficient:
9
4
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅
18
4
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + Y t ( ) + 2 X t ( ) =
Match coeffients to standard form:
τ
9
4
min := τ 1.5min = ζ
18min
4 2 ⋅ τ ⋅
:= ζ 1.5 =
Equivalent time constants:
K 2 := Overdamped.
Find roots: r
1
18 − 18
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅ min
:=
r
1
0.255 − min
1 −
= τ
e1
1 −
r
1
:= τ
e1
3.927 min =
r
2
18 − 18
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅ min
:=
ζ 1 =
K 2 := Critically damped.
Equivalent time constants:
Find roots: r
1
12 − 12
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − +
2 9 ⋅ min
:= r
1
0.667 − min
1 −
= τ
e1
1 −
r
1
:= τ
e1
1.5min =
r
2
12 − 12
2
4 9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ − −
2 9 ⋅ min
:=
r
2
0.667 − min
1 −
= τ
e2
1 −
r
2
:= τ
e2
1.5min =
Time for response to decay to within 0.67% of its initial value: 5 τ
e1
⋅ 7.5min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Decay ratio: e
0.5 − min
1 −
T
0.00081 = Percent overshoot:
e
0.5 − min
1 −
T
2
2.8% =
Rise time:
T
4
3.56 min = Settling time:
5 −
0.5 − min
1 −
10 min =
(c) 9
d
2
y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 12
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + 4 y t ( ) + 8 x t ( ) 4 − =
Subtract initial steady state and
divide by the coefficient of Y(t):
9
4
d
2
Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
2
⋅ 3
d Y t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + Y t ( ) + 2 X t ( ) =
Y 0 ( ) 0 =
Compare coefficients to standard form:
τ
9
4
min := τ 1.5min = ζ
3min
2 τ ⋅
:=
Y s ( ) K ∆x
1 −
τ
1
s
1
τ
+

\

.
2
1
s
1
τ
+

\

.
−
1
s
+
⋅ =
A
2
1 −
τ
s
d
ds
K ∆x ⋅
τ
2
s

\

.
1 −
τ
s
K − ∆x ⋅
τ
2
s
2
K − ∆x ⋅ = lim
→
= lim
→
=
A
3
0 s
K ∆x ⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
K ∆x ⋅ = lim
→
= A
1
1 −
τ
s
K ∆x ⋅
τ
2
s
K − ∆x ⋅
τ
= lim
→
=
Y s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
∆x
s
=
A
1
s
1
τ
+

\

.
2
A
2
s
1
τ
+
+
A
3
s
+ =
Step response for the critically damped case:
Y t ( ) K ∆x u t ( )
τ
e1
τ
e1
τ
e2
−
e
t −
τ
e1
−
τ
e2
τ
e2
τ
e1
−
e
t −
τ
e2
−

\


.
⋅ =
(25.10) Invert using Table 21.1:
Y s ( ) K ∆x
τ
e1
−
τ
e1
τ
e2
−
1
s
1
τ
e1
+
τ
e2
τ
e2
τ
e1
−
1
s
1
τ
e2
+
−
1
s
+

\


.
⋅ =
A
3
0 s
K ∆x ⋅
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K ∆x ⋅ = lim
→
=
A
2
K − ∆x ⋅ τ
e2
⋅
τ
e2
τ
e1
−
= A
1
1 −
τ
e1
s
K ∆x ⋅
τ
e1
τ
e2
⋅ s
1
τ
e2
+

\

.
⋅ s
K − ∆x ⋅ τ
e1
⋅
τ
e1
τ
e2
−
= lim
→
=
Y s ( )
K
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
∆x
s
=
A
1
s
1
τ
e1
+
A
2
s
1
τ
e2
+
+
A
3
s
+ =
X s ( )
∆x
s
= Step response, overdamped secondorder differential equation:
Problem 213. Partial fraction expansion coefficients for Eqs. 25.10 to 25.13
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Y s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
r
s
2
=
A
1
s
1
τ
+

\

.
2
A
2
s
1
τ
+
+
A
3
s
2
+
A
4
s
+ =
Ramp response for critically damped case:
Y t ( ) K r
τ
e1
2
τ
e1
τ
e2
−
e
t −
τ
e1
τ
e2
2
τ
e2
τ
e1
−
e
t −
τ
e2
+ t + τ
e1
τ
e2
+
( )
−
⋅ =
(25.12)
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y s ( ) K r
τ
e1
2
τ
e1
τ
e2
−
1
s
1
τ
e1
+
τ
e2
2
τ
e2
τ
e1
−
1
s
1
τ
e2
+
+
1
s
2
+
τ
e1
τ
e2
+
s
−

\


.
⋅ =
K r τ
e1
− τ
e2
−
( )
⋅ =
A
4
0 s
d
ds
K r ⋅
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅
0 s
K r ⋅
τ
e1
− τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
e2
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
⋅ lim
→
= lim
→
=
A
3
0 s
K r ⋅
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
K r ⋅ = lim
→
=
A
2
K r ⋅ τ
e2
2
⋅
τ
e2
τ
e1
−
= A
1
1 −
τ
e1
s
K r ⋅
τ
e1
τ
e2
⋅ s
1
τ
e2
+

\

.
⋅ s
2
⋅
K r ⋅ τ
e1
2
⋅
τ
e1
τ
e2
−
= lim
→
=
Y s ( )
K
τ
e1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
e2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
r
s
2
=
A
1
s
1
τ
e1
+
A
2
s
1
τ
e2
+
+
A
3
s
2
+
A
4
s
+ =
X s ( )
r
s
2
= Ramp response for the overdamped case:
Y t ( ) K ∆x u t ( )
t
τ
1 +

\

.
e
t −
τ
−
⋅ =
(25.11)
Invert using Table 21.1:
A
1
1 −
τ
s
K r ⋅
τ
2
s
2
K r ⋅ = lim
→
= A
3
0 s
K r ⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
K r ⋅ = lim
→
=
A
2
1 −
τ
s
d
ds
K r ⋅
τ
2
s
2

\

.
1 −
τ
s
2 −
K r ⋅
τ
2
s
3
⋅ 2 K ⋅ r ⋅ τ ⋅ = lim
→
= lim
→
=
A
4
0 s
d
ds
K r ⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
0 s
2 −
K r ⋅ τ ⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
⋅ 2 − K ⋅ r ⋅ τ ⋅ = lim
→
= lim
→
=
Y s ( ) K r
1
s
1
τ
+

\

.
2
2 τ ⋅
s
1
τ
+
+
1
s
2
+
2 τ ⋅
s
−
⋅ =
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y t ( ) K r ⋅ t 2 τ ⋅ +
( )
e
t −
τ
t + 2 τ ⋅ −
⋅ =
(25.13)
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
X s ( )
∆x
s
=
Problem 214. Derive step reponse of n lags in series
Y s ( )
K
1
n
k
τ
k
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
∏
=
∆x
s
=
A
0
s
1
n
k
A
k
s
1
τ
k
+
∑
=
+ =
A
0
0 s
K ∆x ⋅
1
n
k
τ
k
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
∏
=
K ∆x ⋅ = lim
→
=
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y t ( ) K ∆x ⋅ u t ( ) ⋅
1
n
k
A
k
e
t −
τ
k
⋅
∑
=
+ =
A
k
1 −
τ
k
s
K ∆x ⋅
s
1 j k ≠ ( ) ⋅
n
j
s
1
τ
j
+

\

.
∏
=
⋅
1
n
j
τ
j
∏
=
⋅
K ∆x ⋅
1 −
τ
k
1 j k ≠ ( )
n
j
1 −
τ
k
1
τ
j
+

\

.
1
n
j
τ
j
∏
=
⋅
∏
=
⋅
= lim
→
=
K − ∆x ⋅
1
τ
k
1
τ
k
n 1 −
⋅ τ
k
⋅
1 j k ≠ ( ) ⋅
n
j
τ
k
τ
j
−
( )
∏
=
⋅
=
K − ∆x ⋅ τ
k
n 1 −
⋅
1 j k ≠ ( )
n
j
τ
k
τ
j
−
( )
∏
=
=
Substitute:
Y t ( ) K ∆x u t ( )
1
n
k
τ
k
n 1 −
1 j k ≠ ( )
n
j
τ
k
τ
j
−
( )
∏
=
e
t −
τ
k
∑
=
−
⋅ = (25.23)
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
r
1
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
− τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4τ
1
τ
2
1 k
2
−
( )
⋅ − +
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
=
(b) The response is stable if both roots are negative if 0 < k2 < 1.
This term is positive as long as τ
1
, τ
2
, and k
2
are positive, so the response is overdamped.
τ
1
τ
2
−
( )
2
4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ k
2
⋅ + =
τ
1
2
2τ
1
τ
2
⋅ − τ
2
2
+ 4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ k
2
⋅ + =
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ 1 k
2
−
( )
⋅ − τ
1
2
2τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + τ
2
2
+ 4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ − 4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ k
2
⋅ + =
(a) The response is overdamped if the term in the radical is positive:
r
1
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
− τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4τ
1
τ
2
1 k
2
−
( )
⋅ − +
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
=
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s + 1 + k
2
− 0 =
Find the roots of the denominator:
ζ
τ
1
τ
2
+
2 τ ⋅ 1 k
2
−
( )
⋅
=
τ
1
τ
2
+
2 τ
1
τ
2
⋅ 1 k
2
−
( )
⋅ ⋅
= Damping ratio:
τ
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
1 k
2
−
= Time constant: K
k
1
1 k
2
−
= Gain: Comparing coefficients:
Y s ( )
k
1
1 k
2
−
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
1 k
2
−

\

.
s
2
τ
1
τ
2
+
1 k
2
−
s + 1 +
X s ( ) =
Rerrange interacting equation:
Y s ( )
K
τ
2
s
2
2ζ τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 +
X s ( ) =
Standard form of the secondorder differential equaton, Eq. 25.4:
Y s ( )
k
1
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ k
2
−
X s ( ) =
k
1
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s + 1 + k
2
−
X s ( ) =
Problem 215. Transfer function of secondorder interacting systems.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
If τ
1
, τ
2
, and k
2
are positive, and if k
2
< 1, then the positive term in the numerator is always less in
magnitude than the negative term, and the root is negative. The other root has to be negative
because both terms in the numerator are negative. So, the response is stable.
(c) Effective time constants
As the response is overdamped, we can derive the formulas for the two effective time constants.
These are the negative reciprocals of the two real roots:
τ
e1
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
1
τ
2
−
( )
2
4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ k
2
⋅ + −
= τ
e1
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
1
τ
2
−
( )
2
4τ
1
τ
2
⋅ k
2
⋅ + +
=
The first of these is the dominant time constant.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The response canot be unstable for positive K
c
. The time constant and damping ratio are always
real and positive for positive gain.
Cannot be undamped for finite K
c
.
ζ 0 = (iii) Undamped:
ζ cannot be negative for positive K
c
1
3
K
c
< ∞ < 0 ζ < 1 < (ii) Underdamped:
K
c
1
3
<
4
3
1 K
c
+ >
2
3 1 K
c
+
( )
1 > ζ 1 > (i) Overdamped:
Ranges of the controller gain for which the response is:
ζ
4
2 τ ⋅ 1 K
c
+
( )
⋅
=
2
3 1 K
c
+
( )
⋅
= Damping ratio:
τ
3
1 K
c
+
= Time constant: K
K
c
1 K
c
+
= Gain:
C s ( )
K
c
1 K
c
+
3
1 K
c
+
s
2 4
1 K
c
+
s + 1 +
R s ( ) =
Rearrange feedback loop transfer function and compare coefficients:
C s ( )
K
τ
2
2ζ τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 +
R s ( ) = Standard secondorder transfer function, Eq. 25.4:
This is a secondorder process with a proportional controller.
C s ( )
K
c
3s 1 + ( ) s 1 + ( ) ⋅ K
c
+
R s ( ) =
K
c
3s
2
4s + 1 + K
c
+
=
Problem 216. Transfer function of a secondorder feedback control loop
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Y X t ( ) ( )
α
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
X t ( ) =
Y X t ( ) ( ) y x t ( ) ( ) y x
b
( )
− = X t ( ) x t ( ) x
b
− = Let
y x t ( ) y x
b
( )
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
⋅ +
α ⋅ α x
b
⋅ α 1 −
( )
⋅ −
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
x t ( ) x
b
−
( )
+ =
y x t ( ) ( )
α x t ( ) ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x t ( ) +
=
(c) Eqilibrium mole fraction by relative volatility, Eq. 26.3:
P
o
Γ t ( )
( )
B p
o
⋅ T
b
( )
T
b
C +
( )
2
Γ t ( ) =
P
o
Γ t ( )
( )
p
o
T t ( ) ( ) p
o
T
b
( )
− = Γ t ( ) T t ( ) T
b
− = Let
p
o
T t ( ) ( ) p
o
T
b
( )
B
T
b
C +
( )
2
e
A
B
T
b
C +
−
T t ( ) T
b
−
( )
+ =
p
o
T t ( ) ( ) e
A
B
T t ( ) C +
−
=
(b) Antoine equation for vapor pressure, Eq. 26.2:
H
d
Γ t ( )
( )
a
1
2a
2
T
b
⋅ + 3a
3
T
b
2
⋅ + 4a
4
T
b
3
⋅ +

\

.
Γ t ( ) =
H
d
Γ t ( )
( )
H T t ( ) ( ) H T
b
( )
− = Γ t ( ) T t ( ) T
b
− = Let
H T t ( ) ( ) H T
b
( )
a
1
2a
2
T
b
⋅ + 3a
3
T
b
2
⋅ + 4a
4
T
b
3
⋅ +

\

.
T t ( ) T
b
−
( )
+ =
H T t ( ) ( ) H
0
a
1
T t ( ) ⋅ + a
2
T
2
⋅ t ( ) ⋅ + a
3
T
3
⋅ t ( ) + a
4
T
4
⋅ t ( ) + =
(use subscript b for base value) (a) Enthalpy as a function of temperature, Eq. 26.1:
Problem 217. Linearization of common process model functions.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
(d) Flow as a function of pressure drop, Eq. 26.4:
f ∆p t ( )
( )
k ∆p t ( ) ⋅ =
f ∆p t ( )
( )
f ∆p
b
( )
k
2 ∆p
b
⋅
∆p t ( ) ∆p
b
−
( )
+ =
Let
∆P t ( ) ∆p t ( ) ∆p
b
− = F ∆P t ( )
( )
f ∆p t ( )
( )
f ∆p
b
( )
− =
F ∆P t ( )
( )
k
2 ∆p
b
⋅
∆P t ( ) =
(e) Radiation heat transfer rate as a function of temperature, Eq. 26.5:
q T t ( ) ( ) ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
4
⋅ t ( ) =
q T t ( ) ( ) q T
b
( )
4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅ T t ( ) T
b
−
( )
+ =
Let
Γ t ( ) T t ( ) T
b
− = Q Γ t ( )
( )
q T t ( ) ( ) q T
b
( )
− =
Q Γ t ( )
( )
4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅ Γ t ( ) ⋅ =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
T
max
610 K = T
min
590 K =
Temperature range for which the heat transfer rate is within 5% of the linear
approximation:
error ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
4
⋅ ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
4
⋅ 4ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅ T T
b
−
( )
+
− = 0.05 ε σ ⋅ A T
4
⋅ ⋅
( )
=
Simplify and rearrange: T
4
4 T
b
3
⋅ T ⋅ − 3T
b
4
+ 0.05T
4
=
As the error is always positive, the absolute value brackets can be dropped. Rearrange into a
polynomial and find its roots:
0.95
T
T
b

\

.
4
4
T
T
b
− 3 + 0 =
polyroots
3
4 −
0
0
0.95

\




.

\




.
1.014 − 1.438i −
1.014 − 1.438i +
0.921
1.108

\



.
=
Ignore the complex roots. The other two roots are the lower and upper limits of the range:
0.921
T
T
b
≤ 1.108 ≤
For T
b
400K := T
min
0.921 T
b
⋅ := T
max
1.108T
b
:= T
min
368 K = T
max
443 K =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 218. Linearization of radiation heat transferrange of accuracy.
q T ( ) 4ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
4
⋅ = Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.
From the solution to Problem 217(e), the slope is:
d q T ( ) ⋅
dT
4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
3
⋅ =
Temperature range for which the slope is within 5% of the slope at the base value
K 1.8R :=
error 4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
3
⋅ 4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅ − = 0.05 4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅

\

.
⋅ =
T
max
3
1.05 T
b
= 1.0164T
b
= T
T
b

\

.
3
1 − 0.05 =
Simplify and rearrange:
T
min
3
0.95 T
b
= 0.983T
b
=
For T
b
400K := T
max
3
1.05 T
b
:= T
min
3
0.95 T
b
:= T
max
407 K = T
min
393 K =
T
b
600K := T
max
3
1.05 T
b
:= T
min
3
0.95 T
b
:=
T
b
600K := T
min
0.921 T
b
⋅ := T
max
1.108T
b
:= T
min
553 K = T
max
665 K =
So the range for which the linear approximation is within 5% of the heat rate is much wider than the
range for which the value of the slope is within 5% of the actual slope. We must keep in mind that
the parameters of the dynamic model are a function of the slope, not the heat rate.
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is unlawful.
0 x ≤ 0.362 ≤
(b) x
min
1.1 0.9 . ( ) 0.637 = x
max
1.1 0.9 . ( ) 1.183 = (one) 0.637 x ≤ 1 ≤
(c) x
min
5 0.1 . ( ) 0.092 = x
max
5 0.1 . ( ) 0.109 = 0.092 x ≤ 0.109 ≤
(d) x
min
5 0.9 . ( ) 0.872 = x
max
5 0.9 . ( ) 0.93 = 0.872 x ≤ 0.93 ≤
The range of accuracy is narrower the higher α and the higher x
b
.
For the vapor composition: y x ( )
α x ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x +
=
error
α x ⋅
1 α 1 − ( )x +
α x
b
⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
α
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
x x
b
−
( )
+
1 − = 0.05 =
α x ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x +
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
α x
b
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
⋅ α x ⋅ + α x
b
⋅ −
1 − 0.05 =
The error is always negative, so we can change signs and drop the absolute value bars:
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 219. Equilibrium vapor compositionrange of accuracy
y x ( )
α x ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x +
= Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.
From the solution to Problem 217(c):
d y x ( ) ⋅
dx
α
1 α 1 −
( )
x +
2
=
For the slope:
error
α
1 α 1 −
( )
x +
2
α
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
− = 0.05
α
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
=
Simplify and rearrange:
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
1 α 1 −
( )
x +
2
1 − 0.05 =
Lower limit:
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
1 α 1 −
( )
x
min
+
1.05 = x
min
α x
b
.
( )
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+ 1.05 −
1.05 α 1 −
( )
:=
Upper limit:
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
1 α 1 −
( )
x
max
+
0.95 =
x
max
α x
b
.
( )
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+ 0.95 −
0.95 α 1 −
( )
:=
(a) x
min
1.1 0.1 . ( ) 0.143 − = (zero) x
max
1.1 0.1 . ( ) 0.362 =
0.40 x ≤ 1 ≤
(c) α 5 := x
b
0.1 :=
polyroots
0.95 α 1 −
( )
⋅
0.05 − α 1 −
( )
2
x
b
0.05
x
b
− 2 α 1 −
( )
−
0.95 α 1 −
( )
0.605
1.653

\

.
=
x
min
0.605x
b
:= x
max
1.653x
b
:= x
min
0.061 = x
max
0.165 = 0.061 x ≤ 0.165 ≤
(d) α 5 := x
b
0.9 :=
polyroots
0.95 α 1 −
( )
⋅
0.05 − α 1 −
( )
2
x
b
0.05
x
b
− 2 α 1 −
( )
−
0.95 α 1 −
( )
0.577
1.732

\

.
=
x
min
0.577x
b
:= x
max
1.732x
b
:= x
min
0.519 = x
max
1.559 = 0.519 x ≤ 1 ≤
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
1 α 1 −
( )
x
b
+
2
α x ⋅ 0.95 1 α 1 −
( )
x +
α α 1 −
( )
x
b
2
α x ⋅ +

\

.
=
0.95 α 1 −
( )
⋅ x
2
⋅ 0.95 α 1 −
( )
2
⋅ x
b
2
⋅ 0.95 + 1 − 2 α 1 −
( )
⋅ x
b
⋅ − α 1 −
( )
2
x
b
2
⋅ −
x ⋅ + 0.95 α 1 −
( )
⋅ x
b
⋅ +
0.95 α 1 −
( )
x
x
b

\

.
2
0.05 − α 1 −
( )
2
⋅ x
b
0.05
x
b
− 2 α 1 −
( )
−
x
x
b
⋅ + 0.95 α 1 −
( )
+ 0 =
Find the roots, one is the lower limit and the other one the upper limit:
(a) α 1.1 := x
b
0.1 :=
polyroots
0.95 α 1 −
( )
⋅
0.05 − α 1 −
( )
2
x
b
0.05
x
b
− 2 α 1 −
( )
−
0.95 α 1 −
( )
0.138
7.231

\

.
=
x
min
0.138x
b
:= x
max
7.231x
b
:= x
min
0.014 = x
max
0.723 = 0.014 x ≤ 0.723 ≤
(b) α 1.1 := x
b
0.9 :=
polyroots
0.95 α 1 −
( )
⋅
0.05 − α 1 −
( )
2
x
b
0.05
x
b
− 2 α 1 −
( )
−
0.95 α 1 −
( )
0.444
2.25

\

.
=
x
min
0.444x
b
:= x
max
2.25x
b
:= x
min
0.4 = x
max
2.025 =
2 k ⋅ c
Ab
⋅ c
Bb
⋅ 2 hr
1 −
= k c
Ab
2
⋅ 2 hr
1 −
=
R C
A
t ( ) C
B
t ( ) .
( )
2hr
1 −
C
A
t ( ) 2hr
1 −
C
B
t ( ) + =
For c
A
3
kmole
m
3
:= 2 k ⋅ c
A
⋅ c
Bb
⋅ 2 k ⋅ c
Ab
⋅ c
Bb
⋅ − 1 hr
1 −
=
(off by 50%)
k c
A
2
⋅ k c
Ab
2
⋅ − 2.5hr
1 −
= (off by 125%)
For c
B
2
kmole
m
3
:= 2 k ⋅ c
Ab
⋅ c
B
⋅ 2 k ⋅ c
Ab
⋅ c
Bb
⋅ − 2 hr
1 −
=
(off by 100%)
k c
Ab
2
⋅ k c
Ab
2
⋅ − 0 hr
1 −
= (same as the base value)
These errors on the parameters of the linear approximation are significant, meaning that it is only
valid for very small deviations of the reactant concentrations from their base values.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 220. Linearization of chemical reaction rate. kmole 1000mole :=
r c
A
t ( ) c
B
t ( ) .
( )
k c
A
t ( )
2
⋅ c
B
t ( ) =
Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.
Problem parameters: k 0.5
m
6
kmole
2
hr
:= c
Ab
2
kmole
m
3
:= c
Bb
1
kmole
m
3
:=
Linearize: r c
A
t ( ) c
B
t ( ) .
( )
r c
Ab
c
Bb
.
( )
2k c
Ab
⋅ c
Bb
c
A
t ( ) c
Ab
−
( )
⋅ + k c
Ab
2
⋅ c
B
t ( ) c
Bb
−
( )
+ =
Let R C
A
t ( ) C
B
t ( ) .
( )
r c
A
t ( ) c
B
t ( ) .
( )
r c
Ab
c
Bb
.
( )
− = C
Ab
t ( ) c
A
t ( ) c
Ab
− =
C
B
t ( ) c
B
t ( ) c
Bb
− =
R C
A
t ( ) C
B
t ( ) .
( )
2k c
Ab
⋅ c
Bb
⋅ C
A
t ( ) ⋅ k c
Ab
2
⋅ C
B
t ( ) ⋅ + =
At the given base conditions:
degC K := mmHg
atm
760
:= mole% % :=
Numerical values for benzene at: p
b
760mmHg := T
b
95degC := x
b
50mole% :=
A 15.9008 := B 2788.51degC := C 220.80degC :=
Let po
b
p
o
T
b
( )
=
po
b
e
A
B
T
b
C +
−
mmHg := po
b
1177 mmHg =
x
b
B ⋅ po
b
⋅
p
b
T
b
C +
( )
2
⋅
0.022
1
degC
=
po
b
p
b
1.549 =
po
b
x
b
⋅
p
b
2
0.00102
1
mmHg
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 221. Linearization of Raoult's Law for equilibrium vapor
composition.
Raoult's Law: y T t ( ) p t ( ) . x t ( ) . ( )
p
o
T t ( ) ( )
p t ( )
x t ( ) =
p
o
T t ( ) ( ) e
A
B
T t ( ) C +
−
=
Linearize: Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.
y T t ( ) p t ( ) . x t ( ) . ( ) y T
b
p
b
. x
b
.
( )
x
b
p
b
δ
δT
⋅ p
o
T t ( ) ( ) ⋅
⋅ T t ( ) T
b
−
( )
⋅ +
p
o
T
b
( )
p
b
x t ( ) x
b
−
( )
+ =
p
o
− T
b
( )
x
b
p
b
2
p t ( ) p
b
−
( )
+
δ
δT
e
A
B
T t ( ) C +
−

\

.
⋅
B
T
b
C +
( )
2
e
A
B
T
b
C +
−
⋅ =
B p
o
⋅ T
b
( )
⋅
T
b
C +
( )
2
=
Let Y Γ t ( ) P t ( ) . X t ( ) .
( )
y T t ( ) p t ( ) . x t ( ) . ( ) y T
b
p
b
. x
b
.
( )
− = Γ t ( ) T t ( ) T
b
− = P t ( ) p t ( ) p
b
− =
X t ( ) x t ( ) x
b
− =
Y Γ t ( ) P t ( ) . X t ( ) .
( )
x
b
B ⋅ p
o
⋅ T
b
( )
⋅
p
b
T
b
C +
( )
2
⋅
Γ t ( )
p
o
T
b
( )
p
b
X t ( ) +
p
o
T
b
( )
x
b
⋅
p
b
2
P t ( ) − =
Y Γ t ( ) P t ( ) . X t ( ) .
( )
0.022
degC
Γ t ( ) 1.549 X t ( ) +
0.00102
mmHg
P t ( ) − =
po
b
x
b
⋅
p
b
77.441 % = y T
b
p
b
. x
b
.
( )
77.44mole% =
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
From the initial steady state: 0 f
b
c
A.b
c
Ab
−
( )
⋅ k T
b
( )
V ⋅ c
Ab
⋅ − =
c
Ab
f
b
c
Aib
⋅
f
b
k
b
V ⋅ +
:= c
Ab
9.231 10
5 −
×
kmole
m
3
=
Calculate parameters: τ
V
f
b
k
b
V ⋅ +
:= K
1
c
Aib
c
Ab
−
f
b
V k
b
⋅ +
:= K
2
f
b
f
b
V k
b
⋅ +
:= τ 0.01 s =
K
1
0.046
s kmole ⋅
m
6
=
K
3
V − k
b
⋅ E ⋅ c
Ab
⋅
1.987
kcal
kmole K ⋅
T
b
2
⋅ f
b
V k
b
⋅ +
( )
⋅
:=
K
2
7.692 10
6 −
× =
f
b
V k
b
⋅ + 260.002
m
3
s
=
K
3
3.113 − 10
6 −
×
kmol
m
3
K
=
Linearized equation:
0.01 sec ⋅
d C
A
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
A
t ( ) + 0.046
kmole
m
3
s
m
3
F t ( ) 7.692 10
6 −
⋅ C
Ai
t ( ) + 3.113
kmole
m
3
K
Γ t ( ) − =
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 222. Linearization of reactor of Examples 26.4 and 26.1.
From the results of Example 26.4: τ
d C
A
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
A
t ( ) + K
1
F t ( ) ⋅ K
2
C
Ai
t ( ) ⋅ + K
3
Γ t ( ) ⋅ + =
Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.
τ
V
f
b
V k T
b
( )
⋅ +
=
K
1
c
Aib
c
Ab
−
f
b
V k T
b
( )
⋅ +
= K
2
f
b
f
b
V k T
b
( )
⋅ +
= K
3
V − k T
b
( )
⋅ E c
Ab
⋅
R T
b
2
⋅ f
b
V k T
b
( )
⋅ +
( )
=
Problem parameters: V 2.6m
3
:= f
b
0.002
m
3
s
:= c
Aib
12
kmole
m
3
:=
Let k
b
k T
b
( )
=
T
b
573K := k
b
100s
1 −
:= E 22000
kcal
kmole
:=
p t ( ) ρ t ( )
v
2
t ( )
2
⋅ p
o
+ = v t ( ) 2
p t ( ) p
o
−
( )
ρ t ( )
⋅ =
Flow through the orifice caused by the bullet: w
o
t ( ) ρ t ( ) A
o
⋅ v t ( ) ⋅ = A
o
2 ρ t ( ) ⋅ p t ( ) p
o
−
( )
⋅ ⋅ =
Ideal gas law: ρ t ( )
M p t ( ) ⋅
R
g
T 273K + ( ) ⋅
=
Substitute into mass balance:
V M ⋅
R
g
T 273 K ⋅ + ( ) ⋅
d p t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ w
i
t ( ) A
o
2 M ⋅
R
g
T 273K + ( ) ⋅
p t ( ) p t ( ) p
o
−
( )
⋅ − =
Solve for the derivative:
d p t ( ) ⋅
dt
g w
i
t ( ) p t ( ) .
( )
=
R
g
T 273K + ( ) ⋅
V M ⋅
w
i
t ( ) A
o
2 M ⋅
R
g
T 273K + ( ) ⋅
p t ( ) p t ( ) p
o
−
( )
⋅ ⋅ −
=
Linearize:
d p t ( ) ⋅
dt
δ g ⋅
δ w
i
⋅
b
⋅ w
i
t ( ) w
b
−
( )
δ g ⋅
δ p ⋅
b
⋅ p t ( ) p
b
−
( )
+ =
Let P t ( ) p t ( ) p
b
− = W
i
t ( ) w
i
t ( ) w
b
− =
a
1
δ g ⋅
δ w
i
⋅
b
⋅ = a
1
R
g
T 273K + ( ) ⋅
V M ⋅
:= a
1
65.56
kPa
kg
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 223. Pressure in a compressed air tank when punctured.
V
p(t)
w
i
(t)
w
o
(t)
p
o
Assumptions:
Air obeys ideal gas law •
Constant temperature •
Design conditions: kPa 1000Pa :=
p
b
500 101.3 + ( )kPa := M 29
kg
kmole
:=
A
o
0.785cm
2
:= T 70degC :=
V 1.5m
3
:=
R
g
8.314
kPa m
3
⋅
kmole K ⋅
⋅ := p
o
101.3kPa :=
Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.
Solution:
Mass balance on the tank: V
d ρ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ w
i
t ( ) w
o
t ( ) − =
Bernoulli's equation:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
K 1.8R :=
If the compressor shuts down it will take approximately 5(42.8) = 214 sec (3.5 min) for the
pressure transient to die out, according to the linear approximation. (See the results of the
simulation, Problem 133, to see how long it actually takes.)
P s ( )
W
i
s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= Transfer function:
K 2.8 10
3
×
kPa sec ⋅
kg
= τ 42.9 sec =
K
a
1
a
2
−
:= τ
1
a
2
−
:= Then
τ
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ P t ( ) + K W
i
t ( ) ⋅ = Compare to standard form of firstorder equation:
P 0 ( ) 0 =
1
a
2
−
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ P t ( ) +
a
1
a
2
−
W
i
t ( ) =
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
a
1
W
i
t ( ) ⋅ a
2
P t ( ) ⋅ + = Substitute:
a
2
0.023 − sec
1 −
= a
2
A
o
−
2 V ⋅
2 R
g
⋅ T 273 K ⋅ + ( ) ⋅
M p
b
⋅ p
b
p
o
−
( )
⋅
kPa
1000Pa
⋅
2 p
b
⋅ p
o
−
( )
1000Pa
kPa
⋅
m
100cm

\

.
2
:=
a
2
δ g ⋅
δ p ⋅
b
⋅ =
A
o
−
V
2 R
g
⋅ T 273K + ( ) ⋅
M
⋅
1
2
p
b
p
b
p
0
−
( )
1 −
2
⋅ 2p
b
po −
( )
=
Γ t ( ) T t ( ) T
b
− =
Substitute:
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
a
1
Γ
s
t ( ) ⋅ a
2
Γ t ( ) ⋅ + = Γ 0 ( ) 0 = (base is initial steady state)
Standard form of the firstorder differential equation: τ
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) + K Γ
s
t ( ) ⋅ =
Divide by a
2
and rearrange: 1
a
2
−
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) +
a
1
a
2
−
Γ
s
t ( ) =
M c
v
⋅
4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) +
T
sb
T
b

\

.
3
Γ
s
t ( ) =
Compare coefficients: τ
M c
v
⋅
4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
b
3
⋅
= K
T
sb
T
b

\

.
3
=
Laplace transform:
Γ s ( )
Γ
s
s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
The input variable is the temperature of the oven wall. See problem 134 for the simulation.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 224. Temperature of a turkey in an oven.
T(t)
T
s
(t)
M
Assumptions
Uniform turkey temperature •
Negligible heat of cooking •
Radiation heat transfer only •
Energy balance on the turkey:
M c
v
⋅
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
s
4
t ( ) T
4
t ( ) −
⋅ =
Use subscript "b" for linearization base values.
Solve for the derivative:
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
g T
s
t ( ) T t ( ) .
( )
=
ε σ ⋅ A ⋅
M c
v
⋅
T
s
4
t ( ) T
4
t ( ) −
=
Linearize:
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
a
1
T
s
t ( ) T
sb
−
( )
⋅ a
2
T t ( ) T
b
−
( )
⋅ + =
where a
1
δ g ⋅
δT
s
b
⋅ =
4 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅
M c
v
⋅
T
sb
3
= a
2
δ g ⋅
δT
b
⋅ =
4 − ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅
M c
v
⋅
T
b
3
=
Let Γ
s
t ( ) T
s
t ( ) T
sb
− =
Q t ( ) q t ( ) q
b
− = a
1
δ g ⋅
δq
b
⋅ = a
2
δ g ⋅
δT
b
⋅ =
a
1
1
C
:= a
2
4 − α ⋅ T
b
3
⋅
C
:= a
1
5.556 10
3 −
×
R
BTU
= a
2
0.381 − hr
1 −
=
Substitute:
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
a
1
Q t ( ) ⋅ a
2
Γ t ( ) ⋅ + = Γ 0 ( ) 0 = (base is initial value)
Standard form of firstorder differential equation: τ
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) + K Q t ( ) ⋅ =
Divide by a2 and rearrange:
1
a
2
−
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) +
a
1
a
2
−
Q t ( ) =
C
4 α ⋅ T
b
3
⋅
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) +
1
4α T
b
3
⋅
Q t ( ) =
Compare coefficients: τ
C
4α T
b
3
⋅
:= K
1
4α T
b
3
⋅
:= τ 2.62 hr = K 0.01458
R hr ⋅
BTU
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 225. Slab heated by an electric heater by radiation.
T(t)
T
s
q(t)
Assumptions:
Uniform temperature of the slab •
Heat transfer by radiation only •
Energy balance on the slab:
M c
v
⋅
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ q t ( ) ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ T
4
t ( ) T
s
4
−
⋅ − =
Let C M c
v
⋅ = α ε σ ⋅ A ⋅ =
Substitute C
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ q t ( ) α T
4
t ( ) T
s
4
−
− =
Problem parameters: Use subscript "b" to denote linearization base value.
C 180
BTU
R
:= α 5 10
8 −
⋅
BTU
hr R
4
⋅
:= T
s
540R := T
b
700R :=
Solve for the derivative:
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
g q t ( ) T t ( ) . ( ) =
1
C
q t ( )
α
C
T
4
t ( ) T
s
4
−
− =
Linearize:
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
a
1
q t ( ) q
b
−
( )
⋅ a
2
T t ( ) T
b
−
( )
⋅ + =
Let Γ t ( ) T t ( ) T
b
− =
Transfer function:
Γ s ( )
Q s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
r
1
1.8 − 1.8
2
4 0.8 ⋅ 1 0.1K
c
+
( )
⋅ − +
2 0.8 ⋅
=
1.8 −
1.6
1.8
1.6

\

.
2
1 0.1K
c
+
0.8
− + =
Roots of the characteristic equation:
(b) Values of the controller gain for which the response is overdamped, critically
damped, and underdamped
0.8s
2
1.8s + 1 + 0.1K
c
+ 0 = Characteristic equation:
C s ( )
R s ( )
0.1K
c
0.8s
2
1.8s + 1 + 0.1K
c
+
= Closedloop transfer function:
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s + 1 + K
c
K ⋅ + 0 = Characteristic equation:
C s ( )
R s ( )
K
c
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅
1 K
c
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅ +
=
K
c
K ⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K ⋅ +
=
(a) Closed loop transfer function and characteristic equation of the loop.
τ
2
0.8min := τ
1
1min := K 0.10
%TO
%CO
:= Problem parameters:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
= G
1
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Problem 61. Secondorder loop with proportional controller.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
%CO % := %TO % :=
τ
e1
1 −
r
1
= τ
e1
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ 1 K
c
K ⋅ +
( )
⋅ − −
:= τ
e1
0.889 min =
τ
e2
1 −
r
2
= τ
e2
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ 1 K
c
K ⋅ +
( )
⋅ − +
:= τ
e2
0.889 min =
K
c
0.2
%CO
%TO
:=
(underdamped, time constant and damping ratio)
τ
2
s
2
2ζ τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 +
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
1 K
c
K ⋅ +
s
2
τ
1
τ
2
+
1 K
c
K ⋅ +
s + 1 + =
Match coefficients:
τ
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
1 K
c
K ⋅ +
:= ζ
τ
1
τ
2
+
2 τ ⋅ 1 K
c
K ⋅ +
( )
⋅
:= τ 0.886 min = ζ 0.996 =
(d) Steadystate offset for a unit step change in set point.
Final value theorem:
∞ t
Y t ( )
0 s
s Y s ( ) ⋅ lim
→
= lim
→
R s ( )
1
s
=
(Table 21.1)
The response is critically damped when the term in the radical is zero:
1.8
1.6

\

.
2
1 0.1K
c
+
0.8
− 0 =
K
ccd
1
0.1
0.8
1.8
1.6

\

.
2
1 −
:= K
ccd
0.125
%CO
%TO
=
Critically damped:
Overdamped (real roots):
K
c
0.125
%CO
%TO
<
Underdamped:
K
c
0.125
%CO
%TO
>
The loop cannot be unstable for positive gain because,
for real roots the radical cannot be greater than the negative term, so both roots are negative •
for complex conjugate roots the real part is always negative, 1.8/1.6, or (τ
1
+τ
2
)/2τ
1
τ
2
•
This is true for all positive values of the time constants and the product K.
c
K.
(c) Equivalent time constants for different values of the gain:
K
c
0.1
%CO
%TO
:=
(overdamped, two equivalent time constans)
τ
e1
1 −
r
1
= τ
e1
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ 1 K
c
K ⋅ +
( )
⋅ − −
:= τ
e1
0.935 min =
τ
e2
1 −
r
2
= τ
e2
2 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
2
4 τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ 1 K
c
K ⋅ +
( )
⋅ − +
:= τ
e2
0.847 min =
K
c
0.125
%CO
%TO
:=
(critically damped, two equal real time constants)
K
c
0.1
%CO
%TO
:=
0 s
s
K
c
K ⋅
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s ⋅ + 1 + K
c
K ⋅ +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
9.9009900990099009901 10
3
⋅ →
offset 1 0.0099 − ( )%TO := offset 0.99 %TO =
K
c
0.125
%CO
%TO
:=
0 s
s
K
c
K ⋅
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s ⋅ + 1 + K
c
K ⋅ +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
1.2345679012345679012 10
2
⋅ →
offset 1 0.01235 − ( )%TO := offset 0.988 %TO =
K
c
0.2
%CO
%TO
:=
0 s
s
K
c
K ⋅
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s ⋅ + 1 + K
c
K ⋅ +
⋅
1
s
lim
→
1.9607843137254901961 10
2
⋅ →
offset 1 0.01961 − ( )%TO := offset 0.98 %TO =
These are very large offsets because the loop gains are so small.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
0.00842
%CO
%TO
K
c
< 0.825
%CO
%TO
< Underdamped (complex conjugate roots):
K
c
0.825
%CO
%TO
> and K
c
0.00842
%CO
%TO
< Overdamped (two real roots):
K
c
0.00842
%CO
%TO
= K
c
30 30
2
4 0.25 ⋅ 36 ⋅ − −
2 36 ⋅
:=
K
c
0.82491
%CO
%TO
= K
c
30 30
2
4 0.25 ⋅ 36 ⋅ − +
2 36 ⋅
:= 0.25 30K
c
− 36K
c
2
+ 0 =
The response is critically damped when the term in the radical is zero:
r
1
1.5 6K
c
−
( )
− 1.5 6K
c
−
( )
2
4 0.5 ⋅ 1 6K
c
+
( )
⋅ − +
2 0.5 ⋅
= 1.5 − 6K
c
+ 0.25 30K
c
− 36K
c
2
+ + =
Roots:
(b) Values of the gain for which the response is over, critically, and underdamped
0.5 s
2
⋅ 1.5 6K
c
−
( )
s + 1 + 6K
c
+ 0 = Characteristic equation:
C s ( )
R s ( )
K
c
6 ⋅ 1 s − ( )
s 1 + ( ) 0.5s 1 + ( ) ⋅ K
c
6 ⋅ 1 s − ( ) +
= Closedloop transfer function:
(a) Closedloop transfer function and characteristic equation of the loop.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
%CO
%TO
⋅ = G
1
s ( )
6 1 s − ( )
s 1 + ( ) 0.5 s ⋅ 1 + ( ) ⋅
%TO
%CO
=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Problem 62. Inverseresponse secondorder system with proportional
controller.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
ζ
1.5 6K
c
−
( )
min
2 τ ⋅ 1 6K
c
+
( )
⋅
:= τ 0.423 min = ζ 0.127 − =
(unstable)
Try values that result in equivalent time constants:
K
c
0.005
%CO
%TO
:= τ
e1
1min
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ − 0.25 30K
c
− 36K
c
2
+ −
:= τ
e1
0.868 min =
τ
e2
1min
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ − 0.25 30K
c
− 36K
c
2
+ +
:= τ
e2
0.559 min =
K
c
1
%CO
%TO
:= τ
e1
1min
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ − 0.25 30K
c
− 36K
c
2
+ −
:= τ
e1
0.143 − min =
(unstable)
τ
e2
1min
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ − 0.25 30K
c
− 36K
c
2
+ +
:= τ
e2
0.5 − min =
(d) Offset for various values of the gain and a unit step change in set point.
K
c
0.10
%CO
%TO
:=
0 s
s
K
c
6 ⋅ 1 s − ( ) ⋅
0.5s
2
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ −
( )
s + 1 + 6K
c
+
⋅
1
s
lim
→
.37500000000000000000 →
offset 1 0.375 − := offset 0.625
%CO
%TO
=
The response is unstable when
K
c
0.25
%CO
%TO
>
(one real root is positive or the real part of the
complex roots i positive)
(c) Effective time constants or time constant and damping ratio for various values o
the gain:
0.5
1 6K
c
+
s
2
1.5 6K
c
−
1 6K
c
+
s + 1 + τ
2
s
2
2ζ τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 + =
K
c
0.1
%CO
%TO
:= τ
0.5min
2
1 6K
c
+
:= ζ
1.5 6K
c
−
( )
min
2 τ ⋅ 1 6K
c
+
( )
⋅
:= τ 0.559 min = ζ 0.503 =
K
c
0.125
%CO
%TO
:= τ
0.5min
2
1 6K
c
+
:= ζ
1.5 6K
c
−
( )
min
2 τ ⋅ 1 6K
c
+
( )
⋅
:= τ 0.535 min = ζ 0.401 =
K
c
0.2
%CO
%TO
:=
τ
0.5min
2
1 6K
c
+
:= ζ
1.5 6K
c
−
( )
min
2 τ ⋅ 1 6K
c
+
( )
⋅
:= τ 0.477 min = ζ 0.143 =
K
c
0.3
%CO
%TO
:=
τ
0.5min
2
1 6K
c
+
:=
K
c
0.125
%CO
%TO
:=
0 s
s
K
c
6 ⋅ 1 s − ( ) ⋅
0.5s
2
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ −
( )
s + 1 + 6K
c
+
⋅
1
s
lim
→
.42857142857142857143 →
offset 1 0.429 − := offset 0.571
%CO
%TO
=
K
c
0.20
%CO
%TO
:=
0 s
s
K
c
6 ⋅ 1 s − ( ) ⋅
0.5s
2
1.5 6 K
c
⋅ −
( )
s + 1 + 6K
c
+
⋅
1
s
lim
→
.54545454545454545455 →
offset 1 0.545 − := offset 0.455
%CO
%TO
=
The offsets are high because the gains are small. Of course, since for gains greater than
0.25%CO/%TO the loop is unstable, offsets can only be high with a proportional controller.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K 1.8R :=
The real root cannot be negative for any positive value of the loop gain KK
c
because the radical is
always smaller than the negative term. Also, for complex conjugate roots, the real part is always
r
1
1 KK
c
+
( )
− τ
I
⋅ 1 KK
c
+
( )
2
τ
I
2
⋅ 4 τ
I
⋅ τ ⋅ KK
c
⋅ − +
2τ
I
τ ⋅
=
No, there is no ultimate gain. This result just means that a negative loop gain will make the loop
unstable. Another way to show it is to determine the roots of the characteristic equation:
KK
cu
0 := ω
u
0 := τ
I
− τ ⋅ ω
u
2
⋅ KK
cu
+ i 1 KK
cu
+
( )
ω
u
+ 0 = Substitute s = iω:
(b) Is there an ultimate gain for this loop?
(no offset)
0 s
KK
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ
I
τ ⋅ s
2
⋅ 1 KK
c
+
( )
τ
I
s ⋅ + KK
c
+
KK
c
KK
c
= 1 = lim
→
Offset: the steady state gain is:
τ
I
τ ⋅ s
2
⋅ 1 KK
c
+
( )
τ
I
s ⋅ + KK
c
+ 0 = Characteristic equation:
C s ( )
R s ( )
KK
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ
I
s ⋅ τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ KK
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ +
= Closedloop transfer functon:
(a) Closedloop transfer function and characteristic equation of the loop. Offset.
τ 1 := To work in dimensionless units, t/τ, set:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ = G
1
s ( )
K
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Problem 63. Firstorder process and proportionalintegral controller.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
R
K
1.8
:=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
As KKc increases τc decreases and the response
is faster.
0 2 4
0
0.5
1
Y t ( )
R t ( )
t
Y t ( ) u t ( ) e
t −
τ
c
− :=
Invert using Table 21.1:
R t ( ) u t ( ) :=
τ
c
1 :=
u t ( ) 0 t 0 < if
1 t 0 ≥ if
:=
Y s ( )
1
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
1
s
=
1
s
1
s
1
τ
c
+
− = τ
c
τ
KK
c
=
Let
Y s ( )
KK
c
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ s ⋅ τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ KK
c
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ +
1
s
=
KK
c
τ s ⋅ KK
c
+
1
s
=
(Table 21.1)
R s ( )
1
s
=
(c) Response of the loop to a step change in set point for τ
I
= τ as the gain varies
from 0 to infinity.
Real
1 KK
c
+
( )
−
2 τ ⋅
0 < =
negative:
T
u
1.987 min =
T
u
2
π
ω
u
:=
K
Iu
110
%CO
%TO min ⋅
= ω
u
3.162 min
1 −
= K
Iu
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
ω
u
2
⋅
K
:=
ω
u
1
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
:=
τ
2
0.1min :=
(b) Ultimate gain and period for other values of the smaller time constant:
T
u
5.62 min =
T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
K
Iu
22.5
%CO
%TO min ⋅
= ω
u
1.118 min
1 −
= K
Iu
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
ω
u
2
⋅
K
:=
ω
u
1
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
:=
τ
1
− τ
2
⋅ ω
u
3
ω
u
+ 0 = τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
− ω
u
2
KK
Iu
+ 0 =
τ
1
− τ
2
⋅ i ⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
ω
u
2
− i ω
u
⋅ + KK
Iu
+ 0 0i + = Substitute s = iω
u
:
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
3
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s
2
+ s + KK
I
+ 0 =
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
s + 1 +
K K
I
⋅
s
+ 0 =
Characteristic equation:
τ
2
0.8min := τ
1
1min := K 0.1
%CO
%TO
:=
(a) Ultimate gain and period with the parameters of Problem 61:
G
c
s ( )
K
I
s
= G
1
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Problem 64. Secondorder process with pure integral controller.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
τ
2
2min :=
ω
u
1
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
:=
K
Iu
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
ω
u
2
⋅
K
:= ω
u
0.707 min
1 −
= K
Iu
15
%CO
%TO min ⋅
=
T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
T
u
8.886 min =
Reducing the nondominat time constant increases the ultimate gain and reduces the ultimate
period, as expected. When τ
2
is increased to 2 min, it becomes the dominant time constant and
the ultmate gain should be higher than for part (a). However, in this case K
I
has units of rate and,
since the loop is slower, it results in a smaller ultimate gain.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
I
0.8min
2
1.8min
> 0.444min = or τ
I
τ
1
τ
2
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
+
>
Notice that for some values of τ
I
the ultimate frequency and period are complex. When this
happens there is no ultimate gain and the loop is stable for all values of the gain. So, the loop is
always stable as long as
T
u
2π 0.8min
2
1.8min τ
I
⋅ − ⋅ = KK
cu
1.8min τ
I
⋅
0.8min
2
1.8min τ
I
⋅ −
= For the given numerical values:
T
u
2π
ω
u
= 2π τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
⋅ − ⋅ =
KK
cu
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
⋅
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
⋅ −
= ω
u
1
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
⋅ −
=
τ
1
− τ
2
⋅ τ
I
⋅ ω
u
2
⋅ τ
I
+ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
2
ω
u
2
⋅ + 0 = KK
cu
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
ω
u
2
⋅ =
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
− τ
I
ω
u
2
⋅ KK
cu
+ i τ
1
− τ
2
⋅ τ
I
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ
I
1 KK
cu
+
( )
ω
u
⋅ +
+ 0 i0 + = Substitute s = iω
u
:
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
I
⋅ s
3
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
τ
I
s
2
⋅ + τ
I
1 KK
c
+
( )
⋅ s ⋅ + KK
c
+ 0 = Characteristic equation of the loop:
(a) Ultimate gain and period as a function of integral time τ
I
.
τ
2
0.8min := τ
1
1min :=
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ = G
1
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Problem 65. Secondorder process with proportionalintegral controller.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
0 5 10
0
0.2
0.4
DR KK
c
( )
KK
c
5 10
0
0.5
1
1.5
ζ KK
c
( )
KK
c
DR e
2 − π ζ ⋅
1 ζ
2
−
= e
2 − π
2 0.8KK
c
1
1
4 0.8 ⋅ KK
c
⋅
−

\

.
⋅ ⋅
= e
2 − π ⋅
3.2 KK
c
⋅ 1 −
=
DR KK
c
( )
e
2 − π
3.2KK
c
1 −
:=
Under these conditions the decay ratio is, from Eq. 25.18:
KK
c
1
4 0.8 ⋅
> 0.3125 =
These are complex for
r
2
1 − 1 4 0.8 ⋅ KK
c
⋅ − −
2 0.8 ⋅
= r
1
1 − 1 4 0.8 ⋅ KK
c
⋅ − +
2 0.8 ⋅
=
Roots:
ζ KK
c
( )
1
2 0.8KK
c
⋅
:= ζ
1min
2 τ ⋅ KK
c
⋅
=
1
2 0.8 KK
c
⋅ ⋅
= τ
0.8min
2
KK
c
=
Damping ratio:
τ
2
s
2
2ζ τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 +
0.8
KK
c
s
2 1
KK
c
s + 1 + =
Standard secondorder differential equation:
1
KK
c
1
1
s
+

\

.
⋅
s 1 + ( ) 0.8s 1 + ( ) ⋅
+ 1
KK
c
s 1 + ( ) ⋅
s s 1 + ( ) 0.8s 1 + ( ) ⋅
+ = 0.8s
2
s + KK
c
+ = 0 =
For these values there is no ultimate gain. THe characteristic equation becomes:
(b) Damping ratio and decay ratio with K
c
equal to one half the ultimate and τ
I
= 1
min
Block diagram of the control loop:
F
s
set
(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
F
s
(s)
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
K
T
K
sp
+

Size the flow transmitter for 150% of design flow: f
smax
1.5 f
s
⋅ :=
f
smax
225
kscf
hr
=
Transmitter gain: K
T
100%TO
f
smax
:= K
sp
K
T
:= K
T
0.444
%TO hr ⋅
kscf
=
PI Controller: G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ =
Size the control valve for 100% overcapacity. From Eq. 52.3: Let C
f
0.9 :=
G
M lbmole ⋅
29lb
:= y
1.63
C
f
p
1
p
2
−
p
1
14.7psia +
⋅ := y 1.181 = f
y
y 0.148y
3
− := f
y
0.937 =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition degF R := psia psi :=
kscf 1000ft
3
:= psig psi :=
Problem 66. Design of gas flow control loop.
FT
FC
f
s
(t)
m(t)
c(t)
f
s
set
(t)
p
1
p
2
Design conditions: lbmole 453.59mole :=
f
s
150
kscf
hr
:= p
1
150psig :=
T
1
60degF := p
2
80psig :=
M 29
lb
lbmole
:= α 50 :=
τ
v
0.06min := τ
I
τ
v
:=
K
c
0.9
%CO
%TO
:=
Assume the pressures and temperatures are constant and that the flow transmitter FT has a builtin
squareroot extractor so that the signal c(t) is proportional to the flow f
s
(t). The valve is
equalpercentage and the controller is PI.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
So the closedloop responds faster than the valve, and has no offset.
τ
c
0.026 min = τ
c
τ
v
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅
:= Closedloop time constant:
F
s
s ( )
F
s
set
s ( )
K
sp
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅
τ
v
s ⋅ K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ +
=
1
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
=
K
sp
K
T
= τ
I
τ
v
= With
F
s
s ( )
F
s
set
s ( ) ⋅
K
sp
G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅
1 K
T
G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ +
=
K
sp
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
+
=
Closedloop transfer function and time constant of the loop:
G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Transfer function of the valve:
K
v
5.87
kscf
hr %CO ⋅
= K
v
ln α
( )
100%CO
f
s
:=
Valve gain, equalpercentage, constant pressures, Eq. 52.24:
C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, a 3in Masoneilan valve is the smallest for this service:
C
vmax
58.91
gal
min psi ⋅
=
C
vmax
200 % ⋅ f
s
⋅ G T
1
460 R ⋅ +
( )
⋅ ⋅
C
f
p
1
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ f
y
⋅
gal hr ⋅
0.836kscf min ⋅
psi
R
⋅ :=
Size the flow transmitter for :
Transmitter gain: K
T
100%TO
w
max
:= K
sp
K
T
:= K
T
0.02
%TO hr ⋅
lb
=
PI Controller: G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ =
Size the control valve for 100% overcapacity. From Eq. 52.3:
G
M lbmole ⋅
29lb
:= y
1.63
C
f
p
1
p
2
−
p
1
14.7psia +
⋅ := y 1.319 = f
y
y 0.148y
3
− := f
y
0.979 =
From the steam table the saturated steam pressure at: p
1
14.7psia + 59.7 psia = T
sat
292degF :=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 67. Steam flow control loop.
FT
FC
w(t)
m(t)
c(t)
w
set
(t)
p
1
p
2
Design conditions: lbmole 453.59mole :=
w 3500
lb
hr
:= p
1
45psig :=
T
sh
50degF := p
2
20psig :=
M 18
lb
lbmole
:= w
max
5000
lb
hr
:=
τ
I
τ
v
:=
Linear valve.
C
f
0.8 := K
c
0.5
%CO
%TO
:=
Assume the pressures and temperatures are constant and that the flow transmitter FT has a builtin
squareroot extractor so that the signal c(t) is proportional to the flow w(t). The valve is linear and
the controller is PI.
Block diagram of the control loop:
W
set
(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
W(s)
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
K
T
K
sp
+

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
So the closedloop responds slightly slower than the valve, and has no offset. What can be
adjusted to speedup the response of the closed loop?
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ 0.913 = τ
c
τ
v
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅
:=
Closedloop time constant:
F
s
s ( )
F
s
set
s ( )
K
sp
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅
τ
v
s ⋅ K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ +
=
1
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
=
K
sp
K
T
= τ
I
τ
v
=
With
W s ( )
W
set
s ( ) ⋅
K
sp
G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅
1 K
T
G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ +
=
K
sp
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
+
=
Closedloop transfer function and time constant of the loop:
G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Transfer function of the valve:
K
v
91.31
lb
hr %CO ⋅
= K
v
w
vmax
100%CO
:=
Valve gain, linear, constant pressures, Eq. 52.23:
w
vmax
9131
lb
hr
=
w
vmax
0.836kscf min ⋅
gal hr ⋅
R
psi
⋅ C
vmax
⋅ C
f
⋅
p
1
14.7psia +
G T
1
460R +
( )
⋅
⋅ f
y
M lbmole ⋅
0.380kscf
⋅ :=
C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, a 3in Masoneilan valve is the smallest for this service:
C
vmax
84.3
gal
min psi ⋅
=
C
vmax
200 % ⋅ f
s
⋅ G T
1
460 R ⋅ +
( )
⋅ ⋅
C
f
p
1
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ f
y
⋅
gal hr ⋅
0.836kscf min ⋅
psi
R
⋅ :=
T
1
342 degF = T
1
T
sat
T
sh
+ := f
s
73.889
kscf
hr
= f
s
w
M
0.380 ⋅
kscf
lbmole
:=
Real part: ω
u
4
6ω
u
2
− 1 + K
cu
+ 0 =
K
cu
ω
u
min ⋅
( )
4
− 6min
2
ω
u
( )
2
⋅ + 1 −
:= K
cu
4
%CO
%TO
=
(b) G
1
s ( )
1
s 1 + ( )
2
= s 1 + ( )
2
K
c
+ 0 = s
2
2s + 1 + K
c
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
c
= K
cu
: ω
u
2
− 2ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: 2ω
u
0 = ω
u
0 := (There is no ultimate gain)
Real part: ω
u
2
− 1 + K
cu
+ 0 = K
cu
1 −
%CO
%TO
:=
The loop becomes monotonically unstable when the controller gain is less than 1%CO/%TO.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 68. Ultimate gain and period of various process transfer functions.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Proportional controller: G
c
s ( ) K
c
= Characteristic equation: 1 K
c
G
1
s ( ) ⋅ + 0 =
(a) G
1
s ( )
1
s 1 + ( )
4
= s 1 + ( )
4
K
c
+ 0 = s
4
4s
3
+ 6s
2
+ 4s + 1 + K
c
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
c
= K
cu
: ω
u
4
4ω
u
3
i − 6ω
u
2
− 4ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: 4 − ω
u
3
4ω
u
+ 0 = ω
u
1min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
6.28 min =
Imaginary part: 8 − ω
u
3
7 0.5K
cu
+
( )
ω
u
+ 0 =
8 − ω
u
2
7 + 7ω
u
2
+ 0.5 − 0 = ω
u
6.5min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
K
cu
14min
2
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 − := K
cu
90
%CO
%TO
= T
u
2.46 min =
(e) G
1
s ( )
1
4s 1 + ( ) 0.2s 1 + ( ) ⋅ 0.1s 1 + ( ) ⋅
= 0.08s
3
1.22s
2
+ 4.3s + 1 + K
c
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
c
= K
cu
: 0.08 − ω
u
3
i 1.22ω
u
2
− 4.3ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: 0.08 − ω
u.
3
4.3ω
u
+ 0 =
ω
u
4.3
0.08
min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
Real part: 1.22 − ω
u
2
1 + K
cu
+ 0 =
T
u
0.857 min =
K
cu
1.22min
2
ω
u
2
1 − := K
cu
64.6
%CO
%TO
=
(c) G
1
s ( )
1
4s 1 + ( ) 2 s ⋅ 1 + ( ) ⋅ s 1 + ( ) ⋅
= 8s
3
14s
2
+ 7s + 1 + K
c
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
c
= K
cu
: 8 − ω
u
3
i 14ω
u
2
− 7ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: 8 − ω
u
3
7ω
u
+ 0 =
ω
u
7
8
min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
6.72 min =
Real part: 14 − ω
u
2
1 + K
cu
+ 0 = K
cu
14min
2
ω
u
2
1 − := K
cu
11.25
%CO
%TO
=
(d) G
1
s ( )
0.5s 1 +
4s 1 + ( ) 2s 1 + ( ) ⋅ s 1 + ( ) ⋅
= 8s
3
14s
2
+ 7 0.5K
c
+
( )
s + 1 + K
c
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
c
= K
cu
: 8 − ω
u
3
i 14ω
u
2
− 7 0.5K
cu
+
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Real part: 14 − ω
u
2
1 + K
cu
+ 0 = K
cu
14ω
u
2
1 − =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
T
u
1.797 min =
T
u
2π
ω
u
:= ω
u
1 K
cu
+
1.8
min
1 −
:= 1.8 − ω
u
2
1 + K
cu
+ 0 = Real part:
K
cu
21
%CO
%TO
= K
cu
6.3
0.3
:= 6.3 0.3K
cu
−
( )
ω
u
0 = Imaginary part:
1.8 − ω
u
2
6.3 0.3K
cu
−
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
cu
+ 0 0i + = Substitute s = iω
u
at K
c
= K
cu
:
1.8s
2
6.3 0.3K
c
−
( )
s + 1 + K
c
+ 0 =
e
0.6 − s 1 0.3s −
1 0.3s +
= Padé approximation:
6s 1 + K
c
e
0.6 − s
⋅ + 0 = G
1
s ( )
e
0.6 − s
6s 1 +
= (f)
K
Iu
4 − min
3
ω
u
4
⋅ 4min ω
u
2
⋅ + := T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
K
Iu
0.569
%CO
%TO min ⋅
= T
u
15.17 min =
Must use the smaller ultimate frequency, as the ultimate gain for the other value is negative.
(b) G
1
s ( )
1
s 1 + ( )
2
= s
3
2s
2
+ s + K
I
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
I
= K
Iu
: ω
u
3
− i 2ω
u
2
− ω
u
i ⋅ + K
Iu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: ω
u
3
− ω
u
+ 0 = ω
u
1min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
6.28 min =
Real part: 2 − ω
u
2
K
Iu
+ 0 = K
Iu
2minω
u
2
:= K
Iu
2
%CO
%TO min ⋅
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 69. Ultimate gain and period with integral controller.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Integral controller: G
c
s ( )
K
I
s
= Characteristic equation: 1
K
I
s
G
1
s ( ) + 0 =
(a) G
1
s ( )
1
s 1 + ( )
4
= s
5
4s
4
+ 6s
3
+ 4s
2
+ s + K
I
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
I
= K
Iu
: ω
u
5
i 4ω
u
4
+ 6ω
u
3
i − 4ω
u
2
− ω
u
i ⋅ + K
Iu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: ω
u
5
6ω
u
3
− ω
u
+ 0 =
ω
u
6 6
2
4 − +
2min
2
:= ω
u
2.414 min
1 −
= ω
u
6 6
2
4 − −
2min
2
:= ω
u
0.414 min
1 −
=
Real part: 4 ω
u
4
⋅ 4ω
u
3
− K
Iu
+ 0 =
14 − ω
u
3
1 4ω
u
4
− 3.5ω
u
2
+

\

.
ω
u
+ 0 = 4 − ω
u
4
10.5ω
u
2
− 1 + 0 =
ω
u
10.5 10.5
2
4 4 − ( ) ⋅ − −
2 4 − ( ) ⋅ min
2
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
20.71 min =
K
Iu
8 − min
3
ω
u
4
⋅ 7min ω
u
2
⋅ + := K
Iu
0.576
%CO
%TO min ⋅
=
(e) G
1
s ( )
1
4s 1 + ( ) 0.2s 1 + ( ) ⋅ 0.1s 1 + ( ) ⋅
= 0.08s
4
1.22s
3
+ 4.3s
2
+ s + K
I
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
I
= K
Iu
:
0.08ω
u
4
1.22ω
u
3
i − 4.3ω
u
2
− ω
u
i ⋅ + K
Iu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part:
1.22 − ω
u
3
ω
u
+ 0 = ω
u
1
1.22
min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
6.94 min =
Real part:
0.08ω
u
4
4.3ω
u
2
− K
Iu
+ 0 = K
Iu
0.08 − min
3
ω
u
4
⋅ 4.3min ω
u
2
⋅ + :=
K
Iu
3.47
%CO
%TO min ⋅
=
(c) G
1
s ( )
1
4s 1 + ( ) 2s 1 + ( ) ⋅ s 1 + ( ) ⋅
= 8s
4
14s
3
+ 7s
2
+ s + K
Iu
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
I
= K
Iu
:
8ω
u
4
14ω
u
3
i − 7ω
u
2
− ω
u
i ⋅ + K
Iu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part:
14 − ω
u
3
ω
u
+ 0 = ω
u
1
14
min
1 −
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
23.51 min =
Real part:
8ω
u
4
7ω
u
2
− K
Iu
+ 0 = K
Iu
8 − min
3
ω
u
4
⋅ 7min ω
u
2
⋅ + := K
Iu
0.459
%CO
%TO min ⋅
=
(d) G
1
s ( )
0.5s 1 +
4s 1 + ( ) 2s 1 + ( ) ⋅ s 1 + ( ) ⋅
= 8s
4
14s
3
+ 7s
2
+ 1 0.5K
I
+
( )
s + K
I
+ 0 =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
I
= K
Iu
:
8ω
u
4
14ω
u
3
i − 7ω
u
2
− 1 0.5 K
Iu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + K
Iu
+ 0 0i + =
Real part:
8ω
u
4
7ω
u
2
− K
Iu
+ 0 = K
Iu
8 − ω
u
4
7ω
u
2
+ =
Imaginary part:
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
T
u
12.07 min = K
Iu
1.707
%CO
%TO min ⋅
= K
Iu
6.3min ω
u
2
⋅ :=
T
u
2π
ω
u
:= ω
u
1
3.69
min
1 −
:= 1.8 − ω
u
3
1 1.89ω
u
2
−

\

.
ω
u
+ 0 =
Imaginary part:
K
Iu
6.3ω
u
2
= 6.3 − ω
u
2
K
Iu
+ 0 =
Real part:
1.8 − ω
u
3
i 6.3ω
u
2
− 1 0.3K
Iu
−
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + K
Iu
+ 0 0i + =
Substitute s = iω
u
at K
I
= K
Iu
:
1.8s
3
6.3s
2
+ 1 0.3K
I
−
( )
s + K
I
+ 0 =
e
0.6 − s 1 0.3s −
1 0.3s +
=
Padé approximation:
6s
2
s + K
I
e
0.6 − s
⋅ + 0 = G
1
s ( )
e
0.6 − s
6s 1 +
= (f)
τ τ
T
+
( )
2
4τ τ
T
⋅ KK
c
⋅ − τ τ
T
− < The dominant root is negative when:
τ τ
T
+
( )
2
4τ τ
T
⋅
1.8
%CO
%TO
= KK
c
τ τ
T
+
( )
2
4 τ ⋅ τ
T
⋅
≤ The roots are real as long as:
τ
2
2τ τ
T
⋅ − τ
T
2
+ 4τ τ
T
⋅ + 4τ τ
T
⋅ KK
c
⋅ − τ τ
T
+
( )
2
4τ τ
T
⋅ KK
c
⋅ − = The radical is:
r
1
τ τ
T
−
( )
− τ τ
T
−
( )
2
4τ τ
T
⋅ 1 − KK
c
+
( )
⋅ − +
2 τ ⋅ τ
T
⋅
= Dominant root:
τ τ
T
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ τ
T
−
( )
s + 1 − KK
c
+ 0 =
τ
T
1min := (b) Negligible valve time constant,
(negative real root) KK
c
1
%CO
%TO
> The loop is stable for
r
1 KK
c
−
τ
= Root: τ s ⋅ 1 − KK
c
+ 0 =
τ
T
0 := τ
v
0 := (a) Negligible valve and transmitter time constants:
τ s ⋅ 1 −
( )
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ KK
c
+ 0 = Charatcteristic equation of the loop:
τ 5min := G
1
s ( )
K
τs 1 −
( )
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
D(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Problem 610. Openloop unstable process and proportional controller.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
polyroots
1 − KK
c
+
τ τ
v
− τ
c
−
( )
min
1 −
τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ +
( )
min
2 −
⋅
τ τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅
( )
min
3 −
⋅
10.036 −
0.966 −
2.064 10
3 −
×

\


.
=
Positive root, unstable
response
KK
c
0.99 :=
polyroots
1 − KK
c
+
τ τ
v
− τ
c
−
( )
min
1 −
τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ +
( )
min
2 −
⋅
τ τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅
( )
min
3 −
⋅
10.037 −
0.963 −
0

\

.
=
Root at zero, integrating
response
KK
c
1 :=
Now, the response is unstable also for KK
c
< 1:
KK
cu
43.1
%CO
%TO
= KK
cu
1 τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ + τ
v
τ
T
⋅ −
( )
ω
u
2
+ :=
T
u
2.25 min = τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ + τ
v
τ
T
⋅ −
( )
− ω
u
2
1 − KK
cu
+ 0 =
Real part:
T
u
2π
ω
u
:= ω
u
τ τ
v
− τ
T
−
τ τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅
:= τ − τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ τ
v
− τ
T
−
( )
ω
u
+ 0 =
Imaginary part:
τ − τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ i τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ + τ
v
τ
T
⋅ −
( )
ω
u
2
− τ τ
v
− τ
T
−
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 − KK
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Substitute s = ωi at KK
c
= KK
cu
:
τ τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅ s
3
⋅ τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ + τ
v
τ
T
⋅ −
( )
s
2
+ τ τ
v
− τ
T
−
( )
s + 1 − KK
c
+ 0 =
Characteristic equation:
τ
T
1.0min := τ
v
0.1min := (c)
τ τ
T
−
( )
−
2τ τ
T
⋅
0.4 − min
1 −
=
Note: When the roots are complex, the real part is negative:
KK
c
1
%CO
%TO
>
So, the loop is stable for:
τ
2
2τ τ
T
⋅ + τ
T
2
+ τ
2
− 2τ τ
T
⋅ + τ
T
2
− 4τ τ
T
⋅ KK
c
⋅ <
τ τ
T
+
( )
2
4τ τ
T
⋅ KK
c
⋅ − τ τ
T
−
( )
2
<
KK
c
1.01 :=
Negative real roots, stable
response
polyroots
1 − KK
c
+
τ τ
v
− τ
c
−
( )
min
1 −
τ τ
v
⋅ τ τ
T
⋅ +
( )
min
2 −
⋅
τ τ
v
⋅ τ
T
⋅
( )
min
3 −
⋅
10.037 −
0.961 −
2.073 − 10
3 −
×

\


.
=
So the range of the gain for which the response is stable is: 1
%CO
%TO
KK
c
< 43.1
%CO
%TO
<
Notice that for all three cases there is a lower limit on the loop gain for which the response is
stable. This means the response is unstable when the feedback controller is on manual, KK
c
= 0.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ 10 min = τ
V
f
1b
f
2b
+
:= f
2b
2.4
m
3
min
:= f
1b
1.6
m
3
min
:= From the solution to Problem 318:
G
2
s ( )
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= G
1
s ( )
K
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
= G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
C
set
(s)
G
1
(s)
H(s)
C(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
2
(s)
F
2
(s)
F
1
(s)
+

+
+
From the solution top Problem 318, ignoring the inlet concentration disturbances for simplicity:
Use subscript "b" to denote base values for linearization. ∆f
1
0.1
m
3
min
:=
Disturbance:
c
max
70
kg
m
3
:= c
min
20
kg
m
3
:=
τ
T
3min := Transmitter:
τ
v
0.1min :=
∆p
v
5psi :=
Linear control valve sized for 100%
overcapacity.
c
b
50
kg
m
3
:=
c
2b
30
kg
m
3
:= f
b
4.0
m
3
min
:=
c
1b
80
kg
m
3
:= V 40m
3
:=
Problem parameters:
AC
AT
f(t)
c(t)
f
1
(t)
f
2
(t)
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
V
m(t)
c
set
(t)
Problem 611. Analyzer control loop for blender of Problem 318.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
C s ( )
K
sp
G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ G
2
s ( ) ⋅ C
set
⋅ s ( ) ⋅ G
1
s ( ) F
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) G
v
s ( ) G
2
s ( ) +
=
Characteristic equation: 1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
⋅
K
v
τ
v.
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
+ 0 =
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ s
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
s
2
⋅ + τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
s + 1 + K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
2
⋅ + 0 =
Let K K
T
K
v
⋅ K
2
⋅ := K 0.542 − =
Substitute s = ω
u
i at KK
c
= KK
cu
:
τ
T
− τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
− τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Imaginary part: τ
T
− τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
ω
u
+ 0 = ω
u
τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
Real part: τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
− ω
u
2
1 + KK
cu
+ 0 = T
u
3.01 min =
K
cu
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
1 −
K
:= K
cu
250 −
%CO
%TO
=
K
1
c
1b
c
b
−
f
1b
f
2b
+
:= K
2
c
2b
c
b
−
f
1b
f
2b
+
:= K
1
7.5
kg
m
3
min
m
3
= K
2
5 −
kg
m
3
min
m
3
=
Control valve: C
vmax
200 % ⋅ f
2b
⋅ gal ⋅
3.785 10
3 −
⋅ m
3
1
∆p
v
⋅ := C
vmax
567
gal
min psi
0.5
⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, an 8in valve is the smallest with enough capacity:
C
vmax
640
gal
min psi
0.5
⋅
:=
f
2max
C
vmax
∆p
v
⋅
3.785 10
3 −
⋅ m
3
⋅
gal
⋅ :=
f
2max
5.417
m
3
min
= K
v
f
2max
100%CO
:= K
v
0.054
m
3
min %CO ⋅
=
Valve fails closed (airtoopen), to prevent overflowing the tank.
Transmitter: K
T
100 %TO ⋅
c
max
c
min
−
:= K
sp
K
T
:= K
T
2
%TO m
3
⋅
kg
=
Closedloop transfer function::
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
This is a highly oscillatory response, with 11 cycles before it settles. Students should be
encouraged to study which controller gain actually gives quarter decay ratio.
Compare the results with the simulation of Problem 1311.
5 −
0.104 − min
1 −
48.08 min =
Settling time:
e
0.104 − min
1 −
T
0.646 =
Decay ratio:
T 4.21 min =
T
2π
1.494min
1 −
:=
polyroots
1 K K
c
⋅ +
τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
min
1 −
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
min
2 −
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ min
3 −
⋅
10.226 −
0.104 − 1.494i +
0.104 − 1.494i −

\

.
=
Response is stable and the
dominant roots are complex
conjugate. The period of
oscillation is:
Although not asked in the problem, let us determine the roots of the characteristic equation:
K
T
− K
1
∆f
1
⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
2
⋅ +
0.022 − %TO =
Offset
0 s
s
K
T
−
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
∆f
1
s
⋅
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
2
τ
s
1 +
+

\




.
⋅
K
T
− K
1
⋅ ∆f
1
⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
2
⋅ +
= lim
→
=
By the finalvalue theorem:
E s ( ) K
sp
C
set
⋅ s ( ) H s ( ) C s ( ) ⋅ − = H s ( ) − C s ( ) ⋅ =
K
c
125 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
K
cu
2
:= C
set
s ( ) 0 = F
1
s ( )
∆f
1
s
= Offset:
Directacting controller, because the dilute stream has a negative gain on the product composition.
(Eq. 42.39) (Eq. 42.41) G s ( )
35.77 − 2.07s 1 + ( )
26.27s
3
36.31s
2
+ 10.14s + 1 +
=
G
F
s ( )
31.79 0.976 s ⋅ 1 + ( ) ⋅ 1 2.77 s ⋅ − ( ) ⋅
26.27s
3
36.31s
2
+ 10.14s + 1 +
= H s ( ) K
T
= G
v
s ( ) K
v
= G
c
s ( ) K
c
= K
sp
K
T
=
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
T
set
(s)
G
F
(s)
H(s)
T(s)
M(s) E(s)
G(s)
F
c
(s)
F(s)
+

+
+
Block diagram, from Section 42.3, ignoring disturbances for simplicity:
(use subscript "p" to denote
base values for linearization)
f
cp
0.8771
ft
3
min
:=
T
max
700R := T
min
640R :=
Transmitter: negligible time constant.
α 50 :=
Control Valve: equalpercentage,
negligible time constant.
TC
TT
T
c
(t)
c
A
(t)
f(t)
f
c
(t)
c
Ai
(t)
T
ci
V
m(t)
T
set
(t)
T
i
(t)
T(t)
Problem 612. Temperature control of nonisothermal reactor of Section
42.3 by manipulation of coolant flow to the jacket.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The ultimate frequency cannot be an imaginary number. This means that there is no ultimate gain
and period for this loop. The reason is the G(s) has a net order of 2one zero and three polesand
there are no additional lags for the valve and the transmitter. So, the loop cannot be made unstable
with a proportional controller of positive gain.
ω
u
0.406i min
1 −
= ω
u
10.14 2.07 −
26.27 2.07 36.31 ⋅ −
min
1 −
:=
10.14 2.07 − 26.27 2.07 36.31 ⋅ − ( )ω
u
2
= 26.27 − ω
u
3
10.14 2.07KK
cu
+
( )
ω
u
+ 0 =
Imaginary part:
KK
cu
36.31ω
u
2
1 − = 36.31 − ω
u
2
1 + KK
cu
+ 0 =
Real part:
26.27 − ω
u
3
i 36.31ω
u
2
− 10.14 2.07 KK
cu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 0i + =
Rearrange and substitute s = ω
u
i at KK
c
= KK
cu
:
The positive K requires a positive K
c
,
that is, a reverseacting controller.
K 2.046
%TO
%CO
= K 35.77 −
R min ⋅
ft
3
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ :=
Let
1 K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
35.77 − 2.07 s ⋅ 1 + ( ) ⋅
26.27s
3
36.31s
2
+ 10.14s + 1 +
⋅ + 0 =
Characteristic equation of the loop:
K
T
1.667
%TO
R
= K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:=
Transmitter gain:
The control valve fails opened (airtoclose) to prevent overheating the reactor on loss of power. This
is why its gain is negative.
K
v
0.034 −
ft
3
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
ln α
( )
− f
cp
100%CO
:=
Control valve gain, Eq. 52.24, p. 171:
(Eq. 42.39) (Eq. 42.41) G s ( )
35.77 − 2.07s 1 + ( )
26.27s
3
36.31s
2
+ 10.14s + 1 +
=
G
F
s ( )
31.79 0.976 s ⋅ 1 + ( ) ⋅ 1 2.77 s ⋅ − ( ) ⋅
26.27s
3
36.31s
2
+ 10.14s + 1 +
= H s ( ) K
T
= G
v
s ( ) K
v
= G
c
s ( ) K
c
= K
sp
K
T
=
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
T
set
(s)
G
F
(s)
H(s)
T(s)
M(s) E(s)
G(s)
F
c
(s)
F(s) +

+
+
Block diagram, from Section 42.3, ignoring disturbances for simplicity:
(use subscript "p" to denote
base values for linearization)
f
p
1.3364
ft
3
min
:=
T
max
700R := T
min
640R :=
Transmitter: negligible time constant.
∆p
v
5psi :=
Control Valve: linear, sized for
100% overcapacity, negligible time
constant. Assume
TC
TT
T
c
(t)
c
A
(t)
f(t)
f
c
(t)
c
Ai
(t)
T
ci
V
m(t)
T
set
(t)
T
i
(t)
T(t)
Problem 613. Temperature control of nonisothermal reactor of Section
42.3 by manipulation of the reactants flow.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The positive K requires a positive K
c
,
that is, a reverseacting controller.
Rearrange and substitute s = ω
u
i at KK
c
= KK
cu
:
26.27 − ω
u
3
i 36.31 0.976 2.77 − ( ) KK
cu
+
ω
u
2
− 10.14 0.976 2.77 − ( ) KK
cu
⋅ +
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 =
Real part: 36.31 0.976 2.77 − ( ) KK
cu
+
− ω
u
2
1 + KK
cu
+ 0 = KK
cu
36.31ω
u
2
1 −
1 0.976 2.77 − ( ) ω
u
2
−
=
Imaginary part: 26.27 − ω
u
3
10.14 0.976 2.77 − ( )KK
cu
+
ω
u
+ 0 = 0.976 2.77 − 1.794 − =
0.976 2.77 − ( ) 2.704 − =
26.27 − ω
u
2
10.14 + 1.794 − ( )
36.31ω
u
2
1 −
1 2.704 − ( )ω
u
2
−
+ 0 =
26.27 − 2.704 ( ) ⋅ ω
u
4
26.27 − 10.14 2.704 ( ) + 1.794 − ( )36.31 + [ ]ω
u
2
+ 10.14 1.794 + ( ) + 0 =
26.27 − 2.704 ( ) 71.034 − = 26.27 − 10.14 2.704 ( ) + 1.794 − ( )36.31 + 63.992 − = 10.14 1.794 + 11.934 =
71.034 − ω
u
4
63.992ω
u
2
− 11.934 + 0 =
Control valve size: C
vmax
200% f
p
⋅
∆p
v
7.48gal
ft
3
:= C
vmax
8.941
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, a ½in valve is required: C
vmax
11
gal
min psi ⋅
:= f
max
C
vmax
∆p
v
⋅ :=
Control valve gain, Eq. 52.23, p. 171: K
v
f
max
100%CO
:= K
v
0.033
ft
3
min %CO ⋅
=
The control valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the reactor on loss of power.
Transmitter gain: K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:= K
T
1.667
%TO
R
=
Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
31.79 0.976 s ⋅ 1 + ( ) ⋅ 1 2.77s − ( ) ⋅
26.27s
3
36.31s
2
+ 10.14s + 1 +
⋅ + 0 =
Let K 31.79
R min ⋅
ft
3
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ := K 1.742
%TO
%CO
=
ω
u
63.992 63.992
2
4 71.034 − ( ) ⋅ 11.934 ( ) − −
2 71.034 − ( ) min
2
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
15.78 min =
K
cu
1
K
36.31min
2
ω
u
2
1 −
1 2.704min
2
ω
u
2
+
:=
K
cu
1.91
%CO
%TO
=
The reason there is an ultimate gain in this case and not when the cooling water is manipulated
(Problem 612) is the inverse response of the temperature to the reactants flow (negative zero in the
transfer function).
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K 1.8R :=
x
3
16.667 % = x
4
40.882 % = f
4
3400
gal
min
= x
4
f
3
x
3
⋅ f
2
x
2
⋅ +
f
4
:= f
4
f
3
f
2
+ :=
f
3
2400
gal
min
= x
3
f
5
x
5
⋅
f
3
:= f
3
f
1
f
5
+ := Assume perfectly mixed tanks, constant density.
x
7
90% := f
7
500
gal
min
:= x
5
80% := f
5
500
gal
min
:=
x
2
99% := f
2
1000
gal
min
:= f
1
1900
gal
min
:= V 7000gal := Problem parameters (Table P41):
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
X
6
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H(s)
X
6
(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
1
(s)
F
1
(s)
F
2
(s)
+

+
+
Block diagram, considering only f
1
(t) anf f
2
(t) as input variables:
V V V
f
5
(t)
f
1
(t)
f
2
(t)
f
7
(t)
f
3
(t) f
4
(t) f
6
(t)
x
5
(t) x
2
(t) x
7
(t)
x
3
(t) x
4
(t) x
6
(t)
AT
AC
x
6
set
(t)
m(t)
Problem 614. Analyzer control of three mixing tanks of Problem 43.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
τ
2
V
f
4
:= τ
3
V
f
6
:= K
6
f
4
f
6
:= K
7
x
6
x
4
−
f
6
:= K
3
f
3
f
4
:= K
5
x
4
x
3
−
f
4
:= K
2
x
3
f
3
:=
K
8
x
2
x
4
−
f
4
:= τ
1
2.917 min = τ
2
2.059 min = τ
3
1.795 min = K
6
0.872 = K
8
0.017
% min ⋅
gal
=
K
3
0.706 = K
5
7.122 10
3 −
×
% min ⋅
gal
= K
2
6.944 10
3 −
×
% min ⋅
gal
= K
7
1.615 10
3 −
×
% min ⋅
gal
=
Eliminate X
3
(s) and X
4
(s):
X
4
s ( )
K
2
− K
3
⋅ K
5
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
F
1
s ( )
K
8
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
F
2
s ( ) + =
X
6
s ( ) G
1
s ( ) F
1
s ( ) ⋅ G
2
s ( ) F
2
s ( ) ⋅ + =
G
1
s ( )
K
6
K
2
− K
3
⋅ K
5
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
⋅ K
7
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
G
2
s ( )
K
6
K
8
⋅ K
7
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
f
6
f
4
f
7
+ := x
6
f
4
x
4
⋅ f
7
x
7
⋅ +
f
6
:= f
6
3900
gal
min
= x
6
47.179 % =
Control valve: Equalpercentage valve, constant pressure drop, α = 50, negligible time constant.
G
v
s ( ) K
v
= K
v
ln 50 ( )
100%CO
f
1
:= (Eq. 52.24, p. 171) K
v
74.3
gal
min %CO ⋅
=
The valve fails closed (airtoopen) to
prevent overflowing the tanks on loss
of power.
Analyzer Transmitter: negligible lag, 30 to 70% range:
H s ( ) K
T
= K
T
100%TO
70 30 − ( )%
:= K
T
2.5
%TO
%
=
Proportional controller: G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Process Transfer Functions:
From the soution to Problem 43: X
6
s ( )
1
τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
K
6
X
4
s ( ) ⋅ K
7
F
1
s ( ) ⋅ − K
7
F
2
s ( ) ⋅ −
( )
=
X
4
s ( )
1
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
K
3
X
3
s ( ) ⋅ K
5
F
1
s ( ) ⋅ − K
8
F
2
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
=
(where we have added F
2
(s) as an
input variable) X
3
s ( )
K
2
−
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
F
1
s ( ) =
τ
1
V
f
3
:=
Substitute s = ω
u
i at K
c
= K.
cu
:
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
B
K
A
K
cu
⋅ −
( )
ω
u
2
− τ
C
K
B
K
cu
⋅ −
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
C
K
cu
⋅ − 0 0i + =
Real part: τ
B
K
A
K
cu
⋅ −
( )
− ω
u
2
1 + K
C
K
cu
⋅ − 0 = K
cu
−
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 −
K
C
K
A
ω
u
2
⋅ −
=
Imaginary part: τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
C
K
B
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 −
K
C
K
A
ω
u
2
⋅ −
⋅ +

\


.
ω
u
+ 0 =
K
A
τ
A
⋅ ω
u
4
⋅ τ
A
− K
C
⋅ K
B
τ
B
⋅ + K
A
τ
C
⋅ −
( )
ω
u
2
+ K
C
τ
C
⋅ + K
B
− 0 =
Let a K
A
τ
A
⋅ := b τ
A
− K
C
⋅ K
B
τ
B
⋅ + K
A
τ
C
⋅ − := c K
C
τ
C
⋅ K
B
− :=
a 19.419 min
5
= b 36.13 min
3
= c 10.361 min =
ω
u
b − b
2
4 a ⋅ c ⋅ − +
2 a ⋅
:= ω
u
0.595i min
1 −
=
The complex ultimate frequency mens that there is no ultimate gain. The process is stable for all
negative Kc (directacting controller): increasing concentration increases controller output, opening
the valve and increasing the flow of pure water. This dilutes the solution and brings the
concentration down.
Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G s ( ) ⋅ G
1
s ( ) ⋅ + 0 =
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅
K
6
K
2
− K
3
⋅ K
5
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
⋅ K
7
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ −
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅ + 0 =
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
3
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
3
⋅ + τ
2
τ
3
⋅ + K
7
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ −
( )
s
2
+ +
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
3
+ K
6
K
5
⋅ K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ τ
1
⋅ − K
7
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
⋅ −
s + +
1 + K
6
K
2
K
3
⋅ K
5
+
( )
⋅ K
7
+
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ − 0 =
Let τ
A
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
3
⋅ := τ
B
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
3
⋅ + τ
2
τ
3
⋅ + := τ
C
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
3
+ := K
A
K
7
K
T
⋅ K
v
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ :=
K
B
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
6
K
5
⋅ τ
1
⋅ K
7
τ
1
τ
2
+
( )
⋅ +
⋅ := K
C
K
6
K
2
K
3
⋅ K
5
+
( )
⋅ K
7
+
K
T
⋅ K
v
⋅ :=
τ
A
10.778 min
3
= τ
B
14.935 min
2
= τ
C
6.77 min = K
A
1.802 min
2
= K
B
4.858 min =
K
C
2.248 =
K
G2
0.013
min % ⋅
gal
= K
G2
K
6
K
8
⋅ K
7
− := G
2
0 ( ) K
G2
= ∆f
2
10
gal
min
:=
Offset K
sp
∆x
6
set
⋅ K
T
∆x
6
⋅ − = 0 K
T
G
2
0 ( )
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ G
1
0 ( ) ⋅ +
∆f
2
⋅ − =
Offset for an increase of 10 gal/min in flow f
2
:
The reason there is no ultimate gain is that the transfer function of the process in the loop has a net
order of one (three poles and two zeros). So, with negligible valve and transmitter lags, the loop
cannot be made unstable with a proportional controller. In practice there will be some lags in the
valve and transmitter, however small, and this will impose a limit on the controller gain. Note: In the
second edition of this text the analyzer transmitter was specified to have a dead time of 2 min. This
is a more realistic situation and did result in an ultimate gain and period.
polyroots
1 K
C
K
c
⋅ −
τ
C
K
B
K
c
⋅ −
( )
min
1 −
τ
B
K
A
K
c
⋅ −
( )
min
2 −
τ
A
min
3 −
⋅
1.67 − 10
3
×
2.105 −
0.593 −

\


.
=
Negative real roots. Loop is
stable.
Roots of the characteristic equation: K
c
10000 −
%CO
%TO
:=
polyroots
1 K
C
K
c
⋅ −
τ
C
K
B
K
c
⋅ −
( )
min
1 −
τ
B
K
A
K
c
⋅ −
( )
min
2 −
τ
A
min
3 −
⋅
15.183 −
2.326 −
0.593 −

\

.
=
Negative real roots. Loop
is stable.
Roots of the characteristic equation: K
c
100 −
%CO
%TO
:=
polyroots
1 K
C
K
c
⋅ −
τ
C
K
B
K
c
⋅ −
( )
min
1 −
τ
B
K
A
K
c
⋅ −
( )
min
2 −
τ
A
min
3 −
⋅
0.59 −
0.481 − 0.528i −
0.481 − 0.528i +

\

.
=
Negative real root and
complex conjugate roots
with negative real parts.
Loop is stable.
Roots of the characteristic equation: K
c
1 −
%CO
%TO
:=
Test:
G
1
0 ( ) K
G1
= K
G1
K
6
K
2
− K
3
⋅ K
5
−
( )
⋅ K
7
− := K
G1
0.012 −
min % ⋅
gal
=
Offset K
c
( )
K
T
−
K
G2
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
G1
⋅ +
∆f
2
⋅ :=
For K
c
= 1 %CO/%TO: Offset 1 − ( ) 0.102 − %TO =
Openloop offset (K
c
= 0): Offset 0 ( ) 0.332 − %TO =
For a PI controller the offset is zero.
10 5 0
0.004
0.002
0
Offset X ( )
X
Let X K
c
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
f
1
f
0
f
R
+ := k
2
k
1
:=
f
R
0
ft
3
min
:= f
0
10
ft
3
min
:= k
1
0.2min
1 −
:= c
A0
7
lbmole
ft
3
:= V
2
V
1
:= V
1
125ft
3
:=
Problem data:
K
T
20
%TO ft
3
⋅
lbmole
= K
T
100 %TO ⋅ ft
3
⋅
5lbmole
:= τ
T
0.5min := H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= Transmitter:
G
v
s ( ) K
v
= Control valve: G
c
s ( ) K
c
= Proportional controller:
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
C
A2
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H(s)
C
A2
(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
1
(s)
F
0
(s)
C
A0
(s)
+

+
+
Block diagram:
V
1
f
0
(t)
f
R
f
1
(t)
c
A0
(t) c
A1
(t) c
A2
(t)
AT
AC
c
A2
set
(t)
m(t)
V
2
Problem 615. Analyzer control of reactors in series of Problem 49.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
τ
1
V
1
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ +
:= τ
2
V
2
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
:= τ
1
3.571 min =
τ
2
3.571 min =
K
1
f
0
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ +
:= K
2
f
R
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ +
:= K
3
f
1
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
:= K
1
0.286 = K
2
0 =
K
3
0.286 =
C
A1
s ( )
1
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
K
1
C
A0
s ( ) ⋅ K
4
F
0
s ( ) + K
2
C
A2
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
= K
4
c
A0
c
A1
−
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ +
:= K
4
0.143
lbmole min ⋅
ft
6
=
C
A2
s ( )
K
3
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
C
A1
s ( )
K
5
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
F
0
s ( ) + = K
5
c
A1
c
A2
−
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
:= K
5
0.041
lbmole min ⋅
ft
6
=
Substitute to eliminate C
A1
(s):
C
A2
s ( ) K
3
K
1
C
A0
s ( ) ⋅ K
4
F
0
s ( ) ⋅ + K
2
C
A2
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
K
5
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
F
0
s ( ) + =
K
1
K
3
⋅ C
A0
s ( ) ⋅ K
3
K
4
⋅ K
5
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ +
F
0
s ( ) ⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
3
⋅ −
=
At the initial steady state: f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ +
( )
c
A1
⋅ f
0
c
Ao
⋅ f
R
c
A2
⋅ + = f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
( )
c
A2
f
1
c
A1
⋅ =
c
A1
f
0
c
A0
⋅
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ +
f
R
f
1
⋅
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
−
:= c
A2
f
1
c
A1
⋅
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
:=
c
A1
2
lbmole
ft
3
= c
A2
0.571
lbmole
ft
3
=
Control valve gain: linear sized for 100% overcapacity, assume ∆p
v
5psi :=
C
vmax
200% f
0
⋅ 7.48 ⋅ gal
ft
3
∆p
v
⋅
:= C
vmax
66.903
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, a 3in valve is needed: C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
f
0max
C
vmax
∆p
v
⋅
ft
3
7.48gal
:= K
v
f
0max
100%CO
:= K
v
0.329
ft
3
min %CO ⋅
=
The valve fails closed (airtoopen) so as not to overflow the reactor on power failure.
Process transfer functions from the solution to Problem 49:
G
2
s ( )
K
1
K
3
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
3
⋅ −
=
Offset
K
sp
∆c
A2
set
⋅ K
T
∆c
A2
⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ G
1
0 ( ) ⋅ +
=
0 K
T
G
2
0 ( ) ∆c
A0
−
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ G
1
0 ( ) ⋅ +
=
Offset for an increase of 1 lbmole/ft
3
in inlet reactant cncentration.
The imaginary value of the ultimate gain means that there is no ultimate gain. The loop is stable for
all positive values of the controller gain. The reason is that the net order of the transfer function
G
1
(s) is one (two poles and one zero). With an additional lag in the transmitter, the total order of
the transfer function is two, not enough lags to produce instability with a proportional controller.
The controller gain is positive (reverse action): an increase in composition decreases the controller
output. This decreases the flow of reactants and decreases the concentration.
ω
u
0.507i min
1 −
= ω
u
K
L
τ
C
⋅ τ
D
1 K
2
K
3
⋅ −
( )
⋅ −
K
L
τ
A
⋅ τ
D
τ
B
⋅ −
:=
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
C
τ
D
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 − K
2
K
3
⋅ +
K
L
⋅ +

\

.
ω
u
+ 0 = Imaginary part:
K
cu
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 − K
2
K
3
⋅ +
K
L
= τ
B
− ω
u
2
⋅ 1 + K
2
K
3
⋅ − K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 = Real part:
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
C
τ
D
K
cu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
2
K
3
⋅ − K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 0i + =
Substitute s = ω
u
i at K
c
= K
cu
:
K
3
K
4
⋅ 0.041
lbmole min ⋅
ft
6
= K
L
0.537 = τ
D
0.959 min = τ
C
7.643 min =
τ
B
16.327 min
2
= τ
A
6.378 min
3
= K
L
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
3
K
4
⋅ K
5
+
( )
⋅ := τ
D
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
5
⋅ τ
1
⋅ :=
τ
C
τ
T
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ K
2
K
3
⋅ τ
T
⋅ − := τ
B
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + := τ
A
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
T
⋅ := Let
1 + K
2
K
3
⋅ − K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
K
4
⋅ K
5
+
( )
⋅ + 0 =
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ s
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
s
2
+ τ
T
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ K
2
K
3
⋅ τ
T
⋅ − K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
5
⋅ τ
1
⋅ +
( )
s +
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
K
v
⋅ G
1
s ( ) ⋅ + 0 = Charactetristic equation of the loop:
G
1
s ( )
C
A2
s ( )
F
0
s ( )
=
K
3
K
4
⋅ K
5
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
+
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
3
⋅ −
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
X K
c
= Let
0 5 10
0.02
0.01
0
Offset X ( )
X
Compare these results with the simulation of this process in Problem 1316.
For a PI controller the offset is zero.
Offset 0 ( ) 1.633 − %TO = Openloop offset (K
c
= 0):
Offset 1 ( ) 1.062 − %TO = For K
c
= 1 %CO/%TO:
Offset K
c
( )
K
T
−
K
G2
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
G1
⋅ +
∆c
A0
⋅ :=
K
G1
0.082
lbmole min ⋅
ft
6
= K
G1
K
3
K
4
⋅ K
5
+
1 K
2
K
3
⋅ −
:= G
1
0 ( ) K
G1
=
K
G2
0.082 = K
G2
K
1
K
3
⋅
1 K
2
K
3
⋅ −
:= G
2
0 ( ) K
G2
= ∆c
A0
1
lbmole
ft
3
:=
Block diagram, ignoring the inlet temperature as a variable:
τ
T
10s
min
60s
⋅ := H
s
1145.4
BTU
lb
:= From the steam tables, the enthalpy of the steam is:
T
max
100degF :=
T
min
50degF :=
Assumptions:
Perfectly mixed tank, constant volume, negligible heat losses •
Constant density and physical properties •
Steam is at atmospheric pressure •
Transmitter has a range of 50 to 100ºF and a time constant of 10 s •
∆f
1
2
gal
min
:= Disturbance: τ
v
4s
min
60s
⋅ :=
"p" denotes base value
for linearization.
w
2
t ( ) 1.954
lb
min
vp t ( )
∆p
v
psi
⋅ =
∆p
v
10psi := Control valve:
T
3p
80degF :=
T
1p
60degF := f
1p
25
gal
min
:=
Design conditions:
c
p
0.8
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:=
ρ 7
lb
gal
:= V 5gal :=
TT
TC
f
1
(t)
f
3
(t)
w
2
(t)
T
1
(t)
T
3
set
(t)
Saturated
steam
Liquid
T
3
(t)
m(t)
Problem parameters:
Problem 616. Temperature control of direct contact heater of Problem 45.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
W
2
t ( ) w
2
t ( ) w
2p
− = F
1
t ( ) f
1
t ( ) f
1p
− = Γ
3
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) T
3p
− = Γ
1
t ( ) T
1
t ( ) T
1p
− = where
V ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ a
1
Γ
1
t ( ) Γ
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ a
2
F
1
t ( ) ⋅ + a
3
W
2
t ( ) ⋅ + a
4
Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅ − =
Linearize:
Note: This value differs from the value given in the statement of Problem 45, probably because a
different steam pressure was assumed.
w
2p
2.529
lb
min
= w
2p
f
1p
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3p
T
1p
−
( )
⋅
H
s
c
p
T
3p
32degF −
( )
⋅ −
:=
At the initial steady state:
V ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ w
2
t ( ) H
s
c
p
T
3
t ( ) 32 degF ⋅ −
( )
⋅ −
⋅ + =
Sustitute into enthalpy balance:
f
3
t ( ) ρ ⋅ f
1
t ( ) ρ ⋅ w
2
t ( ) + =
f
1
t ( ) ρ ⋅ w
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) ρ ⋅ − ρ
d V ⋅
dt
⋅ = 0 = Mass balance, assuming constant volume:
f
1
t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
1
t ( ) 32 degF ⋅ −
( )
⋅ w
2
t ( ) H
s
⋅ + f
3
t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
t ( ) 32 degF ⋅ −
( )
⋅ − V ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ =
Enthalpy balance on the tank, neglecting heat losses:
K
T
2
%TO
degF
= K
sp
K
T
:= K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:= H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= Temperature transmitter:
K
v
0.062
lb
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
1.954
lb
min
∆p
v
psi
⋅
1
100%CO
:= G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
= Linear control valve:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
= Proportional controller:
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
T
3
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H(s)
T
3
(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
3
(s)
W
2
(s)
F
1
(s)
+

+
+
Ultimate gain and period of the loop:
Characteristic equation:
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
⋅ + 0 =
let
KK
c
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ =
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ s
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
s
2
⋅ + τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
s + 1 + KK
c
+ 0 =
Substitue s = ω
u
i at KK
c
= KK
cu
:
τ
T
− τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 =
Imaginary part:
τ
T
− τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
( )
ω
u
⋅ + 0 = ω
u
τ
T
τ
v
+ τ +
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:=
Real part:
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
− ω
u
2
1 + KK
cu
+ 0 = T
u
0.448 min =
K
cu
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ ⋅ + τ
v
τ ⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
1 −
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅
:= K
cu
10.61
%CO
%TO
=
Offset caused by change in inlet liquid flow at one half the ultimate gain:
Offset
K
sp
∆T
3
set
⋅ K
T
∆T
3
⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ +
=
0 K
T
K
2
⋅ ∆f
1
⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ +
= K
c
K
cu
2
:=
a
1
f
1p
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ := a
2
ρ c
p
⋅ T
1p
T
3p
−
( )
⋅ := a
3
H
s
c
p
T
3p
32degF −
( )
⋅ − := a
4
w
2p
c
p
⋅ :=
Rearrange:
τ
d Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ
3
t ( ) + K
1
Γ
1
t
( )
⋅ K
2
F
1
t ( ) ⋅ + K
3
W
2
t ( ) ⋅ + = Γ
3
0 ( ) 0 =
where
τ
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
a
1
a
4
+
:= K
1
a
1
a
1
a
4
+
:= K
2
a
2
a
1
a
4
+
:= K
3
a
3
a
1
a
4
+
:= τ 0.197 min =
K
1
0.986 = K
2
0.789 −
degF min ⋅
gal
= K
3
7.794
degF min ⋅
lb
=
Note: These values differ from the solution to Problem 45 because a different steam pressure is
assumed here.
Laplace transform:
Γ
3
s ( )
K
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
Γ
1
s ( )
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
F
1
s ( ) +
K
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
W
2
s ( ) + =
G
2
s ( )
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= G
3
s ( )
K
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
Offset
K
T
− K
2
⋅ ∆f
1
⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ +
:=
Offset 0.516 %TO =
Offset
K
T
0.258 degF =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
V
d c
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f t ( ) c
2
t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) c
3
t ( ) ⋅ − k V ⋅ c
3
t ( ) ⋅ − =
V
d c
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f t ( ) c
1
t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) c
2
t ( ) ⋅ − k V ⋅ c
2
t ( ) ⋅ − =
V
d c
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f t ( ) c
i
t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) c
1
t ( ) ⋅ − k V ⋅ c
1
t ( ) ⋅ − =
Model of the reactors, from mass balances on each reactor, assuming
Perfectly mixed, constant volume •
Constant density and physical properties •
K
v
2.46
gal
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
C
vmax
∆p
v
⋅
100%CO
:=
The valve fails closed (airtoopen)
to prevent overflowing the reactors
on power failure.
C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:= From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required:
C
vmax
89.443
gal
min psi ⋅
= C
vmax
200% f
p
⋅
∆p
v
:= ∆p
v
5psi :=
τ
v
0.1min := Control valve: linear with constant pressure drop and sized for 100% overcapacity.
K
T
100
%TO gal ⋅
lb
= K
T
100%TO
c
max
c
min
−
:= c
max
1.0
lb
gal
:= c
min
0
lb
gal
:= Analyzer transmitter:
c
ip
4
lb
gal
:= f
p
100
gal
min
:= k 0.1min
1 −
:= V 1000gal := Problem data:
V V V
f(t) c
1
(t)
c
i
(t)
AT
AC
c
3
set
(t)
m(t)
c
2
(t)
c
3
(t)
Problem 617. Composition control of three isothermal reactors in series.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
τ
V
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:= K
i
f
p
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:= K
1
c
ip
c
1p
−
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:= K
2
c
1p
c
2p
−
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:= K
3
c
2p
c
3p
−
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:=
τ 5 min = K
i
0.5 = K
1
0.01
lb min ⋅
gal
2
= K
2
0.005
lb min ⋅
gal
2
= K
3
0.0025
lb min ⋅
gal
2
=
Laplaxce transform:
C
1
s ( )
K
i
C
i
s ( ) ⋅ K
1
F s ( ) ⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= C
2
s ( )
K
i
C
1
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
F s ( ) ⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= C
3
s ( )
K
i
C
2
s ( ) ⋅ K
3
F s ( ) ⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
Combine to obtain the transfer functions:
G
1
s ( )
C
3
s ( )
F s ( )
=
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K
i
τ
s
1 +
K
i
K
1
⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K
2
+

\

.
K
3
+
=
G
1
s ( )
K
i
K
i
K
1
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ +
⋅ K
3
τ
s
1 +
( )
2
⋅ +
⋅
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
=
G
1
s ( )
K
i
2
K
1
⋅ K
i
K
2
⋅ τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ + K
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
2
⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
= G
2
s ( )
C
3
s ( )
C
i
s ( )
=
K
i
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
=
Linearize:
V
d C
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
p
C
i
t ( ) ⋅ f
p
k V ⋅ +
( )
C
1
t ( ) − c
ip
c
1p
−
( )
F t ( ) + =
V
d C
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
p
C
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
p
k V ⋅ +
( )
C
2
t ( ) − c
1p
c
2p
−
( )
F t ( ) + =
V
d C
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
p
C
2
t ( ) ⋅ f
p
k V ⋅ +
( )
C
3
t ( ) − c
2p
c
3p
−
( )
F t ( ) + =
where C
j
t ( ) C
j
t ( ) c
jp
− = F t ( ) t ( ) f
p
− =
At the initial steadystate:
c
1p
f
p
c
ip
⋅
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:= c
2p
f
p
c
1p
⋅
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:= c
3p
f
p
c
2p
⋅
f
p
k V ⋅ +
:=
Rearrange:
τ
d C
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
1
t ( ) + K
i
C
i
t ( ) ⋅ K
1
F t ( ) ⋅ + =
C
1
0 ( ) 0 =
τ
d C
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
2
t ( ) + K
i
C
1
t ( ) ⋅ K
2
F t ( ) ⋅ + =
C
2
0 ( ) 0 =
τ
d C
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
2
t ( ) + K
i
C
i
t ( ) ⋅ K
3
F t ( ) ⋅ + =
C
3
0 ( ) 0 =
where
(c) Ultimate gain and period of the loop with a proportional controller.
For a PI controller the offset is zero.
Offset 12.5 − %TO = Offset K
T
− K
i
3
∆c
i
⋅ := For the open loop, K
c
= 0:
Offset
K
T
0.044 −
lb
gal
= Offset 4.39 − %TO =
Offset
K
T
K
i
3
⋅ ∆c
i
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
A
⋅ +
− := Offset
K
sp
∆c
3
set
⋅ K
T
G
2
0 ( ) ⋅ ∆c
i
−
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ G
1
0 ( ) ⋅ +
=
K
c
1.
%CO
%TO
:= ∆c
i
1
lb
gal
:= (b) Offset for a change in inlet concentration
K
B
0.0075
lb min ⋅
gal
2
= K
3
0.0025
lb min ⋅
gal
2
=
K
A
0.0075
lb min ⋅
gal
2
= τ 5 min = K
B
2 K
3
⋅ K
i
K
2
⋅ + := K
A
K
i
2
K
1
K
i
K
2
⋅ + K
3
+ :=
G
1
s ( )
K
A
K
B
τ ⋅ s ⋅ + K
3
τ
2
⋅ s ⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
=
G
2
s ( )
K
i
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
=
G
c
s ( ) K
c
= Proportional controller: G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
= H s ( ) K
T
= K
sp
K
T
:=
K
sp G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
C
3
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H(s)
C
3
(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
1
(s)
F(s)
C
i
(s)
+

+
+
(a) Block diagram of the loop:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The imaginary value of the ultimate frequency shows that there is no ultimate gain for this loop. This
is because the net order of the loop is onethree poles and two zerosand it cannot be unstable for
any positive value of the controller gain. The controller gain is positive, reverse acting: increases
concentration decreases the signal to the valve. This decreases the reactants flow and the
concentration decreases.
ω
u
2.45i min
1 −
= ω
u
b − b
2
4 a ⋅ τ
B
−
( )
⋅ − −
2 a ⋅
:=
b 1.537 − min
3
= a 1.962 − 10
14 −
× min
5
=
b 3 − τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ K
L
⋅ τ
v
τ
A
⋅ − τ
B
3 ⋅ τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ + := a 3τ
v
τ
2
⋅ τ
A
⋅ τ
B
τ
v
⋅ τ
3
⋅ − :=
Let
3 τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ τ
A
⋅ τ
B
τ
v
⋅ τ
3
⋅ −

\

.
ω
u
4
3 − τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ K
L
⋅ τ
v
τ
A
⋅ − τ
B
3 ⋅ τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ +

\

.
ω
u
2
+ τ
B
− 0 =
3 − τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ ω
u
3
τ
v
τ
B
3 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ ω
u
2
⋅ τ
v
τ
3
⋅ ω
u
4
− 1 −
K
L
τ
A
ω
u
2
⋅ −
⋅ +

\


.
ω
u
+ 0 =
Imaginary part:
K
cu
3 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ ω
u
2
⋅ τ
v
τ
3
⋅ ω
u
4
− 1 −
K
L
τ
A
ω
u
2
⋅ −
=
τ
v
τ
3
⋅ ω
u
4
3 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ τ
A
K
cu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
− 1 + K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 =
Real part:
τ
B
9.224 min = τ
A
15.373 min
2
=
K
L
1.845
%TO
%CO
= K
L
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
A
⋅ := τ
B
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
B
⋅ τ ⋅ := τ
A
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ τ
2
⋅ :=
where
τ
v
τ
3
⋅ ω
u
4
3τ
v
τ
2
⋅ ω
u
3
i − 3τ
v
τ ⋅ τ
A
K
cu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
− τ
v
τ
B
K
cu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 =
Rearrange and substitute s = ω
u
i at K
c
= K
cu
:
1 K
T
K
c
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
A
K
B
τ ⋅ s ⋅ + K
3
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
⋅ + 0 =
Characteristic equation of the loop:
Closedloop transfer function:
G
p
s ( )
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
=
G
sc
s ( )
K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
T
5
%TO
psi
= H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
sp
K
T
:= K
T
100%TO
P
max
P
min
−
:=
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
sc
(s)
P
s
set
(s)
G
p
(s)
H(s)
P
s
(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
p
(s)
F
c
(s)
F
i
(s)
+


+
(a) Block diagram of the loop, closedloop transfer function, and characteristic
equation of the loop.
τ
T
1.2s := P
max
20psig := P
min
0psig := Pressure transmitter, PC:
τ
sc
2.5s :=
K
sc
0.36
kscf
min %CO ⋅
:=
F
c
s ( )
K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
M s ( ) =
τ
p
7.5s :=
K
p
0.5
psi min ⋅
kscf
:=
P
s
s ( )
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
F
i
s ( ) F
c
s ( ) −
( )
=
Steam
Suction
Discharge
f
i
(t)
f
c
(t)
p
s
(t)
m(t)
PT
PC
SC
Problem Data:
Problem 618. Compressor suction pressure control.
psig psi :=
kscf 1000ft
3
:= %TO % := %CO % := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Offset
K
T
0.061 − psi =
Offset 0.307 − %TO = Offset
0 K
T
K
p
⋅ ∆f
i
⋅ −
1 K
L
K
c
⋅ +
:=
Offset
K
sp
∆p
s
set
⋅ K
T
K
p
⋅ ∆f
i
⋅ −
1 K
L
K
c
⋅ +
=
K
c
7.9 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
K
cu
2
:= ∆f
i
1
kscf
min
:= (c) Offset caused by a change in inlet flow.
K
cu
15.9 −
%CO
%TO
=
T
u
8.91 s = T
u
2π
ω
u
:= K
cu
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
T
τ
p
⋅ + τ
sc
τ
p
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
1 −
K
L
:= Real part:
ω
u
τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅
:= τ
T
− τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
( )
ω
u
+ 0 = Imaginary part:
K
L
0.9 −
%TO
%CO
= K
L
K
T
− K
sc
⋅ K
p
⋅ := where
τ
T
− τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
T
τ
p
⋅ + τ
sc
τ
p
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
− τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 0i + =
Rearrange the characteristic equation and sunbstiture s =ω
u
i at K
c
= K
cu
:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
= (b) Ultimate gain and period for a preportional controller.
The controller must be directacting (negative gain): increasing pressure increases the signal to te
speed controller (SC). This increases the compressor speed and the flow through the compressor,
decreasing the suctiion pressure.
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
sc
s ( ) ⋅ G
p
s ( ) ⋅ − 1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
G
c
s ( )
K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
− = 0 =
Characteristic equation of the loop:
P
s
s ( )
K
sp
− G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
sc
s ( ) ⋅ G
p
s ( ) ⋅
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
sc
s ( ) ⋅ G
p
s ( ) −
P
s
set
s ( )
G
p
s ( )
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
sc
s ( ) ⋅ G
p
s ( ) ⋅ −
( )
F
i
s ( ) + =
K
sp G
c
(s) G
FC
(s)
T
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H(s)
T(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
1
(s)
F
c
(s)
T
i
(s)
+


+
(a) Block diagram of the temperature control loop, valve fail position, controller
action.
τ
FC
0.1min := f
max
0.8
m
3
min
:= f
min
0
m
3
min
:= Flow transmitter(FT):
τ
T
0.6min := T
max
70degC := T
min
20degC :=
Temperature transmitter (TT):
T
ci
25degC := T 45degC :=
T
i
70degC := f 0.1
m
3
min
:=
Design conditions:
c
pc
4.2
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:= ρ
c
1000
kg
m
3
:=
c
p
3.8
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:= ρ 800
kg
m
3
:=
V
c
1.1m
3
:= A 4m
2
:=
U 200
kJ
m
2
min degC ⋅
:= V 5m
3
:=
Problem Data:
TC
TT
T
c
(t)
f(t)
f
c
(t)
T
ci
V
m(t)
T
set
(t)
T
i
(t)
T(t)
FT
FC
SP
Problem 619. Temperature control of stirredtank cooler of Problem 47.
degC K := kJ 1000joule := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
T
c
T
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
i
T −
( )
⋅
U A ⋅
− := T
c
35.5 degC =
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
i
T −
( )
⋅ f
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅ − 0 = f
c
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
i
T −
( )
⋅
ρ
c
c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅
:= f
c
0.172
m
3
min
=
τ
2
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅
f
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:= K
3
ρ
c
c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅
f
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:= K
4
U A ⋅
f
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:=
τ
2
3.03 min = K
3
28.94
degC min ⋅
m
3
= K
4
0.525 =
The coolant valve must fail opened (airtoclose) to prevent loss of coolant on power failure. This
means that the flow controller must be direct acting: incease in flow increases the output to close
the valve and reduce the flow.
The temperature controller must also be direct acting (negative gain): increasing temperature must
increase the output to incrase the coolant flow and reduce the temperature.
(b) Ultimate gain and period of the loop with a proportional controller. G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Characteristic equation of the loop:
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
K
FC
τ
FC
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
2
K
3
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K
2
K
4
⋅ −
+ 0 =
Rearrange and substitute s = ω
u
i at K
c
= K
cu
:
τ
A
ω
u
4
⋅ τ
B
ω
u
3
⋅ i − τ
C
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
D
ω
u
⋅ i ⋅ + 1 + K
2
K
4
⋅ − K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 0i + =
Temperature transmitter: K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:= K
sp
K
T
:= H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
T
2
%TO
degC
=
Flow contriol loop: K
FC
f
max
f
min
−
100%TO
:= G
FC
s ( )
K
FC
τ
FC
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
FC
8 10
3 −
×
m
3
min %TO ⋅
=
From the results of Problem 47:
G
1
s ( )
K
2
K
3
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
4
⋅ −
= G
2
s ( )
K
1
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
4
⋅ −
=
where τ
1
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:= K
1
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:= K
2
U A ⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:= τ
1
13.77 min =
At the initial steady state (design) conditions: K
1
0.275 = K
2
0.725 =
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
i
T −
( )
⋅ U A ⋅ T T
c
−
( )
⋅ − 0 =
K
cu
τ
A
− ω
u
4
⋅ τ
C
ω
u
2
⋅ + 1 − K
2
K
4
⋅ +
K
L
:= K
cu
86.7 −
%CO
%TO
=
(c) Offset for change in inlet temperature with a proportional copntroller.
∆T
i
5degC := K
c
K
cu
2
:= K
c
43.3 −
%CO
%TO
=
Offset
K
sp
∆T
set
⋅ K
T
G
2
0 ( ) ⋅ ∆T
i
−
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
FC
⋅ G
1
0 ( ) ⋅ +
= Offset
0 K
T
K
1
⋅ ∆T
i
⋅ −
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ − K
T
K
c
⋅ K
FC
⋅ K
2
⋅ K
3
⋅ −
:=
Offset 0.18 − %TO =
Offset
K
T
0.09 − degC =
Openloop, K
c
= 0:
Offset 0
K
T
K
1
⋅ ∆T
i
⋅
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
− := Offset 4.44 − %TO =
With a PI controller the offset is zero.
Students should verify these results with the simulation of this process in Problem 1318.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
where
τ
A
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ := τ
B
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + :=
τ
A
2.505 min
4
=
τ
C
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ 1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
( )
⋅ τ
T
τ
1
⋅ + τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
1
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + :=
τ
B
30.228 min
3
=
τ
D
τ
T
τ
FC
+
( )
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
( )
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ := K
L
K
T
− K
FC
⋅ K
2
⋅ K
3
⋅ :=
τ
C
53.54 min
2
=
K
L
0.336 −
%TO
%CO
= τ
D
17.234 min =
Imaginary part:
τ
B
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
D
ω
u
⋅ + 0 = ω
u
τ
D
τ
B
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
8.32 min =
Real part:
τ
A
ω
u
4
⋅ τ
C
ω
u
2
⋅ − 1 + K
2
K
4
⋅ − K
L
K
cu
⋅ + 0 =
G 1.724 =
Use Eqs. 52.3 and 52.5, page 160.
Valve 1: y
1
1.63
C
f
p
1
p
2
−
p
1
14.7psia +
⋅ := y
1
1.187 =
C
v1max
200% f
1
⋅ G T 460R + ( ) ⋅ ⋅
836 C
f
⋅ p
1
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ y
1
0.148y
1
3
−

\

.
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
min R
0.5
scf ⋅
60min
hr
:= C
v1max
90.9
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required: C
v1max
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve 3: y
3
1.63
C
f
p
2
p
3
−
p
2
14.7psia +
⋅ := y
3
0.908 =
C
v3max
200% f
3
⋅ G T 460R + ( ) ⋅ ⋅
836 C
f
⋅ p
2
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ y
3
0.148y
3
3
−

\

.
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
min R
0.5
scf ⋅
60min
hr
:= C
v3max
62.6
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required: C
v3max
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve 4: From initial steady state conditions: f
4
f
1
f
3
− := f
4
1000
scf
min
=
y
4
1.63
C
f
p
2
p
4
−
p
2
14.7psia +
⋅ := y
4
1.284 =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition degF R := scf ft
3
:= psia psi :=
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Problem 620. Pressure control og gas torage tank.
PT
PC
vp
1
(t)
vp
3
(t)
vp
4
(t)
p
2
(t)
p
1
(t)
p
3
(t)
p
4
(t)
p
2
set
(t)
Problem Data:
MW 50
lb
lbmole
:=
V 550000ft
3
:= T 350degF :=
f
1
1500
scf
min
:= p
1
90psi :=
f
3
500
scf
min
:= p
3
30psig :=
p
2
45psig := p
4
15psig :=
Pressure transmitter PT:
p
min
0psig := p
max
100psig :=
(a) Size control valves for 100% overcapacity.
C
f
0.9 := G
MW lbmole ⋅
29lb
:=
ρ
s
0.132
lb
scf
=
Valve 1: f
1
t ( )
836 scf ⋅ R ⋅ min ⋅
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
1 hr ⋅
60 min ⋅
⋅
C
v1max
C
f
⋅ p
1
t ( ) 14.7 psia ⋅ +
( )
⋅
G T 460R + ( ) ⋅
⋅ y
1
t ( ) 0.148 y
1
t ( )
3
−

\

.
vp
1
t ( ) =
4 eqns. 6 unks. (y
1
)
y
1
t ( )
1.63
C
f
p
1
t ( ) p
2
t ( ) −
p
1
t ( ) 14.7psia +
⋅ =
Valve 3: f
3
t ( )
836 scf ⋅ R ⋅ min ⋅
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
1 hr ⋅
60 min ⋅
⋅
C
v3max
C
f
⋅ p
2
t ( ) 14.7 psia ⋅ +
( )
⋅
G T 460R + ( ) ⋅
⋅ y
3
t ( ) 0.148 y
3
t ( )
3
−

\

.
vp
3
t ( ) =
6 eqns. 7 unks. (y
3
)
y
3
t ( )
1.63
C
f
p
2
t ( ) p
3
t ( ) −
p
2
t ( ) 14.7psia +
⋅ =
Valve 4: f
4
t ( )
836 scf ⋅ R ⋅ min ⋅
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
1 hr ⋅
60 min ⋅
⋅
C
v4max
C
f
⋅ p
2
t ( ) 14.7 psia ⋅ +
( )
⋅
G T 460R + ( ) ⋅
⋅ y
4
t ( ) 0.148 y
4
t ( )
3
−

\

.
vp
4
t ( ) =
8 eqns. 8 unks. (y
4
)
y
4
t ( )
1.63
C
f
p
2
t ( ) p
4
t ( ) −
p
2
t ( ) 14.7psia +
⋅ =
Substitute ideal gas law:
MW V ⋅
R
g
T 460 R ⋅ + ( )ρ
s
⋅
d p
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
t ( ) f
3
t ( ) − f
4
t ( ) − =
Linearize and substitute deviation variables:
MW V ⋅
R
g
T 460 + ( ) ⋅ ρ
s
⋅
d P
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ a
1
VP
1
t ( ) ⋅ b
1
P
1
t ( ) ⋅ + c
1
P
2
t ( ) ⋅ − a
3
VP
3
t ( ) ⋅ − b
3
P
2
t ( ) ⋅ − c
3
P
3
t ( ) ⋅ + =
C
v4max
200% f
4
⋅ G T 460R + ( ) ⋅ ⋅
836 C
f
⋅ p
2
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ y
4
0.148y
4
3
−

\

.
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
min R
0.5
scf ⋅
60min
hr
:= C
v4max
102.9
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required: C
v4max
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
(c) Block diagram of the loop considering all disturbances.
Transmitter PT: H s ( ) K
T
= K
T
100%TO
p
max
p
min
−
:= K
sp
K
T
:= K
T
1
%TO
psi
=
Process model:
Mass balance: V
d ρ
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ
s
f
1
t ( ) ⋅ ρ
s
f
3
t ( ) ⋅ − ρ
s
f
4
t ( ) ⋅ − =
1 eqn. 4 unks. (ρ
2
, f
1
, f
2
, f
3
)
Ideal gas law: ρ
2
t ( )
MW p
2
t ( ) 14.7psia +
( )
⋅
R
g
T 460R + ( ) ⋅
=
2 eqns. 5 unks. (p
2
)
R
g
10.73
psia ft
3
⋅
lbmole R ⋅
⋅ :=
ρ
s
MW 14.7 ⋅ psia
R
g
520 ⋅ R
:=
k
y11
1.63
C
f
1
2
⋅
p
1
p
2
−
p
1
14.7 psia ⋅ +

\

.
0.5 −
⋅
p
1
14.7 psia ⋅ +
( )
p
1
p
2
−
( )
−
p
1
14.7psia +
( )
2
⋅ :=
b
1
δ f
1
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
1
⋅
= b
1
k
v
C
v1max
⋅ vp
1
⋅
100%CO
y
1
0.148 y
1
3
⋅ − p
1
14.7psia +
( )
1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
1
2
−

\

.
k
y11
+
:=
k
y11
0.00752 psia
1 −
= b
1
18.819
scf
min psi ⋅
=
k
y12
δ y
1
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
2
⋅
=
k
y12
1.63
C
f
1
2
⋅
p
1
p
2
−
p
1
14.7 psia ⋅ +

\

.
0.5 −
⋅
1 −
p
1
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ := k
y12
0.013 − psi
1 −
=
c
1
δ − f
1
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
2
⋅
= c
1
k
v
− C
v1max
⋅ vp
1
⋅
100%CO
p
1
14.7psia +
( )
1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
1
2
−

\

.
k
y12
:= c
1
7.878
scf
min psi ⋅
=
k
y32
δ y
3
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
2
⋅
= k
y32
1.63
C
f
1
2
⋅
p
2
p
3
−
p
2
14.7 psia ⋅ +

\

.
0.5 −
⋅
p
2
14.7 psia ⋅ +
( )
p
2
p
3
−
( )
−
p
2
14.7psia +
( )
2
⋅ :=
b
3
δ f
3
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
2
⋅
= b
3
k
v
C
v3max
⋅ vp
3
⋅
100%CO
y
3
0.148 y
3
3
⋅ − p
2
14.7psia +
( )
1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
3
2
−

\

.
k
y32
+
:=
k
y32
0.02266 psia
1 −
= b
3
17.387
scf
min psi ⋅
=
k
y33
δ y
3
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
3
⋅
=
k
y33
1.63
C
f
1
2
⋅
p
2
p
3
−
p
2
14.7 psia ⋅ +

\

.
0.5 −
⋅
1 −
p
2
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ := k
y33
0.03 − psi
1 −
=
a
4
− VP
4
t ( ) ⋅ b
4
P
2
t ( ) ⋅ − c
4
P
4
t ( ) ⋅ +
Let k
v
836scf R ⋅ min ⋅
gal psia ⋅ hr ⋅
hr
60min
C
f
G T 460R + ( ) ⋅
:= k
v
0.336
scf
gal psia ⋅
=
a
1
δ f
1
t ( ) ⋅
δ vp ⋅
= a
1
k
v
100%CO
C
v1max
⋅ p
1
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ y
1
0.148y
1
3
−

\

.
⋅ := a
1
36.312
scf
min %CO ⋅
=
a
3
δ f
3
t ( ) ⋅
δ vp ⋅
= a
3
k
v
100%CO
C
v3max
⋅ p
2
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ y
3
0.148y
3
3
−

\

.
⋅ := a
3
17.565
scf
min %CO ⋅
=
a
4
δ f
4
t ( ) ⋅
δ vp ⋅
= a
4
k
v
100%CO
C
v4max
⋅ p
2
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ y
4
0.148y
4
3
−

\

.
⋅ := a
4
21.39
scf
min %CO ⋅
=
Initial valve positions: vp
1
f
1
a
1
:= vp
3
f
3
a
3
:= vp
4
f
4
a
4
:= vp
1
41.3 %CO = vp
3
28.5 %CO =
vp
4
46.8 %CO =
k
y11
δ y
1
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
1
⋅
=
K
1
a
1
c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
:= K
3
a
3
c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
:=
K
4
a
4
c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
:= K
p1
b
1
c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
:= K
p3
c
3
c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
:= K
p4
c
4
c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
:=
τ 534.3 min = K
1
0.808
psig
%CO
= K
3
0.391
psi
%CO
= K
4
0.476
psi
%CO
=
K
p1
0.419 = K
p3
0.268 = K
p4
0.131 =
Process transfer function: Laplace transform:
P
2
s ( )
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K
1
VP
1
s ( ) ⋅ K
3
VP
3
s ( ) ⋅ − K
4
VP
4
s ( ) ⋅ − K
p1
P
1
s ( ) ⋅ + K
p3
P
3
s ( ) ⋅ + K
p4
P
4
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
=
The very long time constant, approximately 9 hours, denotes that the pressure in the tank behaves
as an integrating process. See discussion of controller tuning for integrating processes in Section
73.
Block diagram of the loop:
c
3
δ − f
3
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
3
⋅
= c
3
k
v
− C
v3max
⋅ vp
3
⋅
100%CO
p
2
14.7psia +
( )
1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
3
2
−

\

.
k
y33
:= c
3
12.036
scf
min psi ⋅
=
k
y42
δ y
4
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
2
⋅
= k
y42
1.63
C
f
1
2
⋅
p
2
p
4
−
p
2
14.7 psia ⋅ +

\

.
0.5 −
⋅
p
2
14.7 psia ⋅ +
( )
p
2
p
4
−
( )
−
p
2
14.7psia +
( )
2
⋅ :=
b
4
δ f
4
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
2
⋅
= b
4
k
v
C
v4max
⋅ vp
4
⋅
100%CO
y
4
0.148 y
4
3
⋅ − p
2
14.7psia +
( )
1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
4
2
−

\

.
k
y42
+
:=
k
y42
0.01065 psia
1 −
= b
4
19.691
scf
min psi ⋅
=
k
y44
δ y
4
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
4
⋅
=
k
y44
1.63
C
f
1
2
⋅
p
2
p
4
−
p
2
14.7 psia ⋅ +

\

.
0.5 −
⋅
1 −
p
2
14.7psia +
( )
⋅ := k
y44
0.021 − psi
1 −
=
c
4
δ − f
4
t ( ) ⋅
δ p
4
⋅
= c
4
k
v
− C
v4max
⋅ vp
4
⋅
100%CO
p
2
14.7psia +
( )
1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
4
2
−

\

.
k
y44
:= c
4
5.911
scf
min psi ⋅
=
Rearrange equation into standard firstorder form:
τ
d P
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ P
2
t ( ) + K
1
VP
1
t ( ) ⋅ K
3
VP
3
t ( ) ⋅ − K
4
VP
4
t ( ) ⋅ − K
p1
P
1
t ( ) ⋅ + K
p3
P
3
t ( ) ⋅ + K
p4
P
4
t ( ) ⋅ + =
where
τ
MW V ⋅
R
g
T 460R + ( ) ⋅ ρ
s
⋅ c
1
b
3
+ b
4
+
( )
⋅
:=
K
sp
G
c
(s) K
1
P
2
set
(s)
H(s)
P
2
(s)
VP
1
(s) E(s)
1
F
1
(s)
P
1
(s)
+


+
Js + 1
K
3
VP
3
(s)
K
4
VP
4
(s)
K
p1

+
K
p3
K
p4
P
4
(s)
P
3
(s)
+
+
(c) Ultimate gain. The response of the loop cannot be unstable with a proportional controller
with positive gain because the loop transfer function is firstorder. There is no
ultimate gain. The controller is reverse acting: increasing tank pressure
decreases the controller output to close the control valve and decrease the
inlet flow. This decreases the pressure in the tank.
The valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overpressuring the tank on
instrument power failure.
(d) Offset for a proportinal controller and a change in set point. ∆p
2set
5psi :=
K
c
50
%CO
%TO
:=
Offset
K
sp
∆p
2set
⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:= Offset 0.121 %TO =
Offset
K
T
0.121 psi =
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is unlawful.
X
B
0 ( ) 0 = W
B
t ( ) w X
B
t ( ) ⋅ − x
B
W
A
t ( ) W
B
t ( ) +
( )
⋅ − M
d X
B
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ =
Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables:
(b) Linearize the equations, transfer functions and block diagram:
2 eqns. 2 unks. (w, x
B
)
w
B
t ( ) w t ( ) x
B
t ( ) ⋅ − M
d x
B
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ = Mass balance on component B:
w t ( ) w
A
t ( ) w
B
t ( ) + = w
A
t ( ) w
B
t ( ) + w t ( ) −
d M ⋅
dt
= 0 = Total mass balance:
Assumptions:
Perfectly mixed •
Constant mass and density •
Negligible transportation lag •
Inlet streams are pure A and B, respectively •
(a) Model of the composition control loop
Range is C
L
to C
H
.
C t ( )
β
x
B
t ( )
mho
m
= Analyzer AT measures solution conductivity:
q t ( ) q
max
m t ( ) ⋅ = w
B
t ( ) K
v2
vp
2
t ( ) ⋅ = w
A
t ( ) K
v1
vp
1
t ( ) ⋅ = Problem Data:
AT
AC
TT
TC
w
A
(t)
w
B
(t)
T
A
(t)
T
B
(t)
vp
1
(t)
vp
2
(t)
m
2
(t)
m(t)
x
B
(t)
T(t)
b(t)
Problem 621. Temperature and analysis control of a heated mixer.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Assumptions:
perfectly mixed •
constant mass and physical properties •
(c) Model of the temperature control loop
(negative set point scale) K
sp
K
T
=
If the control valve is airtoopen, the controller must be direct acting, because of the negative
gain in the transmitter: Increasing composition decreases the signal from the transmitter; the
controller decreases the signal to the valve; this closes the valve and reduces the flow of
component B, decreasing the composition. Notice also that
K
sp
G
AC
(s)
K
v2
K
B
X
B
set
(s)
H(s)
X
B
(s) M
2
(s) E(s)
1
+


Js + 1
VP
1
(s)
+
+
K
v1
K
A
100
Block diagram of the composition loop:
W
B
s ( ) K
v2
VP
2
s ( ) ⋅ =
K
v2
100%CO
M
2
s ( ) = W
A
s ( ) K
v1
VP
1
s ( ) ⋅ = Control valves:
H s ( ) K
AT
=
100 − %TO β ⋅
C
H
C
L
−
( )
x
B
2
= B t ( )
100%TO
C
H
C
L
−
β −
x
B
2

\

.
X
B
t ( ) = Linearize:
b t ( )
C t ( ) C
L
−
C
H
C
L
−
100%TO =
100%TO
C
H
C
L
−
β
x
B
t ( )
C
L
−

\

.
= Transmitter:
X
B
s ( )
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K
B
W
B
s ( ) ⋅ K
A
W
A
s ( ) ⋅ −
( )
= Laplace transform and solve for output:
τ
d X
B
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ X
B
+ K
B
W
B
t ( ) ⋅ K
A
W
A
t ( ) ⋅ − = K
B
1 x
B
−
w
= K
A
x
B
w
= τ
M
w
= Let
M
w
d X
B
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ X
B
t ( ) +
1 x
B
−
w
W
B
t ( )
x
B
w
W
A
t ( ) − = Rearrange in the standard firstorder form:
Block diagram of the loop:
The controller is reverse acting: increasing temperature decreases the controller output, decresing
the rate of heat input. This decreases the temperature.
H s ( ) K
TT
=
100%TO
T
H
.L −
=
Temperature transmitter TT:
Q s ( )
q
max
100%CO
M s ( ) =
Electric heater:
K
5
w
B
w
= K
4
w
A
w
= K
3
1
w c
p
⋅
= K
2
T
B
T −
w
= K
1
T
A
T −
w
= τ
M
w
=
Γ s ( )
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K
1
W
A
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
W
B
s ( ) ⋅ + K
3
Q s ( ) ⋅ + K
4
Γ
A
s ( ) ⋅ + K
5
Γ
B
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
=
Laplace transform:
Γ 0 ( ) 0 =
M
w
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ t ( ) +
T
A
T −
( )
w
W
A
t ( )
T
B
T −
( )
w
W
B
t ( ) +
1
w c
p
⋅
Q t ( ) +
w
A
w
Γ
A
t ( ) +
w
B
w
Γ
B
t ( ) + =
Rearrange into the standard firstoder equation form:
w
B
c
p
⋅ Γ
B
t ( ) ⋅ + w
A
w
B
+
( )
c
p
⋅ Γ t ( ) ⋅ −
M c
p
⋅
d Γ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ c
p
T
A
T −
( )
⋅ W
A
t ( ) c
p
T
B
T
A
−
( )
⋅ W
B
t ( ) ⋅ + Q t ( ) + w
A
c
p
⋅ Γ
A
t ( ) ⋅ + =
Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables:
(d) Linearize the equation, transfer functions, block diagram.
M c
p
⋅
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ w
A
t ( ) c
p
⋅ T
A
t ( ) T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ w
B
t ( ) c
p
⋅ T
B
t ( ) T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + q t ( ) + =
c
p
c
pA
= c
pB
= c
v
=
Assume
w t ( ) w
A
t ( ) w
B
t ( ) + =
Substitute
1 eqn. 1 unk. (T)
M c
v
⋅
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ w
A
t ( ) c
pA
⋅ T
A
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ w
B
t ( ) c
pB
⋅ T
B
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ + q t ( ) + w t ( ) c
p
⋅ T t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ − =
Energy balance:
negligible heat losses and ransportantioon lag •
K
sp
G
TC
(s)
q
max
K
3
'
set
(s)
H(s)
M(s) E(s)
1
+

Js + 1
VP
2
(s)
+
+
K
v2
K
2
100
'(s)
VP
1
(s)
K
v1
K
1
K
4
K
5
'
A
(s)
'
B
(s)
+
+
+
(e) Characteristic equations of the control loops.
Analyzer control loop:
1 K
AT
G
AC
s ( ) ⋅
K
v2
100%CO
⋅
K
B
τ s ⋅ 1 +
⋅ + 1
100 − %TO β ⋅
C
H
C
L
−
( )
x
B
2
G
AC
s ( )
K
v2
100%CO
1 x
B
−
( )
w τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ + = 0 =
Temperature control loop:
1 K
TT
G
TC
s ( ) ⋅
q
max
100%CO
⋅
K
3
τ s ⋅ 1 +
⋅ + 1
100%TO
T
H
T
L
−
G
TC
s ( )
q
max
100%CO
⋅
1
w c
p
⋅ τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅ + = 0 =
For both loops: τ
M
w
=
There is no ultimate gain for either loop because they are firstorder when a proportional controller
is used. The loops cannot be made unstable as long as the controller gains have the proper sign.
In practice there will be lags on the transmitter and final control elements and there will be an
ultimate gain and period.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
f
i
50
gal
min
:= f
A
50
gal
min
:=
(a) Size the control valve for 100% overcapacity.
G
ρ
A
MW
A
⋅ gal ⋅
8.33lb
:= C
vmax
200% f
A
⋅
G
∆p
v
⋅ := C
vmax
77.475
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required. C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve gain: K
v
C
vmax
100%CO
∆p
v
G
⋅ := K
v
1.42
gal
min %CO ⋅
=
The valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the reactors on loss of instrument power.
(b) Model of the reactors.
Assumptions:
Perfectly mixed reactors •
Constant volume, temperatures, and physical properties. •
Negligible transportation lags. •
ρ
A
ρ
i
= ρ =
Total mass balance: ρ f t ( ) ⋅ ρ
A
f
A
t ( ) ⋅ ρ
i
f
i
t ( ) ⋅ + = 1 eqn. 1 unk. (f)
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 622. Control of reactors in series.
LT
LC
AT
AC
f
i
(t)
c
Ai
(t)
c
A1
(t)
c
A2
set
(t)
V
V
c
A2
(t)
D
A
f
A
(t)
Problem Data:
V 500gal := k
1
0.25min
1 −
:=
ρ
A
2
lbmole
gal
:= k
2
0.50min
1 −
:=
MW
A
25
lb
lbmole
:=
Control valve, linear, sized for
100% overcapacity.
∆p
v
10psi :=
Analyzer transmitter:
c
AL
0.05
lbmole
gal
:=
c
AH
0.5
lbmole
gal
:= τ
T
0.5min :=
Design conditions: c
Ai
0.8
lbmole
gal
:=
τ
2
d C
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
A2
t ( ) + K
4
F
A
t ( ) ⋅ K
4
F
i
t ( ) ⋅ + K
5
C
A1
t ( ) ⋅ + = C
A2
0 ( ) 0 =
where τ
1
V
f V k
1
⋅ +
:= K
1
ρ
A
c
A1
−
f V k
1
⋅ +
:= K
2
c
Ai
c
A1
−
f V k
1
⋅ +
:= K
3
f
i
f V k
1
⋅ +
:=
τ
2
V
f V k
2
⋅ +
:= K
4
c
A1
c
A2
−
f V k
2
⋅ +
:= K
5
f
f V k
2
⋅ +
:=
τ
1
2.222 min = K
1
0.006123
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
= K
2
0.00079
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
= K
3
0.222 =
τ
2
1.429 min = K
4
0.00127
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
= K
5
0.286 =
Laplace transform:
C
A1
s ( )
K
1
F
A
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
F
i
s ( ) ⋅ + K
3
C
Ai
s ( ) ⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Reactant balances:
Reactor 1: V
d c
A1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ
A
f
A
t ( ) ⋅ f
i
t ( ) c
Ai
t ( ) ⋅ + V k
1
⋅ c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ − f t ( ) c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ − =
2 eqns. 2
unks. (c
A1
) Reactor 2:
V
d c
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f t ( ) c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ − V k
2
⋅ c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ − =
3 eqns. 3 unks. (c
A2
)
At the initial steady state: f f
A
f
i
+ := c
A1
ρ
A
f
A
⋅ f
i
c
Ai
⋅ +
f V k
1
⋅ +
:=
f 100
gal
min
=
c
A2
f c
A1
⋅
f V k
2
⋅ +
:= c
A1
0.622
lbmole
gal
= c
A2
0.178
lbmole
gal
=
(c) Linearize the model equations and obtain the block diagram.
Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables:
V
d C
A1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ
A
F
A
t ( ) ⋅ c
Ai
F
i
t ( ) ⋅ + f
i
C
Ai
t ( ) ⋅ + V k
1
⋅ f +
( )
C
A1
t ( ) − c
A1
F
A
t ( ) F
i
t ( ) +
( )
⋅ − =
V
d C
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ c
A1
c
A2
−
( )
F
A
t ( ) F
i
t ( ) +
( )
⋅ f C
A1
t ( ) ⋅ + f V k
2
⋅ +
( )
C
A2
t ( ) − =
Rearrange in the standard firstorder form:
τ
1
d C
A1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ C
A1
t ( ) + K
1
F
A
t ( ) ⋅ K
2
F
i
t ( ) ⋅ + K
3
C
Ai
t ( ) ⋅ + = C
A1
0 ( ) 0 =
C
A2
s ( )
C
Ai
s ( )
G
3
s ( )
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ G
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
=
C
A2
s ( )
F
i
s ( )
G
2
s ( )
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ G
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
=
C
A2
s ( )
C
A2
set
s ( ) ⋅
K
sp
G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ G
1
s ( ) ⋅
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ G
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
=
K
sp
K
T
:= (d) Closedloop transfer functions.
K
T
222
%TO gal ⋅
lbmole
= K
T
100%TO
c
AH
c
AL
−
:= H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= Transmitter: G
v
s ( ) K
v
= Control valve:
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
C
A2
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H(s)
C
A2
(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
1
(s)
F
A
(s)
F
i
(s)
+

+
+
G
3
(s)
C
Ai
(s)
+
Block diagram:
G
3
s ( )
K
5
K
3
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
= G
2
s ( )
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
2
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
= G
1
s ( )
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
1
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
where
C
A2
s ( ) G
1
s ( ) F
A
s ( ) ⋅ G
2
s ( ) F
i
s ( ) ⋅ + G
3
s ( ) C
Ai
s ( ) ⋅ + =
C
A2
s ( )
K
4
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
F
A
s ( ) F
i
s ( ) +
( )
K
5
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
K
1
F
A
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
F
i
s ( ) ⋅ + K
3
C
Ai
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
+ =
Combine to obtain overall transfer function:
C
A2
s ( )
K
4
F
A
s ( ) ⋅ K
4
F
i
s ( ) ⋅ + K
5
C
A1
s ( ) ⋅ +
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The imaginary value of the ultimate frequency means that there is no ultimate gain, that is, the loop
is stable for all positive values of the gain. This is because the net order of the process is onetwo
poles and one zeroand, with the lag in the transmitter, the order is two. An order of at least three
is needed to have an ultimate gain.
The controller is reverse acting: increasing reactants composition decreases the controller output,
closing the reactant feed valve; this decreases the reactants flow and the composition of reactants.
ω
u
1.021i min
1 −
=
ω
u
τ
D
K
p
τ
C
⋅ −
τ
D
τ
B
⋅ τ
A
K
p
⋅ −
:= τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
C
τ
D
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 −
K
p
⋅ +

\

.
ω
u
+ 0 =
Imaginary part:
K
cu
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 −
K
p
= τ
B
− ω
u
2
⋅ 1 + K
p
K
cu
⋅ + 0 =
Real part:
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
C
τ
D
K
cu
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
i ⋅ + 1 + K
p
K
cu
⋅ + 0 0 i ⋅ + =
Substitute s = ω
u
i at K
c
= K
cu
K
p
0.953 = τ
D
0.89 min =
τ
C
4.151 min = τ
B
5 min
2
= K
p
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
4
K
5
K
1
⋅ +
( )
⋅ := τ
D
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
4
⋅ τ
1
⋅ :=
τ
A
1.587 min
3
= τ
C
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
T
+ := τ
B
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + := τ
A
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ :=
Let
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
1
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅ + 0 =
Characteristic equation:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Proportional controller: (e) Ultimate gain and period of the loop.
Substitute and simplify:
3 eqns. 3 unks.
f f
1
f
2
+ = ρ f
1
⋅ ρ f
2
⋅ + ρ f ⋅ = Total mass balance on tank 1:
2 eqns. 3 unks. (T
4
)
V
2
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
d T
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ λ w
s
t ( ) ⋅ + f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
4
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ − =
1 eqn. 2 unks. (f, T
3
) f − ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ Tank 2:
V
1
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
1
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ f
2
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
2
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ + U A ⋅ T
c1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
Energy balances, Tank 1:
Assumptions:
Constant volumes in the tanks •
Each tank is perfectly mixed •
Negligible heat losses •
Heating coil temperature T
c1
is uniform (high flow of heating fluid) •
Constant and uniform densities and specific heats •
Negligible transportation lag. •
Model the process.
TT
TC
f
2
T
2
(t)
T
4
set
(t)
f
1
T
1
(t)
T
c1
(t)
T
3
(t)
T
4
(t)
Steam
Cond.
f
f
Problem 623. Temperature control of two heaters in series.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
= Control valve:
G
4
s ( )
K
4
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
=
G
3
s ( )
K
3
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
= G
2
s ( )
K
2
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
= G
1
s ( )
K
1
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
Γ
4
s ( ) G
1
s ( ) Γ
1
s ( ) G
2
s ( ) Γ
2
s ( ) + G
3
s ( ) Γ
c1
s ( ) + G
4
s ( ) W s ( ) ⋅ + =
Γ
4
s ( )
Γ
3
s ( ) K
4
W s ( ) ⋅ +
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
= Γ
3
s ( )
K
1
Γ
1
S ( ) ⋅ K
2
Γ
2
s ( ) ⋅ + K
3
Γ
c1
s ( ) ⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Laplace transform and solve for the outputs:
K
4
λ
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
= τ
2
V
2
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
=
K
2
f
2
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
= K
1
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:= τ
1
V
1
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
= where
K
3
U A ⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
:=
Γ
4
0 ( ) 0 = τ
2
d Γ
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ
4
t ( ) + Γ
3
t ( ) K
4
W s ( ) ⋅ + =
Γ
3
0 ( ) 0 = τ
1
d Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ
3
t ( ) + K
1
Γ
1
t ( ) ⋅ K
2
Γ
2
t ( ) ⋅ + K
3
Γ
c1
t ( ) ⋅ + =
Rearrange into firstorder standard form:
V
2
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d Γ
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅ λ W s ( ) ⋅ + f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ Γ
4
s ( ) ⋅ − =
V
1
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ Γ
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ Γ
2
t ( ) ⋅ + U A ⋅ Γ
c1
t ( ) ⋅ + f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A ⋅ +
( )
Γ
3
t ( ) − =
Linearize and express in terms of the deviation variables:
V
2
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d T
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
t ( ) T
4
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ λ w
s
t ( ) ⋅ + =
V
1
ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ f
2
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
2
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + U A ⋅ T
c1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
Temperature transmitter TT: H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
T
100%TO
T
H
T
L
−
= K
sp
K
T
=
Block Diagram:
K
sp
G
c
(s) G
v
(s)
'
4
set
(s)
G
1
(s)
H(s)
M(s) E(s)
G
4
(s)
W(s)
+

+
+
G
2
(s)
+
G
3
(s)
'
2
(s)
'
c1
(s)
'
1
(s)
'
4
(s)
+
Characteristic equation of the loop.
1 H s ( ) G
c
s ( ) ⋅ G
v
s ( ) ⋅ G
4
s ( ) ⋅ + 1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
G
c
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
K
4
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅ + = 0 =
τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ s
3
⋅ τ
T
τ
v
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
v
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
s
2
⋅ + τ
T
τ
v
+ τ
2
+
( )
s ⋅ + 1 + K
T
K
v
⋅ K
4
⋅ G
c
s ( ) ⋅ + 0 =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
(20 BWG) L 974ft := w
m
0.178
lb
ft
:= c
pm
0.12
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:=
A
o
π D
o
⋅ L ⋅ := A
o
127.5 ft
2
= C
M
w
m
L ⋅ c
pm
⋅ := C
M
20.805
BTU
degF
=
Level transmitter: h
L
7ft := h
H
10ft := τ
LT
0.01min :=
Temperature transmitter: T
L
100degF := T
H
300degF := τ
TT
0.5min :=
(a) Size control valves for 50% overcapacity.
Assume
Perfectly mixed tank •
Constant and uniform densities, specific heats, and steam latent heat •
The metal is at the same temperature as the condensing steam •
Negligible heat losses and transpotation lags •
Constant pressure drop across the steam valve. •
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 624. Temperature and level control of oil heater.
LT
LC
vp
2
(t)
T
3
set
(t)
f
s
(t)
T
1
(t)
T
3
(t)
h
set
(t)
Steam
Condensate
3 ft
h(t)
TT
TC
p
1
(t)
p
2
= 40 psia
5 ft
N
2
AO AO
T
p
3
(t)
Problem Data: ρ 53
lb
ft
3
:= c
p
0.45
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= T
1
70degF := T
3
200degF := D 3ft :=
Steam, saturated at 115 psig (130 psia). from steam tables: T
s1
347degF := λ
s
873
BTU
lb
:=
p
2
40psia := p
1
45psig := p
3
15psig := U 136
BTU
hr ft
2
degF ⋅
:=
f
1
100
gal
min
:=
Heating coil: D
o
0.5in :=
C
v2max
37.7
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 2in valve is required.
C
v2max
46
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Size steam valve:
p
s1
130psia := G
18
29
:= G 0.621 =
Assume
C
f
0.9 :=
y
1.63
C
f
p
s1
p
s
−
p
s1
⋅ := y 0.42 = f
s
w
s
18lb
380scf
60min
hr
⋅ := f
s
60138
scf
hr
=
C
vsmax
150 % ⋅ f
s
⋅ G T
s1
460 R ⋅ +
( )
⋅ ⋅
C
f
p
s1
⋅ y 0.148 y
3
⋅ −
( )
⋅
gal hr ⋅
836 min ⋅ scf ⋅
psia
R
⋅ := C
vsmax
50.4
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required.
C
vsmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
(b) Block diagram of the level control loop.
Mass balance:
π D
2
⋅
4
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅ ρ ⋅
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ f
1
t ( ) ⋅ ρ f
3
t ( ) ⋅ − =
1 eqn. 3 unks. (h, f
1
, f
3
)
Valves:
f
1
t ( ) C
v1max
vp
1
t ( ) ⋅
1
G
f
p
1
t ( ) p
2
− ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) 5 ft ⋅ − ( ) ⋅
ft
12 in ⋅

\

.
2
⋅ −
⋅ ⋅ =
At the initial steady state:
f
3
f
1
:= f
1
− ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
T
1
−
( )
⋅ w
s
λ
s
⋅ + 0 =
w
s
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
T
1
−
( )
⋅
λ
s
:= w
s
47.5
lb
min
=
w
s
λ
s
⋅ U A
o
⋅ T
s
T
3
−
( )
⋅ − 0 = T
s
T
3
w
s
λ
s
⋅
U A
o
⋅
+ := T
s
343.4 degF = p
s
123psia :=
(steam tables)
Size inlet oil valve:
Assume initially the level is at 50% of the level transmitter range:
h
h
H
h
L
+
2
:=
∆p
v1
p
1
14.7psia + p
2
− ρ g ⋅ h 5ft − ( ) ⋅
ft
12in

\

.
2
⋅ − :=
h 8.5ft = ∆p
v1
18.41 psi =
G
f
ρ ft
3
⋅
62.4lb
:=
C
v1max
150% f
1
⋅
G
f
∆p
v1
⋅ := C
v1max
32.2
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required.
C
v1max
46
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Size exit oil valve:
∆p
v2
p
2
ρ g ⋅ h ⋅
ft
12in

\

.
2
⋅ + p
3
14.7psia +
( )
− := ∆p
v2
13.43 psi =
C
v2max
150% f
3
⋅
G
f
∆p
v2
⋅ :=
a
1
2.716
gal
min psi ⋅
= a
2
3.723
gal
min psi ⋅
= a
3
1
gal
min ft ⋅
= a
4
1.37
gal
min ft ⋅
=
Rearrange model equation in standrd firstoder form:
τ
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ H t ( ) + K
1
VP
1
t ( ) ⋅ K
2
VP
2
t ( ) ⋅ − K
3
P
1
t ( ) ⋅ + K
4
P
3
t ( ) ⋅ + = H 0 ( ) 0 =
where
τ
πD
2
4
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅
1
a
3
a
4
+
:= K
1
f
1max
a
3
a
4
+
:= K
2
f
3max
a
3
a
4
+
:= K
3
a
1
a
3
a
4
+
:= K
4
a
2
a
3
a
4
+
:=
τ 22.31 min = K
1
90.4 ft = K
2
77.2 ft = K
3
1.146
ft
psi
= K
4
1.571
ft
psi
=
Laplace transform:
H s ( )
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
K
1
VP
1
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
VP
2
s ( ) ⋅ − K
3
P
1
s ( ) ⋅ + K
4
P
3
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
=
2 eqns. 3 unks.
f
3
t ( ) C
v2max
vp
2
t ( ) ⋅
1
G
f
p
2
p
3
t ( ) − ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅
ft
12 in ⋅

\

.
2
⋅ +
⋅ ⋅ =
3 eqns. 3 unks.
f
1max
C
v1max
∆p
v1
G
f
⋅ := f
3max
C
v2max
∆p
v2
G
f
⋅ := f
1max
214.2
gal
min
= f
3max
182.9
gal
min
=
Linearize the model equations and express in terms of deviation variables:
π D
2
⋅
4
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1max
VP
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
3max
VP
2
t ( ) ⋅ − a
1
P
1
t ( ) ⋅ + a
3
H t ( ) ⋅ − a
2
P
3
t ( ) ⋅ + a
4
H t ( ) ⋅ − =
where
a
1
δf
1
t ( )
δp
1
= a
2
δf
3
t ( ) −
δp
3
= a
3
δf
1
t ( ) −
δh
= a
4
δf
3
t ( )
δh
=
vp
1
f
1
f
1max
:= vp
2
f
3
f
3max
:= vp
1
0.467 = vp
2
0.547 =
a
1
C
v1max
vp
1
⋅
1
2
⋅
1
G
f
∆p
v1
⋅
⋅ := a
2
C
v2max
− vp
2
⋅
1
2
⋅
1
G
f
∆p
v2
⋅
⋅ 1 − ( ) ⋅ :=
a
3
C
v1max
− vp
1
⋅
1
2
⋅
1
G
f
∆p
v1
⋅
⋅ ρ − g ⋅
ft
2
144 in
2
⋅
⋅

\

.
⋅ := a
4
C
v2max
vp
2
⋅
1
2
⋅
1
G
f
∆p
v2
⋅
⋅ ρ g ⋅
ft
2
144 in
2
⋅
⋅

\

.
⋅ :=
2 eqns. 3 nks. (w
s
)
2 eqns. 3 unks. (w
s
)
C
M
d T
s
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ λ
s
w
s
t ( ) ⋅ U A
o
⋅ T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ − =
Energy balance on steam chest:
1 eqn. 2 unks. (T
3
, T
s
)
f
3
t ( ) − ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
3
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅
πD
2
4
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅ ρ c
v
⋅
d
dt
⋅ h t ( ) T
3
t ( ) ⋅
( )
f
1
t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
1
t ( ) T
ref
−
( )
⋅ U A
o
⋅ T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
Energy balance on tank:
(c) Block diagram and characteristic equation of the temperature control loop.
K
Lc
K
1
R(s)
K
2
H
LT
(s)
M
1
(s) E(s)
Js + 1
+

+

K
3
+
K
4
P
1
(s)
P
3
(s)
VP
2
(s)
H(s)
+
100
1
Block diagram of the level control loop:
G
Lc
s ( ) K
Lc
=
Proportional controller, LC:
The controller is reverse acting: increasing level
decreases the controller output closing the valve
and decreasing the inlet flow.
K
LT
33.33
%TO
ft
= K
LT
100%TO
h
H
h
L
−
:= H
LT
s ( )
K
LT
τ
LT
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Level transmitter LT:
VP
1
s ( )
1
100%CO
M
1
s ( ) =
Level control valve:
τ
1
d Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ
3
t ( ) + K
1
− F
1
t ( ) ⋅ K
2
Γ
1
t ( ) ⋅ + K
3
Γ
s
t ( ) ⋅ + =
τ
2
d Γ
s
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ Γ
s
t ( ) + K
4
W
s
t ( ) ⋅ Γ
3
t ( ) + =
where
τ
1
V ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A
o
⋅ +
:= K
1
ρ − c
p
⋅ T
1
T
3
−
( )
⋅
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A
o
⋅ +
:= K
2
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A
o
⋅ +
:= K
3
U A
o
⋅
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ U A
o
⋅ +
:=
τ
2
C
M
U A
o
⋅
:= K
4
λ
s
U A
o
⋅
:=
τ
1
2.357 min = τ
2
0.072 min = K
1
0.682
degF min ⋅
gal
=
K
2
0.525 = K
3
0.475 = K
4
3.021
degF min ⋅
lb
=
Laplace transform:
Γ
3
s ( )
K
1
− F
1
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
Γ
1
s ( ) ⋅ + K
3
Γ
s
s ( ) ⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
= Γ
s
s ( )
K
4
W
s
s ( ) ⋅ Γ
3
s ( ) +
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Steam valve:
w
s
t ( )
836 scf ⋅ min ⋅
hr gal ⋅
R
psia
⋅
hr
60 min ⋅
⋅
18 lb ⋅
380 scf ⋅
⋅
C
vsmax
vp
s
t ( ) ⋅ C
f
⋅ p
s1
⋅ y 0.148 y
3
⋅ −
( )
⋅
G T
s1
460R +
( )
⋅
⋅ =
3 eqns. 3 unks.
Let
w
smax
836 scf ⋅ min ⋅
hr gal ⋅
R
psia
⋅
hr
60 min ⋅
⋅
18 lb ⋅
380 scf ⋅
⋅
C
vsmax
C
f
⋅ p
s1
⋅ y 0.148 y
3
⋅ −
( )
⋅
G T
s1
460R +
( )
⋅
⋅ :=
w
smax
155.3
lb
min
=
Substitute mass balance into energy balance and simplify:
π D
2
⋅
4
7.48 gal ⋅
ft
3
⋅ ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅ h t ( ) ⋅
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
t ( ) ρ c
p
⋅ T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ U A
o
⋅ T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
w
s
t ( ) w
smax
vp
s
t ( ) ⋅ =
Linearize the equations: Let
V
πD
2
4
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅ h ⋅ := V 449.4 gal =
Assume
c
v
c
p
:=
V ρ ⋅ c
v
⋅
d Γ
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ c
p
⋅ T
1
T
3
−
( )
⋅ F
1
t ( ) f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ Γ
1
t ( ) Γ
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + U A
o
⋅ Γ
s
t ( ) Γ
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
C
M
d Γ
s
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ λ
s
W
s
t ( ) ⋅ U A
o
⋅ Γ
s
t ( ) Γ
3
t ( ) −
(
⋅ − = Γ
3
0 ( ) 0 = Γ
s
0 ( ) 0 =
Rearrange into standard firstorder form:
Characteristic equation:
K
sp
G
Tc
(s)
f
1max
'
3
set
(s)
G
2
(s)
H
TT
(s)
M
s
(s) E(s)
G
3
(s)
W
s
(s)
+

+
+
G
1
(s)

a
1
F
1
(s) P
1
(s)
'
1
(s)
'
3
(s)
+
100
M
1
(s)
a
3
H(s)
100
w
smax
+

Block diagram of the temperature control loop:
a
3
1
gal
min ft ⋅
= a
1
2.716
gal
min psi ⋅
=
f
1max
100%CO
2.142
gal
min %CO ⋅
= F
1
s ( )
f
1max
100%CO
M
1
s ( ) a
1
P
1
s ( ) ⋅ + a
3
H s ( ) ⋅ − =
Inlet flow:
G
Tc
s ( ) K
Tc
1
1
τ
IT
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
τ
DT
s ⋅ 1 +
α
D
τ
DT
⋅ s ⋅ 1 +

\

.
=
PID controller:
K
TT
0.5
%TO
degF
= K
TT
100%TO
T
H
T
L
−
:= H
TT
s ( )
K
TT
τ
TT
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Temperature transmitter TT:
w
smax
100%CO
1.553
lb
min %CO ⋅
= W
s
s ( )
w
smax
100%CO
M
s
s ( ) =
Steam control valve:
G
3
s ( )
K
3
K
4
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
3
−
=
G
2
s ( )
K
2
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
3
−
= G
1
s ( )
K
1
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
3
−
=
where
Γ
3
s ( ) G
1
s ( ) − F
1
s ( ) ⋅ G
2
s ( ) Γ
1
s ( ) + G
3
s ( ) W
s
s ( ) ⋅ + =
Combine:
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Compare these results with the simulation of this process in Problem 1324.
K
cu
38.9
%CO
%TO
= K
cu
K
3
1 − τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ +
K
p
:=
τ
B
− ω
u
2
⋅ 1 + K
3
− K
p
K
cu
⋅ + 0 =
Real part:
T
u
1.069 min = T
u
2π
ω
u
:= ω
u
τ
C
τ
A
:= τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
C
ω
u
⋅ + 0 =
Imaginary part:
K
p
1.116
%TO
%CO
=
τ
C
2.692 min = τ
B
1.384 min
2
= τ
A
0.085 min
3
= K
p
K
TT
w
smax
100%CO
⋅ K
3
K
4
⋅ :=
τ
C
τ
TT
1 K
3
−
( )
⋅ τ
1
+ τ
2
+ := τ
B
τ
TT
τ
1
⋅ τ
TT
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + := τ
A
τ
TT
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ := where
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ i ⋅ τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
C
ω
u
⋅ i ⋅ + 1 + K
3
− K
p
K
cu
⋅ + 0 0 i ⋅ + =
Substitute s = ω
u
i at K
Tc
= K
cu
:
G
Tc
s ( ) K
Tc
=
Proportional controller:
(d) Ultimate gain nad period of the temperature control loop.
1 H
TT
s ( ) G
Tc
s ( )
w
smax
100%CO
⋅ G
3
s ( ) + 1
K
TT
τ
TT
s ⋅ 1 +
G
Tc
s ( )
w
smax
100%CO
⋅
K
3
K
4
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
3
−
+ = 0 =
3 eqns. 4 unks. f
1
t ( ) C
v1
ρ
w
g ⋅ h
1
t ( ) ⋅
ft
12in

\

.
2
⋅ ⋅ = k
v1
h
1
t ( ) ⋅ = Valves:
2 eqns. 4 unks. (h
2
, f
2
)
π D
2
2
⋅
4
ρ ⋅
d h
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ f
1
t ( ) ⋅ ρ f
2
t ( ) ⋅ − = tank 2:
1 eqn. 2 unks. (h
1
, f
1
)
π D
1
2
⋅
4
ρ ⋅
d h
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ f
i
t ( ) ⋅ ρ f
3
t ( ) ⋅ + ρ f
o
t ( ) ⋅ − ρ f
1
t ( ) ⋅ − = Mass balance, tank 1:
Assume
constant and uniform densities •
constant valve positions and inlet valve pressures •
(a) Block diagram and transfer functions of level control loop.
H
LT
s ( ) K
T
=
100%TO
h
max
= Level transmitter LT has negligible time constant:
K
v
C
v3
∆p
v3
G
f
⋅ = G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Linear control valve with constant pressure drop
and time constant:
F
o
s ( )
f
max
100%CO
1
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
M
1
s ( ) = Linear pump with a time constant:
LT
LC
f
1
(t)
.f
i
(t)
h
2
(t)
.f
3
(t)
f
o
(t)
h
1
(t)
f
2
(t)
.m
1
(t)
Problem 625. Level control of two tanks in series.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
K
Lc
G
v
(s)
R(s)
K
T
M
1
(s) E(s)
(J
1
s+1)(J
2
s+1)
+

+

.f
max
+
M
1
(s)
F
o
(s)
H
2
(s)
K
1
K
2
100(J
p
s+1)
F
i
(s)
F
3
(s)
Block diagram of the level control loop:
H
2
s ( )
K
2
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
H
1
s ( ) =
K
1
K
2
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
F
i
s ( ) F
3
s ( ) + F
o
s ( ) −
( )
=
H
1
s ( )
K
1
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
F
i
s ( ) F
3
s ( ) + F
o
s ( ) −
( )
=
Laplace transform:
K
2
k
v1
k
v2
h
2
h
1
⋅ = τ
2
π D
2
2
⋅ h
2
⋅
2 k
v2
⋅
= K
1
2 h
1
⋅
k
v1
= τ
1
π D
1
2
⋅ h
1
⋅
2 k
v1
⋅
=
where
τ
2
d H
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ H
2
t ( ) + K
2
H
1
t ( ) ⋅ =
τ
1
d H
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ H
1
t ( ) + K
1
F
i
t ( ) ⋅ K
1
F
3
t ( ) ⋅ + K
1
F
o
t ( ) ⋅ − =
Rearrangle into the standard firstorder form:
H
2
0 ( ) 0 =
π D
2
2
⋅
4
d H
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅
k
v1
2 h
1
⋅
H
1
t ( )
k
v2
2 h
2
⋅
H
2
t ( ) − =
H
1
0 ( ) 0 =
π D
1
2
⋅
4
d H
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ F
i
t ( ) F
3
t ( ) + F
o
t ( ) −
k
v1
2 h
1
⋅
H
1
t ( ) − =
Linearize the equations and express in terms of deviation variables::
4 eqns. 4 unks.
f
2
t ( ) C
v2
ρ
w
g ⋅ h
2
t ( ) ⋅
ft
12in

\

.
2
⋅ ⋅ = k
v2
h
2
t ( ) ⋅ =
(b) Characteristic equation and ultimate gain and period.
1 K
T
K
LC
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
1
K
2
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
+ 0 =
Substitute s = ω
u
i at K
LC
= K.
cu
: Let
K
p
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
1
⋅ K
2
⋅ =
100 %TO ⋅
h
max
f
3max
100 CO ⋅
⋅
2 h
2
⋅
k
v2
⋅ =
τ
v
− τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
v
τ
1
⋅ τ
v
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
− τ
v
τ
1
+ τ
2
+
( )
ω
u
⋅ i ⋅ + 1 + K
p
K
cu
⋅ + 0 0 i ⋅ + =
Imaginary part:
τ
v
− τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ ω
u
3
⋅ τ
v
τ
1
+ τ
2
+
( )
ω
u
+ 0 = ω
u
τ
v
τ
1
+ τ
2
+
τ
v
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅
= T
u
2π
ω
u
=
Real part:
τ
v
τ
1
⋅ τ
v
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
− ω
u
2
1 + K
p
K
cu
⋅ + 0 =
K
cu
τ
v
τ
1
⋅ τ
v
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
ω
u
2
1 −
K
p
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Substitute, linearize the equations, and express in terms of linearized variables:
ρ
s
2.635 10
3 −
×
lbmole
scf
= ρ
s
14.7psia
R
g
520 ⋅ R
:=
5 eqns. 5 unks. ρ t ( )
p t ( )
R
g
T ⋅
lbmole
ft
3
= Ideal gas law:
4 eqns. 5 unks.
y t ( )
1.63
C
f
p t ( ) p
2
−
p t ( )
⋅ =
3 eqns. 5 unks. (y, p)
f
3
t ( )
836scf min ⋅
hr gal ⋅
R
psia
⋅
hr
60min
C
v3
C
f
⋅
p t ( )
G t ( ) T ⋅
⋅ y t ( ) 0.148 y t ( )
3
⋅ −
( )
= Exit valve:
2 eqns. 3 unks. (x
3
)
V
d
dt
⋅ ρ t ( ) x
3
t ( ) ⋅
( )
ρ
s
f
1
t ( ) ⋅ x
1
t ( ) ⋅ ρ
s
f
2
t ( ) ⋅ x
2
t ( ) ⋅ + ρ
s
f
3
t ( ) ⋅ x
3
t ( ) ⋅ − =
Methane mole balance:
1 eqn. 2 unks. (ρ, f
3
) V
d ρ t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ
s
f
1
t ( ) ⋅ ρ
s
f
2
t ( ) ⋅ + ρ
s
f
3
t ( ) ⋅ − = Total mole balance:
Assume
Gas obeys ideal gas law •
Temperature is constant •
Perfectly mixed tank •
(a) Block diagram and transfer functions.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ =
Controller is PI:
Sensor transmitter, lag τ
T
,
range hv
L
to hv
H
.
Fan driver, linear, lag τ
F
,
range 0 to f
2max
.
G t ( ) a b x
3
t ( ) ⋅ + =
hv t ( ) c g x
3
t ( ) ⋅ + =
Problem Data:
AT
AC
hv
set
(t)
Natural gas
Waste gas
f
2
(t) x
2
(t)
f
1
(t) x
1
(t)
f
3
(t) x
3
(t)
p
2
p(t)
hv
Problem 626. Control of heating value of fuel stream.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
K
F
f
2max
100%CO
= F
2
s ( )
K
F
τ
F
s ⋅ 1 +
M s ( ) =
Variable speed fan:
HV s ( ) g X
3
s ( ) ⋅ = HV t ( ) g X
3
t ( ) ⋅ =
Linearize the eating value equation:
P s ( )
1
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
1
a
1
F
1
s ( )
1
a
1
F
2
s ( ) +
a
2
a
3
X
3
s ( ) +

\

.
=
X
3
s ( )
1
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
K
1
X
1
s ( ) ⋅ K
2
X
2
s ( ) ⋅ + K
3
F
1
s ( ) ⋅ − K
4
F
2
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
=
Laplace transform:
τ
2
V
R
g
T ⋅ ρ
s
⋅ a
1
⋅
= K
4
x
2
x
3
−
f
3
= K
3
x
3
x
1
−
f
3
= K
2
f
2
f
3
= K
1
f
1
f
3
= τ
1
V ρ ⋅
f
3
ρ
s
⋅
=
τ
2
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ P t ( ) +
1
a
1
F
1
t ( ) ⋅
1
a
1
F
2
t ( ) ⋅ +
a
2
a
1
X
3
t ( ) + =
τ
1
d X
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ X
3
t ( ) + K
1
X
1
t ( ) ⋅ K
2
X
2
t ( ) ⋅ + K
3
F
1
t ( ) ⋅ − K
4
F
2
t ( ) ⋅ + =
Rearrange into standrad firstorder form:
a
2
836 − scf min ⋅
hr gal ⋅
R
psia
⋅
hr
60min
C
v3
C
f
⋅
p
T
⋅ y 0.148 y
3
⋅ −
( )
b −
2 a b x
3
⋅ +
( )
1.5
=
a
1
836scf min ⋅
hr gal ⋅
R
psia
⋅
hr
60min
C
v3
C
f
⋅
G T ⋅
y 0.148 y
3
⋅ − p 1 3 0.148 ⋅ y
2
⋅ −
( )
⋅
1.63
C
f
2 ⋅
p p
2
−
p

\

.
0.5 −
p
2
p
2
+
=
P 0 ( ) 0 =
V
R
g
T ⋅ ρ
s
⋅
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ F
1
t ( ) F
2
t ( ) + a
1
P t ( ) ⋅ − a
2
X
3
t ( ) ⋅ + =
x
3
0 ( ) 0 =
V ρ ⋅
ρ
s
d x
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
1
X
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
X
2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
3
X
3
t ( ) ⋅ − x
1
x
3
−
( )
F
1
t ( ) + x
2
x
3
−
( )
F
2
t ( ) ⋅ + =
Combine total and methane balances, and substitute valve equation:
a
2
δ − f
3
t ( ) ⋅
δx
3
= a
1
δ f
3
t ( ) ⋅
δp
=
where
F
3
t ( ) a
1
P t ( ) ⋅ a
2
X
3
t ( ) ⋅ − =
V x
3
⋅
R
g
T ⋅
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅
V P ⋅
R
g
T ⋅
d x
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ + ρ
s
f
1
X
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
X
2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
3
X
3
t ( ) ⋅ − x
1
F
1
t ( ) ⋅ + x
2
F
2
t ( ) ⋅ + x
3
F
3
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅ =
V
R
g
T ⋅
d P t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ
s
F
1
t ( ) ⋅ ρ
s
F
2
t ( ) ⋅ + ρ
s
F
3
t ( ) ⋅ − =
Heating value transmitter:
H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
T
100%TO
hv
H
hv
L
−
= K
sp
K
T
=
Block diagram of the heating value control
K
sp
K
F
K
4
HV
set
(s)
K
3
H(s)
M(s) E(s)
J
1
s + 1
+

+

K
2
+
K
1
X
2
(s)
X
1
(s)
F
1
(s)
HV(s)
+
g
G
c
(s)
J
F
s + 1
The controller must be reverse acting (negative gain): increasing heating value decreases the
controller output; this decreases the fan speed and the flow of natural gas, decreasing the heating
value.
(b) Characteristic equation of the loop.
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
G
c
s ( )
K
F
τ
F
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
+ 0 =
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
F
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
T
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ K
F
⋅ K
4
⋅ + 0 =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
B
5.16 min
2
= τ
C
6 min =
Imaginary part: τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
C
ω
u
⋅ + 0 = ω
u
τ
C
τ
A
:= T
u
2π
ω
u
:= T
u
2.29 min =
Real part: τ
B
− ω
u
2
⋅ 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 = K
cu
1
K
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 −

\

.
:= K
cu
15.1
%CO
%TO
=
(a) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a proportional controller.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
= From Table 71.1: K
c
K
cu
2
:= K
c
7.5
%CO
%TO
=
(b) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a proportionalintegral controller.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ =
From Table 71.1: K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
6.9
%CO
%TO
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition %TO % := %CO % := Kd K :=
Problem 71. Feedback control of a thirdorder process.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
U(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

G
1
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
K 2.5
%TO
%CO
:= τ
1
5min := τ
2
0.8min := τ
3
0.2min :=
Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 G
c
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅ + 0 =
Ultimate gain and period: G
c
s ( ) K
cu
= s ω
u
i ⋅ =
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
C
ω
u
⋅ i ⋅ + 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 0 i ⋅ + =
where τ
A
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
3
⋅ := τ
B
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
3
⋅ + τ
2
τ
3
⋅ + := τ
C
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
3
+ := τ
A
0.8min
3
=
τ
I
1.9min =
(c) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a series PID controller.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ τ
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
= From Table 71.1: K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= K
c
8.9
%CO
%TO
=
τ
I
T
u
2
:= τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
1.1min =
τ
D
0.29 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
T
2π
2.0282min
−
:=
T 3.098 min =
Damping ratio:
ζ −
1 ζ
2
−
0.2808 −
2.0282
= 2.0282 ζ ⋅
( )
2
0.2808
2
1 ζ
2
−
( )
= ζ
0.2808
0.2808
2
2.0282
2
+
:=
Decay ratio: e
0.2808 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.419 = ζ 0.137 =
The decay ratio is higher than one fourth.
b) PI Controller G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ = K
c
6.9
%CO
%TO
:= τ
I
1.9min :=
Roots of: τ
A
s
4
⋅ τ
B
s
3
⋅ + τ
C
s
2
⋅ + 1 K K
c
⋅ +
( )
s ⋅ +
K K
c
⋅
τ
I
+ 0 =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 72. Feedback control loop of Problem 71.
From the solution to Problem 71, the characteristic equation is:
τ
A
s
3
⋅ τ
B
s
2
⋅ + τ
C
s ⋅ + 1 + G
c
s ( ) K ⋅ + 0 =
with τ
A
0.8min
3
= τ
B
5.16 min
2
= τ
C
6 min = K 2.5
%TO
%CO
=
(a) Roots of the characteritic equation, dominant roots, damping ratio and decay
ratio.
a) Proportional controller G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
K
c
7.5
%CO
%TO
:=
Find the roots: Dominant roots are the
complex conjugate pair.
polyroots
1 K K
c
⋅ +
τ
C
min
1 −
⋅
τ
B
min
2 −
⋅
τ
A
min
3 −
⋅

\





.

\





.
5.8883 −
0.2808 − 2.0282i −
0.2808 − 2.0282i +

\

.
=
Period:
The linear loop is simulated with one Simulink transfer function block to simulate the process
and another block to simulate the controller. The controller block, G
c
(s), is obtained from
(b) Simulate tye loop and plot responses to a unit step change in set point.
This close to the desired decay ratio of one fourth (0.25).
e
0.483 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.278 =
Decay ratio:
0.483
0.483
2
2.372
2
+
0.2 =
Damping ratio:
T 2.649 min =
polyroots
K K
c
⋅
τ
I
min
1 K K
c
⋅ 1
τ
D
τ
I
+

\

.
⋅ +
τ
C
K K
c
⋅ τ
D
⋅ +
( )
min
1 −
τ
B
min
2 −
⋅
τ
A
min
3 −
⋅
4.531 −
0.952 −
0.483 − 2.372i −
0.483 − 2.372i +

\



.
=
T
2 π ⋅
2.372min
1 −
:=
Period:
The dominant roots are the
complex conjugate roots.
τ
A
s
4
⋅ τ
B
s
3
⋅ + τ
C
K K
c
⋅ τ
D
⋅ +
( )
s
2
⋅ + 1 K K
c
⋅ 1
τ
D
τ
I
+

\

.
⋅ +
s ⋅ +
K K
c
⋅
τ
I
+ 0 =
Roots of:
τ
D
0.29 min = τ
I
1.1min :=
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ τ
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
=
c) Series PID controller:
K
c
8.9
%CO
%TO
:=
This is a very undamped response; extremely high decay ratio.
e
0.06 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.818 =
Decay ratio:
0.06
0.06
2
1.881
2
+
0.032 =
Damping ratio:
T 3.34 min =
polyroots
K K
c
⋅
τ
I
min ⋅
1 K K
c
⋅ +
τ
C
min
1 −
⋅
τ
B
min
2 −
⋅
τ
A
min
3 −
⋅

\









.

\









.
5.776 −
0.555 −
0.06 − 1.881i +
0.06 − 1.881i −

\



.
=
T
2 π ⋅
1.8814min
1 −
:=
Period:
The dominant roots are the
complex conjugate roots:
P controller: a simple proportional gain •
PI controller: from the Public Model Library, f0403PI (Fig. 134.3) •
Series PID controller: Public Model Library, f0405PIDs (Fig. 134.5) •
All the initial conditions in the controller models are zero. The set point input, R(s), is a step
input that changes from 0 to 1 at time = 1 min. The limits on the controller output must be
changed to 100%CO to 100%CO for this linear system, so that it can be negative.
The Simulink block diagram for the loop is:
The plots for the three controllers, using the tuning parameters determined in Problem 72, are:
The responses are for the proportional (gold), PI (purple), and series PID (green). Notice how the
periods of oscillation and decay ratios closely match the analytical results of part (a) of this
problem. The proportional controller shows a very small offset:
1%TO
1 K K
c
⋅ +
0.043 %TO =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
c
0.9
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
3.33 t
0e
⋅ := K
c
1.6
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
2 min =
(b) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.
From Table 72.2: K
c
0.984
K
P
u
0.986 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.608
P
u
0.707
:= K
c
1.7
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.2min =
(c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on setpoint inputs.
From Table 72.3: K
c
0.758
K
P
u
0.861 −
:= τ
I
τ´
1.02 0.323 P
u
⋅ −
:= K
c
1.2
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min =
(d) PI controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a setpoint chang
From Table 74.1: K
c
0.5
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
τ´ := K
c
0.89
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.3min =
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 73. Feedback control of a secondorder plus deadtime process.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
U(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

G
1
s ( )
K e
t
0
− s ⋅
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
= K 1.25
%TO
%CO
:= τ
1
1min := τ
2
0.6min := t
0
0.20min :=
τ
2
τ
1
0.6 = τ´ 1.32 τ
1
⋅ := τ´ 1.32 min =
First order plus deadtime parameters from Fig. 72.8:
t´
0
0.39 τ
1
⋅ := t´
0
0.39 min =
(the deadtime equivalent is added to the actual dead time)
PI controller: G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ = t
0e
t´
0
t
0
+ := P
u
t
0e
τ´
:= P
u
0.447 =
(a) PI controller tuned for quarterdecay ratio response
From Table 72.1:
τ
I
0.82 min =
For parallel PID.
τ
D
0.482 τ´ ⋅ P
u
1.137
:= τ
D
0.25 min =
(c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on setpoint inputs.
From Table 72.3: K
c
1.086
K
P
u
0.869 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.740 0.130 P
u
⋅ −
:= K
c
1.7
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.9min =
For parallel PID.
τ
D
0.348 τ´ ⋅ P
u
0.914
:= τ
D
0.22 min =
(d) PID controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a setpoint
change.
From Table 74.1,
series:
K´
c
0.5
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ´
I
τ´ := τ´
D
t
0e
2
:= K´
c
0.89
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
1.3min =
τ´
D
0.3min =
Parallel PID: K
c
K´
c
1
τ´
D
τ´
I
+

\

.
⋅ := τ
I
τ´
I
τ´
D
+ := τ
D
τ´
I
τ´
D
⋅
τ´
I
τ´
D
+
:=
K
c
1.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.6min =
τ
D
0.24 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 74. Process of Problem 73 with PID controller.
From the solution to Problem 73: τ´ 1.32min := t
0e
0.39 0.2 + ( )min := P
u
t
0e
τ´
:= P
u
0.447 =
Series PID: G
c
s ( ) K´
c
1
1
τ´
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ τ´
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ = Parallel PID: G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+ τ
D
s ⋅ +

\

.
⋅ =
(a) PID controller tuned for quarterdecay ratio response
From Table 72.1, series: K´
c
1.2
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ´
I
2 t
0e
⋅ := K´
c
2.1
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
1.2min =
τ´
D
0.5 t
0e
⋅ := τ´
D
0.3min =
Parallel PID: K
c
K´
c
1
τ´
D
τ´
I
+

\

.
⋅ := τ
I
τ´
I
τ´
D
+ := τ
D
τ´
I
τ´
D
⋅
τ´
I
τ´
D
+
:=
K
c
2.7
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min =
τ
D
0.24 min =
(b) PID controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.
From Table 72.2: K
c
1.435
K
P
u
0.921 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.878
P
u
0.749
:= K
c
2.4
%CO
%TO
=
From Table 72.2: K
c
0.984
K
P
u
0.986 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.608
P
u
0.707
:= K
c
1.6
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.3min =
(c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on setpoint inputs.
From Table 72.3: K
c
0.758
K
P
u
0.861 −
:= τ
I
τ´
1.02 0.323 P
u
⋅ −
:= K
c
1.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min =
(d) PI controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a setpoint chang
From Table 74.1: K
c
0.5
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
τ´ := K
c
0.82
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.3min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 75. Process of Problem 73 with sampleddata PI controller.
Sample time: T 0.1min := From the solution to Problem 73: τ´ 1.32min :=
Use Eq. 72.18: t
0e
0.39 0.2 + ( )min
T
2
+ := P
u
t
0e
τ´
:= P
u
0.485 =
PI controller:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ =
(a) PI controller tuned for quarterdecay ratio response
From Table 72.1: K
c
0.9
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
3.33 t
0e
⋅ := K
c
1.5
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
2.1min =
(b) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.
Substitute:
1 e
t
0
− s ⋅
−
1
t
0
2
s ⋅ + 1 −
t
0
2
s +
1
t
0
2
s +
=
t
0
s ⋅
1
t
0
2
s ⋅ +
= e
t
0
− s ⋅
1
t
0
2
s −
1
t
0
2
s +
=
This is a PID controller with deadtime compensation. To eliminate the deadtime compensation
term use the Padé approximation:
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K e
t
0
− s ⋅
⋅
e
t
0
− s ⋅
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 + e
t
0
− s ⋅
−
= Substitute:
C s ( )
R s ( )
e
t
0
− s ⋅
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
= G
c
s ( )
1
G s ( )
C s ( )
R s ( )
1
C s ( )
R s ( )
−
=
Dahlin synthesis formula:
G s ( )
K e
t
0
− s ⋅
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
(b) Secondorder plus dead time.
τ´
D
τ
2
= τ´
I
τ
1
= K´
c
τ
1
K τ
c
⋅
=
G
c
s ( ) K´
c
1
1
τ´
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ τ´
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
= Compare with the series PID controller:
G
c
s ( )
1
G s ( )
1
τ
c
s ⋅
=
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K
1
τ
c
s ⋅
⋅ =
τ
1
K τ
c
⋅
1
1
τ
1
s ⋅
+

\

.
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
=
Dahlin syntheis formula:
G s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
(a) Assuming no dead time.
Problem 76. Controller Synthesis for the process of Problem 73.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
K
1
t
0
2
s ⋅ +
τ
c
s ⋅ 1
t
0
2
s +

\

.
⋅ t
0
s ⋅ +
⋅ =
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
t
0
2
s 1 +

\

.
⋅
K s ⋅ τ
c
t
0
+
τ
c
t
0
⋅
2
s +

\

.
⋅
=
τ
e
τ
c
t
0
⋅
2 τ
c
t
0
+
( )
⋅
=
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
K τ
c
t
0
+
( )
⋅
1
1
τ
1
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
t
0
2
s ⋅ 1 +

\

.
τ
e
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅ =
This is a series PID controller with a leadlag unit attached. The corresponding tuning parameetrs
are:
K´
c
τ
1
K τ
c
⋅
= τ´
I
τ
1
= τ´
D
τ
2
= and a second derivative with τ´
D2
t
0
2
=
In practice astandard PID controller is used with the tuning parameters of Problem 74.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 77. Simulation of the control loop of Problem 73.
To simulate the loop use
a Simulink transfer function block •
a Simulnk time delay block •
a parallel PID controller from the Public Model Library, f406PIDp (Fig. 134.6). •
For this linear system all the initial conditions are zero, and the limits on the controller output are
set to 100 to 100%CO to allow the output to go negative.
The Simulink diagram is:
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
0.6s
2
1.6s + 1 + =
Two additional blocks have been added to calculate the integral of the absolute value of the error.
Students are encouraged to adjust the controller parameters to minimize the IAE. However, they
should also observe the time response of the controller output and the controlled variable.
A sample plot to a unit step change in set point at 1 minute is:
The PID tuning parameters for
minimum IAE on set point
changes (Problem 74(c)) were
used:
K
c
1.8
%CO
%TO
:=
τ
I
1.9min :=
τ
D
0.22min :=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 78. Quarter decay tuning of PI controller for the blender of Problem
611.
From the solution to Problem 611: K
cu
250 −
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
3.01min :=
PI controller quarterdecay tuning from Table 71.1: K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
114 −
%CO
%TO
=
τ
I
2.5min =
The negative gain means the controller is direct acting.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
D
1.5min = τ
I
6 min = K
c
1.2
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
t
0
2
:= τ
I
2 t
0
⋅ := K
c
1.2
K
t
0
τ

\

.
1 −
:=
From Table 72.1, the quarterdecay ratio tuning parameters for a series PID controller are:
t
0
3 min = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 6 min = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
:=
t
2
10 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 10.1 ⋅ %TO 6.383 %TO =
t
1
6 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 10.1 ⋅ %TO 2.858 %TO =
By fit 3 (twopoint method):
K 2.02
%TO
%CO
=
K
10.1%TO
5%CO
:= Gain:
In Problem 612 we found that there is no ultimate gain for reactor temperature control loop when
the cooling water is the manipulated variable. By simulation of the linear loop, the openloop
response to a 5%CO step change at 1 minute is:
Problem 79. Quarter decay tuning of PID controller for the reactor of
Problem 612.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
I
2 min = K
c
2.8 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33t
0
:= K
c
0.9
K
t
0
τ

\

.
1 −
:= From Table 72.1:
t
0
0.6min = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 4.2min = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
:=
t
2
5.8 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 11.2 − %TO ( ) 7.078 − %TO =
t
1
3 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 11.2 − %TO ( ) 3.17 − %TO =
Fit 3 (twopoint method):
K 2.24 −
%TO
%CO
=
K
11.2 − %TO
5%CO
:= Gain:
In Problem 614 we found that there is no ultimate gain for the composition control loop. By
simulation of the linear approximation, the response to a step change of 5%CO at 1 min is:
Problem 710. Quarter decay tuning of a PI controller for the threetank
process of Problem 614.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
K
v
2.46
gal
min %CO ⋅
:= K
T
100
%TO gal ⋅
lb
:= τ
v
0.1min := τ 5min := where
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅
K
A
K
B
τ ⋅ s ⋅ + K
3
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
⋅ + 0 =
From the solution to Problem 317, the characteristic equation is:
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
τ
I
9.2min = K
c
0.77
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
0
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
t
0
τ

\

.
1 −
:= From Table 72.1:
t
0
2.75 mi = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 11.25 m = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
⋅ :=
t
2
15 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 ∆c ⋅ 15.168 %TO =
t
1
7.5 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 ∆c ⋅ 6.792 %TO =
Twopoint method:
K 4.8
%TO
%CO
= K
∆c
5%CO
:=
∆c 74 50 − ( )%TO :=
From this response we get:
In Problem 617 we found that there is no ultimate gain for the composition control loop. Because of
the complex combination of poles and zeros, the openloop parameters cannot be easily
determined analytically. This problem is solved by simulation in Problem 1323, where the following
openloop response to a step increase of 5%CO at 1 minute is obtained:
Problem 711. Quarter decay tuning of a PI controller for the reactors of
Problem 617.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
There is essentially no oscillation in the response. The response is complete in less than one
complete oscillation. Students should verify this with the simulation of Problem 1323 and
experiment with other tuning parameters. A higher controller gain is indicated by these results.
e
0.112 − min
1 −
T
0.014 = Decay ratio:
0.112
0.112
2
0.164
2
+
0.564 =
Damping ratio:
T 38.3 min = T
2π
0.164min
1 −
:=
polyroots
K
L
τ
I
min ⋅
τ
E
τ
C
min
1 −
τ
B
min
2 −
τ
A
min
3 −
τ
v
τ
3
⋅ min
4 −

\











.

\











.
9.905 −
0.39 −
0.112 − 0.164i +
0.112 − 0.164i −
0.082 −

\




.
=
There is also a comlex conjugate root
with period:
1 −
0.082 − min
1 −
12.2 min =
The dominant root is a real root with time
constant:
Roots of the characteristic equaton:
τ
E
3.188 = τ
C
22.176 min = τ
B
88.293 min
2
= τ
A
132.5 min
3
= τ
v
τ
3
⋅ 12.5 min
4
=
K
L
1.415 = τ
E
1 K
L
+
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
B
⋅ τ ⋅
τ
I
+ := τ
C
τ
v
3τ + K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
B
⋅ τ ⋅ + :=
K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
A
⋅ := τ
B
3 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ 3τ
2
+ K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + := τ
A
3 τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ τ
3
+ := where
τ
v
τ
3
⋅ s
5
⋅ τ
A
s
4
⋅ + τ
B
s
3
⋅ + τ
C
s
2
⋅ + τ
E
s ⋅ +
K
L
τ
I
+ 0 =
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s
3
⋅ 3 τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ + 3 τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 +
( )
⋅ K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ s
1
τ
I
+

\

.
⋅ K
A
K
B
τ ⋅ s ⋅ + K
3
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ +

\

.
⋅ + 0 =
K
3
0.0025
lb min ⋅
gal
2
:= K
B
0.0075
lb min ⋅
gal
2
:= K
A
0.0075
lb min ⋅
gal
2
:=
T
u
8.91s :=
Quarterdecay ratio tuning parametes for a PI controller:
From Table 71.1: K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
7.2 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
7.4s =
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
From the solution to Problem 618: 1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
− 0 =
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅ s
4
⋅ τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
T
τ
p
⋅ + τ
sc
τ
P
⋅ +
( )
s
3
⋅ + τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
( )
s
2
+ 1 K
L
−
( )
s +
K
L
τ
I
− 0 =
where K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
sc
⋅ K
p
⋅ := K
L
6.505 − =
Find roots:
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition kscf 1000ft
3
:=
Problem 712. Control of suction pressure for compressor of Problem 618.
Steam
Suction
Discharge
f
i
(t)
f
c
(t)
p
s
(t)
m(t)
PT
PC
SC
From the solution to Problem 618:
H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
T
5
%TO
psi
:=
τ
T
1.2s :=
G
sc
s ( )
K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
= τ
sc
2.5s :=
K
sc
0.36
kscf
min %CO ⋅
:=
G
p
s ( )
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
= τ
p
7.5s :=
K
p
0.5
psi min ⋅
kscf
:=
Ultimate gain and period: K
cu
15.9 −
%CO
%TO
:=
The dominant roots are the
complex conjugate pair.
The period of the
oscillations is:
polyroots
K
L
−
τ
I
sec
1 K
L
−
τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
( )
sec
1 −
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
T
τ
p
⋅ + τ
sc
τ
p
⋅ +
( )
sec
2 −
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅ sec
3 −
⋅
1.16 −
0.135 −
0.036 − 0.498i −
0.036 − 0.498i +

\



.
= T
2π
0.498sec
1 −
:=
T 12.62 s =
Damping ratio:
0.036
0.036
2
0.498
2
+
0.072 =
Decay ratio:
e
0.036 − sec
1 −
T ⋅
0.635 =
The damping ratio is too low and the decay ratio is too high. To reduce the oscillations a smaller
gain is required.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
4
0.525 :=
Ultimate gain and period: K
cu
86.7 −
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
8.32min :=
Quarterdecay ratio tuning of a PI controller.
K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
39 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
6.9min =
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
From the solution to Problem 619:
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅
K
FC
τ
FC
s ⋅ 1 +
K
2
K
3
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
4
⋅ −
− 0 =
τ
A
s
5
⋅ τ
B
s
4
⋅ + τ
C
s
3
⋅ + τ
D
s
2
⋅ + τ
E
s +
K
L
τ
I
− 0 =
where τ
A
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ := τ
B
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + :=
degC Kd :=
Smith & Corripio, 3r edition
Problem 713. Temperature control of stirredtank cooler of Problem 619.
From the solution to Problem 619:
TC
TT
T
c
(t)
f(t)
f
c
(t)
T
ci
V
m(t)
T
set
(t)
T
i
(t)
T(t)
FT
FC
SP
G
FC
s ( )
K
FC
τ
FC
s ⋅ 1 +
=
τ
FC
0.1min :=
K
FC
0.008
m
3
min %CO ⋅
:=
H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= τ
T
0.6min :=
K
T
2
%TO
degC
:=
G
1
s ( )
K
2
K
3
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
4
⋅ −
=
τ
1
13.77min := τ
2
3.03min :=
K
2
0.725 := K
3
28.94
degC min ⋅
m
3
:=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The damping ratio is too low and the decay ratio is too high. The controller gain should be
decresaed to reduced the very oscillatory behavior.
e
0.02 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.782 = Decay ratio:
0.02
0.02
2
0.512
2
+
0.039 = Damping ratio: polyroots
K
L
−
τ
I
min
τ
E
τ
D
min
1 −
⋅
τ
C
min
2 −
⋅
τ
B
min
3 −
⋅
τ
A
min
4 −
⋅

\











.

\











.
9.993 −
1.882 −
0.154 −
0.02 − 0.512i −
0.02 − 0.512i +

\




.
=
T
u
8.32 min = T
2π
0.512min
1 −
:=
The dominant roots are the complex conjugate
pair. The period of oscillation is:
Find the roots:
τ
D
17.234 min = K
L
13.23 − = τ
E
13.849 = τ
E
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ − K
L
− :=
τ
C
53.52 min
2
=
K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
FC
⋅ K
2
⋅ K
3
⋅ := τ
D
τ
T
τ
FC
+
( )
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
( )
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ :=
τ
B
30.214 min
3
=
τ
C
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ 1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
( )
⋅ τ
T
τ
1
⋅ + τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
1
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + :=
τ
A
2.503 min
4
=
In the solution to Problem 622 we determined that there is no ultimate gain for the analyzer control
loop. By simulation, the openloop response to a 5% increase in the controller output is:
Quarterdecay tuning parameters for a PI controller.
K
5
0.286 := K
4
0.00127
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
:=
K
1
0.006123
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
:=
τ
2
1.429min := τ
1
2.222min :=
G
1
s ( )
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
1
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
K
T
222
%TO gal ⋅
lbmole
:=
τ
T
0.5min := H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
=
K
v
1.42
gal
min %CO ⋅
:=
From the solution to
Problem 622:
LT
LC
AT
AC
f
i
(t)
c
Ai
(t)
c
A1
(t)
c
A2
set
(t)
V
V
c
A2
(t)
A
f
A
(t)
Problem 714. Composition control of reactors in series of Problem 622.
lbmole 433.59mole := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Find the roots:
K
L
2.736 = τ
A
2.555 min = K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
4
K
5
K
1
⋅ +
( )
⋅ := τ
A
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
4
⋅ τ
1
⋅ := where
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ s
4
⋅ τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
s
3
+ τ
T
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ τ
A
+
( )
s
2
+ 1 K
L
+
( )
s +
K
L
τ
I
+ 0 =
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

\

.
⋅ K
v
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
1
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
⋅ + 0 = From the solution to Problem 222:
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
τ
I
2.5min = τ
I
3.33 t
0
⋅ :=
K
c
2.9
%CO
%TO
= K
c
0.9
K
t
0
τ

\

.
1 −
:=
From Table 72.1:
t
0
0.8min = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 2.3min = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
⋅ :=
t
2
4 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 4.7 ⋅ %TO ⋅ 2.97 %TO =
t
1
2.5 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 4.7 ⋅ %TO 1.33 %TO =
Twopoint method:
K 0.94
%TO
%CO
= K
4.7
5
:= Gain:
The dominant roots are the
second pair of complex
conjugate roots. The period
of ocillation is:
polyroots
K
L
τ
I
min
1 K
L
+
τ
T
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ τ
A
+
( )
min
1 −
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
min
2 −
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ min
3 −
⋅
1.204 − 0.813i −
1.204 − 0.813i +
0.371 − 0.435i −
0.371 − 0.435i +

\



.
= T
2π
0.435min
1 −
:=
T 14.44 min =
Damping ratio:
0.371
0.371
2
0.435
2
+
0.649 =
Decay ratio:
e
0.371 − min
1 −
T
0.00471 =
The damping ratio is high and the decay ratio is small, with practically no oscillations. The
controller gain should be higher. The reason is that the quarterdecay ratio formulas are based on fit
1, not fit 3 (the twopoint method), to determine the openloop time constant and dead time.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
T
2.5
%TO
%
= K
T
100%TO
x
max
x
min
−
:=
x
max
95% := x
min
55% :=
Transmitter (AT):
x
o
75% := x
in
95% :=
tx
i
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
19
21
25
29
33
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.1
75.3
75.4
75.6
75.7
75.9
76.1
76.2
76.3
76.4
76.6
76.7
76.8
76.9
77.0
77.0
:= Problem data:
tx
m
0
1
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
13.5
15.5
17.5
19.5
21.5
25.5
29.5
33.5
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
74.9
74.6
74.3
73.6
73.0
72.3
71.6
70.9
70.3
69.3
6.6
68.0
67.6
67.4
67.1
67.0
67.0
:=
First column is time in •
minutes
Second column is outlet % •
moisture in the solids
∆x
in
0.5% := ∆m 12.5%CO :=
Response to a step change of:
AT
AC
M
Sludge
Ferric
Chloride
To
incinerator
Filtrate
Problem 715. Solid moisture control of a vacuum filter.
%CO % := %TO % := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
1.6 − e
5.71 − s
6.5 s ⋅ 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
∆x
i
tx
i
21 1 ,
tx
i
0 1 ,
−
% := ∆x
i
2 % = K
2
∆x
i
∆x
in
:= K
T
K
2
⋅ 10
%TO
%
=
tx
i
0 1 ,
% 0.283 ∆x
i
⋅ + 75.566 % = t
1
tx
i
9 0 ,
tx
i
10 0 ,
tx
i
9 0 ,
−
75.566 tx
i
9 1 ,
−
tx
i
10 1 ,
tx
i
9 1 ,
−
⋅ + :=
tx
i
0 1 ,
% 0.632 ∆x
i
⋅ + 76.264 % = t
2
tx
i
14 0 ,
tx
i
15 0 ,
tx
i
14 0 ,
−
76.264 tx
i
14 1 ,
−
tx
i
15 1 ,
tx
i
14 1 ,
−
⋅ + :=
t
1
8.66 = t
2
13.64 = τ
2
1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
min := t
02
t
2
min ⋅ τ
2
− := τ
2
7.47 min = t
02
6.17 min =
K
T
G
2
s ( ) ⋅
10e
6.17 − s
7.47 s ⋅ 1 +
%TO
%
=
(a) Block diagram of the moisture control loop.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

X
o
(s)
X
o
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
X
in
(s)
(b) Transfer functions by fit 3, twopoint method.
∆x
m
tx
m
20 1 ,
tx
m
0 1 ,
−
% := ∆x
m
8 − % = K
1
∆x
m
∆m
:= K
T
K
1
⋅ 1.6 −
%TO
%CO
=
tx
m
0 1 ,
% 0.283 ∆x
m
⋅ + 72.736 % = t
1
tx
m
8 0 ,
tx
m
9 0 ,
tx
m
8 0 ,
−
72.736 tx
m
8 1 ,
−
tx
m
9 1 ,
tx
m
8 1 ,
−
⋅ + :=
tx
m
0 1 ,
% 0.632 ∆x
m
⋅ + 69.944 % = t
2
tx
m
12 0 ,
tx
m
13 0 ,
tx
m
12 0 ,
−
69.944 tx
m
12 1 ,
−
tx
m
13 1 ,
tx
m
12 1 ,
−
⋅ + :=
t
1
7.877 = t
2
12.212 = τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
min := t
01
t
2
min ⋅ τ
1
− := τ
1
6.5min = t
01
5.71 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
s ( ) 0.64 −
%CO
%TO
1
1
19 s ⋅
+
=
τ
I
19 min = K
c
0.64 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
01
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:=
From Table 72.1:
(e) Quarterdecay response tuning of a PI controller.
Offset
K
T
0.789 − % =
Offset 2 − %TO = Offset
0 K
2
1 ⋅ % −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:= Offset
K
T
∆x
o
set
⋅ K
2
∆x
in
⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
=
G
c
s ( ) 0.64 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
0.64 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
0.902
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:=
From Table 72.2:
(d) Gain of a proportional controller for minimum IAE response and offset to a 1%
increase in inlet moisture.
The controller must direct acting: an increase in moisture increases the controller output; this
increases the speed of the pump and the rate of ferric chloride addition; filtration becomes more
efficient and the moisture content of the product decreases.
t
01
τ
1
0.878 =
The loop is difficult to control by feedback control because its ratio of dead time to time constant is
high:
(c) Discuss the controllability of the loop and the controller action.
The control valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the absorber on instrument power
failure.
Control valve:
K
v
5
gal
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
f
max
100%CO
:=
Transmitter (AT):
K
T
0.5
%TO
ppm
= K
T
100%TO
y
max
y
min
−
:=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s)
E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

Y
o
(s)
Y
o
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
Y
in
(s)
K
v
F(s)
(b) Block diagram of the loop and transfer function of each block. Use fit3 on
response data (twopoint method).
Negligible lag.
f
max
500
gal
min
:=
Control valve, assumed linear.
Negligible lag.
y
max
200ppm := y
min
0ppm :=
Transmitter (AT):
AT
AC
Air In
Air Out
NH
3
solution
Water In
SP
(a) Design a control loop to control the air outlet composition.
Problem 716. Composition control of an absorber.
ppm 10
6 −
:= Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The controller is direct acting (negative gain): increasing outlet gas composition increases the
controller output; this opens the valve increasing the flow of water to he absorber and absorbing
more ammonia. The ammonia composition in the outlet gas decreases.
G
c
s ( ) 23 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
23 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
1
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:= From Table 72.1:
60 50 − ( )ppm 10 ppm =
(c) Quarter decay ratio tuning for proportional controller and offset to a setpoint
change of
G
1
s ( )
0.035 − e
0.46s
0.95 s ⋅ 1 +
ppm min ⋅
gal
=
t
01
0.46 min = τ
1
0.95 min = t
01
t
2
sec ⋅ τ
1
− := τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
sec := Fit 3
t
2
84.58 = t
2
ty
7 0 ,
ty
8 0 ,
ty
7 0 ,
−
( )
y
o2
ppm
1 −
⋅ ty
7 1 ,
−
ty
8 1 ,
ty
7 1 ,
−
⋅ + :=
y
o2
51.12 ppm = y
o2
ty
0 1 ,
ppm 0.632 ∆y
o
⋅ + :=
t
1
46.7 = t
1
ty
3 0 ,
ty
4 0 ,
ty
3 0 ,
−
( )
y
o1
ppm
1 −
⋅ ty
3 1 ,
−
ty
4 1 ,
ty
3 1 ,
−
⋅ + :=
y
o1
50.5 ppm = y
o1
ty
0 1 ,
ppm 0.283 ∆y
o
⋅ + :=
K
1
0.035 −
ppm min ⋅
gal
= K
1
∆y
o
∆f
:=
∆y
o
1.77 ppm = ∆y
o
ty
16 1 ,
ty
0 1 ,
−
( )
ppm :=
ty
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
160
180
250
50.00
50.00
50.12
50.30
50.60
50.77
50.90
51.05
51.20
51.26
51.35
51.48
51.55
51.63
51.76
51.77
51.77
:=
First column is time in seconds •
Second column is outlet ammonia ppm •
∆f 50 −
gal
min
:=
Response to a step change in inlet water flow of
Offset
K
T
10 ⋅ ppm
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:= Offset 1.641 %TO =
Offset
K
T
3.3ppm =
(d) Quarter decay ratio tuning of series PID controller and offset.
From Table 72.1: K´
c
1.2
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:= τ´
I
2 t
01
⋅ := τ´
D
t
01
2
:=
K´
c
28 −
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
0.93 min = τ´
D
0.23 min = G
c
s ( ) 28 −
%CO
%TO
1
1
0.93s
+
0.23s 1 + ( ) =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ 
+

T
o
(s)
T
o
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
F
in
(s)
%CO
TT
%TO
scfh
F
F
%TO
TC
Furnace
TC
Block diagram of the loop:
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing
temperature decreases the controller output; this closes the valve reducing
the fuel flow and the outlet coil temperature.
The control valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent overheating the
furnace on instrument power failure.
tt
0
0.5
1.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
14.0
20.0
425.0
425.0
425.0
425.0
426.4
428.5
430.6
432.4
434.0
435.3
436.6
437.6
439.4
440.7
441.7
442.5
443.0
443.5
444.1
445.0
:=
(a) Block diagram of the loop, failsafe position of the valve,
and controller action.
First column is •
time in minutes
Second column •
is temperature
in ºF
∆m 5%CO := Response to step change of:
T
max
500degF :=
TT
TC
Process
air
Fuel
Air
SP
T
min
300degF := Transmitter (TT):
Problem 717. Temperature control of a furnace.
degF R := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
(c) Quarter decay ratio tuning of series PID controller.
From Table 72.1: K´
c
1.2
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:= τ´
I
2 t
01
⋅ := τ´
D
t
01
2
:=
K´
c
1
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
4.5min = τ´
D
1.1min = G
c
s ( ) 1
%CO
%TO
1
1
4.5s
+
1.1s 1 + ( ) =
(d) Synthesis tuning of series PID controller for 5% overshoot.
From Table 74.1: K´
c
0.5
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:= τ´
I
τ
1
:= τ´
D
t
01
2
:=
K´
c
0.42
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
3.8min = τ´
D
1.1min = G
c
s ( ) 0.42
%CO
%TO
⋅ 1
1
3.8s
+
1.1s 1 + ( ) =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purpose
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
(b) Transfer functions using fit 3 (twopoint method).
Transmitter (TT): K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:= K
T
0.5
%TO
degF
=
∆T tt
19 1 ,
tt
0 1 ,
−
( )
degF := K
1
∆T
∆m
:= K
T
K
1
⋅ 2
%TO
%CO
=
T
1
tt
0 1 ,
degF 0.283∆T + := T
1
430.66 degF =
t
1
tt
6 0 ,
tt
7 0 ,
tt
6 0 ,
−
( )
T
1
degF
1 −
⋅ tt
6 1 ,
−
tt
7 1 ,
tt
6 1 ,
−
⋅ + := t
1
3.517 =
T
2
tt
0 1 ,
degF 0.632∆T + := T
2
437.64 degF =
t
2
tt
11 0 ,
tt
12 0 ,
tt
11 0 ,
−
( )
T
2
degF
1 −
⋅ tt
11 1 ,
−
tt
12 1 ,
tt
11 1 ,
−
⋅ + := t
2
6.022 =
Process by fit 3: τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
min ⋅ := t
01
t
2
min ⋅ τ
1
− := τ
1
3.76 min = t
01
2.26 min =
K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
2e
2.26 − s
3.76s 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
s ( ) 23
%CO
%TO
1
1
0.56s
+
0.14s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
0.14 min = τ´
I
0.56 min = K´
c
23
%CO
%TO
=
τ´
D
T
u
8
:= τ´
I
T
u
2
:=
K´
c
K
cu
1.7
:= From Table 71.1:
T
u
1.116min :=
K
cu
38.9
%CO
%TO
:= From the solution to Problem 624, the ultimate gain and period are:
Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters of series PID temperature controller TC.
LT
LC
vp
2
(t)
T
3
set
(t)
f
s
(t)
T
1
(t)
T
3
(t)
h
set
(t)
Steam
Condensate
3 ft
h(t)
TT
TC
p
1
(t)
p
2
= 40 psia
5 ft
N
2
AO AO
T
p
3
(t)
Problem 718. Temperature control of oil heater of Problem 624.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent bypassing too much hot oil on instrument power
failure that would overheat the reactor.
C
vmax
195
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532,
a 4in valve is required.
C
vmax
119
gal
min psi ⋅
= C
vmax
200% f
d
⋅
G
f
∆p
v
⋅ :=
(a) Size control valve for 100% overcapacity. Valve failsafe position and controlle
action.
T
u
24min := K
cu
16
%CO
%TO
:= Closedloop test on temperature loop:
∆T 4.4degF := ∆vp 5% := Openloop test on temperature loop:
T 275degF := (constant) f
pump
400
gal
min
:=
Design conditions:
G
f
0.881 = G
f
ρ ft
3
⋅
62.4lb
:= ρ 55
lb
ft
3
:= Oil density:
T
max
350degF := T
min
150degF := Temperature transmitter (TT):
f
d
200
gal
min
:= ∆p
v
10psi := α 50 := Control valve, equal percentage: Problem data:
TT
TC
LT
LC
SP
SP
Reactants
Products
Water
Steam
Problem 719. Temperature control of exothermic catalytic reactor.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
(d) Calculate the process gain atb design conditions, including the control valve an
K
v
7.824
gal
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
ln α
( )
f
d
⋅
100%CO
:=
Valve fails closed. Controller is direct acting.
(See part (a).)
K
T
0.5
%TO
degF
= K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ +
+

T
o
(s)
T
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
F
in
(s)
%CO
TT
%TO
lb/hr
F
F
%TO
TC
Furnace
TC
(c) Block diagram of the loop.
f
v
306.6
gal
min
= k
v
3.284 = f
v
k
v
1 k
v
+
f
pump
:=
k
v
C
vmax
∆p
v
G
f
⋅
1
f
pump
f
d
−
⋅ :=
∆p
v
G
f
f
pump
f
vmax
−
f
pump
f
d
−
f
vmax
C
vmax
= Flow when fully opened:
Let
vp 69.6 % = C
v
59.4
gal
min psi ⋅
= vp 1
ln
C
v
C
vmax
ln α
( )
+ := C
v
f
d
G
f
∆p
v
⋅ := At design conditions:
C
v
C
vmax
α
vp 1 −
⋅ = ∆p
va
∆p
v
f
pump
f
v
−
f
pump
f
d
−
2
⋅ = G
f
f
v
C
v
2
⋅ = f
v
C
v
∆p
va
G
f
⋅ =
Assume
the pressure drop through the boler tubes varies with the square of oil flow through the tubes •
the pump flow is constant as the valve position changes •
the pressure drop across the valve is the same as the pressure drop across the boiler tubes. •
(b) Valve position at design conditions and maximum flow through the valve when
fully opened.
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): an increase in reactor temperature
decreases the controller output closing the bypass valve; this reduces the bypass flow of hot oil
decreasing the oil temperature and the reactor temperature.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Offset
K
T
2.21 − degF = Offset 1.11 − %TO = Offset
K
T
10 − degF ( ) ⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:=
G
c
s ( ) 8
%CO
%TO
= K
c
8
%CO
%TO
= K
c
K
cu
2
:=
From Table 71.1:
(f) Quarterdecay ratio tuning of proportional temperature controller and offset for a
set point change of 10ºF.
G
c
s ( ) 9.4
%CO
%TO
1
0.083
s
+
3s 1 + ( = τ´
D
3 min =
1
τ´
I
0.083
repeats
min
= K´
c
9.4
%CO
%TO
=
repeats 1 := τ´
D
T
u
8
:= τ´
I
T
u
2
:= K´
c
K
cu
1.7
:=
From Table 71.1:
(e) Quarter decay tuning parameters for series PID temperature controller.
K
T
K
1
⋅ 0.44
%TO
%CO
= K
1
88 degF = K
1
∆T
∆vp
:=
The gain of the valve is
included in K1, because the
step change is in valve
position.
( ) p g g g
the temperature transmitter.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition weight% % :=
Problem 720. Composition control of a doubleeffect evaporator
SP
SP
LC
AC
LT
AT
SP
LC
LT
Vapors
SP
FC
FT
Vapors
Product
Feed
Steam
Cond.
12
13
12
13
Problem data: Feed 50000
lb
hr
:= x
F
5weight% := x
min
10weight% := x
max
35weight% :=
Open loop step response in feed composition: ∆x
F
0.75weight% :=
21
21.5
22
22.5
23
23.5
24
24.5
25
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
,
w
t
%
Openloop step response to change in controller output: ∆m 2.5%CO :=
21
21.5
22
22.5
23
23.5
24
24.5
25
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
,
w
t
%
t
01
2.91 min =
K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
5.12e
2.91 − s
4.08s 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
Change in feed composition:
K
2
24.7 21.5 − ( )weight%
∆x
F
:= K
1
1.28 = K
T
K
2
⋅ 17.07
%TO
weight%
=
21.5weight% 0.283 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 22.41 weight% = t
1
143sec :=
21.5weight% 0.632 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 23.52 weight% = t
2
237sec :=
τ
2
1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
min
60sec
:= t
02
t
2
τ
2
−
( )
min
60sec
:= τ
2
2.35 min = t
02
1.6min =
K
T
G
2
s ( ) ⋅
17.07e
1.6 − s
2.35s 1 +
%TO
weight%
=
Note: Students should be encouraged to try also fits 1 and 2 and compare the answers.
The control valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent overheating the evaporator on instrument
power failure.
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing product composition decreases
(a) Block diagram of the composition control loop, transfer functions, cntrol valve fa
safe position, and controller action.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ +
+

X(s)
X
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
X
F
(s)
%CO
AT
%TO
wt%
%TO
AC AC
wt%
wt%
Analyzer transmitter:
K
T
100%TO
x
max
x
min
−
:= K
T
4
%TO
weight%
=
Determine process transfer functions by fit 3:
Change in controller output:
K
1
24.7 21.5 − ( )weight%
∆m
:= K
1
1.28
weight%
%CO
= K
T
K
1
⋅ 5.12
%TO
%CO
=
21.5weight% 0.283 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 22.41 weight% = t
1
256sec :=
21.5weight% 0.632 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 23.52 weight% = t
2
419sec :=
τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
min
60sec
:= t
01
t
2
τ
1
−
( )
min
60sec
:= τ
1
4.08 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
I
7.5min = K
c
0.34
%CO
%TO
=
τ
I
τ
1
:= K
c
0.5
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:=
From Table 74.1:
(c) Controller synthesis tuning for 5% overshoot of PI composition controller.
This is over twice the gain and 25% faster reset than with fit 3 parameters.
τ
I
7.2min = K
c
0.61
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
01
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:=
From Table 72.1:
τ
1
7.5min =
τ
1
580sec t
01
−
( )
min
60sec
:= t
01
130sec :=
Quarter decay ratio tuning is based on fit 1 parameters. From the figure above:
τ
I
9.7min = K
c
0.25
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
01
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:=
From Table 72.1:
(b) Quarterdecay ratio tuning of PI composition controller.
the controller output closing the steam control valve; this decreases the rate of evaporation reducing
the product composition.
K
cu
8.0
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
14min :=
(a) Size control valve for 100% overcapacity, valve gain at design flow, valve
failsafe position.
∆p
v
p
1
p
2
− ∆p
L
− := G
f
1 := k
L
∆p
L
G
f
f
cw
2
⋅
:= ∆p
v
5 psi =
k
L
8.163 10
5 −
× psi
min
gal
2
⋅ =
C
vmax
200% f
cw
⋅
G
f
∆p
v
⋅ := C
vmax
313.05
gal
min psi ⋅
= C
v
f
cw
G
f
∆p
v
⋅ := C
v
156.5
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 6in valve is required: C
vmax
400
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve gain, Eq. 52.27, page 171: K
v
ln α
( )
−
100%CO
f
cw
1 k
L
C
v
2
⋅ +
:= K
v
4.564 −
gal
min %CO ⋅
=
The valve must fail open (airtoclose) to prevent overheating the reactor on loss of instrument
power. This is why the gain is negative.
(b) Block diagram of the control loop ad total process gain.
psia psi :=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 721. Temperature control of stirredtank reactor.
Design conditions: p
1
30psia := p
2
15psia :=
TT
TC
11
Coolant
Feed
Product P
1
P
2
T
R
210degF := f
cw
350
gal
min
:=
Coil pressure drop: ∆p
L
10psi :=
Temperature transmitter: T
min
190degF :=
T
max
230degF :=
Equalpercenage valve: α 50 :=
Openloop test: ∆f
cw
10
gal
min
:=
∆T
R
5.2 − degF :=
Closedloop test:
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
s ( )
100%CO
21%TO
1
0.14
s
+
1.75s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
1.75 min =
1
τ´
I
0.14
repeat
min
=
100%CO
K´
c
21 %TO = τ´
D
T
u
8
:= τ´
I
T
u
2
:= K´
c
K
cu
1.7
:= From Table 71.1:
(c) Quarterdecay ratio tuning of PID temperature controller and controller action.
repeat 1 :=
K
T
K
1
⋅ K
v
⋅ 5.933
%TO
%CO
= Total process gain:
K
1
0.52 −
degF min ⋅
gal
= K
T
2.5
%TO
degF
= K
1
∆T
R
∆f
cw
:= K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min
−
:=
G
c
(s)
G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
+
+

T
R
(s)
T
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
F
in
(s)
%CO
TT
%TO
lb/hr
F
F
%TO
TC
TC
G
v
(s)
F
cw
(s)
gpm
∆m 8%CO := Openloop step response to change in controller output:
(b) Process transfer functions from openloop step responses by fit 2.
K
T
25
%TO
weight%
= K
T
100%TO
x
max
x
min
−
:= Transmitter AT:
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ +
+

X(s)
X
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
X
F
(s)
%CO
AT
%TO
wt%
%TO
AC AC
wt%
wt%
(a) Block diagram of the moisture control loop.
x
max
5weight% :=
x
min
1weight% := Transmitter AT: x 3weight% := x
F
15weight% := Design conditions:
AT
AC
Feed
Fuel
Air
Stack
Dry
phospahates
Problem 722. Solids moisture control of a phosphates pebbles drier
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e
,
w
t
%
∆x 4.5 3 − ( )weight% := K
1
∆x
∆m
:= K
1
0.188
weight%
%CO
= K
T
K
1
⋅ 4.688
%TO
%CO
=
From the graph: t
01
70sec
min
60sec
⋅ := 3.0weight% 0.632∆x + 3.95 weight% = t
2
190sec :=
τ
1
t
2
min
60sec
⋅ t
01
− := t
01
1.17 min = τ
1
2 min = K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
4.688e
1.17 − s
2.0s 1 +
%CO
%TO
=
Openloop step response to change in inlet moisture: ∆x
F
3weight% :=
The controller is reverse acting (positive gain): increasing product moisture content decreases the
controller output; this decreases the table feeder speed and the feed rate reducing the moisture
input to the drier and the moisture content of the product.
G
c
s ( )
100%CO
199%TO
1
1
1.5s
+ 0.52s +
= τ
D
0.52 min = τ
I
1.5min =
100%CO
K
c
199 %TO =
τ
D
0.482 τ
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1.137
⋅ := τ
I
τ
1
0.878
t
01
τ
1
0.749
:= K
c
1.435
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
0.921 −
:= From Table 72.2:
(c) Minimum IAE tuning of parallel PID moisture controller on disturbance inputs a
controller action.
K
T
G
2
s ( ) ⋅
16.67e
1.08 − s
1.75s 1 +
%CO
weight%
= τ
2
1.75 min = t
02
1.08 min = τ
2
t
2
min
60sec
⋅ t
02
− :=
t
2
170sec := 3.0weight% 0.632∆x + 4.26 weight% = t
02
65sec
min
60sec
⋅ :=
From the graph:
K
T
K
2
⋅ 16.67
%TO
weight%
= K
2
0.667
weight%
weight%
= K
2
∆x
∆x
F
:= ∆x 5.0 3.0 − ( )weight% :=
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t
m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e
,
w
t
%
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
50%CO ∆m + 57.11 %CO = If the initial controller output is 50%CO, the final steady state is:
∆m 7.11 %CO = ∆m
K
2
−
K
1
2 − weight% ( ) :=
∆m K
1
⋅ K
2
2 − weight% ( ) ⋅ + 0 = For the change in outlet moisture to be zero:
(e) Controller output required to avoid offset for the disturbance of part (d).
3weight%
Offset
K
T
− 2.51 weight% = Final steady state moisture control of the product:
Offset
K
T
0.49 weight% = Offset 12.28 %TO = Offset
K
T
0 ⋅ K
T
K
2
⋅ 2 − weight% ( ) ⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:=
K
c
0.37
%CO
%TO
= K
c
1
K
T
K
1
⋅
t
01
τ
1
1 −
:= From Table 72.1:
(d) New moisture content of the product when the feed moisture content decrease
by 2 weight%. Controller is proportional only tuned for quarter decay ratio respons
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 723. Level control by manipulatiion of inlet flow.
f (t)
h(t)
f (t)
LC
LT
SP
i
o
Control valve fails closed.
Block diagram of the level control loop and required controller action.
G
c
(s)
1/As
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+ 
+

H(s)
K
T
F
o
(s)
%CO
LT
%TO
ft
3
/min
ft
%TO
LC
G
v
(s)
F
i
(s)
ft
3
/min
1/As
The only difference between this diagram and the one of Fig. 73.1 is that
the controller manipulates the inlet flow instead of the outlet flow. G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing level decreases the controller
output; this closes the control valve decreasing the inlet flow and the level drops.
Closedloop transfer function.
C s ( )
K G
c
s ( ) ⋅
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K G
c
s ( ) ⋅ +
C
set
s ( )
K
u
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K G
c
s ( ) ⋅ +
F
o
s ( ) − =
where
K
K
v
K
T
⋅
A
%TO
%CO min ⋅
= K
u
K
T
A
%TO
ft
3
=
The formulas of Section 73 apply to this case also. Only the action of the controller is different.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
C
vmax
200% f
1d
⋅
1Pa
1.45 10
4 −
⋅ psi
m
3
1000kg g ⋅ h
d
⋅
⋅
264.2gal
m
3
⋅
60sec
min
⋅ := Size the valve:
f
d
0.013
m
3
s
=
g 9.807
m
s
2
= G
f
ρ m
3
⋅
1000kg
=
3 eqns. 3 unks. ∆p
v
t ( ) ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅
1.45 10
4 −
⋅ psi
Pa
=
Assume valve exit is at the level of the bottom of the tank and at the same pressure.
2 eqns. 3 unks. (∆p
v
) f
1
t ( ) C
vmax
vp t ( ) ⋅
∆p
v
t ( )
G
f
⋅
m
3
264.2gal
min
60sec
=
Valve equation:
1 eqn. 2 unks. (h, f
1
)
π D
2
⋅
4
ρ ⋅
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ f
i
t ( ) ⋅ ρ f
o
t ( ) ⋅ − ρ f
1
t ( ) ⋅ − = Mass balance:
The model of Section 41.1 must be modified to account for the variable valve position.
(a) Model as in Section 41.1, draw the block diagram, determine the transfer
functions and the maximum gain of a proportional controller for nonoscillatory
response. Determine the effective time constants of the closedloop at that gain,
and the offset caused by a 0.001 m
3
/s.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Proportional controller:
τ
v
5s :=
f
1d
0.003
m
3
s
:=
Control valve sized for
twice the design flow of
h
max
3m := h
min
1m :=
Level transmitter:
h
d
2m := D 3m :=
Problem data:
f
i
(t)
h(t)
f
o
(t)
LC
LT
SP
f
1
(t)
Problem 724. Comparison of tank level dynamic models of Section 41.1
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Block diagram of the loop:
G
2
s ( )
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= G
1
s ( )
K
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
where
H s ( ) G
1
s ( ) F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
⋅ G
2
s ( ) VP s ( ) − =
Laplace transform and rearrange:
K
2
0.156
m
%CO
=
τ min ⋅
60s
157.08 min =
K
1
1.3 10
3
×
s
m
2
= τ 9425 s = K
2
2 h
d
⋅
vp
d
:= K
1
2 h
d
⋅
k
v
vp
d
⋅
:= τ
π D
2
⋅
4
2 h
d
⋅
k
v
vp
d
⋅
⋅ :=
where
τ
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ H t ( ) + K
1
F
i
t ( ) ⋅ K
1
F
o
t ( ) ⋅ − K
2
VP t ( ) ⋅ − =
C
vmax
56.4
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, a 3in valve is required.
C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Let
f
1
t ( ) k
v
vp t ( ) ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅ =
where
k
v
C
vmax
1000kg
m
3
g ⋅
1.45 10
4 −
⋅ psi
Pa
⋅ ⋅
m
3
264.2gal
⋅
min
60s
:= k
v
8.275 10
3 −
×
m
3
s m ⋅
=
Valve position at design conditions:
vp
d
f
1d
k
v
h
d
⋅
:= vp
d
25.6 % =
Substitute and simplify:
π D
2
⋅
4
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) − k
v
vp t ( ) ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅ − =
Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables:
π D
2
⋅
4
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ F
i
t ( ) F
o
t ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ VP t ( ) −
k
v
vp
d
⋅
2 h
d
⋅
H t ( ) − = H 0 ( ) 0 =
Rearrange into standard firtsorder form:
As the (negative) controller gain is increased, this term decreases. When the term is negative the
roots are complex and the response is oscillatory. The maximum gain at which the response is not
oscillatory is when the term is zero:
τ
v
2
2 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ + τ
2
+ 4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ − 4τ
v
τ ⋅ K
p
⋅ K
c
⋅ + τ
v
τ −
( )
2
4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ K
p
⋅ K
c
⋅ + =
The term inside the radical:
r
1
τ
v
τ +
( )
− τ
v
τ +
( )
2
4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ 1 K
p
K
c
⋅ −
( )
⋅ − +
2 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅
= Roots of the caracteristic equation:
τ
v
τ ⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
τ +
( )
s + 1 + K
p
K
c
⋅ − 0 = Characteristic equation of the loop:
C s ( )
K
p
− K
c
⋅
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
C
set
s ( )
K
u
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
Closedloop transfer function:
The control valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent emptying the tank on instrument power
failure.
The controller is direct acting (negative gain): increasing level increases the controller output
opening the valve and increasing the flow out of the tank; this decreases the level.
K
u
6.667 10
4
×
%TO s ⋅
m
3
= K
p
7.801
%TO
%CO
= K
u
K
T
K
1
⋅ := K
p
K
T
K
2
⋅ := Let
K
T
50
%CO
m
= K
T
100%TO
h
max
h
min
−
:= Level transmitter LT:
G
v
s ( )
1
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Valve positioner: G
c
s ( ) K
c
= Proportional controller:
G
c
(s)
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+

+

H(s)
K
T
F
i
(s)  F
o
(s)
%CO
LT
%TO
m
3
/sec
m
%TO
LC
G
v
(s)
VP(s)
%VP
G
2
(s)
G
1
(s)
K
u
0.071
%TO
%CO m
3
⋅
=
K
p
8.278 10
4 −
×
%TO
%CO sec ⋅
= K
u
4
πD
2
K
T
:= K
p
4
πD
2
k
v
h
d
⋅ K
T
⋅ :=
Let
The block diagram is the same as in part (a) with these transfer functions.
G
2
s ( )
4
π D
2
⋅
k
v
h
d
⋅
s
⋅ = G
1
s ( )
4
πD
2
1
s
=
where
G
1
s ( ) F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
⋅ G
2
s ( ) VP s ( ) − =
H s ( )
4
πD
2
1
s
F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ VP s ( ) −
( )
=
Laplace transform:
H 0 ( ) 0 =
π D
2
⋅
4
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ F
i
t ( ) F
o
t ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ VP t ( ) − =
Express this linear equation in terms of deviation variables:
π D
2
⋅
4
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ vp t ( ) ⋅ − =
Substitute into mass balance:
f
1
t ( ) C
vmax
vp t ( ) ⋅
∆p
v
G
f
⋅
m
3
264.2gal
min
60sec
= k
v
h
d
⋅ vp t ( ) ⋅ =
The model now neglects the effect of the level on the flow out of the tank:
(b) Repeat part (a) modeling the tank as in section 73.1 (integrating process).
Offset
K
T
2.826 10
3 −
× m =
Offset 0.141 %TO = Offset
K
u
1 K
p
K
cmax
⋅ −
0.001
m
3
s
:=
Offset for change in inlet flow:
τ
e
9.995 s = τ
e
2 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅
τ
v
τ +
:=
The equivalent time constants of the closed loop at this gain are two identical roots at:
K
cmax
60.3 −
%CO
%TO
= K
cmax
τ
v
τ −
( )
2
−
4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ K
p
⋅
:=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
These results are identical to those of part (a),showing that for the purposes of the level controller,
the effect of the level on the outlet flow is negligible. Notice that the results are the same although
the models look quite different.
Offset
K
T
2.829 10
3 −
× m =
Offset 0.141 %TO = Offset
K
u
K
p
− K
cmax
⋅
0.001
m
3
s
:=
The offset for the change in inlet flow is:
τ
e
10 s = τ
e
2 τ
v
⋅ :=
The equivalent time constants of the closed loop are identical for this gain (the radical is zero):
K
cmax
60.4 −
%CO
%TO
= K
cmax
1 −
4 τ
v
⋅ K
p
⋅
:=
The controller is, like before, direct acting (negative gain). As the negative controller gain
increases in magnitude, the term inside the radical decreases and, when it becomes negative, the
roots are complex and the response is oscillatory. At the maximum gain for nonoscillatory
response, the term in the radical is zero:
1 4 τ
v
⋅ K
p
⋅ K
c
⋅ +
Term in the radical:
r
1
1 − 1 4 τ
v
⋅ K
p
− K
c
⋅
( )
⋅ − +
2 τ
v
⋅
=
Roots of the characteristic equation:
τ
v
s
2
⋅ s + K
p
K
c
⋅ − 0 =
Characteristic equation of the loop:
C s ( )
K
p
− K
c
⋅
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
C
set
s ( )
K
u
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
+ =
Closedloop transfer function:
A τ
I
⋅ τ
v
⋅ s
3
⋅ A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ + K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ s ⋅ − K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ − 0 = Characteristic equation of the loop:
This means there is no offset for either setpoint changes or disturbances.
Offset ∆c
set
∆c − = 0 = ∆c
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
0 K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
∆c
set 0
0 K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
∆f
i
+ = ∆c
set
=
To obtain the steadystate transfer functions, set s = 0:
K
T
τ
I
⋅ s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) ⋅ +
C s ( )
K
c
− τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
C
set
⋅ s ( ) ⋅ =
Substitute and rearrange:
C s ( )
G
c
s ( ) − G
2
s ( ) ⋅
1 G
c
s ( ) G
2
s ( ) ⋅ −
C
set
s ( )
G
1
s ( )
1 G
c
s ( ) G
2
s ( ) ⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) + = Closedloop transfer function:
(a) Closedloop transfer function, characteristic equation, and offset.
G
1
s ( )
K
T
A s ⋅
= G
2
s ( )
K
v
K
T
⋅
A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
= G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
⋅ = PI controller:
G
c
(s)
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+

+

F
i
(s)
%CO
%TO
%TO
LC
G
2
(s)
G
1
(s)
Problem 725. Proportionalintegral level control.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
C s ( ) C
set
s ( )
1
K
c
− K
v
⋅
τ
I
s ⋅
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
F
i
s ( ) + =
So the dominant time constant is equal to the integral time of the controller. This pole however
cancels the zero in the numerator for set point changes:
For very high controller gains:
A τ
I
⋅
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
s
2
τ
I
s ⋅ + 1 + τ
I
s ⋅ 1 + =
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
A
4
τ
I
<
As the controller gain is negative (direct acting controller), the roots are complex as long as the
term in parenthesis is positive, that is, at low controller gains. The response will be oscillatory for:
K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅
( )
2
4 K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ A ⋅ τ
I
⋅ + K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ 4A +
( )
⋅ =
The response i oscillatory when the term inside the radical is negative (complex conjugate roots).
r
1
K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅
( )
2
4A τ
I
⋅ K
v
− K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅
( )
⋅ − +
2Aτ
I
=
Roots:
A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ s ⋅ − K
v
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ − 0 =
Characteristic equation:
(c) For negligible valve time constant, determine the limits of the controller gain for
which the loop is oscillatory. Dominant time constant at high controller gain.
ω
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
A τ
v
⋅
=
where
C t ( ) A sin ω t ⋅ φ +
( )
⋅ =
Root r
1
is cancelled by the zero in the numerator of the transfer function. The response of the level
is oscillatory with no damping, as the controller gain is negative (direct acting controller). The loop
gain does not affect the nature of the response, only the frequency of the oscillations that increases
as the square root of the loop gain. The response is:
r
3
i −
K
v
− K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅
A τ
v
⋅
⋅ = r
2
i
K
v
− K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅
A τ
v
⋅
⋅ = r
1
1 −
τ
v
=
A τ
v
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K
v
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ − τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
A τ
v
⋅ s
2
⋅ K
v
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ −
= 0 = τ
I
τ
v
=
For
(b) Roots of the characteristic equation when the integral time is set equal to the
valve time constant. Level response under these conditions.
The control valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the evaporator on instrument ait
failure.
The controller is reverse acting (positive gain): increasing level decreases controller output to
close the valve and reduce the feed flow to the evaporator; this decreases the level.
G
c
(s)
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+

+

H(s)
K
T
F
p
(s)
%CO
LT
%TO
ft
3
/min
ft
%TO
LC
G
v
(s)
G
1
(s)
G
1
(s)
W
s
(s)
ft
3
/min
G
2
(s)

F
i
(s)
lb/min
Block diagram of the level control loop:
Solution:
∆p
v
5psi := Assume
∆f 80
lb
min
= ∆f 10% f
d
⋅ :=
Disturbance, feed flow:
τ
v
2sec :=
Valve sized for 100%
overcapacity, linear.
∆h
T
4ft := A 10ft
2
:=
ρ 98
lb
ft
3
:= f
d
800
lb
min
:=
SP
LC
LT
AT
Vapors
Product
Feed
Steam
Condensate
Problem data:
Problem 726. Level control of an evaporator.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Characteristic equation of the loop: A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ + A τ
v
⋅ s
2
⋅ A s ⋅ + K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ + = 0 =
Roots of the characteristic equation: r
1
A − A
2
4 A ⋅ τ
v
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ − +
2 A ⋅ τ
v
⋅
=
r
2
A − A
2
4 A ⋅ τ
v
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ − −
2 A ⋅ τ
v
⋅
=
The roots are nonoscillatory as long as the term in the radical is positive (real roots). The
maximum controller gain for which this is so is:
K
cmax
A
4 τ
v
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
:= K
cmax
11.4
%CO
%TO
=
At this gain the term in the radical is zero and the effective time constants are identical to each
other and equal to:
τ
e
2 τ
v
⋅ := τ
e
4 s =
Offset for a 10% change in the product and vapor flow: Offset 0
K
T
−
K
cmax
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
∆f
ρ
− :=
Offset
K
T
0.011 ft =
Offset 0.272 %TO =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Level transmitter LT: K
T
100%TO
∆h
T
:= K
T
25
%CO
ft
= G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Size the control valve: C
vmax
200%
f
d
ρ
⋅
7.48gal
ft
3
ρ ft
3
⋅
62.4lb ∆p
v
⋅
⋅ := C
vmax
68.4
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C10.1, page 532, a 3in valve is required. C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve gain: K
v
C
vmax
100%CO
∆p
v
62.4 ⋅ lb ⋅
ρ ft
3
⋅
⋅
ft
3
7.48gal
:= K
v
0.262
ft
3
min %CO ⋅
=
G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
= G
1
s ( )
1
A s ⋅
= G
2
s ( )
E
ρ
1
A s ⋅
= E = evaporator economy, lb
vapors/lb steam.
Closedloop transfer function:
C s ( )
K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅
A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ +
C
set
s ( )
K
T
A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ +
F
p
s ( )
E
ρ
W
s
s ( ) +
− =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ´
D
τ
2
= τ´
I
τ
1
= K´
c
τ
1
K τ
c
τ
3
+
( )
⋅
=
This is a series PID controller with the following tuning formulas:
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
K τ
c
τ
3
+
( )
⋅
1
1
τ
1
s ⋅
+
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
=
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
K 1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
( )
⋅
1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 + 1 − τ
3
s ⋅ +
=
Substitue and reaarrange:
C s ( )
R s ( )
1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
= To avoid a postive pole in the controller, define:
This contains a positive pole which results in an unstable response when it doesn't exactly match
the time constant of the transfer function.
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
K 1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
( )
⋅
1
τ
c
s ⋅
⋅ =
The controller transfer function is:
C s ( )
R s ( )
1
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
= For teh standard closedloop response:
G
c
s ( )
1
G s ( )
C s ( )
R s ( )
1
C s ( )
R s ( )
−
= Synthesis formula, Eq. 74.2, page 258: Solution:
G s ( )
K 1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
( )
⋅
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅
=
Problem 727. Sythesize controller for process with inverse response.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
G s ( )
2.05e
2.75 − s
8.25s 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
t
0
2.75 min = τ 8.25 min = t
0
t
2
τ − := τ 1.5 t
2
t
1
−
( )
⋅ :=
t
2
12 1 − ( )min := 64.8%TO 0.632∆c + 67.391 %TO =
t
1
6.5 1 − ( )min := 64.8%TO 0.283∆c + 65.96 %TO = Fit 3 model:
K
p
2.05
%TO
%CO
=
K
p
∆c
2%CO
:=
∆c 4.1%TO =
∆c 68.9 64.8 − ( )%TO :=
Openloop response to a 2%CO step change in the signal to the valve at 1 minute:
This reactor is simulated in Problem 135 and the temperature control loop is simulated in Problem
1321. For the development of the simulation and the Simulink block diagrams, see the solutions to
those problems.
Problem 728. Simulation of temperature control loop for the nonisothermal
reactor of Section 42.3.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
By comparison, the gain is slightly smaller and the integral is 60% slower than for quarterdecay
ratio response.
G
c
s ( ) 1.5
%CO
%TO
1
1
8.3s
+
1.4s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
1.4min = τ´
I
8.3min =
K´
c
1.5
%CO
%TO
= τ´
D
t
0
2
:= τ´
I
τ := K´
c
τ
K
p
t
0
⋅
:=
From Table 74.1:
(b) Synthesis tuning with τ
c
= 0 of series PID temperature controller.
Notice the inverse
response of the
reactor temperature
to the change in
reactants flow.
The controller output
increases to close
the coolant valve
which is airtoclose
(fails opened).
Response to a 0.2 ft
3
/min change in rectants flow at 1 min:
G
c
s ( ) 1.8
%CO
%TO
1
1
5.5s
+
1.4s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
1.4min = τ´
I
5.5min =
K´
c
1.8
%CO
%TO
= τ´
D
t
0
2
:= τ´
I
2 t
0
⋅ := K´
c
1.2
K
p
t
0
τ
1 −
:=
From Table 72.1:
(a) Quaterdecay ratio tuning of series PID temperature controller.
The responses to a 0.2 ft
3
/min change in reactants flow at 1 min are:
Notice that the return
to the set point is
much slower than
with quarterdecay
ratio tuning.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 121. Loop interaction for the processes of Fig. 121.1.
(a) Blending tank, Fig. 121.1(a).
Manipulated variables: flows of each of the two inlet streams.
Controlled variables: product flow and composition.
Increasing the flow of either inlet stream increases the product flow. Increasing the flow of the more
concentrated stream increases the product composition, while increasing the flow of the more dilute
stream decreases the product composition. This means the interaction is positive (the two loops
help each other): when the flow of the stream controlling the product composition increases, the
flow controller decreases the flow of the other stream; as the two inlet streams have opposite
effects on the product composition, the change caused by the product flow controller changes the
composition in the same direction.
(b) Chemical reactor, Fig. 121.1(b).
Manipulated variables: coolant flow and reactants flow. Assume the product flow is manipulated to
control the level in the reactor.
Controlled variables: flow and reactant composition in the product stream.
As the reactor is cooled, the reaction must be exothermic.
The coolant flow has a negative effect on the temperature and no direct effect on the •
composition.
The reactants flow has a positive effect on the reactant composition and, if the feed is at a •
lower temperature than the reactor, a negative effect on temperature.
So, at first glance it appears that there is no intercation between the loops, but the interaction
comes through the effect or reactant composition and temperature on each other through the
reaction rate.
When the reactants composition is not controlled, an increase in coolant flow causes a decrease in
reactor temperature; this decreases the reaction rate and increases the reactants concentration,
resulting in a higher reaction rate and temperature than if the reactants composition were kept
constant. So, controlling the composition constant results in a smaller change in reactor
temperature when the coolant flow is changed. Similarly, if the temperature is not controlled, an
increase in reactants flow increases in reactants concentration and the reaction rate resulting in an
increase in temperature, so that the increase in reaction rate is higher than if the temperature is
kept constant. So, controlling the temperature constant results in a larger increase in composition
when the temperature is allowed vto increase.
So, for this particular case, it appears that the interaction is negative with respect to the
temperature loop, and positive with respect to the composition loop. This is unusual.
(c) Evaporator, Fig. 121.1(c).
Manipulated variables: valve on feed line, steam flow, and product flow.
Controlled variables: evaporator level, product composition, and througput.
Opening the valve on the feed line increases the throughput and the level in the evaporator, and •
decreases the product composition by diluting the contents of the evaporator.
Increasing the steam flow increases the vaporization rate, decreasing the level and increasing •
the product composition by removing the solvent.
Increasing the product flow decreases the level and increases the throughput, but it has no •
direct effect on the product composition.
As the level must be controlled, the effect of each manipulated variable on the controlled variables
depends on which manipulated variable is used to control the level. Let us assu,e that the feed valve
is used to control the level, since the feed is the largest of the three streams and the level must be
controlled tightly in an evaporator. Then, an increase in steam causes the feed flow to increaseto
maintain the level constant; this increases the throughput and also the product composition, since
there is a net increase in the flow of solute into the eveporator. An increase in product flow
increases the feed flow to maintain the level constant; this increases the throughput and decreases
the product composition, since there is a net increase in the rate of solvent into the evaporator.
The interaction is positive: three positive effects and one negative. When the troughput is
maintained constant the steam and product flows must be chnaged in opposite directions causing
the product composition to change more than if the throughput is allowed to vary. Similarly, when
the product composition is maintained constant, the steam and product flows must change in the
same direction causing the throughput to change more than if the composition is allowed to vary.
(d) Paperdrying machine, Fig. 121.1(d).
Manipulated variables: stock feed flow and steam flow.
Controlled variables: moisture content and drybasis weight (fibers per unit area) of the product.
Assume that the water is removed at a constant rate by mechanical means (filtration) in the first
part of the machine.
Increasing the stock feed rate increases the moisture content and the drybasis weight. •
increasing the steam rate decreases the moisture content and has no direct effect on the •
drybasis weight.
It appears that there is no interaction.
(e) Distillation column, Fig. 121.1(e).
Manipulated variables: Coolant flow to the condenser, steam flow to the reboiler, reflux flow,
distillate product flow, and bottoms product flow.
Controlled variables: distillate and bottoms product compositions, condenser accumulator and
column bottom levels, and column pressure.
Coolant rate has a negative effect on the column pressure and a positive effect on the •
accumulator level.
Steam flow to the reboiler has positive effects on the bottoms product purity and the column •
pressure, and negative effects on the distillate product purity and the column bottom level.
Reflux flow has positive effects on distillate product purity and column bottom level, and •
negative effects on bottoms product purity and condehnser accumulator level.
Distillate product rate has a negative effect on the condenser accumulator level and no direct •
effect on any of the other variables.
Bottoms product rate has a negative effect on column bottom level and no direct effect on any •
of the other variables.
There are positive ad negative interactions between the variables. As the two levels must be
controlled, the interactions depend on which variables are manipulated to control the levels.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Steady state model: Total mass balance: w
C
w
w
+ w
P
=
Caustic balance: w
C
x
C
⋅ w
P
x
P
⋅ = (pure water diluent)
Solve for x
P
: x
P
w
C
x
C
⋅
w
P
=
w
C
x
C
⋅
w
C
w
w
+
=
Openloop gain matrix:
w
C
w
w
w
P
K
OL
δw
P
δw
C
δx
P
δw
C
δw
P
δw
w
δx
P
δw
w

\




.
=
1
w
P
x
C
⋅ w
C
x
C
⋅ −
w
P
2
1
w
C
− x
C
⋅
w
P
2

\


.
=
1
w
w
x
C
⋅
w
P
2
1
w
C
− x
C
⋅
w
P
2

\


.
=
x
P
Relative gain matrix: w
C
w
w
mass% % := klb 1000lb :=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 122. Control of caustic dilution process.
3
SP
AT
FC
SP
FT
w
P
x
P
w
FC
FT
FC
FT
SP
SP
Caustic
Water
AC
3
1
2
Problem data:
w
P
40
klb
hr
:= x
P
30mass% :=
x
C
50mass% :=
Assumptions:
Perfect mixing •
Constant mass •
Manipulated variables:
Flows of water and caustic
w
C
and w
w
Controlled variables:
Product flow and mass fraction: w
P
and x
P
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Notice that the gain of the composition loop is negative, so a direct acting controller is required for
the composition loop.
mass% hr ⋅
klb
K
OL
1 1 .
u
1 1 .
1.25 − =
The gain is then:
1
u
1 1 .
1 − 66.7 % =
When the flow control loop is closed, the gain of the composition loop increases by
So, in this case, to minimize interaction,
the caustic stream flow, FC1, must be manipulated to control the product flow •
the water inlet flow, FC2, must be used to control the product composition. •
x
P
u
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.6

\

.
= u
w
C
w
P
w
w
w
P
w
w
w
P
w
C
w
P

\




.
:=
w
P
w
w
w
C
Relative gains:
x
P
K
OL
1
0.5
1
0.75 −

\

.
= K
OL
1
w
w
x
C
⋅
w
P
2
klb
hr mass% ⋅
1
w
C
− x
C
⋅
w
P
2
klb
hr mass% ⋅

\


.
:=
w
P
w
w
w
C
Open loop gains:
w
C
24
klb
hr
= w
w
16
klb
hr
= w
w
w
P
w
C
− := w
C
w
P
x
P
⋅
x
C
:=
Numerical results:
So, the result is as for the regular blender: the pairing that minimizes the interaction is the one in
which the largest of the two inlet flows is used to control the product flow, and the smaller inlet flow
is used to control the product mass fraction.
The interaction is positive (the loops help each other) as the relative gains are positive.
x
P
u
w
C
− x
C
⋅
w
C
− x
C
⋅ w
w
x
C
⋅ −
w
w
− x
C
⋅
w
C
− x
C
⋅ w
w
x
C
⋅ −
w
w
− x
C
⋅
w
C
− x
C
⋅ w
w
x
C
⋅ −
w
C
− x
C
⋅
w
C
− x
C
⋅ w
w
x
C
⋅ −

\




.
=
w
C
w
C
w
w
+
w
w
w
C
w
w
+
w
w
w
C
w
w
+
w
C
w
C
w
w
+

\




.
=
w
P
Openloop gains:
f
2
2 gpm = f
1
1 gpm = f
2
f
o
f
1
− := f
1
f
o
T
o
T
2
−
T
1
T
2
−
⋅ :=
f
1
T
1
⋅ f
o
f
1
−
( )
T
2
+ f
o
T
o
⋅ = Combine balance equations:
(b) Required flows of hot and cold water and the openloop steadystate gains.
T
o
f
1
T
1
⋅ f
2
T
2
⋅ +
f
1
f
2
+
=
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
1
⋅ f
2
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
2
⋅ + f
o
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
o
⋅ = Enthalpy balance:
f
o
f
1
f
2
+ = f
1
ρ ⋅ f
2
ρ ⋅ + f
o
ρ ⋅ = Total mass balance:
(a) Develop the model of the process
Assume
Negligible time delay •
Constant properties •
Reference temperature of 0ºF •
c
p
1
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= ρ 8.33
lb
gal
:=
T
2
80degF := T
1
170degF :=
T
o
110degF := f
o
3gpm :=
Problem data:
TE
TC
Hot
water
Cold
water
S
SP
S
FE
FC
SP
f
1
f
2
f
o
T
2
T
1
T
o
Problem 123. Automatic control of a household shower.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
gpm
gal
min
:=
degF R :=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
degF
gpm
K
OL
1 0 .
u
1 0 .
30 =
K
OL
0 1 .
u
0 1 .
1.5 =
The closedloop gains are:
1
u
1 0 .
1 − 50 % =
The interaction is positive (the loops help each other), as the relative gains are positive. When one
loop is closed, the gain of the other loop increases by:
T
o
u
0.333
0.667
0.667
0.333

\

.
= u
f
1
f
o
f
2
f
o
f
2
f
o
f
1
f
o

\




.
:=
f
o
f
2
f
1
The pairing that minimizes interaction is the total flow with the larger of the two inlet streams (in this
case the cold water, f
2
) and the tempearture with the smaller stream (in this case the hot water, f
1
).
T
o
u
f
1
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
⋅
f
1
f
2
+
( )
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
f
2
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
⋅
f
1
f
2
+
( )
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
f
2
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
⋅
f
1
f
2
+
( )
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
f
1
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
⋅
f
1
f
2
+
( )
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
=
f
1
f
1
f
2
+
f
2
f
1
f
2
+
f
2
f
1
f
2
+
f
1
f
1
f
2
+

\




.
=
f
o
f
2
f
1
(c) Relative gains and pairing that minimize interaction.
The first row in dimensionless and the
second has units of ºF/gpm.
T
o
K
OL
1
20
1
10 −

\

.
= K
OL
1
f
2
T
1
T
2
−
( )
⋅
f
o
2
gpm
degF
1
f
1
− T
1
T
2
−
( )
⋅
f
o
2
gpm
degF
:=
f
o
f
2
f
1
K
OL
δf
o
δf
1
δT
o
δf
1
δf
o
δf
2
δT
o
δf
1

\




.
=
1
f
1
f
2
+
( )
T
1
⋅ f
1
T
1
⋅ − f
2
T
2
⋅ −
f
1
f
2
+
( )
2
1
f
1
f
2
+
( )
T
2
⋅ f
1
T
1
⋅ − f
2
T
2
⋅ −
f
1
f
2
+
( )
2
=
Economy: w
v
E w
S
⋅ =
Solute balance: w
F
x
F
⋅ w
P
x
P
⋅ =
Combine and rearrange: w
F
w
P
E w
S
⋅ + = x
P
x
F
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
( )
w
P
⋅ = x
F
1
E w
S
⋅
w
P
+

\

.
⋅ =
Control valve gains: w
P
K
vP
m
P
⋅ = w
S
K
vS
m
S
⋅ =
(b) Steadystate openloop gains and relative gains.
m
P
m
S
Openloop gains:
w
F
K
OL
δw
F
δm
P
δx
P
δm
P
δw
F
δm
S
δx
P
δm
S

\




.
=
K
vP
K
vP
x
F
⋅
E − w
S
⋅
w
P
2

\

.
⋅
K
vS
E ⋅
K
vS
x
F
⋅
E
w
P
⋅
=
x
P
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 124. Control of an evaporator.
SP
SP
SP
FC
FT
LC
AC
LT
AT
Feed
Product
Vapors
Steam
m
S
m
P
w
F
x
P
w
P
w
S
w
v
x
F
Problem data:
Manipulated variables:
Product and steam valve signals.
m
P
and m
S
Controlled variables:
Feed flow (throughput)
Product composition
w
F
and x
P
Assume the evaporator economy E
is constant.
(a) Steadystate model of the evaporator.
Total mass balance: w
F
w
P
w
v
+ =
Relative gains:
u
K
vP
K
vS
⋅ x
F
⋅ E ⋅
w
P
K
vP
⋅ K
vs
⋅ x
F
⋅ E ⋅
1
w
P
E w
S
⋅
w
P
2
+

\

.
⋅
K
vP
K
vS
⋅ x
F
⋅ E
2
⋅ w
S
⋅
w
P
2
K
vP
⋅ K
vs
⋅ x
F
⋅ E ⋅
1
w
P
E w
S
⋅
w
P
2
+

\

.
⋅
K
vP
K
vS
⋅ x
F
⋅ E
2
⋅ w
S
⋅
w
P
2
K
vP
⋅ K
vs
⋅ x
F
⋅ E ⋅
1
w
P
E w
S
⋅
w
P
2
+

\

.
⋅
K
vP
K
vS
⋅ x
F
⋅ E ⋅
w
P
K
vP
⋅ K
vs
⋅ x
F
⋅ E ⋅
1
w
P
E w
S
⋅
w
P
2
+

\

.
⋅
=
m
P
m
S
w
F
u
w
P
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
E w
S
⋅
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
E w
S
⋅
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
w
P
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +

\




.
=
x
P
The interaction is positive (the loops help each other), as the realative gains are positive.
(c) General pairing strategy.
The pairing the minimizes interaction is:
if the product flow is larger than the vapor flow (E*W
S
), control throughput with the signal to the •
valve on the product line and the composition with the signal to the steam valve
if the product flow is smaller than the vapor flow (E*W
S
), control throughput with the signal to •
the steam valve and the composition with the signal to the product valve.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
OL
1
0.417 −
0.9
0.563

\

.
=
x
P
The first row is in klb/klb, and the second is
in mass%/(klb/hr). Relative gains:
w
P
w
S
w
F
u
w
P
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
E w
S
⋅
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
E w
S
⋅
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +
w
P
w
P
E w
S
⋅ +

\




.
:= u
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.6

\

.
=
x
P
Pairing that minimizes interaction is
control throughput with the product rate •
control composition with steam rate •
When the feed flow loop is closed, the product composition loop gain changes by
1
u
1 1 .
1 − 66.7 % = The closedloop gain of the composition loop is:
mass% hr ⋅
klb
K
OL
1 1 .
u
1 1 .
0.938 =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 125. Multivariable control of evaporator of Problem 124.
Problem data: x
F
30mass% := x
P
50mass% := w
F
80
klb
hr
:= E 0.9
klb
klb
:=
Combine balance equations to solve for design conditions:
w
P
w
F
x
F
x
P
⋅ := w
S
w
F
w
P
−
E
:= w
P
48
klb
hr
= w
S
35.556
klb
hr
=
From the solution to Problem 124, ignoring the valve gains:
Openloop gains:
w
P
w
S
w
F
K
OL
1
x
F
− E ⋅ w
S
⋅
w
P
2
klb
hr mass% ⋅
E
x
F
E ⋅
w
P
klb
hr mass% ⋅

\


.
:=
Relative gains:
The first column is in
mole%/(klb/hr) and the second
in mole%/(lbmole/hr).
y
D
K
OL
3.14 −
1.71 −
0.51
0.676

\

.
= K
OL
x
B
0 1 .
x
B
0 0 .
−
w
S
0 1 .
w
S
0 0 .
−
y
D
0 1 .
y
D
0 0 .
−
w
S
0 1 .
w
S
0 0 .
−
x
B
0 2 .
x
B
0 0 .
−
w
R
0 2 .
w
R
0 0 .
−
y
D
0 2 .
y
D
0 0 .
−
w
R
0 2 .
w
R
0 0 .
−

\





.
:=
x
B
w
R
w
S
Openloop steady state gains:
y
D
93.50 91.79 96.88 ( ) :=
x
B
6.22 3.08 8.77 ( ) :=
Butane mole %
w
R
70.0 70.0 75.0 ( ) :=
Reflux flow, lbmole/hr
w
S
24.0 25.0 24.0 ( ) := Steam flow, klb/hr
Case
Test 1 Test 2 Base
Results of tests performed on a smlation of the column:
Manipulated variables:
Steam and reflux flows
Controlled variables:
Bottoms and distillate compositions
The pressure and level loops are
arranged as shown in the figure.
Steam
Bottoms
Distillate
Feed
Condenser
LC
PC
LC
AC
AC
1
2
1
2
LT
AT
LT
AT
PT
Reflux
Problem 126. Distillation product composition control.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
w
S
w
R
x
B
u
K
OL
0 0 .
K
OL
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
0 1 .
K
OL
1 0 .
⋅

\

.
−
K
OL
K
OL
0 1 .
K
OL
1 0 .
⋅

\

.
−
K
OL
K
OL
0 0 .
K
OL
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
:= u
1.697
0.697 −
0.697 −
1.697

\

.
=
y
D
The interaction is negative (loops fight each other): relative gains are either negative or greater than
unity.
Pairing the minimizes interaction:
control distillate composition with reflux rate •
control bottoms composition with steam rate •
Closedloop gain of distillate control loop:
K
OL
1 1 .
u
1 1 .
0.398 =
mole% hr ⋅
lbmole
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
OL
f
1
x
0
x
1
−
( )
⋅ f
2
x
0
x
2
−
( )
⋅ +
f
p
2 day
kbl

\

.
2
⋅
f
1
y
0
y
1
−
( )
⋅ f
2
y
0
y
2
−
( )
⋅ +
f
p
2 day
kbl

\

.
2
⋅
1
f
0
x
1
x
0
−
( )
⋅ f
2
x
1
x
2
−
( )
⋅ +
f
p
2 day
kbl

\

.
2
⋅
f
0
y
1
y
0
−
( )
⋅ f
2
y
1
y
2
−
( )
⋅ +
f
p
2 day
kbl

\

.
2
⋅
1
f
0
x
2
x
0
−
( )
⋅ f
1
x
2
x
1
−
( )
⋅ +
f
p
2 day
kbl

\

.
2
⋅
f
0
y
2
y
0
−
( )
⋅ f
1
y
2
y
1
−
( )
⋅ +
f
p
2 day
kbl

\

.
2
⋅
1
:=
Steadystate openloop gains:
kbl
day
f
22.5
24.375
13.125

\

.
= f
x
0
y
0
1
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2
1

\


.
1 −
x
p
y
p
1

\


.
f
p
day ⋅
kbl
:=
y
p
f
1
y
1
⋅ f
2
y
2
⋅ + f
3
y
3
⋅ +
f
1
f
2
+ f
3
+
= x
P
f
1
x
1
⋅ f
2
x
2
⋅ + f
3
x
3
⋅ +
f
1
f
2
+ f
3
+
=
Required inlet flows:
Assume
gasoline properties are a linear •
combination of the feed
properties weighted by volume
Constant standar density •
f
p
60.0
kbl
day
:=
y
p
7.00 := x
p
89.0 :=
Gasoline
y
5.00
11.00
3.00

\

.
:= x
97.0
80.0
92.0

\

.
:=
1. Alkylate
2. Straight run
3. Reformate
RVP Octane Problem data:
FC
FT
FC
FT
FC
FT
SP
AC
AT
1
SP
AC
AT
2
SP
FC
FT
3
SP
SP
SP x y f
f
f
f
1
2
3
Alkylate
Straight run
Reformate
Problem 127. Control of gasoline blender of example 122.5.
kbl 42000gal := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Oct
u
1
0.375 −
0.375
0.281
0.313
0.406
0.281 −
1.062
0.219

\

.
= y
p
RVP
f
p
Flow
Pairing to minimize interaction:
Use alkylate (stream 1) to control the gasoline octane •
Use the reformate (stream 3) to control the gasoline Reed vapor pressure •
Use the straight run (stream 2) to control the product flow. •
These are the same pairings as in Example 122.5.
Design of static decoupler, as in Example 123.3.
To use the recommended pairing with the decoupler, we must swap columns 2 and 3 in the
iopenloop gain matrix, and recalculate the inverse matrix. The new inverse matrix is matrix B
with the second and third rows swapped. The decoupler is then, from Eq. 123.11:
Oct RVP Flow
m
1
m
2
m
3
f
1
Alkylate
D
B
0 0 .
B
0 0 .
B
2 0 .
B
0 0 .
B
1 0 .
B
0 0 .
B
0 1 .
B
2 1 .
B
2 1 .
B
2 1 .
B
1 1 .
B
2 1 .
B
0 2 .
B
1 2 .
B
2 2 .
B
1 2 .
B
1 2 .
B
1 2 .

\








.
:= D
1
0.75 −
0.25 −
0.706 −
1
0.294 −
0.923
0.538
1

\

.
= f
3
Reformate
f
2
Straight run
The instrumentation diagram is the same as Fig.
123.6.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Alk St run Ref
f
1
f
2
f
3
x
p
Oct
day
kbl
y
p
RVP
K
OL
0.133
0.033 −
1
0.15 −
0.067
1
0.05
0.067 −
1

\

.
=
f
p
Flow
Relative gains:
Inverse of the openloop gains: B K
OL
1 −
:= B
7.5
1.875 −
5.625 −
11.25
4.688
15.938 −
0.375
0.406
0.219

\

.
=
kbl
day
Alk St run Ref
f
1
f
2
f
3
u
K
OL
0 0 .
B
0 0 .
⋅
K
OL
1 0 .
B
0 1 .
⋅
K
OL
2 0 .
B
0 2 .
⋅
K
OL
0 1 .
B
1 0 .
⋅
K
OL
1 1 .
B
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
2 1 .
B
1 2 .
⋅
K
OL
0 2 .
B
2 0 .
⋅
K
OL
1 2 .
B
2 1 .
⋅
K
OL
2 2 .
B
2 2 .
⋅

\



.
:=
x
p
Obtain the relative gains by Eq. 122.13, page 422:
B
0.03089
0.01256 −
0.03592
6.43731 −
3.8685
8.29331 −
0.31641 −
0.06809
1.29688 −

\

.
= B K
OL
1 −
:= K
OL
119
0.37
0.930
153
0.767
0.667 −
21 −
0.050 −
1.033 −

\

.
:=
Obtain the openloop steadystate gains by setting s = 0 in the transfer functions:
(a) Relative gains and pairings that minimize interaction.
DCF, kg/liter
FML, liters/s G s ( )
119
217 s ⋅ 1 +
0.37
500 s ⋅ 1 +
0.930
500 s ⋅ 1 +
153
337 s ⋅ 1 +
0.767
33 s ⋅ 1 +
0.667 − e
320 − s
166s 1 +
21 −
10 s ⋅ 1 +
0.050 −
10 s ⋅ 1 +
1.033 −
47s 1 +

\






.
=
TOR, Nm
Time is in sec
SW, kg/s MW, kg/s SF, kg/s
Models from openloop tests by Hubert and Woodburn (1983):
Manipulated variables:
SF = solids flow
MW = mill water flow
SW = slurry tank water
Controlled variables:
TOR = mill torque
FML = flow from mill
DCF = cyclone feed
density
AT
XT
FT
AC
XC
FC
DCF
TOR
FML
Mill
Cyclone
SW
SF
MW
Problem 128. Control of a wet grinding circuit.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Block diagram of decoupled system:
DCF, kg/liter
FML, liters/sec
K
OL
D ⋅
32.372
0
0
0
0.258
0
0 −
0
0.771 −

\

.
=
TOR, Nm
Decoupled system gains:
kg/sec kg/sec kg/sec
m
DCF
m
FML
m
TOR
All variables in kg/sec
SW
set
MW
set
SF
kg/s
MW
kg/s
SW
kg/s
u
K
OL
0 0 .
B
0 0 .
⋅
K
OL
1 0 .
B
0 1 .
⋅
K
OL
2 0 .
B
0 2 .
⋅
K
OL
0 1 .
B
1 0 .
⋅
K
OL
1 1 .
B
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
2 1 .
B
1 2 .
⋅
K
OL
0 2 .
B
2 0 .
⋅
K
OL
1 2 .
B
2 1 .
⋅
K
OL
2 2 .
B
2 2 .
⋅

\



.
:=
TOR, Nm
u
3.676
2.382 −
0.294 −
1.922 −
2.967
0.045 −
0.754 −
0.415
1.34

\

.
=
FML, liters/s
DCF, kg/liter
Pairing to minimize interaction:
Control the mill torque TOR with the solids flow SF •
Control the flow from the mill FML with the water flow to the mill MW •
Control the density of the cyclone feed DCF with the slurry water flow SW •
(b) Design a decoupler and draw the block diagram and the instrumentation
diagram of the decoupled system.
Because of the complexity of the transfer functions, and the fact that five of the six interaction
terms are negative, a full dynamic decoupler will probably create unstable poles. So, a static
decoupler is designed. If dynamic compensation is required, leadlag units may be added and tuned
online. The gain matrix is correct for the recommended pairing.
Obtain the decoupler from Eq. 123.11, page 432:
m
TOR
m
FML
m
DCF
SF
set
D
1
B
1 0 .
B
0 0 .
B
2 0 .
B
0 0 .
B
0 1 .
B
1 1 .
1
B
2 1 .
B
1 1 .
B
0 2 .
B
2 2 .
B
1 2 .
B
2 2 .
1

\








.
:= D
1
0.407 −
1.163
1.664 −
1
2.144 −
0.244
0.053 −
1

\

.
=
R
1
(s)
R
2
(s)
R
3
(s)
M
1
(s)
M
2
(s)
M
3
(s)
SF
MW
SW
TOR
FML
DCF
G
C1
(s)
G
C2
(s)
G
C3
(s)
G
11
(s)
G
12
(s)
G
13
(s)
G
21
(s)
G
22
(s)
G
23
(s)
G
31
(s)
G
32
(s)
G
33
(s)
1.664

0.244
0.407
0.053
1.163
2.144



+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+



Instrumentation diagram of decoupler:
AT
XT
FT
AC XC FC
DCF
TOR
FML
Mill
SW
SF
MW
XY FY AY
1.664
0..244
0.407
0.053
1.163
2.144
TOR
SP
FML
SP
DCF
SP
3
3 3
The summer devices, XY, FY, and AY, are the decouplers. Each signal into the summer is
multiplied by the factor shown by it (unity if no factor is shown). The factors are not corrected for the
valve gains.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
x
B
u
1.217
0.217 −
0.217 −
1.217

\

.
=
y
D
m
S
m
R
u
K
OL
0 0 .
K
OL
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
−
( )
0 1 .
K
OL
1 0 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
−
( )
0 1 .
K
OL
1 0 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
0 0 .
K
OL
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
:=
x
B
K
OL
3.0 −
2.5
0.75
3.5 −

\

.
%TO
%CO
:=
y
D
Relative gains, from Eq. 122.7, page 418:: m
S
m
R
Obtain the openloop steadystate gains by setting s = 0 in the transfer functions:
%CO % :=
(a) Relative gains and pairing that minimizes interaction.
%TO % :=
X
B
s ( )
2.5
1 0.35s +
M
R
s ( ) 3.5
1 0.25s +
1 0.35s +

\

.
M
S
s ( ) − =
Y
D
s ( ) 3.0 −
1 0.11s −
1 0.35s +

\

.
M
R
s ( )
0.75
1 0.35s +
M
S
s ( ) + =
Transfer functions from openloop step tests (time parameters in hours):
= composition of the light
key in the bottoms product
x
B
= composition of heavy key
in the distillate
y
D
x
B
y
D
m
S
m
R
Manipulated variables:
Reflux flow
Steam flow to reboiler
Controlled variables:
Distillate purity
Bottoms product purity
Steam
Bottoms
Distillate
Feed
Condenser
LC
PC
LC
AC
AC
1
2
1
2
LT
AT
LT
AT
PT
Reflux
Problem 129. Decoupler design for distillation product composition control.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The interaction is negative (loops fight each other): relative gains are negative or greater than one.
Pairing that minimizes interaction:
Control distillate purity with reflux flow •
Control bottoms purity with steam flow •
(b) Design the block diagram and draw the block diagram for this system.
Y
D
s ( ) 3.0 −
1 0.11 s ⋅ −
1 0.35 s ⋅ +

\

.
⋅
0.75
1 0.35 s ⋅ +
D
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
M
S
s ( ) ⋅ = 0 = D
1
s ( )
3.0
0.75
1 0.11s − ( ) =
X
B
s ( )
2.5
1 0.35 s ⋅ +
D
2
s ( ) ⋅ 3.5
1 0.25 s ⋅ +
1 0.35 s ⋅ +

\

.
⋅ −
M
R
s ( ) ⋅ = 0 =
D
2
s ( )
3.5
2.5
1 0.25s + ( ) =
The first decoupler required a negative lead that will produce an undersirable result in the reflux flow,
so we will use a simple gain. The second decoupler can be implemented, but a small lag must be
included.
D
1
s ( ) 4.0
%CO
%CO
= D
2
s ( ) 1.4
%CO
%CO
1 0.28s +
1 0.03s +

\

.
=
The second decoupler introduces a net lead of 0.25 hour (15 minutes).
Block diagram of decoupled system:
G
11
(s)
G
12
(s)
G
21
(s)
G
22
(s)
D
1
(s)
D
2
(s)
G
c1
(s)
G
c2
(s)
R
1
(s)
R
2
(s)
M
R
(s)
M
S
(s)
Y
D
(s)
X
B
(s)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+


Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
D
2
s ( )
G
P
2 2 .
− s ( )
G
P
2 1 .
s ( )
=
0.9 −
1.1
1.5s 1 +
2.0s 1 +
e
1 0.3 − ( )s −
= G
P
2 2 .
s ( ) G
P
2 1 .
s ( ) D
2
s ( ) ⋅ +
M
2
s ( ) 0 =
D
1
s ( )
G
P
1 1 .
− s ( )
G
P
1 2 .
s ( )
=
0.81 −
1.2
2.4s 1 +
1.4s 1 +
e
0.6 1.1 − ( )s −
= G
P
1 2 .
s ( ) D
1
s ( ) ⋅ G
P
1 1 .
s ( ) +
M
1
s ( ) 0 =
(b) Design decoupler and show in the block diagram.
Pairing that minimizes interaction:
Control c
1
with m
2
•
Control c
2
with m
1 •
The interaction is negative (loops fight each other): relative gains are either negative or greater than
unity.
c
2
u
1.234 −
2.234
2.234
1.234 −

\

.
= u
K
OL
0 0 .
K
OL
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
0 1 .
− K
OL
1 0 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
0 1 .
− K
OL
1 0 .
⋅
K
OL
K
OL
0 0 .
K
OL
1 1 .
⋅
K
OL

\




.
:=
c
1
m
2
m
1
Relative gains by Eq. 122.7, page 418:
K
OL
0.81
1.1
1.2
0.9

\

.
:=
Obtain openloop steadystate gains by setting s = 0 in the transfer functions:
(a) Relative gains and pairing that minimizes interaction.
G
U
s ( )
0.5
2.2s 1 +
1.5 −
1.8s 1 +

\


.
= G
P
s ( )
0.81e
0.6 − s
1.4s 1 +
1.1e
0.3 − s
1.5s 1 +
1.2e
1.1 − s
2.4s 1 +
0.9e
s −
2s 1 +

\



.
=
C s ( ) G
P
s ( ) M s ( ) G
PU
s ( ) U s ( ) ⋅ + =
Problem 1210. Decoupler design for a 2x2 process.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The first decoupler term cannot be implemented because it requires a negative delay which would
require knowledge of the signal in the future. So, we will add the negative delay of 0.5 min to the
lead in the lead lag unit, making the new lead:
2.4 0.6 − 1.1 + ( )min 2.9min =
The decouplers are then:
D
1
s ( ) 0.675 −
2.9s 1 +
1.4s 1 +
=
D
2
s ( ) 0.818 −
1.5s 1 +
2.0s 1 +
e
0.7s −
=
Block diagram of the complete system:
G
P12
(s)
D
1
(s)
D
2
(s)
G
c1
(s)
G
c2
(s)
R
1
(s)
R
2
(s)
M
2
(s)
M
1
(s)
C
1
(s)
C
2
(s)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+


G
P11
(s)
G
U1
(s)
G
U2
(s)
G
P22
(s)
G
P21
(s)
+
+
U(s)
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is unlawful.
G
v1
s ( ) G
21
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) − G
21
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) G
22
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) ⋅ G
22
s ( ) ⋅ +

\

.
M
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
C
2
s ( ) G
v2
s ( ) G
22
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) − G
12
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) G
11
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) ⋅ G
21
s ( ) ⋅ +

\

.
M
2
s ( ) ⋅ =
If the decouoplers can be implemeted exactly, then:
G
v1
s ( ) G
21
s ( ) ⋅ D
21
s ( ) G
v2
s ( ) ⋅ G
22
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
M
1
s ( ) ⋅ +
C
2
s ( ) G
v2
s ( ) G
22
s ( ) ⋅ D
12
s ( ) G
v1
s ( ) ⋅ G
21
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
M
2
s ( ) ⋅ =
From the block diagram, the transfer functions are:
Similarly for the other variable:
C
1
s ( ) G
v1
s ( ) G
11
s ( )
G
21
s ( )
G
22
s ( )
G
12
s ( ) ⋅ −

\

.
⋅ M
1
s ( ) ⋅ =
So, the system would be
decoupled.
Simplify:
G
v2
s ( ) G
12
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) − G
12
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) G
11
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) ⋅ G
11
s ( ) ⋅ +

\

.
M
2
s ( ) ⋅ +
C
1
s ( ) G
v1
s ( ) G
11
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) − G
21
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) G
22
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) ⋅ G
12
s ( ) ⋅ +

\

.
M
1
s ( ) ⋅ =
If the decouoplers can be implemeted exactly, then:
G
v2
s ( ) G
12
s ( ) ⋅ D
12
s ( ) G
v1
s ( ) ⋅ G
11
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
M
2
s ( ) ⋅ +
C
1
s ( ) G
v1
s ( ) G
11
s ( ) ⋅ D
21
s ( ) G
v2
s ( ) ⋅ G
12
s ( ) ⋅ +
( )
M
1
s ( ) ⋅ =
From the block diagram, the transfer functions are:
D
21
s ( )
G
v1
s ( ) − G
21
s ( ) ⋅
G
v2
s ( ) G
22
s ( ) ⋅
= D
12
s ( )
G
v2
s ( ) − G
12
s ( ) ⋅
G
v1
s ( ) G
11
s ( ) ⋅
=
The decouplers are given in Eq. 123.2, page 426:
Problem 1211. Decoupling of 2x2 process of Fig. 123.2show decoupled
closedloop transfer functions
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Simplify:
So, the system would be
decoupled.
C
2
s ( ) G
v2
s ( ) G
22
s ( )
G
12
s ( )
G
11
s ( )
G
21
s ( ) ⋅ −

\

.
⋅ M
2
s ( ) ⋅ =
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
w
1
50
lb
min
= w
2
50
lb
min
=
So, there is no best pairing and the relative gains are 0.5 for both pairings. As there are no flow
transmitters on the inlet flows, ratio control cannot be implemented. We design then a linear
decoupler.
w w
1
w
2
+ = K
v1
m
1
⋅ K
v2
m
2
⋅ + = ∆w K
v1
∆m
1
⋅ K
v2
∆m2 ⋅ + = 0 = ∆m
1
K
v2
−
K
v1
∆m
2
=
x
w
1
x
1
⋅ w
2
x
2
⋅ +
w
1
w
2
+
=
∆x
w
1
w
2
+
( )
x
1
w
1
x
1
⋅ − w
2
x
2
⋅ −
w
1
w
2
+
( )
2
K
v1
∆m
1
⋅
w
1
w
2
+
( )
x
2
w
1
x
1
⋅ − w
2
x
2
⋅ −
w
1
w
2
+
( )
2
K
v2
∆m
2
⋅ + = 0 =
w
2
x
1
x
2
−
( )
⋅ K
v1
⋅ ∆m
1
⋅ w
1
x
2
x
1
−
( )
⋅ K
v2
⋅ ∆m
2
⋅ + 0 = ∆m
2
K
v1
w
2
⋅
K
v2
w
1
⋅
∆m
1
=
K
v1
w
max
100%CO
:= K
v2
w
max
100%CO
:= K
v1
1.5
lb
min %CO ⋅
= K
v2
1.5
lb
min %CO ⋅
=
The gains of the decouplers are:
K
v1
−
K
v2
1 − =
K
v1
w
2
⋅
K
v2
w
1
⋅
1 =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 1212. Decoupler design for blending tank of Example 125.1.
AC
SP
AT
SP
w
x
1
1
w
x
w
x
2
2
m
m
1
2
V
FC
FT
Design conditions:
x
1
10mass% := x
2
30mass% :=
w 100
lb
min
:= x 20mass% :=
Valves are linear with constant
pressure drop.
w
max
150
lb
min
:=
Analyzer transmitter AT:
x
min
5mass% := x
max
35mass% :=
At the design conditions: w
1
w
x x
1
−
x
2
x
1
−
⋅ := w
2
w w
1
− :=
+
SP
AT
SP
w
x
1
1
w
x
w
x
2
2
m
1
m
2
V
FC
FT
FY
AY
3
+
+

AC
3
Instrumentation diagram:
FY: summer, keeps flow constant
when the analyzer controller varies
m
2
AY: summer, keeps composition
constant when the flow controller
varies m
1
Both require a bias of:
w
1
K
v1
33.33 %CO =
w
2
K
v2
33.33 %CO =
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
Ratio
x
F
x
P
set
= where, at design conditions: w
P
Ratio w
F
⋅ =
This is a ratio controller with the ratio adjustable by the output of the composition controller AC:
w
P
x
F
x
P
set
w
F
⋅ = x
P
set
x
F
w
F
w
P
⋅ =
Want the output of the analyzer controller AC to be the composition:
m
S
w
Fmax
100%CO E ⋅ K
vS
⋅

\

.
m
FC
K
vP
E K
vS
⋅

\

.
m
P
− = w
F
set
w
Fmax
100%CO
=
Now, the feed flow setpoint is obtained using a scale factor on the controller output in %CO. This
scale factor is obtained from the maximum expected feed rate over 100%CO:
m
S
w
F
set
E K
vS
⋅
K
vP
E K
vS
⋅
m
P
− = w
S
w
F
set
w
P
−
E
=
So w
F
set
w
P
E w
S
⋅ + =
Want the output of the feed flow controller FC to be the sum of the vapors and the product:
Decoupler design:
Assume the vapor rate is greater
than the product rate, so that the
steam is used to control the feed
rate and the product to control the
composition.
w
S
K
vS
m
S
⋅ =
w
P
K
vP
m
P
⋅ =
x
P
x
F
w
F
⋅
w
P
=
w
F
w
P
E w
S
⋅ + =
From the solution of Problem 124:
SP
SP
SP
FC
FT
LC
AC
LT
AT
Feed
Product
Vapors
Steam
m
S
m
P
w
F
x
P
w
P
w
S
w
v
x
F
Problem 1213. Nonlinear static decoupler for evaporator of Problem 124.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
This would work best if a flow controller is installed on the product line, but this is probably too
much of an expense for an evaporator. So, the ratio of the signals are used:
Ratio
x
F
x
P
set
w
Fmax
100%CO K
vP
⋅
=
m
P
Ratio m
FC
⋅ = where
Instrumentation diagram:
SP
SP
SP
FC
FT
LC
AC
LT
AT
Feed
Product
Vapors
Steam
m
S
m
P
w
F
x
P
w
P
w
S
x
F
FY
AY
3
X
m
FC
Ratio FY: summer, subtracts the
scaled signal to the product valve
from the signal to the seam valve
to maintain the feed flow constant.
AY: multiplier, makes the signal
to the product valve proportional to
the total signal from the feed
controller, scaled, to make the
product flow proportional to the
feed flow and mintain the product
com position constant.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
f t ( ) 0dynes = y 0 ( ) 100cm = For this problem:
k 1816
gm
s
2
= k
M g ⋅
27cm
:= g 980.7
cm
s
2
= M 50gm := From the solution of problem 29:
y t ( ) and a second integartion gives
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
Integration of this second derivative results in:
d
2
y t ( )
dt
2
g −
f t ( )
M
+
k
M
y t ( ) − =
Solve for the highest derivative:
M
d
2
y t ( )
dt
2
⋅ M − g ⋅ k y t ( ) ⋅ − f t ( ) + =
The differential equation representing the motion of the bird mobile is, from Problem 29:
131. Simulation of Bird Mobile of Problem 29.
Solutions to Problems 131 to 1317
Chapter 13. Simulation of Process Control Systems
The period of oscillation is, as in
the solution to problem 29:
Period 2 π ⋅
M
k
⋅ :=
Period 1.043 s =
The number of complete cycles
in 10 seconds is:
10s
Period
9.592 =
The simulation plot shows the
same result.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Period 1.795 s = Period
2 π ⋅
g
L
:=
g
L
3.501 Hz = The frequency of oscillation is:
(Table 21.1) x t ( ) x 0 ( ) cos
g
L
t
= r
2
i −
g
L
⋅ = r
1.
i
g
L
⋅ = Roots:
s
2 g
L
+
X s ( ) 0 = The solution of the differential equation:
x 0 ( ) 0.1m = L 0.8m := M 0.5kg := g 9.807
m
s
2
=
d
2
x t ( )
dt
2
g
L
− x t ( ) =
Substitute and simplify to obtain:
tan θ
( )
sin θ
( )
=
x t ( )
L
=
For small angles θ, from the geometry:
M − g ⋅ tan θ
( )
⋅ M
d
2
x t ( )
dt
2
⋅ =
Application of Newton's Second Law of Motion:
Mg
x(t)
L
Mg sin2
2
132. Simulation of a Pendulum
The number of oscillations in
10 s is:
10s
Period
5.572 =
The simulation plot shows
the same result.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
w
i
0.194
kg
s
= w
i
A
o
2
M 601300 ⋅ Pa
R
g
T ⋅
⋅ 601300Pa p
o
−
( )
⋅ :=
Assume the compressor is initially off and comes on after 200 s (five time constants) with the exact
flow required to maintain the initial pressure:
τ 42.895 s = τ
V 2
M
R
g
T ⋅
⋅ 601300 ⋅ Pa 500000 ⋅ Pa ⋅
A
o
2 601300 ⋅ Pa p
o
−
( )
⋅
:=
From the linearization of Problem 223, we know that the time constant is:
p 0 ( ) 500000 101300 + ( )Pa = T 70 273.16 + ( )K := R
g
8.314
Pa m
3
⋅
mole K ⋅
⋅ :=
p
o
101300Pa := M 29
gm
mole
:= A
o
0.785cm
2
:= V 1.5m
3
:= Problem parameters:
d p t ( ) ⋅
dt
R
g
T ⋅
V M ⋅
w
i
t ( ) w
o
t ( ) −
( )
= Substitute and solve for dp(t)/dt:
ρ t ( )
M
R
g
T ⋅
p t ( ) = Ideal gas law, assuming constant temperature:
w
o
t ( ) A
o
2 ρ t ( ) p t ( ) p
o
−
( )
⋅ =
Flow through the orifice:
V
dρ t ( )
dt
w
i
t ( ) w
o
t ( ) − =
In Problem 223 the mass balance on the tank produced the following equation:
133. Simulation of Punctured Air Tank of Problem 223.
As predicted by the linearized
model, the pressure reaches
steady state in about 200 s.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Run the simulation for 25 hrs (five time constants). Simulate the oven as a step function from an
inital temperature of 535ºR to 800ºR.
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
σ ε ⋅ A ⋅
M c
v
⋅
T
s
t ( )
4
T t ( )
4
−
=
Integrate the differential equation :
τ 5.16 hr = τ
M c
v
⋅
4 σ ⋅ ε ⋅ A ⋅ 535R ( )
3
⋅
:=
By the linearization done in Problem 224, the time constant of the turkey is:
σ 0.1718 10
8 −
⋅
BTU
hr ft
2
⋅ R
4
:= T 0 ( ) 535R = c
v
0.95
BTU
lb R ⋅
:=
ε 0.6 := T
s
800R := A 3.5ft
2
:= M 12lb := The parameters, given in this problem are:
M c
v
⋅
dT t ( )
dt
⋅ σ ε ⋅ A T
s
t ( )
4
T t ( )
4
−
⋅ =
From the solution to Problem 224, the differential equation obtained from an energy balace on the
turkey is:
134. Simulation of the turkey temperature response of Problem 224.
From the response, the time
constant is much less than 5 hr.
This is because the time constant
gets smaller with temperature. At
800ºR it is:
τ
M c
v
⋅
4 σ ⋅ ε ⋅ A ⋅ 800R ( )
3
⋅
:= τ 1.54 hr =
From the response, the actual time
constant seems to be about 2 hr,
which is more in line with how long it
takes to cook a turkey.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
E 27820
BTU
lbmole
:=
R
g
1.987
BTU
lbmole R ⋅
:= ρ 55
lb
ft
3
:= C
p
0.88
BTU
lb R ⋅
:= A 36ft
2
:=
f
c
0.8771
ft
3
min
:=
ρ
c
62.4
lb
ft
3
:= ∆H
r
12000 −
BTU
lbmole
:= U 75
BTU
hr ft
2
⋅ R ⋅
:= V
c
1.56ft
3
:= C
pc
1
BTU
lb R ⋅
:=
Check that initial conditions are at steady state (derivatives = 0):
r
A
k
o
e
E −
R
g
678.9 ⋅ R
⋅ 0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
2
⋅ := r
A
0.039
lbmole
ft
3
min ⋅
=
f
V
c
Ai
0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
−
⋅ r
A
− 5.87 − 10
4 −
×
lbmole
ft
3
min ⋅
=
f
V
T
i
678.9R −
( )
∆H
r
ρ C
p
⋅
r
A
⋅ −
U A ⋅
V ρ ⋅ C
p
⋅
678.9 602.7 − ( )R − 7.915 − 10
3 −
×
R
min
=
f
c
V
c
T
ci
602.7R −
( )
U A ⋅
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ C
pc
⋅
678.9 602.7 − ( )R + 0.027 −
R
min
=
The following is the Simulink diagram for the reactor:
135. Nonisothermal Chemical Reactor of Section 42.3
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Rearranging the model equations from Section 42.3:
d c
A
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f t ( )
V
c
Ai
t ( ) c
A
t ( ) −
( )
r
A
t ( ) − = c
A
0 ( ) 0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
=
r
A
t ( ) k
o
e
E −
R
g
T t ( ) ⋅
⋅ c
A
2
⋅ t ( ) =
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
f t ( )
V
T
i
t ( ) T t ( ) −
( )
∆H
r
ρ C
p
⋅
r
A
t ( ) ⋅ −
U A ⋅
V ρ ⋅ C
p
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
− = T 0 ( ) 678.9R =
d T
c
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
c
t ( )
V
c
T
ci
t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
U A ⋅
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ C
pc
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
+ = T
c
0 ( ) 602.7R =
Design conditions: c
Ai
0.5975
lbmole
ft
3
:= T
i
633.5R := f 1.3364
ft
3
min
:= T
ci
540R :=
Parameters:
V 13.46ft
3
:= k
o
8.33 10
8
⋅
ft
3
lbmole min ⋅
:=
The following are the responses for a 0.25 ft3/min increase in process flow at 1 minute followed by
a 0.1 ft3/min increase in coolant flow at 30 minutes.
Observe the inverse response in the reactor temperature for the change in process flow.
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is unlawful.
The folowing is the Simulink diagram for the mixer:
f
2
37.5
gal
min
= f
2
f f
1
− :=
f
1
62.5
gal
min
= f
1
f
c
A2
0.025mole cm
3 −
⋅ −
c
A2
c
A1
−
⋅ :=
f
1
c
A1
⋅ f
2
c
A2
⋅ + f c
A
⋅ − 0 = At the initial steady state:
(assuming constant volume) f
1
f
2
+ f = Total mass balance:
Ah 200gal := f 100
gal
min
:= c
A2
0.05
mole
cm
3
:= c
A1
0.01
mole
cm
3
:= Problem parameters:
c
A
0 ( ) 0.025
mole
cm
3
=
d c
A
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
t ( ) c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ + f t ( ) c
A
t ( ) ⋅ −
A h ⋅
=
The model equation, from the solution to Problem 31:
136. Mixing Process of Problem 31
The responses to a step increase in f1 from 62.5 to 67.5 GPM at 1 minute:
The concentration response is
typical firstorder with a time
constant of approximately 2 min.
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is unlawful.
137. Feedback control of composition in mixer of Problem 31
Introduce the following blocks from the Chapter 13c public nodels:
Figure 134.1, F401Vlv1, control valve with time constant of 1 min, linear, maximum flow of •
100 gpm, and initial condition of 37.5%C.O.
Figure 134.3, F403PI, PI controller with initial condition of 37.5% CO. •
Figure 134.7, F407Trmr, transmitter with 1 min time constant, range of 0 to 1 mole/cm3, •
and initial condition of 0.025 mole/cm3
The controller was tuned for quarter decay ratio response with a gain of 20%CO/%TO and an
intgral time of 1.5 min.
This is the Simulink diagram of the loop (the mixer block is the one from Problem 135):
The response to a 5 gpm increase in f1 at 1 minute is:
The outlet flow increases by 5 gpm
at 1 min and then the controller
increases f2 to bring the outlet
concentration back up to the set
point.
The high controller gain rsults in a
very minor deviation of the outlet
concentration from its set point.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The responses to a 5 ft3/min step increase in process flow are:
The Simulink diagram is given by:
k 1 min
1 −
= k
f c
A1
0.5lbmole ft
3 −
⋅ −
⋅
V 0.5 ⋅ lbmole ft
3 −
⋅
:= Initial conditions at steady state:
D
i
5.5in := L
p
400ft := V 150ft
3
:= Problem parameters:
c
A1
2
lbmole
ft
3
:= f 50
ft
3
min
:= Design conditions:
c
A3
t ( ) c
A2
t t
o
−
( )
=
c
A2
0 ( ) 0.5
lbmole
ft
3
=
d c
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
V
c
A1
t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) −
( )
kc
A2
t ( ) − =
The model equations, from the solution to Problem 32, are:
138. Isothermal reactor of Problem 32
The concentration response shows a
time constant of about 0.75 min, a
dead time of a little over 1 min, and a
steady state change of 0.38 lbmole/ft3.
The values from the linear model are:
τ
V
f k V ⋅ +
:= τ 0.75 min =
t
o
π D
i
2
⋅ L
p
⋅
4f
:= t
o
1.32 min =
∆c
A2
c
A1
0.5
lbmole
ft
3
−
f k V ⋅ +
5 ⋅
ft
3
min
:=
∆c
A2
0.038
lbmole
ft
3
=
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The responses to a 0.1 step increase in feed composition are:
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
z
0
0.513 =
y
0
0.625 = z
0
V y
0
⋅ L 0.4 ⋅ +
F
:= y
0
α 0.4 ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
0.4 +
:=
At initial steady state:
α 2.5 := M 500kmole := Problem parameters:
V 5
kmole
s
= V F L − := L 5
kmole
s
:= F 10
kmole
s
:= Design conditions:
y t ( )
α x t ( ) ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x t ( ) +
=
F V L + =
x 0 ( ) 0.4 =
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
F z t ( ) ⋅ V y t ( ) ⋅ − L x t ( ) ⋅ − ( ) =
Rearranging the model equation developed in Problem 311:
kmole 1000mole :=
139. Flash drum of Problem 311
These are typical firstorder
responses with a time constant
of about 50 s and a gain on x of
about 1 which match the results
of the linear model in the
solution of Problem 311.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The responses to a 20 ft3/min increase in inlet flow are:
The Simulink diagram for the tray is:
As the response is fast, convert time units to s by multiplying the derivative by 60 s/min.
h
0
0.136 ft =
h
0
f
o
0.415 w ⋅ 2 g ⋅ ⋅
1
1.5
:= f
o
f
i
:= f
i
30
ft
3
min
:= Initial steady state conditions:
S 11.2ft
2
:= w 3ft := Problem parameters:
f
o
t ( ) 0.415 w ⋅ h t ( )
1.5
⋅ 2 g ⋅ ⋅ =
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
S
f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) −
( )
=
The model equations from the solution to Problem 312 are:
1310. Distillation tray of Problem 312
The firstorder response has a time
constant of approximately 2 s and
the steadystate change is about
0.054 ft. The time costant matches
the one from the linerized model from
the solution of Problem 312. Using
the gain from that solution, the
steadystate change in level should
be:
20ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
331.4ft
2
min
1 −
⋅
0.06 ft =
close!
The students can check the results
for the change in 10 ft3/min.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
From Table 71.1, for a series PID controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response:
K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= τ
D
T
u
8
:= K
c
147 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min = τ
D
0.38 min =
Control valve (from F401Vlv1): K
v
0.0542
m
3
min %CO ⋅
:= τ
v
0.1min := (Solution of Problem
611)
Initial position:
f
2
K
v
44.28 %CO =
Transmitter (from F407Trmr): τ
T
3min := Initial output:
50 20 −
70 20 −
60 %TO =
The series PID Controller block is taken from the Public Model Library, F405PIDs
The Simulink block diagram for the blender conentration control loop is:
13.11. Blending tank of Problems 318 and 611
The diagram for the blender is essentially the same as for Problem 136 with slightly different
notation and the following parameter and design values:
%CO % :=
c
1
80
kg
m
3
:= c
2
30
kg
m
3
:= c
0
50
kg
m
3
:= f 4
m
3
min
:= V 40m
3
:=
%TO % :=
At the intial steady state: f f
1
f
2
+ = f c
0
⋅ f
1
c
1
⋅ f
2
c
2
⋅ + =
f
2
f
c
0
c
1
−
c
2
c
1
−
⋅ := f
1
f f
2
− := f
1
1.6
m
3
min
= f
2
2.4
m
3
min
=
From the results of Problem 611, the ultimate gain and period are:
K
cu
250 −
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
3.01min :=
The responses to a 0.1 m3/min increase in f1 are:
The decay ratio is somewhat greater
than 1/4. Students may adjust the
controller tuning parameters to
improve the response.
Notice that the concentration can be
controlled very tightly.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
f
2
f
1
:= f
1
3
m
3
min
=
C
v1
f
1
h
10
:= C
v2
f
2
h
20
:= C
v1
1.897
m
2.5
min
=
C
v2
1.897
m
2.5
min
=
The linearized gains and time constants are:
K
1
2 h
10
⋅
C
v1
:= τ
1
2 A
1
⋅ h
10
⋅
C
v1
:= K
1
1.667
min
m
2
= τ
1
15 min =
K
2
C
v1
C
v2
h
20
h
10
⋅ := τ
2
2 A
2
⋅ h
20
⋅
C
v2
:= K
2
1 = τ
2
15 min =
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
1312. Noninteracting tanks in series of Fig. 41.1
The model equations developed in Section 41.1 are:
d h
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
A
1
f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) − f
1
t ( ) −
( )
= h
10
2.5m :=
d h
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
A
2
f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) −
( )
= h
20
2.5m :=
f
1
t ( ) C
v1
h
1
t ( ) ⋅ = f
2
t ( ) C
v2
h
2
t ( ) ⋅ =
Design conditions: f
i
5
m
3
min
:= f
o
2
m
3
min
:=
Problem parameters: A
1
9m
2
:= A
2
9m
2
:=
At initial steady state: f
1
f
i
f
o
− :=
The responses to a 0.2 m3/min step increase in inlet flow are:
The responses of the level and
flow for the first tank are firstorder
with a time constant of 15 min.
The gains are 1.0 for the flows and
the steadystate changes in level
are about 0.35 m, as predicted by
the linear model:
K
1
0.2 ⋅
m
3
min
0.333 m =
The responses for the second
tank are second order with the
same steadystate change in
level, meaning that the gain K
2
is
unity as predicted by the linear
model.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
1313. Interacting tanks of Fig. 42.1
The model equations developed in Section 42.1 are the same as for problem 1312, except for the
flow betwen the tanks:
f
1
t ( ) C
v1
h
1
t ( ) h
2
t ( ) − ⋅ =
Design conditions are the same except for the initial condition in tank 1: h
10
5m :=
At the initial steady state: C
v1
f
1
h
10
h
20
−
:= C
v1
1.897
m
2.5
min
=
It can be shown that the gain of the inlet flow on the level in the second tank is the same as K1 in
Problem 1312.
K
1
1.667
min
m
2
=
The following is the Simulink diagram for the interacting tanks is series:
The responses to a 0.2 m3/min step increase in inlet flow are:
The change in the level in the
second tank is the same as in
Problem 1312. Students may
want to study the effect of
reducing the resistance
between the two tanks by
changing the initial condition on
h
1
and recalculating C
v1
. For
example, for h
10
= 2.6 m,
C
v1
f
1
2.6m h
20
−
:=
C
v1
9.487
m
2.5
min
=
The response of the second
tank becomes firstorder and
the two tanks behave as a
single tank.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
τ
2
5 min = τ
1
5 min = K
2
0 = τ
2
V
2
f
A
f
B
+
:= τ
1
V
1
f
A
:= K
2
f
B
f
A
f
B
+
:=
K
1
1 = K
1
f
A
f
A
f
B
+
:= This problem is linear with a gains and time constants:
T
4
500 K = T
2
500 K = T
4
f
A
T
2
⋅ f
B
T
3
⋅ +
f
A
f
B
+
:= T
2
T
1
:= At initial steady state:
T
3
500K := T
1
500K := f
B
0
m
3
min
:= V
2
5m
3
:= V
1
5m
3
:= f
A
1
m
3
min
:=
Design conditions:
d T
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
2
f
A
T
2
t ( ) ⋅ f
B
T
3
t ( ) ⋅ + f
A
f
B
+
( )
T
4
t ( ) ⋅ −
=
d T
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
A
V
1
T
1
t ( ) T
2
t ( ) −
( )
=
The model equations developed in Section 41.2 are:
1314. Noninteracting thermal tanks in series of Fig. 41.5
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The resposes to a 10 K step increase in inlet temperature are:
The response for the first tank is
firstorder with a unity gain and a
time constant of 5 min, matching
the theoretical model. The
response for the second tank is
secondorder also with unity ain
for these conditions.
Students may study the effect of
changing flows fA and fB and
temperature T3 on these
responses.
1315. Interacting thermal tanks of Fig. 42.4
The model equations developed in Section 42.2, ignoring f
B
, are:
d T
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
1
f
A
T
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
R
T
4
t ( ) ⋅ + f
A
f
R
+
( )
T
2
t ( ) ⋅ −
=
d T
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
2
f
A
f
R
+
( )
T
1
t ( ) T
4
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ =
The design conditions and problem parameters are the same as in Problem 1314, plus the recycle
flow:
f
R
1
m
3
min
:= (The results for f
R
= 0 are identical to those of Prob. 1314)
Note: In the model of Section 42.2, the recycle flow is assumed to be 0.2*(f
A
+ f
B
).
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
The temperature responses for a 10 K step increase in inlet temperature are:
The students should study the effect
of the recycle flow on the responses.
As the recycle flow is increased, the
temperatures in the two tanks
approach each other and the two
tanks behave as one perfectly mixed
tank with the combined volume of the
two tanks. They should notice that
increasing the recycle flow does not
appreciably change the time to
steady state, or the gain.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the reactors is:
c
A20
0.767
lbmole
ft
3
= c
A20
f
1
c
A10
⋅
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
:=
c
A10
1.726
lbmole
ft
3
= c
A10
f
o
c
Ao
⋅
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ + f
R
f
1
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
⋅ −
:=
c
A20
f
1
c
A10
⋅
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
=
f
1
20
ft
3
min
= f
1
f
o
f
R
+ := At the initial steady state:
f
R
10
ft
3
min
:= For the base case let:
V
2
125ft
3
:= V
1
125ft
3
:= f
o
10
ft
3
min
:=
k
2
0.2min
1 −
:= k
1
0.2min
1 −
:= c
Ao
7
lbmole
ft
3
:= Design conditions from Problem 615:
c
A2
0 ( ) c
A20
=
d c
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
V
2
c
A1
t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) −
( )
k
2
c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ − =
c
A1
0 ( ) c
A10
=
d c
A1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
1
f
o
c
Ao
t ( ) ⋅ f
R
c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
1
c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
k
1
c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ − =
The model equatios are developed in the solution to Problem 49:
1316. Reactors with recycle of Problems 49 and 615
The responses to a 0.5 lbmole/ft3 step increase in inlet concentration with a recycle flow of 10
ft3/min are:
Students shall study the effect of
changing the recycle flow as indicated
in the statement of the problem.
Notice that the initial steady state
conditions vary with the recycle flow.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulnk block diagram for the extractor is:
f
2
14088.6
m
3
min
=
f
2
K
a
V ⋅ c
10
m
e
c
20
⋅ −
( )
⋅
2 c
20
⋅
:=
c
20
1.2776 10
4 −
×
kmole
m
3
=
c
20
2 − f
1
⋅ c
i
c
10
−
( )
⋅ K
a
V ⋅ c
10
⋅ +
K
a
m
e
⋅ V ⋅
:=
c
10
0.04
kmole
m
3
= c
10
1 Rec − ( ) c
i
⋅ := At the initial steady state:
V 25m
3
:= K
a
3.646min
1 −
:= m
e
3.95 := Problem parameters:
Rec 90% := c
i
0.4
kmole
m
3
:= f
1
5
m
3
min
:= Design conditions:
c
2
0 ( ) c
20
=
d c
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
K
a
c
1
t ( ) m
e
c
2
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅
2 f
2
t ( ) ⋅
V
c
2
t ( ) − =
c
1
0 ( ) c
10
=
d c
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
2 f
1
t ( ) ⋅
V
c
i
t ( ) c
1
t ( ) −
( )
K
a
c
1
t ( ) m
e
c
2
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅ − =
The model equations developed in the solution to Problem 46 are:
1317. Extraction process of Problem 46
The responses to a 1000 m3/min step increase in solvent flow are:
Obviously the problem parameters
are unreasonable. The large solvent
flow makes for an almost
instantaneous response of the
extract composition. The effect on
the raffinate composition is
negligible, as the extract
composition is essentially zero
under the design conditions.
Ask students to try more
reasonable parameter values:
m
e
0.95 := K
a
209min
1 −
:=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the cooler is:
f
c0
0.172
m
3
min
= f
c0
U A ⋅
ρ
c
c
pc
⋅
T
0
T
c0
−
( )
T
c0
T
ci
−
( )
:=
T
c0
35.5 degC =
T
c0
T
0
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
U A ⋅
T
i
T
0
−
( )
− := At the initial steady state:
c
pc
4.2
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:= ρ
c
1000
kg
m
3
:= c
p
3.8
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:=
ρ 800
kg
m
3
:= V
c
1.1m
3
:= A 4m
2
:= U 200
kJ
min m
2
degC ⋅
:= V 5m
3
:= Problem parameters:
T
ci
25degC := T
0
45degC := f 0.1
m
3
min
:=
T
i
70degC := Design conditions:
T
c
0 ( ) T
c0
=
d T
c
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
c
t ( )
V
c
Tci T
c
t ( ) −
( )
U A ⋅
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
+ =
T 0 ( ) T
0
=
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
f t ( )
V
T
i
t ( ) T t ( ) −
( )
U A ⋅
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
− =
kJ 1000joule := degC K := The model equations, from the solution to Problem 47, are:
1318. Temperature control of stirred tank cooler of Problems 47 and 619
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Chapter 13. Simulation of Process Control Systems (continued)
f
c0
0.008
m
3
min %CO ⋅
21.5 %CO = Controller output:
45 20 −
70 20 −
50 %TO = Transmitter output: Initial conditions:
τ
D
0.95 min =
τ
I
3.8min = K
c
44 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= From Table 71.1:
T
u
7.59min := K
cu
75.4 −
%CO
%TO
:=
From the solution to Problem 619:
%TO % := %CO % :=
To complete the temperature control loop, install, from the Public Model Library:
A flow control loop, f401Vlv1, with a gain of 0.008 m3/min%CO, negligible time constant. •
A temperature transmitter, f407Trmr, with a range of 20 to 70 C and a time constant of 0.6 min. •
A series PID controller, f405PIDs, tuned for quarter dcay ratio •
The responses to a 0.2 m3/min step increase in process flow at 5 min, and a 2 C step increase in
set point at 30 min, are:
The controller output saturates for the
change in process flow and is barely
able to return the temperature to the
set point. The controller output also
temporarily saturates on the change in
set point, but is able to recover.
Saturation is a form of nonlinear
behavior. In this case it causes the
decay ratio to be much less than 1/4.
Encourage your students to figure out
what needs to be changed so that the
controller does not saturate.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
V 5gal :=
k
v
1.954 10 ⋅
100%CO
lb
min
:= k
v
0.0618
lb
min %CO ⋅
=
Steam enthalpy, saturated at 1 atm., referenced to 32 F, is: 1150.4 BTU/lb
h
s
1150.4
BTU
lb
c
p
32 ⋅ degF + := h
s
1176
BTU
lb
=
At the initial steady state: w
2
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
30
T
1
−
( )
⋅
h
s
c
p
T
30
⋅ −
:= w
2
2.518
lb
min
=
vp
0
w
2
k
v
:=
vp
0
40.8 %CO =
Note: The value of w
2
does not match the one in the problem statement.
Simulate the valve by inserting the block f401Vlv1 from the Public Model Library, linear, with a gain
kv and a time constant of
τ
v
4s := τ
v
0.067 min =
The Simulink block diagram is:
gpm
gal
min
:= degF R :=
1319. Direct contact heater of Problem 45
The model equations developed in the solution to Problem 45 are:
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
f
1
t ( ) T
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
3
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅
h
s
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
w
2
t ( ) ⋅ + = T
3
0 ( ) T
30
=
w
2
t ( ) 1.954 10 vp t ( ) ⋅ = k
v
vp t ( ) ⋅ =
f
3
t ( ) f
1
t ( )
w
2
t ( )
ρ
+ =
Substitute to eliminate f.3(t):
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
t ( )
V
T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
w
2
t ( )
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
h
s
c
p
T
3
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
+ =
Design conditions: f
1
25gpm := T
1
60degF := T
30
80degF :=
Problem parameters: ρ 7
lb
gal
:= c
p
0.8
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:=
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The response to a 5 gpm step increase in process flow at 0.1 min and a 5 %CO step increase in
sgnal to the steam control valve at 1 min, are
The time constant of the mixer is
matches the value of 0.2 min obtained
by linearization; the steady state
changes are a bit less than predicted
by the linear model.
The respons to the process flow is
firstorder and the one to the signal to
the valve is secondorder. This is
because of the lag in the valve.
This is the plot also obtained with the following Simulink diagram:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
2
.
10
5
4
.
10
5
6
.
10
5
f
s
p
1
∆p psi ⋅ .
( )
scfh
∆p
f
s
p
1
∆p .
( )
836
scfh
gpm
R
psi
⋅ C
v
⋅ C
f
⋅
p
1
G T ⋅
⋅ y p
1
∆p .
( )
0.148 y p
1
∆p .
( )
3
−

\

.
⋅ :=
y p
1
∆p .
( )
1.63
C
f
∆p
p
1
⋅ := Functions for valve flow:
T 259 460 + ( )R := C
f
0.8 := G 0.621 := p
1
34.7psia := C
v
440
gpm
psi
:=
scfh
ft
3
hr
:= psia psi := Problem parameters from Example 52.2:
G
M
w
29
= y
1.63
C
f
∆p
p
1
⋅ =
f
s
836 C
v
⋅ C
f
⋅
p
1
G T ⋅
⋅ y 0.148 y
3
⋅ −
( )
=
The flow through a gas control valve can be calculated from Eq. 52.3:
1320. Gas flow control valve of Example 52.2
This Simulink block can simulate any gas valve with variable inlet pressure and pressure drop. To
obtain the flow in scf/min, divide the Cv,max/100 by 60 min/hr.
The Simulink block diagram for the temperature control loop is:
τ
D
0.84 min = τ
I
3.4min = K
c
5.9
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:=
From Table 71.1, the quarter decay rato tuning parameters are:
T
u
6.7min := K
cu
10
%CO
%TO
:=
With the lags on the valve and the transmitter, the loop can be made unstableit wasn't for the
conditions of Problem 612. The ultimate gain and period ar determined from the simulation:
678.9 640 −
700 640 −
64.8 %TO = Transmitter initial condition:
ln 0.5 ( )
ln 50 ( )
− 17.72 %CO = Initial position: 2 0.8771 ⋅
ft
3
min
1.754
ft
3
min
= Valve maximum flow:
To the block developed in Problem 135 to simulate the reactor, we add the following blocks from
the Public Model Library:
f401Vlv1: equal precentage control valve with a time constant of 0.1 min and sized for 100% •
overcapacity, airtoclose
f405PIDs: a series PID controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response •
f407Trmr: transmitter with a range of 640 to 700 R and a time constant of 1.0 min •
1321. Temperature control of reactor of Section 2.3 and Problem 612
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step change in reactants flow at 1 min followed by a 1 R step
increase in setpoint at 30 min are:
The decay ratio is
slightly greater than
1/4. The students
should play with the
tuning of the
controller and test it
for different
magnitudes and
directions of the input
changes.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
1322. Temperature control of stirred tank heater of Example 134.1 with
variable pressure drop across the control valve
The steam chest pressure is calculated as a function of the steam temperature using the Antoine
equation for water (Reid, Prausnitz, and Sherwood, 1977, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 3rd
ed., Appendix.
p
2
t ( )
14.7psia
760mmHg
e
18.3036
3816.44K
T
s
t ( ) 460R +
( )
K
1.8R
46.13K −
−
=
The Simulink block diagram of Fig. 134.9 is modified as follows:
The "Gas Valve 2" is a modified version of the gas valve of Problem 1320 in that it accepts the
upstream and downstream pressures p1 and p2instead of ∆pand it outputs the flow in lb/min.
This is done by multiplying the output by the molecular weight and dividing by 380 scf/lbmole and
by 60 min/hr.
Responses to this model are compared with those of Fig. 134.10 by running both versions of the
control loop in parallel and plotting the reponses together:
The responses to the decrease
in process flow are almost
identical, but those for the
increase in flow are different.
This is because as the steam
pressure increases the capacity
of the valve decreases and the
flow of steam does not vary as
much as when the flow is
assumed to be independent of
pressure. The response is then
slower and less oscillatory.
This is an excellent example of
the effect of a saturation
nonlinearity that is often
overlooked in modeling.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the control loop is:
m
0
40.65 %CO =
m
0
f
K
v
:= Initial conditions:
K
v
K
o
⋅
100 0 − ( )%TO
1 0 − ( )lb gal
1 −
⋅
⋅ 1.845 = Process gain:
K
o
0.0075
lb
gal gpm ⋅
:= K
v
2.46
gpm
%CO
:= From the solution to Problem 617:
The Simulink diagram for each reactor is the same as in Problem 138, with a different notation and
without the transportation lag in the outlet pipe (here it is asssumed e reactors are close to each
other and the tranporation lag is negligible).
Making a subsystem block of each reactor, we build the concentratioon control loop by adding,
from the Public Model Library:
f401Vlv1: a linear control valve sized for 100% overcapacity and a time constant of 0.1 min •
f405PIDs: a series PID controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response •
f407Trmr: a concentration transmitter with a range of 0 to 1.0 lb/gal and negligible lag. •
c
4
2
1
0.5

\



.
lb
gal
= c
3
f c
2
⋅
f k V ⋅ +
:= c
2
f c
1
⋅
f k V ⋅ +
:= c
1
f c
0
⋅
f k V ⋅ +
:= At the initial steady state:
V 1000gal := k 0.1min
1 −
:= c
0
4
lb
gal
:= f 100gpm := Design conditions:
c
0
t ( ) c
i
t ( ) = and
For j = 1,2,3 c
j
0 ( ) c
j0
=
d c
j
⋅ t ( )
dt
f t ( )
V
c
j 1 −
t ( ) c
j
t ( ) −
k c
j
⋅ t ( ) − =
The model equation for each reactor is developed in the soution to Problem 617:
1323. Concentration control of isothermal reactors in series of Problem 617
From a step test in controller output, the time constant is about 9 min and the dead time is
negligible, so the process is very controllable. The quarter decay ratio tuning formulas impose no
limit on the gain or on how small the integral time can be, so we use the synthesis formulas:
Kc adjusutable τ
I
τ = 9min = τ
D
0min = (PI controller)
The responses to a 1 lb/gal increase in inlet eactants concentartion (a change in inlet flow is not
possible since the flow is the manipulated variable), with Kc = 10%CO/%TO, are:
The problem will be more interesting
with a 1 min time lag in the
transmitter. The students can be
asked try this case and to play with
the tuning parameters, e.g., smaller
integral time for faster response.
Notice the deviation in concentration
is small. Students could also
examine effect of the controller gain
on the magnitude of the deviation.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
T
30
200degF :=
Problem parameters: U 136
BTU
hr ft
2
degF ⋅
:= D 3ft := A 974ft π ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ in := A 127.5 ft
2
=
ρ 53
lb
ft
3
:= C
M
974ft 0.178 ⋅
lb
ft
0.12 ⋅
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= C
M
20.8
BTU
degF
=
c
p
0.45
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= p
s
115psig := λ 872.9
BTU
lb
:=
At the initial steady state: f
3
f
1
:= T
s0
T
30
ρ c
p
⋅ f
1
⋅
U A ⋅
T
30
T
1
−
( )
+ := T
s0
343.4 degF =
w
s
U A ⋅ T
s0
T
30
−
( )
⋅
λ
:= w
s
47.48
lb
min
=
The Simulink diagram for the heater is:
1324. Temperature and level control of oil heater of Problem 624
The model equations from the solution to Problem 624 are:
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
ft
3
7.48gal
4
πD
2
f
1
t ( ) f
3
t ( ) −
( )
= h 0 ( ) h
0
=
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
t ( )
V t ( )
T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅
U A ⋅
V t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
+ = T
3
0 ( ) T
30
=
V t ( ) 7.48
gal
ft
3
⋅
π D
2
⋅
4
⋅ h t ( ) =
d T
s
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
C
M
λ w
s
t ( ) ⋅ U A ⋅ T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ −
= T
s
0 ( ) T
s0
=
Assume the pressures are constant and determine the flows as follows:
Inlet oil flow f
1
(t): linear valve with variable pressure dropModel Library f402Vlv2sized for 50%
overcapacity and pressure drop:
∆p
v1
p
1
14.7psi + p
2
−
( )
ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) 5ft − ( ) ⋅ − =
Outlet oil flow f
3
(t): Step function input (it is the disturbance)
Steam flow w
s
(t): linear control valve with constant pressure dropModel Library f401Vlv1szed for
50% overcapacity.
psig psi :=
Design conditions: p
1
45psig := p
2
40psia := f
1
100gpm := T
1
70degF :=
τ
D
0.14 min = τ
I
0.56 min = K
c
45
%CO
%TO
=
τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:=
Quarter decay tuning parameters from Table 71.1:
T
u
1.12min := K
cu
77.1
%CO
%TO
:= Ultimate gain and period of temperature controller:
m
10
46.67 %CO = m
10
32.2
1.5 46 ⋅
:=
m
s0
60.58 %CO = w
smax
78.4
lb
min
= m
s0
w
s
w
smax
:= w
smax
46
41.8
1.5 ⋅ w
s
⋅ :=
50% for both transmitters Intial conditions, from the results of Problem 624::
To complete the control loops, from the Public Model Library, introduce:
f405PIDs: series PID temperature controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response •
f407Trmr: temperature (TT50) and level (LT50 transmitters with 100 to 200 F and 7 to 10 ft •
ranges, and 0.5 min and 0.01 min time constants, respectively.
The responses to a 5 gpm increase in inlet oil flow are:
Students should be encouraged to
study the effect of problem
parameters. For example, a more
realistic valve time constant of 0.1 min
will result in more reasonable
controller parameters.
Notice the small offset in level. This is
for a level controller gain of
20%CO/%TO.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
1325. Moisture control of drier of Problem 91. Simple feedback vs. cascade
In the solution to Problem 91 he drier is represented by linear transfer functions as it will be
simulated here. In the absence of information, the transfer function will be the same to a change in
ambient temperature as for a change in heater outlet temperature.
(a) The Simulink diagram for the single moisture feedback control loop is
(b) The Simulink diagram for the cascade control scheme using the heater outlet temperature as
the intermediate variable is:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The respones to a 10ºF step increase in ambient temperature at 1 min, and a 0.3 %moisture
increase in set point at 30 min, are:
The cascade response is in magenta
and the feedback in yellow. To obtain
these results the gain of the TC47
controller had to be reduced to 2
%CO/%TO from the 4.14 determined
in Prpblem 91.
The cascade reponse is less
oscillatory and faster at the expense
of larger changes and oscillations in
the fuel flow.
The controller parameters are:
Feedback: Cascade:
K
c
0.42 −
%CO
%TO
:= 0.56 −
%CO
%TO
τ
I
3.5min := 1.0min
τ
D
0.86min := 0.26min
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The feedback control responses are in
yellow and the cascade responses in
magenta. They show almost perfect
control to the disturbance input and a
slightly faster response to the set
point change for the cascade scheme
at the expense of very oscillatory
response of the manipulated variable.
Students should be encouraged to
study how adjustment of the
secondary gain may reduce the
oscillations of the manipulated variable
and how it affects the response of the
controlled variable and/or the master
controller tuning.
The block diagrams are given in the solution to Problem 93, and the responses to unit step
changes in disturbace at 1 min and set point at 75 min are:
τ
I
10 min = K
c
6.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
K
cu
2.2
:=
T
u
12.5min := K
cu
13.5
%CO
%TO
:=
K
c2
2.2
%CO
%TO
:= Cascade Control. From the solution to Problem 93, with
τ
I
23 min = K
c
1.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
K
cu
2.2
:=
From Table 71.1, the quaerte decay tuning parameters for a PI controller are:
T
u
27.8min := K
cu
2.38
%CO
%TO
:=
Simple Feedback Loop. From the solution to Problem 93, the ultimate gain and period are:
1326. Feedback vs. cascade control of Problem 93
The responses to a 5ºC step increase in set point are:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
τ
D
0.83 min = τ
I
3.9min = K
c
19
%CO
%TO
=
τ
D
0.482 τ ⋅
t
0
τ

\

.
1.137
⋅ := τ
I
τ
0.878
t
0
τ

\

.
0.749
⋅ := K
c
1.435
K
p
t
0
τ

\

.
0.921 −
⋅ :=
τ 12.8min := K
p
0.385
%TO
%CO
:=
t
0
2.2min :=
Cascade Control (with the secondary proportional controller gain set at 2%CO/%TO):
τ
D
1.4min = τ
I
5.6min = K
c
17
%CO
%TO
=
τ
D
0.482 τ ⋅
t
0
τ

\

.
1.137
⋅ := τ
I
τ
0.878
t
0
τ

\

.
0.749
:= K
c
1.435
K
p
t
0
τ

\

.
0.921 −
:=
The tuning parameters for minimum IAE response, from Table 72.2:
t
0
3.5min := τ 13.5min := K
p
0.285
%TO
%CO
:=
Simple Feedback Loop:
The block diagrams from the solution to Problem 94 are simulated as in Problem 1325 with a
parallel PID master controller and a proportional slave controller with a gain of 2%CO/%TO. From
the openloop responses to step changes in contrller output, the following parameters are obtained:
1327. Jacketed reactor of Problem 94. Simple feedback vs. cascade control
The responses show a faster
response for the cascade scheme
(magenta) than for simple feedback
(yellow), at the expense of doubling
the variation in the controller output. In
fact, because this linear analysis does
not impose limits on the controller
output, we see increases of 200 and
400%CO, which are not possible in
practice. Pointing out these
restrictions is an advantage of
simulation which is not obtained from
the anlytical analysis.
The responses to a 5 ft3/min step decrease in process flow at 3 min followed by an increase of
10ºF in inlet temperature at 30 min are:
The Simulink diagram for the ratio control scheme is obtained by a simple modification of the
diagram of Fig. 134.11:
Ratio 3.75
min %TO ⋅
ft
3
= Ratio
ρ c
p
⋅ T
set
T
i
−
( )
⋅
λ
100%TO
f
max
⋅ :=
T
set
150degF := The ratio for set point of
f
max
75
lb
min
:= T
i
100degF := λ 966
BTU
lb
:= c
p
0.8
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= ρ 68
lb
ft
3
:=
where the ratio is adjusted by the operator or a feedback controller to obtain the desired outlet
temperature. For the conditions of the problem, the ratio is:
w
set
t ( ) ⋅
ρ c
p
⋅ T
set
t ( ) ⋅ T
i
−
⋅
λ
f t ( ) = Ratio f t ( ) ⋅ =
If the variation in the inlet temperature diturbance is neglected, the feedforward controller calculation
becomes:
1328. Feedforward temperature control of heater of Example 134.2
The responses are identical for the
change in process flow, but the ratio
controller (magenta) does not take
action on the change in inlet
temperature resulting in an error of
about 10ºF. This reponse is slower than
the one for the flow change, so a
feedback controller can adjust the ratio
to maintain the outlet temperature at
the set point.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the ratio control scheme is:
K
c
166 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
147 −
%CO
%TO
100%CO
R
max
⋅
f
2max
f
1
⋅ :=
The controller gain must be adjusted by the factor the output is multiplied by:
R
max
f
1max
⋅
100%CO f
2max
⋅
0.0221
1
%CO
=
The signal from the flow transmitter must then be scaled by the factor:
(at 100%CO) R
max
3 := f
2max
5.42
m
3
min
:= f
1max
4
m
3
min
:= Transmitter ranges:
Ratio 1.5 = Ratio
f
2
f
1
:= f
2
2.4
m
3
min
:= f
1
1.6
m
3
min
:=
Design conditions:
The diagram of Problem 1311 is modified to introduce a sesor/transmitter for the concentrated
stream flow and a multiplier to represent the ratio controller. The transmitter has a ange of 0 to 4
m3/min and a time constant of 0.75 min. The multiplier allows the feedback controller to adjust the
ratio.
1329. Ratio control of blending tank of Problems 318 and 1311
The responses to a 0.1 m3/min step increase in process flow at 1 min followed by a 2 kg/m3 step
increase in concentrated stream composition at 15 min are:
The ratio controller (magenta)
results in a smaller initial
deviation than the simple
feedback (yellow) for the change
in process flow. The responses
are essentially the same for the
change in concentration.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the cascade control loop is:
τ
D
0.47 min = τ
I
1.9min = τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:=
K
c
6
%CO
%TO
= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= Quarter decay ratio tuning from Table 71.1:
T
u
3.75min := K
cu
10.5
%TO
%CO
:= Master loop:
τ
I
τ :=
Set Kc to 2%CO/%TO to obtain fast response
without much oscillation.
Synthesis tuning from Table 74.1:
t
0
0min := τ 3min := K
2
1.95
%TO
%CO
:= Slave loop:
An openloop step test in the slave controller results in the following parameters:
The Simulink diagram of Problem 1321 is modified to introduce, from the Public Model Library,
A jacket temperature transmitter with a range of 560 to 660ºR and a time constant of 1.0 min •
f403PI: a PI controller for the jacket temperature tuned by the synthesis method. •
1330. Cascade temperature control of reactor of Section 42.3
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step decrease in reactants flow at 2 min followed by a 1ºR step
increase in set point are:
The cascade
responses (magenta)
are faster than the
ones for simple
feedback control
(yellow) at the
expense of more
oscillations in the
manipulated variable.
Students should be
encouraged to study
the effect of the
tuning parameters.
Encourage them to
try the formulas for
tuning cascade
controllers in Table
93.1.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the linear feedforward controller is:
τ
D
1.6min = τ
I
6.5min =
K
c
2.5 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
3.25min
2
:= τ
I
2 3.25 ⋅ min := K
c
1.2
0.98 −
3.25
6.75

\

.
1 −
:=
The feedback controller must be retuned because of the replacement of the equalpercentage valve
with the coolant flow control loop. From Table 72.1 for quarterdecay ratio response:
Bias 83.86 − %TO = Bias 1.255 − 66.82 ⋅ %TO :=
m 0 ( ) m 0 ( ) 1.255 66.82 ⋅ %TO + Bias + = m 0 ( ) = Bias required for the same set point:
1.3364
ft
3
min
K
DT
⋅ 66.82 %TO = Initial reactant transmitter output:
To start with a correct initial set point of the coolant flow controller, a bias is needed:
delay 4.5min =
1331. Linear feedforward control of reactor of Section 42.3 and Problem
1321
For the linear feedforward controller, use Eq. 112.1, page 379:
FFC
G
D
−
H
D
G
M
⋅
=
The reactant flow transmitter is taken from the Public Model Library, f407Trmr, with a range 0 to 2
ft3/min and a tim constant of 0.1 min:
H
D
K
DT
0.1 s ⋅ 1 +
= K
DT
100%TO
2ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
:= K
DT
50
%TO
ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
=
From step tests on the disturbance, the folowing parameters are obtained:
G
D
61.5
%TO
ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
e
5.5 − s
9s 1 +
⋅ =
FFC
61.5 − %TO
K
DT
ft
3
⋅ min
1 −
0.98 − ( ) ⋅
6.75s 1 +
9s 1 +
⋅ e
5.5 3.25 − ( )s −
=
G
M
0.98 −
%TO
%CO
e
3.25 − s
6.75s 1 +
⋅ =
61.5 − %TO
K
DT
ft
3
⋅ min
1 −
0.98 − ( ) ⋅
1.255
%CO
%TO
=
Feedforward controller gain:
FFC 1.225
%CO
%TO
6.75s 1 +
9.s 1 +
⋅ e
2.25 − s 1 +
⋅ =
This calls or a lead of 6.75 min, a lag of 9 min and a delay of 2.25 min. To simplify the design,
let's drop the leadlag unit since the lead and lag are about the same, and increase the delay by
the difference:
delay 2.25min 9 6.75 − ( )min + :=
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step decrease in reactants flow at 1 min are
The feedforward responses are in
magenta and the simple
feedback responses are in
yellow. The feedforward
controller required some
adjustments:
Delay 3.5min :=
K
c
5 −
%CO
%TO
:=
τ
I
3min :=
The delay is necessary so that
the feedforward action does not
aggravate the initial inverse
response of the temperature to
the reactants flow. The delayed
feedforward correction reduces
the downward temperature
deviation and the oscillation.
The reason the manipulated
responses are offset is that one
is adjusting the airtoclose
equal percentage valve and the
other the coolant flow set point.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The feedback controller will adjust the ratio in the range 0 to Rmax as its output varies from 0 to
100%CO, so the signal from the process flow transmitter must be scaled. Use flow transmitter
ranges of 0 to 2 ft3/min for the process flow and 0 to 1.75 ft3/min for the coolant flow.
f
c
0.876
ft
3
min
= f
c
Ratio f ⋅ := f 1.3364
ft
3
min
:= Check:
Ratio 0.655 = Ratio
ρ c
p
⋅ T
i
T −
( )
⋅ ∆H
r
−
( )
c
Ai
c
A
−
( )
⋅ +
ρ
c
c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅
:=
Ratio at design conditions:
c
A
0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
:= c
Ai
0.5975
lbmole
ft
3
:=
T
c
602.7R := T
ci
540R := T 678.9R := T
i
635R :=
1332. Ratio control of reactor of Section 42.3 and Problem 1321
Design the feedforward controller by the procedure of Section 116, page 395,with the reactants flow
as the only major disturbance:
Control objective: T(t) = Tset(t) (reactor temperature) 1.
Manipulated variable: fc(t) (coolant flow to the jacket) 2.
Disturbances: f(t) (reactants flow) 3.
Steady state balances: 4.
V r
A
t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) c
Ai
c
A
−
( )
⋅ =
f t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
i
T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ V r
A
t ( ) ⋅ ∆H
r
−
( )
⋅ + U A ⋅ T t ( ) T
c
−
( )
⋅ = f
c
t ( ) ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅ =
Combine to eliminate rA(t):
f t ( ) ρ c
p
⋅ T
i
T
set
t ( ) −
⋅ ∆H
r
−
( )
c
Ai
c
A
−
( )
⋅ +
⋅ f
c
t ( ) ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅ =
Solve for the manipulated variable:
f
c
t ( ) Ratio t ( ) f t ( ) ⋅ =
6. Feedback trim: The feedback controller will adjust the ratio when the set point or some of the
other disturbances changes
7. Dynamic compensation: From inspection, we would say that a net lead will probably be required
because the coolant flow must overcome the lag of the jacket, while the reantants flow does not.
However, from the results of Problem 1331 we know we need a delay of 3.5 min.
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Design conditions: ρ 55
lb
ft
3
:= c
p
0.88
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= ∆H
r
12000 −
BTU
lbmole
:= ρ
c
62.4
lb
ft
3
:=
c
pc
1
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:=
The Simulink diagram for the ratio control scheme is:
K
cnew
3.3 −
%CO
%TO
= K
cnew
f
cmax
R
max
f ⋅
K
c
⋅ := K
c
5 −
%CO
%TO
:=
K
c
K
cnew
R
max
f
max
⋅
f
cmax
100 ⋅ %CO
⋅
f
f
max
⋅ 100 ⋅ %TO =
R
max
f ⋅
f
cmax
K
cnew
⋅ =
To maintain the same loop gain, the feedback controller gain must be adjusted:
f
c
f
cmax
50 %TO =
f
f
max
66.8 %TO = m
0
32.8 %CO = m
0
Ratio
R
max
100 ⋅ %CO :=
Initial conditions:
y
R
max
f
max
⋅
f
cmax
100 ⋅ %CO
r ⋅ x ⋅ =
Scaled feedforward equation:
f
cmax
100%TO
y
R
max
100%CO
r ⋅
f
max
100%TO
⋅ x ⋅ =
Substitute into the feedforward equation:
r
Ratio
R
max
100 ⋅ %CO = y
f
c
f
cmax
100 ⋅ %TO = x
f
f
max
100 ⋅ %TO =
The scaled variables are:
f
cmax
1.75
ft
3
min
:= f
max
2
ft
3
min
:= R
max
2 :=
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step decrease in reactants flow at 2 min are:
The response with the
ratio controller (magenta)
is superior to the one for
simple feedback
(yellow). To improve the
response the delay was
reduced to 3.0 min.
The reason the
manipulated variable
responses are offset is
that the feedback
controller is adjusting
the position of the
airtoclose equal
percentage valve and the
ratio is adjusting the
coolant flow set point.
This is also teh reason
they move in opposite
directions.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the cascade control scheme is:
K
c1
5
%CO
%TO
:= Set τ
D1
0min := τ
I1
5min := Use synthesis tuning for the master also:
t
0
0min := τ
.1
5min := K
1
3.3
%TO
%CO
:=
With these slave settings, an openloop step test on the master controller output:
K
c2
5
%CO
%TO
:= Set at K
c2
tunable = τ
I2
τ
2
:= Synthesis tuning from Table 74.1:
t
0
0min := τ
2
6min := K
2
0.58
%TO
%CO
:=
%TO % := %CO % := From the results of an openloop step test on the slave controler output:
To the diagram of Problem 1323 add, from the Public Model Library:
A concentration transmitter with a range of 0 to 4 lb/gal and a time constant of 1 min •
f403PI: a PI controller tuned by the synthesis formula •
1333. Cascade control of reactors in series of Problem 1323
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Chapter 13. Simulation of Process Control Systems
The responses to a 0.05 lb/gal step increase in set point at 1 min and a 1 lb/gal step increase in
reactant concentration at 10 min are:
The set point response of the
cacade scheme (magenta) is
faster than the one for simple
feedback (yellow) at the expense
of slamming the control valve
opened for a period of time. For
the change in reactant
concentration, the concentation
in the third reactor moves in the
opposite directon for the
cascade scheme. This is
because the slave controller
detects the change faster and
moves the valve to correct. As
the change in reactants flow
affects the concentration in the
third tank faster than the change
in inlet concentration, the
concentration decreases on the
drecrease in flow.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram to simulate tank is:
w
P
t ( ) w
c
t ( ) w
w
t ( ) + = Total balance:
x 0 ( ) x0 =
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
w
c
t ( ) x
c
t ( ) ⋅ w
P
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
= Caustic balance:
Assume perfectly mixed tank with constant mass:
w
w
16
klb
hr
= w
w
w
P
w
c
− :=
w
c
24
klb
hr
= w
c
w
P
x
0
⋅
x
c
:=
At initial steady state:
M 10klb := Problem parameters:
x
c
50mass% :=
x
0
30mass% := w
P
40
klb
hr
:=
mass% % :=
Design conditions:
klb 1000lb :=
AC
SP
AT
FC
SP
FT
w
P
x
w
w
FC
FT
FC
FT
SP
SP
Caustic
Water
w
c
1
2
3
3
x
c
1334. Multivariable control of caustic blending tank of Problem 122.
With these tuning parameters, the responses to a
The controllers cannot be tuned for quarterdecayb ratio response because the dead time of the
loops is zero. They were tuned onserving the simulation responses to obtain:
FC3: Kc = 0.90%CO/%TO and integral time of 0.1 min •
AC3: Kc = 100%CO/%TO and integarl time of 10 min (the process integral time is 15 min) •
x
0
50mass%
60 %TO = 30mass% AC3:
w
P
60klb hr
1 −
⋅
66.667 %TO = 40
klb
hr
FC3:
m
c0
40 %CO = m
c0
w
c
60klb hr
1 −
⋅
:= 24
klb
hr
FC2:
m
w0
26.667 %CO = m
w0
w
w
60klb hr
1 −
⋅
:= 16
klb
hr
FC1: Initial conditions:
To complete the control loops insert, from the Public Model Library:
f403PI: two PI controllers to control the product flow and composition •
f407Trmr: two transmitters, one for the composition, AC3, with a range of 0 to 50 mass% and •
a time constant of 1 min, and one for the product flow, FC3, with a range of 0 to 60 klb/hr and
negligible time constant
Two flow controllers, FC1 and FC2, with ranges of 0 to 60 klb/hr and time constants of 0.1 •
minute. These are modifications of the simple valve model and can be copied from f411ffst.
The Simulink diagram for the linear decoupler is:
B
w
26.667 − %CO = B
w
D
21
− m
c0
⋅ := m
w0
m
w0
D
21
m
c0
⋅ + B
w
+ =
B
c
26.667 %CO = B
c
D
12
− m
w0
⋅ := m
c0
m
c0
D
12
m
w0
⋅ + B
c
+ =
Initial outputs: To start at the proper decoupler outputs, biases must be added to the decouplers:
D
21
0.667
%CO
%CO
= D
21
w
w
w
c
:= D
21
K
vc
− K
xc
⋅
K
vw
K
xw
⋅
=
w
w
w
c
=
K
xw
w
c
−
w
P
= K
xc
w
w
w
P
= ∆x K
vc
K
xc
⋅ D
21
K
vw
⋅ K
xw
⋅ +
( )
∆m
FC
=
D
12
1 −
%CO
%CO
:= D
12
K
vw
−
K
vc
= 1 −
%CO
%CO
=
K
vc
K
vw
=
60 klb ⋅ hr
1 −
⋅
100%CO
= ∆wP K
vw
D
12
K
vc
⋅ +
( )
∆m
AC
= 0 =
To keep the flow constant, the caustic flow must be adjusted as follows:
(c) Linear decoupler design as in Example 123.1
(a) These are the responses for the
correct pairing: caustic flow controls
the product flow and water flow
controls the composition. The
composition control has less than 1/4
deacay ratio.
Part (b) with the opposite pairing is left
as an exercise to the students.
Note: as these loops are so
controllable, both pairings should
produce about the same performance.
For part (b) the composition controller
must be reverse acting.
The responses to a 10 klb/hr step increase in product flow set point at 2 min and a 1 mass% step
increase in product composition set point at 20 min are:
For these ideal conditions the
decoupler schemes (magenta)
results in perfect control for both
changes.
Students should be encouraged to
design and test a basic principles
decoupler similar to the one of
Example 123.4
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
2 eqns. 2 unk.(M,x)
Expand and substitute total balance:
M t ( )
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ x t ( ) w
F
t ( ) w
v
t ( ) − w
P
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + w
F
t ( ) x
F
t ( ) ⋅ w
P
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ − =
Simplify: d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M t ( )
w
F
t ( ) x
F
t ( ) x t ( ) −
( )
⋅ w
v
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ +
= x 0 ( ) x
0
=
Economy relates steam and vapor flows: w
v
t ( ) E w
s
t ( ) ⋅ =
At the intial steady state:
w
P
w
F
x
F
⋅
x
0
:= w
v
w
F
w
P
− := w
s
w
v
E
:= w
P
8571
lb
hr
= w
s
43609
lb
hr
=
Maximum hold up: M
max
M
min
M
0
M
min
−
h
L0
+ := M
max
1100 lb =
1335. Multivariable control of evaporator of Figure 123.4
w
P
x
w
S
w
F
x
F
T
s
T
w
V
Condensate
Cond.
Design conditions:
w
F
50000
lb
hr
:= x
F
12mass% :=
x
0
70mass% := E 0.95 :=
M
0
747lb := h
L0
50%TO :=
Process parameters:
M
min
394lb :=
Developent of the model equations (assume perfect mixing):
Total mass balance:
d M t ( ) ⋅
dt
w
F
t ( ) w
v
t ( ) − w
P
t ( ) − = M 0 ( ) M
0
=
Sugar balance:
d M t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ ( ) ⋅
dt
w
F
t ( ) x
F
t ( ) ⋅ w
P
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ − =
The evaporator is thus simulated as an integrating process and does not operate well without the
level controller. The complete control system includes, from the Public Model Library:
A proportional level controller with the gain set at Kc = 20 %CO/%TO (tight control) •
f407Trmr: two transmitters, one for the product composition with a range of 40 to 90 mass% •
sugars and a time constant of 0.6 min, and one for the feed flow with a range of 0 to 70000 lb/hr
and a negligible time constant
f401Vlv1: three control valves sizd for 100% overcapacity, one on the feed, one on the product, •
and one on the steam
f403PI: two PI constrollers, one for the product composition manipulating the control valve on •
the product and the other one on the feed flow manipulating the steam control valve
Control valve gains: Feed =
50000
100%CO
lb
hr
2 ⋅ 1000
lb
hr %CO ⋅
=
Product =
w
P
2 ⋅
100%CO
171.4
lb
hr %CO ⋅
=
Steam =
w
s
2 ⋅
100%CO
872.2
lb
hr %CO ⋅
=
Initial valve positions are 50%. Initial transmitter outputs:
x
x
0
40mass% −
90 40 − ( )mass%
100 ⋅ %TO 60 %TO =
w
f
w
F
70000lb hr
1 −
⋅
100 ⋅ %TO 71.4 %TO =
The Simulink diagram for the evaporator is:
The Simulink diagram of the control system is
The responses to a 1000 lb/hr step increase in feed flow set point at 5 min and a 1 mass% step
increase in product composition set point at 20 min are:
This is for the recommended
pairing. The responses shows
that an evaporator can be
controlled very tightly.
Normally the feed flow will not
be stepped because the
sudden change in steam flow
will upset the steam header.
Students may be asked to try
alternative pairings of the
three controlled and
manipulated variables.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink disgram for the control system is:
τ
I
60min := K
c
3 −
%CO
%TO
:= Bottoms composition:
τ
I
60min := K
c
5
%CO
%TO
:= Distillate composition:
Open loop step tests on the two composition controller outputs showed no dead time on the
response of the composition, so the controllers cannot be tuned by the minimum IAE formulas.
Trial and error tuning resulted in the following tuning parameters:
K
WsFC
1957
lb
hr %TO ⋅
= m
B0
50%CO := K
WsFC
97873
lb
hr
2 ⋅
100%TO
:= Steam flow:
K
LrFC
96.04
lbmole
hr %TO ⋅
= m
D0
50%CO := K
LrFC
4802
lbmole
hr
2 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Reflux flow:
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Flow control loop gains and initial conditions sized for 200% of design flows:
The model equations, design conditions, and process parameters are given in Example 135.1. To
complete the composition loops add, from the Public Model Library:
Two flow control loops for the reflux and steam flows (these are copied from the other two •
"valves" used on the distillate and bottoms flows).
f407TRmr: two transmitters with ranges of 0 to 1.0 mole fraction and 1 min time cnstants for the •
distillate and bottoms compositions.
f403PI: two PI controllers to be tuned for minimum IAE. •
1336. Control of distillation column of Example 135.1
The responses to a 200 lbmole/hr step increase in feed flow at 20 min are
Surprisingly, although the two
controllers were tuned
independently, each with he other
loop opened, they both performed
satisfactorily when both loops were
closed.
Students may be encouraged to test
the tuning and to observe the
responses to other disturbances.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the blender is
V 0.450kbl := Process parameter:
Reformate
Straight run lsolve
1
x
0
y
0
1
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2

\


.
f
f x
0
⋅
f y
0
⋅

\


.
.
7.5
28.125
24.375

\

.
kbl
day
=
Alkylate
At the initial steady state:
y
5
11
3

\

.
:= x
97
80
92

\

.
:=
y
0
7 := x
0
87 := f 60
kbl
day
:= Design conditions:
3 eqns. 3 unk(f,x,y)
RVP balance:
y 0 ( ) y
0
=
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
f
1
t ( ) y
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
t ( ) y
2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
3
t ( ) y
3
t ( ) ⋅ + f t ( ) y t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅ =
Octane balance:
x 0 ( ) x
0
=
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
f t ( ) x
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) x
2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
3
t ( ) x
3
t ( ) ⋅ + f t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
=
f t ( ) f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) + = Total balance:
kbl 42000gal :=
Assuming constant volume. perfectly mixed, and constant densities, the model equations are:
1337. Control of gasoline blending tank of Example 122.5
To complete the control loops, add from the Public Model Library:
Three flow control loops (can be copied from f411ffst) with ranges of 0 to 150% of design flow •
and time constants of 0.1 min
f407Trmr: three transmitters, one for the product flow with a range of 0 to 100 kbl/day and 0.1 •
min time constant, one for the octane with range of 60 to 100 octane and a 1 min time
constant, and one for the RVP with range of 0 to 20 RVP and 1 min time constant
f403PI: three PI controllers for the product flow, octane and RVP. •
Flow control loops gains and initial conditions:
(a) With the correct pairing, the responses to a 10 kbl/day step increase in product flow set point
are at 1 min:
τ
I
3min := K
c
30
%CO
%TO
:=
Octane controller:
τ
I
5min := K
c
20 −
%CO
%TO
:=
RVP controller:
τ
I
0.1min := K
c
0.9
%CO
%TO
:=
Product flow controller:
The controllers are tuned as follows:
24.375
kbl
day
k
T3
66.7 %TO = k
T3
0.366
kbl
day %TO ⋅
=
k
T3
24.375
kbl
day
1.5 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Reformate:
28.125
kbl
day
k
T2
66.7 %TO = k
T2
0.422
kbl
day %TO ⋅
=
k
T2
28.125
kbl
day
1.5 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Straight Run:
7.5
kbl
day
k
T1
66.7 %TO = k
T1
0.113
kbl
day %TO ⋅
= k
T1
7.5
kbl
day
1.5 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Alkylate:
0.87
k
T2
k
T3
⋅ 1.004
%CO
%TO
= 0.75 −
k
T1
k
T3
0.231 −
%CO
%TO
= u
3
0.75 −
k
T1
k
T3
v
1
v
2
+ 0.87
k
T2
k
T3
v
3
+ =
0.27
k
T2
k
T1
⋅ 1.013
%CO
%TO
= 0.71 −
k
T3
k
T1
⋅ 2.308 −
%TO
%CO
= u
1
v
1
0.71
k
T3
k
T1
⋅ v
2
⋅ − 0.27
k
T2
k
T1
v
3
⋅ + =
Substitute and solve for the scaled variables u and v:
m
3
k
T2
v
3
⋅ = m
2
k
T3
v
2
⋅ = m
1
k
T1
v
1
⋅ = f
2
set
k
T2
u
2
⋅ = f
3
set
k
T3
u
3
⋅ = f
1
set
k
T1
u
1
⋅ =
where all the variables are in kbl/day. In practice the gains must be scaled to apply to signals in
%CO and %TO. So we have:
f
2
set
0.25 − m
1
0.29m
2
− m
3
+ =
f
3
set
0.75 − m
1
m
2
+ 0.87m
3
+ =
f
1
set
m
1
0.71 m
2
⋅ − 0.27 m
3
⋅ + =
The decoupler developed in Example 123.3 gives the gains of the decoupler on the unscaled
variables:
(c) Decoupler of Example 123.3
These are relatively tight responses
without oscillations.
Students should be encouraged to do part
(b) with alternate pairings of the controlled
and manipulated variables. In doing so it is
important to watch the direct and reverse
action of the controllers.
u
2
0.25 −
k
T1
k
T2
v
1
0.29
k
T3
k
T2
⋅ v
2
− v
3
+ = 0.25 −
k
T1
k
T2
⋅ 0.067 −
%CO
%TO
= 0.29 −
k
T3
k
T2
⋅ 0.251 −
%CO
%TO
=
All of the initial values must be 66.67%TO, so the follwing biases must be added:
Bias1 2.308 − 1.013 + ( ) − 66.67 ⋅ %TO := Bias1 86.338 %TO =
Bias3 0.231 − 1.004 + ( ) − 66.67 ⋅ %TO := Bias3 51.536 − %TO =
Bias2 .067 − 0.251 − ( ) − 66.67 ⋅ %TO := Bias2 21.201 %TO =
These are the gains and biases used in the following Simulink diagram of the decoupler:
With this decoupler the control
system of the gas blender
produces essentially perfect
control. The simulation with the
decoupler is in a separate file.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
ρ 8.33
lb
gal
:= L 3170ft := d
p
1.19ft := D 3.41ft := Problem parameters:
f
o
0 ( ) 0gpm =
d f
o
t ( ) ⋅
dt
π d
p
2
⋅
4
7.48gal
ft
3
g
L
h t ( ) 2.22 10
3 −
⋅ f
o
t ( ) − 0.5184 10
6 −
⋅ f
o
t ( )
2
−

\

.
⋅ =
h 0 ( ) 0ft =
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
4
πD
2
ft
3
7.48gal
f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) + f
o
t ( ) −
( )
=
Combine and simplify:
4 eqns. 4 unks.
∆p
f
t ( ) ρ g ⋅ 2.22 10
3 −
⋅ f
o
t ( ) 0.5184 10
6 −
⋅ f
o
2
t ( ) +
⋅ = Pressure drop correlation:
3 eqns. 4 unks. f
o
t ( )
π
4
d
p
2
v t ( )
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅ =
Outlet flow in gpm:
2 eqns. 4 unks.(v,∆p
f
)
d
dt
ρ
π
4
⋅ d
p
2
⋅ L ⋅ v t ( ) ⋅

\

.
π
4
d
p
2
p
a
ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅ + p
a
− ∆p
f
t ( ) −
( )
=
Momentum balance on outlet pipe:
1 eqn. 2 unks.(h,f
0
)
d
dt
ρ
π D
2
⋅
4
⋅ h t ( ) ⋅

\

.
⋅ ρ
ft
3
7.48 gal ⋅
⋅ f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) + f
o
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ = Mass balance on tank:
Development of the model equations:
L
h(t)
.f
o
(t)
d
p
P
1
P
2
P
3
1338. Three pump ad tank startup problem
g 115.827 10
3
×
ft
min
2
= h
max
9ft :=
Each pump flow changes from 0 to f when the flow is turned on (step function):
f 750
gal
min
:=
Numerical values of the coefficients:
4
π D
2
⋅
ft
3
7.48gal
0.015
ft
gal
=
a
1
π d
p
2
⋅
4
7.48gal
ft
3
g
L
⋅ :=
a
1
304
gal
ft min
2
⋅
=
a
1
2.22 ⋅ 10
3 −
⋅
ft min ⋅
gal
0.675
1
min
=
a
1
0.5184 ⋅ 10
6 −
⋅ ft
min
gal

\

.
2
⋅ 157.6 10
6 −
×
1
gal
=
The Simulink block diagram for the tank and pipe is:
Each pump is simulated as
a step test from 0 to 750
gpm and the time of the
step is the time when the
pump is turned on.
The Simulink diagram
includes a memory device
that records the maximum
level in the tank for each
run.
The following are the responses with pump 2 turned on at 7 min and pump 3 at 14 min:
The level in the tank reaches 10.5 ft with this
sequence, which means that the tank overflows.
Students must vary the times at which pumps 2
and 3 are turned on to see if they can keep from
overflowing the tank. It makes for an interesting
computer game with some fundamental concepts
attached.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
1339. Ecological interaction of hostparasite populations
Developemnt of the model equations:
Rat population:
d Rats t ( ) ⋅
dt
R
RG
t ( ) R
RD
t ( ) − = 5 Rats t ( ) ⋅ 0.05 Rats t ( ) ⋅ Fleas t ( ) ⋅ − =
Rats 0 ( ) 100 =
d Fleas t ( ) ⋅
dt
R
FG
t ( ) R
FD
t ( ) − = 0.2 Rats t ( ) ⋅ Fleas t ( ) ⋅ 20 Fleas t ( ) ⋅ − =
Fleas 0 ( ) 20 =
The Simulink diagram to solve these equations is:
The populations of rats and fleas are as fllows:
The two populations cycle with a
period of about 2/3 year for the
parameters of this problem. At high
flea populations the death rate of rats
is higher than their growth rate, while
at low rat population the death rate of
the fleas is higher than their growth
rate and their population decreases,
allowing the rat population to grow
back.
Encourage the students to investigate
the effect of the four problem
parameters on the population cycles.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
M
c
0 ( ) M
0
=
1 eqn. 2 unks. (Mc, wc)
Entahlpy balance: M
c
t ( ) c
pL
⋅
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
U A ⋅ T
a
T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ λ w
c
t ( ) ⋅ − = T 0 ( ) T
a
=
2 eqns. 3 unks. (T)
Flow through nozzle: Subcritical flow: w
c
t ( )
πD
2
4
3600s
hr
⋅
2 M
w
⋅ P t ( ) P t ( ) P
o
−
( )
⋅
⋅
R
g
T t ( ) 273.16K + ( ) ⋅
⋅ =
(the smaller of the two)
Critical flow:
w
c
t ( )
πD
2
4
3600s
hr
⋅
M
w
R
g
T t ( ) 273.16K + ( ) ⋅
⋅ P t ( ) ⋅ =
3 eqns. 4 unk. (P)
Vapor pressure by Antoine equation:
Reid, Prausnitz & Sherwood, 3rd.
ed., McGrawHill, 1977, Appendix P T t ( ) ( ) e
15.961
1978.32
T t ( ) 273.16K + 27.01 −
−
101300Pa
760mmHg
⋅ =
4 eqns. 4 nks.
All the numbers given are in consistent units except for the diameter of the nozzle:
D 4in
0.3048m
12in
⋅ := D 0.102 m =
The Simulink diagram for the barge is:
degC K := kJ 10
3
joule :=
1340. Environmental impact of chlorine barge accident
kmole 1000mol :=
P
P
o
T
T
a
w
c
M
c
Problem parameters:
D 4in := A 212m
2
:=
M
0
136000kg :=
T
a
25degC :=
U 1000
kJ
hr m
2
degC ⋅
:=
R
g
8314
joule
kmole K ⋅
:=
P
o
101300Pa :=
Properties of chlorine: M
w
71.5
kg
kmole
:= λ 288
kJ
kg
:= c
pL
0.946
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:=
Development of the model equations:
Chlorine mass balance:
d M
c
t ( ) ⋅
dt
w
c
t ( ) − =
The
temperature
is calculated
in K. Time is
in hr.
The responses for the barge are:
It takes a little over 3.5 hr
for the barge to empty for
these parameters.
Students should be
encouraged to investigate
which of the parameters
most affects the time
required to empty the
barge. The heat transfer
coefficient is probably the
one that has the greatest
effect.
Caution: When running
this simulation the "Stop
Time," under "Simulation
Parameters," must be
adjusted so that the mass
Mc is never zero or
negative. After that point
the results are not valid.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
x
r4
0 ( ) 0 =
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r4
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat4
⋅ r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ − = Catalyst 1:
3 eqs. 4 unks. (xr2)
x
r2
0 ( ) 0 =
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r2
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
PA
t ( ) x
PA
⋅ r
B
t ( ) M
w2
⋅ − = Propionic anhydride:
2 eqns. 3 unks. (xr1,rB)
x
r1
0 ( ) x
r10
=
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat1
⋅ 2 − ⋅ r
B
t ( ) ⋅ M
w1
⋅ = 2butanol balance:
1 eqn. 1 unk. (Mr)
M
r
0 ( ) M
r0
=
dM
r
t ( )
dt
F
PA
t ( ) F
Cat
t ( ) + = Total mass balance:
Development of the model equations:
Assume
Perfect mixing of ractor and jacket contents •
The reactor is initially charged with the 2btanol, essentially pure •
Cold water
TT
TT
Anhydride
Butanol
Catalyst
Hot water
1341. Control of semibatch reactor
V
mr
t ( )
M
r
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( )
=
9 eqns. 13 unks. (Vmr,ρr)
Average density: ρ
r
t ( )
x
r1
t ( )
ρ
1
x
r2
t ( )
ρ
2
+
x
r3
t ( )
ρ
3
+
x
rBP
t ( )
ρ
5
+
x
r4
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) +
ρ
4
+

\

.
=
10 eqns. 14 unks. (xrBP)
Butyl propionate: x
rBP
t ( ) 1 x
r1
t ( ) − x
r2
t ( ) − x
r3
t ( ) − x
r4
t ( ) − x
r5
t ( ) − =
11 eqns. 14 unks.
Reaction rates:
r
B
t ( ) V
mr
t ( ) k
1
C
A
t ( ) ⋅ k
2
C
Cat1
t ( ) ⋅ + k
3
C
Cat2
t ( ) ⋅ +
( )
⋅ C
B
t ( ) =
12 eqns. 18 unks. (CA,CB, Ccat1, Ccat2)
r
Cat1
t ( ) V
mr
t ( ) k
4
⋅ 10
H
r
t ( ) −
⋅ C
Cat2
t ( ) C
B
t ( ) ⋅ =
13 eqns. 19 unks. (Hr)
H
r
t ( ) p
1
C
Cat1
t ( ) ⋅ p
2
C
Cat2
t ( ) ⋅ +
( )
− p
3
p
4
T t ( ) 273.16K +
+

\

.
=
14 eqns. 19 unks.
4 eqns. 6 unks. (xr4,rCat1)
Catalyst 2:
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) ⋅
( )
r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ = x
r5
t ( ) 0 =
5 eqns. 7 unks. (xr5)
Water:
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r3
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat3
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) 1 x
PA
−
( )
⋅ + r
B
t ( ) M
w3
⋅ + = x
r3
0 ( ) 1 x
r10
− =
6 eqns. 8 unks. (xr3)
Enthalpy on reactor:
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) c
pavg
t ( ) ⋅ T
r
t ( ) ⋅
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) c
p2
⋅ F
Cat
t ( ) cpcat ⋅ +
( )
T
f
T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ U
o
A ⋅ T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ +
=
∆H
r
t ( ) r
B
t ( ) ⋅ − T
r
0 ( ) T
r0
=
7 eqns. 11 unks. (Tr,Tj,cpavg)
Enthalpy on jacket:
M
j
c
p3
⋅
d T
j
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ U
o
A ⋅ T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
cw
t ( ) c
p3
⋅ T
j
t ( ) T
cw
−
( )
⋅ − F
hw
t ( ) c
p3
⋅ T
hw
T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
T
j
0 ( ) T
j0
= 8 eqns. 11 unks.
Volume of reactants:
M
j
415kg := ∆H
r
80000 −
kJ
kmole
:=
x
PA
100mass% := x
r10
100mass% :=
F
cw
10000
kg
hr
:=
Catalyst feed composition:
x
fCat1
70mass% := x
fCat3
10mass% := x
fCat4
20mass% :=
Physical properties from Perry's, 7th ed., Tables 21 and 22:
2butanol
Propionic anhydride
Water
M
w
74
130
18
98
130

\




.
kg
kmole
:= ρ
808
1012
1000
1829
866

\




.
kg
m
3
:= c
p
2.876
2.345
4.187
1.424
2.345

\




.
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:=
Sulfuric acid
Butyl propionate
Hot water flow required for an inlet jacket temperature of 30 ºC:
F
cw
c
p3
⋅ T
cw
⋅ F
hw
c
p3
⋅ T
hw
⋅ + F
cw
F
hw
+
( )
c
p3
30 ⋅ degC =
F
hw
F
cw
30degC T
cw
−
T
hw
30degC −
⋅ :=
Concentrations:
C
A
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) ⋅
M
w1
= C
B
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r2
t ( ) ⋅
M
w2
= C
Cat1
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r4
t ( ) ⋅
M
w4
=
C
Cat2
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) ⋅
M
w4
=
18 eqns. 19 unks.
Reactor specific heat:
c
pavg
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) c
p1
x
r2
t ( ) c
p2
⋅ + x
r3
t ( ) c
p3
⋅ + x
r4
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) +
( )
c
p4
⋅ + x
rBP
t ( ) . ⋅ c
p5
+ =
19 eqns. 19 unks.
The reaction rate coefficients are Arrhenius functions of temperature:
k
i
A
i
e
E
i
−
R
g
T t ( ) 273.16K + ( ) ⋅
⋅ =
for i = 1..4
Problem parameters:
p
0.2022
0.3205
21.38 −
1271

\



.
:= A
1.93 10
11
⋅
1.01 10
14
⋅
1.42 10
14
⋅
5.05 10
11
⋅

\





.
m
3
kmole min ⋅
:= E
80480
79160
69970
76620

\



.
kJ
kmole
=
R
g
8.314
kJ
kmole K ⋅
= M
r0
600kg := T
r0
20degC := T
j0
30degC := T
f
20degC :=
U
o
A ⋅ 300
kJ
min degC ⋅
= T
cw
15degC := T
hw
90degC :=
F
hw
2500
kg
hr
=
The eight differential equations may be simplified as follows:
d x
r1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat1
x
r1
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) ⋅ − 2 r
B
t ( ) ⋅ M
w1
⋅ −
=
d x
r2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat2
x
r2
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) x
PA
x
r2
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + r
B
t ( ) M
w2
⋅ −
⋅ =
d x
r3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat3
x
r3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) 1 x
PA
− x
r3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + r
B
t ( ) M
w3
⋅ +
⋅ =
d x
r4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat4
x
r4
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) x
r4
t ( ) ⋅ − r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ −
=
d x
r5
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat1
t ( ) F
PA
t ( ) +
( )
− x
r5
t ( ) ⋅ r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ +
=
d T
r
t ( ) ⋅
dt
F
Cat1
t ( ) c
pcat
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) c
p2
⋅ +
( )
T
f
T
r
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ U
o
A ⋅ T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ − ∆H
r
r
B
t ( ) ⋅ −
=
1
M t ( ) c
pavg
t ( ) ⋅
d T
j
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
j
U
o
A ⋅
c
p3
T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
cw
t ( ) Tj t ( ) T
cw
−
( )
⋅ − F
hw
t ( ) T
hw
T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ +
=
d M
j
t ( ) ⋅
dt
F
Cat1
t ( ) F
PA
t ( ) + =
The Simulink block diagram for the reactor is the following:
The Reactor Sfnction makes use of a file "Semibatch.m" to solve the equations. This file must be
in the MATLAB "Current Directory" for the simulation to run.
The following are the temperature profiles for a batch when the catalyst is fed at 1200 kg/hr for 5
min followed by the anhydride fed at 1200 kg/hr for 30 minutes:
These trends match the trends in the
CEP article by Feliu, et al. (Dec.
2003) for the same conditions.
The students must now device a
control strategy to minimize the batch
cycle time while satisfying the
constraint that the reactor temperature
must not exceed 60ºC. This constraint
is violated in the base case shown
here. Feliu proposes various
strategies in the article.
This problem probably makes for a
good term project. The instructor must
decide whether to provide the model
and simulation to the students or have
them develop their own. If the latter
please tell the students that the
Arrhenius coefficients are in
m3/kmolemin.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
f t ( ) 0dynes = y 0 ( ) 100cm = For this problem:
k 1816
gm
s
2
= k
M g ⋅
27cm
:= g 980.7
cm
s
2
= M 50gm := From the solution of problem 29:
y t ( ) and a second integartion gives
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
Integration of this second derivative results in:
d
2
y t ( )
dt
2
g −
f t ( )
M
+
k
M
y t ( ) − =
Solve for the highest derivative:
M
d
2
y t ( )
dt
2
⋅ M − g ⋅ k y t ( ) ⋅ − f t ( ) + =
The differential equation representing the motion of the bird mobile is, from Problem 29:
131. Simulation of Bird Mobile of Problem 29.
Solutions to Problems 131 to 1317
Chapter 13. Simulation of Process Control Systems
The period of oscillation is, as in
the solution to problem 29:
Period 2 π ⋅
M
k
⋅ :=
Period 1.043 s =
The number of complete cycles
in 10 seconds is:
10s
Period
9.592 =
The simulation plot shows the
same result.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
Period 1.795 s = Period
2 π ⋅
g
L
:=
g
L
3.501 Hz = The frequency of oscillation is:
(Table 21.1) x t ( ) x 0 ( ) cos
g
L
t
= r
2
i −
g
L
⋅ = r
1.
i
g
L
⋅ = Roots:
s
2 g
L
+
X s ( ) 0 = The solution of the differential equation:
x 0 ( ) 0.1m = L 0.8m := M 0.5kg := g 9.807
m
s
2
=
d
2
x t ( )
dt
2
g
L
− x t ( ) =
Substitute and simplify to obtain:
tan θ
( )
sin θ
( )
=
x t ( )
L
=
For small angles θ, from the geometry:
M − g ⋅ tan θ
( )
⋅ M
d
2
x t ( )
dt
2
⋅ =
Application of Newton's Second Law of Motion:
Mg
x(t)
L
Mg sin2
2
132. Simulation of a Pendulum
The number of oscillations in
10 s is:
10s
Period
5.572 =
The simulation plot shows
the same result.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
w
i
0.194
kg
s
= w
i
A
o
2
M 601300 ⋅ Pa
R
g
T ⋅
⋅ 601300Pa p
o
−
( )
⋅ :=
Assume the compressor is initially off and comes on after 200 s (five time constants) with the exact
flow required to maintain the initial pressure:
τ 42.895 s = τ
V 2
M
R
g
T ⋅
⋅ 601300 ⋅ Pa 500000 ⋅ Pa ⋅
A
o
2 601300 ⋅ Pa p
o
−
( )
⋅
:=
From the linearization of Problem 223, we know that the time constant is:
p 0 ( ) 500000 101300 + ( )Pa = T 70 273.16 + ( )K := R
g
8.314
Pa m
3
⋅
mole K ⋅
⋅ :=
p
o
101300Pa := M 29
gm
mole
:= A
o
0.785cm
2
:= V 1.5m
3
:= Problem parameters:
d p t ( ) ⋅
dt
R
g
T ⋅
V M ⋅
w
i
t ( ) w
o
t ( ) −
( )
= Substitute and solve for dp(t)/dt:
ρ t ( )
M
R
g
T ⋅
p t ( ) = Ideal gas law, assuming constant temperature:
w
o
t ( ) A
o
2 ρ t ( ) p t ( ) p
o
−
( )
⋅ =
Flow through the orifice:
V
dρ t ( )
dt
w
i
t ( ) w
o
t ( ) − =
In Problem 223 the mass balance on the tank produced the following equation:
133. Simulation of Punctured Air Tank of Problem 223.
As predicted by the linearized
model, the pressure reaches
steady state in about 200 s.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Run the simulation for 25 hrs (five time constants). Simulate the oven as a step function from an
inital temperature of 535ºR to 800ºR.
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
σ ε ⋅ A ⋅
M c
v
⋅
T
s
t ( )
4
T t ( )
4
−
=
Integrate the differential equation :
τ 5.16 hr = τ
M c
v
⋅
4 σ ⋅ ε ⋅ A ⋅ 535R ( )
3
⋅
:=
By the linearization done in Problem 224, the time constant of the turkey is:
σ 0.1718 10
8 −
⋅
BTU
hr ft
2
⋅ R
4
:= T 0 ( ) 535R = c
v
0.95
BTU
lb R ⋅
:=
ε 0.6 := T
s
800R := A 3.5ft
2
:= M 12lb := The parameters, given in this problem are:
M c
v
⋅
dT t ( )
dt
⋅ σ ε ⋅ A T
s
t ( )
4
T t ( )
4
−
⋅ =
From the solution to Problem 224, the differential equation obtained from an energy balace on the
turkey is:
134. Simulation of the turkey temperature response of Problem 224.
From the response, the time
constant is much less than 5 hr.
This is because the time constant
gets smaller with temperature. At
800ºR it is:
τ
M c
v
⋅
4 σ ⋅ ε ⋅ A ⋅ 800R ( )
3
⋅
:= τ 1.54 hr =
From the response, the actual time
constant seems to be about 2 hr,
which is more in line with how long it
takes to cook a turkey.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
E 27820
BTU
lbmole
:=
R
g
1.987
BTU
lbmole R ⋅
:= ρ 55
lb
ft
3
:= C
p
0.88
BTU
lb R ⋅
:= A 36ft
2
:=
f
c
0.8771
ft
3
min
:=
ρ
c
62.4
lb
ft
3
:= ∆H
r
12000 −
BTU
lbmole
:= U 75
BTU
hr ft
2
⋅ R ⋅
:= V
c
1.56ft
3
:= C
pc
1
BTU
lb R ⋅
:=
Check that initial conditions are at steady state (derivatives = 0):
r
A
k
o
e
E −
R
g
678.9 ⋅ R
⋅ 0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
2
⋅ := r
A
0.039
lbmole
ft
3
min ⋅
=
f
V
c
Ai
0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
−
⋅ r
A
− 5.87 − 10
4 −
×
lbmole
ft
3
min ⋅
=
f
V
T
i
678.9R −
( )
∆H
r
ρ C
p
⋅
r
A
⋅ −
U A ⋅
V ρ ⋅ C
p
⋅
678.9 602.7 − ( )R − 7.915 − 10
3 −
×
R
min
=
f
c
V
c
T
ci
602.7R −
( )
U A ⋅
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ C
pc
⋅
678.9 602.7 − ( )R + 0.027 −
R
min
=
The following is the Simulink diagram for the reactor:
135. Nonisothermal Chemical Reactor of Section 42.3
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Rearranging the model equations from Section 42.3:
d c
A
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f t ( )
V
c
Ai
t ( ) c
A
t ( ) −
( )
r
A
t ( ) − = c
A
0 ( ) 0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
=
r
A
t ( ) k
o
e
E −
R
g
T t ( ) ⋅
⋅ c
A
2
⋅ t ( ) =
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
f t ( )
V
T
i
t ( ) T t ( ) −
( )
∆H
r
ρ C
p
⋅
r
A
t ( ) ⋅ −
U A ⋅
V ρ ⋅ C
p
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
− = T 0 ( ) 678.9R =
d T
c
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
c
t ( )
V
c
T
ci
t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
U A ⋅
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ C
pc
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
+ = T
c
0 ( ) 602.7R =
Design conditions: c
Ai
0.5975
lbmole
ft
3
:= T
i
633.5R := f 1.3364
ft
3
min
:= T
ci
540R :=
Parameters:
V 13.46ft
3
:= k
o
8.33 10
8
⋅
ft
3
lbmole min ⋅
:=
The following are the responses for a 0.25 ft3/min increase in process flow at 1 minute followed by
a 0.1 ft3/min increase in coolant flow at 30 minutes.
Observe the inverse response in the reactor temperature for the change in process flow.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The folowing is the Simulink diagram for the mixer:
f
2
37.5
gal
min
= f
2
f f
1
− :=
f
1
62.5
gal
min
= f
1
f
c
A2
0.025mole cm
3 −
⋅ −
c
A2
c
A1
−
⋅ :=
f
1
c
A1
⋅ f
2
c
A2
⋅ + f c
A
⋅ − 0 = At the initial steady state:
(assuming constant volume) f
1
f
2
+ f = Total mass balance:
Ah 200gal := f 100
gal
min
:= c
A2
0.05
mole
cm
3
:= c
A1
0.01
mole
cm
3
:= Problem parameters:
c
A
0 ( ) 0.025
mole
cm
3
=
d c
A
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
t ( ) c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ + f t ( ) c
A
t ( ) ⋅ −
A h ⋅
=
The model equation, from the solution to Problem 31:
136. Mixing Process of Problem 31
The responses to a step increase in f1 from 62.5 to 67.5 GPM at 1 minute:
The concentration response is
typical firstorder with a time
constant of approximately 2 min.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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137. Feedback control of composition in mixer of Problem 31
Introduce the following blocks from the Chapter 13c public nodels:
Figure 134.1, F401Vlv1, control valve with time constant of 1 min, linear, maximum flow of •
100 gpm, and initial condition of 37.5%C.O.
Figure 134.3, F403PI, PI controller with initial condition of 37.5% CO. •
Figure 134.7, F407Trmr, transmitter with 1 min time constant, range of 0 to 1 mole/cm3, •
and initial condition of 0.025 mole/cm3
The controller was tuned for quarter decay ratio response with a gain of 20%CO/%TO and an
intgral time of 1.5 min.
This is the Simulink diagram of the loop (the mixer block is the one from Problem 135):
The response to a 5 gpm increase in f1 at 1 minute is:
The outlet flow increases by 5 gpm
at 1 min and then the controller
increases f2 to bring the outlet
concentration back up to the set
point.
The high controller gain rsults in a
very minor deviation of the outlet
concentration from its set point.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The responses to a 5 ft3/min step increase in process flow are:
The Simulink diagram is given by:
k 1 min
1 −
= k
f c
A1
0.5lbmole ft
3 −
⋅ −
⋅
V 0.5 ⋅ lbmole ft
3 −
⋅
:= Initial conditions at steady state:
D
i
5.5in := L
p
400ft := V 150ft
3
:= Problem parameters:
c
A1
2
lbmole
ft
3
:= f 50
ft
3
min
:= Design conditions:
c
A3
t ( ) c
A2
t t
o
−
( )
=
c
A2
0 ( ) 0.5
lbmole
ft
3
=
d c
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
V
c
A1
t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) −
( )
kc
A2
t ( ) − =
The model equations, from the solution to Problem 32, are:
138. Isothermal reactor of Problem 32
The concentration response shows a
time constant of about 0.75 min, a
dead time of a little over 1 min, and a
steady state change of 0.38 lbmole/ft3.
The values from the linear model are:
τ
V
f k V ⋅ +
:= τ 0.75 min =
t
o
π D
i
2
⋅ L
p
⋅
4f
:= t
o
1.32 min =
∆c
A2
c
A1
0.5
lbmole
ft
3
−
f k V ⋅ +
5 ⋅
ft
3
min
:=
∆c
A2
0.038
lbmole
ft
3
=
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The responses to a 0.1 step increase in feed composition are:
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
z
0
0.513 =
y
0
0.625 = z
0
V y
0
⋅ L 0.4 ⋅ +
F
:= y
0
α 0.4 ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
0.4 +
:=
At initial steady state:
α 2.5 := M 500kmole := Problem parameters:
V 5
kmole
s
= V F L − := L 5
kmole
s
:= F 10
kmole
s
:= Design conditions:
y t ( )
α x t ( ) ⋅
1 α 1 −
( )
x t ( ) +
=
F V L + =
x 0 ( ) 0.4 =
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
F z t ( ) ⋅ V y t ( ) ⋅ − L x t ( ) ⋅ − ( ) =
Rearranging the model equation developed in Problem 311:
kmole 1000mole :=
139. Flash drum of Problem 311
These are typical firstorder
responses with a time constant
of about 50 s and a gain on x of
about 1 which match the results
of the linear model in the
solution of Problem 311.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The responses to a 20 ft3/min increase in inlet flow are:
The Simulink diagram for the tray is:
As the response is fast, convert time units to s by multiplying the derivative by 60 s/min.
h
0
0.136 ft =
h
0
f
o
0.415 w ⋅ 2 g ⋅ ⋅
1
1.5
:= f
o
f
i
:= f
i
30
ft
3
min
:= Initial steady state conditions:
S 11.2ft
2
:= w 3ft := Problem parameters:
f
o
t ( ) 0.415 w ⋅ h t ( )
1.5
⋅ 2 g ⋅ ⋅ =
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
S
f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) −
( )
=
The model equations from the solution to Problem 312 are:
1310. Distillation tray of Problem 312
The firstorder response has a time
constant of approximately 2 s and
the steadystate change is about
0.054 ft. The time costant matches
the one from the linerized model from
the solution of Problem 312. Using
the gain from that solution, the
steadystate change in level should
be:
20ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
331.4ft
2
min
1 −
⋅
0.06 ft =
close!
The students can check the results
for the change in 10 ft3/min.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
From Table 71.1, for a series PID controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response:
K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= τ
D
T
u
8
:= K
c
147 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min = τ
D
0.38 min =
Control valve (from F401Vlv1): K
v
0.0542
m
3
min %CO ⋅
:= τ
v
0.1min := (Solution of Problem
611)
Initial position:
f
2
K
v
44.28 %CO =
Transmitter (from F407Trmr): τ
T
3min := Initial output:
50 20 −
70 20 −
60 %TO =
The series PID Controller block is taken from the Public Model Library, F405PIDs
The Simulink block diagram for the blender conentration control loop is:
13.11. Blending tank of Problems 318 and 611
The diagram for the blender is essentially the same as for Problem 136 with slightly different
notation and the following parameter and design values:
%CO % :=
c
1
80
kg
m
3
:= c
2
30
kg
m
3
:= c
0
50
kg
m
3
:= f 4
m
3
min
:= V 40m
3
:=
%TO % :=
At the intial steady state: f f
1
f
2
+ = f c
0
⋅ f
1
c
1
⋅ f
2
c
2
⋅ + =
f
2
f
c
0
c
1
−
c
2
c
1
−
⋅ := f
1
f f
2
− := f
1
1.6
m
3
min
= f
2
2.4
m
3
min
=
From the results of Problem 611, the ultimate gain and period are:
K
cu
250 −
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
3.01min :=
The responses to a 0.1 m3/min increase in f1 are:
The decay ratio is somewhat greater
than 1/4. Students may adjust the
controller tuning parameters to
improve the response.
Notice that the concentration can be
controlled very tightly.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
f
2
f
1
:= f
1
3
m
3
min
=
C
v1
f
1
h
10
:= C
v2
f
2
h
20
:= C
v1
1.897
m
2.5
min
=
C
v2
1.897
m
2.5
min
=
The linearized gains and time constants are:
K
1
2 h
10
⋅
C
v1
:= τ
1
2 A
1
⋅ h
10
⋅
C
v1
:= K
1
1.667
min
m
2
= τ
1
15 min =
K
2
C
v1
C
v2
h
20
h
10
⋅ := τ
2
2 A
2
⋅ h
20
⋅
C
v2
:= K
2
1 = τ
2
15 min =
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
1312. Noninteracting tanks in series of Fig. 41.1
The model equations developed in Section 41.1 are:
d h
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
A
1
f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) − f
1
t ( ) −
( )
= h
10
2.5m :=
d h
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
A
2
f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) −
( )
= h
20
2.5m :=
f
1
t ( ) C
v1
h
1
t ( ) ⋅ = f
2
t ( ) C
v2
h
2
t ( ) ⋅ =
Design conditions: f
i
5
m
3
min
:= f
o
2
m
3
min
:=
Problem parameters: A
1
9m
2
:= A
2
9m
2
:=
At initial steady state: f
1
f
i
f
o
− :=
The responses to a 0.2 m3/min step increase in inlet flow are:
The responses of the level and
flow for the first tank are firstorder
with a time constant of 15 min.
The gains are 1.0 for the flows and
the steadystate changes in level
are about 0.35 m, as predicted by
the linear model:
K
1
0.2 ⋅
m
3
min
0.333 m =
The responses for the second
tank are second order with the
same steadystate change in
level, meaning that the gain K
2
is
unity as predicted by the linear
model.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
1313. Interacting tanks of Fig. 42.1
The model equations developed in Section 42.1 are the same as for problem 1312, except for the
flow betwen the tanks:
f
1
t ( ) C
v1
h
1
t ( ) h
2
t ( ) − ⋅ =
Design conditions are the same except for the initial condition in tank 1: h
10
5m :=
At the initial steady state: C
v1
f
1
h
10
h
20
−
:= C
v1
1.897
m
2.5
min
=
It can be shown that the gain of the inlet flow on the level in the second tank is the same as K1 in
Problem 1312.
K
1
1.667
min
m
2
=
The following is the Simulink diagram for the interacting tanks is series:
The responses to a 0.2 m3/min step increase in inlet flow are:
The change in the level in the
second tank is the same as in
Problem 1312. Students may
want to study the effect of
reducing the resistance
between the two tanks by
changing the initial condition on
h
1
and recalculating C
v1
. For
example, for h
10
= 2.6 m,
C
v1
f
1
2.6m h
20
−
:=
C
v1
9.487
m
2.5
min
=
The response of the second
tank becomes firstorder and
the two tanks behave as a
single tank.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
τ
2
5 min = τ
1
5 min = K
2
0 = τ
2
V
2
f
A
f
B
+
:= τ
1
V
1
f
A
:= K
2
f
B
f
A
f
B
+
:=
K
1
1 = K
1
f
A
f
A
f
B
+
:= This problem is linear with a gains and time constants:
T
4
500 K = T
2
500 K = T
4
f
A
T
2
⋅ f
B
T
3
⋅ +
f
A
f
B
+
:= T
2
T
1
:= At initial steady state:
T
3
500K := T
1
500K := f
B
0
m
3
min
:= V
2
5m
3
:= V
1
5m
3
:= f
A
1
m
3
min
:=
Design conditions:
d T
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
2
f
A
T
2
t ( ) ⋅ f
B
T
3
t ( ) ⋅ + f
A
f
B
+
( )
T
4
t ( ) ⋅ −
=
d T
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
A
V
1
T
1
t ( ) T
2
t ( ) −
( )
=
The model equations developed in Section 41.2 are:
1314. Noninteracting thermal tanks in series of Fig. 41.5
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is unlawful.
The resposes to a 10 K step increase in inlet temperature are:
The response for the first tank is
firstorder with a unity gain and a
time constant of 5 min, matching
the theoretical model. The
response for the second tank is
secondorder also with unity ain
for these conditions.
Students may study the effect of
changing flows fA and fB and
temperature T3 on these
responses.
1315. Interacting thermal tanks of Fig. 42.4
The model equations developed in Section 42.2, ignoring f
B
, are:
d T
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
1
f
A
T
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
R
T
4
t ( ) ⋅ + f
A
f
R
+
( )
T
2
t ( ) ⋅ −
=
d T
4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
2
f
A
f
R
+
( )
T
1
t ( ) T
4
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ =
The design conditions and problem parameters are the same as in Problem 1314, plus the recycle
flow:
f
R
1
m
3
min
:= (The results for f
R
= 0 are identical to those of Prob. 1314)
Note: In the model of Section 42.2, the recycle flow is assumed to be 0.2*(f
A
+ f
B
).
The Simulink diagram for this problem is:
The temperature responses for a 10 K step increase in inlet temperature are:
The students should study the effect
of the recycle flow on the responses.
As the recycle flow is increased, the
temperatures in the two tanks
approach each other and the two
tanks behave as one perfectly mixed
tank with the combined volume of the
two tanks. They should notice that
increasing the recycle flow does not
appreciably change the time to
steady state, or the gain.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the reactors is:
c
A20
0.767
lbmole
ft
3
= c
A20
f
1
c
A10
⋅
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
:=
c
A10
1.726
lbmole
ft
3
= c
A10
f
o
c
Ao
⋅
f
1
k
1
V
1
⋅ + f
R
f
1
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
⋅ −
:=
c
A20
f
1
c
A10
⋅
f
1
k
2
V
2
⋅ +
=
f
1
20
ft
3
min
= f
1
f
o
f
R
+ := At the initial steady state:
f
R
10
ft
3
min
:= For the base case let:
V
2
125ft
3
:= V
1
125ft
3
:= f
o
10
ft
3
min
:=
k
2
0.2min
1 −
:= k
1
0.2min
1 −
:= c
Ao
7
lbmole
ft
3
:= Design conditions from Problem 615:
c
A2
0 ( ) c
A20
=
d c
A2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
V
2
c
A1
t ( ) c
A2
t ( ) −
( )
k
2
c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ − =
c
A1
0 ( ) c
A10
=
d c
A1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
1
f
o
c
Ao
t ( ) ⋅ f
R
c
A2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
1
c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
k
1
c
A1
t ( ) ⋅ − =
The model equatios are developed in the solution to Problem 49:
1316. Reactors with recycle of Problems 49 and 615
The responses to a 0.5 lbmole/ft3 step increase in inlet concentration with a recycle flow of 10
ft3/min are:
Students shall study the effect of
changing the recycle flow as indicated
in the statement of the problem.
Notice that the initial steady state
conditions vary with the recycle flow.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulnk block diagram for the extractor is:
f
2
14088.6
m
3
min
=
f
2
K
a
V ⋅ c
10
m
e
c
20
⋅ −
( )
⋅
2 c
20
⋅
:=
c
20
1.2776 10
4 −
×
kmole
m
3
=
c
20
2 − f
1
⋅ c
i
c
10
−
( )
⋅ K
a
V ⋅ c
10
⋅ +
K
a
m
e
⋅ V ⋅
:=
c
10
0.04
kmole
m
3
= c
10
1 Rec − ( ) c
i
⋅ := At the initial steady state:
V 25m
3
:= K
a
3.646min
1 −
:= m
e
3.95 := Problem parameters:
Rec 90% := c
i
0.4
kmole
m
3
:= f
1
5
m
3
min
:= Design conditions:
c
2
0 ( ) c
20
=
d c
2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
K
a
c
1
t ( ) m
e
c
2
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅
2 f
2
t ( ) ⋅
V
c
2
t ( ) − =
c
1
0 ( ) c
10
=
d c
1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
2 f
1
t ( ) ⋅
V
c
i
t ( ) c
1
t ( ) −
( )
K
a
c
1
t ( ) m
e
c
2
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅ − =
The model equations developed in the solution to Problem 46 are:
1317. Extraction process of Problem 46
The responses to a 1000 m3/min step increase in solvent flow are:
Obviously the problem parameters
are unreasonable. The large solvent
flow makes for an almost
instantaneous response of the
extract composition. The effect on
the raffinate composition is
negligible, as the extract
composition is essentially zero
under the design conditions.
Ask students to try more
reasonable parameter values:
m
e
0.95 := K
a
209min
1 −
:=
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the cooler is:
f
c0
0.172
m
3
min
= f
c0
U A ⋅
ρ
c
c
pc
⋅
T
0
T
c0
−
( )
T
c0
T
ci
−
( )
:=
T
c0
35.5 degC =
T
c0
T
0
f ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
U A ⋅
T
i
T
0
−
( )
− := At the initial steady state:
c
pc
4.2
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:= ρ
c
1000
kg
m
3
:= c
p
3.8
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:=
ρ 800
kg
m
3
:= V
c
1.1m
3
:= A 4m
2
:= U 200
kJ
min m
2
degC ⋅
:= V 5m
3
:= Problem parameters:
T
ci
25degC := T
0
45degC := f 0.1
m
3
min
:=
T
i
70degC := Design conditions:
T
c
0 ( ) T
c0
=
d T
c
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
c
t ( )
V
c
Tci T
c
t ( ) −
( )
U A ⋅
V
c
ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
+ =
T 0 ( ) T
0
=
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
f t ( )
V
T
i
t ( ) T t ( ) −
( )
U A ⋅
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
T t ( ) T
c
t ( ) −
( )
− =
kJ 1000joule := degC K := The model equations, from the solution to Problem 47, are:
1318. Temperature control of stirred tank cooler of Problems 47 and 619
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Chapter 13. Simulation of Process Control Systems (continued)
f
c0
0.008
m
3
min %CO ⋅
21.5 %CO = Controller output:
45 20 −
70 20 −
50 %TO = Transmitter output: Initial conditions:
τ
D
0.95 min =
τ
I
3.8min = K
c
44 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= From Table 71.1:
T
u
7.59min := K
cu
75.4 −
%CO
%TO
:=
From the solution to Problem 619:
%TO % := %CO % :=
To complete the temperature control loop, install, from the Public Model Library:
A flow control loop, f401Vlv1, with a gain of 0.008 m3/min%CO, negligible time constant. •
A temperature transmitter, f407Trmr, with a range of 20 to 70 C and a time constant of 0.6 min. •
A series PID controller, f405PIDs, tuned for quarter dcay ratio •
The responses to a 0.2 m3/min step increase in process flow at 5 min, and a 2 C step increase in
set point at 30 min, are:
The controller output saturates for the
change in process flow and is barely
able to return the temperature to the
set point. The controller output also
temporarily saturates on the change in
set point, but is able to recover.
Saturation is a form of nonlinear
behavior. In this case it causes the
decay ratio to be much less than 1/4.
Encourage your students to figure out
what needs to be changed so that the
controller does not saturate.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
V 5gal :=
k
v
1.954 10 ⋅
100%CO
lb
min
:= k
v
0.0618
lb
min %CO ⋅
=
Steam enthalpy, saturated at 1 atm., referenced to 32 F, is: 1150.4 BTU/lb
h
s
1150.4
BTU
lb
c
p
32 ⋅ degF + := h
s
1176
BTU
lb
=
At the initial steady state: w
2
f
1
ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
30
T
1
−
( )
⋅
h
s
c
p
T
30
⋅ −
:= w
2
2.518
lb
min
=
vp
0
w
2
k
v
:=
vp
0
40.8 %CO =
Note: The value of w
2
does not match the one in the problem statement.
Simulate the valve by inserting the block f401Vlv1 from the Public Model Library, linear, with a gain
kv and a time constant of
τ
v
4s := τ
v
0.067 min =
The Simulink block diagram is:
gpm
gal
min
:= degF R :=
1319. Direct contact heater of Problem 45
The model equations developed in the solution to Problem 45 are:
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
f
1
t ( ) T
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
3
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅
h
s
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
w
2
t ( ) ⋅ + = T
3
0 ( ) T
30
=
w
2
t ( ) 1.954 10 vp t ( ) ⋅ = k
v
vp t ( ) ⋅ =
f
3
t ( ) f
1
t ( )
w
2
t ( )
ρ
+ =
Substitute to eliminate f.3(t):
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
t ( )
V
T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
w
2
t ( )
V ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
h
s
c
p
T
3
t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
+ =
Design conditions: f
1
25gpm := T
1
60degF := T
30
80degF :=
Problem parameters: ρ 7
lb
gal
:= c
p
0.8
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:=
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
The response to a 5 gpm step increase in process flow at 0.1 min and a 5 %CO step increase in
sgnal to the steam control valve at 1 min, are
The time constant of the mixer is
matches the value of 0.2 min obtained
by linearization; the steady state
changes are a bit less than predicted
by the linear model.
The respons to the process flow is
firstorder and the one to the signal to
the valve is secondorder. This is
because of the lag in the valve.
This is the plot also obtained with the following Simulink diagram:
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0 5 10 15 20 25
0
2
.
10
5
4
.
10
5
6
.
10
5
f
s
p
1
∆p psi ⋅ .
( )
scfh
∆p
f
s
p
1
∆p .
( )
836
scfh
gpm
R
psi
⋅ C
v
⋅ C
f
⋅
p
1
G T ⋅
⋅ y p
1
∆p .
( )
0.148 y p
1
∆p .
( )
3
−

\

.
⋅ :=
y p
1
∆p .
( )
1.63
C
f
∆p
p
1
⋅ := Functions for valve flow:
T 259 460 + ( )R := C
f
0.8 := G 0.621 := p
1
34.7psia := C
v
440
gpm
psi
:=
scfh
ft
3
hr
:= psia psi := Problem parameters from Example 52.2:
G
M
w
29
= y
1.63
C
f
∆p
p
1
⋅ =
f
s
836 C
v
⋅ C
f
⋅
p
1
G T ⋅
⋅ y 0.148 y
3
⋅ −
( )
=
The flow through a gas control valve can be calculated from Eq. 52.3:
1320. Gas flow control valve of Example 52.2
This Simulink block can simulate any gas valve with variable inlet pressure and pressure drop. To
obtain the flow in scf/min, divide the Cv,max/100 by 60 min/hr.
The Simulink block diagram for the temperature control loop is:
τ
D
0.84 min = τ
I
3.4min = K
c
5.9
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:=
From Table 71.1, the quarter decay rato tuning parameters are:
T
u
6.7min := K
cu
10
%CO
%TO
:=
With the lags on the valve and the transmitter, the loop can be made unstableit wasn't for the
conditions of Problem 612. The ultimate gain and period ar determined from the simulation:
678.9 640 −
700 640 −
64.8 %TO = Transmitter initial condition:
ln 0.5 ( )
ln 50 ( )
− 17.72 %CO = Initial position: 2 0.8771 ⋅
ft
3
min
1.754
ft
3
min
= Valve maximum flow:
To the block developed in Problem 135 to simulate the reactor, we add the following blocks from
the Public Model Library:
f401Vlv1: equal precentage control valve with a time constant of 0.1 min and sized for 100% •
overcapacity, airtoclose
f405PIDs: a series PID controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response •
f407Trmr: transmitter with a range of 640 to 700 R and a time constant of 1.0 min •
1321. Temperature control of reactor of Section 2.3 and Problem 612
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step change in reactants flow at 1 min followed by a 1 R step
increase in setpoint at 30 min are:
The decay ratio is
slightly greater than
1/4. The students
should play with the
tuning of the
controller and test it
for different
magnitudes and
directions of the input
changes.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
1322. Temperature control of stirred tank heater of Example 134.1 with
variable pressure drop across the control valve
The steam chest pressure is calculated as a function of the steam temperature using the Antoine
equation for water (Reid, Prausnitz, and Sherwood, 1977, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 3rd
ed., Appendix.
p
2
t ( )
14.7psia
760mmHg
e
18.3036
3816.44K
T
s
t ( ) 460R +
( )
K
1.8R
46.13K −
−
=
The Simulink block diagram of Fig. 134.9 is modified as follows:
The "Gas Valve 2" is a modified version of the gas valve of Problem 1320 in that it accepts the
upstream and downstream pressures p1 and p2instead of ∆pand it outputs the flow in lb/min.
This is done by multiplying the output by the molecular weight and dividing by 380 scf/lbmole and
by 60 min/hr.
Responses to this model are compared with those of Fig. 134.10 by running both versions of the
control loop in parallel and plotting the reponses together:
The responses to the decrease
in process flow are almost
identical, but those for the
increase in flow are different.
This is because as the steam
pressure increases the capacity
of the valve decreases and the
flow of steam does not vary as
much as when the flow is
assumed to be independent of
pressure. The response is then
slower and less oscillatory.
This is an excellent example of
the effect of a saturation
nonlinearity that is often
overlooked in modeling.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the control loop is:
m
0
40.65 %CO =
m
0
f
K
v
:= Initial conditions:
K
v
K
o
⋅
100 0 − ( )%TO
1 0 − ( )lb gal
1 −
⋅
⋅ 1.845 = Process gain:
K
o
0.0075
lb
gal gpm ⋅
:= K
v
2.46
gpm
%CO
:= From the solution to Problem 617:
The Simulink diagram for each reactor is the same as in Problem 138, with a different notation and
without the transportation lag in the outlet pipe (here it is asssumed e reactors are close to each
other and the tranporation lag is negligible).
Making a subsystem block of each reactor, we build the concentratioon control loop by adding,
from the Public Model Library:
f401Vlv1: a linear control valve sized for 100% overcapacity and a time constant of 0.1 min •
f405PIDs: a series PID controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response •
f407Trmr: a concentration transmitter with a range of 0 to 1.0 lb/gal and negligible lag. •
c
4
2
1
0.5

\



.
lb
gal
= c
3
f c
2
⋅
f k V ⋅ +
:= c
2
f c
1
⋅
f k V ⋅ +
:= c
1
f c
0
⋅
f k V ⋅ +
:= At the initial steady state:
V 1000gal := k 0.1min
1 −
:= c
0
4
lb
gal
:= f 100gpm := Design conditions:
c
0
t ( ) c
i
t ( ) = and
For j = 1,2,3 c
j
0 ( ) c
j0
=
d c
j
⋅ t ( )
dt
f t ( )
V
c
j 1 −
t ( ) c
j
t ( ) −
k c
j
⋅ t ( ) − =
The model equation for each reactor is developed in the soution to Problem 617:
1323. Concentration control of isothermal reactors in series of Problem 617
From a step test in controller output, the time constant is about 9 min and the dead time is
negligible, so the process is very controllable. The quarter decay ratio tuning formulas impose no
limit on the gain or on how small the integral time can be, so we use the synthesis formulas:
Kc adjusutable τ
I
τ = 9min = τ
D
0min = (PI controller)
The responses to a 1 lb/gal increase in inlet eactants concentartion (a change in inlet flow is not
possible since the flow is the manipulated variable), with Kc = 10%CO/%TO, are:
The problem will be more interesting
with a 1 min time lag in the
transmitter. The students can be
asked try this case and to play with
the tuning parameters, e.g., smaller
integral time for faster response.
Notice the deviation in concentration
is small. Students could also
examine effect of the controller gain
on the magnitude of the deviation.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
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is unlawful.
T
30
200degF :=
Problem parameters: U 136
BTU
hr ft
2
degF ⋅
:= D 3ft := A 974ft π ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ in := A 127.5 ft
2
=
ρ 53
lb
ft
3
:= C
M
974ft 0.178 ⋅
lb
ft
0.12 ⋅
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= C
M
20.8
BTU
degF
=
c
p
0.45
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= p
s
115psig := λ 872.9
BTU
lb
:=
At the initial steady state: f
3
f
1
:= T
s0
T
30
ρ c
p
⋅ f
1
⋅
U A ⋅
T
30
T
1
−
( )
+ := T
s0
343.4 degF =
w
s
U A ⋅ T
s0
T
30
−
( )
⋅
λ
:= w
s
47.48
lb
min
=
The Simulink diagram for the heater is:
1324. Temperature and level control of oil heater of Problem 624
The model equations from the solution to Problem 624 are:
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
ft
3
7.48gal
4
πD
2
f
1
t ( ) f
3
t ( ) −
( )
= h 0 ( ) h
0
=
d T
3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
f
1
t ( )
V t ( )
T
1
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅
U A ⋅
V t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅
T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
+ = T
3
0 ( ) T
30
=
V t ( ) 7.48
gal
ft
3
⋅
π D
2
⋅
4
⋅ h t ( ) =
d T
s
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
C
M
λ w
s
t ( ) ⋅ U A ⋅ T
s
t ( ) T
3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ −
= T
s
0 ( ) T
s0
=
Assume the pressures are constant and determine the flows as follows:
Inlet oil flow f
1
(t): linear valve with variable pressure dropModel Library f402Vlv2sized for 50%
overcapacity and pressure drop:
∆p
v1
p
1
14.7psi + p
2
−
( )
ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) 5ft − ( ) ⋅ − =
Outlet oil flow f
3
(t): Step function input (it is the disturbance)
Steam flow w
s
(t): linear control valve with constant pressure dropModel Library f401Vlv1szed for
50% overcapacity.
psig psi :=
Design conditions: p
1
45psig := p
2
40psia := f
1
100gpm := T
1
70degF :=
τ
D
0.14 min = τ
I
0.56 min = K
c
45
%CO
%TO
=
τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:=
Quarter decay tuning parameters from Table 71.1:
T
u
1.12min := K
cu
77.1
%CO
%TO
:= Ultimate gain and period of temperature controller:
m
10
46.67 %CO = m
10
32.2
1.5 46 ⋅
:=
m
s0
60.58 %CO = w
smax
78.4
lb
min
= m
s0
w
s
w
smax
:= w
smax
46
41.8
1.5 ⋅ w
s
⋅ :=
50% for both transmitters Intial conditions, from the results of Problem 624::
To complete the control loops, from the Public Model Library, introduce:
f405PIDs: series PID temperature controller tuned for quarter decay ratio response •
f407Trmr: temperature (TT50) and level (LT50 transmitters with 100 to 200 F and 7 to 10 ft •
ranges, and 0.5 min and 0.01 min time constants, respectively.
The responses to a 5 gpm increase in inlet oil flow are:
Students should be encouraged to
study the effect of problem
parameters. For example, a more
realistic valve time constant of 0.1 min
will result in more reasonable
controller parameters.
Notice the small offset in level. This is
for a level controller gain of
20%CO/%TO.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
1325. Moisture control of drier of Problem 91. Simple feedback vs. cascade
In the solution to Problem 91 he drier is represented by linear transfer functions as it will be
simulated here. In the absence of information, the transfer function will be the same to a change in
ambient temperature as for a change in heater outlet temperature.
(a) The Simulink diagram for the single moisture feedback control loop is
(b) The Simulink diagram for the cascade control scheme using the heater outlet temperature as
the intermediate variable is:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The respones to a 10ºF step increase in ambient temperature at 1 min, and a 0.3 %moisture
increase in set point at 30 min, are:
The cascade response is in magenta
and the feedback in yellow. To obtain
these results the gain of the TC47
controller had to be reduced to 2
%CO/%TO from the 4.14 determined
in Prpblem 91.
The cascade reponse is less
oscillatory and faster at the expense
of larger changes and oscillations in
the fuel flow.
The controller parameters are:
Feedback: Cascade:
K
c
0.42 −
%CO
%TO
:= 0.56 −
%CO
%TO
τ
I
3.5min := 1.0min
τ
D
0.86min := 0.26min
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The feedback control responses are in
yellow and the cascade responses in
magenta. They show almost perfect
control to the disturbance input and a
slightly faster response to the set
point change for the cascade scheme
at the expense of very oscillatory
response of the manipulated variable.
Students should be encouraged to
study how adjustment of the
secondary gain may reduce the
oscillations of the manipulated variable
and how it affects the response of the
controlled variable and/or the master
controller tuning.
The block diagrams are given in the solution to Problem 93, and the responses to unit step
changes in disturbace at 1 min and set point at 75 min are:
τ
I
10 min = K
c
6.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
K
cu
2.2
:=
T
u
12.5min := K
cu
13.5
%CO
%TO
:=
K
c2
2.2
%CO
%TO
:= Cascade Control. From the solution to Problem 93, with
τ
I
23 min = K
c
1.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
K
cu
2.2
:=
From Table 71.1, the quaerte decay tuning parameters for a PI controller are:
T
u
27.8min := K
cu
2.38
%CO
%TO
:=
Simple Feedback Loop. From the solution to Problem 93, the ultimate gain and period are:
1326. Feedback vs. cascade control of Problem 93
The responses to a 5ºC step increase in set point are:
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
D
0.83 min = τ
I
3.9min = K
c
19
%CO
%TO
=
τ
D
0.482 τ ⋅
t
0
τ

\

.
1.137
⋅ := τ
I
τ
0.878
t
0
τ

\

.
0.749
⋅ := K
c
1.435
K
p
t
0
τ

\

.
0.921 −
⋅ :=
τ 12.8min := K
p
0.385
%TO
%CO
:=
t
0
2.2min :=
Cascade Control (with the secondary proportional controller gain set at 2%CO/%TO):
τ
D
1.4min = τ
I
5.6min = K
c
17
%CO
%TO
=
τ
D
0.482 τ ⋅
t
0
τ

\

.
1.137
⋅ := τ
I
τ
0.878
t
0
τ

\

.
0.749
:= K
c
1.435
K
p
t
0
τ

\

.
0.921 −
:=
The tuning parameters for minimum IAE response, from Table 72.2:
t
0
3.5min := τ 13.5min := K
p
0.285
%TO
%CO
:=
Simple Feedback Loop:
The block diagrams from the solution to Problem 94 are simulated as in Problem 1325 with a
parallel PID master controller and a proportional slave controller with a gain of 2%CO/%TO. From
the openloop responses to step changes in contrller output, the following parameters are obtained:
1327. Jacketed reactor of Problem 94. Simple feedback vs. cascade control
The responses show a faster
response for the cascade scheme
(magenta) than for simple feedback
(yellow), at the expense of doubling
the variation in the controller output. In
fact, because this linear analysis does
not impose limits on the controller
output, we see increases of 200 and
400%CO, which are not possible in
practice. Pointing out these
restrictions is an advantage of
simulation which is not obtained from
the anlytical analysis.
The responses to a 5 ft3/min step decrease in process flow at 3 min followed by an increase of
10ºF in inlet temperature at 30 min are:
The Simulink diagram for the ratio control scheme is obtained by a simple modification of the
diagram of Fig. 134.11:
Ratio 3.75
min %TO ⋅
ft
3
= Ratio
ρ c
p
⋅ T
set
T
i
−
( )
⋅
λ
100%TO
f
max
⋅ :=
T
set
150degF := The ratio for set point of
f
max
75
lb
min
:= T
i
100degF := λ 966
BTU
lb
:= c
p
0.8
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= ρ 68
lb
ft
3
:=
where the ratio is adjusted by the operator or a feedback controller to obtain the desired outlet
temperature. For the conditions of the problem, the ratio is:
w
set
t ( ) ⋅
ρ c
p
⋅ T
set
t ( ) ⋅ T
i
−
⋅
λ
f t ( ) = Ratio f t ( ) ⋅ =
If the variation in the inlet temperature diturbance is neglected, the feedforward controller calculation
becomes:
1328. Feedforward temperature control of heater of Example 134.2
The responses are identical for the
change in process flow, but the ratio
controller (magenta) does not take
action on the change in inlet
temperature resulting in an error of
about 10ºF. This reponse is slower than
the one for the flow change, so a
feedback controller can adjust the ratio
to maintain the outlet temperature at
the set point.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the ratio control scheme is:
K
c
166 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
147 −
%CO
%TO
100%CO
R
max
⋅
f
2max
f
1
⋅ :=
The controller gain must be adjusted by the factor the output is multiplied by:
R
max
f
1max
⋅
100%CO f
2max
⋅
0.0221
1
%CO
=
The signal from the flow transmitter must then be scaled by the factor:
(at 100%CO) R
max
3 := f
2max
5.42
m
3
min
:= f
1max
4
m
3
min
:= Transmitter ranges:
Ratio 1.5 = Ratio
f
2
f
1
:= f
2
2.4
m
3
min
:= f
1
1.6
m
3
min
:=
Design conditions:
The diagram of Problem 1311 is modified to introduce a sesor/transmitter for the concentrated
stream flow and a multiplier to represent the ratio controller. The transmitter has a ange of 0 to 4
m3/min and a time constant of 0.75 min. The multiplier allows the feedback controller to adjust the
ratio.
1329. Ratio control of blending tank of Problems 318 and 1311
The responses to a 0.1 m3/min step increase in process flow at 1 min followed by a 2 kg/m3 step
increase in concentrated stream composition at 15 min are:
The ratio controller (magenta)
results in a smaller initial
deviation than the simple
feedback (yellow) for the change
in process flow. The responses
are essentially the same for the
change in concentration.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the cascade control loop is:
τ
D
0.47 min = τ
I
1.9min = τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
T
u
2
:=
K
c
6
%CO
%TO
= K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= Quarter decay ratio tuning from Table 71.1:
T
u
3.75min := K
cu
10.5
%TO
%CO
:= Master loop:
τ
I
τ :=
Set Kc to 2%CO/%TO to obtain fast response
without much oscillation.
Synthesis tuning from Table 74.1:
t
0
0min := τ 3min := K
2
1.95
%TO
%CO
:= Slave loop:
An openloop step test in the slave controller results in the following parameters:
The Simulink diagram of Problem 1321 is modified to introduce, from the Public Model Library,
A jacket temperature transmitter with a range of 560 to 660ºR and a time constant of 1.0 min •
f403PI: a PI controller for the jacket temperature tuned by the synthesis method. •
1330. Cascade temperature control of reactor of Section 42.3
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step decrease in reactants flow at 2 min followed by a 1ºR step
increase in set point are:
The cascade
responses (magenta)
are faster than the
ones for simple
feedback control
(yellow) at the
expense of more
oscillations in the
manipulated variable.
Students should be
encouraged to study
the effect of the
tuning parameters.
Encourage them to
try the formulas for
tuning cascade
controllers in Table
93.1.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the linear feedforward controller is:
τ
D
1.6min = τ
I
6.5min =
K
c
2.5 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
3.25min
2
:= τ
I
2 3.25 ⋅ min := K
c
1.2
0.98 −
3.25
6.75

\

.
1 −
:=
The feedback controller must be retuned because of the replacement of the equalpercentage valve
with the coolant flow control loop. From Table 72.1 for quarterdecay ratio response:
Bias 83.86 − %TO = Bias 1.255 − 66.82 ⋅ %TO :=
m 0 ( ) m 0 ( ) 1.255 66.82 ⋅ %TO + Bias + = m 0 ( ) = Bias required for the same set point:
1.3364
ft
3
min
K
DT
⋅ 66.82 %TO = Initial reactant transmitter output:
To start with a correct initial set point of the coolant flow controller, a bias is needed:
delay 4.5min =
1331. Linear feedforward control of reactor of Section 42.3 and Problem
1321
For the linear feedforward controller, use Eq. 112.1, page 379:
FFC
G
D
−
H
D
G
M
⋅
=
The reactant flow transmitter is taken from the Public Model Library, f407Trmr, with a range 0 to 2
ft3/min and a tim constant of 0.1 min:
H
D
K
DT
0.1 s ⋅ 1 +
= K
DT
100%TO
2ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
:= K
DT
50
%TO
ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
=
From step tests on the disturbance, the folowing parameters are obtained:
G
D
61.5
%TO
ft
3
min
1 −
⋅
e
5.5 − s
9s 1 +
⋅ =
FFC
61.5 − %TO
K
DT
ft
3
⋅ min
1 −
0.98 − ( ) ⋅
6.75s 1 +
9s 1 +
⋅ e
5.5 3.25 − ( )s −
=
G
M
0.98 −
%TO
%CO
e
3.25 − s
6.75s 1 +
⋅ =
61.5 − %TO
K
DT
ft
3
⋅ min
1 −
0.98 − ( ) ⋅
1.255
%CO
%TO
=
Feedforward controller gain:
FFC 1.225
%CO
%TO
6.75s 1 +
9.s 1 +
⋅ e
2.25 − s 1 +
⋅ =
This calls or a lead of 6.75 min, a lag of 9 min and a delay of 2.25 min. To simplify the design,
let's drop the leadlag unit since the lead and lag are about the same, and increase the delay by
the difference:
delay 2.25min 9 6.75 − ( )min + :=
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step decrease in reactants flow at 1 min are
The feedforward responses are in
magenta and the simple
feedback responses are in
yellow. The feedforward
controller required some
adjustments:
Delay 3.5min :=
K
c
5 −
%CO
%TO
:=
τ
I
3min :=
The delay is necessary so that
the feedforward action does not
aggravate the initial inverse
response of the temperature to
the reactants flow. The delayed
feedforward correction reduces
the downward temperature
deviation and the oscillation.
The reason the manipulated
responses are offset is that one
is adjusting the airtoclose
equal percentage valve and the
other the coolant flow set point.
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The feedback controller will adjust the ratio in the range 0 to Rmax as its output varies from 0 to
100%CO, so the signal from the process flow transmitter must be scaled. Use flow transmitter
ranges of 0 to 2 ft3/min for the process flow and 0 to 1.75 ft3/min for the coolant flow.
f
c
0.876
ft
3
min
= f
c
Ratio f ⋅ := f 1.3364
ft
3
min
:= Check:
Ratio 0.655 = Ratio
ρ c
p
⋅ T
i
T −
( )
⋅ ∆H
r
−
( )
c
Ai
c
A
−
( )
⋅ +
ρ
c
c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅
:=
Ratio at design conditions:
c
A
0.2068
lbmole
ft
3
:= c
Ai
0.5975
lbmole
ft
3
:=
T
c
602.7R := T
ci
540R := T 678.9R := T
i
635R :=
1332. Ratio control of reactor of Section 42.3 and Problem 1321
Design the feedforward controller by the procedure of Section 116, page 395,with the reactants flow
as the only major disturbance:
Control objective: T(t) = Tset(t) (reactor temperature) 1.
Manipulated variable: fc(t) (coolant flow to the jacket) 2.
Disturbances: f(t) (reactants flow) 3.
Steady state balances: 4.
V r
A
t ( ) ⋅ f t ( ) c
Ai
c
A
−
( )
⋅ =
f t ( ) ρ ⋅ c
p
⋅ T
i
T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ V r
A
t ( ) ⋅ ∆H
r
−
( )
⋅ + U A ⋅ T t ( ) T
c
−
( )
⋅ = f
c
t ( ) ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅ =
Combine to eliminate rA(t):
f t ( ) ρ c
p
⋅ T
i
T
set
t ( ) −
⋅ ∆H
r
−
( )
c
Ai
c
A
−
( )
⋅ +
⋅ f
c
t ( ) ρ
c
⋅ c
pc
⋅ T
c
T
ci
−
( )
⋅ =
Solve for the manipulated variable:
f
c
t ( ) Ratio t ( ) f t ( ) ⋅ =
6. Feedback trim: The feedback controller will adjust the ratio when the set point or some of the
other disturbances changes
7. Dynamic compensation: From inspection, we would say that a net lead will probably be required
because the coolant flow must overcome the lag of the jacket, while the reantants flow does not.
However, from the results of Problem 1331 we know we need a delay of 3.5 min.
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Design conditions: ρ 55
lb
ft
3
:= c
p
0.88
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:= ∆H
r
12000 −
BTU
lbmole
:= ρ
c
62.4
lb
ft
3
:=
c
pc
1
BTU
lb degF ⋅
:=
The Simulink diagram for the ratio control scheme is:
K
cnew
3.3 −
%CO
%TO
= K
cnew
f
cmax
R
max
f ⋅
K
c
⋅ := K
c
5 −
%CO
%TO
:=
K
c
K
cnew
R
max
f
max
⋅
f
cmax
100 ⋅ %CO
⋅
f
f
max
⋅ 100 ⋅ %TO =
R
max
f ⋅
f
cmax
K
cnew
⋅ =
To maintain the same loop gain, the feedback controller gain must be adjusted:
f
c
f
cmax
50 %TO =
f
f
max
66.8 %TO = m
0
32.8 %CO = m
0
Ratio
R
max
100 ⋅ %CO :=
Initial conditions:
y
R
max
f
max
⋅
f
cmax
100 ⋅ %CO
r ⋅ x ⋅ =
Scaled feedforward equation:
f
cmax
100%TO
y
R
max
100%CO
r ⋅
f
max
100%TO
⋅ x ⋅ =
Substitute into the feedforward equation:
r
Ratio
R
max
100 ⋅ %CO = y
f
c
f
cmax
100 ⋅ %TO = x
f
f
max
100 ⋅ %TO =
The scaled variables are:
f
cmax
1.75
ft
3
min
:= f
max
2
ft
3
min
:= R
max
2 :=
The responses to a 0.2 ft3/min step decrease in reactants flow at 2 min are:
The response with the
ratio controller (magenta)
is superior to the one for
simple feedback
(yellow). To improve the
response the delay was
reduced to 3.0 min.
The reason the
manipulated variable
responses are offset is
that the feedback
controller is adjusting
the position of the
airtoclose equal
percentage valve and the
ratio is adjusting the
coolant flow set point.
This is also teh reason
they move in opposite
directions.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purpose
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the cascade control scheme is:
K
c1
5
%CO
%TO
:= Set τ
D1
0min := τ
I1
5min := Use synthesis tuning for the master also:
t
0
0min := τ
.1
5min := K
1
3.3
%TO
%CO
:=
With these slave settings, an openloop step test on the master controller output:
K
c2
5
%CO
%TO
:= Set at K
c2
tunable = τ
I2
τ
2
:= Synthesis tuning from Table 74.1:
t
0
0min := τ
2
6min := K
2
0.58
%TO
%CO
:=
%TO % := %CO % := From the results of an openloop step test on the slave controler output:
To the diagram of Problem 1323 add, from the Public Model Library:
A concentration transmitter with a range of 0 to 4 lb/gal and a time constant of 1 min •
f403PI: a PI controller tuned by the synthesis formula •
1333. Cascade control of reactors in series of Problem 1323
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Chapter 13. Simulation of Process Control Systems
The responses to a 0.05 lb/gal step increase in set point at 1 min and a 1 lb/gal step increase in
reactant concentration at 10 min are:
The set point response of the
cacade scheme (magenta) is
faster than the one for simple
feedback (yellow) at the expense
of slamming the control valve
opened for a period of time. For
the change in reactant
concentration, the concentation
in the third reactor moves in the
opposite directon for the
cascade scheme. This is
because the slave controller
detects the change faster and
moves the valve to correct. As
the change in reactants flow
affects the concentration in the
third tank faster than the change
in inlet concentration, the
concentration decreases on the
drecrease in flow.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram to simulate tank is:
w
P
t ( ) w
c
t ( ) w
w
t ( ) + = Total balance:
x 0 ( ) x0 =
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
w
c
t ( ) x
c
t ( ) ⋅ w
P
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
= Caustic balance:
Assume perfectly mixed tank with constant mass:
w
w
16
klb
hr
= w
w
w
P
w
c
− :=
w
c
24
klb
hr
= w
c
w
P
x
0
⋅
x
c
:=
At initial steady state:
M 10klb := Problem parameters:
x
c
50mass% :=
x
0
30mass% := w
P
40
klb
hr
:=
mass% % :=
Design conditions:
klb 1000lb :=
AC
SP
AT
FC
SP
FT
w
P
x
w
w
FC
FT
FC
FT
SP
SP
Caustic
Water
w
c
1
2
3
3
x
c
1334. Multivariable control of caustic blending tank of Problem 122.
With these tuning parameters, the responses to a
The controllers cannot be tuned for quarterdecayb ratio response because the dead time of the
loops is zero. They were tuned onserving the simulation responses to obtain:
FC3: Kc = 0.90%CO/%TO and integral time of 0.1 min •
AC3: Kc = 100%CO/%TO and integarl time of 10 min (the process integral time is 15 min) •
x
0
50mass%
60 %TO = 30mass% AC3:
w
P
60klb hr
1 −
⋅
66.667 %TO = 40
klb
hr
FC3:
m
c0
40 %CO = m
c0
w
c
60klb hr
1 −
⋅
:= 24
klb
hr
FC2:
m
w0
26.667 %CO = m
w0
w
w
60klb hr
1 −
⋅
:= 16
klb
hr
FC1: Initial conditions:
To complete the control loops insert, from the Public Model Library:
f403PI: two PI controllers to control the product flow and composition •
f407Trmr: two transmitters, one for the composition, AC3, with a range of 0 to 50 mass% and •
a time constant of 1 min, and one for the product flow, FC3, with a range of 0 to 60 klb/hr and
negligible time constant
Two flow controllers, FC1 and FC2, with ranges of 0 to 60 klb/hr and time constants of 0.1 •
minute. These are modifications of the simple valve model and can be copied from f411ffst.
The Simulink diagram for the linear decoupler is:
B
w
26.667 − %CO = B
w
D
21
− m
c0
⋅ := m
w0
m
w0
D
21
m
c0
⋅ + B
w
+ =
B
c
26.667 %CO = B
c
D
12
− m
w0
⋅ := m
c0
m
c0
D
12
m
w0
⋅ + B
c
+ =
Initial outputs: To start at the proper decoupler outputs, biases must be added to the decouplers:
D
21
0.667
%CO
%CO
= D
21
w
w
w
c
:= D
21
K
vc
− K
xc
⋅
K
vw
K
xw
⋅
=
w
w
w
c
=
K
xw
w
c
−
w
P
= K
xc
w
w
w
P
= ∆x K
vc
K
xc
⋅ D
21
K
vw
⋅ K
xw
⋅ +
( )
∆m
FC
=
D
12
1 −
%CO
%CO
:= D
12
K
vw
−
K
vc
= 1 −
%CO
%CO
=
K
vc
K
vw
=
60 klb ⋅ hr
1 −
⋅
100%CO
= ∆wP K
vw
D
12
K
vc
⋅ +
( )
∆m
AC
= 0 =
To keep the flow constant, the caustic flow must be adjusted as follows:
(c) Linear decoupler design as in Example 123.1
(a) These are the responses for the
correct pairing: caustic flow controls
the product flow and water flow
controls the composition. The
composition control has less than 1/4
deacay ratio.
Part (b) with the opposite pairing is left
as an exercise to the students.
Note: as these loops are so
controllable, both pairings should
produce about the same performance.
For part (b) the composition controller
must be reverse acting.
The responses to a 10 klb/hr step increase in product flow set point at 2 min and a 1 mass% step
increase in product composition set point at 20 min are:
For these ideal conditions the
decoupler schemes (magenta)
results in perfect control for both
changes.
Students should be encouraged to
design and test a basic principles
decoupler similar to the one of
Example 123.4
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
2 eqns. 2 unk.(M,x)
Expand and substitute total balance:
M t ( )
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ x t ( ) w
F
t ( ) w
v
t ( ) − w
P
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + w
F
t ( ) x
F
t ( ) ⋅ w
P
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ − =
Simplify: d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M t ( )
w
F
t ( ) x
F
t ( ) x t ( ) −
( )
⋅ w
v
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ +
= x 0 ( ) x
0
=
Economy relates steam and vapor flows: w
v
t ( ) E w
s
t ( ) ⋅ =
At the intial steady state:
w
P
w
F
x
F
⋅
x
0
:= w
v
w
F
w
P
− := w
s
w
v
E
:= w
P
8571
lb
hr
= w
s
43609
lb
hr
=
Maximum hold up: M
max
M
min
M
0
M
min
−
h
L0
+ := M
max
1100 lb =
1335. Multivariable control of evaporator of Figure 123.4
w
P
x
w
S
w
F
x
F
T
s
T
w
V
Condensate
Cond.
Design conditions:
w
F
50000
lb
hr
:= x
F
12mass% :=
x
0
70mass% := E 0.95 :=
M
0
747lb := h
L0
50%TO :=
Process parameters:
M
min
394lb :=
Developent of the model equations (assume perfect mixing):
Total mass balance:
d M t ( ) ⋅
dt
w
F
t ( ) w
v
t ( ) − w
P
t ( ) − = M 0 ( ) M
0
=
Sugar balance:
d M t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ ( ) ⋅
dt
w
F
t ( ) x
F
t ( ) ⋅ w
P
t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ − =
The evaporator is thus simulated as an integrating process and does not operate well without the
level controller. The complete control system includes, from the Public Model Library:
A proportional level controller with the gain set at Kc = 20 %CO/%TO (tight control) •
f407Trmr: two transmitters, one for the product composition with a range of 40 to 90 mass% •
sugars and a time constant of 0.6 min, and one for the feed flow with a range of 0 to 70000 lb/hr
and a negligible time constant
f401Vlv1: three control valves sizd for 100% overcapacity, one on the feed, one on the product, •
and one on the steam
f403PI: two PI constrollers, one for the product composition manipulating the control valve on •
the product and the other one on the feed flow manipulating the steam control valve
Control valve gains: Feed =
50000
100%CO
lb
hr
2 ⋅ 1000
lb
hr %CO ⋅
=
Product =
w
P
2 ⋅
100%CO
171.4
lb
hr %CO ⋅
=
Steam =
w
s
2 ⋅
100%CO
872.2
lb
hr %CO ⋅
=
Initial valve positions are 50%. Initial transmitter outputs:
x
x
0
40mass% −
90 40 − ( )mass%
100 ⋅ %TO 60 %TO =
w
f
w
F
70000lb hr
1 −
⋅
100 ⋅ %TO 71.4 %TO =
The Simulink diagram for the evaporator is:
The Simulink diagram of the control system is
The responses to a 1000 lb/hr step increase in feed flow set point at 5 min and a 1 mass% step
increase in product composition set point at 20 min are:
This is for the recommended
pairing. The responses shows
that an evaporator can be
controlled very tightly.
Normally the feed flow will not
be stepped because the
sudden change in steam flow
will upset the steam header.
Students may be asked to try
alternative pairings of the
three controlled and
manipulated variables.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink disgram for the control system is:
τ
I
60min := K
c
3 −
%CO
%TO
:= Bottoms composition:
τ
I
60min := K
c
5
%CO
%TO
:= Distillate composition:
Open loop step tests on the two composition controller outputs showed no dead time on the
response of the composition, so the controllers cannot be tuned by the minimum IAE formulas.
Trial and error tuning resulted in the following tuning parameters:
K
WsFC
1957
lb
hr %TO ⋅
= m
B0
50%CO := K
WsFC
97873
lb
hr
2 ⋅
100%TO
:= Steam flow:
K
LrFC
96.04
lbmole
hr %TO ⋅
= m
D0
50%CO := K
LrFC
4802
lbmole
hr
2 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Reflux flow:
lbmole 453.59mole :=
Flow control loop gains and initial conditions sized for 200% of design flows:
The model equations, design conditions, and process parameters are given in Example 135.1. To
complete the composition loops add, from the Public Model Library:
Two flow control loops for the reflux and steam flows (these are copied from the other two •
"valves" used on the distillate and bottoms flows).
f407TRmr: two transmitters with ranges of 0 to 1.0 mole fraction and 1 min time cnstants for the •
distillate and bottoms compositions.
f403PI: two PI controllers to be tuned for minimum IAE. •
1336. Control of distillation column of Example 135.1
The responses to a 200 lbmole/hr step increase in feed flow at 20 min are
Surprisingly, although the two
controllers were tuned
independently, each with he other
loop opened, they both performed
satisfactorily when both loops were
closed.
Students may be encouraged to test
the tuning and to observe the
responses to other disturbances.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The Simulink diagram for the blender is
V 0.450kbl := Process parameter:
Reformate
Straight run lsolve
1
x
0
y
0
1
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2

\


.
f
f x
0
⋅
f y
0
⋅

\


.
.
7.5
28.125
24.375

\

.
kbl
day
=
Alkylate
At the initial steady state:
y
5
11
3

\

.
:= x
97
80
92

\

.
:=
y
0
7 := x
0
87 := f 60
kbl
day
:= Design conditions:
3 eqns. 3 unk(f,x,y)
RVP balance:
y 0 ( ) y
0
=
d y t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
f
1
t ( ) y
1
t ( ) ⋅ f
2
t ( ) y
2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
3
t ( ) y
3
t ( ) ⋅ + f t ( ) y t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
⋅ =
Octane balance:
x 0 ( ) x
0
=
d x t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
V
f t ( ) x
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) x
2
t ( ) ⋅ + f
3
t ( ) x
3
t ( ) ⋅ + f t ( ) x t ( ) ⋅ −
( )
=
f t ( ) f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) + = Total balance:
kbl 42000gal :=
Assuming constant volume. perfectly mixed, and constant densities, the model equations are:
1337. Control of gasoline blending tank of Example 122.5
To complete the control loops, add from the Public Model Library:
Three flow control loops (can be copied from f411ffst) with ranges of 0 to 150% of design flow •
and time constants of 0.1 min
f407Trmr: three transmitters, one for the product flow with a range of 0 to 100 kbl/day and 0.1 •
min time constant, one for the octane with range of 60 to 100 octane and a 1 min time
constant, and one for the RVP with range of 0 to 20 RVP and 1 min time constant
f403PI: three PI controllers for the product flow, octane and RVP. •
Flow control loops gains and initial conditions:
(a) With the correct pairing, the responses to a 10 kbl/day step increase in product flow set point
are at 1 min:
τ
I
3min := K
c
30
%CO
%TO
:=
Octane controller:
τ
I
5min := K
c
20 −
%CO
%TO
:=
RVP controller:
τ
I
0.1min := K
c
0.9
%CO
%TO
:=
Product flow controller:
The controllers are tuned as follows:
24.375
kbl
day
k
T3
66.7 %TO = k
T3
0.366
kbl
day %TO ⋅
=
k
T3
24.375
kbl
day
1.5 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Reformate:
28.125
kbl
day
k
T2
66.7 %TO = k
T2
0.422
kbl
day %TO ⋅
=
k
T2
28.125
kbl
day
1.5 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Straight Run:
7.5
kbl
day
k
T1
66.7 %TO = k
T1
0.113
kbl
day %TO ⋅
= k
T1
7.5
kbl
day
1.5 ⋅
100%TO
:=
Alkylate:
0.87
k
T2
k
T3
⋅ 1.004
%CO
%TO
= 0.75 −
k
T1
k
T3
0.231 −
%CO
%TO
= u
3
0.75 −
k
T1
k
T3
v
1
v
2
+ 0.87
k
T2
k
T3
v
3
+ =
0.27
k
T2
k
T1
⋅ 1.013
%CO
%TO
= 0.71 −
k
T3
k
T1
⋅ 2.308 −
%TO
%CO
= u
1
v
1
0.71
k
T3
k
T1
⋅ v
2
⋅ − 0.27
k
T2
k
T1
v
3
⋅ + =
Substitute and solve for the scaled variables u and v:
m
3
k
T2
v
3
⋅ = m
2
k
T3
v
2
⋅ = m
1
k
T1
v
1
⋅ = f
2
set
k
T2
u
2
⋅ = f
3
set
k
T3
u
3
⋅ = f
1
set
k
T1
u
1
⋅ =
where all the variables are in kbl/day. In practice the gains must be scaled to apply to signals in
%CO and %TO. So we have:
f
2
set
0.25 − m
1
0.29m
2
− m
3
+ =
f
3
set
0.75 − m
1
m
2
+ 0.87m
3
+ =
f
1
set
m
1
0.71 m
2
⋅ − 0.27 m
3
⋅ + =
The decoupler developed in Example 123.3 gives the gains of the decoupler on the unscaled
variables:
(c) Decoupler of Example 123.3
These are relatively tight responses
without oscillations.
Students should be encouraged to do part
(b) with alternate pairings of the controlled
and manipulated variables. In doing so it is
important to watch the direct and reverse
action of the controllers.
u
2
0.25 −
k
T1
k
T2
v
1
0.29
k
T3
k
T2
⋅ v
2
− v
3
+ = 0.25 −
k
T1
k
T2
⋅ 0.067 −
%CO
%TO
= 0.29 −
k
T3
k
T2
⋅ 0.251 −
%CO
%TO
=
All of the initial values must be 66.67%TO, so the follwing biases must be added:
Bias1 2.308 − 1.013 + ( ) − 66.67 ⋅ %TO := Bias1 86.338 %TO =
Bias3 0.231 − 1.004 + ( ) − 66.67 ⋅ %TO := Bias3 51.536 − %TO =
Bias2 .067 − 0.251 − ( ) − 66.67 ⋅ %TO := Bias2 21.201 %TO =
These are the gains and biases used in the following Simulink diagram of the decoupler:
With this decoupler the control
system of the gas blender
produces essentially perfect
control. The simulation with the
decoupler is in a separate file.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
ρ 8.33
lb
gal
:= L 3170ft := d
p
1.19ft := D 3.41ft := Problem parameters:
f
o
0 ( ) 0gpm =
d f
o
t ( ) ⋅
dt
π d
p
2
⋅
4
7.48gal
ft
3
g
L
h t ( ) 2.22 10
3 −
⋅ f
o
t ( ) − 0.5184 10
6 −
⋅ f
o
t ( )
2
−

\

.
⋅ =
h 0 ( ) 0ft =
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
4
πD
2
ft
3
7.48gal
f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) + f
o
t ( ) −
( )
=
Combine and simplify:
4 eqns. 4 unks.
∆p
f
t ( ) ρ g ⋅ 2.22 10
3 −
⋅ f
o
t ( ) 0.5184 10
6 −
⋅ f
o
2
t ( ) +
⋅ = Pressure drop correlation:
3 eqns. 4 unks. f
o
t ( )
π
4
d
p
2
v t ( )
7.48gal
ft
3
⋅ =
Outlet flow in gpm:
2 eqns. 4 unks.(v,∆p
f
)
d
dt
ρ
π
4
⋅ d
p
2
⋅ L ⋅ v t ( ) ⋅

\

.
π
4
d
p
2
p
a
ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅ + p
a
− ∆p
f
t ( ) −
( )
=
Momentum balance on outlet pipe:
1 eqn. 2 unks.(h,f
0
)
d
dt
ρ
π D
2
⋅
4
⋅ h t ( ) ⋅

\

.
⋅ ρ
ft
3
7.48 gal ⋅
⋅ f
1
t ( ) f
2
t ( ) + f
3
t ( ) + f
o
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ = Mass balance on tank:
Development of the model equations:
L
h(t)
.f
o
(t)
d
p
P
1
P
2
P
3
1338. Three pump ad tank startup problem
g 115.827 10
3
×
ft
min
2
= h
max
9ft :=
Each pump flow changes from 0 to f when the flow is turned on (step function):
f 750
gal
min
:=
Numerical values of the coefficients:
4
π D
2
⋅
ft
3
7.48gal
0.015
ft
gal
=
a
1
π d
p
2
⋅
4
7.48gal
ft
3
g
L
⋅ :=
a
1
304
gal
ft min
2
⋅
=
a
1
2.22 ⋅ 10
3 −
⋅
ft min ⋅
gal
0.675
1
min
=
a
1
0.5184 ⋅ 10
6 −
⋅ ft
min
gal

\

.
2
⋅ 157.6 10
6 −
×
1
gal
=
The Simulink block diagram for the tank and pipe is:
Each pump is simulated as
a step test from 0 to 750
gpm and the time of the
step is the time when the
pump is turned on.
The Simulink diagram
includes a memory device
that records the maximum
level in the tank for each
run.
The following are the responses with pump 2 turned on at 7 min and pump 3 at 14 min:
The level in the tank reaches 10.5 ft with this
sequence, which means that the tank overflows.
Students must vary the times at which pumps 2
and 3 are turned on to see if they can keep from
overflowing the tank. It makes for an interesting
computer game with some fundamental concepts
attached.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
1339. Ecological interaction of hostparasite populations
Developemnt of the model equations:
Rat population:
d Rats t ( ) ⋅
dt
R
RG
t ( ) R
RD
t ( ) − = 5 Rats t ( ) ⋅ 0.05 Rats t ( ) ⋅ Fleas t ( ) ⋅ − =
Rats 0 ( ) 100 =
d Fleas t ( ) ⋅
dt
R
FG
t ( ) R
FD
t ( ) − = 0.2 Rats t ( ) ⋅ Fleas t ( ) ⋅ 20 Fleas t ( ) ⋅ − =
Fleas 0 ( ) 20 =
The Simulink diagram to solve these equations is:
The populations of rats and fleas are as fllows:
The two populations cycle with a
period of about 2/3 year for the
parameters of this problem. At high
flea populations the death rate of rats
is higher than their growth rate, while
at low rat population the death rate of
the fleas is higher than their growth
rate and their population decreases,
allowing the rat population to grow
back.
Encourage the students to investigate
the effect of the four problem
parameters on the population cycles.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
M
c
0 ( ) M
0
=
1 eqn. 2 unks. (Mc, wc)
Entahlpy balance: M
c
t ( ) c
pL
⋅
d T t ( ) ⋅
dt
U A ⋅ T
a
T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ λ w
c
t ( ) ⋅ − = T 0 ( ) T
a
=
2 eqns. 3 unks. (T)
Flow through nozzle: Subcritical flow: w
c
t ( )
πD
2
4
3600s
hr
⋅
2 M
w
⋅ P t ( ) P t ( ) P
o
−
( )
⋅
⋅
R
g
T t ( ) 273.16K + ( ) ⋅
⋅ =
(the smaller of the two)
Critical flow:
w
c
t ( )
πD
2
4
3600s
hr
⋅
M
w
R
g
T t ( ) 273.16K + ( ) ⋅
⋅ P t ( ) ⋅ =
3 eqns. 4 unk. (P)
Vapor pressure by Antoine equation:
Reid, Prausnitz & Sherwood, 3rd.
ed., McGrawHill, 1977, Appendix P T t ( ) ( ) e
15.961
1978.32
T t ( ) 273.16K + 27.01 −
−
101300Pa
760mmHg
⋅ =
4 eqns. 4 nks.
All the numbers given are in consistent units except for the diameter of the nozzle:
D 4in
0.3048m
12in
⋅ := D 0.102 m =
The Simulink diagram for the barge is:
degC K := kJ 10
3
joule :=
1340. Environmental impact of chlorine barge accident
kmole 1000mol :=
P
P
o
T
T
a
w
c
M
c
Problem parameters:
D 4in := A 212m
2
:=
M
0
136000kg :=
T
a
25degC :=
U 1000
kJ
hr m
2
degC ⋅
:=
R
g
8314
joule
kmole K ⋅
:=
P
o
101300Pa :=
Properties of chlorine: M
w
71.5
kg
kmole
:= λ 288
kJ
kg
:= c
pL
0.946
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:=
Development of the model equations:
Chlorine mass balance:
d M
c
t ( ) ⋅
dt
w
c
t ( ) − =
The
temperature
is calculated
in K. Time is
in hr.
The responses for the barge are:
It takes a little over 3.5 hr
for the barge to empty for
these parameters.
Students should be
encouraged to investigate
which of the parameters
most affects the time
required to empty the
barge. The heat transfer
coefficient is probably the
one that has the greatest
effect.
Caution: When running
this simulation the "Stop
Time," under "Simulation
Parameters," must be
adjusted so that the mass
Mc is never zero or
negative. After that point
the results are not valid.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
x
r4
0 ( ) 0 =
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r4
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat4
⋅ r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ − = Catalyst 1:
3 eqs. 4 unks. (xr2)
x
r2
0 ( ) 0 =
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r2
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
PA
t ( ) x
PA
⋅ r
B
t ( ) M
w2
⋅ − = Propionic anhydride:
2 eqns. 3 unks. (xr1,rB)
x
r1
0 ( ) x
r10
=
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat1
⋅ 2 − ⋅ r
B
t ( ) ⋅ M
w1
⋅ = 2butanol balance:
1 eqn. 1 unk. (Mr)
M
r
0 ( ) M
r0
=
dM
r
t ( )
dt
F
PA
t ( ) F
Cat
t ( ) + = Total mass balance:
Development of the model equations:
Assume
Perfect mixing of ractor and jacket contents •
The reactor is initially charged with the 2btanol, essentially pure •
Cold water
TT
TT
Anhydride
Butanol
Catalyst
Hot water
1341. Control of semibatch reactor
V
mr
t ( )
M
r
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( )
=
9 eqns. 13 unks. (Vmr,ρr)
Average density: ρ
r
t ( )
x
r1
t ( )
ρ
1
x
r2
t ( )
ρ
2
+
x
r3
t ( )
ρ
3
+
x
rBP
t ( )
ρ
5
+
x
r4
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) +
ρ
4
+

\

.
=
10 eqns. 14 unks. (xrBP)
Butyl propionate: x
rBP
t ( ) 1 x
r1
t ( ) − x
r2
t ( ) − x
r3
t ( ) − x
r4
t ( ) − x
r5
t ( ) − =
11 eqns. 14 unks.
Reaction rates:
r
B
t ( ) V
mr
t ( ) k
1
C
A
t ( ) ⋅ k
2
C
Cat1
t ( ) ⋅ + k
3
C
Cat2
t ( ) ⋅ +
( )
⋅ C
B
t ( ) =
12 eqns. 18 unks. (CA,CB, Ccat1, Ccat2)
r
Cat1
t ( ) V
mr
t ( ) k
4
⋅ 10
H
r
t ( ) −
⋅ C
Cat2
t ( ) C
B
t ( ) ⋅ =
13 eqns. 19 unks. (Hr)
H
r
t ( ) p
1
C
Cat1
t ( ) ⋅ p
2
C
Cat2
t ( ) ⋅ +
( )
− p
3
p
4
T t ( ) 273.16K +
+

\

.
=
14 eqns. 19 unks.
4 eqns. 6 unks. (xr4,rCat1)
Catalyst 2:
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) ⋅
( )
r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ = x
r5
t ( ) 0 =
5 eqns. 7 unks. (xr5)
Water:
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) x
r3
t ( ) ⋅
( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat3
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) 1 x
PA
−
( )
⋅ + r
B
t ( ) M
w3
⋅ + = x
r3
0 ( ) 1 x
r10
− =
6 eqns. 8 unks. (xr3)
Enthalpy on reactor:
d
dt
M
r
t ( ) c
pavg
t ( ) ⋅ T
r
t ( ) ⋅
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) c
p2
⋅ F
Cat
t ( ) cpcat ⋅ +
( )
T
f
T t ( ) −
( )
⋅ U
o
A ⋅ T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ +
=
∆H
r
t ( ) r
B
t ( ) ⋅ − T
r
0 ( ) T
r0
=
7 eqns. 11 unks. (Tr,Tj,cpavg)
Enthalpy on jacket:
M
j
c
p3
⋅
d T
j
t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ U
o
A ⋅ T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
cw
t ( ) c
p3
⋅ T
j
t ( ) T
cw
−
( )
⋅ − F
hw
t ( ) c
p3
⋅ T
hw
T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
T
j
0 ( ) T
j0
= 8 eqns. 11 unks.
Volume of reactants:
M
j
415kg := ∆H
r
80000 −
kJ
kmole
:=
x
PA
100mass% := x
r10
100mass% :=
F
cw
10000
kg
hr
:=
Catalyst feed composition:
x
fCat1
70mass% := x
fCat3
10mass% := x
fCat4
20mass% :=
Physical properties from Perry's, 7th ed., Tables 21 and 22:
2butanol
Propionic anhydride
Water
M
w
74
130
18
98
130

\




.
kg
kmole
:= ρ
808
1012
1000
1829
866

\




.
kg
m
3
:= c
p
2.876
2.345
4.187
1.424
2.345

\




.
kJ
kg degC ⋅
:=
Sulfuric acid
Butyl propionate
Hot water flow required for an inlet jacket temperature of 30 ºC:
F
cw
c
p3
⋅ T
cw
⋅ F
hw
c
p3
⋅ T
hw
⋅ + F
cw
F
hw
+
( )
c
p3
30 ⋅ degC =
F
hw
F
cw
30degC T
cw
−
T
hw
30degC −
⋅ :=
Concentrations:
C
A
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) ⋅
M
w1
= C
B
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r2
t ( ) ⋅
M
w2
= C
Cat1
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r4
t ( ) ⋅
M
w4
=
C
Cat2
t ( )
ρ
r
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) ⋅
M
w4
=
18 eqns. 19 unks.
Reactor specific heat:
c
pavg
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) c
p1
x
r2
t ( ) c
p2
⋅ + x
r3
t ( ) c
p3
⋅ + x
r4
t ( ) x
r5
t ( ) +
( )
c
p4
⋅ + x
rBP
t ( ) . ⋅ c
p5
+ =
19 eqns. 19 unks.
The reaction rate coefficients are Arrhenius functions of temperature:
k
i
A
i
e
E
i
−
R
g
T t ( ) 273.16K + ( ) ⋅
⋅ =
for i = 1..4
Problem parameters:
p
0.2022
0.3205
21.38 −
1271

\



.
:= A
1.93 10
11
⋅
1.01 10
14
⋅
1.42 10
14
⋅
5.05 10
11
⋅

\





.
m
3
kmole min ⋅
:= E
80480
79160
69970
76620

\



.
kJ
kmole
=
R
g
8.314
kJ
kmole K ⋅
= M
r0
600kg := T
r0
20degC := T
j0
30degC := T
f
20degC :=
U
o
A ⋅ 300
kJ
min degC ⋅
= T
cw
15degC := T
hw
90degC :=
F
hw
2500
kg
hr
=
The eight differential equations may be simplified as follows:
d x
r1
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat1
x
r1
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) x
r1
t ( ) ⋅ − 2 r
B
t ( ) ⋅ M
w1
⋅ −
=
d x
r2
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat2
x
r2
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) x
PA
x
r2
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + r
B
t ( ) M
w2
⋅ −
⋅ =
d x
r3
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat3
x
r3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) 1 x
PA
− x
r3
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ + r
B
t ( ) M
w3
⋅ +
⋅ =
d x
r4
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat
t ( ) x
fCat4
x
r4
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) x
r4
t ( ) ⋅ − r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ −
=
d x
r5
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
r
t ( )
F
Cat1
t ( ) F
PA
t ( ) +
( )
− x
r5
t ( ) ⋅ r
Cat1
t ( ) M
w4
⋅ +
=
d T
r
t ( ) ⋅
dt
F
Cat1
t ( ) c
pcat
⋅ F
PA
t ( ) c
p2
⋅ +
( )
T
f
T
r
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ U
o
A ⋅ T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ − ∆H
r
r
B
t ( ) ⋅ −
=
1
M t ( ) c
pavg
t ( ) ⋅
d T
j
t ( ) ⋅
dt
1
M
j
U
o
A ⋅
c
p3
T
r
t ( ) T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ F
cw
t ( ) Tj t ( ) T
cw
−
( )
⋅ − F
hw
t ( ) T
hw
T
j
t ( ) −
( )
⋅ +
=
d M
j
t ( ) ⋅
dt
F
Cat1
t ( ) F
PA
t ( ) + =
The Simulink block diagram for the reactor is the following:
The Reactor Sfnction makes use of a file "Semibatch.m" to solve the equations. This file must be
in the MATLAB "Current Directory" for the simulation to run.
The following are the temperature profiles for a batch when the catalyst is fed at 1200 kg/hr for 5
min followed by the anhydride fed at 1200 kg/hr for 30 minutes:
These trends match the trends in the
CEP article by Feliu, et al. (Dec.
2003) for the same conditions.
The students must now device a
control strategy to minimize the batch
cycle time while satisfying the
constraint that the reactor temperature
must not exceed 60ºC. This constraint
is violated in the base case shown
here. Feliu proposes various
strategies in the article.
This problem probably makes for a
good term project. The instructor must
decide whether to provide the model
and simulation to the students or have
them develop their own. If the latter
please tell the students that the
Arrhenius coefficients are in
m3/kmolemin.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purpose
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
M, D, A: temperature element/controller TE/C, a rod that gives to the water pressure at a set temperature, allowing the water to spray over the fire. The controller is On/Off with single action, and the control is feedback.
TE/C
Water main
(e) Automatic cruise speed control.
M: Speed sensor and transmitter ST on the transmission D: Speed controller SC A: Damper on air intake to the engine throttles the air varying the power delivered by the engine Controller is regulating and control is feedback.
SP SC ST S Air
Transmission
Engine
(f) Refrigerator.
M: temperature sensor TE, usually a gasfilled bulb D: Temperature controller C, mechanically linked to the sensor A: Solenoid S that turnsd the refrigeration compressor on and off The controller is On/Off and the control is feedback.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
SP
TE/C S
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 12. Automatic shower temperature diagram.
M: temperature sensor TE, a gasfilled bulb D: temperature controller TC, mechanilly integrated to the sensor, but with a signa output A: solenoid operated control valve on the hot water line. The cold water valve is operated manually.
SP TC TE
S Hot water Cold water
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd. edition
Problem 21. Derivation of Laplace transforms from its definition
⌠ F( s) = ⌡
∞ − st
f ( t) e
∞
dt
0
(a)
f ( t) = t
⌠ F( s) = ⌡
t⋅ e
− st
dt
By parts:
u=t du = dt
dv = e v= 1 − st e ⋅ ∞ 2 s 0
− st
dt
0 ∞
−1 − st e s = 1 s
2
−t − st F( s) = e ⋅ ∞ s 0
1 ⌠ + ⋅ s ⌡
e
− st
dt = 0 − 0 −
0
F( s) =
1 s
2
(b)
f ( t) = e
− at
where a is constant ⌠ F( s) = ⌡
∞
e
− at − st
e
0
⌠ dt = ⌡
∞
e
− ( s + a)t
dt =
−1 s+a
e
− ( s + a)t
⋅ ∞ 0
=
1 s+a F( s) = 1 s+a
0
(c)
f ( t) = cos⋅ ωt
⌠ F( s) = ⌡
⌠ − st cos⋅ ωt⋅ e dt = 0 ⌡
∞
∞
e
i⋅ ωt
−e 2
− i⋅ ωt
e
− st
dt
0 ∞
1 ⌠ = 2 ⌡
∞
e −1
− ( s − i⋅ ω )t
0
⌠ dt + ⌡
e
− ( s + i⋅ ω )t
dt
0
⋅ ∞
=
1
e 2 s − i⋅ ω 1 2 s − i⋅ ω
− ( s− i⋅ ω )t
⋅ ∞ 0
+
−1 s + i⋅ ω
e
− ( s+ i⋅ ω )t
0
=
1
+
1
s + i⋅ ω
= s − i⋅ ω + s + i⋅ ω =
2 ⋅ ( s − i⋅ ω ) ( s + i⋅ ω )
2⋅ s + ω
(2
2⋅ s
2
)
=
s s +ω s
2 2
F( s) =
s +ω
2
2
(d) f ( t) = e− atcoss⋅ ωt
⌠ F( s) = ⌡
⌠ − at − st e cos⋅ ωt⋅ e dt = 0 ⌡
∞
∞
e
− at e
i⋅ ωt
⋅
+e 2
− i⋅ ωt
e
− st
dt
=
1 ⌠ 2 ⌡
∞
e
− ( s + a+ i⋅ ω )t
0
⌠ dt + ⌡
0 ∞
e
− ( s + a− i⋅ ω ) t
dt
0
e
− ( s+ a− i⋅ ω )t
=
1
2 s + a + i⋅ ω
−1
e
− ( s+ a+ i⋅ ω )t
⋅ ∞ 0
+
−1 s + a − i⋅ ω
⋅ ∞
0
=
1
1 1 = s + a − i⋅ ω + s + a + i⋅ ω + 2 s + a + i⋅ ω s + a − i⋅ ω 2 ( s + a + i⋅ ω ) ( s + a − i⋅ ω ) 2 ( s + a) 2 ⋅ ( s + a) + ω
2 2
=
=
s+a ( s + a) + ω
2 2
F( s) =
s+a ( s + a) + ω
2 2
All the results match results in Table 21.1
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 22. Derive Laplace transforms from the properties and Table 21.1 (a)
f ( t) = u( t) + 2 ⋅ t + 3⋅ t
2
F( s) = L u ( t) + 2 ⋅ t + 3 ⋅ t = 1 s + 2⋅ 1 s
2
(
2
) = L(u(t)) + 2⋅L(t) + 3⋅L(t2)
F( s) = 1 s + 2 s
2
+ 3⋅
2! s
3
+
6 s
3
Used the linearity property.
(b)
f ( t) = e
− 2⋅ t
(u(t) + 2⋅t + 3⋅t2)
F( s) = L u ( t) + 2 ⋅ t + 3 ⋅ t ⋅ s+2 = 1 s+2 + 2 ( s + 2)
2
(
2
)
=
1 + 2 + 6 ⋅ s 2 3 s s s+2
+
6 ( s + 2) F( s) =
3
1 s+2
Used the complex translation theorem.
+
2 ( s + 2)
2
+
6 ( s + 2)
3
(c) f ( t) = u( t) + e− 2t − 2e− t
F( s) = L u ( t) + e = 1 s + 1
(
− 2t
− 2⋅ e 1
−t
) = L(u(t)) + L(e− 2t) − 2⋅L(e− t)
= 1 s + 1 s+2 F( s) = − 1 s 1 s+1 1 s 2 s+1 + 1 s+2 + 1 ( s + 1) − 1 s+1
2
s+2
− 2⋅
s+1
Used the linearity property.
−
2 s+1
(d) f ( t) = u( t) − e− t + t⋅ e− t
F( s) = L( u ( t) ) − L e
( − t) + L(t⋅e− t) = 1 −
s
Used the linearity property.
F( s) =
+
1 ( s + 1)
2
(e) f ( t) = u( t − 2) 1 − e− 2( t−2) sin( t − 2)
F( s) = e
− 2s
Let g ( t) = u ( t) 1 − e G( s) = e
− 2s 1
(
− 2t
sin⋅ t
)
Then f ( t) = g ( t − 2 )
s − 2 ( s + 2) +
1
1
− 2s 1
Used the real translation theorem and linearity.
F( s) = e
1 s − 2 ( s + 2) + 1
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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 23. Initial and final value check of solutions to Problem 22 (a) f ( t) = u( t) + 2 ⋅ t + 3t2
Initial value: lim
t→0
F( s) =
1 s
+
2 s
2
+
6 s
3
(u(t) + 2t + 3t2) = 1 (u(t) + 2t + 3t2) = ∞ ( )
lim
s→∞
s⋅
2 1 6 s + 2 + 3 = s lim ∞ → s s
1 + 2 + 6 = 1 2 s s
Check!
Final value: lim
t→∞
1 + 2 + 6 = ∞ 2 s s→0 s
lim F( s) = 1 s+2 + 2 ( s + 2)
2
(b) f ( t) = e− 2t u( t) + 2t + 3t2
Initial value: lim
t→0
+
6 ( s + 2)
3
e
− 2t
(u(t) + 2t + 3t2)
lim
s→∞
s
2 1 6 = ∞ + s + 2 + 2 3 ∞ ( s + 2) ( s + 2)
= 1( 1 + 0 + 0) = 1 Final value: lim
t→∞
Must apply L'Hopital's rule: lim
s→∞
e
− 2t
(u(t) + 2⋅t + 3t2) = 0⋅∞
2 6 1 + =1 1 2( s + 2) + 2 3 ( s + 2) 2 1 6 =0 + s + 2 + 2 2 ( s + 2) ( s + 3) Check! F( s) = 1 s + 1 s+2 − 2 s+1 2
lim s
s→0
L'Hopital's rule: 0 2 6t lim 2t + 2t + 2t = 0 t → ∞ 2e 2e 2e
(c) f ( t) = u( t) + e− 2t − 2e− t
Initial value: lim
t→0
(u(t) + e− 2t − 2e− t) = (1 + 1 − 2) + 0
s→∞ s
lim
s
1
+
1 s+2
−
s + 1
= ∞
∞
L'Hopital's rule: lim
s→∞
1 + 1 − 2 = 0 1 1
1 + 1 s+2 − 2
Final value: lim
t→∞
(u(t) + e− 2t − 2e− t) = 1 + 0 + 0 = 1
s→0
lim s
s
s + 1
=1+0+0=1
(d) f ( t) = u( t) − e− t + t⋅ e− t
Initial value: lim
t→0
F( s) =
1 s
−
1 s+1
+
1 ( s + 1)
2
(u(t) − e− t + t⋅e− t) = 1 − 1 + 0⋅1 = 0
lim
s→∞
s
1 1 1 = ∞ s − s+1 + 2 ∞ ( s + 1)
L'Hopital's rule: lim Final value: lim
t→∞ s→∞
1 1 − 1 + =1−1+0=0 1 2( s + 1)
(u(t) − e− t + t⋅e− t) = 1 − 0 + ∞⋅0
s 1 − s + =1−0+0=1 2 s+1 s→0 ( s + 1) lim
L'Hopital's rule:
1 − 0 + 1 = 1 t t→∞ 1⋅ e (e) f ( t) = u( t − 2) 1 − e− 2( t−2) sin( t − 2)
lim
Check! F( s) = e
− 2s 1
1 s − 2 ( s + 1) + 1
The test of the delayed fnction is not useful. Better to test the term in brackets, g(t): Initial value: lim
t→0
(1 − e− 2tsin⋅t) = 1
1 − e− 2tsin⋅ ( t) = 1
lim
s→∞
s
1 1 =1−0=1 s − 2 ( s + 1) + 1
Final value: lim
t→∞
lim s
s→0
1 1 =1+0=1 s − 2 ( s + 1) + 1 Check!
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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 24. Laplace transform of a pulse by real translation theorem
f ( t) = H⋅ u ( t) − H⋅ u ( t − T) F( s) = H⋅ 1 s − H⋅ e
− sT 1
⋅
s
= H⋅
1−e s
− sT
F( s) =
H s
(1 − e− sT)
Problem 25. Delayed versus nondelayed function
f ( t) = e
− t− t0 τ
( )
(a) Function is nonzero for all values of t > 0:
t0 −t t0 t0 t0
f ( t) = e
τ
e
τ
F( s) = e
τ
1 s+ 1 τ
∞
=
τ ⋅e
τ
(from Table 21.1) F( s) =
τ ⋅e
τ
τ ⋅s + 1
τ ⋅s + 1
(b) Function is delayed and zero from t = 0 to t = t 0:
− t− t0
( )
τ
f ( t) = u t − t0 e
(
)
⌠ F( s) = ⌡
− t− t0
( )
τ
u t − t0 e
∞
(
)
e
− st
dt
∞
0
Let
λ = t − t0
⌠ ⌠ −λ 1 − s + λ − s λ + t0 − t0⋅ s τ τ dλ = e F( s) = u( λ ) e e ⋅ e dλ ⌡ ⌡− t 0
(
)
0
=e
− t0⋅ s
1⋅λ − t0⋅ s − t0⋅ s −1 τ ⋅e τ ⋅ ∞ = e ⋅ ⋅e =
− s+
s+
1 τ
0
s+
1 τ
τ ⋅s + 1
The result to part (b) agrees with the real translation theorem. Sketch the functions: t0 := 1
t0 −t
τ := 1
u ( t) :=
0 if t < 0 1 if t ≥ 0
F( s) =
τ ⋅e
− t0⋅ s
τ ⋅s + 1
− t− t0
( )
τ
f ( t) := e
τ
⋅e
τ
fd ( t) := u t − t0 ⋅ e
(
)
2 f ( t) fd( t)
2
0
0
2 t
4
0
0
2 t
4
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 26. Solution of differential equations by Laplace transforms
Input function: X( t) = u ( t) d⋅ y ( t) dt Initial steady state: Subtract: Laplace transform: Solve for Y(s): Partial fractions: A1 = Y( s) = lim d ⋅ Y( t) dt X( s) = 1 s (Table 21.1)
(a)
+ 2 y ( t) = 5 x ( t) + 3 2 y( 0) = 5 x( 0) = 3 + 2 Y( t) = 5 X( t) Y( t) = y ( t) − y ( 0 ) 1 s X( t) = x ( t) − x ( 0 ) Y( 0 ) = y ( 0 ) − y ( 0 ) = 0
sY( s) − Y( 0 ) + 2 Y( s) = 5 X( s) = 5 ⋅ 5 1 A1 s+2 = −2.5 + A2 s A2 = Invert:
Y( s) =
s+2 s
= 5
s→−2 s
s→0 s+ 2 −t
lim
5
= 2.5 (Table 21.1)
−5 s+1
+
5 s d⋅ y ( t) dt
Y( t) = −2.5e
+ 2.5 u ( t)
(b)
Initial steady state: Subtract:
9⋅
d ⋅ y( t) dt
2 2
2
+ 18⋅
+ 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 4⋅ y( 0) = 8 x( 0) − 4
9⋅
d ⋅ Y( t) dt
2
+ 18⋅
d ⋅ Y( t) dt
+ 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( t) = y ( t) − y ( 0 ) X( t) = x ( t) − x ( 0 ) Y( 0 ) = 0
Laplace transform:
9s Y( s) + 18s⋅ Y( s) + 4 Y( s) = 8 X( s) = 8 ⋅ Solve for Y(s): Y( s) = 8 9s + 18s + 4
2
2
1 s 18 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2⋅ 9 18 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2⋅ 9 = A1 s + 0.255 8 +
2 2
1 s r1 := r2 :=
−18 + −18 −
r1 = −0.255 r2 = −1.745 A2 s + 1.745 + A3 s
Expand in partial fractions:
Y( s) =
8 9 ( s + 0.255 ) ( s + 1.745 )s 8 =
A1 =
s → − 0.255 9 ( s + 1.745 )s
lim
9 ⋅ ( −0.255 + 1.745 ) ⋅ ( −0.255 )
= −2.342
A2 = A3 =
s → − 1.745 9 ( s + 0.255 )s
lim
8
=
8 9 ( −1.745 + 0.255 ) ( −1.745 ) = 8 9 ( 0.255 ) ( 1.745 ) + 2 s + 2 u ( t) = 2.0
= 0.342
s → 0 9 ( s + 0.255 ) ( s + 1.745 )
lim
8 −2.342 s + 0.255
Y( s) = Invert with Table 21.1:
+
0.342 s + 1.745
Y( t) = −2.342 e 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt
2 2
− 0.255t
+ 0.342e
− 1.745t
(c)
+ 9⋅
d⋅ y ( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt
+ 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4
Subtract initial steady state:
9⋅
d ⋅ Y( t) dt
2
2
+ 9⋅
+ 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t)
Y( 0 ) = 0
Laplace transform:
(9s2 + 9s + 4)Y(s) = 8 X(s) = 8⋅ 1 s
r1 := −9 + 9 − 4⋅ 9⋅ 4 2⋅ 9
2
Find roots: Solve for Y(s), expand:
r2 := 8
−9 −
9 − 4⋅ 9⋅ 4 2⋅ 9
2
r1 = −0.5 + 0.441i r2 = −0.5 − 0.441i
Y( s) =
9 ( s + 0.5 − 0.441i) ( s + 0.5 + 0.441 )s = A1 s + 0.5 − 0.441i + A2 s + 0.5 + 0.441i 8 9 ( 2 ⋅ 0.441i) ( −0.5 + 0.441i) =2 −1 − 1.134i s + 0.5 + 0.441i + A3 s = −1 + 1.134i
A1 =
s → − 0.5+ 0.441i 9 ( s + 0.5 + 0.441i) s
lim
8
A2 = −1 − 1.134i
A3 =
s → 0 9s2 + 9s + 4
lim
8
Y( s) = Invert using Table 21.1:
−1 + 1.134i s + 0.5 − 0.441i
+
+
2 s + 2 u( t)
Y( t) = ( −1 + 1.134i)e
2
( − 0.5+ 0.441i)t
+ ( −1 − 1.134i)e
( − 0.5− 0.441i)t
(d)
Subtract initial steady state:
9⋅
d ⋅ y( t) dt
2 2
+ 12⋅
d⋅ y ( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt
+ 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4
9⋅
d ⋅ Y( t) dt
2
+ 12⋅
+ 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t)
Y( 0 ) = 0
Laplace transform: Find roots: −12 +
(9s2 + 12s + 4)Y(s) = 8 X(s) = 8⋅ 1 s
r1 := 12 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2⋅ 9
2
r2 :=
−12 −
12 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2⋅ 9
2
r1 = −0.667 r2 = −0.667
Solve for Y(s) and expand:
Y( s) = −4 3
8 9 ( s + 0.667 ) s
2
=
A1 ( s + 0.667 ) d
2
+
A2 s + 0.667
+
A3 s
A1 =
s → − 0.667 9s
lim
8
=
A2 = A3 =
lim
s → − 0.667
−8 8 = lim = −2 ds 9s s → − 0.667 9s2 8 =2
s → 0 9 ( s + 0.667 ) 2
lim
Invert using Table 21.1:
Y( t) =
3
−4 t − 2 e− 0.667t + 2 u ( t) 3
+ 7⋅ d ⋅ y ( t) dt
2 2 2
(e)
2⋅
d ⋅ y( t) dt
3 3
+ 21⋅
d ⋅ y( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt
+ 9 y( t) = 3 x( t)
Subtract initial steady state:
2⋅
d ⋅ Y( t) dt
3
+ 7⋅
d ⋅ Y( t) dt
2
+ 21⋅
+ 9 Y( t) = 3 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0
Laplace transform:
(2s3 + 7s2 + 21s + 9)Y(s) = 3 X(s) = 3⋅ 1 s
Find roots:
9 −1.5 − 2.598i 21 = −1.5 + 2.598i polyroots 7 −0.5 2
Y( s) = 3 2 ( s + 1.5 − 2.598i) ( s + 1.5 + 2.598i) ( s + 0.5)s A1 s + 1.5 − 2.598i 3 + A2 s + 1.5 + 2.598i + A3 s + 0.5 + A4 s
Solve for Y(s) and expand:
= A1 = lim
s → − 1.5+ 2.598i 2 ( s + 1.5 + 2.598i) ( s + 0.5)s
= 0.027 + 0.022i
3 2 ( 2 ⋅ 2.598i) ( −1 + 2.598i) ( −1.5 + 2.598i)
= 0.027 + 0.022i
A2 = 0.027 − 0.022i
5 + + ( 0.022i)e ( − 1.387 3 3 2 3 2 ( 1 − 2.5t + 1 3 u( t) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.598i + 0.598i) ( −0.5 − 2.5 2 ( s + 1.387 A4 = lim = 1 3 1 1 3 s s → 0 2s + 7s + 21s + 9 Y( s) = Invert using Table 21.027 − 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1: Y( t) = ( 0.387 s + 0.598i) ( 1 + 2.027 + 0.598i)s lim 3 = −0. .5 − 2.5 + 2.598i) ( s + 1.5) = −0.387e − 0.022i s + 1.022i)e ( − 1.5− 2.598i + −0.5 + 2.022i s + 1.5+ 2.598i)t − 0.598i)t 0.027 − 0.A3 = s → − 0.027 + 0.
667 2 8 = −8 3 8 9 ( s + 0.333 ( s + 0. Solve Problem 26(d) with different forcing functions 9⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 −t 2 + 12⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0 (a) Forcing function: X( t) = e 3 From Table 21.667 ) Apply the real translation theorem in reverse to this solution: Y( t) = u ( t − 1 ) ⋅ −8 3 ⋅ ( t − 1 ) − 8 ⋅ e − 0.1: X( s) = 1 s+ 1 3 Y( s) = (9s2 + 12s + 4) s + 1 3 = A1 ( s + 0.667 9 ( s + 0.333 ) lim d 8 −8 3 = lim + s → − 0.333 ) 2 + A2 s + 0.667 8 + A3 s + 0.333 ) lim 8 = A3 = s → − 0. .667 ) 2 s → − 0.333 9 ( s + 0.667 s + 0.667 ) + 8 s + 0.667⋅ ( t− 1) + 8⋅ e − 0.333t 3 − ( t− 1) 3 (b) Forcing function: X( t) = u ( t − 1 ) e X( s) = e −s s+ The partial fraction expansion of the undelayed signal is the same: Y( s) = 1 3 (Real translation theorem) 1 8 8 −8 e− s − + 3 2 s + 0.1: Y( t) = 1 ( s + 0.667 ) lim −8 −8 s + 0.667 9 ( s + 0.667 ) ( s + 0.333 =8 A1 = A2 = s → − 0.333 −8 t − 8 e− 0.Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 27.333 ) 2 2 = −8 Y( s) = Invert using Table 21.333⋅ ( t− 1) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.667 ds 9 ( s + 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.667t + 8e− 0.
Smith & Corripio.67% of its initial value: 8 9s + 18s + 4 2 r1 = −0. 3rd edition Problem 28.1: d ⋅ Y( t) dt d⋅ y ( t) dt + 2 y ( t) = 5 x ( t) + 3 2 y( 0) = 5 x( 0) + 3 + 2 Y( t) = 5 X( t) Y( t) = y ( t) − y ( 0 ) X( t) = x ( t) − x ( 0 ) s⋅ Y( s) + 2 Y( s) = 5 X( s) Y( 0 ) = y ( 0 ) − y ( 0 ) = 0 A1 5 + terms of X(s) Y( s) = X( s) = s+2 s+2 Y( t) = A1 ⋅ e − 2t + terms of X(t) r := −2 min −5 r → 5 2 = 2.745 min −1 −1 Invert using Table 21. Response characteristics of the equations of Problem 26 (a) Initial steady state: Subtract: Laplace transform: Solve for Y(s): Invert using Table 21.The dominant and only root is Time for response to decay to within 0.255 min r2 = −1.255 min −5 = 19. The domnant root is: Time for the response to decay to 0.745t + terms of X(s) The response is stable and monotonic.1: Y( t) = A1 ⋅ e − 0.255t + A2 ⋅ e − 1.6 min r1 1 s →2 −1 Final steadystate value for unit step input: (Final value theorem) lim s⋅ s→0 .5 min 5 1 s+2 s d⋅ y ( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt (b) 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 2 2 + 18⋅ + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 Subtract initial steady state: 9⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 + 18⋅ 8 + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0 Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = 9s + 18s + 4 Find roots: r1 := −18 + 18 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 2 X( s) r2 := −18 − 18 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 r1 = −0.5 −1 The response is stable and monotonic.67% of its initial value: Final steadystate value for unit step input: (Final value theorem) lim s⋅ s→0 2 = 2.
1: Y( t) = D⋅ e − 0.25 min −5 −0.441t + θ ) + terms of X(t) The response is stable and oscillatory.5min −1 Decay ratio: e − 0.441i min r2 = −0.00081 Time for oscillations to die: = 10 min Final steady state value for a unit step imput: (Final value theorem) 2 lim s⋅ s→0 8 9s + 9s + 4 2 1 s →2 (d) Subtract initial steady state: 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 2 2 + 12⋅ d⋅ y ( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 9⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 + 12⋅ + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0 Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = 8 9s + 12s + 4 2 X( s) Find roots: r1 := −12 + 12 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 r2 := −12 − 12 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 r1 = −0.667t + terms of X(t) .441min −1 T = 14.1: Y( t) = A1 ⋅ t + A2 e ( ) − 0.(c) 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 2 2 2 + 9⋅ d⋅ y ( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 Subtract initial steady state: 9⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 + 9⋅ + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0 Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Y( s) = 8 9s + 9s + 4 2 X( s) Find the roots: r1 := −9 + 9 − 4⋅ 9⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 r2 := −9 − 9 − 4⋅ 9⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 r1 = −0.5t sin( 0.667 min r2 = −0.5 − 0.5 + 0. Period of the oscillations: −1 T := 2π 0.667 min −1 −1 Invert using Table 21. The dominant roots are r1 and r2.5min T = 0.441i min −1 −1 Invert using Table 23.
598i min −0.5 min T = 0.5 r = −0.67% of its initial value: = 7.598i −1 r = −1. The dominant root is The period of the oscillations is: −1 T := 2π 2.027 Time for response to die out: 3 2s + 7s + 21s + 9 3 2 = 10 min → 1 3 Final steady state value for a unit step input: (Final value theorem) lim s⋅ s→0 1 s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 + 2.5 − 2.667 min −5 Time required for the response to decay within 0. The dominant root is r1 = −0.5 min r1 Final steady state value for a unit step input: (Final value theorem) lim s⋅ s→0 −1 8 9s + 12s + 4 d ⋅ y ( t) dt 2 2 2 2 1 s →2 (e) 2⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 3 3 3 + 7⋅ + 21⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt + 9 y( t) = 3 x( t) Subtract initial steady state: 2⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 3 + 7⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 3 2 + 21⋅ + 9 Y( t) = 3 X( t) Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): Find roots: Y( s) = 2s + 7s + 21s + 9 3 2 X( s) 9 21 −1 r := polyroots min 7 2 2 −1. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.42 min −5 r 2 Decay ratio: e − 1.5 min −1 The response is stable and oscillatory.The response is stable and monotonic.598min −1 T = 2.
1: Y( t) := D⋅ sin k t⋅ s + θ M D := 1 + terms of f(t) M k T = 1. SecondOrder Response: Bird Mobile Problem data: M := 50gm y 0 := −27cm Solution: Force balance: M⋅ d⋅ v ( t) dt = −M ⋅ g − k ⋅ y ( t) + f ( t) d⋅ y ( t) dt = v( t) 0 = −M ⋅ g − k ⋅ y 0 Velocity: ky(t) Mg f(t) Y( 0 ) = 0 Initial steady state: Subtract and substitute: M⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 2 y(t) y=0 = −k ⋅ Y( t) + f ( t) Value of k: k := −M ⋅ g y0 k = 1.816 2 N m Laplace transform: M ⋅ s Y( s) + k ⋅ Y( s) = F( s) Y( s) = 1 M⋅ s + k 2 Solve for Y(s): F( s) = A1 s − i⋅ k M + A2 s + i⋅ k M + terms of F(s) θ := 0 Invert using Table 23.Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 29.043 s The mobile will oscillate forever with a period of T := 2π ⋅ .
If we assume it to be a force proportional to the velocity: M⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 2 = −k ⋅ Y( t) − b ⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt + f ( t) With this added term the roots will have a negative real part. causing the oscillations to decay. we must add the resistance of the air. as they do in practice: Y( s) = Invert: Y( t) = D⋅ e 1 M⋅ s + b⋅ s + k −b 2M 2 F( s) r1 = −b + b − 4M ⋅ k 2M 2 = −b 2M + i⋅ k M 2 − b 2 2 4M ⋅t sin 2 k b + terms of f(t) − t+θ M 2 4M b < 4M ⋅ k Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1 Y ( t) 0 1 0 2 t 4 To more accurately reflect the motion of the bird mobile. .
and the real translation theorem: .5 (b) Pulse of Fig.Smith & Corripio.1b From Example 21. Responses of general firstorder differential equation τ⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt + Y( t) = K⋅ X( t) Y( s) = K τ ⋅s + 1 Y( 0 ) = 0 X( s) X( s) = 1 Laplace transform and solve for Y(s): (a) Unit impulse: X( t) = δ ( t) Y( s) = K τ ⋅s + 1 From Table 21.1.1b: − sT 0 0 2 t 4 X( s) = H⋅ 1−e s 1−e s Substitute: Y( s) = K τ ⋅s + 1 − sT ⋅ H⋅ = A2 A1 − sT + 1−e s s + 1 τ K⋅ H = K⋅ H ( ) A1 = lim s→ K⋅ H − 1 τ ⋅s τ = −K⋅ H A2 = s → 0 τ ⋅s + 1 lim Y( s) = K⋅ H 1 s − 1 s+ 1 τ 1 − e− sT ( ) KH := 1 τ := 1 T := 1 H := 1 Invert using Table 21. 3rd edition Problem 210.1: −t K τ Y( t) := e τ 1 Y ( t) 0.1: Invert using Table 21. 21.
5 0 0 2 t Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.−t − ( t− T) τ τ Y( t) := KH⋅ u ( t) − e − u ( t − T) ⋅ 1 − e X( t) := H⋅ ( u ( t) − u ( t − T) ) 1 Y( t) X( t) 0. 4 .
Smith & Corripio. is the time integral of its input. the inlet flow.1) 1 A Response to a unit step in flow: 1 1 A 2 s f ( t) = u( t) Substitute: A := 1 H( s) = Invert using Table 21. Response of an integrating process A⋅ Laplace transform and solve for H(s): d ⋅ h( t) dt = f ( t) 1 A⋅ s = F( s) h( 0) = 0 H( s) = H( s) F( s) Transfer function of the tank: 1 A⋅ s F( s) = 1 s (Table 21. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. 3rd edition Problem 211.1: h ( t) := t f(t) h( t) 10 5 h(t) 0 0 5 t 10 The tank is an integrating process because its ouput. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . the level.
573 min Time for response to decay within 0.927 min r2 := −1 τ e2 := τ e2 = 0.441 2 r1 = −0. Standard form of the secondorder equation: τ ⋅ 2 2 d ⋅ Y( t ) 2 + 2⋅ ζ ⋅ τ ⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt + Y( t) = K⋅ X( t) dt (b) Subtract the initial steady state: 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 2 2 2 + 18⋅ d⋅ y ( t) dt d ⋅ Y( t) dt + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 9⋅ d ⋅ Y( t) dt 2 2 + 18⋅ + 4 Y( t) = 8 X( t) Y( 0 ) = 0 Divide by Y(t) coefficient: Match coeffients to standard form: Equivalent time constants: Find roots: r1 := −18 + 18 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min −18 − 18 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 2 9 d ⋅ Y( t) 18 d ⋅ Y( t) ⋅ + ⋅ + Y( t) = 2 X( t) 2 4 dt 4 dt τ := 9 4 min τ = 1.5 min ζ := K := 2 9min 4⋅ 2⋅ τ Y( 0 ) = 0 Compare coefficients to standard form: ζ = 0.5 min ζ := K := 2 r1 = −0.745 min −1 18min 4⋅ 2⋅ τ −1 r1 −1 r2 ζ = 1.5 Overdamped. 2π ω Frequency of oscillations: Period of oscillations: T := T = 14.67% of its initial value: 5 ⋅ τ e1 = 19.255 min r2 = −1.25 min .75 Find roots: r1 := −9 + 9 − 4⋅ 9⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min ω := 0. 3rd edition Problem 212. τ e1 := τ e1 = 3.441i min rad min −1 Underdamped. Secondorder differeential equations of Problem 26.Smith & Corripio.64 min + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 (b) Subtract initial steady state and divide by the Y(t) coefficient: 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 2 2 2 + 9⋅ d⋅ y ( t) dt 9 d ⋅ Y( t) 9 d ⋅ Y( t) ⋅ + ⋅ + Y( t) = 2 X( t) 2 4 dt 4 dt τ := 9 4 min τ = 1.5 + 0.
5 min Time for response to decay to within 0.8 % Rise time: T 4 = 3.5min −1 T e −5 −0. Find roots: r1 := r1 = −0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.5 min −1 T = 0.56 min Settling time: = 10 min (c) Subtract initial steady state and divide by the coefficient of Y(t): 9⋅ d ⋅ y( t) dt 2 2 2 + 12⋅ d⋅ y ( t) dt + 4 y ( t) = 8 x ( t) − 4 9 d ⋅ Y( t) d ⋅ Y( t) ⋅ + 3⋅ + Y( t) = 2 X( t) 2 4 dt dt Y( 0 ) = 0 Compare coefficients to standard form: τ := 9 4 min τ = 1.667 min −1 τ e1 := −1 r1 −1 r2 τ e1 = 1.00081 Percent overshoot: − 0.5 min r2 := r2 = −0.Decay ratio: e − 0.67% of its initial value: 5 ⋅ τ e1 = 7.5 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5min −1 2 = 2.667 min −1 τ e2 := τ e2 = 1. .5 min K := 2 ζ := 3min 2⋅ τ ζ =1 Equivalent time constants: −12 + 12 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min −12 − 12 − 4 ⋅ 9 ⋅ 4 2 ⋅ 9 min 2 2 Critically damped.
10) u( t) − τ e1 e τ e1 − τ e2 e τ e2 Y( t) = K⋅ ∆x τ e1 − τ e2 τ e2 − τ e1 Y( s) = K⋅ ∆x −τ e1 1 − 1 + Step response for the critically damped case: Y( s) = K ∆x s (τ ⋅ s + 1)2 = A1 s + 1 τ 2 + A2 s+ 1 τ + A3 s A1 = lim s→ −1 τ K⋅ ∆x τ s d 2 = −K⋅ ∆x τ A3 = s → 0 (τ ⋅ s + 1)2 lim K⋅ ∆x = K⋅ ∆x A2 = − 1 ds τ 2s s→ τ lim −K⋅ ∆x K⋅ ∆x = lim = −K⋅ ∆x − 1 τ 2 s2 s→ τ Y( s) = K⋅ ∆x −1 1 1 τ 2 τ s + − 1 + 1 1 s + s τ . 25. overdamped secondorder differential equation: X( s) = Y( s) = ∆x s (τ e1⋅ s + 1)(τ e2⋅ s + 1) lim s→ K ∆x s = A1 s+ 1 τ e1 + A2 s+ 1 τ e2 + A3 s A1 = K⋅ ∆x − 1 τ ⋅τ ⋅s + 1 s e1 e2 τ e1 τ e2 = −K⋅ ∆x ⋅ τ e1 τ e1 − τ e2 A2 = −K⋅ ∆x ⋅ τ e2 τ e2 − τ e1 A3 = s → 0 τ e1⋅ s + 1 τ e2⋅ s + 1 lim ( K⋅ ∆x )( ) = K⋅ ∆x τ e2 1 1 s τ e2 − τ e1 τ e1 − τ e2 s + 1 s+ τ e1 τ e2 −t −t Invert using Table 21.Smith & Corripio. Partial fraction expansion coefficients for Eqs.1: (25.13 Step response.10 to 25. 3rd edition Problem 213.
12) Ramp response for critically damped case: Y( s) = K r s 2 (τ ⋅ s + 1)2 = A1 2 s + 1 τ + A2 s+ 1 τ + A3 s 2 + A4 s .1: Y( t) = K⋅ ∆x u ( t) − t + 1 e τ r s 2 − t τ (25.1: −t −t 2 2 τ e2 τ e1 τ e1 τ e2 Y( t) = K⋅ r e + e + t − ( τ e1 + τ e2) τ e1 − τ e2 τ e2 − τ e1 (25.Invert using Table 21.11) Ramp response for the overdamped case: K r X( s) = A1 s+ 1 Y( s) = (τ e1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ e2⋅ s + 1) s2 = K⋅ r⋅ τ e1 2 = + A2 s+ 1 τ e2 2 + A3 s 2 + A4 s τ e1 A1 = − 1 τ ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 ⋅ s2 s→ e1 e2 τ e1 τ e2 lim K⋅ r τ e1 − τ e2 A2 = K⋅ r⋅ τ e2 τ e2 − τ e1 A3 = s → 0 τ e1⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ e2⋅ s + 1 lim ( K⋅ r )( ) = K⋅ r A4 = lim s→0 = lim K⋅ r⋅ −τ e1⋅ ( τ e2⋅ s + 1) − τ e2⋅ ( τ e1⋅ s + 1) ds ( τ e1⋅ s + 1 ) ⋅ ( τ e2⋅ s + 1 ) s→0 (τ e1⋅ s + 1)2 (τ e2⋅ s + 1)2 d ⋅ K⋅ r = K⋅ r −τ e1 − τ e2 ( ) 2 τ 2 τ e2 τ e1 + τ e2 1 1 1 e1 Y( s) = K⋅ r + + − τ e1 − τ e2 1 1 2 s τ e2 − τ e1 s s+ s+ τ e1 τ e2 Invert using Table 21.
A1 = lim K⋅ r 2 2 = K⋅ r −1 τ s s→ τ A3 = s → 0 (τ ⋅ s + 1)2 lim K⋅ r = K⋅ r A2 = lim s→ −1 τ K⋅ r K⋅ r = lim −2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ K⋅ r⋅ τ 2 3 ds 2 2 −1 τ s τ s s → d τ A4 = lim s→0 K⋅ r = lim −2⋅ K⋅ r⋅ τ = −2 ⋅ K⋅ r⋅ τ 2 ds ( τ ⋅ s + 1) 3 ( τ ⋅ s + 1) s → 0 d 1 2⋅ τ 2⋅ τ 1 + + − s 1 2 s + 1 s2 τ s + τ −t τ Y( t) = K⋅ r⋅ ( t + 2 ⋅ τ ) e + t − 2 ⋅ τ Y( s) = K⋅ r Invert using Table 21. .13) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.1: (25. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . Derive step reponse of n lags in series Y( s) = K ∆x s n X( s) = ∆x s = A0 s + k= 1 ∏ (τ k⋅ s + 1) K⋅ ∆x k=1 s + ∑ n Ak 1 τk A0 = lim s→0 k= 1 ∏ (τ k⋅ s + 1) −t n = K⋅ ∆x Invert using Table 21.1: Y( t) = K⋅ ∆x ⋅ u ( t) + k= 1 ∑ n Ak ⋅ e τk Ak = lim s→ −1 τk K⋅ ∆x s⋅ ∏ n j = 1⋅ ( j≠ k) s + 1 ⋅ τj τ j j= 1 ∏ n = −1 τk ⋅ K⋅ ∆x ∏ n j = 1( j≠ k) −1 + 1 ⋅ τj τ k τj j = 1 ∏ n = 1 τk Substitute: ⋅ 1 τk n− 1 −K⋅ ∆x ⋅ τ k⋅ ∏ n = −K⋅ ∆x ⋅ τ k n n− 1 j = 1⋅ ( j≠ k) ( τ k − τ j) ∏ ( τ k − τ j) j = 1( j≠ k) − t n− 1 n τk τk u( t) − Y( t) = K⋅ ∆x e n k=1 ( τ k − τ j) j = 1( j≠ k) ∑ (25.23) ∏ Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 214.
so the response is overdamped. Transfer function of secondorder interacting systems. τ2 . (b) The response is stable if both roots are negative if 0 < k2 < 1. 25.4: K τ s + 2ζ ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 Rerrange interacting equation: Y( s) = k1 1− k2 2 2 X( s) τ 1⋅ τ 2 2 τ 1 + τ 2 s + s+1 1 − k2 1 − k2 k1 1 − k2 ζ = Time constant: τ1 + τ2 2⋅ τ ⋅ 1 − k2 X( s) Comparing coefficients: Gain: K= τ = τ 1⋅ τ 2 1 − k2 Damping ratio: ( ) = τ1 + τ2 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ 1 − k2 ( ) Find the roots of the denominator: τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 s + 1 − k2 = 0 − τ1 + τ2 + 2 ( ) r1 = ( ) (τ 1 + τ 2)2 − 4τ 1⋅ τ 2(1 − k2) 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 (a) The response is overdamped if the term in the radical is positive: (τ 1 + τ 2)2 − 4τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ (1 − k2) = τ 12 + 2τ 1⋅ τ 2 + τ 22 − 4τ 1⋅ τ 2 + 4τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ k2 = τ 1 − 2τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 + τ 2 + 4τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ k 2 = τ1 − τ2 2 2 ( )2 + 4τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ k2 This term is positive as long as τ1 . 3rd edition Problem 215. − τ1 + τ2 + r1 = ( ) (τ 1 + τ 2)2 − 4τ 1⋅ τ 2(1 − k2) 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 .Smith & Corripio. Eq. Y( s) = k1 k1 τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 s + 1 − k2 2 (τ 1⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − k2 Y( s) = X( s) = ( ) X( s) Standard form of the secondorder differential equaton. and k2 are positive.
the response is stable. . (c) Effective time constants As the response is overdamped. τ2 . and the root is negative. The other root has to be negative because both terms in the numerator are negative. and if k 2 < 1. These are the negative reciprocals of the two real roots: τ e1 = τ1 + τ2 − 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 τ e1 = τ1 + τ2 + 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 (τ 1 − τ 2)2 + 4τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ k2 (τ 1 − τ 2)2 + 4τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ k2 The first of these is the dominant time constant. So. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and k 2 are positive.If τ1 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. we can derive the formulas for the two effective time constants. then the positive term in the numerator is always less in magnitude than the negative term.
Smith & Corripio. Standard secondorder transfer function. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Transfer function of a secondorder feedback control loop C( s) = Kc ( 3s + 1 ) ⋅ ( s + 1 ) + Kc R( s) = Kc 3s + 4s + 1 + Kc 2 This is a secondorder process with a proportional controller. The time constant and damping ratio are always real and positive for positive gain. . 3rd edition Problem 216. Eq. 25.4: C( s) = K τ + 2ζ ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 Rearrange feedback loop transfer function and compare coefficients: Kc 2 R( s) C( s) = 1+ K c 3 1 + Kc s + 2 4 1 + Kc R( s) s+1 Gain: K= Kc 1 + Kc Time constant: τ = Damping ratio: ζ = 3 1 + Kc 2 ⋅ τ ⋅ 1 + Kc ( 4 ) = 2 3 ⋅ 1 + Kc ( ) Ranges of the controller gain for which the response is: (i) Overdamped: (ii) Underdamped: (iii) Undamped: ζ >1 0<ζ <1 ζ =0 2 3 1 + Kc 1 3 ( ) >1 4 > 1 + Kc 3 1 Kc < 3 < Kc < ∞ ζ cannot be negative for positive K c Cannot be undamped for finite K c. The response canot be unstable for positive K c. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.
26.2: p ( T( t ) ) = e o A− B T( t) + C A− B Tb+ C p ( T( t ) ) = p Tb + o o ( ) B ( Tb + C ) 2 e ( T( t ) − Tb ) o o Let o( Γ ( t ) = T( t ) − Tb P ( Γ ( t ) ) = p ( T( t ) ) − p Tb o ( ) P Γ ( t) ) = ( ) Γ ( t) ( Tb + C ) 2 B ⋅ p Tb o (c) Eqilibrium mole fraction by relative volatility. 3rd edition Problem 217. Eq.Smith & Corripio. Eq. 26. Eq.3: y( x( t) ) = 1 + ( α − 1 ) x ( t) α ⋅ x ( t) y x ( t) = y xb + ( ) 1 + ( α − 1 ) ⋅ x b ⋅ α − α ⋅ x b ⋅ ( α − 1 ) ( x ( t) − xb ) ( α − 1 ) x b 2 1 + Y( X( t) ) = y ( x ( t) ) − y x b 2 Let X( t) = x ( t) − x b α ( ) Y( X( t ) ) = 1 + ( α − 1) xb X( t) . Linearization of common process model functions. (a) Enthalpy as a function of temperature.1: (use subscript b for base value) H( T( t) ) = H0 + a1 ⋅ T( t) + a2 ⋅ T ⋅ ( t) + a3 ⋅ T ( t) + a4 ⋅ T ( t) H( T( t) ) = H Tb + a1 + 2a2 ⋅ Tb + 3a3 ⋅ Tb + 4a4 ⋅ Tb 2 3 4 ( ) 2 3 ( T( t ) − Tb ) Let Γ ( t ) = T( t ) − Tb 2 Hd ( Γ ( t) ) = H( T( t) ) − H Tb 3 ( ) Hd ( Γ ( t) ) = a1 + 2a2 ⋅ Tb + 3a3 ⋅ Tb + 4a4 ⋅ Tb Γ ( t) (b) Antoine equation for vapor pressure. 26.
26. 26. Eq.5: q ( T( t) ) = ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T ( t) q ( T( t) ) = q Tb + 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb T( t) − Tb Let Γ ( t ) = T( t ) − Tb 3 4 ( ) 3 ( ) ( ) Q( Γ ( t) ) = q ( T( t) ) − q Tb Q( Γ ( t) ) = 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb ⋅ Γ ( t) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.4: f ( ∆p ( t) ) = k ⋅ ∆p ( t) f ( ∆p ( t) ) = f ∆p b + Let ( ) k k 2 ⋅ ∆p b (∆p(t) − ∆pb) F( ∆P( t) ) = f ( ∆p ( t) ) − f ∆p b ∆P( t) = ∆p ( t) − ∆p b ∆P( t) ( ) F( ∆P( t) ) = 2 ⋅ ∆p b (e) Radiation heat transfer rate as a function of temperature. .(d) Flow as a function of pressure drop. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Eq.
108 0.05⋅ 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb 3 K := 1.95 Tb = 0.108Tb .95 4 3 4 −4 T +3=0 Tb Tb T 4 3 −1. the slope is: Temperature range for which the slope is within 5% of the slope at the base value error = 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T − 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb 3 3 3 = 0.05 Tb Tmin := Tmin := 3 3 0. Rearrange into a polynomial and find its roots: 0. 3rd edition Problem 218.438i −4 −1.05 Tb 1.921 ≤ For Tb := 400K Tmin := 0.05T As the error is always positive. q ( T) = 4ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T 4 Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.983Tb Tmin = 393 K Tmin = 590 K For Tb := 400K Tb := 600K 1.921 ⋅ Tb T Tb ≤ 1.95 Ignore the complex roots.Smith & Corripio.05 T b Tmax := Tmax := 3 3 Tmax = Tmin = 3 3 1. the absolute value brackets can be dropped.05 ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T 4 ( 4 ) Simplify and rearrange: T − 4 ⋅ Tb ⋅ T + 3Tb = 0.95 Tb 0.108 Tmin = 368 K Tmax = 443 K Tmax := 1.95 Tb Tmax = 407 K Tmax = 610 K Temperature range for which the heat transfer rate is within 5% of the linear approximation: error = ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T − ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb + 4ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb T − Tb 4 4 3 ( ) = 0.014 − 1. Linearization of radiation heat transferrange of accuracy.014 + 1. d ⋅ q ( T) dT = 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T 3 From the solution to Problem 217(e).8R Simplify and rearrange: T − 1 = 0. The other two roots are the lower and upper limits of the range: 0.438i polyroots 0 = 0.05 Tb = 1.921 0 1.0164Tb 0.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.921 ⋅ Tb Tmax := 1.Tb := 600K Tmin := 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. We must keep in mind that the parameters of the dynamic model are a function of the slope. . not the heat rate.108Tb Tmin = 553 K Tmax = 665 K So the range for which the linear approximation is within 5% of the heat rate is much wider than the range for which the value of the slope is within 5% of the actual slope.
95( α − 1 ) 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.637 ≤ x ≤ 1 0.9) = 0. x b := ( ) 1 + (α − 1) xb − 0. 3rd edition Problem 219. Equilibrium vapor compositionrange of accuracy y( x) = 1 + (α − 1)x d⋅ y( x) dx α 2 1 + ( α − 1 ) x α⋅x Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.143 (zero) x min( 1.93 The range of accuracy is narrower the higher α and the higher xb .93 (a) (b) (c) (d) x min( 1.9) = 0.1 .05 1 + (α − 1)x 2 Lower limit: 1 + ( α − 1 ) x min 1 + (α − 1) xb 1 + (α − 1)xb = 1.872 x max( 1.95 x max α . 0.1) = 0.109 0.9) = 1. so we can change signs and drop the absolute value bars: . 0.092 ≤ x ≤ 0. 0.9) = 0.362 x max( 1.092 x min( 5 .362 0.109 x max( 5 .05( α − 1 ) 0.1 .05 2 + α 1 + ( α − 1) xb ( x − xb) 2 1 + ( α − 1) xb − 1 = 0.872 ≤ x ≤ 0.1 .Smith & Corripio.1) = −0.183 (one) x max( 5 . For the vapor composition: y( x) = 1 + (α − 1)x α ⋅x 1+ ( α − 1)x α⋅x error = 1 + (α − 1) xb α ⋅ xb − 1 = 0. 0. x b := ( ) 1 + (α − 1) xb − 1.1 .05 α 2 1 + ( α − 1 ) x b Simplify and rearrange: 1 + (α − 1) xb − 1 = 0.1) = 0.95 Upper limit: 1 + ( α − 1 ) x max = 0. = α 2 1 + ( α − 1 ) x From the solution to Problem 217(c): For the slope: error = − α 2 1 + ( α − 1 ) x b = 0.637 x min( 5 . 0. 0. 0. 0.05 1.05 1 + ( α − 1 ) x α ⋅ x b 1 + ( α − 1 ) x b + α ⋅ x − α ⋅ x b α⋅x The error is always negative.05 x min α .1) = 0.
1 0.95( α − 1 ) x max := 7.1 x b := 0.061 x max = 0.25x b x min = 0.014 ≤ x ≤ 0.05 0.138x b (b) α := 1.4 x max = 2.05 − 2 ( α − 1) = 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 1 x min := 0.95 1 + ( α − 1) x α ( α − 1) xb + α ⋅ x 0.95( α − 1 ) x max := 1.014 x max = 0.9 0.25 0.605x b (d) α := 5 x b := 0.05 ( α − 1) 2 x − 0.2 2 1 + ( α − 1) xb α ⋅ x = 0.732 0.519 ≤ x ≤ 1 x min := 0.95⋅ ( α − 1 ) −0.05 − 2 ( α − 1) = 0.05 ( α − 1) x − − 2(α − 1) = polyroots b xb 1.653x b x min = 0.605 polyroots b xb 1.165 0.061 ≤ x ≤ 0.05 ( α − 1) 2 x − 0.577x b Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.05⋅ ( α − 1) 2 x − 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.05 ( α − 1) 2 x − 0.1 x b := 0.025 0.444x b (c) α := 5 x b := 0.05 − 2 ( α − 1) = 0.95⋅ ( α − 1 ) −0.138 polyroots b xb 7.559 0.95( α − 1 ) x max := 1.723 0.95 − 1 − 2 ⋅ ( α − 1 ) ⋅ x b − ( α − 1 ) ⋅ x b 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) ⋅ x + 0.732x b x min = 0.05 − 2 ( α − 1) ⋅ x + 0.444 polyroots b xb 2.95⋅ ( α − 1 ) 2 0.95⋅ α − 1 ⋅ xb 0.723 x min := 0.577 −0.9 0.95⋅ ( α − 1 ) −0.95( α − 1 ) x max := 2. . one is the lower limit and the other one the upper limit: (a) α := 1.231x b x min = 0.231 0.1 0.95( α − 1 ) 2 + −0.95⋅ ( α − 1 ) ⋅ x + 0.519 x max = 1.95⋅ ( α − 1 ) ⋅ x b + 0.653 0.95( α − 1) = 0 b x xb xb b x Find the roots.165 x min := 0.
Linearization of chemical reaction rate. CB( t) = 2k ⋅ cAb⋅ cBb⋅ CA( t) + k ⋅ cAb ⋅ CB( t) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) At the given base conditions: 2 ⋅ k ⋅ cAb⋅ cBb = 2 hr R CA( t) .Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 220. CB( t) ) = r( cA( t) . cB( t) = r cAb . CB( t) = 2hr For cA := 3 kmole m 3 −1 k ⋅ cAb = 2 hr −1 2 −1 ( ) −1 CA( t) + 2hr −1 CB( t ) 2 ⋅ k ⋅ cA⋅ cBb − 2 ⋅ k ⋅ cAb⋅ cBb = 1 hr (off by 50%) k ⋅ cA − k ⋅ cAb = 2. cAb := 2 kmole m 3 kmole hr Linearize: Let cBb := 1 kmole m 3 ) ( ) ( R( CA( t) . cBb) ( ) r cA( t) . r cA( t) . cB( t) ) − r( cAb . cB( t) = k ⋅ cA( t) cB( t) Problem parameters: k := 0.5 hr 2 2 −1 −1 (off by 125%) For cB := 2 kmole m 3 2 ⋅ k ⋅ cAb⋅ cB − 2 ⋅ k ⋅ cAb⋅ cBb = 2 hr 2 2 −1 (off by 100%) k ⋅ cAb − k ⋅ cAb = 0 hr (same as the base value) These errors on the parameters of the linear approximation are significant. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .5 m 6 2 kmole := 1000mole ( ) 2 Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. cBb + 2k ⋅ cAb⋅ cBb cA( t) − cAb + k ⋅ cAb cB( t) − cBb CAb( t) = cA( t) − cAb CB( t) = cB( t) − cBb R CA( t) . meaning that it is only valid for very small deviations of the reactant concentrations from their base values.
o xb δ p Tb o y ( T( t ) . x ( t ) ) = y Tb .00102 1 mmHg . x b ) ( ) Γ ( t) + p (Tb) X(t) − p (Tb)⋅ xb P( t) Y( Γ ( t ) .022 1 degC = 1. x b + ⋅ ⋅ p ⋅ ( T( t) ) ⋅ T( t) − Tb + x( t) − x b pb p b δT ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + −p o ( Tb ) x b 2 o pb ( p( t) − p b) δT A− B δ T( t) + C ⋅e = A− B Tb+ C B ( Tb + C ) 2 ( ⋅e = B ⋅ p ⋅ Tb ( ) ( Tb + C ) 2 Γ ( t ) = T( t ) − Tb X( t) = x ( t) − x b P( t) = p ( t) − p b Let Y( Γ ( t ) .80degC p b := 760mmHg A := 15. P( t) . 3rd edition Problem 221.51degC Let pob = p Tb o ( ) pob := e x b ⋅ B⋅ pob p b ⋅ Tb + C A− B Tb+ C mmHg pob pb pob = 1177 mmHg pob ⋅ x b pb 2 ( ) 2 = 0. Linearization of Raoult's Law for equilibrium vapor composition. P( t) . p ( t) .9008 Tb := 95degC B := 2788. Raoult's Law: Linearize: y ( T( t ) .549 = 0. X( t) ) = 2 pb 2 p b ⋅ ( Tb + C ) pb x b ⋅ B ⋅ p ⋅ Tb o o o degC := K Numerical values for benzene at: mmHg := atm 760 mole% := % x b := 50mole% C := 220. p ( t ) . X( t) ) = y ( T( t) . x ( t) ) − y Tb .Smith & Corripio. x ( t ) ) = p ( T( t ) ) p ( t) o x( t) p ( T( t ) ) = e o A− B T( t) + C Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization. p ( t ) . p b . p b .
441 % y Tb . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.00102 mmHg P( t) = 77.022 degC Γ ( t) + 1. X( t) ) = pob ⋅ x b pb 0. P( t) .Y( Γ ( t ) . x b = 77.44mole% ( ) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. p b .549 X( t) − 0. .
692 × 10 m fb + V⋅ k b = 260.231 × 10 fb K2 := fb + V⋅ k b − 5 kmole m 3 Calculate parameters: τ := τ = 0.046 ( ) K2 = 7.987 kcal kmole⋅ K ⋅ Tb ⋅ fb + V⋅ k b 3 2 ( ) ( ) cAb = 9.Smith & Corripio. Linearization of reactor of Examples 26. From the results of Example 26. .01⋅ sec ⋅ + CA( t) = 0.4 and 26.002 s k b := 100s −1 3 cAib := 12 E := 22000 kmole m 3 Tb := 573K kcal kmole From the initial steady state: 0 = fb ⋅ cA.4: τ⋅ d ⋅ CA( t) dt + CA( t) = K1 ⋅ F( t) + K2 ⋅ CAi( t) + K3 ⋅ Γ ( t) τ = V fb + V⋅ k Tb ( ) cAib − cAb K1 = fb + V⋅ k Tb V := 2.113 kmole m K 3 Γ ( t) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.1. fb −V⋅ k Tb E⋅ cAb K2 = K3 = 2 fb + V⋅ k Tb R⋅ Tb fb + V⋅ k Tb ( ) ( ) ( ( )) Problem parameters: Let k b = k Tb ( ) m fb := 0.046 m 3 F( t) + 7.002 s K3 = −3. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 3rd edition Problem 222.01 s s⋅ kmole m 6 −6 − 6 kmol K3 := K1 = 0.6m 3 ( ) Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.692 ⋅ 10 CAi( t) − 3.b − cAb − k Tb ⋅ V⋅ cAb cAb := V fb + k b ⋅ V fb ⋅ cAib fb + k b ⋅ V cAib − cAb K1 := fb + V⋅ k b −V⋅ k b ⋅ E⋅ cAb 1.113 × 10 m K 3 Linearized equation: d ⋅ CA( t) dt kmole s m 3 −6 0.
5m kPa ⋅ m kmole⋅ K p o := 101.785cm Rg := 8. Pressure in a compressed air tank when punctured.3 )kPa Ao := 0.3kPa Use subscript "b" for base value for linearization.314 ⋅ 2 T := 70degC 3 V := 1. 3rd edition Problem 223.Smith & Corripio. p ( t) = = δ⋅g δ ⋅ wi ⋅ b ( ) Rg ⋅ ( T + 273K) V⋅ M 2⋅ M wi( t) − Ao ⋅ R ⋅ ( T + 273K) p( t) ⋅ ( p( t) − p o) g ⋅ b d⋅ p ( t) dt (wi( t) − wb) + δ⋅ g δ⋅ p ( p( t) − p b) Let P( t) = p ( t) − p b a1 = δ⋅ g δ ⋅ wi ⋅ b Wi( t) = wi( t) − wb a1 := Rg ⋅ ( T + 273K) V⋅ M a1 = 65. Solution: Mass balance on the tank: V⋅ d ⋅ ρ ( t) dt = wi( t) − wo ( t) v ( t) 2 2 Bernoulli's equation: p( t) = ρ ( t) ⋅ + po v( t) = 2⋅ ( p( t) − p o) ρ ( t) Flow through the orifice caused by the bullet: Ideal gas law: wo ( t) = ρ ( t) ⋅ Ao ⋅ v ( t) = Ao ⋅ 2 ⋅ ρ ( t) ⋅ p ( t) − p o ρ ( t) = M⋅ p ( t) Rg ⋅ ( T + 273K) ( ) Substitute into mass balance: V⋅ M Rg ⋅ ( T + 273 ⋅ K) Solve for the derivative: d⋅ p ( t) dt Linearize: ⋅ d ⋅ p( t) dt 2⋅ M = wi( t) − Ao ⋅ p( t) p( t) − p o Rg ⋅ ( T + 273K) ( ) = g wi( t) .56 kPa kg . Assumptions: • Air obeys ideal gas law • Constant temperature Design conditions: kPa := 1000Pa M := 29 kg kmole 3 wi(t) p(t) V wo(t) po p b := ( 500 + 101.
023 sec −1 Substitute: d ⋅ P( t) dt = a1 ⋅ Wi( t) + a2 ⋅ P( t) + P( t) = a1 −a2 Wi( t) P( 0 ) = 0 Compare to standard form of firstorder equation: Then τ := P( s) Wi( s) 1 −a2 = K := K τ ⋅s + 1 a1 −a2 d ⋅ P( t) dt + P( t) = K⋅ Wi( t) τ = 42.5 min) for the pressure transient to die out.8R Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9 sec K = 2. Problem 133. to see how long it actually takes. .8 × 10 3 kPa ⋅ sec kg Transfer function: If the compressor shuts down it will take approximately 5(42.a2 = δ⋅g δ⋅p ⋅ b ⋅ = −Ao V ⋅ 2 ⋅ Rg ⋅ ( T + 273K) 1 M kPa 1000Pa −1 ⋅ p p − p 0 2 b b ( ) 2 (2pb − po) 2 a2 := −Ao 2⋅ V 2 ⋅ Rg ⋅ ( T + 273 ⋅ K) M⋅ pb⋅ pb − po ( ) ⋅ (2⋅ pb − po)1000Pa kPa 1 −a2 τ⋅ ⋅ d ⋅ P( t) dt m 100cm a2 = −0. according to the linear approximation.8) = 214 sec (3.) K := 1. (See the results of the simulation. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio. Temperature of a turkey in an oven. T( t) = Ts ( t ) − T ( t ) M ⋅ cv ( ) = a1 ⋅ Ts( t) − Tsb + a2 ⋅ T( t) − Tb ⋅ b = 4⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A M ⋅ cv Tsb 3 ( ) ( ) δ⋅g δT ⋅ b = −4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A M ⋅ cv Tb 3 δ⋅g δTs a2 = Let Γ s( t) = Ts( t) − Tsb dt Γ ( t ) = T( t ) − Tb = a1 ⋅ Γ s( t) + a2 ⋅ Γ ( t) τ⋅ Γ ( 0) = 0 d ⋅ Γ ( t) dt a1 −a2 (base is initial steady state) Substitute: d⋅ Γ ( t) Standard form of the firstorder differential equation: Divide by a2 and rearrange: 1 −a2 d⋅ Γ ( t) dt M ⋅ cv 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb Compare coefficients: τ = Γ ( s) Γ s( s) 3 + Γ ( t) = K⋅ Γ s( t) Γ s( t) 3 ⋅ + Γ ( t) = d ⋅ Γ ( t) dt ⋅ Tsb + Γ ( t) = Γ s( t) Tb Tsb K= Tb 3 M ⋅ cv 4 ⋅ ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Tb 3 Laplace transform: = K τ ⋅s + 1 The input variable is the temperature of the oven wall. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Assumptions • Uniform turkey temperature • Negligible heat of cooking • Radiation heat transfer only Energy balance on the turkey: M ⋅ cv ⋅ d ⋅ T( t ) dt = ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ Ts ( t) − T ( t) Ts(t) 4 4 T(t) M Use subscript "b" for linearization base values. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . Solve for the derivative: Linearize: d ⋅ T( t ) dt d ⋅ T( t ) dt where a1 = ε ⋅σ ⋅A 4 4 = g Ts( t) . 3rd edition Problem 224. See problem 134 for the simulation.
Ts := 540R 1 C Tb := 700R α 4 4 T ( t ) − Ts C hr⋅ R d ⋅ T( t ) dt Solve for the derivative: = g ( q ( t ) .01458 R⋅ hr BTU .62 hr K = 0.556 × 10 −3 R BTU a2 = −0. Slab heated by an electric heater by radiation. 3rd edition Problem 225.381 hr d⋅ Γ ( t) = a1 ⋅ Q( t) + a2 ⋅ Γ ( t) τ⋅ d ⋅ Γ ( t) dt Γ ( 0) = 0 (base is initial value) Standard form of firstorder differential equation: 1 −a2 d⋅ Γ ( t) dt C 4 ⋅ α ⋅ Tb Compare coefficients: τ := C 4α ⋅ Tb 3 3 + Γ ( t) = K⋅ Q( t) Divide by a2 and rearrange: ⋅ + Γ ( t) = a1 −a2 Q( t) 1 4α ⋅ Tb 3 ⋅ d ⋅ Γ ( t) dt 1 + Γ ( t) = Q( t) K := 4α ⋅ Tb 3 τ = 2.Smith & Corripio. T( t ) ) = q( t) − Linearize: Let d ⋅ T( t ) dt Γ ( t ) = T( t ) − Tb 1 C = a 1 ⋅ q ( t ) − q b + a 2 ⋅ T( t ) − Tb Q( t) = q ( t) − q b a1 = δ⋅g δq ( ) ( ) a2 = b δ⋅g δT ⋅ b −1 ⋅ a1 := Substitute: a2 := dt −4 ⋅ α ⋅ Tb C 3 a1 = 5. Assumptions: • Uniform temperature of the slab • Heat transfer by radiation only Energy balance on the slab: M ⋅ cv ⋅ Let d ⋅ T( t ) dt = q ( t) − ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A⋅ T ( t) − Ts 4 4 Ts T(t) C = M ⋅ cv α = ε ⋅σ ⋅A d ⋅ T( t ) 4 4 Substitute C⋅ = q ( t) − α T ( t) − Ts dt Problem parameters: C := 180 BTU R α := 5 ⋅ 10 − 8 BTU 4 q(t) Use subscript "b" to denote linearization base value.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Transfer function: Γ ( s) Q( s) = K τ ⋅s + 1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .
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Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
%TO := %
%CO := %
Problem 61. Secondorder loop with proportional controller.
D(s) R(s) + E(s)

G2(s) G1(s)
+ +
Gc(s)
M(s)
C(s)
G1 ( s) = Problem parameters: K := 0.10
(τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)
%TO %CO τ 1 := 1min
K
Gc( s) = Kc τ 2 := 0.8min
(a) Closed loop transfer function and characteristic equation of the loop.
Kc⋅ =
C( s) R( s)
(τ 1⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) (τ 1⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)
2
K
1 + Kc⋅
K
=
(τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) + Kc⋅ K
Kc⋅ K
Characteristic equation: Closedloop transfer function:
τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 s + 1 + Kc⋅ K = 0 C( s) R( s)
2
(
)
=
0.1Kc 0.8s + 1.8s + 1 + 0.1Kc
2
Characteristic equation:
0.8s + 1.8s + 1 + 0.1Kc = 0
(b) Values of the controller gain for which the response is overdamped, critically damped, and underdamped
Roots of the characteristic equation: −1.8 + 1.8 − 4 ⋅ 0.8⋅ 1 + 0.1Kc 2 ⋅ 0.8
2
r1 =
(
)
=
−1.8 1.6
+
2 1.8 − 1 + 0.1Kc 0.8 1.6
The response is critically damped when the term in the radical is zero:
Critically damped: Overdamped (real roots):
1 1.8 0.8 Kccd := − 1 0.1 1.6
2
2 1.8 − 1 + 0.1Kc = 0 0.8 1.6
%CO Kccd = 0.125 %TO
%CO Kc < 0.125 %TO
%CO Underdamped: Kc > 0.125 %TO
The loop cannot be unstable for positive gain because, • for real roots the radical cannot be greater than the negative term, so both roots are negative • for complex conjugate roots the real part is always negative, 1.8/1.6, or (τ1 +τ2 )/2τ1 τ2 This is true for all positive values of the time constants and the product K. cK.
(c) Equivalent time constants for different values of the gain:
%CO Kc := 0.1 %TO τ e1 = −1 r1 −1 r2 (overdamped, two equivalent time constans) τ e1 := 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 τ e1 = 0.935 min
(τ 1 + τ 2) − ( τ 1 + τ 2) (τ 1 + τ 2) + ( τ 1 + τ 2)
2
− 4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ 1 + Kc⋅ K
( (
) )
τ e2 =
τ e2 :=
2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2
2
τ e2 = 0.847 min
− 4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ 1 + Kc⋅ K
%CO Kc := 0.125 %TO τ e1 = −1 r1 −1 r2
(critically damped, two equal real time constants) τ e1 := 2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 τ e1 = 0.889 min
(τ 1 + τ 2) − ( τ 1 + τ 2) (τ 1 + τ 2) + ( τ 1 + τ 2)
τ 1⋅ τ 2 1 + Kc⋅ K ζ :=
2
− 4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ 1 + Kc⋅ K
( (
) )
τ e2 = %CO Kc := 0.2 %TO
τ e2 :=
2⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2
2
τ e2 = 0.889 min
− 4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ 1 + Kc⋅ K
(underdamped, time constant and damping ratio) τ s + 2ζ ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 = τ 1⋅ τ 2 1 + Kc⋅ K
2 2
s +
2
τ1 + τ2 1 + Kc⋅ K
s+1
Match coefficients:
τ :=
τ1 + τ2
2 ⋅ τ ⋅ 1 + Kc⋅ K
(
)
τ = 0.886 min ζ = 0.996
(d) Steadystate offset for a unit step change in set point.
Final value theorem: lim
t→∞
Y( t) =
lim s⋅ Y( s)
s→0
R( s) =
1 s
(Table 21.1)
%CO Kc := 0.1 %TO
lim s⋅
s→0
Kc⋅ K τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 + Kc⋅ K offset := ( 1 − 0.0099)%TO
2
1
(
)
s
→ 9.9009900990099009901 ⋅ 10
3
offset = 0.99 %TO
Kc⋅ K %CO 1 2 Kc := 0.125 lim s⋅ → 1.2345679012345679012 ⋅ 10 2 %TO s → 0 s τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 + Kc⋅ K
( (
) )
%CO Kc := 0.2 %TO
lim s⋅
s→0
offset := ( 1 − 0.01235 )%TO Kc⋅ K τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 + Kc⋅ K offset := ( 1 − 0.01961 )%TO
2
offset = 0.988 %TO 1 s → 1.9607843137254901961 ⋅ 10
2
offset = 0.98 %TO
These are very large offsets because the loop gains are so small.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 62. Inverseresponse secondorder system with proportional controller.
D(s) R(s) + E(s)

G2(s) G1(s)
+ +
Gc(s)
M(s)
C(s)
%TO 6 ( 1 − s) G1 ( s) = ( s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.5⋅ s + 1 ) %CO
%CO Gc( s) = Kc⋅ %TO
(a) Closedloop transfer function and characteristic equation of the loop.
Closedloop transfer function: C( s) R( s)
2
=
Kc⋅ 6 ( 1 − s) ( s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.5s + 1 ) + Kc⋅ 6 ( 1 − s)
Characteristic equation:
0.5⋅ s + 1.5 − 6Kc s + 1 + 6Kc = 0
(
)
(b) Values of the gain for which the response is over, critically, and underdamped
Roots: − 1.5 − 6Kc +
r1 =
(
)
(1.5 − 6Kc)
2 ⋅ 0.5
2
− 4 ⋅ 0.5⋅ 1 + 6Kc
(
) = −1.5 + 6K
c+
0.25 − 30Kc + 36Kc
2
The response is critically damped when the term in the radical is zero: 0.25 − 30Kc + 36Kc = 0
2
Kc := Kc :=
30 + 30 −
30 − 4 ⋅ 0.25⋅ 36 2 ⋅ 36 30 − 4 ⋅ 0.25⋅ 36 2 ⋅ 36 and %CO %TO
2
2
%CO Kc = 0.82491 %TO %CO Kc = 0.00842 %TO %CO Kc > 0.825 %TO < Kc < 0.825 %CO %TO
Overdamped (two real roots):
%CO Kc < 0.00842 %TO 0.00842
Underdamped (complex conjugate roots):
5 − 6Kc)min 2 ⋅ τ ⋅ ( 1 + 6Kc) 2 τ = 0.143 τ = 0.37500000000000000000 offset := 1 − 0.5min 2 ζ := τ := 1 + 6Kc 0.5 min (d) Offset for various values of the gain and a unit step change in set point.The response is unstable when %CO Kc > 0.625 %CO %TO .10 %TO lim s⋅ s→0 Kc⋅ 6 ⋅ ( 1 − s) 0.5 − 6Kc)min 2 ⋅ τ ⋅ ( 1 + 6Kc) (1.559 min τ e1 = −0.005 %TO τ e1 := 1.143 min (unstable) τ e2 = −0.423 min ζ = −0.5 − 6Kc 1 + 6Kc 2 s + 1 = τ s + 2ζ ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 2 2 %CO Kc := 0.5min 2 ζ := τ := 1 + 6Kc ζ := (1.5 − 6Kc)min 2 ⋅ τ ⋅ ( 1 + 6Kc) (1.127 (unstable) Try values that result in equivalent time constants: %CO Kc := 0. %CO Kc := 0.477 min ζ = 0.5 − 6 ⋅ Kc s + 1 + 6Kc 2 1 s ( ) → .5s + 1.5 − 6Kc)min 2 ⋅ τ ⋅ ( 1 + 6Kc) (1.5 1 + 6Kc s + 2 1.5 − 6 ⋅ Kc + %CO Kc := 1 %TO τ e1 := 1.503 τ = 0.125 %TO %CO Kc := 0.535 min ζ = 0.25 %TO (one real root is positive or the real part of the complex roots i positive) (c) Effective time constants or time constant and damping ratio for various values o the gain: 0.25 − 30Kc + 36Kc 1min 0.559 min ζ = 0.5 − 6 ⋅ Kc − τ e2 := 1.401 τ = 0.1 %TO %CO Kc := 0.5min 2 ζ := τ := 1 + 6Kc 0.5 − 6 ⋅ Kc + 1min 0.25 − 30Kc + 36Kc 2 2 2 τ e1 = 0.868 min τ e2 = 0.375 offset = 0.3 %TO τ := 0.25 − 30Kc + 36Kc 1min 0.5 − 6 ⋅ Kc − τ e2 := 1.5min 1 + 6Kc 0.2 %TO %CO Kc := 0.25 − 30Kc + 36Kc 1min 0.
5s + 1.429 %CO Kc := 0.42857142857142857143 offset := 1 − 0. Of course.455 %CO %TO The offsets are high because the gains are small. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.%CO Kc := 0.125 %TO lim s⋅ s→0 Kc⋅ 6 ⋅ ( 1 − s) 0. since for gains greater than 0.5s + 1.8R .20 %TO lim s⋅ s→0 offset = 0. K := 1.545 offset = 0.54545454545454545455 offset := 1 − 0.25%CO/%TO the loop is unstable. offsets can only be high with a proportional controller. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 − 6 ⋅ Kc s + 1 + 6Kc 2 1 s ( ) → .5 − 6 ⋅ Kc s + 1 + 6Kc 2 1 s ( ) → .571 %CO %TO Kc⋅ 6 ⋅ ( 1 − s) 0.
for complex conjugate roots. t/τ. Another way to show it is to determine the roots of the characteristic equation: − 1 + KKc ⋅ τ I + r1 = ( ) (1 + KKc) 2τ I⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ I − 4 ⋅ τ I⋅ τ ⋅ KKc 2 The real root cannot be negative for any positive value of the loop gain KK c because the radical is always smaller than the negative term. there is no ultimate gain. set: τ := 1 (a) Closedloop transfer function and characteristic equation of the loop. D(s) R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) C(s) G1 ( s) = K τ ⋅s + 1 Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s To work in dimensionless units. 3rd edition Problem 63. Also. Closedloop transfer functon: C( s) R( s) 2 = ) τ I⋅ s⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) + KKc⋅ ( τ I⋅ s + 1 ) KKc⋅ τ I⋅ s + 1 ( Characteristic equation: τ I⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 + KKc τ I⋅ s + KKc = 0 lim KKc⋅ τ I⋅ s + 1 ( ) Offset: the steady state gain is: ( ) s → 0 τ ⋅ τ ⋅ s2 + 1 + KK τ ⋅ s + KK I c I c ( ) = KKc KKc =1 (no offset) (b) Is there an ultimate gain for this loop? Substitute s = iω: −τ I⋅ τ ⋅ ω u + KKcu + i 1 + KKcu ω u = 0 2 ( ) ω u := 0 KKcu := 0 No. Firstorder process and proportionalintegral controller. Offset. the real part is always .Smith & Corripio. This result just means that a negative loop gain will make the loop unstable.
5 0 0 2 t 4 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.8 .1) Y( s) = 1 τ ⋅ s⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) + KKc⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) s 1 = 1 s − 1 s+ 1 τc τ c := 1 u ( t) := 0 if t < 0 1 if t ≥ 0 KKc⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) 1 = KKc 1 τ ⋅ s + KKc s Let τc = τ KKc Y( s) = τ c⋅ s + 1 s −t R( t) := u ( t) Invert using Table 21. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1: Y( t) := u ( t) − e As KKc increases τc decreases and the response is faster. R := K 1. τc 1 Y ( t) R( t) 0. R( s) = 1 s (Table 21.negative: Real = − 1 + KKc 2⋅ τ ( ) <0 (c) Response of the loop to a step change in set point for τI = τ as the gain varies from 0 to infinity.
Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 64.1min ω u := 1 τ 1⋅ τ 2 KIu := (τ 1 + τ 2)⋅ ω u2 K ω u = 3.987 min .162 min Tu := 2 π ωu −1 %CO KIu = 110 %TO⋅ min Tu = 1.5 %TO⋅ min (b) Ultimate gain and period for other values of the smaller time constant: τ 2 := 0.1 %CO %TO τ 2 := 0.8min Characteristic equation: τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 s + 1 + 3 ( ) K⋅ KI s =0 τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 s + τ 1 + τ 2 s + s + KKI = 0 Substitute s = iωu : −τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ i⋅ ω u − τ 1 + τ 2 ω u + i⋅ ω u + KKIu = 0 + 0i − τ 1 + τ 2 ω u + KKIu = 0 ω u := 1 τ 1⋅ τ 2 KIu := 3 ( )2 2 ( ) ( ) 2 −τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ω u + ω u = 0 ω u = 1.62 min −1 3 (τ 1 + τ 2)⋅ ω u2 K %CO KIu = 22. Secondorder process with pure integral controller. D(s) R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) C(s) G1 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) τ 1 := 1min 2 K KI Gc( s) = s (a) Ultimate gain and period with the parameters of Problem 61: K := 0.118 min Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 5.
it results in a smaller ultimate gain. as expected. . since the loop is slower. When τ2 is increased to 2 min. it becomes the dominant time constant and the ultmate gain should be higher than for part (a). However. in this case K I has units of rate and.τ 2 := 2min ω u := 1 τ 1⋅ τ 2 KIu := (τ 1 + τ 2)⋅ ω u2 K ω u = 0.886 min Reducing the nondominat time constant increases the ultimate gain and reduces the ultimate period. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.707 min Tu := 2π ωu −1 %CO KIu = 15 %TO⋅ min Tu = 8.
Secondorder process with proportionalintegral controller.8min K Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s τ 1 := 1min (a) Ultimate gain and period as a function of integral time τI.8min − 1. 3rd edition Problem 65.8min − 1.444min 1.Smith & Corripio. When this happens there is no ultimate gain and the loop is stable for all values of the gain.8min⋅ τ I Notice that for some values of τI the ultimate frequency and period are complex.8min τ1 + τ2 . Characteristic equation of the loop: Substitute s = iωu : τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ I⋅ s + τ 1 + τ 2 τ I⋅ s + τ I⋅ 1 + KKc ⋅ s + KKc = 0 2 3 3 ( ) 2 ( ) − τ 1 + τ 2 τ I⋅ ω u + KKcu + i −τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ I⋅ ω u + τ I⋅ 1 + KKcu ω u = 0 + i0 ( ) ( ) KKcu = τ 1 + τ 2 τ I⋅ ω u ωu = ( ) 2 −τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ I⋅ ω u + τ I + τ 1 + τ 2 τ I ⋅ ω u = 0 2 τ 1⋅ τ 2 − τ 1 + τ 2 ⋅ τ I ( 1 ) KKcu = 2π (τ 1 + τ 2)⋅ τ I τ 1⋅ τ 2 − ( τ 1 + τ 2)⋅ τ I ( ( ) 2 2 Tu = 1.8min⋅ τ I 2 ωu = 2π ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 − τ 1 + τ 2 ⋅ τ I 2 ) For the given numerical values: KKcu = Tu = 2π ⋅ 0.8min or τI > τI > = 0. So. the loop is always stable as long as 2 τ 1⋅ τ 2 0.8min⋅ τ I 0. D(s) R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) C(s) G1 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) τ 2 := 0.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .8KKc⋅ 1− 2 1− ζ 4⋅ 0. 25.8s + 1 ) = 0.8⋅ KKc 2 ⋅ 0.2⋅ KKc− 1 DR = e =e − 2π ⋅ ζ − 2π DR KKc := e ( ) 3.8 r2 = 1 − 4 ⋅ 0.8⋅ KKc 2 ⋅ 0.2 5 KKc 10 0 0 5 KKc 10 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.8⋅ KKc Damping ratio: τ = ζ = = ( ) 1 2 ⋅ 0. from Eq.8 These are complex for = 0.5 0 0.8min KKc 2 τ s + 2ζ ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 = 1min 2 ⋅ τ ⋅ KKc −1 − 1 2 ⋅ 0.8 KKc > 1 4 ⋅ 0. THe characteristic equation becomes: KKc⋅ 1 + 1 s =1+ 1+ KKc⋅ ( s + 1 ) s( s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.8⋅ KKc = e 3.2KKc− 1 1.5 1 0.3125 Under these conditions the decay ratio is.(b) Damping ratio and decay ratio with Kc equal to one half the ultimate and τI = 1 min For these values there is no ultimate gain.8 2 1 s + s+1 KKc KKc ζ KKc := 2 Standard secondorder differential equation: 0.4 ζ KKc ( ) DR KKc ( ) 0.18: − 2π − 2⋅ π 1 2⋅ 0.8KKc Roots: r1 = −1 + 1 − 4 ⋅ 0.8s + s + KKc = 0 0.8s + 1 ) 2 2 ( s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.
9 3 Size the control valve for 100% overcapacity. Design of gas flow control loop.444 %TO⋅ hr kscf Transmitter gain: KT := Ksp := KT PI Controller: Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + Let Cf := 0.3: G := M ⋅ lbmole 29lb y := 1. 52.148y fy = 0.9 %TO degF := R kscf := 1000ft 3 psia := psi psig := psi fsset(t) c(t) FT fs(t) p1 p2 FC m(t) T1 := 60degF M := 29 lb lbmole τ v := 0.Smith & Corripio.937 .7psia y = 1. From Eq. Block diagram of the control loop: Fsset(s) Ksp +  E(s) Gc(s) C(s) M(s) Gv(s) KT fsmax := 1.5⋅ fs Fs(s) Size the flow transmitter for 150% of design flow: 100%TO fsmax 1 τ I⋅ s kscf fsmax = 225 hr KT = 0. Design conditions: fs := 150 hr kscf lbmole := 453. 3rd edition Problem 66.63 Cf ⋅ p1 − p2 p 1 + 14.181 fy := y − 0.59mole p 1 := 150psig p 2 := 80psig α := 50 τ I := τ v %CO Kc := 0. The valve is equalpercentage and the controller is PI.06min Assume the pressures and temperatures are constant and that the flow transmitter FT has a builtin squareroot extractor so that the signal c(t) is proportional to the flow f s(t).
026 min So the closedloop responds faster than the valve. 52. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.7psia ⋅ fy ( ( ) ) gal⋅ hr 0. constant pressures.Cvmax := 200 ⋅ %⋅ fs⋅ G⋅ T1 + 460 ⋅ R Cf ⋅ p 1 + 14. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. and has no offset. a 3in Masoneilan valve is the smallest for this service: Cvmax := 110 Valve gain.1.836kscf ⋅ min ⋅ psi R Cvmax = 58. . Eq. p. 532. C10. equalpercentage.87 hr⋅ %CO gal min⋅ psi Closedloop transfer function and time constant of the loop: Ksp ⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + = 1 τ I⋅ s Fs( s) Fs ⋅ ( s) set = Ksp ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) 1 + KT⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ Kv Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s τ v ⋅ s + 1 = 1 τ c⋅ s + 1 With τI = τv Ksp = KT Fs( s) Fs ( s) set = Ksp ⋅ Kc⋅ Kv τ v ⋅ s + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv Closedloop time constant: τ c := τv KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv τ c = 0.24: ln( α ) Kv := f 100%CO s Transfer function of the valve: Gv ( s) = Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 kscf Kv = 5.91 gal min⋅ psi From Fig.
Block diagram of the control loop: Wset(s) Ksp +  E(s) Gc(s) C(s) M(s) Gv(s) KT W(s) Size the flow transmitter for : 100%TO wmax 1 τ I⋅ s %TO⋅ hr lb Transmitter gain: KT := Ksp := KT KT = 0.148y 3 fy = 0.02 PI Controller: Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + Size the control valve for 100% overcapacity.979 Tsat := 292degF From the steam table the saturated steam pressure at: p 1 + 14.8 Assume the pressures and temperatures are constant and that the flow transmitter FT has a builtin squareroot extractor so that the signal c(t) is proportional to the flow w(t). 52.63 Cf ⋅ p1 − p2 p 1 + 14. Steam flow control loop.7 psia .3: G := M ⋅ lbmole 29lb y := 1.Smith & Corripio.319 fy := y − 0. From Eq. Cf := 0. The valve is linear and the controller is PI.5 %TO wset(t) c(t) FT w(t) p1 p2 FC m(t) Tsh := 50degF M := 18 Linear valve. Design conditions: w := 3500 lb hr lb lbmole lbmole := 453.7psia = 59. 3rd edition Problem 67.59mole p 1 := 45psig p 2 := 20psig lb wmax := 5000 hr τ I := τ v %CO Kc := 0.7psia y = 1.
p. 52. What can be adjusted to speedup the response of the closed loop? Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.889 M lbmole hr Cvmax := 200 ⋅ %⋅ fs⋅ G⋅ T1 + 460 ⋅ R Cf ⋅ p 1 + 14.31 hr⋅ %CO Closedloop transfer function and time constant of the loop: Ksp ⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + = 1 τ I⋅ s W( s) W ⋅ ( s) set = Ksp ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) 1 + KT⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ Kv Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s τ v ⋅ s + 1 = 1 τ c⋅ s + 1 With τI = τv Ksp = KT Fs( s) Fs ( s) set = Ksp ⋅ Kc⋅ Kv τ v ⋅ s + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv Closedloop time constant: τ c := τv KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv = 0. linear.836kscf ⋅ min gal⋅ hr ⋅ R psi ⋅ Cvmax⋅ Cf ⋅ p 1 + 14. a 3in Masoneilan valve is the smallest for this service: Cvmax := 110 wvmax := 0.23: wvmax Kv := 100%CO Transfer function of the valve: Gv ( s) = Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 gal min⋅ psi ( ) lb Kv = 91.836kscf ⋅ min gal min⋅ psi From Fig. and has no offset. Eq.1. C10.3 T1 = 342 degF ( ( ) ) 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .380 fs = 73. constant pressures.7psia G⋅ T1 + 460R M ⋅ lbmole fy ⋅ 0.380kscf lb wvmax = 9131 hr Valve gain.7psia ⋅ fy T1 := Tsat + Tsh gal⋅ hr ⋅ psi R Cvmax = 84.913 So the closedloop responds slightly slower than the valve.w kscf kscf fs := ⋅ 0. 532.
. 3rd edition Problem 68. Ultimate gain and period of various process transfer functions.Smith & Corripio. D(s) R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) C(s) Proportional controller: Gc( s) = Kc 4 Characteristic equation: 1 + Kc⋅ G1 ( s) = 0 (a) G1 ( s) = 1 ( s + 1) 4 ( s + 1 ) + Kc = 0 4 3 s + 4s + 6s + 4s + 1 + Kc = 0 2 4 3 2 Substitute s = iωu at Kc = K cu : Imaginary part: Real part: 4 3 ω u − 4ω u i − 6ω u + 4ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kcu = 0 + 0i ω u := 1min −1 −4 ω u + 4ω u = 0 2 Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 6.28 min %CO Kcu = 4 %TO ω u − 6ω u + 1 + Kcu = 0 Kcu := − ω u ⋅ min ( )4 + 6min2⋅ (ω u)2 − 1 (b) G1 ( s) = 1 ( s + 1) 2 ( s + 1 ) + Kc = 0 2 s + 2s + 1 + Kc = 0 2 Substitute s = iωu at Kc = K cu : Imaginary part: Real part: 2ω u = 0 −ω u + 2ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kcu = 0 + 0i ω u := 0 (There is no ultimate gain) %CO Kcu := −1 %TO 2 −ω u + 1 + Kcu = 0 2 The loop becomes monotonically unstable when the controller gain is less than 1%CO/%TO.
22ω u + 1 + Kcu = 0 Kcu := 1. + 4.5 = 0 Kcu := 14min ⋅ ω u − 1 2 2 2 2 3 ( ) ω u := 6.5Kcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kcu = 0 + 0i Kcu = 14ω u − 1 2 ( ) −14ω u + 1 + Kcu = 0 −8 ω u + 7 + 0.72 min %CO Kcu = 11.46 min (e) 1 G1 ( s) = ( 4s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.08ω u i − 1.3ω u = 0 −1.(c) 1 G1 ( s) = ( 4s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 2 ⋅ s + 1 ) ⋅ ( s + 1 ) Substitute s = iωu at Kc = K cu : Imaginary part: −8 ω u + 7ω u = 0 2 3 8s + 14s + 7s + 1 + Kc = 0 −8 ω u i − 14ω u + 7ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kcu = 0 + 0i ω u := 7 8 min −1 3 2 3 2 Tu := 2 2π ωu Tu = 6.1s + 1 ) Substitute s = iωu at Kc = K cu : Imaginary part: Real part: 3 0.5Kc s + 1 + Kc = 0 2 3 2 ( ) −8 ω u i − 14ω u + 7 + 0.22ω u + 4.22min ω u − 1 2 2 2 Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 0.2s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.3 0.3ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kcu = 0 + 0i ω u := 4.25 %TO Real part: −14ω u + 1 + Kcu = 0 Kcu := 14min ω u − 1 2 (d) 0.6 %TO .5s + 1 G1 ( s) = ( 4s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 2s + 1 ) ⋅ ( s + 1 ) Substitute s = iωu at Kc = K cu : Real part: Imaginary part: 2 3 8s + 14s + 7 + 0.22s + 4.08 min −1 −0.08s + 1.5Kcu ω u = 0 −8 ω u + 7 + 7ω u − 0.857 min %CO Kcu = 64.5 min %CO −1 Tu := 2π ωu Kcu = 90 %TO Tu = 2.08ω u.3s + 1 + Kc = 0 3 2 3 2 −0.
8ω u + 6.3 %TO 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) Real part: −1.6s =0 Padé approximation: e − 0.3 − 0.3 − 0.3 − 0.3Kc s + 1 + Kc = 0 Substitute s = iωu at Kc = K cu : Imaginary part: −1.8 min −1 Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 1.3 %CO 6.3Kcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kcu = 0 + 0i 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.797 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .(f) e G1 ( s) = 6s + 1 − 0.3Kcu ω u = 0 Kcu := Kcu = 21 0.6s = 1 − 0.6s 6s + 1 + Kc⋅ e − 0.8s + 6.8ω u + 1 + Kcu = 0 2 ω u := 1 + Kcu 1.3s 1 + 0.3s 1.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 69. Ultimate gain and period with integral controller.
D(s) R(s) + E(s)

G2(s) G1(s)
+ +
Gc(s)
M(s)
C(s)
Integral controller:
KI Gc( s) = s 1
5 4 4
Characteristic equation:
3 2
1+
KI s
G1 ( s) = 0
(a)
G1 ( s) =
( s + 1)
s + 4s + 6s + 4s + s + KI = 0
5 4 3 2
Substitute s = iωu at KI = K Iu: Imaginary part: 6+
2 5 3
ω u i + 4ω u − 6ω u i − 4ω u + ω u ⋅ i + KIu = 0 + 0i
ω u − 6ω u + ω u = 0 6 −4
2 4
ω u :=
2min
ω u = 2.414 min
3
−1
ω u :=
6−
6 −4
2 4
2
2min
3
ω u = 0.414 min
2
−1
Real part:
4 ⋅ ω u − 4ω u + KIu = 0
KIu := −4 min ⋅ ω u + 4min⋅ ω u KIu = 0.569 %TO⋅ min %CO
Tu :=
2π ωu
Tu = 15.17 min
Must use the smaller ultimate frequency, as the ultimate gain for the other value is negative.
(b)
G1 ( s) =
1 ( s + 1)
2
s + 2s + s + KI = 0 −ω u i − 2ω u + ω u ⋅ i + KIu = 0 + 0i 3 2π −1 −ω u + ω u = 0 ω u := 1min Tu := Tu = 6.28 min ωu
2 3 2
3
2
Substitute s = iωu at KI = K Iu: Imaginary part:
Real part:
−2 ω u + KIu = 0
KIu := 2minω u
2
%CO KIu = 2 %TO⋅ min
(c)
1 G1 ( s) = ( 4s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 2s + 1 ) ⋅ ( s + 1 ) Substitute s = iωu at KI = K Iu: Imaginary part:
3 4
8s + 14s + 7s + s + KIu = 0
3 2
4
3
2
8ω u − 14ω u i − 7ω u + ω u ⋅ i + KIu = 0 + 0i ω u := 1 14
3
−14ω u + ω u = 0
min
−1
Tu :=
2π ωu
Tu = 23.51 min
Real part:
8ω u − 7ω u + KIu = 0 KIu := −8 min ⋅ ω u + 7min⋅ ω u
4
2
4
2
%CO KIu = 0.459 %TO⋅ min
(d)
0.5s + 1 G1 ( s) = ( 4s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 2s + 1 ) ⋅ ( s + 1 ) Substitute s = iωu at KI = K Iu: Real part: Imaginary part:
4 4
8s + 14s + 7s + 1 + 0.5KI s + KI = 0
3 2
4
3
2
(
)
8ω u − 14ω u i − 7ω u + 1 + 0.5⋅ KIu ω u ⋅ i + KIu = 0 + 0i
2
(
)
8ω u − 7ω u + KIu = 0
3 4
KIu = −8 ω u + 7ω u
2
4
2 4 2
−14ω u + 1 − 4ω u + 3.5ω u ω u := 10.5 −
2
ωu = 0
Tu :=
−4 ω u − 10.5ω u + 1 = 0 2π ωu Tu = 20.71 min
10.5 − 4 ⋅ ( −4 )
2
2 ⋅ ( −4 ) min
3 4
KIu := −8 min ⋅ ω u + 7min⋅ ω u
2
%CO KIu = 0.576 %TO⋅ min
(e)
1 G1 ( s) = ( 4s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.2s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 0.1s + 1 ) Substitute s = iωu at KI = K Iu: Imaginary part:
3 4
0.08s + 1.22s + 4.3s + s + KI = 0
3 2
4
3
2
0.08ω u − 1.22ω u i − 4.3ω u + ω u ⋅ i + KIu = 0 + 0i ω u := 1 1.22 min
−1
−1.22ω u + ω u = 0
4 2
Tu :=
3 4
2π ωu
Tu = 6.94 min
2
Real part:
0.08ω u − 4.3ω u + KIu = 0
KIu := −0.08min ⋅ ω u + 4.3min⋅ ω u
%CO KIu = 3.47 %TO⋅ min
(f)
e G1 ( s) = 6s + 1
− 0.6s
6s + s + KI⋅ e
3 2
2
− 0.6s
=0
Padé approximation:
e
− 0.6s
=
1 − 0.3s 1 + 0.3s
1.8s + 6.3s + 1 − 0.3KI s + KI = 0
3 2
(
)
Substitute s = iωu at KI = K Iu: Real part: Imaginary part:
2 3
−1.8ω u i − 6.3ω u + 1 − 0.3KIu ω u ⋅ i + KIu = 0 + 0i KIu = 6.3ω u
2 2
(
)
−6.3ω u + KIu = 0 −1.8ω u + 1 − 1.89ω u KIu := 6.3min⋅ ω u
2
ωu = 0
ω u :=
1 3.69
min
−1
Tu :=
2π ωu
%CO KIu = 1.707 %TO⋅ min
Tu = 12.07 min
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 610. Openloop unstable process and proportional controller.
D(s) R(s) + E(s)

G2(s) G1(s)
+ +
Gc(s)
M(s)
C(s)
Gc( s) = Kc
G1 ( s) =
( τs − 1) ⋅ (τ v⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ T⋅ s + 1)
K
τ := 5min
Charatcteristic equation of the loop:
(τ ⋅ s − 1 )⋅ ( τ v⋅ s + 1 )⋅ ( τ T⋅ s + 1) + KKc = 0
τ T := 0 1 − KKc
(a) Negligible valve and transmitter time constants: τ v := 0
τ ⋅ s − 1 + KKc = 0 %CO The loop is stable for KKc > 1 %TO τ (negative real root) Root: r=
(b) Negligible valve time constant,
2
τ T := 1min
τ ⋅ τ T⋅ s + τ − τ T s − 1 + KKc = 0 − τ − τT +
(
)
Dominant root:
r1 =
2
(
)
(τ − τ T)2 − 4τ ⋅ τ T⋅ (−1 + KKc)
2⋅ τ ⋅ τ T
The radical is:
τ − 2τ ⋅ τ T + τ T + 4τ ⋅ τ T − 4τ ⋅ τ T⋅ KKc = τ + τ T KKc
2
(
)2 − 4τ ⋅ τ T⋅ KKc
%TO
The roots are real as long as:
( τ + τ T) 2 ≤
4⋅ τ ⋅ τ T
(τ + τ T)2 = 1.8 %CO
4τ ⋅ τ T
The dominant root is negative when:
(τ + τ T)2 − 4τ ⋅ τ T⋅ KKc < τ − τ T
(τ + τ T)2 − 4τ ⋅ τ T⋅ KKc < (τ − τ T)2
τ + 2τ ⋅ τ T + τ T − τ + 2τ ⋅ τ T − τ T < 4τ ⋅ τ T⋅ KKc So, the loop is stable for: KKc > 1 %CO %TO − τ − τT 2τ ⋅ τ T
2 2 2 2
Note: When the roots are complex, the real part is negative:
(
) = −0.4 min− 1
(c)
τ v := 0.1min
τ T := 1.0min
3
Characteristic equation: τ ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ T⋅ s + τ ⋅ τ v + τ ⋅ τ T − τ v ⋅ τ T s + τ − τ v − τ T s − 1 + KKc = 0 Substitute s = ωi at KKc = KKcu : −τ ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ T⋅ ω u i − τ ⋅ τ v + τ ⋅ τ T − τ v ⋅ τ T ω u + τ − τ v − τ T ω u ⋅ i − 1 + KKcu = 0 + 0i Imaginary part: −τ ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ T⋅ ω u + τ − τ v − τ T ω u = 0
3 3
(
)2 (
)
(
)
2
(
)
(
)
ω u :=
τ − τv − τT τ ⋅ τ v⋅ τ T
Tu :=
2π ωu
Real part:
− τ ⋅ τ v + τ ⋅ τ T − τ v ⋅ τ T ω u − 1 + KKcu = 0 KKcu := 1 + τ ⋅ τ v + τ ⋅ τ T − τ v ⋅ τ T ω u
(
)
2
Tu = 2.25 min KKcu = 43.1 %CO %TO
(
)
2
Now, the response is unstable also for KK c < 1: KKc := 1 −1 + KKc ( τ − τ v − τ c) min− 1 −10.037 = −0.963 polyroots τ ⋅ τ + τ ⋅ τ ⋅ min− 2 T) ( v 0 − 3 ( τ ⋅ τ v⋅ τ T) ⋅ min
Root at zero, integrating response
KKc := 0.99
−1 + KKc ( τ − τ v − τ c) min− 1 −10.036 Positive root, unstable = −0.966 response polyroots ( τ ⋅ τ + τ ⋅ τ ) ⋅ min− 2 −3 T v 2.064 × 10 − 3 ( τ ⋅ τ v⋅ τ T) ⋅ min
KKc := 1.01
−1 + KKc Negative real roots, stable ( τ − τ v − τ c) min− 1 −10.037 response = −0.961 polyroots ( τ ⋅ τ + τ ⋅ τ ) ⋅ min− 2 −2.073 × 10− 3 T v τ ⋅ τ ⋅ τ ⋅ min− 3 ( v T) 1 %CO %TO < KKc < 43.1 %CO %TO
So the range of the gain for which the response is stable is:
Notice that for all three cases there is a lower limit on the loop gain for which the response is stable. This means the response is unstable when the feedback controller is on manual, KK c = 0.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 611. Analyzer control loop for blender of Problem 318.
Problem parameters: V := 40m
3 3
c1b := 80 c2b := 30
kg m
3
c set(t)
AC
fb := 4.0 min cb := 50 kg m
3
m
kg m
3
m(t) f1(t) c 1(t) f2(t) c 2(t) V
AT
Linear control valve sized for 100% overcapacity. τ v := 0.1min Transmitter: cmin := 20 kg m
3
∆p v := 5psi τ T := 3min cmax := 70 kg m
3
c(t) f(t)
Disturbance:
m ∆f1 := 0.1 min
3
Use subscript "b" to denote base values for linearization.
From the solution top Problem 318, ignoring the inlet concentration disturbances for simplicity:
F1(s) Cset(s)
G1(s)
Ksp
+
E(s)
M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s)
F2(s)
+
G2(s)
C(s)

+
Gc( s) = Kc
Gv ( s) =
Kv τ v⋅ s + 1
H( s) =
KT τ T⋅ s + 1
3
G1 ( s) =
3
K1 τ ⋅s + 1 τ := V
G2 ( s) =
K2 τ ⋅s + 1
From the solution to Problem 318:
m f1b := 1.6 min
m f2b := 2.4 min
f1b + f2b
τ = 10 min
c1b − cb K1 := f1b + f2b
c2b − cb K2 := f1b + f2b ⋅ 1 ∆p v
K1 = 7.5
kg min m
3
m
3
K2 = −5
kg min m
3
m
3
Control valve:
Cvmax :=
200 ⋅ %⋅ f2b⋅ gal 3.785 ⋅ 10
−3 3
m
Cvmax = 567
gal min⋅ psi
0.5
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, an 8in valve is the smallest with enough capacity: Cvmax := 640 3.785 ⋅ 10
−3
gal min⋅ psi
0.5
f2max := Cvmax⋅ ∆p v ⋅
⋅m
3
gal m f2max = 5.417 min
3
f2max Kv := 100%CO
m Kv = 0.054 min⋅ %CO
3
Valve fails closed (airtoopen), to prevent overflowing the tank.
Transmitter:
100 ⋅ %TO KT := cmax − cmin
Ksp := KT Ksp ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ G2 ( s) ⋅ C
set
KT = 2
%TO⋅ m kg
3
Closedloop transfer function:: Characteristic equation:
3
C( s) =
⋅ ( s) + G1 ( s) ⋅ F1 ( s)
1 + H( s) Gc( s) Gv ( s) G2 ( s) KT ⋅ Kc⋅ Kv K2 =0
1+
τ T⋅ s + 1
τ v.⋅ s + 1 τ ⋅ s + 1
τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ s + τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ s + τ T + τ v + τ s + 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K2 = 0 Let K := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K2 K = −0.542
(
)
2
(
)
Substitute s = ωu i at KKc = KKcu : −τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ ω u i − τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ω u + τ T + τ v + τ ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KKcu = 0 + 0i Imaginary part: −τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ ω u + τ T + τ v + τ ω u = 0
3 3
(
)
2
(
)
(
)
ω u :=
τT + τv + τ τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ
Tu :=
2π ωu
Real part:
− τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ω u + 1 + KKcu = 0
(
)
2
Tu = 3.01 min %CO Kcu = −250 %TO
Kcu :=
( τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ) ω u 2 − 1
K
Directacting controller, because the dilute stream has a negative gain on the product composition.
Offset:
F1 ( s) =
∆f1 s
set
C
set
( s) = 0
Kc :=
Kcu 2
%CO Kc = −125 %TO
E( s) = Ksp ⋅ C
( s) − H( s) ⋅ C( s) = −H( s) ⋅ C( s)
By the finalvalue theorem: K1 −KT ∆f1 ⋅ ⋅ τ T⋅ s + 1 τ ⋅ s + 1 s −KT⋅ K1 ⋅ ∆f1 Offset = lim s⋅ = KT Kv K2 s→0 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K2 1+ ⋅ Kc⋅ τ T⋅ s + 1 τ v⋅ s + 1 τ s + 1 −KT K1 ⋅ ∆f1 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K2
= −0.022 %TO
Although not asked in the problem, let us determine the roots of the characteristic equation: 1 + K⋅ Kc ( τ T + τ v + τ ) min− 1 −10.226 = −0.104 + 1.494i polyroots ( τ ⋅ τ + τ ⋅ τ + τ ⋅ τ ) min− 2 v T v T −0.104 − 1.494i −3 τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ min Decay ratio: Settling time: Response is stable and the dominant roots are complex conjugate. The period of oscillation is: T := 2π 1.494min T = 4.21 min e
− 0.104 min
−1
−1
T
= 0.646
−5 −0.104 min
−1
= 48.08 min
This is a highly oscillatory response, with 11 cycles before it settles. Students should be encouraged to study which controller gain actually gives quarter decay ratio. Compare the results with the simulation of Problem 1311.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 612. Temperature control of nonisothermal reactor of Section 42.3 by manipulation of coolant flow to the jacket.
Control Valve: equalpercentage, negligible time constant. α := 50 Transmitter: negligible time constant. Tmin := 640R ft fcp := 0.8771 min (use subscript "p" to denote base values for linearization)
3
Tset(t) f(t) cAi(t) Ti(t) fc(t) Tci m(t)
TC TT
Tmax := 700R
Tc(t) V
c A(t) T(t)
Block diagram, from Section 42.3, ignoring disturbances for simplicity:
F(s) Tset(s)
GF(s)
Ksp
+
E(s)
M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s)
Fc(s)
+
G(s)
T(s)

+
Ksp = KT G( s) =
Gc( s) = Kc
Gv ( s) = Kv
H( s) = KT (Eq. 42.41)
GF( s) =
31.79 ⋅ ( 0.976 ⋅ s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 1 − 2.77⋅ s) 26.27s + 36.31s + 10.14s + 1 (Eq. 42.39)
3 2
−35.77 ( 2.07s + 1 ) 26.27s + 36.31s + 10.14s + 1
3 2
Control valve gain, Eq. 52.24, p. 171:
−ln( α ) fcp Kv := 100%CO
ft Kv = −0.034 min⋅ %CO
3
The control valve fails opened (airtoclose) to prevent overheating the reactor on loss of power. This is why its gain is negative. 100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin −35.77 ⋅ ( 2.07⋅ s + 1 ) 26.27s + 36.31s + 10.14s + 1 K = 2.046 %TO %CO
3 2
Transmitter gain:
KT = 1.667
%TO R
Characteristic equation of the loop:
1 + Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KT⋅
=0
Let
K := −35.77
R⋅ min ft
3
⋅ Kv ⋅ KT
Rearrange and substitute s = ωu i at KKc = KKcu :
3 2
The positive K requires a positive K c, that is, a reverseacting controller.
−26.27 ω u i − 36.31ω u + 10.14 + 2.07⋅ KKcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KKcu = 0 + 0i Real part: Imaginary part: −36.31 ω u + 1 + KKcu = 0 −26.27 ω u + 10.14 + 2.07KKcu ω u = 0 ω u := 10.14 − 2.07 26.27 − 2.07⋅ 36.31 min
3 2
(
)
KKcu = 36.31ω u − 1
2
(
)
10.14 − 2.07 = ( 26.27 − 2.07⋅ 36.31 )ω u
−1
2
ω u = 0.406i min
−1
The ultimate frequency cannot be an imaginary number. This means that there is no ultimate gain and period for this loop. The reason is the G(s) has a net order of 2one zero and three polesand there are no additional lags for the valve and the transmitter. So, the loop cannot be made unstable with a proportional controller of positive gain.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 613. Temperature control of nonisothermal reactor of Section 42.3 by manipulation of the reactants flow.
Control Valve: linear, sized for 100% overcapacity, negligible time constant. Assume ∆p v := 5psi Transmitter: negligible time constant. Tmin := 640R ft fp := 1.3364 min (use subscript "p" to denote base values for linearization)
3
Tset(t) f(t) cAi(t) Ti(t) fc(t) Tci m(t)
TC TT
Tmax := 700R
Tc(t) V
c A(t) T(t)
Block diagram, from Section 42.3, ignoring disturbances for simplicity:
Tset(s) Ksp
+
E(s)
Gc(s)
M(s)
Gv(s)
F(s) Fc(s)
GF(s)

+
G(s)
T(s)
+
H(s)
Ksp = KT G( s) = Gc( s) = Kc Gv ( s) = Kv H( s) = KT (Eq. 42.41) GF( s) = 31.79 ⋅ ( 0.976 ⋅ s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 1 − 2.77⋅ s) 26.27s + 36.31s + 10.14s + 1 (Eq. 42.39)
3 2
−35.77 ( 2.07s + 1 ) 26.27s + 36.31s + 10.14s + 1
3 2
Control valve size:
Cvmax :=
200%⋅ fp 7.48gal ∆p v ft
3
Cvmax = 8.941
gal min⋅ psi gal fmax := Cvmax⋅ ∆p v
From Fig. C10.1, p. 532, a ½in valve is required: Cvmax := 11
min⋅ psi
Control valve gain, Eq. 52.23, p. 171:
Kv := 100%CO
fmax
Kv = 0.033 min⋅ %CO
ft
3
The control valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the reactor on loss of power.
Transmitter gain:
100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin
KT = 1.667
%TO R
Characteristic equation of the loop:
1 + Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KT⋅
31.79 ⋅ ( 0.976 ⋅ s + 1 ) ⋅ ( 1 − 2.77s) 26.27s + 36.31s + 10.14s + 1
3 2
=0
Let
K := 31.79
R⋅ min ft
3
⋅ Kv ⋅ KT
K = 1.742
%TO %CO
Rearrange and substitute s = ωu i at KKc = KKcu :
3 2
The positive K requires a positive K c, that is, a reverseacting controller.
−26.27 ω u i − 36.31 + 0.976 ( −2.77) KKcu ω u + 10.14 + ( 0.976 − 2.77) ⋅ KKcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KKcu = 0 Real part: − 36.31 + 0.976 ( −2.77) KKcu ω u + 1 + KKcu = 0
2
KKcu =
36.31ω u − 1 1 − 0.976 ( −2.77) ω u
2
2
Imaginary part:
−26.27 ω u + 10.14 + ( 0.976 − 2.77)KKcu ω u = 0
3
0.976 − 2.77 = −1.794 0.976 ( −2.77) = −2.704
−26.27 ω u + 10.14 + ( −1.794 )
4
2
36.31ω u − 1 1 − ( −2.704 )ω u
2
2
=0
−26.27 ⋅ ( 2.704 ) ω u + [ −26.27 + 10.14 ( 2.704 ) + ( −1.794 )36.31 ]ω u + ( 10.14 + 1.794 ) = 0 −26.27 ( 2.704 ) = −71.034 −26.27 + 10.14 ( 2.704 ) + ( −1.794 )36.31 = −63.992 −71.034ω u − 63.992ω u + 11.934 = 0
4 2
2
10.14 + 1.794 = 11.934
992 − 63.91 %TO The reason there is an ultimate gain in this case and not when the cooling water is manipulated (Problem 612) is the inverse response of the temperature to the reactants flow (negative zero in the transfer function).ω u := 63. K := 1.31min ω u − 1 1 + 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.034) min 2 2 Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 15.78 min Kcu := K 1 36. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.992 − 4 ⋅ ( −71.8R .934) 2 ( −71.034) ( 11.704min ω u 2 2 2 2 %CO Kcu = 1.
f4 := f3 + f2 x 4 := f3 ⋅ x 3 + f2 ⋅ x 2 f4 gal f4 = 3400 min gal f2 := 1000 min f5 ⋅ x 5 f3 x 2 := 99% f3 := f1 + f5 x 3 := x 4 = 40. 3rd edition Problem 614.Smith & Corripio. m(t) x6set(t) AC AT V x6(t) f1(t) V f3(t) x3(t) f2(t) x2(t) V f4(t) x4(t) f7(t) x7(t) f6(t) f5(t) x5(t) Block diagram. constant density.667 % . Analyzer control of three mixing tanks of Problem 43.882 % gal f3 = 2400 min x 3 = 16. considering only f 1 (t) anf f2 (t) as input variables: F2(s) X6set(s) G2(s) Ksp + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s) F1(s) + G1(s) X6(s)  + gal Problem parameters (Table P41): V := 7000gal f1 := 1900 min gal gal f5 := 500 x 5 := 80% f7 := 500 x 7 := 90% min min Assume perfectly mixed tanks.
122 × 10 τ 2 = 2. 52.059 min τ 3 = 1. p.944 × 10 − 3 %⋅ min K8 = 0. constant pressure drop. Gv ( s) = Kv ln( 50) Kv := f 100%CO 1 (Eq.f6 := f4 + f7 x 6 := f4 ⋅ x 4 + f7 ⋅ x 7 f6 gal f6 = 3900 min x 6 = 47. %TO KT = 2. 30 to 70% range: H( s) = KT Proportional controller: 100%TO KT := ( 70 − 30)% Gc( s) = Kc The valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the tanks on loss of power.3 min⋅ %CO Analyzer Transmitter: negligible lag.917 min K5 = 7.795 min K6 = 0.24. 171) gal Kv = 74. α = 50.179 % Control valve: Equalpercentage valve.706 − 3 %⋅ min gal gal K7 = 1.615 × 10 − 3 %⋅ min gal Eliminate X3 (s) and X4 (s): X4 ( s) = −K2 ⋅ K3 − K5 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 (τ 1⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ( ( ) F (s) + 1 K8 τ 2⋅ s + 1 F2 ( s) X6 ( s) = G1 ( s) ⋅ F1 ( s) + G2 ( s) ⋅ F2 ( s) G1 ( s) = K6 ⋅ −K2 ⋅ K3 − K5 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 ) − K7⋅ (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 3⋅ s + 1) ( ) G2 ( s) = K6 ⋅ K8 − K7 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 3⋅ s + 1) . negligible time constant.5 % Process Transfer Functions: From the soution to Problem 43: X6 ( s) = X4 ( s) = 1 τ 3⋅ s + 1 1 τ 2⋅ s + 1 −K2 τ 1⋅ s + 1 K7 := (K6⋅ X4(s) − K7⋅ F1( s) − K7⋅ F2(s)) (K3⋅ X3(s) − K5⋅ F1( s) + K8⋅ F2(s)) F1 ( s) (where we have added F2 (s) as an input variable) f3 K3 := f4 x4 − x3 f4 x3 K2 := f3 %⋅ min gal X3 ( s) = τ 1 := K8 := V τ 2 := V f4 τ 3 := V f6 f4 K6 := f6 x6 − x4 f6 f3 x2 − x4 f4 K5 := τ 1 = 2.017 K3 = 0.872 K2 = 6.
778 min 3 ( ) 2 ( ) τ B = 14.248 Substitute s = ωu i at Kc = K.802 min 2 2 ( ( ) ( ) KB := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K6 ⋅ K5 ⋅ τ 1 + K7 ⋅ τ 1 + τ 2 τ A = 10.13 min c = 10.595i min The complex ultimate frequency mens that there is no ultimate gain.Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 + H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ G ( s) ⋅ G1 ( s) = 0 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K6 ⋅ −K2 ⋅ K3 − K5 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 ) − K7⋅ (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) = 0 (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 3⋅ s + 1) )2 ( τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ 3 ⋅ s + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 3 + τ 2 ⋅ τ 3 − K7 ⋅ KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 s + + τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 − K6 ⋅ K5 ⋅ KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ τ 1 − K7 ⋅ KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ τ 1 + τ 2 s + + 1 − K6 ⋅ K2 ⋅ K3 + K5 + K7 ⋅ KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv = 0 Let τ A := τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ 3 τ B := τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 3 + τ 2 ⋅ τ 3 τ C := τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 KA := K7 ⋅ KT⋅ Kv ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 KC := K6 ⋅ K2 ⋅ K3 + K5 + K7 ⋅ KT⋅ Kv τ C = 6.361 min ω u = 0.cu : −τ A⋅ ω u i − τ B − KA⋅ Kcu ω u + τ C − KB⋅ Kcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 − KC⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0i Real part: − τ B − KA⋅ Kcu ω u + 1 − KC⋅ Kcu = 0 3 3 ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 2 −Kcu = τ B⋅ ω u − 1 KC − KA⋅ ω u 2 2 2 τ B⋅ ω u − 1 Imaginary part: −τ A⋅ ω u + τ C + KB⋅ ωu = 0 2 − KA⋅ ω u KC 4 KA⋅ τ A⋅ ω u + −τ A⋅ KC + KB⋅ τ B − KA⋅ τ C ω u + KC⋅ τ C − KB = 0 Let a := KA⋅ τ A b := −τ A⋅ KC + KB⋅ τ B − KA⋅ τ C a = 19.935 min KB = 4.77 min KA = 1. This dilutes the solution and brings the concentration down. The process is stable for all negative Kc (directacting controller): increasing concentration increases controller output.419 min ω u := −b + b − 4 ⋅ a⋅ c 2⋅ a 2 5 ( ) 2 c := KC⋅ τ C − KB 3 −1 b = 36. .858 min KC = 2. opening the valve and increasing the flow of pure water.
however small.528i −3 τ A⋅ min %CO Kc := −100 %TO Roots of the characteristic equation: Negative real root and complex conjugate roots with negative real parts.593 −3 τ A⋅ min Negative real roots.59 = −0.105 A c B −0. So.183 = −2.Test: %CO Kc := −1 %TO Roots of the characteristic equation: 1 − KC⋅ Kc ( τ C − KB⋅ Kc) min− 1 −0. Loop is stable. the loop cannot be made unstable with a proportional controller. In practice there will be some lags in the valve and transmitter. Loop is stable.593 −3 τ A⋅ min %CO Kc := −10000 %TO Roots of the characteristic equation: Negative real roots.481 + 0. 1 − KC⋅ Kc ( τ C − KB⋅ Kc) min− 1 −1. 1 − KC⋅ Kc ( τ C − KB⋅ Kc) min− 1 −15. with negligible valve and transmitter lags. This is a more realistic situation and did result in an ultimate gain and period.67 × 103 = polyroots ( τ − K ⋅ K ) min− 2 −2. Note: In the second edition of this text the analyzer transmitter was specified to have a dead time of 2 min. Loop is stable.528i polyroots ( τ − K ⋅ K ) min− 2 A c B −0. The reason there is no ultimate gain is that the transfer function of the process in the loop has a net order of one (three poles and two zeros).013 min⋅ % gal G2 ( 0 ) = KG2 . and this will impose a limit on the controller gain.481 − 0. Offset for an increase of 10 gal/min in flow f2: Offset = Ksp ⋅ ∆x 6 gal ∆f2 := 10 min set G2 ( 0 ) − KT⋅ ∆x 6 = 0 − KT⋅ ∆f 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ G1 ( 0 ) 2 KG2 := K6 ⋅ K8 − K7 KG2 = 0.326 polyroots ( τ − K ⋅ K ) min− 2 A c B −0.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.002 0. Let X = Kc 0 Offset( X ) 0.332 %TO ( ) KG2 For a PI controller the offset is zero.012 ( ) min⋅ % gal Offset Kc := −KT⋅ ∆f 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KG1 2 For Kc = 1 %CO/%TO: Openloop offset (Kc = 0): Offset( −1 ) = −0. .004 10 5 X 0 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.102 %TO Offset( 0 ) = −0.G1 ( 0 ) = KG1 KG1 := K6 ⋅ −K2 ⋅ K3 − K5 − K7 KG1 = −0.
5min KT := %TO⋅ ft KT = 20 lbmole 3 V2 := V1 cA0 := 7 lbmole ft 3 k 1 := 0. 3rd edition Problem 615.2min k 2 := k 1 ft f0 := 10 min f1 := f0 + fR ft fR := 0 min 3 . Analyzer control of reactors in series of Problem 49.Smith & Corripio. m(t) cA2set(t) AC AT V2 cA2(t) f0(t) cA0(t) f1 (t) V1 cA1(t) fR Block diagram: CA0(s) CA2set(s) Ksp G2(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s) F0(s) + G1(s) CA2(s)  + Proportional controller: Gc( s) = Kc KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Control valve: Gv ( s) = Kv 100 ⋅ %TO⋅ ft 5lbmole −1 3 3 Transmitter: Problem data: V1 := 125ft 3 H( s) = τ T := 0.
C10.329 min⋅ %CO 3 Cvmax = 66.48gal f0max Kv := 100%CO The valve fails closed (airtoopen) so as not to overflow the reactor on power failure. 532.041 lbmole⋅ min ft 6 Substitute to eliminate CA1(s): CA2( s) = K3 (K1⋅ CA0(s) + K4⋅ F0( s) + K2⋅ CA2( s) ) + (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 1⋅ s + 1) K5 τ 2⋅ s + 1 F0 ( s) = K1 ⋅ K3 ⋅ CA0( s) + K3 ⋅ K4 + K5 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 ⋅ F0 ( s) (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K2⋅ K3 ( ) . p.143 lbmole⋅ min ft 6 CA2( s) = τ 2⋅ s + 1 cA1 − cA2 K5 := f1 + k 2 ⋅ V2 K5 = 0.286 CA1( s) = τ1 (K1⋅ CA0(s) + K4 F0( s) + K2⋅ CA2( s) ) ⋅s + 1 K3 CA1( s) + K5 τ 2⋅ s + 1 F0 ( s) 1 cA0 − cA1 K4 := f1 + k 1 ⋅ V1 K4 = 0. assume Cvmax := 200%⋅ f0 ⋅ 7.1.571 min f0 K1 := f1 + k 1 ⋅ V1 f1 K3 := f1 + k 2 ⋅ V2 K1 = 0.48gal ft ⋅ ∆p v 3 ∆p v := 5psi gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ psi ft Kv = 0. Process transfer functions from the solution to Problem 49: G2 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K2⋅ K3 fR K2 := f1 + k 1 ⋅ V1 K1 ⋅ K3 τ 1 := V1 f1 + k 1 ⋅ V1 τ 2 := V2 f1 + k 2 ⋅ V2 τ 1 = 3.286 K2 = 0 K3 = 0.At the initial steady state: (f1 + k1⋅ V1)⋅ cA1 = f0⋅ cAo + fR⋅ cA2 cA1 := f0 ⋅ cA0 fR⋅ f1 f1 + k 1 ⋅ V1 − f1 + k 2 ⋅ V2 cA1 = 2 (f1 + k2⋅ V2)cA2 = f1⋅ cA1 cA2 := f1 ⋅ cA1 f1 + k 2 ⋅ V2 lbmole ft 3 cA2 = 0.571 min τ 2 = 3. a 3in valve is needed: 3 ft f0max := Cvmax⋅ ∆p v 7.571 lbmole ft 3 Control valve gain: linear sized for 100% overcapacity.903 Cvmax := 110 From Fig.
Offset for an increase of 1 lbmole/ft3 in inlet reactant cncentration.378 min K3 ⋅ K4 = 0. Offset = Ksp ⋅ ∆cA2 set − KT⋅ ∆cA2 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ G1 ( 0 ) = 0 − KT G2 ( 0 ) ∆cA0 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ G1 ( 0 ) .959 min τ C := τ T + τ 1 + τ 2 − K2 ⋅ K3 ⋅ τ T ( )2 ( ) ( ) τ D := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K5 ⋅ τ 1 τ C = 7.537 lbmole⋅ min ft Substitute s = ωu i at Kc = K cu : −τ A⋅ ω u i − τ B⋅ ω u + τ C + τ D⋅ Kcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0i Real part: −τ B⋅ ω u + 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 3 2 3 2 ( ) Kcu = τ B⋅ ω u − 1 + K2 ⋅ K3 KL 2 2 τ B⋅ ω u − 1 + K2 ⋅ K3 Imaginary part: −τ A⋅ ω u + τ C + τ D⋅ ωu = 0 KL ω u := KL⋅ τ C − τ D⋅ 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 KL⋅ τ A − τ D⋅ τ B ( ) ω u = 0.CA2( s) K3 ⋅ K4 + K5 τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 G1 ( s) = = F0 ( s) τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 ( )( ( ) ) Charactetristic equation of the loop: 3 1+ KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ G1 ( s) = 0 τ T⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 s + τ T + τ 1 + τ 2 − K2 ⋅ K3 ⋅ τ T + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K5 ⋅ τ 1 s + 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 ⋅ K4 + K5 = 0 Let τ A := τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ T τ B := τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 KL := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 ⋅ K4 + K5 τ D = 0.507i min −1 The imaginary value of the ultimate gain means that there is no ultimate gain.327 min 6 2 KL = 0.041 3 τ B = 16. The reason is that the net order of the transfer function G1 (s) is one (two poles and one zero). This decreases the flow of reactants and decreases the concentration. With an additional lag in the transmitter.643 min ( ) τ A = 6. not enough lags to produce instability with a proportional controller. the total order of the transfer function is two. The loop is stable for all positive values of the controller gain. The controller gain is positive (reverse action): an increase in composition decreases the controller output.
01 0. 0 Let X = Kc Offset( X) 0.082 KG2 Offset Kc := −KT⋅ ∆c 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KG1 A0 ( ) For Kc = 1 %CO/%TO: Openloop offset (Kc = 0): Offset( 1 ) = −1.633 %TO For a PI controller the offset is zero. Compare these results with the simulation of this process in Problem 1316.∆cA0 := 1 lbmole ft 3 G2 ( 0 ) = KG2 K1 ⋅ K3 KG2 := 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 K3 ⋅ K4 + K5 KG1 := 1 − K2 ⋅ K3 KG2 = 0.02 0 5 X Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.082 lbmole⋅ min ft 6 G1 ( 0 ) = KG1 KG1 = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.062 %TO Offset( 0 ) = −1. 10 .
8 BTU lb⋅ degF ρ := 7 lb gal T3set(t) f1(t) T1(t) Liquid TC TT Design conditions: gal f1p := 25 min T1p := 60degF T3p := 80degF Control valve: ∆p v := 10psi f3(t) T3(t) w2(t) m(t) ∆p v lb w2 ( t) = 1. ignoring the inlet temperature as a variable: .Smith & Corripio.4 lb Tmin := 50degF Tmax := 100degF τ T := 10s⋅ min 60s Block diagram. the enthalpy of the steam is: BTU Hs := 1145. Assumptions: • Perfectly mixed tank. Temperature control of direct contact heater of Problem 45. Problem parameters: V := 5gal cp := 0.954 vp( t) ⋅ min psi τ v := 4s⋅ min 60s Disturbance: Saturated steam gal ∆f1 := 2 min "p" denotes base value for linearization. 3rd edition Problem 616. negligible heat losses • Constant density and physical properties • Steam is at atmospheric pressure • Transmitter has a range of 50 to 100ºF and a time constant of 10 s From the steam tables. constant volume.
F1(s) T3set(s) Ksp G2(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s) W2(s) + G3(s) T3(s)  + Proportional controller: Linear control valve: Gc( s) = Kc Gv ( s) = Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 KT τ T⋅ s + 1 ∆p v lb 1 lb Kv := 1.954 ⋅ K = 0. probably because a different steam pressure was assumed. assuming constant volume: d⋅ V f1 ( t) ⋅ ρ + w2 ( t) − f3 ( t) ⋅ ρ = ρ ⋅ =0 dt f3 ( t) ⋅ ρ = f1 ( t) ⋅ ρ + w2 ( t) Sustitute into enthalpy balance: V⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ d ⋅ T3 ( t ) dt = f1 ( t) ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 ( t) − T3 ( t) + w2 ( t) ⋅ Hs − cp ⋅ T3 ( t) − 32⋅ degF f1p⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3p − T1p w2p := Hs − cp ⋅ T3p − 32degF ( ) ( ) d ⋅ T3 ( t ) dt ( ) ( ) At the initial steady state: ( ( ) ) lb w2p = 2.529 min Note: This value differs from the value given in the statement of Problem 45. Linearize: V⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ where d⋅ Γ 3( t) dt = a1 ⋅ Γ 1 ( t) − Γ 3 ( t) + a2 ⋅ F1 ( t) + a3 ⋅ W2 ( t) − a4 ⋅ Γ 3 ( t) Γ 3 ( t) = T3 ( t) − T3p F1 ( t) = f1 ( t) − f1p W2 ( t) = w2 ( t) − w2p ( ) Γ 1 ( t) = T1 ( t) − T1p .062 psi 100%CO v min min⋅ %CO 100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin Ksp := KT %TO KT = 2 degF Temperature transmitter: H( s) = Enthalpy balance on the tank. neglecting heat losses: f1 ( t) ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 ( t) − 32⋅ degF + w2 ( t) ⋅ Hs − f3 ( t) ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 ( t) − 32⋅ degF = V⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ Mass balance.
K1 K2 K3 Laplace transform: Γ 3 ( s) = Γ 1 ( s) + F1 ( s) + W2 ( s) τ ⋅s + 1 τ ⋅s + 1 τ ⋅s + 1 G2 ( s) = K2 τ ⋅s + 1 G3 ( s) = K3 τ ⋅s + 1 Ultimate gain and period of the loop: Characteristic equation: 1+ KT τ T⋅ s + 1 ⋅ Kc⋅ Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 τ ⋅ s + 1 ⋅ K3 =0 let KKc = KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 3 τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ s + τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ s + τ T + τ v + τ s + 1 + KKc = 0 Substitue s = ωu i at KK c = KKcu : −τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ ω u i − τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ ω u + τ T + τ v + τ ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KKcu = 0 Imaginary part: Real part: −τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ ω u + τ T + τ v + τ ⋅ ω u = 0 − τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ω u + 1 + KKcu = 0 Kcu := 3 3 ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ω u := τT + τv + τ τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ Tu := 2π ωu ( ) 2 Tu = 0.794 Note: These values differ from the solution to Problem 45 because a different steam pressure is assumed here.986 a2 K2 := a1 + a4 K2 = −0.789 a3 K3 := a1 + a4 gal () Γ 3(0) = 0 τ = 0.a1 := f1p⋅ ρ ⋅ cp Rearrange: where τ⋅ τ := d ⋅ Γ 3 ( t) dt a2 := ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1p − T3p ( ) a3 := Hs − cp ⋅ T3p − 32degF ( ) a4 := w2p⋅ cp + Γ 3 ( t) = K1 ⋅ Γ 1 t + K2 ⋅ F1 ( t) + K3 ⋅ W2 ( t) a1 K1 := a1 + a4 K1 = 0.61 %TO ( τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ + τ v ⋅ τ ) ω u 2 − 1 KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 Offset caused by change in inlet liquid flow at one half the ultimate gain: Offset = Ksp ⋅ ∆T3 set − KT⋅ ∆T3 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 = 0 − KT⋅ K2 ⋅ ∆f1 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 Kc := Kcu 2 .197 min degF⋅ min lb V⋅ ρ ⋅ cp a1 + a4 degF⋅ min K3 = 7.448 min %CO Kcu = 10.
258 degF Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.516 %TO Offset KT = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Offset := −KT⋅ K2 ⋅ ∆f1 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 Offset = 0. .
m(t) c3set(t) AC AT V c3(t) f(t) ci(t) V c1(t) V c2(t) Problem data: V := 1000gal k := 0. page 532. 3rd edition Problem 617.1. C10. from mass balances on each reactor.46 min⋅ %CO on power failure. a 3in valve is required: Cvmax⋅ ∆p v 100%CO Cvmax := 110 gal τ v := 0. Composition control of three isothermal reactors in series. constant volume • Constant density and physical properties d ⋅ c1 ( t ) dt d ⋅ c2 ( t ) dt d ⋅ c3 ( t ) dt V⋅ = f ( t) ⋅ ci( t) − f ( t) ⋅ c1 ( t) − k ⋅ V⋅ c1 ( t) V⋅ = f ( t) ⋅ c1 ( t) − f ( t) ⋅ c2 ( t) − k ⋅ V⋅ c2 ( t) V⋅ = f ( t) ⋅ c2 ( t) − f ( t) ⋅ c3 ( t) − k ⋅ V⋅ c3 ( t) . Model of the reactors. assuming • Perfectly mixed.1min lb gal −1 gal fp := 100 min lb gal cip := 4 lb gal KT = 100 %TO⋅ gal lb Analyzer transmitter: cmin := 0 cmax := 1.0 100%TO KT := cmax − cmin Control valve: linear with constant pressure drop and sized for 100% overcapacity.1min Kv := min⋅ psi The valve fails closed (airtoopen) gal to prevent overflowing the reactors Kv = 2. 200%⋅ fp gal ∆p v := 5psi Cvmax := Cvmax = 89.443 min⋅ psi ∆p v From Fig.Smith & Corripio.
0025 Ki⋅ Ci( s) + K1 ⋅ F( s) τ ⋅s + 1 C2 ( s) = Ki⋅ C1 ( s) + K2 ⋅ F( s) τ ⋅s + 1 C3 ( s) = Ki⋅ C2 ( s) + K3 ⋅ F( s) τ ⋅s + 1 Combine to obtain the transfer functions: C3 ( s) 1 Ki Ki⋅ K1 G1 ( s) = = + K2 + K3 F( s) τ ⋅s + 1 τ s + 1 τ ⋅s + 1 G1 ( s) = Ki⋅ Ki⋅ K1 + K2 ⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) + K3 ⋅ τ s + 1 ( )2 C3 ( s) Ki 3 (τ ⋅ s + 1)3 Ki ⋅ K1 + Ki⋅ K2 ⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) + K3 ⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) 2 2 G1 ( s) = ( τ ⋅ s + 1) 3 G2 ( s) = = Ci( s) (τ ⋅ s + 1)3 .5 K2 = 0.Linearize: V⋅ V⋅ d ⋅ C1 ( t ) dt d ⋅ C2 ( t ) dt d ⋅ C3 ( t ) dt = fp ⋅ Ci( t) − fp + k ⋅ V C1 ( t) + cip − c1p F( t) = fp ⋅ C1 ( t) − fp + k ⋅ V C2 ( t) + c1p − c2p F( t) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) V⋅ = fp ⋅ C2 ( t) − fp + k ⋅ V C3 ( t) + c2p − c3p F( t) where Cj( t) = Cj( t) − cjp c1p := F( t) = ( t) − fp fp ⋅ cip fp + k ⋅ V c2p := fp ⋅ c1p fp + k ⋅ V c3p := fp ⋅ c2p fp + k ⋅ V At the initial steadystate: Rearrange: τ⋅ d ⋅ C1 ( t ) dt d ⋅ C2 ( t ) dt d ⋅ C2 ( t ) dt V + C1 ( t) = Ki⋅ Ci( t) + K1 ⋅ F( t) C1 ( 0 ) = 0 τ⋅ + C2 ( t) = Ki⋅ C1 ( t) + K2 ⋅ F( t) C2 ( 0 ) = 0 τ⋅ + C2 ( t) = Ki⋅ Ci( t) + K3 ⋅ F( t) fp Ki := fp + k ⋅ V K1 = 0.005 K3 = 0.01 cip − c1p K1 := fp + k ⋅ V lb⋅ min gal 2 C3 ( 0 ) = 0 c1p − c2p K2 := fp + k ⋅ V lb⋅ min gal 2 where τ := fp + k ⋅ V c2p − c3p K3 := fp + k ⋅ V lb⋅ min gal 2 τ = 5 min Laplaxce transform: C1 ( s) = Ki = 0.
(a) Block diagram of the loop: Ci(s) C3set(s) Ksp G2(s) G1(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s) F(s) + + C3(s)  Ksp := KT Ki 3 H( s) = KT Gv ( s) = Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 2 Proportional controller: Gc( s) = Kc G2 ( s) = ( τ ⋅ s + 1) 3 2 G1 ( s) = KA + KB⋅ τ ⋅ s + K3 ⋅ τ ⋅ s (τ ⋅ s + 1)3 τ = 5 min lb⋅ min gal 2 KA := Ki K1 + Ki⋅ K2 + K3 KB := 2 ⋅ K3 + Ki⋅ K2 KA = 0.0075 lb⋅ min gal 2 (b) Offset for a change in inlet concentration Ksp ⋅ ∆c3 set ∆ci := 1 3 lb gal %CO Kc := 1. Kc = 0: Offset := −KT⋅ Ki ∆ci 3 Offset KT = −0.39 %TO For the open loop.0025 KB = 0. (c) Ultimate gain and period of the loop with a proportional controller. .044 lb gal Offset = −12. %TO Offset = − KT⋅ G2 ( 0 ) ∆ci 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ G1 ( 0 ) Offset := − KT⋅ Ki ∆ci 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KA Offset = −4.0075 lb⋅ min gal 2 K3 = 0.5 %TO For a PI controller the offset is zero.
224 min Real part: τ v ⋅ τ ω u − 3 ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ + τ A⋅ Kcu ω u + 1 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 3⋅ τ v⋅ τ ⋅ ω u − τ v⋅ τ ω u − 1 KL − τ A⋅ ω u 2 3 2 2 3 4 3 4 ( ) 2 Kcu = 2 3 4 3⋅ τ v⋅ τ ⋅ ω u − τ v⋅ τ ω u − 1 Imaginary part: −3 ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ω u + τ v + τ B⋅ ωu = 0 2 KL − τ A⋅ ω u 3 ⋅ τ ⋅ τ 2⋅ τ − τ ⋅ τ ⋅ τ 3 ω 4 + −3⋅ τ ⋅ τ 2⋅ K − τ ⋅ τ + τ ⋅ 3 ⋅ τ ⋅ τ ω 2 − τ = 0 A B v u v L v A B v u B v Let a := 3τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ τ A − τ B⋅ τ v ⋅ τ 2 3 b := −3 ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ KL − τ v ⋅ τ A + τ B⋅ 3 ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ a = −1.373 min 2 %TO KL = 1. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. reverse acting: increases concentration decreases the signal to the valve. . The controller gain is positive.45i min −1 The imaginary value of the ultimate frequency shows that there is no ultimate gain for this loop.Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 ⋅ KA + KB⋅ τ ⋅ s + K3 ⋅ τ ⋅ s 2 2 ( τ ⋅ s + 1) 3 =0 Rearrange and substitute s = ωu i at Kc = K cu : τ v ⋅ τ ω u − 3τ v ⋅ τ ω u i − 3τ v ⋅ τ + τ A⋅ Kcu ω u + τ v + τ B⋅ Kcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 where τ A := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 ⋅ τ 2 3 4 2 3 ( ) 2 ( ) τ B := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ KB⋅ τ KL := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ KA τ A = 15.537 min 3 ω u := −b − b − 4 ⋅ a⋅ −τ B 2⋅ a 2 ( ) ω u = 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. This is because the net order of the loop is onethree poles and two zerosand it cannot be unstable for any positive value of the controller gain.845 %CO τ B = 9.962 × 10 − 14 2 min 5 b = −1. This decreases the reactants flow and the concentration decreases.
Smith & Corripio. and characteristic equation of the loop. closedloop transfer function. (Fi( s) − Fc( s) ) PC Kp := 0. PC: τ T := 1. 3rd edition Problem Data: Ps( s) = Kp τ p⋅ s + 1 %CO := % %TO := % kscf := 1000ft psig := psi 3 Problem 618. Compressor suction pressure control.5 kscf τ p := 7.36 min⋅ %CO τ sc := 2.2s (a) Block diagram of the loop. Fi(s) Psset(s) Ksp Gp(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gsc(s) H(s) Fc(s) + Gp(s) Ps(s)   100%TO KT := Pmax − Pmin Ksp := KT H( s) = KT τ T⋅ s + 1 %TO KT = 5 psi Gsc( s) = Ksc τ sc⋅ s + 1 Kp τ p⋅ s + 1 Closedloop transfer function: Gp ( s) = .5s Fc( s) = Ksc psi⋅ min m(t) SC M ( s) τ sc⋅ s + 1 Steam PT kscf Ksc := 0.5s fc(t) Discharge ps(t) Suction fi(t) Pmin := 0psig Pmax := 20psig Pressure transmitter.
−Ksp ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gsc( s) ⋅ Gp ( s) Gp ( s) set Ps( s) = Ps ( s) + F ( s) 1 − H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gsc( s) Gp ( s) 1 − H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gsc( s) ⋅ Gp ( s) i ( ) Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 − H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gsc( s) ⋅ Gp ( s) = 1 − KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Gc( s) Ksc Kp τ sc⋅ s + 1 τ p ⋅ s + 1 =0 The controller must be directacting (negative gain): increasing pressure increases the signal to te speed controller (SC). .061 psi Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9 %CO Imaginary part: −τ T⋅ τ sc⋅ τ p ⋅ ω u + τ T + τ sc + τ p ω u = 0 3 3 ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ω u := Tu := τ T + τ sc + τ p τ T⋅ τ sc⋅ τ p Real part: Kcu := (τ T⋅ τ sc + τ T⋅ τ p + τ sc⋅ τ p)ω u KL 2 −1 2π ωu Tu = 8.9 %TO (c) Offset caused by a change in inlet flow. ∆fi := 1 Offset = Ksp ⋅ ∆p s set kscf min Kc := Kcu 2 − KT⋅ Kp ⋅ ∆fi Offset := %CO Kc = −7. This increases the compressor speed and the flow through the compressor. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.9 %TO 1 + KL⋅ Kc 0 − KT⋅ Kp ⋅ ∆fi 1 + KL⋅ Kc Offset = −0.307 %TO Offset KT = −0. decreasing the suctiion pressure. Gc( s) = Kc Rearrange the characteristic equation and sunbstiture s = ωu i at Kc = K cu : −τ T⋅ τ sc⋅ τ p ⋅ ω u i − τ T⋅ τ sc + τ T⋅ τ p + τ sc⋅ τ p ω u + τ T + τ sc + τ p ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0i %TO where KL := −KT⋅ Ksc⋅ Kp KL = −0.91 s %CO Kcu = −15. (b) Ultimate gain and period for a preportional controller.
8 Ti(t) V kg⋅ degC kJ kg⋅ degC ρ c := 1000 kg m 3 cpc := 4.2 SP FC FT Design conditions: f := 0.1m kg m 3 kJ m min⋅ degC 2 Tset(t) f(t) kJ TC TT 2 3 m(t) Tc(t) ρ := 800 cp := 3.Smith & Corripio.8 min 3 fc(t) Tci Temperature transmitter (TT): Tmin := 20degC Tmax := 70degC 3 m Flow transmitter(FT): fmin := 0 min τ FC := 0.6min m fmax := 0.1 m 3 min Ti := 70degC Tci := 25degC T := 45degC T(t) τ T := 0. Temperature control of stirredtank cooler of Problem 47. Problem Data: V := 5m A := 4m 3 U := 200 Vc := 1. Ti(s) Tset(s) Ksp G2(s) G1(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) GFC(s) H(s) Fc(s) +  T(s)  . valve fail position.1min (a) Block diagram of the temperature control loop. controller action. 3rd edition kJ := 1000joule degC := K Problem 619.
275 Tc := T − f ⋅ ρ ⋅ c p ⋅ Ti − T U⋅ A f ⋅ ρ ⋅ c p ⋅ Ti − T ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) fc := ρ c⋅ cpc⋅ Tc − Tci ( ( ) τ 2 := K3 := ρ c⋅ cpc⋅ Tc − Tci fc⋅ ρ c⋅ cpc + U⋅ A ( ) K4 := fc⋅ ρ c⋅ cpc + U⋅ A degC ⋅ min m 3 τ 2 = 3. (b) Ultimate gain and period of the loop with a proportional controller. The temperature controller must also be direct acting (negative gain): increasing temperature must increase the output to incrase the coolant flow and reduce the temperature.94 K4 = 0.725 Tc = 35. Gc( s) = Kc Characteristic equation of the loop: 1+ KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Kc⋅ KFC τ FC⋅ s + 1 τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 ( )( K2 ⋅ K3 ) =0 Rearrange and substitute s = ωu i at Kc = K cu : τ A⋅ ω u − τ B⋅ ω u i − τ C ⋅ ω u + τ D⋅ ω u ⋅ i + 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0i 4 3 2 . This means that the flow controller must be direct acting: incease in flow increases the output to close the valve and reduce the flow.5 degC m fc = 0.77 min K2 = 0.525 The coolant valve must fail opened (airtoclose) to prevent loss of coolant on power failure.03 min K3 = 28.Temperature transmitter: 100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin fmax − fmin 100%TO Ksp := KT H( s) = KT τ T⋅ s + 1 %TO KT = 2 degC −3 Flow contriol loop: KFC := GFC( s) = KFC τ FC⋅ s + 1 KFC = 8 × 10 m 3 min⋅ %TO From the results of Problem 47: G1 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K2⋅ K4 V⋅ ρ ⋅ cp K1 := f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A K2 ⋅ K3 G2 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K2⋅ K4 U⋅ A f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A K1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 ( ) where τ 1 := f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A K2 := τ 1 = 13.172 min U⋅ A 3 At the initial steady state (design) conditions: f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Ti − T − U⋅ A⋅ T − Tc = 0 f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Ti − T − fc⋅ ρ c⋅ cpc⋅ Tc − Tci = 0 Vc⋅ ρ c⋅ cpc fc⋅ ρ c⋅ cpc + U⋅ A K1 = 0.
18 %TO Offset KT Offset = − KT⋅ G2 ( 0 ) ∆Ti 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ KFC⋅ G1 ( 0 ) = −0.where τ A := τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 τ B := τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ τ 2 + τ FC⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 + τ T⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 τ = 2.32 min Real part: τ A⋅ ω u − τ C⋅ ω u + 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 + KL⋅ Kcu = 0 Kcu := −τ A⋅ ω u + τ C ⋅ ω u − 1 + K2 ⋅ K4 KL 4 2 %CO Kcu = −86. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Students should verify these results with the simulation of this process in Problem 1318.7 %TO (c) Offset for change in inlet temperature with a proportional copntroller.336 %CO τ C = 53.234 min Imaginary part: −τ B⋅ ω u + τ D⋅ ω u = 0 4 2 3 ω u := τD τB Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 8.54 min 2 τ D = 17.09 degC Openloop. Kc = 0: Offset := 0 − KT⋅ K1 ⋅ ∆Ti 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 Offset = −4.44 %TO With a PI controller the offset is zero. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. ∆Ti := 5degC Ksp ⋅ ∆T set Kc := Kcu 2 %CO Kc = −43.228 min ( ) 4 τ D := τ T + τ FC 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 + τ 1 + τ 2 ( )( ) KL := −KT⋅ KFC⋅ K2 ⋅ K3 %TO KL = −0. .505 min τ C := τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 + τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ FC⋅ τ 1 + τ FC⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 A 3 τ B = 30.3 %TO Offset := 0 − KT⋅ K1 ⋅ ∆Ti 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 − KT⋅ Kc⋅ KFC⋅ K2 ⋅ K3 Offset = −0.
a 3in valve is required: Valve 4: From initial steady state conditions: y 4 := 1.7psia Cv1max := 110 Valve 3: y 3 := 1.5 min⋅ R scf G := MW⋅ lbmole 29lb G = 1.6 gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ psi From Fig.284 .7psia scf f4 = 1000 min y 4 = 1.148y 1 Cf := 0. Problem Data: V := 550000ft 3 lbmole := 453. 3rd edition degF := R scf := ft 3 psia := psi Problem 620.5.1. Use Eqs.7psia y 1 − 0.1. page 532.148y 3 ( ) min⋅ R scf 0.5 hr Cv3max = 62. C10. 52.63 Valve 1: y 1 := ⋅ p 1 + 14.7psia Cf Cv1max := 200%⋅ f1 ⋅ G⋅ ( T + 460R ) 836 ⋅ C f ⋅ p 1 + 14.9 y 1 = 1.908 gal⋅ psia⋅ hr 60min 3 Cv3max := 200%⋅ f3 ⋅ G⋅ ( T + 460R ) 836 ⋅ C f ⋅ p 2 + 14.7psia y 3 − 0.Smith & Corripio. p1 − p2 1. page 532. C10. Pressure control og gas torage tank.724 ( ) hr Cv1max = 90. page 160. a 3in valve is required: p2 − p3 p 2 + 14.63 Cf Cv3max := 110 f4 := f1 − f3 ⋅ p2 − p4 p 2 + 14.63 Cf ⋅ y 3 = 0.187 gal⋅ psia⋅ hr 60min 3 0.9 gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ psi From Fig.59mole MW := 50 lb lbmole T := 350degF PC PT p2set(t) p3(t) vp3(t) p4(t) vp4(t) f1 := 1500 p := 90psi min 1 f3 := 500 min p 2 := 45psig scf p 3 := 30psig p 4 := 15psig scf p1(t) vp1(t) p2(t) Pressure transmitter PT: p min := 0psig p max := 100psig (a) Size control valves for 100% overcapacity.3 and 52.
(y1 ) Valve 3: f3 ( t ) = y3 ( t) = 836 ⋅ scf ⋅ R ⋅ min gal⋅ psia⋅ hr 1. Transmitter PT: Process model: Mass balance: V⋅ H( s) = KT d ⋅ ρ 2( t) dt 100%TO KT := p max − p min Ksp := KT %TO KT = 1 psi = ρ s⋅ f1 ( t ) − ρ s⋅ f3 ( t ) − ρ s⋅ f4 ( t ) Ideal gas law: Rg := 10.63 Cf ⋅ ⋅ ( ) y 3 3( t) − 0. (y4 ) d⋅ p 2( t) dt Substitute ideal gas law: ⋅ = f1 ( t ) − f3 ( t ) − f4 ( t ) Linearize and substitute deviation variables: MW⋅ V Rg ⋅ ( T + 460 ) ⋅ ρ s ⋅ d ⋅ P2 ( t ) dt = a1 ⋅ VP 1 ( t ) + b 1 ⋅ P1 ( t ) − c1 ⋅ P2 ( t ) − a3 ⋅ VP 3 ( t ) − b 3 ⋅ P2 ( t ) + c3 ⋅ P3 ( t ) .5 min⋅ R scf ( ) hr Cv4max = 102.132 lb scf Valve 1: f1 ( t ) = y1 ( t) = 836 ⋅ scf ⋅ R ⋅ min gal⋅ psia⋅ hr 1.63 Cf ⋅ 1 ⋅ hr 60⋅ min ⋅ ( ) y 3 4( t) − 0.7psia 1 ⋅ hr 60⋅ min C v3max⋅ C f ⋅ p 2 ( t ) + 14.63 Cf ⋅ ⋅ C v1max⋅ C f ⋅ p 1 ( t ) + 14.148 y 4( t) vp4 ( t) ⋅ p2 ( t) − p4 ( t) p 2 ( t ) + 14.9 gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ psi From Fig.7psia Rg ⋅ ( T + 460R ) MW⋅ 14. 4 unks. 6 unks. f3 ) 2 eqns. (y3 ) C v4max⋅ C f ⋅ p 2 ( t ) + 14.1.7psia 6 eqns. page 532.7⋅ psia G⋅ ( T + 460R) 4 eqns.7⋅ psia G⋅ ( T + 460R) Valve 4: f4 ( t ) = y4 ( t) = 836 ⋅ scf ⋅ R ⋅ min gal⋅ psia⋅ hr 1. f2 .148 y 3( t) vp3 ( t) ⋅ p2 ( t) − p3 ( t) p 2 ( t ) + 14. (p 2 ) lbmole⋅ R ρ s = 0. a 3in valve is required: Cv4max := 110 (c) Block diagram of the loop considering all disturbances.148y 4 gal⋅ psia⋅ hr 60min 3 0.7⋅ psia G⋅ ( T + 460R) ( ) y 3 1( t) − 0.7psia MW⋅ V Rg ⋅ ( T + 460 ⋅ R ) ρ s 8 eqns.7psia y 4 − 0. 7 unks.148 y 1( t) vp1 ( t) ⋅ p1 ( t) − p2 ( t) p 1 ( t ) + 14.Cv4max := 200%⋅ f4 ⋅ G⋅ ( T + 460R ) 836 ⋅ C f ⋅ p 2 + 14.7psia R g ⋅ 520 R 1 ⋅ hr 60⋅ min ( ) 1 eqn.73 ⋅ psia⋅ ft 3 ρ 2( t) = ρ s := MW⋅ p 2 ( t ) + 14. (ρ2 . 5 unks. f1 . 8 unks. C10.
63 1 k y32 := ⋅ ⋅ Cf 2 p 2 + 14.7⋅ psia − 0.5 ⋅ (p2 + 14.5 %CO vp4 = 46.878 scf 1 y12 1 1 min⋅ psi − 0.8 %CO scf scf scf ⋅ C v3max⋅ p 2 + 14.7psia) 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.7psia) 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.7psia) −1 k y33 = −0.63 1 ⋅ ⋅ Cf 2 p 1 + 14.7⋅ psia − 0.565 min⋅ %CO a4 = 21.7⋅ psia b 3 := k v ⋅ C v3max⋅ vp3 100%CO ⋅ (p2 + 14.7⋅ psia) − (p1 − p2) (p1 + 14.336 scf gal⋅ psia δ ⋅ f1 ( t ) δ ⋅ vp δ ⋅ f3 ( t ) δ ⋅ vp δ ⋅ f4 ( t ) δ ⋅ vp ⋅ C v1max⋅ p 1 + 14.02266 psia b 3 = 17.148y 4 100%CO v4max 2 f1 vp1 := a1 f3 vp3 := a3 f4 vp4 := a4 − 0.7psia ⋅ y 3 − 0.7psia ⋅ y 1 − 0.00752 psia b 1 = 18.03 psi .7psia)2 −1 b3 = δ ⋅ f3 ( t ) δ⋅ p2 y − 0.013 psi c1 = −δ ⋅ f1 ( t ) δ⋅ p2 δ ⋅ y3 ( t) δ⋅ p2 c1 := −k v ⋅ C v1max⋅ vp1 100%CO ( p + 14.148 ⋅ y 3 + ( p + 14.5 k y32 = p2 − p3 1.312 min⋅ %CO a3 = 17.7psia)2 −1 b1 = δ ⋅ f1 ( t ) δ⋅ p1 y − 0.7psia ⋅ y 4 − 0.7psia) 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.39 min⋅ %CO vp3 = 28.148y 3 a4 = a4 := ⋅C ⋅ p + 14.5 3 Initial valve positions: vp1 = 41.148 ⋅ y 3 + ( p + 14.3 %CO k y11 = δ ⋅ y1 ( t) δ⋅ p1 p1 − p2 1.−a4 ⋅ VP 4 ( t ) − b 4 ⋅ P2 ( t ) + c4 ⋅ P4 ( t ) Let k v := a1 = a3 = 836scf ⋅ R ⋅ min gal⋅ psia⋅ hr a1 := a3 := hr 60min kv 100%CO kv 100%CO kv Cf G⋅ ( T + 460R) k v = 0.7⋅ psia b 1 := k v ⋅ C v1max⋅ vp1 100%CO ⋅ (p1 + 14.148 y 2 k 3 2 3 y32 3 k y32 = 0.63 1 k y11 := ⋅ ⋅ Cf 2 p 1 + 14.148y 1 ( ( ( ) ) ) 3 3 a1 = 36.5 ⋅ (p1 + 14.819 scf min⋅ psi −1 k y12 = δ ⋅ y1 ( t) δ⋅ p2 k y12 := p1 − p2 1.148 y 2 k c = 7.7psia) −1 k y12 = −0.387 scf min⋅ psi −1 k y33 = δ ⋅ y3 ( t) δ⋅ p3 k y33 := p2 − p3 1.7⋅ psia) − (p2 − p3) (p2 + 14.63 1 ⋅ ⋅ Cf 2 p 2 + 14.148 y 2 k 1 1 1 y11 1 k y11 = 0.
691 scf min⋅ psi −1 k y44 = δ ⋅ y4 ( t) δ⋅ p4 p2 − p4 1.01065 psia b 4 = 19.391 %CO Kp3 = 0.148 ⋅ y 3 + ( p + 14.63 1 k y42 := ⋅ ⋅ Cf 2 p 2 + 14. approximately 9 hours.131 where τ := ( ) a4 K4 := c1 + b 3 + b 4 b1 Kp1 := c1 + b 3 + b 4 psig τ = 534.63 1 k y44 := ⋅ ⋅ Cf 2 p 2 + 14.7⋅ psia c4 := − 0.5 ⋅ ( −1 p 2 + 14.7psia) 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.7⋅ psia b 4 := k v ⋅ C v4max⋅ vp4 100%CO ⋅ (p2 + 14.3 min K1 = 0. Block diagram of the loop: .7psia ) k y44 = −0.148 y 2 k 4 2 4 y42 4 k y42 = 0.7psia) 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.7psia) −1 2 b4 = δ ⋅ f4 ( t ) δ⋅ p2 y − 0.7⋅ psia) − (p2 − p4) (p2 + 14.5 k y42 = p2 − p4 1.036 scf 3 y33 3 2 min⋅ psi − 0.7psia) 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.c3 = −δ ⋅ f3 ( t ) δ⋅ p3 δ ⋅ y4 ( t) δ⋅ p2 c3 := −k v ⋅ C v3max⋅ vp3 100%CO ( p + 14. denotes that the pressure in the tank behaves as an integrating process.419 psi K3 = 0.021 psi c4 = −δ ⋅ f4 ( t ) δ⋅ p4 −k v ⋅ C v4max⋅ vp4 100%CO ( p + 14.148 y 2 k c = 5.911 scf 4 y44 4 2 min⋅ psi Rearrange equation into standard firstorder form: τ⋅ d ⋅ P2 ( t ) dt + P2 ( t ) = K1 ⋅ VP 1 ( t ) − K3 ⋅ VP 3 ( t ) − K4 ⋅ VP 4 ( t ) + Kp1⋅ P1 ( t ) + Kp3⋅ P3 ( t ) + Kp4⋅ P4 ( t ) MW⋅ V Rg ⋅ ( T + 460R ) ⋅ ρ s⋅ c1 + b 3 + b 4 a1 K1 := c1 + b 3 + b 4 c3 Kp3 := c1 + b 3 + b 4 a3 K3 := c1 + b 3 + b 4 c4 Kp4 := c1 + b 3 + b 4 psi K4 = 0.148 y 2 k c = 12. See discussion of controller tuning for integrating processes in Section 73.476 %CO Kp4 = 0.268 Process transfer function: Laplace transform: P2 ( s) = 1 τ ⋅s + 1 (K1⋅ VP1( s) − K3⋅ VP3(s) − K4⋅ VP4( s) + Kp1⋅ P1(s) + Kp3⋅ P3( s) + Kp4⋅ P4(s)) The very long time constant.808 %CO Kp1 = 0.
The response of the loop cannot be unstable with a proportional controller with positive gain because the loop transfer function is firstorder. . This decreases the pressure in the tank.121 psi Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.P1(s) VP4(s) F1(s) VP3(s) Kp1 K4 K3 Kp4 P4(s) P3(s) P2(s) P2set(s) Ksp + E(s) VP1(s)  Gc(s) K1 H(s) + Kp3 . There is no ultimate gain.+ . ∆p2set := 5psi Offset := Ksp ⋅ ∆p 2set 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ K1 Offset = 0.+ 1 + Js + 1 (c) Ultimate gain. The controller is reverse acting: increasing tank pressure decreases the controller output to close the control valve and decrease the inlet flow. The valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overpressuring the tank on instrument power failure. (d) Offset for a proportinal controller and a change in set point.121 %TO %CO Kc := 50 %TO Offset KT = 0.
xB) (b) Linearize the equations. wB(t) TB(t) vp2(t) m2(t) m(t) TC AC b(t) wA(t) TA(t) Problem Data: vp1(t) TT AT T(t) x B(t) wA( t ) = Kv1⋅ vp1 ( t ) wB ( t ) = Kv2⋅ vp2 ( t ) q ( t ) = q max⋅ m( t ) C( t) = Analyzer AT measures solution conductivity: Range is C L to C H. β mho x B( t) m (a) Model of the composition control loop Assumptions: • Perfectly mixed • Constant mass and density • Negligible transportation lag • Inlet streams are pure A and B. 3rd edition Problem 621. (w.Smith & Corripio. Temperature and analysis control of a heated mixer. 2 unks. respectively Total mass balance: d⋅ M wA( t ) + wB ( t ) − w( t ) = =0 dt wB ( t ) − w( t ) ⋅ x B( t ) = M ⋅ d ⋅ xB( t) dt w( t ) = wA( t ) + wB( t ) Mass balance on component B: 2 eqns. transfer functions and block diagram: Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables: WB( t ) − w⋅ XB ( t ) − x B ⋅ WA( t ) + WB( t ) = M ⋅ d ⋅ XB( t ) dt ( ) XB ( 0 ) = 0 .
because of the negative gain in the transmitter: Increasing composition decreases the signal from the transmitter. decreasing the composition. Notice also that Ksp = KT (negative set point scale) (c) Model of the temperature control loop Assumptions: • perfectly mixed • constant mass and physical properties . the controller must be direct acting. the controller decreases the signal to the valve.Rearrange in the standard firstorder form: xB KA = w xB 1 − xB M d ⋅ XB( t ) ⋅ + XB( t ) = WB( t ) − WA( t ) dt w w w 1 − xB w XB ( s) = Let τ = M w KB = τ⋅ d ⋅ XB ( t ) dt + XB = KB ⋅ WB( t ) − KA⋅ WA( t ) Laplace transform and solve for output: C( t) − CL CH − CL 1 τ ⋅s + 1 (KB⋅ WB(s) − KA⋅ WA(s)) − CL Transmitter: b( t) = 100%TO = CH − CL x B( t) 100%TO β −100 %TO⋅ β Linearize: B( t) = 100%TO −β XB ( t ) CH − CL 2 xB H( s) = KAT = ( C H − C L) x B 2 Control valves: WA( s) = Kv1⋅ VP 1 ( s) Kv2 WB( s) = Kv2⋅ VP 2 ( s) = M ( s) 100%CO 2 Block diagram of the composition loop: VP1(s) Kv1KA X (s) set B Ksp + E(s) M2(s)  GAC(s) Kv2KB 100 + + 1 Js + 1 XB(s) H(s) If the control valve is airtoopen. this closes the valve and reduces the flow of component B.
decresing the rate of heat input. Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables: M ⋅ cp ⋅ d ⋅ Γ ( t) dt = cp ⋅ TA − T WA( t ) + cp ⋅ TB − TA ⋅ WB ( t ) + Q( t ) + wA⋅ cp ⋅ Γ A( t ) + wB ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ B( t ) − wA + wB ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ ( t ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Rearrange into the standard firstoder equation form: TB − T TA − T wA wB M d⋅ Γ ( t) 1 ⋅ + Γ ( t) = WA( t ) + WB( t ) + Q( t ) + Γ A( t ) + Γ ( t) dt w w w w⋅ cp w w B ( ) ( ) Γ ( 0) = 0 Laplace transform: Γ ( s) = τ = Electric heater: M w 1 τ ⋅s + 1 (K1⋅ WA( s) + K2⋅ WB( s) + K3⋅ Q( s) + K4⋅ Γ A(s) + K5⋅ Γ B( s) ) TA − T w M ( s) K2 = TB − T w 1 K3 = w⋅ cp wA K4 = w wB K5 = w K1 = q max Q( s) = 100%CO Temperature transmitter TT: 100%TO H( s) = KTT = TH − .L The controller is reverse acting: increasing temperature decreases the controller output. block diagram. This decreases the temperature. Block diagram of the loop: . (T) M ⋅ cp ⋅ = wA( t ) ⋅ cp ⋅ TA( t ) − T( t ) + wB ( t ) ⋅ cp ⋅ TB( t ) − T( t ) + q ( t ) ( ) ( ) (d) Linearize the equation. 1 unk.• negligible heat losses and ransportantioon lag Energy balance: M ⋅ cv ⋅ d ⋅ T( t ) dt = wA( t ) ⋅ cpA⋅ TA( t ) − Tref + wB( t ) ⋅ cpB⋅ TB ( t ) − Tref + q ( t ) − w( t ) ⋅ cp ⋅ T( t ) − Tref w( t ) = wA( t ) + wB( t ) d ⋅ T( t ) dt ( ) ( ) ( ) Substitute Assume cp = cpA = cpB = cv 1 eqn. transfer functions.
In practice there will be lags on the transmitter and final control elements and there will be an ultimate gain and period.VP1(s) Kv1K1 VP2(s) K4 K5 'A(s) 'B(s) '(s) 'set(s) Kv2K2 Ksp + E(s) M(s)  GTC(s) qmaxK3 100 + + + + 1 + Js + 1 H(s) (e) Characteristic equations of the control loops. Analyzer control loop: Kv2 KB 1 + KAT⋅ GAC( s) ⋅ ⋅ =1+ 100%CO τ ⋅ s + 1 −100 %TO⋅ β ( C H − C L) x B Kv2 1 − xB GAC( s) ⋅ =0 2 100%CO w( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) ( ) Temperature control loop: q max 1 + KTT⋅ GTC ( s) ⋅ ⋅ 100%CO K3 τ ⋅s + 1 =1+ q max 1 GTC ( s) ⋅ ⋅ =0 TH − TL 100%CO w⋅ cp ⋅ ( τ ⋅ s + 1 ) 100%TO For both loops: τ = M w There is no ultimate gain for either loop because they are firstorder when a proportional controller is used. The loops cannot be made unstable as long as the controller gains have the proper sign. . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
8 lbmole gal gal fi := 50 min gal fA := 50 min Design conditions: (a) Size the control valve for 100% overcapacity.5 lbmole gal DA fA(t) fi(t) c Ai(t) AT V LT c A2(t) LC lbmole gal τ T := 0.475 Cvmax := 110 gal min⋅ psi gal From Fig. Assumptions: • Perfectly mixed reactors • Constant volume. G := ρ A⋅ MWA⋅ gal 8. Control of reactors in series. (f) . C10.Smith & Corripio. temperatures.42 min⋅ %CO The valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the reactors on loss of instrument power. (b) Model of the reactors. 1 unk. and physical properties.5min cAi := 0.50min −1 −1 ρ A := 2 lbmole gal lb c A1(t) V AC c A2set(t) MWA := 25 lbmole Control valve. page 532. linear. 3rd edition Problem 622. sized for 100% overcapacity.25min k 2 := 0. a 3in valve is required. Total mass balance: ρ ⋅ f ( t ) = ρ A⋅ fA( t ) + ρ i ⋅ fi ( t ) ρA = ρi = ρ 1 eqn. ∆p v Cvmax Kv := ⋅ G 100%CO min⋅ psi Valve gain: gal Kv = 1. Problem Data: V := 500gal k 1 := 0.05 cAH := 0. ∆p v := 10psi Analyzer transmitter: cAL := 0.1. • Negligible transportation lags.33lb Cvmax := 200%⋅ fA⋅ G ∆p v Cvmax = 77.
Reactant balances: Reactor 1: Reactor 2: V⋅ = ρ A⋅ fA( t ) + fi ( t ) ⋅ cAi( t ) − V⋅ k 1 ⋅ cA1( t ) − f ( t ) ⋅ cA1( t ) 2 eqns. (c A1) V⋅ = f ( t ) ⋅ cA1( t ) − f ( t ) ⋅ cA2( t ) − V⋅ k 2 ⋅ cA2( t ) dt dt f := fA + fi cA1 := d ⋅ cA1( t ) At the initial steady state: ρ A⋅ fA + fi ⋅ cAi f + V⋅ k 1 f ⋅ cA1 f + V⋅ k 2 cA1 = 0.00127 K1 ⋅ FA( s) + K2 ⋅ Fi ( s) + K3 ⋅ C Ai( s) lbmole⋅ min gal 2 K5 = 0. 3 unks.286 τ 1⋅ s + 1 .178 (c) Linearize the model equations and obtain the block diagram.222 min K2 = 0. Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables: V⋅ V⋅ d ⋅ CA1( t ) dt d ⋅ CA2( t ) dt = ρ A⋅ FA( t ) + cAi⋅ Fi ( t ) + fi ⋅ CAi( t ) − V⋅ k 1 + f C A1( t ) − cA1⋅ FA( t ) + Fi ( t ) = cA1 − cA2 ⋅ FA( t ) + Fi ( t ) + f ⋅ CA1( t ) − f + V⋅ k 2 CA2( t ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) Rearrange in the standard firstorder form: d ⋅ C A1( t ) τ 1⋅ + CA1( t ) = K1 ⋅ FA( t ) + K2 ⋅ Fi ( t ) + K3 ⋅ CAi( t ) dt τ 2⋅ d ⋅ C A2( t ) dt V f + V⋅ k 1 V f + V⋅ k 2 CA1( 0 ) = 0 CA2( 0 ) = 0 fi K3 := f + V⋅ k 1 + CA2( t ) = K4 ⋅ FA( t ) + K4 ⋅ Fi ( t ) + K5 ⋅ CA1( t ) ρ A − cA1 K1 := f + V⋅ k 1 cA1 − cA2 K4 := f + V⋅ k 2 K1 = 0.622 3 eqns. (cA2) f = 100 lbmole gal gal min lbmole gal cA2 := cA2 = 0.00079 lbmole⋅ min gal 2 K3 = 0.222 τ 2 = 1. 2 d ⋅ cA2( t ) unks.006123 cAi − cA1 K2 := f + V⋅ k 1 f K5 := f + V⋅ k 2 lbmole⋅ min gal 2 where τ 1 := τ 2 := τ 1 = 2.429 min Laplace transform: CA1( s) = K4 = 0.
CA2( s) CA2 set = Ksp ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ G1 ( s) 1 + H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ G1 ( s) CA2( s) Fi ( s) CA2( s) C Ai( s) = G2 ( s) 1 + H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ G1 ( s) G3 ( s) 1 + H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ G1 ( s) ⋅ ( s) = .CA2( s) = K4 ⋅ FA( s) + K4 ⋅ Fi ( s) + K5 ⋅ C A1( s) τ 2⋅ s + 1 Combine to obtain overall transfer function: CA2( s) = τ2 (FA( s) + Fi( s) ) + ⋅s + 1 K4 (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ( K5 K1 ⋅ FA( s) + K2 ⋅ Fi ( s) + K3 ⋅ C Ai( s) ) CA2( s) = G1 ( s) ⋅ FA( s) + G2 ( s) ⋅ Fi ( s) + G3 ( s) ⋅ CAi( s) where G1 ( s) = K4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 + K5 ⋅ K1 (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ( ) G2 ( s) = K4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 + K5 ⋅ K2 (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ( ) G3 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) K5 ⋅ K3 Block diagram: CAi(s) Fi(s) CA2set(s) Ksp G3(s) G2(s) G1(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s) KT + + + FA(s) CA2(s)  Control valve: Gv ( s) = Kv Transmitter: H( s) = τ T⋅ s + 1 100%TO %TO⋅ gal KT := KT = 222 lbmole cAH − cAL Ksp := KT (d) Closedloop transfer functions.
89 min −τ A⋅ ω u i − τ B ⋅ ω u + τ C + τ D⋅ Kcu ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kp ⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0 ⋅ i Real part: −τ B⋅ ω u + 1 + Kp ⋅ Kcu = 0 3 2 ( ) Kcu = τ B⋅ ω u − 1 Kp 2 Imaginary part: 2 τ B⋅ ω u − 1 −τ A⋅ ω u + τ C + τ D⋅ ωu = 0 Kp ω u := τ D − Kp ⋅ τ C τ D⋅ τ B − τ A⋅ Kp −1 ω u = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Proportional controller: Characteristic equation: Let 1+ KT τ T⋅ s + 1 ⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 + K5 ⋅ K1 (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ) τ B = 5 min 2 ( ) Gc( s) = Kc =0 3 τ A := τ T⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 τ B := τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 Kp := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K4 + K5 ⋅ K1 τ C := τ 1 + τ 2 + τ T τ A = 1. this decreases the reactants flow and the composition of reactants. . closing the reactant feed valve. with the lag in the transmitter.(e) Ultimate gain and period of the loop.953 Substitute s = ωu i at Kc = K cu 3 2 τ D = 0. that is. This is because the net order of the process is onetwo poles and one zeroand. the loop is stable for all positive values of the gain.587 min τ D := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K4 ⋅ τ 1 ( τ C = 4. the order is two. The controller is reverse acting: increasing reactants composition decreases the controller output.151 min Kp = 0. An order of at least three is needed to have an ultimate gain. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.021i min The imaginary value of the ultimate frequency means that there is no ultimate gain.
Steam TT f Model the process. 3 unks. T 3 ) = f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 ( t ) − Tref + λ ⋅ ws( t ) − f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T4 ( t ) − Tref ρ ⋅ f1 + ρ ⋅ f2 = ρ ⋅ f f = f1 + f2 ( ) Total mass balance on tank 1: 2 eqns. 2 unks. (T 4 ) 3 eqns. Energy balances.Smith & Corripio. (f. T4set(t) TC f1 T1(t) f2 T2(t) f Tc1(t) T3(t) Cond. 3 unks. Substitute and simplify: . T4(t) Assumptions: • Constant volumes in the tanks • Each tank is perfectly mixed • Negligible heat losses • Heating coil temperature T c1 is uniform (high flow of heating fluid) • • Constant and uniform densities and specific heats Negligible transportation lag. Temperature control of two heaters in series. 3rd edition Problem 623. Tank 1: V1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ d ⋅ T3 ( t ) dt = f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 ( t ) − Tref + f2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T2 ( t ) − Tref + U ⋅ A ⋅ Tc1( t ) − T3 ( t ) −f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 ( t ) − Tref ( ) ( ) ( ) Tank 2: V2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ d ⋅ T4 ( t ) dt ( ) ) ( 1 eqn.
V1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ V2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ d ⋅ T3 ( t ) dt d ⋅ T4 ( t ) dt = f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 ( t ) − T3 ( t ) + f2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T2 ( t ) − T3 ( t ) + U⋅ A⋅ Tc1( t ) − T3 ( t ) = f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 ( t ) − T4 ( t ) + λ ⋅ ws( t ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Linearize and express in terms of the deviation variables: d ⋅ Γ 3 ( t) V1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ = f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ 1 ( t ) + f2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ 2 ( t ) + U⋅ A⋅ Γ c1( t ) − f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A Γ 3 ( t ) dt ( ) V2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ d ⋅ Γ 4 ( t) dt = f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ 3 ( t ) + λ ⋅ W( s) − f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ 4 ( s) Rearrange into firstorder standard form: τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ where d⋅ Γ 3( t) dt d⋅ Γ 4( t) dt + Γ 3 ( t ) = K1 ⋅ Γ 1 ( t ) + K2 ⋅ Γ 2 ( t ) + K3 ⋅ Γ c1( t ) + Γ 4 ( t ) = Γ 3 ( t ) + K4 ⋅ W( s) V1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv K1 := f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A K2 = f2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A K3 := Γ 3(0) = 0 Γ 4(0) = 0 U⋅ A f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A τ1 = f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ A V2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp τ2 = K4 = λ f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp Laplace transform and solve for the outputs: Γ 3 ( s) = K1 ⋅ Γ 1 ( S) + K2 ⋅ Γ 2 ( s) + K3 ⋅ Γ c1( s) τ 1⋅ s + 1 Γ 4 ( s) = Γ 3 ( s) + K4 ⋅ W( s) τ 2⋅ s + 1 Γ 4 ( s) = G1 ( s) Γ 1 ( s) + G2 ( s) Γ 2 ( s) + G3 ( s) Γ c1( s) + G4 ( s) ⋅ W( s) G1 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) K4 K1 G2 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) K2 G3 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) K3 G4 ( s) = τ 2⋅ s + 1 Kv Control valve: Gv ( s) = τ v⋅ s + 1 .
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Temperature transmitter TT: H( s) = KT τ T⋅ s + 1 100%TO KT = TH − TL Ksp = KT Block Diagram: 'c1(s) G (s) 3 '2(s) '1(s) '4set(s) Ksp G2(s) G1(s) + E(s) M(s) Gc(s) Gv(s) H(s) W(s) G4(s)  ++ + '4(s) + Characteristic equation of the loop. 1 + H( s) ⋅ Gc( s) ⋅ Gv ( s) ⋅ G4 ( s) = 1 + 3 KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Gc( s) Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 τ 2⋅ s + 1 ⋅ K4 =0 τ T⋅ τ v ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ T⋅ τ v + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ v ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ T + τ v + τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 + KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K4 ⋅ Gc( s) = 0 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. ( ) 2 ( ) .
specific heats.178 ft CM := wm⋅ L⋅ cpm Ao = 127. .5in Ao := π ⋅ Do ⋅ L (20 BWG) L := 974ft 2 lb wm := 0.805 Level transmitter: Temperature transmitter: h H := 10ft τ LT := 0. saturated at 115 psig (130 psia).Smith & Corripio.5min TL := 100degF TH := 300degF (a) Size control valves for 50% overcapacity. 3rd edition Problem 624.12 BTU lb⋅ degF BTU degF Heating coil: Do := 0. from steam tables: p 2 := 40psia p 1 := 45psig p 3 := 15psig U := 136 Ts1 := 347degF BTU hr⋅ ft degF 2 λ s := 873 BTU lb gal f1 := 100 min cpm := 0. Assume • Perfectly mixed tank • Constant and uniform densities.5 ft h L := 7ft CM = 20.45 BTU lb⋅ degF Steam.01min τ TT := 0. T3set(t) TC TT Steam p2 = 40 psia 3 ft AO N2 hset(t) LC LT fs(t) h(t) 5 ft AO T1(t) p1(t) T Condensate Problem Data: ρ := 53 lb ft 3 vp2(t) T3(t) p3(t) T1 := 70degF T3 := 200degF D := 3ft cp := 0. and steam latent heat • The metal is at the same temperature as the condensing steam • Negligible heat losses and transpotation lags • Constant pressure drop across the steam valve. Temperature and level control of oil heater.
a 2in valve is required. C10. f3 ) 2 Valves: 1 ft f1 ( t ) = C v1max⋅ vp1 ( t ) ⋅ ⋅ p 1 ( t ) − p 2 − ρ ⋅ g ⋅ ( h ( t ) − 5 ⋅ ft) ⋅ ⋅ Gf 12 in .2 Cv1max := 46 From Fig.7psia − p 2 − ρ ⋅ g ⋅ ( h − 5ft) ⋅ 12in 2 h := (steam tables) hH + hL 2 h = 8.48gal ft 3 ⋅ρ⋅ d⋅ h ( t) dt = ρ ⋅ f1 ( t ) − ρ ⋅ f3 ( t ) 1 eqn. a 3in valve is required. a 3in valve is required.At the initial steady state: f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 − T1 f3 := f1 −f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 − T1 + ws⋅ λ s = 0 lb ws = 47. Size steam valve: p s1 := 130psia y := 1.621 y = 0.43 psi Cv2max = 37. page 532. Cvsmax := 110 min⋅ psi (b) Block diagram of the level control loop.9 ⋅ p s1 − p s p s1 ws 60min scf fs := 380scf ⋅ fs = 60138 18lb hr hr Cvsmax := 150 ⋅ %⋅ fs⋅ G⋅ Ts1 + 460 ⋅ R C f ⋅ p s1 ⋅ y − 0. 3 unks.1. f1 .5 min Ts = 343.4 gal min⋅ psi gal From Fig.148 ⋅ y ( ( 3 ) ) gal⋅ hr 836 ⋅ min⋅ scf ⋅ psia R Cvsmax = 50. Mass balance: π⋅D 4 2 ⋅ 7. C10.41 psi gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ psi ρ ⋅ ft Gf := 62.1. page 532.5 ft ∆p v1 = 18.1. page 532.42 Cv2max := 46 Assume Cf := 0. C10.4lb 3 Cv1max := 150%⋅ f1 ⋅ Gf ∆p v1 Cv1max = 32.7 gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ psi Cv2max := 150%⋅ f3 ⋅ Gf ∆p v2 From Fig.7psia 12in 2 ( ) ∆p v2 = 13. (h. Size exit oil valve: ft ∆p v2 := p 2 + ρ ⋅ g ⋅ h ⋅ − p 3 + 14.63 Cf G := 18 29 G = 0.4 degF p s := 123psia ( ) ws := ( ) ws⋅ λ s Ts := T3 + U⋅ Ao λs ws⋅ λ s − U⋅ Ao ⋅ Ts − T3 = 0 ( ) Size inlet oil valve: Assume initially the level is at 50% of the level transmitter range: ft ∆p v1 := p 1 + 14.
467 vp2 = 0.2 eqns.48gal d ⋅ H( t ) ⋅ = f1max⋅ VP 1 ( t ) − f3max⋅ VP 2 ( t ) + a1 ⋅ P1 ( t ) − a3 ⋅ H( t ) + a2 ⋅ P3 ( t ) − a4 ⋅ H( t ) 3 dt ft where a1 = δf1 ( t ) δp 1 a2 = −δf3 ( t ) δp 3 a3 = −δf1 ( t ) δh a4 = δf3 ( t ) δh f1 vp1 := f1max f3 vp2 := f3max 1 Gf ⋅ ∆p v1 1 Gf ⋅ ∆p v1 vp1 = 0.547 1 Gf ⋅ ∆p v2 1 a1 := Cv1max⋅ vp1 ⋅ ⋅ 2 1 a3 := −C v1max⋅ vp1 ⋅ ⋅ 2 1 a2 := −C v2max⋅ vp2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅ ( −1 ) ⋅ ρ ⋅ g⋅ ⋅ −ρ ⋅ g ⋅ ft 2 2 144 ⋅ in 1 a4 := Cv2max⋅ vp2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 gal min⋅ psi 1 Gf ⋅ ∆p v2 gal min⋅ ft ft 2 2 144 ⋅ in gal a1 = 2. 3 unks.2 f3max = 182.571 psi τ = 22.37 min⋅ ft Rearrange model equation in standrd firstoder form: τ⋅ where τ := πD 4 2 d ⋅ H( t ) dt + H( t ) = K1 ⋅ VP 1 ( t ) − K2 ⋅ VP 2 ( t ) + K3 ⋅ P1 ( t ) + K4 ⋅ P3 ( t ) H( 0 ) = 0 ⋅ 7.146 psi a2 K4 := a3 + a4 ft K4 = 1. 1 ft f3 ( t ) = C v2max⋅ vp2 ( t ) ⋅ ⋅ p − p3 ( t) + ρ ⋅ g⋅ h ( t) ⋅ ⋅ Gf 2 12 in 2 3 eqns.716 gal min⋅ psi a2 = 3.9 min min Linearize the model equations and express in terms of deviation variables: π⋅D 4 2 ⋅ 7. f1max := Cv1max⋅ ∆p v1 Gf f3max := Cv2max⋅ ∆p v2 Gf gal gal f1max = 214.4 ft Laplace transform: H( s) = 1 τ ⋅s + 1 (K1⋅ VP1(s) − K2⋅ VP2( s) + K3⋅ P1(s) + K4⋅ P3( s) ) .48gal ft 3 1 a3 + a4 f1max K1 := a3 + a4 f3max K2 := a3 + a4 K2 = 77.2 ft a1 K3 := a3 + a4 ft K3 = 1. 3 unks.31 min K1 = 90.723 a3 = 1 a4 = 1.
(w s) 2 eqns. Energy balance on tank: πD 4 2 ⋅ 7. Block diagram of the level control loop: P3(s) P1(s) VP2(s) R(s) K4 K3 K2 K1 100 HLT(s) + E(s)  KLc M1(s) ++ 1 + Js + 1 H(s) (c) Block diagram and characteristic equation of the temperature control loop. (ws) . 3 nks. LC: GLc( s) = KLc The controller is reverse acting: increasing level decreases the controller output closing the valve and decreasing the inlet flow. 3 unks. Ts) Energy balance on steam chest: CM ⋅ d ⋅ Ts( t ) dt = λ s⋅ ws( t ) − U⋅ Ao ⋅ Ts( t ) − T3 ( t ) ) 2 eqns.48gal ft 3 ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ d dt (h( t)⋅ T3(t) ) = f1(t) ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp⋅ (T1( t) − Tref ) + U⋅ Ao⋅ (Ts( t) − T3(t) ) −f3 ( t ) ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T3 ( t ) − Tref ( ) ( 1 eqn.33 Proportional controller.Level control valve: VP 1 ( s) = 1 100%CO KLT M 1 ( s) %TO ft Level transmitter LT: HLT( s) = 100%TO KLT := hH − hL τ LT⋅ s + 1 KLT = 33. 2 unks. (T 3 .
836 ⋅ scf ⋅ min hr⋅ gal R hr 18⋅ lb Cvsmax⋅ C f ⋅ p s1 ⋅ y − 0.475 K1 = 0.48gal ft 3 ⋅h V = 449. 3 unks.148 ⋅ y G⋅ Ts1 + 460R ( 3 ) ( ) 3 3 eqns.021 Laplace transform: Γ 3 ( s) = −K1 ⋅ F1 ( s) + K2 ⋅ Γ 1 ( s) + K3 ⋅ Γ s( s) τ 1⋅ s + 1 Γ s( s) = K4 ⋅ Ws( s) + Γ 3 ( s) τ 2⋅ s + 1 .357 min K2 = 0.148 ⋅ y G⋅ Ts1 + 460R Let wsmax := ⋅ psia 60⋅ min 380 ⋅ scf ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ( ) ( ) lb wsmax = 155.072 min K3 = 0.682 K4 = 3.4 gal Assume cv := cp V⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ CM ⋅ = ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 − T3 F1 ( t ) + f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ Γ 1 ( t ) − Γ 3 ( t ) + U⋅ Ao ⋅ Γ s( t ) − Γ 3 ( t ) ( ) ( ) ( ) d ⋅ Γ s( t ) dt = λ s⋅ Ws( t ) − U⋅ Ao ⋅ Γ s( t ) − Γ 3 ( t ) ( Γ 3(0) = 0 Γ s( 0 ) = 0 Rearrange into standard firstorder form: τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ d⋅ Γ 3( t) dt d ⋅ Γ s( t ) dt + Γ 3 ( t ) = −K1 ⋅ F1 ( t ) + K2 ⋅ Γ 1 ( t ) + K3 ⋅ Γ s( t ) + Γ s( t ) = K4 ⋅ Ws( t ) + Γ 3 ( t ) V⋅ ρ ⋅ cv K1 := where τ 1 := −ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 − T3 ( ) f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ Ao CM U⋅ Ao f1 ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ Ao K2 := f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ Ao K3 := U⋅ Ao f ⋅ ρ ⋅ cp + U⋅ Ao degF⋅ min gal degF⋅ min lb τ 2 := λs K4 := U⋅ Ao τ 1 = 2.525 τ 2 = 0.48⋅ gal ⋅ ⋅ ρ ⋅ cv ⋅ h ( t ) ⋅ = f1 ( t ) ρ ⋅ cp ⋅ T1 ( t ) − T3 ( t ) + U⋅ Ao ⋅ Ts( t ) − T3 ( t ) 4 3 dt ft ( ) ( ) ws( t ) = wsmax⋅ vps( t ) Linearize the equations: d⋅ Γ 3( t) dt Let V := πD 4 2 ⋅ 7.Steam valve: ws( t ) = 836 ⋅ scf ⋅ min hr⋅ gal ⋅ R psia 60⋅ min 380 ⋅ scf ⋅ hr ⋅ 18⋅ lb ⋅ C vsmax⋅ vps( t ) ⋅ Cf ⋅ p s1 ⋅ y − 0.3 min Substitute mass balance into energy balance and simplify: 2 d ⋅ T3 ( t ) π ⋅ D 7.
Combine: Γ 3 ( s) = −G1 ( s) ⋅ F1 ( s) + G2 ( s) Γ 1 ( s) + G3 ( s) ⋅ Ws( s) G1 ( s) = where ( ) (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K3 K1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 G2 ( s) = ( ) (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K3 K2 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 G3 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K3 wsmax Ws( s) = M ( s) 100%CO s HTT( s) = KTT wsmax 100%CO 100%TO KTT := TH − TL s τ DT⋅ + 1 τ IT⋅ s α D⋅ τ DT⋅ s + 1 1 f1max 100%CO K3 ⋅ K4 Steam control valve: Temperature transmitter TT: = 1.5 degF PID controller: GTc( s) = KTc⋅ 1 + Inlet flow: f1max F1 ( s) = M ( s) + a1 ⋅ P1 ( s) − a3 ⋅ H( s) 100%CO 1 = 2.553 lb min⋅ %CO τ TT⋅ s + 1 %TO KTT = 0.142 gal min⋅ psi gal min⋅ %CO a3 = 1 gal min⋅ ft a1 = 2.'1(s) '3set(s) Ksp + E(s)  Ms(s) w Ws(s) smax GTc(s) G3(s) 100 HTT(s) + +  '3(s) Characteristic equation: .716 Block diagram of the temperature control loop: M1(s) P1(s) H(s) f1max 100 a1 a3 + + F1(s) G1(s) G2(s) .
9 %TO Compare these results with the simulation of this process in Problem 1324.692 min %TO Kp = 1.085 min 3 ( ) wsmax Kp := KTT⋅ K ⋅K 100%CO 3 4 3 τ B = 1.384 min τ C = 2.wsmax 1 + HTT( s) GTc( s) ⋅ G ( s) = 1 + 100%CO 3 KTT τ TT⋅ s + 1 wsmax GTc( s) ⋅ 100%CO (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K3 K3 ⋅ K4 =0 (d) Ultimate gain nad period of the temperature control loop. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Proportional controller: GTc( s) = KTc Substitute s = ωu i at KTc = K cu : where −τ A⋅ ω u ⋅ i − τ B ⋅ ω u + τ C⋅ ω u ⋅ i + 1 − K3 + Kp ⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0 ⋅ i τ C := τ TT⋅ 1 − K3 + τ 1 + τ 2 2 3 2 τ A := τ TT⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 τ B := τ TT⋅ τ 1 + τ TT⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 τ A = 0.116 %CO Tu = 1. .069 min 2 Imaginary part: −τ A⋅ ω u + τ C ⋅ ω u = 0 2 ω u := τC τA Kcu := Tu := 2π ωu Real part: −τ B⋅ ω u + 1 − K3 + Kp ⋅ Kcu = 0 K3 − 1 + τ B⋅ ω u Kp %CO Kcu = 38. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.
Valves: ft f1 ( t ) = C v1⋅ ρ w⋅ g ⋅ h 1 ( t ) ⋅ = k v1⋅ h 1 ( t ) 12in . (h 2 .m 1(t) Linear pump with a time constant: f2(t) fmax 1 Fo ( s) = M ( s) 100%CO τ p ⋅ s + 1 1 Gv ( s) = Kv Kv = Cv3⋅ Linear control valve with constant pressure drop and time constant: Level transmitter LT has negligible time constant: ∆p v3 Gf τ v⋅ s + 1 100%TO h max HLT( s) = KT = (a) Block diagram and transfer functions of level control loop. f1 ) = ρ ⋅ f1 ( t ) − ρ ⋅ f2 ( t ) 2 tank 2: π ⋅ D2 4 ⋅ρ⋅ 2 eqns. 4 unks. 3rd edition Problem 625. LC . 2 unks. (h1 .Smith & Corripio. f2 ) 3 eqns.f3(t) h1(t) fo(t) f1(t) h2(t) LT . 4 unks. tank 1: π ⋅ D1 4 2 ⋅ρ⋅ 2 d⋅ h 1( t) dt d⋅ h 2( t) dt = ρ ⋅ fi ( t ) + ρ ⋅ f3 ( t ) − ρ ⋅ fo ( t ) − ρ ⋅ f1 ( t ) 1 eqn. Level control of two tanks in series.fi(t) . Assume • constant and uniform densities • constant valve positions and inlet valve pressures Mass balance.
ft f2 ( t ) = C v2⋅ ρ w⋅ g ⋅ h 2 ( t ) ⋅ = k v2⋅ h 2 ( t ) 12in 2 4 eqns. 4 unks. Linearize the equations and express in terms of deviation variables:: π ⋅ D1 4 2 ⋅ 2 d ⋅ H1 ( t ) dt d ⋅ H2 ( t ) dt = Fi ( t ) + F3 ( t ) − Fo ( t ) − k v1 2⋅ h1 k v2 2⋅ h2 k v1 2⋅ h1 H2 ( t ) H1 ( t ) H1 ( 0 ) = 0 π ⋅ D2 4 ⋅ = H1 ( t ) − H2 ( 0 ) = 0 Rearrangle into the standard firstorder form: τ 1⋅ d ⋅ H1 ( t ) dt d ⋅ H2 ( t ) dt + H1 ( t ) = K1 ⋅ Fi ( t ) + K1 ⋅ F3 ( t ) − K1 ⋅ Fo ( t ) τ 2⋅ π ⋅ D1 ⋅ h 1 2 ⋅ k v1 2 + H2 ( t ) = K2 ⋅ H1 ( t ) π ⋅ D2 ⋅ h 2 2 ⋅ k v2 2 where τ1 = K1 = 2⋅ h1 k v1 K1 τ2 = k v1 h 2 K2 = ⋅ k v2 h 1 Laplace transform: H1 ( s) = τ 1⋅ s + 1 K2 (Fi( s) + F3(s) − Fo( s) ) H1 ( s) = H2 ( s) = τ 2⋅ s + 1 (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ( Fo(s) K1 ⋅ K2 Fi ( s) + F3 ( s) − Fo ( s) ) Block diagram of the level control loop: M1(s) Fi(s) R(s) .fmax 100(Jps+1) + E(s)  KLc M1(s) Gv(s) KT F3(s) + K1K2 + (J1s+1)(J2s+1) H2(s) .
1 + KT⋅ KLC ⋅ Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 τ 1⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ 2⋅ s + 1 Let ( K1 ⋅ K2 )( ) =0 100 ⋅ %TO f3max 2 ⋅ h 2 ⋅ ⋅ h max 100 ⋅ CO k v2 Substitute s = ωu i at KLC = K.cu : 3 Kp = KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K1 ⋅ K2 = 2 −τ v ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ ω u i − τ v ⋅ τ 1 + τ v ⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ω u + τ v + τ 1 + τ 2 ⋅ ω u ⋅ i + 1 + Kp ⋅ Kcu = 0 + 0 ⋅ i Imaginary part: −τ v ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ ω u + τ v + τ 1 + τ 2 ω u = 0 ω u = 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) τv + τ1 + τ2 τ v⋅ τ 1⋅ τ 2 Tu = 2π ωu 2 2 τ v⋅ τ 1 + τ v⋅ τ 2 + τ 1⋅ τ 2 ω u − 1 Real part: − τ v ⋅ τ 1 + τ v ⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ω u + 1 + Kp ⋅ Kcu = 0 Kcu = Kp Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.(b) Characteristic equation and ultimate gain and period. ( ) ( ) .
2 unks. p) 1.Smith & Corripio. lag τT. Controller is PI: Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 p(t) p2 f2(t) x 2(t) Waste gas f3(t) x 3(t) τ I⋅ s f1(t) x 1(t) (a) Block diagram and transfer functions. range hvL to hvH. p( t) Cf f3 ( t ) = ⋅ ( ) Ideal gas law: ρ ( t) = p ( t ) lbmole Rg ⋅ T ft 3 5 eqns.635 × 10 − 3 lbmole scf Substitute. 3 unks. f3 ) (ρ (t) ⋅ x3(t) ) = ρ s⋅ f1( t)⋅ x1( t) + ρ s⋅ f2( t)⋅ x2( t) − ρ s⋅ f3( t)⋅ x3( t) 2 eqns. (ρ. 5 unks. Sensor transmitter. Control of heating value of fuel stream.63 p ( t ) − p 2 y( t) = ⋅ 4 eqns. 5 unks. (x3 ) 836scf ⋅ min hr⋅ gal Exit valve: R hr p ( t) 3 C ⋅C ⋅ y ( t ) − 0. 5 unks. ρ s := 14. range 0 to f2max. 3rd edition Problem 626.148 ⋅ y ( t ) psia 60min v3 f G( t ) ⋅ T 3 eqns. Assume • Gas obeys ideal gas law • Temperature is constant • Perfectly mixed tank Total mole balance: Methane mole balance: V⋅ V⋅ d ⋅ ρ ( t) dt d dt = ρ s⋅ f1 ( t ) + ρ s⋅ f2 ( t ) − ρ s⋅ f3 ( t ) 1 eqn. and express in terms of linearized variables: . linearize the equations. Problem Data: hv( t ) = c + g ⋅ x 3 ( t ) G( t ) = a + b ⋅ x 3 ( t ) hvset(t) AC hv AT Natural gas Fan driver. linear. lag τF.7psia Rg ⋅ 520 R ρ s = 2. (y.
5 Rearrange into standrad firstorder form: τ 1⋅ τ 2⋅ d ⋅ X3 ( t ) dt d ⋅ P( t ) dt V⋅ ρ f3 ⋅ ρ s + X3 ( t ) = K1 ⋅ X1 ( t ) + K2 ⋅ X2 ( t ) − K3 ⋅ F1 ( t ) + K4 ⋅ F2 ( t ) 1 a1 + P( t ) = ⋅ F1 ( t ) + 1 a1 ⋅ F2 ( t ) + a2 a1 X3 ( t ) x3 − x1 f3 K4 = x2 − x3 f3 τ1 = f1 K1 = f3 f2 K2 = f3 1 K3 = τ2 = V Rg ⋅ T⋅ ρ s⋅ a1 Laplace transform: X3 ( s) = τ 1⋅ s + 1 1 (K1⋅ X1(s) + K2⋅ X2( s) − K3⋅ F1(s) + K4⋅ F2( s) ) a2 X ( s) a3 3 HV( s) = g ⋅ X3 ( s) f2max KF = 100%CO P( s) = 1 1 F1 ( s) + a F2 ( s) + τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 a1 1 HV( t ) = g ⋅ X3 ( t ) F2 ( s) = KF Linearize the eating value equation: Variable speed fan: τ F⋅ s + 1 M ( s) .148 ⋅y3) −b 2 a + b⋅ x3 ( ) 1.5 p2 p 2 a2 = −836 scf ⋅ min hr⋅ gal ⋅ R hr psia 60min Cv3⋅ Cf ⋅ p T (y − 0.63 ( ) − 0. and substitute valve equation: V⋅ ρ d ⋅ x 3 ( t ) ⋅ = f1 ⋅ X1 ( t ) + f2 ⋅ X2 ( t ) − f3 ⋅ X3 ( t ) + x 1 − x 3 F1 ( t ) + x 2 − x 3 ⋅ F2 ( t ) dt ρs ( ) ( ) x3( 0) = 0 V R g ⋅ T⋅ ρ s ⋅ d ⋅ P( t ) dt = F1 ( t ) + F2 ( t ) − a1 ⋅ P( t ) + a2 ⋅ X3 ( t ) P( 0 ) = 0 a1 = 836scf ⋅ min hr⋅ gal ⋅ R hr C v3⋅ C f psia 60min p − p2 y − 0.V Rg ⋅ T ⋅ d ⋅ P( t ) dt = ρ s⋅ F1 ( t ) + ρ s⋅ F2 ( t ) − ρ s⋅ F3 ( t ) V⋅ x 3 d ⋅ P( t ) V⋅ P d ⋅ x 3 ( t ) ⋅ + ⋅ = ρ s⋅ f1 ⋅ X1 ( t ) + f2 ⋅ X2 ( t ) − f3 ⋅ X3 ( t ) + x 1 ⋅ F1 ( t ) + x 2 ⋅ F2 ( t ) − x 3 ⋅ F3 ( t ) Rg ⋅ T dt Rg ⋅ T dt δ ⋅ f3 ( t ) −δ ⋅ f3 ( t ) where F3 ( t ) = a1 ⋅ P( t ) − a2 ⋅ X3 ( t ) a1 = a2 = δp δx 3 ( ) Combine total and methane balances.148 ⋅ y Cf ⋅ 2 p G⋅ T 3 2 1.148 ⋅ y + p ⋅ 1 − 3 ⋅ 0.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. decreasing the heating value. this decreases the fan speed and the flow of natural gas.Heating value transmitter: H( s) = KT τ T⋅ s + 1 100%TO KT = hvH − hvL Ksp = KT Block diagram of the heating value control X1(s) X2(s) F1(s) HVset(s) K1 K2 K3 Ksp + E(s) Gc(s)  M(s) K K F 4 JFs + 1 H(s) ++ + g J1s + 1 HV(s) The controller must be reverse acting (negative gain): increasing heating value decreases the controller output. (b) Characteristic equation of the loop. 1+ KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Gc( s) ⋅ KF K4 τ F⋅ s + 1 τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 1 I =0 (τ T⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ F⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 1⋅ s + 1) + KT⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + τ ⋅ s ⋅ KF⋅ K4 = 0 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .
3rd edition %TO := % %CO := % Kd := K Problem 71.2 %CO Kc = 6.29 min %CO Kcu = 15. Gc( s) = Kc From Table 71.5 τ 1 := 5min Characteristic equation of the loop: (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 3⋅ s + 1) Ultimate gain and period: Gc( s) = Kcu 3 s = ω u⋅ i 2 −τ A⋅ ω u i − τ B⋅ ω u + τ C⋅ ω u ⋅ i + 1 + KKcu = 0 + 0 ⋅ i where τ A := τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ τ 3 τ B := τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 3 + τ 2 ⋅ τ 3 τ C := τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 τ B = 5.16 min Imaginary part: −τ A⋅ ω u + τ C⋅ ω u = 0 −τ B⋅ ω u + 1 + KKcu = 0 2 3 2 τ A = 0. Feedback control of a thirdorder process.9 %TO .1: Kcu Kc := 2.1: Kc := Kcu 2 %CO Kc = 7.2min K =0 K K := 2. U(s) R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) C(s) G1 ( s) = %TO %CO (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 3⋅ s + 1) τ 2 := 0.Smith & Corripio.8 min τ C = 6 min 3 ω u := τC τA Tu := 2π ωu Tu = 2.5 %TO (b) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a proportionalintegral controller.8min 1 + Gc( s) ⋅ τ 3 := 0.2 τ I := Tu 1.1 %TO Real part: 2 1 Kcu := τ B⋅ ω u − 1 K (a) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a proportional controller. Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s From Table 71.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + τ ⋅s + 1 (D ) τ I⋅ s 1 From Table 71.7 τ I := Tu 2 τ D := Tu 8 %CO Kc = 8.τ I = 1.9 %TO τ I = 1.29 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.1: Kcu Kc := 1.1 min τ D = 0.9 min (c) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a series PID controller. .
0282i τ ⋅ min− 3 A −ζ 1−ζ 2 Damping ratio: = −0.8 min 3 3 2 τ B = 5.16 min 2 τ C = 6 min K = 2.5 %TO Dominant roots are the complex conjugate pair.8883 = −0.9min Roots of: τ A⋅ s + τ B⋅ s + τ C⋅ s + 1 + K⋅ Kc ⋅ s + 4 3 ( ) K⋅ Kc τI =0 . the characteristic equation is: τ A⋅ s + τ B⋅ s + τ C⋅ s + 1 + Gc( s) ⋅ K = 0 with τ A = 0.2808 2. b) PI Controller Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s 2 %CO Kc := 6. a) Proportional controller Gc( s) = Kc %CO Kc := 7.0282⋅ ζ ) 2 = 0. dominant roots.2808 + 2.2808min ⋅T = 0. Feedback control loop of Problem 71. damping ratio and decay ratio. Period: T := 2π 2.2808 0.0282i polyroots τ ⋅ min− 2 B −0.28082(1 − ζ 2) Decay ratio: e − 0.419 The decay ratio is higher than one fourth.5 %TO %CO (a) Roots of the characteritic equation.098 min ζ := 0.137 2 2 − Find the roots: 1 + K⋅ Kc τ C⋅ min− 1 −5.9 %TO τ I := 1.Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 72. From the solution to Problem 71.2808 − 2.0282 ζ = 0.0282min T = 3.0282 −1 (2.2808 + 2.
c) Series PID controller: Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + τ ⋅s + 1 (D ) τ I⋅ s 1 %CO Kc := 8.06 − 1.8814min T = 3.9 %TO τ I := 1.952 polyroots = − 1 −0.372i −2 τ B⋅ min −3 τ A⋅ min Damping ratio: 0. (b) Simulate tye loop and plot responses to a unit step change in set point. extremely high decay ratio.555 − 1 = polyroots τ C⋅ min −0.372 2 2 The dominant roots are the complex conjugate roots.881i −0.881 2 2 The dominant roots are the complex conjugate roots: Period: T := 2⋅ π 1.1min τ D = 0.483 − 2.29 min Roots of: τ A⋅ s + τ B⋅ s + τ C + K⋅ Kc⋅ τ D ⋅ s + 1 + K⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + 4 3 2 ( ) τ D c ⋅s + =0 τI τI K⋅ K K⋅ Kc min τI τ −4.483 + 2.649 min −1 = 0.2 Decay ratio: e − 0.06 + 1. The controller block.483 + 2.06min −1 ⋅T = 0.06 0. The linear loop is simulated with one Simulink transfer function block to simulate the process and another block to simulate the controller.483min −1 ⋅T = 0. K⋅ Kc ⋅ min τ I −5.483 0.25).531 1 + K⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + D τ I −0.372min T = 2.06 + 1.34 min −1 = 0.776 1 + K⋅ Kc −0.032 Decay ratio: e − 0.372i ( τ C + K⋅ Kc⋅ τ D) min −0.818 This is a very undamped response.278 This close to the desired decay ratio of one fourth (0.881i τ B⋅ min− 2 τ A⋅ min− 3 Damping ratio: 0. Period: T := 2⋅ π 2. is obtained from . G c(s).
The set point input. is a step input that changes from 0 to 1 at time = 1 min. R(s). using the tuning parameters determined in Problem 72. The Simulink block diagram for the loop is: The plots for the three controllers. f0403PI (Fig.5) All the initial conditions in the controller models are zero.• P controller: a simple proportional gain • PI controller: from the Public Model Library.3) • Series PID controller: Public Model Library. 134. so that it can be negative. f0405PIDs (Fig. are: . The limits on the controller output must be changed to 100%CO to 100%CO for this linear system. 134.
Notice how the periods of oscillation and decay ratios closely match the analytical results of part (a) of this problem. and series PID (green). PI (purple). . The proportional controller shows a very small offset: 1%TO 1 + K⋅ Kc = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.The responses are for the proportional (gold).043 %TO Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.
3 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.323 ⋅ Pu %CO Kc = 1. U(s) R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) C(s) G1 ( s) = ( K⋅ e − t0⋅ s τ 1⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ 2⋅ s + 1 )( ) K := 1.861 τ I := τ´ 1. 72.33⋅ t0e PI controller: Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 t0e := t´0 + t0 %CO Kc = 1.7 %TO τ I = 1.986 τ I := P 0.39 min Pu := t0e τ´ Pu = 0.758 K Pu − 0.32 min t´0 := 0.39⋅ τ 1 t´0 = 0.447 (the deadtime equivalent is added to the actual dead time) τ I⋅ s (a) PI controller tuned for quarterdecay ratio response From Table 72.608 u τ´ 0.707 %CO Kc = 1.1: 0.25 %TO %CO τ 1 := 1min τ 2 := 0.3: Kc := 0. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1: 0.32⋅ τ 1 τ´ = 1.Smith & Corripio. 3rd edition Problem 73.2 %TO τ I = 1.9 − 1 Kc := P K u τ I := 3.5 − 1 Kc := P K u τ I := τ´ %CO Kc = 0.2 min (c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on setpoint inputs.2: Kc := 0.6 t0 := 0.6min τ2 = 0.20min First order plus deadtime parameters from Fig.6 %TO τ I = 2 min (b) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.8: τ1 τ´ := 1.984 Pu K − 0. From Table 72.5 min (d) PI controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a setpoint chang From Table 74. From Table 72.89 %TO τ I = 1. Feedback control of a secondorder plus deadtime process.02 − 0.
1.3 min τ´D = 0. series: K´c := P K u τ´I := 2 ⋅ t0e τ´D := 0.9 min τ D = 0.914 τ´ τ I = 1. τ D := 0.7 0.749 %CO Kc = 2.3 min τ´D Parallel PID: Kc := K´c⋅ 1 + τ´I τ I := τ´I + τ´D τ D := %CO τ = 1.3 min τ´I⋅ τ´D τ´I + τ´D %CO Kc = 2. From Table 74.3: For parallel PID.7 τ = 1.24 min τ I = 0.5⋅ t0e Parallel PID: Kc := K´c⋅ 1 + K´c = 2.6 min τ´I + τ´D Kc = 1. From the solution to Problem 73: Series PID: Gc( s) = K´c⋅ 1 + 1 τ´ := 1.086 Pu K − 0.82 min τ D = 0.2 min τ´D = 0.22 min (d) PID controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a setpoint change.921 τ I := P 0. From Table 72.447 + τ D⋅ s ⋅ τ´ ⋅ s + 1 Parallel PID: ( D ) τ´I⋅ s 1. 3rd edition Problem 74.1 %TO I τ D = 0.878 u τ´ 0.89 %CO %TO τ´I = 1.740 − 0.5 min %TO I τ D = 0.Smith & Corripio.5 P K u −1 t0e τ´I := τ´ τ´D := 2 τ´I⋅ τ´D K´c = 0.482 ⋅ τ´ Pu 1.32min t0e := ( 0. From Table 72. .24 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.869 τ I := %CO Kc = 1.2: For parallel PID. series: K´c := 0.435 Pu K − 0. Process of Problem 73 with PID controller.2)min Pu := t0e τ´ 1 τ I⋅ s Pu = 0.4 %TO τ D := 0.130 ⋅ Pu %TO 0.39 + 0.2 −1 Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + (a) PID controller tuned for quarterdecay ratio response From Table 72. Kc := 1.137 (c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on setpoint inputs. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1.25 min τ´D τ´I τ I := τ´I + τ´D τ D := (b) PID controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.348 ⋅ τ´ Pu Kc := 1.1 %CO %TO τ´I = 1.
39 + 0. Process of Problem 73 with sampleddata PI controller. From Table 72.984 K Pu − 0.3 min (c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on setpoint inputs.707 P 0. From Table 72. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.986 τ I := τ´ 0.1 min (b) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.5 − 1 Kc := P K u τ I := τ´ %CO Kc = 0. .5 min (d) PI controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a setpoint chang From Table 74.2: Kc := 0.1 %TO τ I = 1.1: 0.1: 0. 72.6 %TO τ I = 1.02 − 0.2)min + Gc( s) = Kc⋅ 1 + 1 Pu = 0.758 Pu K − 0.608 u %CO Kc = 1.Smith & Corripio.32min t0e Pu := τ´ Use Eq.1min From the solution to Problem 73: T 2 τ´ := 1.485 τ I⋅ s (a) PI controller tuned for quarterdecay ratio response From Table 72. 3rd edition Problem 75.3 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 %TO τ I = 2.9 − 1 Kc := P K u τ I := 3.82 %TO τ I = 1.3: Kc := 0.18: PI controller: t0e := ( 0. Sample time: T := 0.861 τ I := τ´ 1.323 ⋅ Pu %CO Kc = 1.33⋅ t0e %CO Kc = 1.
To eliminate the deadtime compensation term use the Padé approximation: 1− = 1+ t0 2 t0 2 s 1−e s 1+ = t0 2 ⋅s − 1 + t0 2 s t0 2 s = e − t0⋅ s − t0⋅ s t0⋅ s 1+ t0 2 ⋅s 1+ Substitute: . 3rd edition Problem 76. G( s) = Dahlin synthesis formula: C( s ) (τ 1⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) C( s) R( s) = e − t0⋅ s K⋅ e − t0⋅ s Gc( s) = G( s) 1 R( s ) 1− C( s) R( s) τ c⋅ s + 1 Substitute: (τ 1⋅ s + 1) (τ 2⋅ s + 1) G ( s) = c K⋅ e − t0⋅ s e − t0⋅ s − t0⋅ s τ c⋅ s + 1 − e This is a PID controller with deadtime compensation. Controller Synthesis for the process of Problem 73. (a) Assuming no dead time.Smith & Corripio. G( s) = Dahlin syntheis formula: τ 1⋅ s + 1 τ 2⋅ s + 1 τ1 1 1 1 1 + 1 τ ⋅s + 1 Gc( s) = = ⋅ = 2 K G( s) τ c⋅ s τ c⋅ s K⋅ τ c τ 1⋅ s (τ 1⋅ s + 1) ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) ) ( ) K ( )( Compare with the series PID controller: Gc( s) = K´c⋅ 1 + τ´ ⋅ s + 1 ( D ) τ´I⋅ s 1 τ´D = τ 2 K´c = τ1 K⋅ τ c τ´I = τ 1 (b) Secondorder plus dead time.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Gc( s) = ( τ 1⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ 2⋅ s + 1 K )( )⋅ 1+ t0 2 ⋅s = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ 20 s + 1 K⋅ s⋅ τ c + t0 + t t0 τ c⋅ s⋅ 1 + s + t0 ⋅ s 2 τ c⋅ t 0 2 s τe = ⋅s + 1 τ1 1 2 Gc( s) = ⋅1 + ⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1)⋅ τ e⋅ s + 1 K⋅ ( τ c + t0 ) τ 1⋅ s t0 2 ⋅ τ c + t0 ( τ c⋅ t 0 ) This is a series PID controller with a leadlag unit attached. The corresponding tuning parameetrs are: K´c = τ1 K⋅ τ c τ´I = τ 1 τ´D = τ 2 t0 and a second derivative with τ´D2 = 2 In practice astandard PID controller is used with the tuning parameters of Problem 74. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .
they should also observe the time response of the controller output and the controlled variable. Students are encouraged to adjust the controller parameters to minimize the IAE. and the limits on the controller output are set to 100 to 100%CO to allow the output to go negative. However.6s2 + 1.6s + 1 Two additional blocks have been added to calculate the integral of the absolute value of the error. For this linear system all the initial conditions are zero.Smith & Corripio.6). f406PIDp (Fig. 3rd edition Problem 77. 134. Simulation of the control loop of Problem 73. The Simulink diagram is: (τ 1⋅ s + 1)(τ 2⋅ s + 1) = 0. A sample plot to a unit step change in set point at 1 minute is: . To simulate the loop use • a Simulink transfer function block • a Simulnk time delay block • a parallel PID controller from the Public Model Library.
8 %TO τ I := 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.9min τ D := 0. .22min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.The PID tuning parameters for minimum IAE on set point changes (Problem 74(c)) were used: %CO Kc := 1.
2 %CO Kc = −114 %TO τ I = 2. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. From the solution to Problem 611: %CO Kcu := −250 %TO Tu := 3.1: Kcu Kc := 2. 3rd edition Problem 78. .Smith & Corripio. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.2 The negative gain means the controller is direct acting. Quarter decay tuning of PI controller for the blender of Problem 611.01min τ I := Tu 1.5 min PI controller quarterdecay tuning from Table 71.
1.1%TO 5%CO K = 2.5 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.383 %TO t2 := ( 10 − 1 )min τ := 1. In Problem 612 we found that there is no ultimate gain for reactor temperature control loop when the cooling water is the manipulated variable. Quarter decay tuning of PID controller for the reactor of Problem 612.02 By fit 3 (twopoint method): 0.2 t0 −1 Kc := K τ τ I := 2 ⋅ t0 τ D := t0 2 %CO Kc = 1. . the quarterdecay ratio tuning parameters for a series PID controller are: 1.2 %TO τ I = 6 min τ D = 1. 3rd edition Problem 79.5 t2 − t1 t0 := t2 − τ %TO %CO ( ) τ = 6 min t0 = 3 min From Table 72.632 ⋅ 10. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1%TO = 6. the openloop response to a 5%CO step change at 1 minute is: Gain: K := 10. By simulation of the linear loop.Smith & Corripio.1%TO = 2.283 ⋅ 10.858 %TO t1 := ( 6 − 1 )min 0.
8 %TO τ I = 2 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.2 min t0 = 0.078 %TO t2 := ( 5.17 %TO t1 := ( 3 − 1 )min 0. 3rd edition Problem 710. By simulation of the linear approximation.2%TO 5%CO K = −2. In Problem 614 we found that there is no ultimate gain for the composition control loop. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.632 ( −11.2%TO) = −3.1: Kc := K 0.2%TO) = −7.8 − 1 )min τ := 1. .283 ( −11. Quarter decay tuning of a PI controller for the threetank process of Problem 614.24 Fit 3 (twopoint method): 0. the response to a step change of 5%CO at 1 min is: Gain: K := −11.9 t0 −1 τ τ I := 3.Smith & Corripio.6 min From Table 72.33t0 %CO Kc = −2.5 t2 − t1 t0 := t2 − τ %TO %CO ( ) τ = 4.
5 − 1 )min 0.632 ⋅ ∆c = 15. the openloop parameters cannot be easily determined analytically. and decay ratio.33⋅ t0 %CO Kc = 0. Because of the complex combination of poles and zeros. Quarter decay tuning of a PI controller for the reactors of Problem 617. damping ratio. 3rd edition Problem 711.75 mi From Table 72.77 %TO τ I = 9. From the solution to Problem 317. This problem is solved by simulation in Problem 1323.2 min Roots of the characteristic equation.1: Kc := K 0. the characteristic equation is: 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ 1 + 1 τ I⋅ s ⋅ Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 ⋅ KA + KB⋅ τ ⋅ s + K3 ⋅ τ ⋅ s 2 2 (τ ⋅ s + 1)3 %TO⋅ gal lb =0 where τ := 5min τ v := 0.Smith & Corripio.168 %TO t2 := ( 15 − 1 )min τ := 1.8 %TO %CO Twopoint method: 0.9 t0 −1 τ τ I := 3. where the following openloop response to a step increase of 5%CO at 1 minute is obtained: From this response we get: ∆c := ( 74 − 50)%TO K := ∆c 5%CO K = 4.25 m t0 = 2.792 %TO t1 := ( 7. In Problem 617 we found that there is no ultimate gain for the composition control loop.5⋅ t2 − t1 t0 := t2 − τ ( ) τ = 11.46 min⋅ %CO .1min KT := 100 gal Kv := 2.283 ⋅ ∆c = 6.
Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.082 −3 τ A min τ ⋅ τ 3 min− 4 v T = 38.39 −1 τ min = −0.293 min τ C = 22.164 Decay ratio: e 2 2 −1 KL ⋅ min τ I τE −9.0075 lb⋅ min gal 2 KB := 0. A higher controller gain is indicated by these results.164min Damping ratio: 0.5 min 3 4 KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KB⋅ τ τI 2 τ A = 132.176 min Roots of the characteristic equaton: The dominant root is a real root with time constant: −1 = 12.112 − 0.112 + 0.112 + 0.112 0.3 min = 0.0075 lb⋅ min gal 2 K3 := 0.164i τ B min −0.5 min τ B = 88.082 min There is also a comlex conjugate root with period: T := 2π 0.164i polyroots C −2 −0.564 − 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.188 τ B := 3 ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ + 3τ + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K3 ⋅ τ τ E := 1 + KL + 3 2 τ C := τ v + 3τ + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KB⋅ τ τ v ⋅ τ = 12.014 There is essentially no oscillation in the response.905 −0. . The response is complete in less than one complete oscillation.112 min −1 T = 0.415 τ E = 3.2 min −1 −0. Students should verify this with the simulation of Problem 1323 and experiment with other tuning parameters.KA := 0.0025 lb⋅ min gal 2 s⋅ τ v ⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 3 ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 3 ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ s + ( )( 3 3 2 2 ) ⋅ K + K ⋅ τ ⋅ s + K ⋅ τ 2⋅ s2 = 0 A B 3 τI 1 KL τI 2 τ v ⋅ τ ⋅ s + τ A⋅ s + τ B⋅ s + τ C⋅ s + τ E⋅ s + where τ A := 3 ⋅ τ v ⋅ τ + τ 2 3 3 5 4 3 2 =0 KL := KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ KA KL = 1.
36 min⋅ %CO Gp ( s) = Kp τ p⋅ s + 1 τ p := 7.5 kscf Ultimate gain and period: %CO Kcu := −15.2s Ksc τ sc⋅ s + 1 PC m(t) SC Gsc( s) = τ sc := 2.91s Quarterdecay ratio tuning parametes for a PI controller: From Table 71.1: τ I := %CO Kc = −7. From the solution to Problem 618: 4 1− KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Kc⋅ 1 + 1 Ksc Kp τ I⋅ s τ sc⋅ s + 1 τ p ⋅ s + 1 =0 KL τI τ T⋅ τ sc⋅ τ p ⋅ s + τ T⋅ τ sc + τ T⋅ τ p + τ sc⋅ τ P ⋅ s + τ T + τ sc + τ p s + 1 − KL s − where KL := KT⋅ Kc⋅ Ksc⋅ Kp KL = −6.2 Tu 1.2 Tu := 8. 3rd edition kscf := 1000ft 3 Problem 712.505 ( ) 3 ( )2 ( ) =0 Find roots: .9 %TO Kcu Kc := 2.5s fc(t) Discharge ps(t) Suction fi(t) psi⋅ min Kp := 0.Smith & Corripio.4 s Roots of the characteristic equation.2 %TO τ I = 7. and decay ratio. Control of suction pressure for compressor of Problem 618. damping ratio.5s kscf Steam PT Ksc := 0. From the solution to Problem 618: KT %TO H( s) = KT := 5 psi τ T⋅ s + 1 τ T := 1.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.498i −0.036 0.036 + 0.635 The damping ratio is too low and the decay ratio is too high.−KL sec τI −1.036 + 0.498i ( τ T⋅ τ sc + τ T⋅ τ p + τ sc⋅ τ p) sec− 2 −3 τ T⋅ τ sc⋅ τ p ⋅ sec Damping ratio: 0.036 − 0.498 2 2 The dominant roots are the complex conjugate pair.135 = −1 polyroots τ T + τ sc + τ p ) sec ( −0. To reduce the oscillations a smaller gain is required.498sec −1 T = 12. . The period of the oscillations is: T := 2π 0.072 Decay ratio: e − 0.62 s = 0.16 1 − KL −0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.036sec −1 ⋅T = 0.
008 min⋅ %CO H( s) = KT τ T⋅ s + 1 τ T := 0.94 degC ⋅ min fc(t) Tci K4 := 0. Temperature control of stirredtank cooler of Problem 619.1min m 3 τ FC⋅ s + 1 TC TT f(t) Ti(t) m(t) Tc(t) KFC := 0.725 K3 := 28. 3r edition From the solution to Problem 619: GFC( s) = KFC degC := Kd Problem 713.525 Ultimate gain and period: %CO Kcu := −86.77min τ 2 := 3. and decay ratio. Tset(t) τ FC := 0.2 τ I := Tu 1. damping ratio.03min K2 := 0.2 %CO Kc = −39 %TO τ I = 6.7 %TO Tu := 8. Kcu Kc := 2.6min %TO KT := 2 degC V SP FC FT G1 ( s) = (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) − K2⋅ K4 T(t) m 3 K2 ⋅ K3 τ 1 := 13.9 min Roots of the characteristic equation.32min Quarterdecay ratio tuning of a PI controller.Smith & Corripio. From the solution to Problem 619: KT τ T⋅ s + 1 5 1− Kc⋅ 1 + 1 KFC τ I⋅ s τ FC⋅ s + 1 τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 3 2 ( )( K2 ⋅ K3 ) =0 τ A⋅ s + τ B⋅ s + τ C⋅ s + τ D⋅ s + τ E s − where τ A := τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 4 KL τI =0 τ B := τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ τ 2 + τ FC⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 + τ T⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 .
23 τ D = 17.512min −1 Tu = 8. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.02 − 0. .512 2 2 Damping ratio: = 0.882 − 1 τ ⋅ min polyroots D = −0.512i −0.039 Decay ratio: e − 0. The period of oscillation is: T := 2π 0.32 min 0.849 ( )( ) KL := KT⋅ Kc⋅ KFC⋅ K2 ⋅ K3 2 τ C = 53.503 min τ C := τ T⋅ τ FC⋅ 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 + τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ FC⋅ τ 1 + τ FC⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 A 3 τ B = 30.214 min ( ) 4 τ D := τ T + τ FC 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 + τ 1 + τ 2 τ E := 1 − K2 ⋅ K4 − KL Find the roots: τ E = 13.993 −1.τ = 2.154 −2 τ C⋅ min −0.02 0.234 min min τ I τ E −9.52 min KL = −13. The controller gain should be decresaed to reduced the very oscillatory behavior.02min −1 ⋅T = 0.02 + 0.02 + 0.512i τ B⋅ min− 3 τ ⋅ min− 4 A −KL The dominant roots are the complex conjugate pair. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.782 The damping ratio is too low and the decay ratio is too high.
006123 K4 := 0.42 min⋅ %CO H( s) = KT cA1(t) V fA(t) fi(t) cAi(t) AC cA2set(t) τ T⋅ s + 1 τ T := 0. From the solution to Problem 622: gal Kv := 1.00127 lbmole⋅ min gal 2 K5 := 0. 3rd edition lbmole := 433.5min %TO⋅ gal KT := 222 lbmole G1 ( s) = K4 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ s + 1 + K5 ⋅ K1 AT (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) lbmole⋅ min gal 2 ( ) DA V LT c A2(t) LC τ 1 := 2.59mole Problem 714. the openloop response to a 5% increase in the controller output is: .Smith & Corripio. Composition control of reactors in series of Problem 622. By simulation.429min K1 := 0.222min τ 2 := 1.286 Quarterdecay tuning parameters for a PI controller. In the solution to Problem 622 we determined that there is no ultimate gain for the analyzer control loop.
3 min t 0 = 0. From the solution to Problem 222: 4 1+ KT τ T⋅ s + 1 Kc⋅ 1 + ⋅ τ ⋅ s + 1 ) + K5 ⋅ K1 K ⋅ K4 ( 1 =0 v τ I⋅ s (τ 1⋅ s + 1)⋅ (τ 2⋅ s + 1) 1 τ T⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ s + τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 s + τ T + τ 1 + τ 2 + τ A s + 1 + KL s + where τ A := KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K4 ⋅ τ 1 KL := KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K4 + K5 ⋅ K1 ( )3 ( )2 ( ) KL τI =0 ( ) τ A = 2.9 t 0 −1 Kc := K τ %CO Kc = 2.5⋅ t 2 − t 1 t 0 := t 2 − τ ( ) τ = 2.555 min KL = 2.9 %TO τ I := 3. damping ratio. and decay ratio.33⋅ t 0 τ I = 2.1: 0.94 %TO %CO Twopoint method: 0.632 ⋅ 4.736 Find the roots: .7 5 K = 0.7%TO = 1.Gain: K := 4.5 − 1 )min 0.33 %TO t 1 := ( 2.283 ⋅ 4.7⋅ %TO = 2.5 min Roots of the characteristic equation.8 min From Table 72.97 %TO t 2 := ( 4 − 1 )min τ := 1.
204 − 1 = polyroots τ T + τ 1 + τ 2 + τ A) min ( −0. .813i + 0. to determine the openloop time constant and dead time. The period of ocillation is: T := 2π 0.00471 The damping ratio is high and the decay ratio is small.435 2 2 = 0.435min −1 T = 14.204 1 + KL −1.371 + 0. The reason is that the quarterdecay ratio formulas are based on fit 1.371 ( τ T⋅ τ 1 + τ T⋅ τ 2 + τ 1⋅ τ 2) min− 2 −3 τ T⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ 2 ⋅ min − 0. not fit 3 (the twopoint method).813i − 0.649 Decay ratio: e − 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. with practically no oscillations. The controller gain should be higher.KL min τI −1.371 0.435i + 0.371 −0.44 min Damping ratio: 0.371 min −1 T = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.435i The dominant roots are the second pair of complex conjugate roots.
AC M AT To incinerator Ferric Chloride Sludge Filtrate Response to a step change of: 0 1 ∆m := 12.0 67.5 Problem data: 10.0 75.1 67.Smith & Corripio.5 29.5 13.6 76.5%CO 1.5 txm := 9.0 72.0 75.5 x min := 55% x max := 95% 17. 3rd edition %TO := % %CO := % Problem 715.9 70.6 75.8 76.6 73.0 75.5 7.9 76.9 74.5 • Second column is outlet % 4.1 76.5 100%TO %TO KT := KT = 2.3 6.3 69.2 76.5 75.3 75.0 75.0 75.5 x max − x min % 25.0 67.0 ∆x in := 0.5 • First column is time in minutes 3.6 68.5 19.9 77. Solid moisture control of a vacuum filter.4 75.5 2.7 76.5 21.5 Transmitter (AT): 15.5 6.0 75.3 71.3 73.7 75.0 75.1 75.3 76.6 74.4 76.5 8.5 33.0 75.5% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 txi := 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 21 25 29 33 75.0 77.0 .6 70.4 67.0 74.5 moisture in the solids 5.0 75.6 67.5 x in := 95% x o := 75% 11.
0 i 10 . ∆x m := txm − txm % 0 .944 % 0.283 ⋅ ∆x i = 75. 1 ∆x i = 2 % K2 := ∆x i ∆x in %TO KT⋅ K2 = 10 % 75. 1 τ 2 := 1. 1 21 .566 − txi 9.47⋅ s + 1 % − 6. 1 txm % + 0. 0 12 .5 t2 − t1 min ( ) t02 := t2 ⋅ min − τ 2 τ 2 = 7.736 − txm 8. 0 m13 . 0 m9 . 0 txm − txm 8. 0 9 .6 %CO 72.64 t2 := txi + tx − txi ⋅ 14 . 1 t1 = 8. 0 14 . twopoint method.283 ⋅ ∆x m = 72.17s .17 min %TO 10e KT⋅ G2 ( s) = 7. 1 15 .66 t2 = 13. 1 t1 = 7. 1 τ 1 := 1.5⋅ s + 1 ∆x i := txi − txi % 0 . 1 20 .944 − txm 12 . 1 − txm 12 .264 − txi 14 . 1 t1 := txm + tx − txm ⋅ 8 .566 % 0. 1 t1 := txi + tx − txi ⋅ 9 .632 ⋅ ∆x m = 69. (a) Block diagram of the moisture control loop.71s 6.736 % 0.47 min t02 = 6.5 t2 − t1 min ( ) t01 := t2 ⋅ min − τ 1 τ 1 = 6. 1 txi % + 0. 1 10 . Xin(s) Xoset(s) KT R(s) + E(s)  G2(s) G1(s) + + Gc(s) M(s) KT Xo(s) C(s) (b) Transfer functions by fit 3.264 % 0. 1 13 .877 t2 = 12. 1 txm % + 0. 0 txm 69. 1 9.6e t01 = 5. 1 ∆x m = −8 % K1 := ∆x m ∆m %TO KT⋅ K1 = −1. 1 txi % + 0.632 ⋅ ∆x i = 76.212 t2 := txm + tx − txm ⋅ 12 . 0 txi − txi 9. 0 txi 76. 1 − txi 14 .71 min %TO %CO − 5.5 min KT⋅ G1 ( s) = −1. 0 i 15 . 0 8 .
902 − K2 ⋅ ∆x in −1 %CO Kc = −0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1: t01 Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 0. filtration becomes more efficient and the moisture content of the product decreases.64 1 + %TO 19⋅ s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9 −1 τ I := 3.33⋅ t01 %CO Kc = −0. From Table 72. (d) Gain of a proportional controller for minimum IAE response and offset to a 1% increase in inlet moisture.878 τ1 The controller must direct acting: an increase in moisture increases the controller output. From Table 72. The loop is difficult to control by feedback control because its ratio of dead time to time constant is high: t01 = 0.64 %TO 0 − K2 ⋅ 1 % 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ K1 %CO Gc( s) = −0.(c) Discuss the controllability of the loop and the controller action.2: set t01 Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 0. .789 % τ I = 19 min (e) Quarterdecay response tuning of a PI controller.64 %TO %CO 1 Gc( s) = −0.64 %TO Offset = KT⋅ ∆x o 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ K1 Offset := Offset = −2 %TO Offset KT = −0. this increases the speed of the pump and the rate of ferric chloride addition.
Smith & Corripio. Composition control of an absorber. y max := 200ppm Air Out AT AC SP Water In Air In NH3 solution (b) Block diagram of the loop and transfer function of each block. assumed linear. 3rd edition Problem 716. gal fmax := 500 min Negligible lag. Transmitter (AT): y min := 0ppm Negligible lag.5 ppm Control valve: gal Kv = 5 min⋅ %CO The control valve fails closed (airtoopen) to prevent overflowing the absorber on instrument power failure. . ppm := 10 −6 (a) Design a control loop to control the air outlet composition. Control valve. Yin(s) Y (s) KT set o G2(s) G1(s) + + R(s) + E(s)  Gc(s) M(s) Kv KT F(s) Yo(s) C(s) Transmitter (AT): 100%TO KT := y max − y min fmax Kv := 100%CO %TO KT = 0. Use fit3 on response data (twopoint method).
1: t01 Kc := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K1 τ 1 1 −1 %CO Kc = −23 %TO %CO Gc( s) = −23 %TO The controller is direct acting (negative gain): increasing outlet gas composition increases the controller output. 0 ) ⋅ y o2⋅ ppm ty 8.05 51.77 50. 1 − ty 3. 0 + ty ( 4.76 51.35 51.46 min 0.283 ⋅ ∆y o y o1 = 50. this opens the valve increasing the flow of water to he absorber and absorbing more ammonia.Response to a step change in inlet water flow of 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ty := 90 100 110 120 130 140 160 180 250 50.30 First column is time in seconds Second column is outlet ammonia ppm ∆y o := ty K1 := ∆f ( 16 . 1 ppm + 0.12 ppm −1 7. 1 )ppm ∆y o = 1. 1 − ty 7.77 50.035 ppm⋅ min gal ∆y o y o1 := ty t1 := ty 0. 1 − ty 0. The ammonia composition in the outlet gas decreases. 1 − ty t2 = 84.77 ppm K1 = −0.77 51.58 t01 = 0. 0 ) ⋅ y o1⋅ ppm ty 4.5 ppm −1 3.95⋅ s + 1 (c) Quarter decay ratio tuning for proportional controller and offset to a setpoint change of ( 60 − 50)ppm = 10 ppm From Table 72. 0 − ty 7. 1 3.48 51.035 e ppm⋅ min gal 0.95 min G1 ( s) = −0.60 50.632 ⋅ ∆y o y o2 = 51.00 50.5 t2 − t1 sec ( ) t01 := t2 ⋅ sec − τ 1 τ 1 = 0. 1 ppm + 0. 1 7.20 51. 0 − ty 3.26 51.46s τ 1 := 1.55 51.00 50.12 • • ∆f := −50 gal min 50. .90 51. 1 − ty t1 = 46.63 51. 0 + ty ( 8.7 y o2 := ty t2 := ty Fit 3 0.
93s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.2 τ´I = 0.3 ppm (d) Quarter decay ratio tuning of series PID controller and offset.Offset := KT⋅ 10ppm 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ Kv ⋅ K1 Offset = 1. . From Table 72.641 %TO Offset KT = 3.93 min −1 τ´I := 2 ⋅ t01 t01 τ´D := 2 K´c = −28 %CO %TO τ´D = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.23s + 1 ) 1 + %TO 0.1: t01 K´c := KT⋅ Kv ⋅ K1 τ 1 1.23 min %CO 1 Gc( s) = −28 ( 0.
Transmitter (TT): Tmin := 300degF Tmax := 500degF Response to step change of: ∆m := 5%CO degF := R SP Process air TC TT 0 0.0 8.6 437.0 First column is time in minutes Second column is temperature in ºF Air Fuel (a) Block diagram of the loop. failsafe position of the valve.5 4.4 434.0 • • 426.0 443.0 425.7 442.0 20.3 436.0 425.5 5.0 4.0 425. Temperature control of a furnace.0 11.4 428.7 441. 3rd edition Problem 717. this closes the valve reducing the fuel flow and the outlet coil temperature.6 432.0 10.0 12.0 9.5 443.0 3.0 435.6 439.4 440.0 14.0 445. The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing temperature decreases the controller output. The control valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent overheating the furnace on instrument power failure. Block diagram of the loop: Fin(s) Toset(s)TC KT EF R(s) + E(s) %TO TC scfh %CO G2(s) G1(s) + Gc(s) M(s) Furnace KT To(s) EF C(s) %TO TT .5 444.Smith & Corripio.0 2.0 tt := 5.0 2.5 6.5 430. and controller action.5 3.1 425.5 1.0 7.
64 degF t2 := tt + tt 11 . From Table 74.8s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purpose only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. 1 degF + 0. 1 12 . 0 7.2 τ´I = 4. 0 6.1s + 1 ) 1 + %TO 3.632∆T T2 = 437. 1 6.66 degF t1 := tt + tt − tt 6. 1 −1 − tt 6.1s + 1 ) 1 + %TO 4.283∆T T1 = 430.1: t01 K´c := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 1.26 min − 2. 0 − tt 11 .8 min −1 τ´I := τ 1 t01 τ´D := 2 K´c = 0. 0 ( 12 .1 min %CO 1 Gc( s) = 0. 0 ) ⋅ T1 ⋅ degF tt 7. 1 − tt t1 = 3.1: t01 K´c := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 0. 1 )degF ( degF + 0.517 T2 := tt 0. Transmitter (TT): 100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin ∆T := tt T1 := tt 0.(b) Transfer functions using fit 3 (twopoint method).76 min t01 = 2. . 1 t2 = 6.5 τ´I = 3.5⋅ t2 − t1 min ( ) t01 := t2 ⋅ min − τ 1 τ 1 = 3.26s %TO 2e KT⋅ G1 ( s) = 3. 0 ) ⋅ T2 ⋅ degF tt −1 − tt 11 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.42 %CO %TO τ´D = 1.5s (d) Synthesis tuning of series PID controller for 5% overshoot.5 min −1 τ´I := 2 ⋅ t01 t01 τ´D := 2 K´c = 1 %CO %TO τ´D = 1. 1 − tt 11 .1 min %CO 1 Gc( s) = 1 ( 1. From Table 72. 1 %TO KT = 0.42⋅ ( 1.5 degF K1 := ∆T ∆m %TO KT⋅ K1 = 2 %CO ( 19 .022 Process by fit 3: τ 1 := 1.76s + 1 %CO (c) Quarter decay ratio tuning of series PID controller. 1 − tt 0.
Temperature control of oil heater of Problem 624.9 %TO Tu := 1. From the solution to Problem 624.56 min τ´D = 0.Smith & Corripio.56s K´c = 23 %CO %TO τ´I = 0. . the ultimate gain and period are: %CO Kcu := 38.7 Tu τ´I := 2 Tu τ´D := 8 %CO 1 Gc( s) = 23 ( 0.116min From Table 71.1: K´c := Kcu 1. T3set(t) TC TT Steam p2 = 40 psia 3 ft AO N2 hset(t) LC LT fs(t) h(t) 5 ft AO T1(t) p1(t) T Condensate vp2(t) T3(t) p3(t) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters of series PID temperature controller TC. 3rd edition Problem 718.14s + 1 ) 1 + %TO 0.14 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Reactants SP TC Steam SP LT LC TT Water Products Problem data: Control valve.4lb 3 Tmax := 350degF Gf = 0. C10. Valve failsafe position and controlle action. equal percentage: Temperature transmitter (TT): Oil density: ρ := 55 lb ft Design conditions: 3 α := 50 ∆p v := 10psi gal fd := 200 min Tmin := 150degF ρ ⋅ ft Gf := 62. Cvmax := 200%⋅ fd ⋅ Gf ∆p v Cvmax = 119 gal min⋅ psi From Fig.881 (constant) ∆T := 4. Temperature control of exothermic catalytic reactor. . p. a 4in valve is required.Smith & Corripio.4degF Tu := 24min T := 275degF gal fpump := 400 min ∆vp := 5% %CO Kcu := 16 %TO Openloop test on temperature loop: Closedloop test on temperature loop: (a) Size control valve for 100% overcapacity. 532. Cvmax := 195 gal min⋅ psi The valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent bypassing too much hot oil on instrument power failure that would overheat the reactor. 3rd edition Problem 719.1.
284 fvmax 1 fpump − fd kv fv := f 1 + k v pump gal fv = 306. (See part (a).5 degF Valve fails closed. this reduces the bypass flow of hot oil decreasing the oil temperature and the reactor temperature.4 v ln( α ) Let k v := Cvmax⋅ gal min⋅ psi ∆p v Gf ⋅ vp = 69.6 % At design conditions: Cv := fd ⋅ vp := 1 + Flow when fully opened: ∆p v fpump − fvmax = Gf fpump − fd Cvmax k v = 3. ∆p va Gf fv = Cv ⋅ fpump − ∆p va = ∆p v ⋅ fpump − Gf ∆p v fv fv = Gf ⋅ fd Cv ln 2 2 Cv = Cvmax⋅ α vp− 1 Cv Cvmax C = 59.The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): an increase in reactor temperature decreases the controller output closing the bypass valve. Fin(s) Tset(s) TC KT EF R(s) + E(s) %TO TC lb/hr %CO G2(s) G1(s) +  Gc(s) M(s) Furnace KT To(s) EF + C(s) %TO TT 100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin ln( α ) ⋅ fd Kv := 100%CO %TO KT = 0. Controller is direct acting. Assume • the pressure drop through the boler tubes varies with the square of oil flow through the tubes • the pump flow is constant as the valve position changes • the pressure drop across the valve is the same as the pressure drop across the boiler tubes.824 min⋅ %CO (d) Calculate the process gain atb design conditions. including the control valve an .) gal Kv = 7. (b) Valve position at design conditions and maximum flow through the valve when fully opened.6 min (c) Block diagram of the loop.
083 Gc( s) = 9.4 ( 3s + 1 1 + %TO s K´c = 9.( ) p g the temperature transmitter. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .1: K´c := %CO %TO 1 τ´I Kcu 1. because the step change is in valve position. (e) Quarter decay tuning parameters for series PID temperature controller.44 %CO g The gain of the valve is included in K1.1: Kc := Kcu 2 %CO Kc = 8 %TO Offset = −1. From Table 71. K1 := ∆T ∆vp K1 = 88 degF g %TO KT⋅ K1 = 0.4 = 0.083 (f) Quarterdecay ratio tuning of proportional temperature controller and offset for a set point change of 10ºF.11 %TO %CO Gc( s) = 8 %TO Offset KT = −2.21 degF Offset := KT⋅ ( −10degF) 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ K1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. From Table 71.7 Tu τ´I := 2 repeats min Tu τ´D := 8 τ´D = 3 min repeats := 1 %CO 0.
75weight% . 3rd edition weight% := % Problem 720. Feed Problem data: Feed := 50000 lb hr x F := 5weight% x min := 10weight% Product x max := 35weight% Open loop step response in feed composition: ∆x F := 0. Composition control of a doubleeffect evaporator SP AC 13 Vapors Vapors Steam SP FC 12 LT 12 SP LC SP LT FT LC 13 AT Cond.Smith & Corripio.
5 22 21.5 21 0 100 200 300 Time.25 24. wt% 23.5 23 22. wt% 23.5 24 Product composition.5 22 21.5 23 22. sec 600 700 800 900 1000 . sec 400 500 600 700 Openloop step response to change in controller output: 25 ∆m := 2.5 24 Product composition.5%CO 24.5 21 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time.
91s %TO KT⋅ K1 = 5.5) weight% = 23. transfer functions.283 ⋅ ( 24.6s ( ) 60sec min t02 := t2 − τ 2 ( min ) 60sec %TO weight% 2.5weight% + 0.08s + 1 %TO KT⋅ K2 = 17.6 min − 1.35 min KT⋅ G2 ( s) = 17.5weight% + 0.28 %CO t1 := 256sec t2 := 419sec τ 1 = 4.08 min KT⋅ G1 ( s) = Change in feed composition: K2 := ( 24.07 weight% 21.5weight% + 0.12e − 2.5)weight% ∆x F K1 = 1. and controller action.7 − 21.7 − 21. The control valve must fail closed (airtoopen) to prevent overheating the evaporator on instrument power failure.52 weight% τ 1 := 1.7 − 21.283 ⋅ ( 24. The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing product composition decreases .5 t2 − t1 ( ) 60sec min t01 := t2 − τ 1 ( min ) 60sec %TO %CO 4.632 ⋅ ( 24.5 t2 − t1 t1 := 143sec t2 := 237sec τ 2 = 2.35s + 1 Note: Students should be encouraged to try also fits 1 and 2 and compare the answers.5)weight% ∆m weight% K1 = 1.7 − 21.12 %CO 21.7 − 21.5) weight% = 22.(a) Block diagram of the composition control loop.632 ⋅ ( 24.07e t02 = 1.28 t01 = 2.91 min 5.41 weight% 21.52 weight% τ 2 := 1. cntrol valve fa safe position.5) weight% = 23.41 weight% 21.5) weight% = 22. XF(s) Xset(s) AC wt% KT R(s) + E(s) %TO AC wt% G2(s) G1(s) AT +  Gc(s) M(s) %CO X(s) wt% + C(s) %TO KT Analyzer transmitter: 100%TO KT := x max − x min %TO KT = 4 weight% Determine process transfer functions by fit 3: Change in controller output: K1 := ( 24.7 − 21.5weight% + 0.
34 %TO τ I = 7.the controller output closing the steam control valve.5 min τ I = 7.33⋅ t01 %CO Kc = 0.5 −1 τ I := τ 1 %CO Kc = 0.1: t01 Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 0. From Table 74. . From the figure above: min t01 := 130sec τ 1 := 580sec − t01 60sec ( ) τ 1 = 7. this decreases the rate of evaporation reducing the product composition.5 min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9 −1 τ I := 3.7 min Quarter decay ratio tuning is based on fit 1 parameters.1: t01 Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. From Table 72. (c) Controller synthesis tuning for 5% overshoot of PI composition controller.9 −1 τ I := 3.2 min From Table 72.1: t01 Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 0.33⋅ t01 %CO Kc = 0.61 %TO This is over twice the gain and 25% faster reset than with fit 3 parameters.25 %TO τ I = 9. (b) Quarterdecay ratio tuning of PI composition controller.
Design conditions: p 1 := 30psia p 2 := 15psia gal TR := 210degF fcw := 350 min Coil pressure drop: ∆p L := 10psi Temperature transmitter: Tmin := 190degF Tmax := 230degF Equalpercenage valve: Openloop test: α := 50 psia := psi TC 11 TT Coolant P1 P2 Product gal ∆fcw := 10 min ∆TR := −5.1. valve gain at design flow. valve failsafe position. .0 %TO (a) Size control valve for 100% overcapacity.Smith & Corripio.564 min⋅ %CO The valve must fail open (airtoclose) to prevent overheating the reactor on loss of instrument power. Eq. 3rd edition Problem 721. This is why the gain is negative. Temperature control of stirredtank reactor. ∆p v := p 1 − p 2 − ∆p L Gf ∆p v Gf := 1 k L := ∆p L Gf ⋅ fcw 2 ∆p v = 5 psi k L = 8.163 × 10 Gf ∆p v gal min⋅ psi −5 psi⋅ gal gal min 2 Cvmax := 200%⋅ fcw⋅ Cvmax = 313.05 gal min⋅ psi Cv := fcw⋅ Cvmax := 400 fcw Cv = 156. (b) Block diagram of the control loop ad total process gain.5 min⋅ psi From Fig. page 532. page 171: 1 + k L⋅ C v 2 gal Kv = −4. C10. 52.27. a 6in valve is required: −ln( α ) Kv := 100%CO Valve gain.2degF Feed Tu := 14min %CO Closedloop test: Kcu := 8.
5 degF %TO KT⋅ K1 ⋅ Kv = 5.52 degF⋅ min gal KT %TO  Gc(s) Gv(s) KT G1(s) + + TR(s) EF C(s) %TO 100%TO KT := Tmax − Tmin Total process gain: ∆TR ∆fcw K1 := %TO KT = 2.1: K´c := 1 τ´I Kcu 1.933 %CO repeat := 1 (c) Quarterdecay ratio tuning of PID temperature controller and controller action. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7 Tu τ´I := 2 repeat min Tu τ´D := 8 100%CO K´c = 21 %TO = 0. .Fin(s) TC Tset(s) TC R(s) E(s) + EF lb/hr M(s) %CO G2(s) Fcw(s) gpm TT K1 = −0.75s + 1 ) 1 + 21%TO s Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.75 min Gc( s) = ( 1. From Table 71.14 τ´D = 1.14 100%CO 0.
3rd edition Problem 722. Solids moisture control of a phosphates pebbles drier Stack AC Feed AT Fuel Air Dry phospahates Design conditions: x F := 15weight% x := 3weight% Transmitter AT: x min := 1weight% x max := 5weight% (a) Block diagram of the moisture control loop.Smith & Corripio. Openloop step response to change in controller output: ∆m := 8%CO . XF(s) Xset(s) AC wt% KT R(s) + E(s) %TO AC wt% G2(s) G1(s) AT + + Gc(s) M(s) %CO X(s) wt% C(s) %TO KT Transmitter AT: 100%TO KT := x max − x min %TO KT = 25 weight% (b) Process transfer functions from openloop step responses by fit 2.
95 weight% min τ 1 := t2 ⋅ − t01 60sec t01 = 1. sec 250 300 350 400 ∆x := ( 4.wt % 4 3.688e − 1.188 %CO %TO KT⋅ K1 = 4.17s 2.5 Product moisture.632∆x = 3.5 0 50 100 150 200 Time.5 − 3 )weight% From the graph: K1 := ∆x t01 := 70sec ⋅ ∆m min weight% K1 = 0.17 min τ 1 = 2 min KT⋅ G1 ( s) = 4.0s + 1 Openloop step response to change in inlet moisture: ∆x F := 3weight% .688 %CO t2 := 190sec %CO %TO 60sec 3.5 3 2.0weight% + 0.5 4.
.5 5 4.749 t01 τ D := 0.75 min KT⋅ G2 ( s) = 16.632∆x = 4.52s 1 + 199%TO 1.0)weight% From the graph: K2 := ∆x ∆x F weight% K2 = 0.878 τ 1 τ1 0.2: Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 1.0weight% + 0. wt% 4 3. t01 From Table 72.667 weight% %TO KT⋅ K2 = 16.0 − 3.137 τ I = 1.08s 1.08 min τ 2 = 1. sec 250 300 350 400 ∆x := ( 5.5 0 50 100 150 200 Time.5 Product moisture.435 100%CO Kc = 199 %TO − 0.67e − 1.75s + 1 (c) Minimum IAE tuning of parallel PID moisture controller on disturbance inputs a controller action.26 weight% min τ 2 := t2 ⋅ − t02 60sec t02 = 1.67 weight% t2 := 170sec %CO weight% t02 := 65sec ⋅ min 60sec 3.5.52 min 100%CO 1 Gc( s) = + 0.921 t01 τ I := 0.5s The controller is reverse acting (positive gain): increasing product moisture content decreases the controller output.482 ⋅ τ 1 ⋅ τ1 1.5 min τ D = 0. this decreases the table feeder speed and the feed rate reducing the moisture input to the drier and the moisture content of the product.5 3 2.
11 %CO Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.37 %TO Offset KT KT = 0.11 %CO If the initial controller output is 50%CO. .49 weight% = 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.28 %TO Final steady state moisture control of the product: 3weight% − Offset (e) Controller output required to avoid offset for the disturbance of part (d). Controller is proportional only tuned for quarter decay ratio respons From Table 72. the final steady state is: 50%CO + ∆m = 57.(d) New moisture content of the product when the feed moisture content decrease by 2 weight%. For the change in outlet moisture to be zero: ∆m⋅ K1 + K2 ⋅ ( −2 weight%) = 0 ∆m := −K2 K1 ( −2 weight%) ∆m = 7.51 weight% Offset = 12.1: Offset := KT⋅ 0 − KT⋅ K2 ⋅ ( −2 weight%) 1 + KT⋅ Kc⋅ K1 t01 Kc := KT⋅ K1 τ 1 1 −1 %CO Kc = 0.
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing level decreases the controller output. Level control by manipulatiion of inlet flow. Closedloop transfer function. SP LC fi (t) LT h(t) fo(t) Block diagram of the level control loop and required controller action. Fo(s) Cset(s) %TO + E(s)LC  ft3/min M(s) %CO 1/As Fi(s) ft3/min LT Gc(s) Gv(s) KT 1/As + H(s) ft C(s) %TO Kv τ v⋅ s + 1 Gv ( s) = The only difference between this diagram and the one of Fig.1 is that the controller manipulates the inlet flow instead of the outlet flow. 3rd edition Problem 723. this closes the control valve decreasing the inlet flow and the level drops. 73. Control valve fails closed. .Smith & Corripio.
.C( s) = s⋅ τ v ⋅ s + 1 + K⋅ Gc( s) %TO %CO⋅ min ( K⋅ Gc( s) ) C set ( s) − s⋅ τ v ⋅ s + 1 + K⋅ Gc( s) ( Ku ⋅ τ v ⋅ s + 1 ( ) ) Fo ( s) where K= Kv ⋅ KT A KT %TO Ku = A 3 ft The formulas of Section 73 apply to this case also. Only the action of the controller is different. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a notforprofit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbo