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DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

3 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.6 5 Design for CSA A23.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.2 4.3-04 5.6.1 Design for Flexure 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.5.6.5.1 Design for Flexure 4.3 3.1 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.1 3.4 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.5.2 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.6.5.1 Notations 5-1 ii .5.6.5.4 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.

2 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.6.6.5.4 6.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.Contents 5.1 6.1 7.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.6.28 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .3 5.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.1 Design for Flexure 5.4 5.6.5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.6.3 6.2 7.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.5.5.2 5.1 Design for Flexure 6.

3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.5.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.5.3 9.4 9.1 8.4.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.5.6.6.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .5.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.4.6.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.2 9.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.1 9.1 Effects of Torsion 8.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.2 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.4.4 7.5.1 Design for Flexure 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.3 8.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.

5 Beam Design 10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.6 Slab Design 10.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.6.1 Design for Flexure 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .6.6 Slab Design 9.1 Design for Flexure 10.6.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6.6.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.1 Notations 10.2 Design Load Combinations 10.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.Contents 9.

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it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. Specifically. shear. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. 1-1 . it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. and it designs beam flexural.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. and torsion reinforcement. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process.

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English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Notations 2-1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 2. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. sq-in Gross area of concrete. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on inch-pound-second units.

sq-in/in Depth of compression block. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. psi 2-2 Notations . sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. in Depth to neutral axis. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. in Width of web (flanged section). in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Width of section. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Effective width of flange (flanged section).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.

psi Overall depth of a section. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Critical torsion capacity.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. in Height of the flange. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. lb Factored shear force at a section.Chapter 2 .003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. (0. in Factored moment at a section. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.

005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.2.6S ± 0. and earthquake (E) loads.2S ± 1.0E (ACI 9.75 PL) 0.1) (ACI 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.6L + 0.2.0E 1. live load (L). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. snow (S).2.1) (ACI 9.5S 1.1) are the same.2D + 1. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .0E 1.0L + 0.6W 1.2.1) (ACI 9.0L ± 1.8W 1.2D + 1.2D + 1.2D + 1.6 (0.6W 1.2D + 1. wind (W).2.0L + 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.6. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.5S ± 1. For ACI 318-08. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4D 1.2D + 1.0L ± 1.1): 1.3) (ACI 9.7.6W 0.6S 1.2D + 1.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.2.1) (ACI 13.9D ± 1.9D ± 1. pattern live load (PL).2.2D + 1.2D + 1.6L 1. degrees 2.0L + 1.

The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. however.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 2. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. load combination factors.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.3) 2. or if other types of loads are present.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . shear. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.1) (ACI 9.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.2. (ACI 9. f' c .3. φ. torsion. The φ factors for flexure. fyt.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1).1.2. and other criteria described in this section. and torsion based on the beam moments. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. fy. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. 2.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used.5. shear.Chapter 2 . shear forces.2). caution is advised.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. for a particular station.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2.5.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and torsion only.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. with the corresponding load factors. shear. 2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2.

1) in the preceding and the following equations.3.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5. The maximum depth of the compression zone. shear.e. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only. where. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. cmax. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.90 (ACI 9. Furthermore.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.5). or the strength of the concrete.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.2) Beam Design 2-7 .2. 2. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.3. the width.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.3.1.Chapter 2 . it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.2).85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.003.4). designing top or bottom reinforcement). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. which by default is 0.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.2. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. The design procedure used by SAFE.2.. Mu (i. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. is summarized in the text that follows. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.3.and T-beams). Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. fy . which is equal to 0.

the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.005 (ACI 10.85 (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.7.2. εcmax = 0.3.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.3.2. amax.2.003 εsmin = 0.7.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.85 − 0.003 b A′ s Cs c 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.4).3) (ACI 10.1) β1 = 0.

If a > amax.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.2. 10.2.2.2.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0. where ( f 's − 0.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.7.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10. or at the top if Mu is negative.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .3. 10.Chapter 2 .3.

5. if the moment is positive. as shown in Figure 2-2.003 0.e.10 Beam Design . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the flange comes under tension. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0. and the flange is ignored.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. i. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. is assumed if the flange is under compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore.1.85 f ′ c 0.2. 2.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.. If the moment is negative. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. a simplified stress block. In that case. and vice versa if Mu is negative.

which by default is 0.3.2.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.3. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10. The maximum depth of the compression zone.2. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.5.7.11 .1) in the preceding and the following equations.1) β1 = 0.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.7.2.2..2.3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment..003 εsmin = 0.Chapter 2 . 2.2.e. which is equal to 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.85 (ACI 10.2) where. amax. no flanged beam data is used.005 (ACI 10.e. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1. Mu (i.3) Beam Design 2 .90 (ACI 9.2.2) εcmax = 0.4): cmax = where. i.1.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. designing top reinforcement). cmax. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.85 − 0.3) (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 2. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.2.5.

Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. 2 . Mu .3.7. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. Cf is given by: C f = 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . Cw. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf. If a > hf. the calculation for As has two parts. the balance of the moment. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f .12 Beam Design . amax ) Therefore.2.90 by default.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.5). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . Therefore. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. However. the value for φ is 0. as shown in Figure 2-2. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.

Chapter 2 .2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .2.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .2. 10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.3.2.2.13 . where ( f 's − 0.7. 10.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.5.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. for a particular load combination. bw d ⎟ As . Vu.2.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. that can be resisted by the concrete. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.5.14 Beam Design .3) An upper limit of 0.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.4bw d ⎧0. 2 . Determine the shear force.1.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. 2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. Vc.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

2.5.3.75 (ACI 9.Chapter 2 . with the corresponding load combination factors.1.7.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11. fyt.3).5. 11. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.15 . Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.5. and Vmax.1.5. the strength reduction factor. Vc.5. Vc. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.2. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. If Vu ≤ 0.5.1.6. φ.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value. 2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.2.2.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.Design for ACI 318-08 2.1) Beam Design 2 .1.3.3.1.1) For light-weight concrete.9) Given Vu. is 0.2.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.

9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. 11.3) If Vu > φVmax.5.16 Beam Design . 2 .3 is not enforced (ACI 11. a failure condition is declared.5.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.5. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.6. Tu. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5. 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.5.7.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. (ACI 11. (ACI 11.1(c)).1.7. Determine special section properties. and 0.7. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.2) ⎛ 0.6.5.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.6.5hf. the equation given in ACI 11.5bw.5. 2.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .5.

it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. are calculated. However.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 2. such as Aoh. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. and ph.17 .2. Ao.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. This is equivalent to 1. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. special section properties.5.6. Ao. Aoh.2). Determine the torsion reinforcement required.2). These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. and ph. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1). If redistribution is desired.6. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. pcp. 2.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup.Chapter 2 . such as Acp. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 .75 inches.5. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity.3.

1. 2. 2.3.18 Beam Design . 2.5.6.4).1) (ACI 11.3. 2.3. 2.3.3. 2.1. the section dimensions b.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. h. 2.1) (ACI 11.1.6.3.6(b)) (ACI 11.6. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.1. 2.1.1) (ACI 11.3. hf.6.1.3. bw. With this assumption.1) (ACI 11.6.1.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.6.6. 2.1) (ACI 11.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. With this assumption.6. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) (ACI11.1.6.6. Similarly. R11.6. R11. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.6.6. However. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.6(b)) (ACI 11. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.6. Tcr.2.1) where. 2. 2.1.1) where the section dimensions bf. h. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.3.6.1(c)) 2 .

is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.6) where. and compression diagonals (ACI R11. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.3.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.Chapter 2 . Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).3).6. However.6.6.6). and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. Beam Design 2 .6).6. θ is taken as 45 degrees.6. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.5.3.6. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.5.3) In the preceding expressions.6. fyt.6.3.3. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. In that case. Tcr.3.3. longitudinal bars. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.19 .Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.75 by default (ACI 9.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. At /s. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. fy.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.7. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.3. Tcr.1). is limited to 60 ksi. 11. which is equal to 0. 2.2. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.

1) For rectangular sections.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.5. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).3.6. bw is replaced with b. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . In that case.6.20 Beam Design . a failure message is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.2) 2 .

The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.3 independently. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.21 . Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. To learn more about the design strips.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 2.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. 2. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11.Chapter 2 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.5.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Slab Design 2 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. In that case. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.

at a given design section in a design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.min = (ACI 7.1.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.12. for each load combination.1(c)) 0. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6.1(a)) (ACI 7.min = 0.2.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. 2.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 . This is the method used when drop panels are included. given the bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1. 2.1(b)) (ACI 7. Where openings occur.6.2): As. 2.min = 0. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.1. These two steps. described in the text that follows. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In some cases.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.12. is obtained and reported. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. are repeated for every load combination.12.2. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. In that case.6.22 Slab Design .

11.6.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2).2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.. 2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.23 .3). Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.11. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.1.Chapter 2 . d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . edge.e.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11. 2. interior. The column location (i.

4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2 Eq.3.2. C-16) 2 . γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421. C-13) (ACI 421.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 Eq.5. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2 Eq. C-11) (ACI 421. C-15) (ACI 421.3.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.6.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.24 Slab Design .2 For corner columns. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2 Eq.5.2 Eq. C-12) For edge columns. γvx = 0.2 Eq.1) For flat plates. For interior columns. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.

4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.Chapter 2 .2.1) where.2.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.11. (ACI 11.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.1.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. and for corner columns.2. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 . respectively.2.6. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns. for edge columns.6.25 . x and y. 2.11. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.

the strength reduction factor.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.11.3.0. If this ratio exceeds 1.5.26 Slab Design .3).11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3).6. φ.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.1) 2.11.11.11.5. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. 2.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2.75 (ACI 9. Vc.1) (ACI 11.3. and Vmax.3.3. 2. where. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 2 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.2) (ACI 11. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. is 0.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.

The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.Chapter 2 .7.3).2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7.3.11. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3. 11. Slab Design 2 .e.27 .3.6.4. a failure condition is declared. edge.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. 2.11.1. and corner column. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size..4. i.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11. (ACI 11.

5/8-.3. 2.28 Slab Design .5. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. When specifying shear studs. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. g. 1/2-.2) ⎧0.3) 2 .11. edge.5d. for corner. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. so. Therefore. s. The limits of so and the spacing. and 8.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. 6.2) (ACI 11. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. the distance.5d (ACI 11. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.11.11. and 3/4-inch diameters. and interior columns respectively. Height. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.5. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.

1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. mm Notations 3-1 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations. 3. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.

mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Mean value of do. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Width of member. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Width of web (flanged section). MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete.

N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by concrete. N-mm Factored moment at section. (0. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.Chapter 3 .max Vu. to the effective depth. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 . N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N-mm Factored axial load at section.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . MPa Torsional modulus.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.

pattern live load (PL).4L ± 1.2.0-02.2. snow (S).75 PL) 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0E (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.9D ± 1.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.2.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. 4.0-02.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.2D + 1.0E 1.0D + 0. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2(f)) Note that the 0.2.35D 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0W 1.0-02. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D ± 1.0S 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. For AS 3600-01.5(0.0D ± 1. 4. degrees 3.0-02.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2D + 1.1): 1.2. 4.4L + 1.0W 1. 4.0-02. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.4L ± 1. wind (W).2. 4.2D + 0. live load (L). 4.0-02. and earthquake (E) loads.2D + 0.5L 1.0-02.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. 4.3.2. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0-02.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0W 1.

1).3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa. and other criteria described in the text that follows.2.1. and torsion based on the beam moments.1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. however.Chapter 3 .3(c)) 3.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.3(c). respectively. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1. Table 6.2.1.1(b)). load combination factors.1). shear forces. (AS 2.Design for AS 3600-01 3.3: φ = 0. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 .1.1. for all framing type (AS 6. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. caution is advised. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. shear. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.2. Table 2.1. 3. is defined as given in AS 2.1) (AS 6.1. 19.1.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. 6.3(c)) (AS 2.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. torsion. φ. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.2. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6.1.

Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and torsion only.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. for a particular station. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.5.1.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

even if the material property is defined using a higher value.2.85 − 0.1.2). or the strength of the concrete.1).2.1. fy . (AS 8. the width.1.2. shear.Chapter 3 . The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.85 ku = 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. amax.2). – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.3) γ = [0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.2) Beam Design 3-7 .65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.1a).85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.1. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.003. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.15N ) (AS 10. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.7.007( f 'c −28)] 0. and torsion only.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. A uniform compressive stress of 0. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. is given by amax = γk u d where. (AS 8.

which by default is 0.e.1.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.4).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. M (i. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .80 (AS 2.. designing top or bottom reinforcement).3) in the preceding and following equations.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.2) where.003 b Cs c 0. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.1.2. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.2. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).5. where. ε = 0.

85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8..2.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . If a > amax.1. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. where ( f 's − 0.1.e.2.4.1. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8. i.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. or at the top * if M is negative. 6.Chapter 3 .1.2.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore. ku > 0.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.

the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. i.1. If the moment is negative. and the flange is ignored. ε = 0.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . as shown in Figure 3-2.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.1.2. if the moment is positive. i.. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. and vice versa if M is negative.85 f ′ c 0.5. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. M (i.e.003 bf Ds * 0.. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore. 3.3). the flange comes under tension.2. no flanged beam data is used. is assumed if the flange is under compression.5.1. a simplified stress block. In that case.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. 3. designing top reinforcement). and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.e.2.10 Beam Design ..

Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. the width of the beam is taken as bf.5. Cf is given by: C f = 0.3) in the preceding and the following equations. in that case. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.1. the balance of the moment. as shown in Figure 3-2. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. However.11 . is given by: a max = γk u d where. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. the calculation for Ast has two parts. If a > Ds. amax.1. Cf.4 (AS 8.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .Chapter 3 . amax ) Therefore. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.4.2.80 by default (AS 2. which is 0. As1 = given by: (AS 8. Cw.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds .1.85 f 'c φb f where.3) If a ≤ Ds.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2. ku = 0. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.

the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.1.1. If a1 > amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. where ′ − 0.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.2.12 Beam Design .003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .2. 6.1.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.

1.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2) An upper limit of 0.6 f 'c (AS 6.min = 0.1) f 'cf = 0.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .04bw d ⎧0.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. 3. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.Chapter 3 .1.13 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.4. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.5.1.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.2.2. Vuc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.5.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.1) β1 = 1. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Vuc. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.7.2.1) (AS 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.7. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.6 − β2 = 1. Determine the shear force.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. that can be resisted by the concrete.14 Beam Design .2. 13 (AS 8. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . for a particular load combination.1⎜1.5.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.7. * 3. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. V . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.

V * − φVuc Asv .2. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.6bv d o Vu . if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. the strength reduction factor.5.9) (AS 8.2.2. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.6) Given V .max .5).2. Vuc.min < V * ≤ φVu. ⎟ ⎠ 3.min shall be provided.2. If φVu. Asv = 0 . is 0. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . and Vu. Asv = 0.Chapter 3 .max.15 .6 by default (AS 2. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0. (AS 8.2.3). whichever is greater (AS 8. min = Vuc + 0.10) Asv. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2. s otherwise Asv. = s fsy. φ.min .Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.35 w ⎜ s f sy. where.min. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.2. max = 0.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.5(c)(i)). if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.8) Beam Design 3 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

as described in the following sections. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 3. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.21 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. Slab Design 3 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6.Chapter 3 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 3. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1(a)) As ≥ 0. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6. 3. given the bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. which are described in the following subsections.1(b)) In addition. at a given design section in a design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1.1): As ≥ 0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. 3. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1. 3.6. are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. for each load combination.1.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. In that case.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.6.22 Slab Design . In some cases. Where openings occur. 3 . This is the method used when drop panels are included.

6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 . interior.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The column location (i.Design for AS 3600-01 3.e.1.3).1. edge. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites..2.Chapter 3 .23 . 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1).2.6. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.

2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.2.3(a)): a.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9. Vu .2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. 3 . * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.3(a)) where. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2. is given as (AS 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. is given as (AS 9.6. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.4(a)) 3.3σ cp ≤ 0.2.2.2.2.24 Slab Design .0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.5 f c' + 0.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3σ cp ) b. Vuo .2.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.3(b)) (AS 9. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.6.

6.4. φ. 3.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. is the strength reduction factor. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .min = 3*Vu (AS 92.6.Design for AS 3600-01 3.1). SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.3 or 9. V * − φVu Asv = .2.4(a). and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. 3.2. Vu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.25 . where. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.Chapter 3 .4. and Vu. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.Given V*.7.2.max.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

7.3) (NZS 12. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.4. 3..4).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. the minimum number of 3 .e. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared. and corner column.4.26 Slab Design . Therefore.7.6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. i.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.4) If V > φVmax.3. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. edge.

4) (NZS 12. 3. Height.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.4. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4) (NZS 12. for corner. g.5d.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.6.4.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. and 8.27 .4. edge. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The limits of so and the spacing. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.7. and interior columns respectively.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. s.3. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. the distance.Chapter 3 . 6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. When specifying shear studs.4) Slab Design 3 .7.5d s ≤ 0. so.

.

For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. 4. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For light-weight concrete and torsion. mm 2 Notations 4-1 .

mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm 4-2 Notations . mm Torsional constant. mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.

156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. MPa Neutral axis depth. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.Chapter 4 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.

6L 1. and wind (W) loads.2D + 1. 1.3) (BS 2.6L + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.4D + 1. γf (BS 2. snow (S).6S 1.4D + 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4W 1.4W 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .2W 1.4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2L ± 1.0D ± 1.2L + 1. mm Lever arm.2S ± 1.4D 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. pattern live load (PL). 0.3) (BS 2. For BS 8110-1997.4.3).2S ± 1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.3).4D + 1.6(0.4.3) (BS 2.2D + 1.2W (BS 2.4.4.2D + 1.4D ± 1.2W 1.75PL) 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible. live load (L).

fcu. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. 4. as taken from BS Table 2. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.4. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. 4.4.Chapter 4 .3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. Note that for reinforcement. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. other appropriate load combinations should be used. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.1. the default factor of 1.7. Note that the automatic combination. If other grades are used.2). γm.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.50 1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. this value should be overwritten as necessary.2 (BS 2.15 1. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. including pattern live load.

the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. with the corresponding load factors. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion only. In such cases. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. shear.5. the 4-6 Beam Design . shear forces. torsion. load combination factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. and other criteria described below. for a particular station. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.

x/d ≤ 0. The design procedure used by SAFE.156 2 (BS 3.4).Chapter 4 . where K' = 0. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. shear.4.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1)..5. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4).4) Beam Design 4-7 . The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than. βb ≥ 0. 4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. Furthermore.9) (BS 3. the width.4. and torsion only. less than. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. 4. See Figure 4-1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. is first calculated for a section. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.1fcu Ag) (BS 3.4.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4. Msingle.4.4. In such cases. or the strength of the concrete.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.e.1.4.2.4).Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4. or equal to Msingle. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5. In addition. Msingle = K'fcu bd . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.5.

As. or at the top if M is negative.4.4. If M > Msingle. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. is then given by: As = M .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.25 − ⎜ 0. where 0.4.87 f y z (BS 3.4.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.95d z = d ⎜ 0.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.5 + 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.4. the area of tension reinforcement.

e. 4..4. 2.2.4.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. no flanged beam data is used.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4. i.4.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.2.1.3.1.4.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. and ' f ' s = 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.4.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. Fig 2. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. designing top reinforcement). 2.2..Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.1. Beam Design 4-9 .4.87 f y d − d ' ( ) .1. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.3. where (BS 3.4.1.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.25 − ⎜ 0.5.5.Chapter 4 . Based on this assumption.4.5. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. M (i.5 + 0.777d z = d ⎜ 0.e.2.2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.5. Fig 2.

4.45 (BS 3. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .0035 0.10 Beam Design .4.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3.4.95d 0. e = 0.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.67 fcu/gm 0.4.5 + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. See Figure 4-2.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.

where 0.45d − h f ) 0.87 f y (d − 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. 2 As = M + 0.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .4.4) If Kw ≤ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. However. In that case.45d then.4.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.5) β f = 0.Chapter 4 .4. If a > hf.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.156 (BS 3.11 . the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. in that case.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4. the width of the beam is taken as bf.4.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4. As = 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.9x (BS 3.5h f ) .45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. where (BS 3.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4).4) If a ≤ hf. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.4.4. Cf. Cw.1 f cu bd (0. as shown in Figure 4-2.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.

4.5.3. Fig 2. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1.1.4). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.5.5.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4. 4 .4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.4.25 (BS 3.95d ⎜ 0. 2.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.777d ) 0.4.2. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.12 Beam Design . 2.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.5.4) where.4.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.1.87 f f (0. and ' f ' s = 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y (d − 0.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. Fig 2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.4.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5 + 0.4.12.4.3.

13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.5.32 0.3).Chapter 4 .36 0.13 .or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.6.20 An upper limit of 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.1): Beam Design 4 .25 (BS 3.20 As' bh Web in tension T.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.18 100 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0. if it is required.12.24 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.40 100 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.48 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.24 0.12. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.

5.04bw d ⎧0. for a particular load combination.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.8 fcu .4) 4 .2. with the corresponding load combination factors. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3. 5 MPa) (BS 3.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5.4. v. 4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. that can be resisted by the concrete.63 fcu . Determine the shear stress. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.14 Beam Design .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. vc.2) For light-weight concrete.

4.4. the following limitations also apply: 0.5.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.15 .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.Chapter 4 .8) (BS 2.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5. Table 3.5.2.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.4) (BS 3.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.4. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0. Table 3. Table 3.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4. vc.4.5.1) However.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.5. vc.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.5. 4.3): Beam Design 4 .5.4.4.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. Table 3.4. and vmax.8) (BS 3.4.8.12) 0. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.Design for BS 8110-97 4. BS 3.5.5.4.5.4.2.4.

5.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0. 4.87 f yv If (v’c + 0. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4) Asv 0.4. vt.5. (BS 3.3.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. In the preceding expressions. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.16 Beam Design . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.87 f yv If v > vmax.3.5.4. Determine critical torsion stress.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa. a failure condition is declared.2) (BS 3. Determine special section properties.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Table 3. obtained from each load combination. 4 .7) (BS 3.5.4. Table 3.4bw = sv 0.

In typical framed construction.4.4.4.8 f cu .5.Chapter 4 . exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.13). calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. vt.4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.5. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.4. vt.3.Design for BS 8110-97 4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.1) For flanged sections.4. with the corresponding load combination factors.17 . The torsional shear stress.5) Beam Design 4 .2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.min = min 0.0. is calculated as: Asv .5.t /sv. 4 .067 fcu .t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.3.3.4.5) 4. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.7) In the preceding expressions.min is defined as: vt .7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .4.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.t sv = T 0. For lightweight concrete.6).2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. However.4. vt is less than the threshold limit.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.min.min = min 0.min.6). Asv. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. If vt > vt. vt. vt.min.18 Beam Design .4. In that case.067 fcu .5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt.0.8 x1 y1 (0.4N/mm 2 x 0. vt.

5) For light-weight concrete. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5. vt exceeds this limit. Beam Design 4 . a failure message is declared.63 fcu .19 . In that case.Chapter 4 . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the concrete section should be increased in size.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.8 fcu .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. v and torsional shear stress.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4) If the combination of shear stress.

These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 4. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.20 Slab Design .1.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. is obtained and reported. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. 4 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 4. for each load combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. at a given design section in a design strip.12. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6).0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.6. In some cases.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.5.2.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. This is the method used when drop panels are included. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. BS Table 3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.3) In addition. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7. 4. 4.1).21 .6.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.7.7.6.12. In that case.6.Design for BS 8110-97 4.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.3.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. Where openings occur.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.6. given the bending moment.1. 4.Chapter 4 .

1).6.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2.4.. 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.7.5d 1.22 Slab Design . Table 3.4.7.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3. 1. interior.5. edge. The column location (i.e.7.7.7.4.5d 1.4.5d 1.6): 1 1 0.8) 4 .5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5.5d Interior Column 1.

8) (BS 3.2) However.4) For light-weight concrete.7.Chapter 4 .5. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. 5MPa) (BS 3.7.4.5.4) (BS 3.4.7.5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.6. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.2. v.6.4.4) v ≤ min(0.5.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3. the nominal design shear stress. 4.5M ⎛ y 1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4. 3.23 .4. Table 3.7.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. the following limitations also apply: 0. where (BS 3.6.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .2.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.4.6. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4.63 fcu . Table 3.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .3) 1.8 f cu .7.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.

1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.6.6.7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5).7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.7. 4. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3. 4 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7. 3.25 ⎪1. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 4.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.24 Slab Design .25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.2.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

Table C. pattern live load (PL).4W 0.3. For CSA A23.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .4D 1.2.1) 1.2.3.3) (CSA 8.9D + 1.5S + 0.25D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4.2.4W (CSA 8.5S 0.8.4W 1.5S + 0.5L ± 0.5L + 0.25D + 1.5S ± 0.25D + 1.5L 0.5L 0. degrees Shear strength factor 5.5S 1. Table C.1 Case 2) (CSA 13. and earthquake (E) loads. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).9D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. snow (S).25D + 1.25D + 1.2.3-04. Table C.3.75 PL) 1.5L ± 0.5L 1.5L + 0.9D + 1.9D + 1. wind (W). Table C.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. live load (L).9D + 1.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.5S 0.25D + 1.4W 0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.5S 1.9D + 1.3.25D + 1.5S ± 0.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.5(0.5L 1.

25S ± 1. Table C.5L ± 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.25S ± 1.1.6.4W 0.0E 1.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.25D ± 1. (CSA 8.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.0D ± 1.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.1) 5. respectively.9D ± 1.3.4W 1.5L ± 1.1.0E (CSA 8.0E 1.5S ± 1.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.1).0D + 0.2) (CSA 8.1).4W 0.5. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.0D + 0.9D + 0. (CSA 8.4W 0.Design for CSA A23. for all framing types (CSA 8. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4.0E 1.4W 1.3-04 code is used.6.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.Chapter 5 .25D + 0. caution is advised.9D + 0.2.5S ± 1.5L ± 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. Table C. 5. however.3.65 for concrete φs = 0.25D + 0.2.4W 1.0D + 0. φ.5L + 0.3-04 1. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.

the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. for a particular station. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. with the corresponding load factors.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. load combination factors. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. and torsion only. shear. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design .1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. torsion. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear. shear forces. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.

the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5. The design procedure used by SAFE.1) Beam Design 5-7 .Chapter 5 . it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10. shear. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 5.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. designing top or bottom reinforcement). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). 5.2. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure..4).1. and torsion only.Design for CSA A23.1. or the strength of the concrete. Furthermore.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. Mf (i.1. where.5. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.e. In such cases.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.7). the width. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.

67.7) (CSA 10.85 – 0. β1 = 0.0015f'c ≥ 0.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. β1.1.1.97 – 0.5.67 cb = (CSA 10. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.0025f'c ≥ 0.1.2) in the preceding and the following equations. The parameters α1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .7) (CSA 10.2).4.65 (CSA 8.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.5.

1.1.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.Chapter 5 .5.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.2. where f ′ = 0. or at the top if Mf is negative. If a > ab (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.1. 10.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .2).3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .

1.7) (CSA 10.. As = As1 + As2.67 cb = (CSA 10. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.5. the total tension reinforcement.1.. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.2.7) 5 .67 β1 = 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1) where. 5.2. Mf (i.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1.1. designing top reinforcement).4. The parameters α1.97 – 0.2.1.5. β1.0015 f' c ≥ 0. the value of φc is 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.e.2) in the preceding and the following equations.1.7) (CSA 10. 5.0025 f' c ≥ 0.5.10.65 (CSA 8.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.85 – 0.4.2.2.2 5.e. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative.10 Beam Design . i.5. no flanged beam data is used.1.

Chapter 5 . ab ) c ε = 0.11 . Cf. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. If a > hs. the balance of the moment. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.3-04 If a ≤ hs. However. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.Design for CSA A23.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. calculation for As has two parts. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs .1.

where 5 . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .2).5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2). If a1 > ab (CSA 10.1.1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.12 Beam Design .5.

1.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.1) An upper limit of 0.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.5.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23.1.5. 10.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.5. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.3) In addition.3.13 . the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.1.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10. 5.Chapter 5 .1.2.5.1.

the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.5.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.4.2. Vf. 5.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04bw d ⎧0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. Vc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.14 Beam Design . Vc. that can be resisted by the concrete. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. 5.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.2).1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. for a particular loading combination. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear force.5.65 (CSA 8. By default it is taken as 0. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. 5 . with the corresponding load combination factors.2.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.

it is the width of the beam.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.9d or 0.6.4.6. which is taken by the program as the default value.3.6.3. (CSA 8. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. It is determined according to CSA 11.2). its value is 1 (CSA 8.3. as follows (CSA 11.3): Beam Design 5 . where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.3.1 and 0. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.85.Chapter 5 .3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. and the tensile force is negligible.Design for CSA A23. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.72h. If the overall beam depth.6. and described further in the following sections. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply. For flanged beams. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.5): ⎧1. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.3. ⎪0. For normal density concrete.5).6. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.3). h.6.4). Its value is normally between 0. if applicable. For concrete using lower density aggregate.75.6.15 . β is taken as 0. For rectangular beams.00. it is the width of the web of the beam. It is taken as the greater of 0.2).6. d v is the effective shear depth. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. the general method is used (CSA 11.2). bw is the effective web width.6.21 (CSA 11.3.

if no transverse reinforcement is provided.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.18 (CSA 11.3. ⎪ 0. However. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. for simplified cases.18 (CSA 11. or 5 .3.3. sze. β = 0. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 .3. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. ag.18.6. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.6. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.c) In the preceding expression.6. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. β is taken as 0.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. the crack spacing parameter.6.3a).3 c) where. and ag < 20mm. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ .3. and ag ≥ 20mm. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.16 Beam Design .3. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. In summary.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.

β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.4(a)) (CSA 2.6. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11. Nf is taken as positive for tension. 11.6.17 . sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.3.85Sz otherwise.1.4). The longitudinal strain.Design for CSA A23.4): β= 0.3.6. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. and linearly interpolated between these values.3.4) In the preceding expression. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.6. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.3.6. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.Chapter 5 .3(b)). (CSA 11. 11.6.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.3.3.3. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.6.6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam.6. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.4(a)) (CSA 11.3.3-04 tension is not negligible. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3.6. Beam Design 5 .3.

In the first pass.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr . For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. and Vr. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.3. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.3.5.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.003 (CSA 11.max = 0.3.4(d)).3.2. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.6. it is recalculated with the following equation. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. taken as half of the total area. To check this condition.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.6. Vc. the shear strength of the section due to concrete.4(e)).1) 5 .3.5.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.6. 5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.6. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.3.max.18 Beam Design . the program performs the design in two passes.

6.2.3. which was described previously.Design for CSA A23.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.25Tcr. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.3.1.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr . Beam Design 5 . If the overall beam depth.3).6. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.3).6.max . It is determined according to CSA 11.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.8.2).19 .2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. the term θ is used.8. Similar to the β factor. (CSA 11.3.2.4). θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.3.2.1) (CSA 11. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.5. h. a failure condition is declared.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .8. or by calculation.Chapter 5 .3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.3.6.6. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. whenever applicable. 11.3.3.3.2) In the preceding equations.

and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.3).4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. f y > 400 MPa.6.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . 5 .6.6. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa.4).20 Beam Design . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11. Tf.6.5. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. f y ≤ 400 MPa.3) If the axial force is tensile. 5. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3.

the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. With this assumption. With this assumption. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.3). If redistribution is desired.Design for CSA A23.9.3.3.5. However. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. such as Aoh. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. Aoh. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. pc. However. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. and ph. and ph are calculated. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 5. special section properties.5. Ao. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.2).Chapter 5 .21 . it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Ao. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.3-04 5. such as Ac.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.

3. the section dimensions b.2.3.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.1) (CSA 11.10.9. and c are shown in Figure 5-3. h.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11. h. hf.1) (CSA 11.9.10.9.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. Tcr.4) where.4) where the section dimensions bf. bw.2. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) (CSA 11.4).3) (CSA 11.3. Similarly. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.3.9.10.3.9.2. 5 . and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.3. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.1) (CSA 11.10.22 Beam Design .10.65. 5. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.2.3) (CSA 11.10.3.3) (CSA 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.2.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.5.3) (CSA 11.3.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. which is equal to 0.

45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. At /s. However.3.Chapter 5 .10. Tcr. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. Tcr. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0. In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.2.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.1).3).3-04 5.5.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.9.23 .3.5 N f + (V f − 0.Design for CSA A23.

The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.3. 11.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0. a failure message is declared.8.9) In the preceding expressions. If the general method is being used. 5 .10. In that case. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.10.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.6.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.10.3.4) For rectangular sections.3. bw is replaced with b.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.3. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.24 Beam Design . If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11. the concrete section should be increased in size.2.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. θ is computed as previously described for shear.

The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.25 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.Design for CSA A23. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.Chapter 5 . 5. Slab Design 5 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.3-04 5.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. is obtained and reported.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. In some cases. for each load combination.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1.6.6. 5.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1): As ≥ 0. given the bending moment. 5. Where openings occur. In that case.002 bh (CSA 7.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1.1.26 Slab Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 5 .1) In addition.10.8. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. at a given design section in a design strip.

where Slab Design 5 .27 .3.3..1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.1 and CSA 13.3.2).2. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.e. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.3).3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.Chapter 5 . interior.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5.3.6. The column location (i. edge.

⎩ The value of (CSA 13.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.5.2) If the effective depth.10. and (CSA 13. 5.6. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.3). b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. d. (CSA 13.3.4.3.3.4.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.28 Slab Design . and ⎪for corner columns. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.3.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.4. exceeds 300 mm. 5 .2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .3.4.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.2.1) where.

2.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. where. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.6.1).max = 0. φs.Chapter 5 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.29 .28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.Design for CSA A23.6..3.3) 5. 5.6. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.75λφ c (CSA 13.2) Given vf.2. and vf. Slab Design 5 . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.8.3. vc. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13. 5. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.8.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. is the strength reduction factor. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.3-04 5.max.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0. and interior columns respectively. a failure condition is declared. (CSA 13. 5 . i. Therefore.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. for corner. edge. and 8. 6.8.6.max. the concrete section should be increased in size. and corner column.. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.8.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.30 Slab Design .3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3. 5.5) If vf > vf. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.max.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13.e. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3. edge.4d.

Height.3.8. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. s.3.Chapter 5 . so. When specifying shear studs.3. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.4d.Design for CSA A23. the distance. The limits of so and the spacing.8.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.4 d ⎧ 0.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.6) (CSA 13.6) Slab Design 5 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.31 .9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.3-04 5. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6.

.

the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. However. For simplicity. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. 6.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. mm 2 Notations 6-1 .

MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . MPa 6-2 Notations . MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.

N Shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Normalized design moment.Chapter 6 . N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 .max u VRdc VRd. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Depth of neutral axis. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Design moment at a section. mm Flange thickness. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Lever arm. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement.

1 + ∑ γ Q . j + γ P P + γ Q .12b.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations . and earthquake (E) loads.12b) For this code. wind (W).1Qk . 6. j Gk . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G.i Qk . pattern live load (PL). 6.1 + ∑ γ Q .1Qk .iψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. j + γ P P + γ Q . 6. ∑G j ≥1 k.iψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6.1Qk .10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.1ψ 0.i Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. ∑γ j ≥1 G.10b. 6.i Qk .10a) ∑ξ γ j G. 6.i Qk . Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. live load (L). j + γ P P + γ Q .1 + ∑ γ Q .iψ 0. 6.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.10a and 6. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. snow (S). j Gk . j Gk .

sup D + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.1 W + γQ.i W γGj.inf D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 W γGj.75)γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 L ξ γGj.3): γGj.i S γGj.1 W γGj.10b. 6.supD + γQ.1 PL γGj.1 L γGj. 6.1 ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D γGj.1 S ± γQ.0E + ψ2.1 S ± γQ.10) (EC0 Eq. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.10) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj. 6.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.1 S + γQ.1 L γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D γGj. 6. 6.supD + (0.1 W (EC0 Eq. 6.1 L + γQ. 6.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 PL ξ γGj.i ψ0.supD + (0.supD + γQ.1 W + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.4.i W γGj.i ψ0.0E D ± 1.i W γGj.i L γGj.1 L ± γQ.i L γGj. 6. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0. 6.sup D ± γQ.i L D ± 1.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .i L + γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.i L + ψ2.0E + ψ2.supD + (0.10) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.i S γGj.1 ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.10a and 6.i L D ± 1. 6. 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq. γGj.i S ± γQ.Chapter 6 .1 ψ0.i ψ0. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6. 6.sup D ξ γGj.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.75)γQ. 6.i S (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj.supD + γQ.i W + γQ.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.sup D + γQ.75)γQ.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.

2(B)) (EC0 Table A1. 6.7 (live load.i ψ0.i ψ0.i S ξ γGj.i S (EC0 Eq.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.sup D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.i L D ± 1.sup D + γQ.inf = 1.sup D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ. 6.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.i L γGj.i L γGj.1 W + γQ.i ξ = 1.i W ξ γGj.1 S ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i L γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 W γGj.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.i S γGj.1 γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1. 6.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i ψ0.35 γGj.i ψ0.i S γGj.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations . assumed not to be storage) = 0.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.00 γQ.0E D ± 1. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.inf D ± γQ.85 (EC0 Table A1.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.i W ξ γGj.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.1 W ξ γGj. 6.5 = 0.i W ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.6 (wind load) = 0.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.1 S + γQ.i ψ0.1 S ± γQ.1 L + γQ.i W γGj.i ψ0. 6.i ψ0.1 S + γQ.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.sup = 1. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.0E + ψ2.5 = 1.12b) For both sets of load combinations. γGj.1 W + γQ.5 (snow load.i L + ψ2.1 ψ0.1 W + γQ.1 W γGj.sup D + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i S D ± 1.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.i L γGj.inf D ± γQ.

γs and γc as shown here.2.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.1. respectively (EC2 3. fck. fyk.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.2. 6.2.1) (EC0 Table A1. 6.2(2)).7(2)) (EC2 3.6(1)). should be 400 and 600 MPa.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.3 (live.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. αcc is taken as 1.6(1)) (EC2 3. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.i ψ2. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .Chapter 6 .1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2(3)). assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.i = 0. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.1. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6. shear.4. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Table 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. for a particular station.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2.2.5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear.2. These values can be overwritten. load combination factors. For accidental and earthquake situations.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear forces. and torsion based on the beam moments. γs = 1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion only.4(1). 6. caution is advised.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. γc = 1. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .4). The user should consider those separately. torsion. however.

the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3.7(3).Chapter 6 .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.1.1. In such cases.5) (EC2 3. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5. with the corresponding load factors.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5. Fig 3.1.7(3).1. or the strength of the concrete. In such cases.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. 6. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. Fig 3. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the width. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.7(3)).1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.

1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. 6 . When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.7(3)) λ = 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.5(4)) (EC 5.and T-beams). to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.5(4)). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.1. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth. δ.7(3)) (EC2 3.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.25(0. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.44 k2 = k4 = 1.7(3)) (EC2 3.5(4)) (EC2 5.54 (EC 5.5(4)) (EC 5.10 Beam Design .1. ( x d )lim . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. the following values are used: k1 = 0.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.6 + 0. is summarized in the subsections that follow.

mlim.2. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.1. less than. m. the normalized moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. m. or equal to mlim.11 . is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . mlim. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.Chapter 6 . and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam.5. are obtained first. The normalized design moment.

If m > mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed. and is given by: 6 . The area of compression and tension reinforcement. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. ωlim. As.12 Beam Design . f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. or at the top if MEd is negative. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. A's and As.

6. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.e.2. 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.2. i. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . The normalized design moment.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.Chapter 6 .2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.5.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Fig 3. Initially. designing top reinforcement). 3.2.8) 6. Based on this assumption. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. 3.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.5..1.2.5. m.7(4). additional calculation is required.1. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1.1.1.1. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.13 .5(4). no flanged beam data is used. See Figure 6-2. MEd (i..

Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. in that case. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. However. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. If a > hf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. M1 = M − M2. the calculation for As has two parts.14 Beam Design . the width of the beam is taken as bf. as shown in Figure 6-2. is determined as follows: 6 . As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.Chapter 6 . Beam Design 6 . Fig 3. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.15 . ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.2. 3.7(4). and the total compression reinforcement is A's.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.1.

1(1)) As .5.1(3)).2.12.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.2): Determine the factored shear force.min = 0. VEd. VRd. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.16 Beam Design .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. Table 3.1. for a particular load combination.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.min = 0.5.12.1) (EC2 3.12.0013bd (EC2 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As . that can be resisted by the concrete. 6.2.1.1.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required. Table 3. 6 .1.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1) f ctm = 2.c.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. Table 3. the following steps are involved (EC2 6. Determine the shear force.

VRd.02 bw d (EC2 6.2.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.c.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. is calculated as: 13 VRd .17 .2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.c = 0.5.2. 6. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2.2.15 Beam Design 6 .2.2.2.18 γ c ν min = 0.2.c = ⎡C Rd .c.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. vmin. 6.Chapter 6 .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. with the corresponding load combination factors.

where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.3(3)) Asw.2.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.max.3(3)) (EC2 6.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw. Asw Asw.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.18 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2(6)) (EC2 6.2. VRd.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd . The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.3(3)) (EC2 6.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .max. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5.6⎜1 − z = 0. VRdc.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.2.2.2.2.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.3(1)) (EC2 6.2. obtained from each load combination.2.min s = 0.2. a failure condition is declared.3(3)) (EC2 6. 6 .9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.

2). TEd. 6. and zi are calculated. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. uk.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. tef. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. If redistribution is desired.Chapter 6 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Determine critical torsion capacity. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.3. 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. such as Ak. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. Determine special section properties. u. However.5. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 6.19 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5. Beam Design 6 . special section properties.1(2)). These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.3.5.

3.3.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. h. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. and uk.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.2(1)) (EC2 6. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. such as Ak. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.3.3.20 Beam Design . A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. With this assumption. With this assumption.3.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) where.2(1)) (EC2 6. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness.3. the section dimensions b. However. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. Similarly.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) 6 .

If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6. the shear due to this torsion.Chapter 6 . 6.2. and compression diagonals.3. h. is first calculated.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.21 .0 TRd .3. followed by the required stirrup area.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6. bw.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf. if the equation is not satisfied.5.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd.1.05 / γ c (EC2 6.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. However. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.5. In that case.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. Vt.3.2(1)) 6.3. hf.c VRd .2.3.3. longitudinal bars.c is the torsional cracking moment. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.c (EC2 6. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.2(5)) where VRd. calculated as: TRd .

θ is taken as 45 degrees.0 VRd .max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.3(2)).max (EC2 6.max + VEd ≤ 1.2.22 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.max. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd . while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.2(4)) 6 .8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. The code allows any value between 21.3. as previously defined for beam shear.3. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd . In the preceding expressions.2(4)) where TRd.3.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.

In that case. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips.23 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 6. a failure message is declared. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. the concrete section should be increased in size. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.Chapter 6 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Slab Design 6 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is obtained and reported.0013bd (EC2 9. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 6. are repeated for every load combination. These two steps.1. given the bending moment.1.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . the slab width is adjusted accordingly. described in the subsections that follow.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. Where openings occur.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In that case.24 Slab Design . In some cases.2.1): As .1. for each load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1.6. at a given design section in a design strip.1(1)) As .3.2.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.min = 0. 6.min = 0.6. 6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

1(3)).Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.Chapter 6 . Slab Design 6 . 6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 6.1.25 . interior.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.e.1) (EC2 Table 3.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6.1) (EC2 Table 3.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes..4.1) fctm = 2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. edge.4.6.2(1)).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. The column location (i.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.2.

4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4.4.4.c = ⎡C Rd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.6.2.26 Slab Design .4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4(1)) 6 .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.

4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.0 d (EC2 6.c = 0. the nominal design shear stress. conservatively taken as zeros.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .4.27 . is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4(1)) (EC2 6.Chapter 6 . and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear. C Rd . conservatively taken as zeros. vEd.15 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4.6.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.18 γ c (EC2 6.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4.4.4.02 (EC2 6.4.4(1)) (EC2 6.2.4.4(1)) ν min = 0.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.

6. vRd.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 6.4.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5 f ywd . and vRd.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. Given vEd. a failure condition is declared.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. the concrete section should be increased in size. 6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 6 .max.28 Slab Design . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.6.c.5).ef If vEd > vRd. (EC2 6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.4. Asw (v Ed − 0.75v Rd .5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.3.c ) = u1 sr 1.max.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.

for corner. 6. Height.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.3.6. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 6. Therefore.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. and 8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3(1)). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.29 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and interior columns respectively.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 .Chapter 6 .4..3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. edge.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. edge. i.e. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.6. and corner column.

3(1)) (EC2 9. When specifying shear studs. s. 14-. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.4.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. 12-.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4.4. so.75d g ≤ 1.3(1)) 6 . the distance.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.30 Slab Design . and 20-millimeter diameter. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.3(1)) (EC2 9.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.3(1)) (EC2 9.4. 16-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The limits of so and the spacing. g.3d.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the width.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0.4(b)).1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1.4(a)). or the strength of the concrete.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. ⎧0.1.5.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.9) (CP 6. 7. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1.2.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6. In such cases.2.max is defined as: ε c . βb ≥ 0. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. where εc..e.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. In such cases.2. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. with the corresponding load factors.1.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.0035 − 0.

2.4(a)).2.1. where 0. where 2 (CP 6.1.2. and torsion only.2.1fcuAg) (CP 6.1. is obtained from: As = M . is obtained first for a section. In addition. or equal to Msingle.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. shear.4(a).1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4(c)) ⎧0.2. As.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. 7. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.1. Fig 6.Chapter 7 .8x for ⎪ ⎪0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . less than.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.4(b)).1) The design procedure used by SAFE.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.5. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Msingle.1.87 f y z (CP 6. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.2. hence.

95d z = d ⎜ 0.4(c)) (CP 6.1.5 + 0. If M > Msingle.2.1.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. or at the top if M is negative.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design . compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.25 − ⎜ 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2.2.1.

and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. Fig 6.45 . Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.87 f y z + 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.2.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.95d 0.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.1.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.4(c). for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. 3..2.5.2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.87 f y .e.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. i.1.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. designing top reinforcement).2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .1.5.1. 3.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. Beam Design 7-9 .1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.36 . Based on this assumption. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2.2.1.2. 7.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4(a).2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously..6. Fig.2. M (i.1. no flanged beam data is used.1.5 + 0.4(c)) 7.2.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.Chapter 7 .e.5.

2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. 0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.2. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ .4(c).4(a).1) If a ≤ hf.5 + 0. If a > hf .95d.1. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.1.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6.36 .45 . in that case. for ⎪ 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.2.1.10 Beam Design . the normalized moment is given by: K= M . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.2. Fig 6. Fig 6.4(c)) (CP 6. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.1. However.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. See Figure 7-2. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the width of the beam is taken as bf.

5) β f = 0. x ≤ 0.1 f cu bd (0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 .67 fcu/gm 0. as shown in Figure 7-2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 .5h f ) .Chapter 7 .5h f ) bf hf ec 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. Cf.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.4d then.4.4.4.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. x ≤ 0.4.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0. x ≤ 0. where (BS 3.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0. ⎪0.11 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.87 f y (d − 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.9 x − h f ) 0. Cw. In that case.

045 for ⎩ ⎧0. 7 .45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.1.1.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0. where (CP 6. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.87 f y ( d − 0.12 Beam Design .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.2. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4(c)).2.32 ⎪ ⎪0.1.5h f ) ) .4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.4(d)) ⎧0.

Chapter 7 .5h f ) Mf + Mw .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.2.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0.5 + 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4(c).9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .95d ⎜ 0. 3.6.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.13 .87 f y (d − 0.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0. where 0.1.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.95d ⎜ 0. Fig 3.

2.1.3): 7 . which is taken from CP Table 9.4 bf bw ≥ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.14 Beam Design .1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.20 0. if it is required.2.40 0.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.2.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2.1).5. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.32 0.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.36 0.24 0.1(CP 9.13 100 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.1.1.2.1 (CP 9.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.26 ⎯ 100 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.48 0.

2. vc.5.5. the following steps are involved (CP 6.1.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.04bw d ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete.15 .5(a)) 7. vc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. with the corresponding load combination factors. v.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.2. 7 MPa) (CP 6. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2.2. for a particular load combination.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.5): Determine the shear stress.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1.3) 7.5.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9. Determine the shear stress.2.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.Chapter 7 . 7.8 fcu . is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.

2. Table 6. Table 6.5.2. as: 7 .6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.1. Table 6.1.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.25 However.5(c).79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.1.2.5(c).2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.2.3) (CP 6. CP 6.16 Beam Design .3) ≥ 0.1.5(c).5(k)) 0. the following limitations also apply: 0.5(g)) (CP 6.2.5(k)) 7.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.5(c).1.67 1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. vc.2. Table 6.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. Table 6.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.2. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2. vr.5(c). bd 1 4 (CP 6. and vmax.1.2.1.

1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.2. 7.5(b)) (CP 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2. sv 0.2. Determine special section properties.87 f yv If v > vmax.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = .5(b).1. a failure condition is declared. vt. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.17 . obtained from each load combination.1.1. Table 6. Beam Design 7 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.5.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0. (CP 6.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.2. (CP 6.Chapter 7 .

with the corresponding load combination factors. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.18 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. The torsional shear stress.4. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.3(a)) For flanged sections. vt. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.1). exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. Table 6.3. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.3. In typical framed construction.5.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6.3. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.8 f cu . vt. 7.3.17 7 .3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.

3.min. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.3.3.3.0.min.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. In that case.min.4. Table 6.t /sv.067 fcu .min = min 0.5. However. vt. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.19 .5).5). for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .5. vt. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt. vt is less than the threshold limit. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3. vt.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. Asv.min. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. 7.Chapter 7 .

The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.6) In the preceding expressions.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.3.3. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.t sv = T 0.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.20 Slab Design . and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.8 x1 y1 (0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the concrete section should be increased in size. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.3. 7. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . In that case.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. 7 .8 fcu . a failure message is declared.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.87 f yv ) (CP 6. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.

along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6.6. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported.21 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 7. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. In some cases.Chapter 7 . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. given the bending moment. for each load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6. In that case. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.1. at a given design section in a design strip. 7.

interior. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.1. 7.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.7). Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.. 7 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.5.1. 7.5.6. 7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. Where openings occur.3. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.7(d)).2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.6. The column location (i.2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.3.1.3).1.1(a)) In addition. edge.e.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.22 Slab Design .1.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.

1.5(c). Table 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.5d 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5d 1. Table 6.3): 0.Chapter 7 .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.5.7(d)) (CP 6.7(d).5.1.5d Interior Column 1.1.23 .2.2.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.6. 6. Table 6.7(d).2.1.1.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .5(g).5d 1.

3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.2.5 + 1.1. Table 2.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.5. 7 MPa) (CP 6.4. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. v ≤ min(0.7(b)) (CP Table 6.24 Slab Design . v.2.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.1. the nominal design shear stress.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2) 0. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2. bd 1 4 (CP 6.3. Table 6.00 As = area of tension reinforcement. 6. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection. where (CP 6.1.5.6(b).6.5 x ⎬ .7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.1. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.25 However. 7 .2.3) ≥ 0.67 1.5(c).5(c).8 f cu .2. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.5.5.1. Table 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.

2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .3.25 ⎪1.5.6(b).6. 7.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.1.Chapter 7 .1. 7.1.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.25 . 6.3.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force. 7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5.5.5.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.1.7(e)). and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.

7(e)) (CP 6.26 Slab Design .87 f yv 0.e.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. If v ≤ 1.6. vc.7(f)). edge.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. (CP 6.1.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. ≥ s 0. 6.5.6vc 0.87 f yv 0. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. and 8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.1. i. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.5. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 7 . Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . for corner. 0. edge. a failure condition is declared. and vmax. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. 7.6vc ≤ v < 2.4ud = ≥ .87 f yv s If v > vmax.1.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. and interior columns respectively.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.5. and corner column.1. Therefore.7(e))..5.1.7v − vc ) ud 0.87 f yv If 1.0vc (CP 6.5.

Chapter 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7.1.5d s ≤ 0.5d (CP 6.6.2. and 20-millimeter diameter. 14-.7(f)) (CP 6. When specifying shear studs. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing. so.27 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.3. 12-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.1. the distance. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.75d g ≤ 1.5d.7(f)) (CP 6.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5. Height.5d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 16-.5. s. g.1.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .5.

.

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. For simplicity. 8. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. mm Notations 8-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein.

N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. N-mm 8-2 Notations . MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.

N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. N Depth of neutral axis.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu.Chapter 8 .max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.3 .max Notations 8. N-mm Normalized design moment. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. mm Lever arm.

5E 0. For IS 456-2000.5. wind (W).5W 0.2L ± 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa 8.5L ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.5D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4.2.9D ± 1.5E 1.5S 1.4.5(0. live load (L).0E (IS 36.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4.4.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .5D + 1.2D + 1.5W 1.0W 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.5D + 1. pattern live load (PL).5L ± 1. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.2E 1.2D + 1.5D + 1.2L ± 1.5D ± 1.5D 1.5D ± 1.5D + 1. Table 18): 1.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete. snow (S). the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.5L 1.2W 1.1) (IS 31.1) (IS 36.9D ± 1.3) (IS 36.75 PL) 1.1) (IS 36.

4.2W 1. However.2. These values can be overwritten. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.1) (IS 36.2D + 1. 14.2W 1.4.4.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2D + 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.Design for IS 456-2000 1. load combination factors. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. caution is advised.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. however.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. shear.5 . shear.Chapter 8 .4.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2D + 1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2L + 1.2L + 1.2S ± 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.2. γs = 1.2S ± 1.2E (IS 36.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. shear forces.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2D + 1. 8.5L + 1. torsion.5D + 1. beams must be designed for torsion.2E 1. and torsion only.2S ± 1. γm. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. 8.5S 1.2S ± 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.5 (IS 36. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. γc = 1. 8. and torsion based on the beam moments.

1. However. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. 8. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.4. In such cases. If redistribution is desired.1. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. 8-6 Beam Design . torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. Rather. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. In such cases.

4. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.2) (IS 41.4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations.1) 8.Chapter 8 . where (IS 41.4.1.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.2. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.7 .4. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. If Mt exceeds Mu. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. respectively. Effectively.1. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. In such cases. Beam Design 8.

5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.3. or the strength of the concrete. The area of the stress block.1) 8.4.2. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1). The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1) (IS 38. a. c.1) 8-8 Beam Design . the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.4. 8. (IS 41.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web.4.1. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. with the corresponding load combination factors. When a torsional moment is to be included. the width. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.

it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.1).36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.1) (IS 38. Furthermore.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.1).Chapter 8 .36 β = 0.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.53 0.0035 b f′ s 0.max /d 0.48 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.46 Beam Design 8. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.42 (IS 38.9 .1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.

The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. Msingle = α xu. Msingle. less than.4.10 Beam Design . Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. and torsion only. the limiting depth of the neutral axis.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. 8.2.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. are obtained first.53 ⎪ ⎪0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.48 − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. is given by 8 .0035 (IS 38.53 − 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.max d ⎧0.max. m.max = 0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.max d xu.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1. shear. xu. or equal to Msingle. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. xu .

d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . and vice versa if Mu is negative.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. A's. where (IS G-1. Beam Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. is obtained from As = Mu .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.Chapter 8 . As.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. or at the top if Mu is negative. − If Mu > Msingle. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the area of compression reinforcement.11 .

the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure 8-2. i..3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. On the basis of this assumption. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. designing top reinforcement)..3. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2.e.4.4. 8.e. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. Mu (i.4..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.12 Beam Design .2. no flanged beam data is used.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.

the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.13 .65D f if D f > 0. Cw. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .15 xu + 0.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. as shown in Figure 8-2. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.Chapter 8 .1). in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. However. Cf. m. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.

67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.single ⎛ 0.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.1) xu .02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.single.53 − 0. the area of compression reinforcement. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. and 8 .max d ⎧0.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .53 ⎪ ⎪0. A's. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.48 − 0.single.14 Beam Design .max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.max ⎡ x u.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.46 (IS 38.

85 bd fy (IS 26.1. at a particular station.5.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.1) An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.5.5.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.15 .1.04bw d ⎧0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.5.2.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1. the following steps are involved (IS 40.5.1) (IS 26.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1): As ≥ 0.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.4. for a particular load combination.Chapter 8 .4.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.1.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1.2) 8.

3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.1 M30 3.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.5 M20 2.0 τc.2.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.5 M35 3. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .7 M40 4.8 M25 3. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2. as: τcd = kδτc.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. (IS 40. d.max.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress. τc.max (MPa) (IS 40.16 Beam Design . is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.2. τc.1. τc. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.3. τv ≤ τc.2) 8 .3.max (IS 40. where bd (IS 40.4.

15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40. and if Pu > 0 .1.87 f y If τcd + 0. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.1) (IS 40.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. taken as 1. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .1. Table 19) (IS 40.5. Under Tension (IS 40.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.2. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.1.2.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.4 Asv 0.4.max (IS 40.17 .4 b ≥ sv 0.2.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.3.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.4(a)) Beam Design 8.87 f y (IS 40.2.Chapter 8 .2. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table. 26.2.1.1). 0.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .4 < τv ≤ τc. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.

4.1) (IS 40.max The maximum nominal shear stress. obtained from each load combination.4.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.3.87 f y (IS 41.6) If τve ≥τcd. τc.max is determined as defined in the last section. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40. 8 .4 b ≥ sv 0.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.3) τve ≤ τc.87 f y (IS 41.2.3.87 f y ) 2.4) 8. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.5.1.18 Beam Design .max. 26. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.5d1 (0.4. a failure condition is declared. (IS 40.2.3) (IS 41.

19 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 8. To learn more about the design strips.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Design for IS 456-2000 8. Slab Design 8. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These two steps.5.5. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. described in the subsections that follow. 8. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. for each load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. is obtained and reported. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.Chapter 8 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. are repeated for every load combination.

8.1).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.5. In some cases. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.20 Slab Design .2. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.5..0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.5.6.1). edge. at a given design section in a design strip. 8 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. In that case. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6.2): ⎧0.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2.5.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.5.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.e. interior.1. given the bending moment.5. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 8. Where openings occur.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 8. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1) In addition.

3.2).2.6.5.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.5. 8.2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.2.21 .2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.Chapter 8 .

8.6.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.1) (IS 31.5.5 + βc ≤ 1.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3.6.2) 8 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3. 8.6.6.3.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.1) (IS 31.5. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2) 8.5.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1. 8.5 τ c bod (IS 31.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.1) τc = 0.0 (IS 31.3.2.22 Slab Design .6.5τ c (IS 31.

3.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.Chapter 8 . 8.3.2).23 . Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge.3) (IS 31.6. a failure condition is declared.6. Slab Design 8.3. i.e. Av = (Vu − 0. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Vc.87 f y (IS 31. 41.5. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.5Vc ) 0.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.2.3.2) If Vu > Vmax.6.4. and corner column. and Vmax.

at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. g.3. the distance. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 8. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 6. When specifying shear studs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively. edge.5. 5d s ≤ 0.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . The limits of so and the spacing. so. for corner. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and 8.5d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.24 Slab Design . Height. s.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Therefore. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.

The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . For simplicity. 9. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.

mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. assumed as 200. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.

N Average design shear stress at a section. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Overall depth of sections. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. mm Factored design torsion at a section.Chapter 9 . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Perimeter of area Ao. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Shear stress due to torsion.

4.0.0S 1. 4.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.75 PL) 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0. wind (W).003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.0.4L ± 1.0.2.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L ± 1.2.0.0.2. 4.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .0.0. 4.2D + 0. 4.35D 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.5L 1.0D ± 1. 4.0W 1.2.2.0. snow (S).2D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.0E 1.2D ± 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0D + 0.2. (0.2. pattern live load (PL).0.2. For NZS 3101-06. 4.5(0.0W 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.2D + 0. live load (L). 4.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.2.2): 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. and earthquake (E) loads.0W 0. 4.9D ± 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4L + 1.

3.3. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. 9. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. caution is advised.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .85 for flexure φs = 0. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.Chapter 9 .3. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 9.2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement.2.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement.3). shear. other appropriate load combinations should be used. (NZS 2.2) (NZS 2.3. fyt. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.3). however.2.1). The φ factors for flexure. fy.

1. In such cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5. for a particular station. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion only. torsion. shear. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear forces.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. the 9-6 Beam Design . load combination factors. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

9. where.7): α1 = 0.2. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.1).5. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.3.Chapter 9 . the width.3. The design procedure used by SAFE.85 (NZS 2.1.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .7).2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.8.1.2. 9. designing top or bottom reinforcement). and torsion only.4. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).2.4.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.5. M (i. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.e. Furthermore. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement..2) in the preceding and following equations. or the strength of the concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.2) where the default value of φb is 0. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. shear.

004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.2. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.85 − 0.8.8) β1 = 0.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.8.1).003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0. 0. c (NZS 7.2.4. is given by: amax = 0.3.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.7) (NZS 7.2.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.85 − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7) (NZS 7.4.3. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .4.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.2.7. 9.75β1cb (NZS 7. amax.4.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.85 β1 = 0.008( f ′ − 30).

4. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .8.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1).9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.2.3. If a > amax (NZS 9.4.Chapter 9 .2.2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7. or at the top * if M is negative. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .4. 7.4.2.2.

and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.10 Beam Design . Cf. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.5.5. designing top reinforcement). and vice versa if M is negative..e. 9 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1. If a > hf. calculation for As has two parts. However. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.75β1cb (NZS 7.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.. is given by: amax = 0.3. 9.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. no flanged beam data is used. i. amax.2.1) If a ≤ hf.e. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. * 9. M (i. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.2. the total tension reinforcement.1. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. as shown in Figure 9-2. 9.2.8.5. As = As1 + As2.4.7. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.2. Cw.

Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.2 ) Beam Design 9 .4.4.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. As1 = given by: (NZS 7. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.Chapter 9 . the balance of the moment.2.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.11 .

4.8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.12 Beam Design .2.2.2. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .4.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .2.8.1). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.3.3.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.4.1). the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s . If a1 > amax (NZS 9.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. 7. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0. the section dimensions b.7). the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) where.1) where the section dimensions bf.18 Beam Design . Similarly.1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.6.1) (NZS 7. bw. hf. h.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. h.75 Ao/po 0. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .1) (NZS 7. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.1.1) (NZS 7.

for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.6.6) Beam Design 9 .3) 9.3.3.4.6.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6. At /s. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.19 . T . the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6. In that case. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.5.1.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.5. is less than the threshold limit.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.1). defined as: T* ≤ 0.6. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.1.1. Tcr.1). Tcr.Chapter 9 . The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. if T exceeds the threshold limit.6.4.6. and meets the torsion stress limit. However.

2. 9. 7.2 f 'c .8. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 9 . bw is replaced with b. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.3).2) * * For rectangular sections.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.6. provided it is fully developed. the concrete section should be increased in size. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.1. a failure message is declared.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. At Al 1.20 Slab Design . In that case. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. To learn more about the design strips. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.5.6.

given the bending moment. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. are repeated for every load combination.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 9.6. These two steps. In that case. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. is obtained and reported. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. In some cases. for each load combination. at a given design section in a design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 9 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1. described in the subsections that follow. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 9.21 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.

The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control. The column location (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4. 9.7. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.e.8. 8.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.1(b)).5. edge. 8.6.6.2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.6.6.1(b)).22 Slab Design . Where openings occur. 9.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2.1) In addition. 9. 9 . 2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.4 ): ⎧ 0 .8. interior. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12.5.7.1.6.2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.

2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .23 .6.7. 9.6.7.2.7.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .7. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.

7.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2) where.24 Slab Design .1) 70 9.2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.3. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.6. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.2(a)). and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.7. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.3.7.1. 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. 9 .1).7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.4.2.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. 9.

the concrete section should be increased in size.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.4) If vn > φvmax.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3.3) (NZS 12.6. is the strength reduction factor.4.7. where.7.5) 9. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7.25 . 9.6.Chapter 9 .3.7.7. vc.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3. a failure condition is declared.4. Slab Design 9 . Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12. φ. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax. and vmax.4) Given vn.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.

26 Slab Design . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. 6. 9 . Therefore. i..4. and corner column.3.6. and interior columns respectively. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. for corner. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. edge. and 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.4). edge.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.

4. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. g. so.4) (NZS 12. When specifying shear studs. The limits of so and the spacing.4. Height.5d s ≤ 0.7. the distance.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. s.4) Slab Design 9 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3.6.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.7.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4.Chapter 9 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.27 .4) (NZS 12.

.

a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Notations 10 . The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter.1 .

mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm 10 .000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Torsional constant. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm Width or effective width of flange.2 Notations . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Flange thickness.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. assumed as 200. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.

MPa Neutral axis depth. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Torsional shear stress. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.Chapter 10 . N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. mm Lever arm.3 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.

4.2W (CP 2. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.3).4W 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.0D ± 1.3).3) (CP 2.7. including pattern live load.2D + 1. 10. and considering that wind forces are reversible. fcu.1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.2). should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3. live load (L).4D + 1.2L ± 1. and wind (W) loads.4. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used.4D ± 1.4.4.4W 1.6L 1. γf (CP 2. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.4.4D 1.75PL) 1. pattern live load (PL).4D + 1. 10 .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. Note that the automatic combination. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.4 Design Load Combinations .1.3) (CP 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. 1.6(0.

and torsion based on the beam moments.4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. γm. shear.4. but can be overwritten. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 .5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5 . and other criteria described below.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1. load combination factors.Chapter 10 . shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. torsion. shear forces. which are taken from CP Table 2.50 1. 10.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2 (CP 2. and torsion only. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.

5. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4).3.6 Beam Design .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.5. In such cases. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases. the width.4.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. with the corresponding load factors. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 10. or the strength of the concrete.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. BC 2. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5.2) 10 .1.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. for a particular station.1.4.

all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.4). it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. BC 2. In addition.4) Beam Design 10 . Msingle. or equal to Msingle.4. See Figure 10-1.4.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.4. BC 2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. is summarized in the subsections that follow.7 .4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4.2) The design procedure used by SAFE.4.4.4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4.4.5. hence. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. βb ≥ 0.4).2.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.. 10.Chapter 10 .and T-beams).1.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4. ⎧0.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. is first calculated for a section.4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. shear. less than. where 2 (CP 3.e.9) (CP 3. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.1). It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. and torsion only.1fcuAg) (CP 3.

094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.4) (CP 3.4.4. As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.4) 10 .5 + 0.4. is then given by: As = M .4.25 − ⎜ 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. where 0.87 f y z (CP 3.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3. If M ≤ Msingle.4. the area of tension reinforcement.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.8 Beam Design .4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4.

Beam Design 10 .2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.3. no flanged beam data is used.1.4.4.5 + 0.3. Fig 2.4.87 f y z + 0.1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle . M (i. 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4..2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3. Fig 2.5. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. designing top reinforcement). the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. i.4.e.4. where (CP 3. or at the top if M is negative.4.9 .5.5.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. If M > Msingle. and f ′ =0.25 − ⎜ 0. 2.4.5.4.2.2.Chapter 10 .4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.e.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4..2.

the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. See Figure 10-2. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. On the basis of this assumption.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.4.10 Beam Design . εc 0.67 fcu γ m 0. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1.5.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.

for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. as shown in Figure 10-2. However.4. Fig 2. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. If a > hf .4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.4.Chapter 10 .2.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.5) β f = 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. where (BS 3. 2 As = M + 0.87 f y (d − 0. BC 2. Cf.3) If a ≤ hf.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.2.1 f cu bd (0.45d − h f ) 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.4.4.36 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. Fig 2.4. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cw.5h f ) . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4.4. BC 2.45d then.95d 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.9 ⎭ (CP 3. In that case.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.11 .3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.5 + 0.4.45 .4.

24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.4.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.2) 10 .5.4.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.87 f y ( d − 0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0. where (CP 3.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.12 Beam Design .32 ⎪ ⎪0.2) ⎧0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4. BC 2.5h f ) ) .4.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.

2) If Kw ≤ 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.4.4. 2.4.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.13 . Fig 2.Chapter 10 .4.4).4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.5.4.4).4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 . BC 2. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.5. where 0.156 (CP 3.4.95d ⎜ 0.4.5.4. 2. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.4. Fig 2. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. As = 0.5 + 0.3.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.87 f y (d − 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.

4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.18 100 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0. 10 .36 0.3).32 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.14 Beam Design .1.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.48 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.27 (CP 3.27 (CP 3.95d ⎜ 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.5.12.13 100 0.26 100 0.5.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.5 + 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.12. which is taken from CP Table 3.24 0. if it is required.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. v.Chapter 10 .2). 10.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3. BC 2.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.5): Determine the shear stress.5.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.40 0.2.6. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.12. Determine the shear stress.20 0.15 .1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.4.1).3.5. the following steps are involved (CP 3. vc. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. 10. An upper limit of 0.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.12. that can be resisted by the concrete. for a particular load combination.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.

4.5.8 fcu .4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.2) For light-weight concrete.4) 10.4.5.4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.5. Table 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.6 (CP 3.4.4.5. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .5.5.4. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.12) 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.8) (CP 3.4) (CP 2.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.4.25 1 1 3 However. (CP 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . 7 MPa).9) 10 .5.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.16 Beam Design .63 fcu .2. Table 3.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases. vc.5. the following limitations also apply: 0.

Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. sv 0.9) (CP 3.5.3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.5.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3. Table 3. v’c. Table 3.8) As vr b = .4.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.5.4.4.4.87 f yv If v > vmax. and vmax.4.2. Table 3.4.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4. Table 3.3.8.5.3. Table 3.Chapter 10 .5.5.4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.2) In the preceding expressions.4. (CP 3. CP 3. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0. (CP 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.5. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 . vr. a failure condition is declared.5.5.3. Table 3.4.17 .8) (CP 3.

1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. vt.5. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. In typical framed construction.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.5. Determine critical torsion stress. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.15).18 Beam Design . If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. Determine special section properties.4.4. obtained from each load combination. vt.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 .5. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. The torsional shear stress. 10.

Chapter 10 .19 .2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.0. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0. For lightweight concrete. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.1) For flanged sections.5) 10. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4.4. vt.4.min.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.4.8 (CP Part 2 5.5.5) Beam Design 10 .067 f cu .min = min 0. vt.3.4.8 f cu .067 f cu .min is defined as: vt .0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.6 N / mm 2 x 0. vt.min = min 0.

vt.4.8 x1 y1 (0. Asv.t sv = T 0.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. vt. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.6). it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.7) In the preceding expressions.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .6).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. In that case. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.t /sv.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.8 f cu .4. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.min.min. In that case.5.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. If vt > vt. 10 .7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.4.20 Beam Design .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. is calculated as: Asv . a failure message is declared. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. However.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.4. the concrete section should be increased in size. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.min. vt. is less than the threshold limit.

irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Slab Design 10 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. 10. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 10 .21 .6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.

22 Slab Design . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. In that case.12.6. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1. CP Table 3.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. for each load combination. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. In some cases. 10. 10. given the bending moment.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .3.6. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 10. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Where openings occur.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. at a given design section in a design strip.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1.5. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

7. 10.7. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .4. interior.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3. In addition. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.6.12.6).04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 10.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.12.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.5.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Slab Design 10 .e.2.1). The column location (i. 3.23 . Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.7.7. edge.1).Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0..1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .

5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. the following limitations also apply: 10 .4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.6): 0.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.4.4.7.5.5.7.7.4.5d 1. Table 3.4.5d Interior Column 1. 3.7.5.2) However.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.24 Slab Design .5d 1.5d 1.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.6.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.2. Table 3.9) (CP 3.4.

Table 3.6. the nominal design shear stress.7.7.7.25 . Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .Chapter 10 . 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. 4 MPa) f cu . vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.3) 1 . is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2.4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.9) (CP 3.5 M y 1 .4. (CP 3.4.4.6.2.4. Table 3.4. 10.63 v ≤ min (0. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.5.5. where (CP 3.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.8 fcu .9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4) (CP 3. 3.5. v.2.9) For light-weight concrete. Table 3.5.7.

provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.7.3.5).5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.25 ⎪1.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.5).6.6. 10 .3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. and for corner columns.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.6.26 Slab Design .6.2.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.6. 3. (CP 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 10. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.7.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. and vmax.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 ⎩ for interior columns.7. for edge columns. 10. vc. 10.3.7.7.

≥ s 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. the concrete section should be increased in size.7. and corner column.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. i.e.3.7.Chapter 10 . (CP 3. edge.27 .4ud Av 5 ( 0.6vc..5) (CP 3.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7.7. 10.6.87 f yv 0. ≥ s 0.87 f yv 0. (CP 3.0vc.87 f yv If 1. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. 0. a failure condition is declared.87 f yv If v > vmax. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7.6vc ≤ v < 2.5) 0.7v − vc ) ud = .7.

4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6) 10 .7.6) (CP 3. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.7. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d.7.7. the distance.75d g ≤ 1. g. Height.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6. 12-.6) (CP 3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. for corner. edge. When specifying shear studs. 6.5d s ≤ 0.7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.7.6). and 8. and 20-millimeter diameter. so. 10. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.28 Slab Design . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Therefore.3. The limits of so and the spacing.5d (CP 3. 16-.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.7. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. s. and interior columns respectively. 14-. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.

TM R-1 . February 2008. 2. Box 9094. NSW 2001. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. Part 1.2R-07). British Standards Institution. ACI. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. GPO Box 5420. London. Michigan. 2008. 1997.References ACI. 2001.O. Sydney. UK. Michigan. American Concrete Institute. 2007. and 3. 1.1 and Amendment No. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. Singapore. American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills. 38800 Country Club Drive. 2005. 2008. BC. 2. BSI. Farmington Hills. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Standards Australia International Ltd. Australia. AS. Building and Construction Authority. BC 2:2008. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. Structural Use of Concrete. P.

Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. 2. Design of Concrete Structures. Mongkok. incorporating Amendments Nos. Canada. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. CSA. 1985. R-2 . Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Bureau of Indian Standards. 2006. 2004. India. Buildings Department. London. Structural Use of Concrete. Belgium. NZS. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. and 3. Singapore. Manak Bhavan. 2004. New Delhi 110002. Third Edition. Canadian Standards Association. 2000. European Committee for Standardization. Concrete Structures Standard. EN 1990:2002. 2005.3-04. Private Bag 2439. British Standards Institution. CP 65:Part 1:1999. General Rules and Rules for Buildings.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Belgium. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. September 2000. Ontario. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Wellington. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Part 2. March 2000. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. CP. Part 1-1. 2004. A23. 1999. Kowloon. Standards New Zealand. HK CP. EN 1992-1-1. Brussels. Hong Kong. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. 1. Brussels. IS. European Committee for Standardization. 750 Nathan Road. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. 1. New Zealand. UK. Twentieth Reprint. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Rexdale.

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