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# SAFE

™

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.6.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.4 4.2 3.1 Design for Flexure 4.1 Design for Flexure 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.6.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.1 Notations 5-1 ii .6.5.3-04 5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.3 3.3 4.6 5 Design for CSA A23.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.5.4 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.5.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.1 3.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.1 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.2 4.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.

4 5.3 5.5.6.2 5.6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.5.2 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .1 Design for Flexure 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.1 Design for Flexure 6.2 7.5.5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.28 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.6.1 6.6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.4 6.Contents 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.1 7.3 6.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.

2 Check for Punching Shear 7.4 9.4.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.5.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.4.5.1 Effects of Torsion 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.5.4 7.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.3 9.5.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.6.3 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.1 8.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.5.4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.5.2 9.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.6.5.1 Design for Flexure 8.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.2 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.1 9.

Contents 9.6.6.6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.5 Beam Design 10.5.1 Design for Flexure 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.5.6 Slab Design 10.6.6.6 Slab Design 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.2 Design Load Combinations 10.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.6.1 Notations 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .5.

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This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. 1-1 . Specifically.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. shear. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. and torsion reinforcement. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. and it designs beam flexural. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user.

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a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. sq-in Notations 2-1 .1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. sq-in Gross area of concrete. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. 2.

sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. psi 2-2 Notations .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Width of web (flanged section). psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Width of section. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path.

lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Factored moment at a section. psi Overall depth of a section. in Height of the flange. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Critical torsion capacity. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. lb Factored axial load at a section. lb Factored shear force at a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. (0. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.Chapter 2 .

1) (ACI 9.2D + 1. live load (L). if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).7.8W 1.2.2D + 1.4D 1.6.0E 1. and earthquake (E) loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs. pattern live load (PL).5S ± 1.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.0E 1.6L + 0.6 (0.2.6S 1.1) (ACI 13.0L + 1.2D + 1.6W 0.2D + 1. wind (W).2. degrees 2.2.0L ± 1.1) (ACI 9.0L ± 1.0L + 0.2D + 1.1) are the same.6W 1.2.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.1): 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2D + 1. For ACI 318-08.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.3) (ACI 9.5S 1.2D + 1.6S ± 0.75 PL) 0.6L 1. snow (S).2D + 1.2. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .0L + 0.2D + 1.9D ± 1.9D ± 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2S ± 1.1) (ACI 9.6W 1.0E (ACI 9.

f' c . 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.3) 2.2). (ACI 9.1) (ACI 9.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and other criteria described in this section.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. and torsion based on the beam moments. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. 2. shear. fyt.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.5. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1). shear forces.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. torsion. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.3.1. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11.2. caution is advised. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . however. The φ factors for flexure.3. shear. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. load combination factors. or if other types of loads are present. φ.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.Chapter 2 . fy.2.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. for a particular station. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. with the corresponding load factors.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. 2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. shear. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. and torsion only.

. fy . the width.3. which by default is 0.3. 2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.2. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.and T-beams).85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.90 (ACI 9. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.3.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. is summarized in the text that follows. The maximum depth of the compression zone.2) Beam Design 2-7 .005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. shear.1.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.Chapter 2 . hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.2).003.1) in the preceding and the following equations. or the strength of the concrete. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.2. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.3.5.5). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. Furthermore.e. cmax. The design procedure used by SAFE. which is equal to 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). where.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.2. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.4). Mu (i. and torsion only. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition. designing top or bottom reinforcement).

4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.003 εsmin = 0.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.3.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7. amax.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.4).3) (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. εcmax = 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.7.85 − 0.005 (ACI 10.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.2.3.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.1) β1 = 0.85 (ACI 10. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.

3. If a > amax. where ( f 's − 0. 10.Chapter 2 . or at the top if Mu is negative.2.2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.3.7. 10.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .2.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.

is assumed if the flange is under compression. In that case. the flange comes under tension.85 f ′ c 0. i. a simplified stress block.5. 2.e.003 0.2. if the moment is positive. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0..1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore.10 Beam Design . and the flange is ignored.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . If the moment is negative. as shown in Figure 2-2.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. and vice versa if Mu is negative.

e.2. no flanged beam data is used.3. designing top reinforcement)..2.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.1. 2. cmax.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.90 (ACI 9. The maximum depth of the compression zone. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously..65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.11 .3. amax.3) (ACI 10.1) in the preceding and the following equations.7. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2) where.2. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.2.e. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.2.2.003 εsmin = 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.7.2) εcmax = 0.85 − 0.5.1) β1 = 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.1.85 (ACI 10.2.005 (ACI 10. which by default is 0.2.Design for ACI 318-08 2. Mu (i.4): cmax = where.3. i. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3) Beam Design 2 . which is equal to 0.5.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.Chapter 2 .

12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. the value for φ is 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Mu . However. Cf is given by: C f = 0. Therefore. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the calculation for As has two parts. Cf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.7. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.5). in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Cw. As1 = given by: (ACI 10.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. 2 .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. the balance of the moment. as shown in Figure 2-2.90 by default. If a > hf. amax ) Therefore.2.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f .3. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.

10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10. where ( f 's − 0.7.2.13 . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .3. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.Chapter 2 .1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.2.2.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.2.3.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2. 10.

the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Vc.5.3) An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. 2. that can be resisted by the concrete.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear force.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.2. for a particular load combination.5.5.4bw d ⎧0.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . bw d ⎟ As . Vu. 2 .1. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.14 Beam Design .

2.3). is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.5.7.3.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.5.75 (ACI 9. 2. 2. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.9) Given Vu. is 0.5.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.15 .Chapter 2 .3. fyt.5. and Vmax. If Vu ≤ 0. 11.3. Vc.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.2.6.5. φ.1) Beam Design 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11. Vc.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1) For light-weight concrete.1. the strength reduction factor.1. with the corresponding load combination factors.5.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.1.

5.7. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5.5.3) If Vu > φVmax.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.7. 11.7. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.2) ⎛ 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Determine special section properties.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1. a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.3 is not enforced (ACI 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.7. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. and 0.5.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.5. Tu.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw . If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in. the equation given in ACI 11. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details. the concrete section should be increased in size.5.16 Beam Design .6.5bw. 2.6.6.5.1(c)).5.5hf. (ACI 11. 2.5. 2 .6.

Ao. and ph. Ao.6. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11.2).2). For torsion design of flanged beam sections. This is equivalent to 1. are calculated. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. If redistribution is desired.17 . However. pcp.5.6. such as Acp. such as Aoh.Chapter 2 .5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. and ph. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 .1).5.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. special section properties.3.75 inches.3.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. 2. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. 2.2. Aoh.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.

6. 2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.1.6.1.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.2.1.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.1. R11. R11.6.6. With this assumption.1. 2.6.5.1) (ACI 11. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3.6(b)) (ACI 11. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. Similarly.1) where. 2. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11. 2.18 Beam Design .6.1) (ACI 11.3.6.1.1.3.3. 2.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.1.1(c)) 2 . 2.6.1) (ACI 11.6.1) (ACI 11. However.6.6.1) (ACI11. 2. hf.3. the section dimensions b. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) where the section dimensions bf.6.3. bw. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. With this assumption. 2. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) (ACI 11.3. 2. 2. h.4). 2.6(b)) (ACI 11.6.3.6.1.3.6. Tcr. h.

6).6. In that case.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.5.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.5.2.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3.6.6) where. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. 2. At /s.3).6). even if the material property is defined with a higher value. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. longitudinal bars. is limited to 60 ksi. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.75 by default (ACI 9.6. fy. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.3. which is equal to 0. However. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. θ is taken as 45 degrees.3.6.19 . Tcr.7.6.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive). The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.6.6. fyt.1). Tcr. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.Chapter 2 . Beam Design 2 .3.3) In the preceding expressions.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.3. 11.3.6.5.

6.5.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.20 Beam Design . the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. In that case.1) For rectangular sections.2) 2 . the concrete section should be increased in size.3. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. a failure message is declared. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . bw is replaced with b.6.

Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.Chapter 2 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Slab Design 2 . 2. In that case. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. To learn more about the design strips.6. 2. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.5. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6.3 independently. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.21 .

1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. This is the method used when drop panels are included.min = 0.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.2): As.12.min = 0.1. given the bending moment.12. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 2. described in the text that follows.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. is obtained and reported. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.12.22 Slab Design . 2. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1(c)) 0. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 2. These two steps. for each load combination.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .1(a)) (ACI 7. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Where openings occur.min = (ACI 7. In some cases.2. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. are repeated for every load combination.1(b)) (ACI 7.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As. at a given design section in a design strip.2.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.12.2.6.6. In that case.

1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 2. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. The column location (i. interior.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.11. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11. edge.. 2.3).11.Chapter 2 .23 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area.2).6.e. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.

2 Eq. For interior columns. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.1) For flat plates.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.2. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.5.2 Eq.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 For corner columns. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-13) (ACI 421. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421. C-16) 2 .3.6.5. C-15) (ACI 421.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.2 Eq. C-11) (ACI 421. γvx = 0. C-12) For edge columns.2 Eq.2 Eq.24 Slab Design . γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.3.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2 Eq.

11. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.11.Chapter 2 . respectively. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. for edge columns.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. 2.2.2. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.2.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. x and y.2. (ACI 11.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.1) where.6.1.25 . βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. and for corner columns.

and Vmax. is 0. If this ratio exceeds 1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.3).3.6.3.3.6.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.75 (ACI 9.11. the strength reduction factor. Vc. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.11.2.1) (ACI 11.5. 2. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.26 Slab Design .5. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 2. 2 . where. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.3.0. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1) 2. φ.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.3).11.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.11.11.2) (ACI 11.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. a failure condition is declared.7.4.1. i.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. 11.7.3.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6.Chapter 2 ..11.4. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. and corner column. 2.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Slab Design 2 . edge.e.3. (ACI 11.11.27 .3).3. the concrete section should be increased in size. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.

and interior columns respectively. and 8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 5/8-.6. The limits of so and the spacing.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. When specifying shear studs. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. 2. so. and 3/4-inch diameters. 6.5d (ACI 11. the distance.5.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11.5.11.28 Slab Design .3) 2 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. g.5d.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. s.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. for corner. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7.2) ⎧0.2) (ACI 11.11. Height. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. 1/2-. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Therefore. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.11. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5.3. edge. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 3. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. mm Notations 3-1 .Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete.

MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Depth to neutral axis. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Mean value of do. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Depth of compression block. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section).

MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. max εs Notations 3-3 . N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. to the effective depth.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.max Tus T* ut V* Vu.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section.max Vu. N Shear force resisted by concrete. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N-mm Factored moment at section. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. mm Factored shear force at a section.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement.Chapter 3 . MPa Torsional modulus. (0. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Factored axial load at section.

2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.0D ± 1.2.0-02. snow (S).0W 1. 4.0-02.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.0-02. For AS 3600-01.3.2. 4. 4.5(0.75 PL) 1. and earthquake (E) loads. live load (L).2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 1.2.0D + 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.0W 1.4L + 1.35D 1. degrees 3. 4. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.9D ± 1. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) Note that the 0.2.2D + 0.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. pattern live load (PL). wind (W). 4.0E (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 1.2D ± 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.0S 0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0-02.2.0-02.5L 1.4L ± 1.1): 1.0-02.2.2.0E 1. 4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0-02.0W 1.4L ± 1.0-02.

is defined as given in AS 2.1. (AS 2.1).2. load combination factors.2. caution is advised. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1. for all framing type (AS 6.1). however.Chapter 3 .5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.1.1.1. torsion.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . 6. φ.1. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6.Design for AS 3600-01 3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. 3.1. and torsion based on the beam moments. 19.3(c).2.3(c)) (AS 2.1(b)).1.3(c)) 3. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1. respectively.1) (AS 6.1.3: φ = 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa. Table 6. shear forces. shear.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. Table 2. and other criteria described in the text that follows.

for a particular station. 3. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3. and torsion only.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.5. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . shear.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5.

is limited to 500MPa (AS 6. A uniform compressive stress of 0.1.1. amax.85 ku = 0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Chapter 3 .1. and torsion only.2.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.1.1).2).4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.2.3) γ = [0.2) Beam Design 3-7 .85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.2.2. (AS 8. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.1a). as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.7.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.85 − 0. shear.15N ) (AS 10.003. (AS 8.007( f 'c −28)] 0. or the strength of the concrete. the width. is given by amax = γk u d where. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.2). The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8. fy .

e. which by default is 0.3) in the preceding and following equations.2. M (i.80 (AS 2. ε = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.. designing top or bottom reinforcement). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design . the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).1.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.1. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.5.003 b Cs c 0.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.4).2) where. where. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.

e.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. 6.Chapter 3 .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.2.1.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.1. If a > amax.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore. i.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.4.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . or at the top * if M is negative.1. ku > 0. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus . where ( f 's − 0.2.2.

.1.e. no flanged beam data is used.5. i.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.e.5. if the moment is positive.e.85 f ′ c 0.003 bf Ds * 0.2. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore. a simplified stress block..10 Beam Design . 3. as shown in Figure 3-2. 3. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . is assumed if the flange is under compression. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.1..3). and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. designing top reinforcement). ε = 0. and vice versa if M is negative.1. i. and the flange is ignored.2. In that case. M (i. If the moment is negative.2. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. the flange comes under tension.

M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . amax ) Therefore.4. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.4 (AS 8.11 .Chapter 3 . As1 = given by: (AS 8.2.1. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. If a > Ds. in that case.5. the balance of the moment. the width of the beam is taken as bf.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds .85 f 'c φb f where. as shown in Figure 3-2. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2. Cw.3) in the preceding and the following equations. is given by: a max = γk u d where. ku = 0.3) If a ≤ Ds. Cf is given by: C f = 0. However.1. which is 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. Cf.Design for AS 3600-01 3. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.80 by default (AS 2. amax.2. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the calculation for Ast has two parts.

and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design .1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.1.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. 6.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.2.1. If a1 > amax. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . where ′ − 0.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.

04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .04bw d ⎧0.5.Chapter 3 .04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .1.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.min = 0.1) f 'cf = 0.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .2) An upper limit of 0.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.6 f 'c (AS 6.4. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1. 3.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1.13 .

1⎜1.7.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3. Vuc. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.7.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1) β1 = 1. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 .6 − β2 = 1.5.2. Determine the shear force.5. 13 (AS 8.1) (AS 8. 3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. * 3. Vuc. that can be resisted by the concrete.14 Beam Design .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. V . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.5.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.7.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. for a particular load combination. with the corresponding load combination factors. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.2.2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2.

5. = s fsy.min. and Vu.6 by default (AS 2.35 w ⎜ s f sy.2.2.2. s otherwise Asv. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.8) Beam Design 3 .2.min shall be provided.max.2. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.6bv d o Vu . min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.6) Given V .min .15 .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.3).Chapter 3 . where.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. ⎟ ⎠ 3. defined as: ( ) (AS 8. min = Vuc + 0. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. Asv = 0.2. the strength reduction factor. max = 0. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm.5(c)(i)). is 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. φ. whichever is greater (AS 8.5).2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. Vuc. If φVu. Asv = 0 . (AS 8.2.max . V * − φVuc Asv .min < V * ≤ φVu.10) Asv.9) (AS 8.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Chapter 3 . as described in the following sections. Slab Design 3 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 3.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.21 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 3.

22 Slab Design . 3 .1.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6.1. which are described in the following subsections.1.6. is obtained and reported.1.1(a)) As ≥ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. given the bending moment. for each load combination. 3.1(b)) In addition. 3. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1): As ≥ 0. at a given design section in a design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. are repeated for every load combination. 3. Where openings occur. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In that case.

the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2.3).Chapter 3 . d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 ..1).2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1.6. 3.23 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. interior. edge.Design for AS 3600-01 3.e.6. The column location (i. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.

2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.3(a)) where.2.6.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2. Vuo . is given as (AS 9.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.3(b)) (AS 9.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.3(a)): a.3σ cp ≤ 0.24 Slab Design .4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.3σ cp ) b.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2.4(a)) 3. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9. Vu . * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.2. is given as (AS 9.2.6.5 f c' + 0.2. 3 . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.

The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Design for AS 3600-01 3.1). φ. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.6.Given V*. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.Chapter 3 .2. Vu.25 . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.4.3. V * − φVu Asv = . The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.4(a).3 or 9. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.4. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. 3.7. 3.min = 3*Vu (AS 92. where.3.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.max. and Vu.6.2.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. is the strength reduction factor. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.2.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.2.

3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 3.4.3) (NZS 12.7.4)..4. edge. i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. the concrete section should be increased in size. Therefore.7. the minimum number of 3 . a failure condition is declared. and corner column.e. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.7. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.3.4) If V > φVmax.26 Slab Design . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.6.3. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.

4) (NZS 12. s.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. edge. Height.Chapter 3 .6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4) (NZS 12. 6.4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. the distance.7. The limits of so and the spacing. so.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.5d s ≤ 0.4) Slab Design 3 .3. for corner.7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 3. and interior columns respectively.4.5d. and 8. When specifying shear studs. g.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.27 .11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

.

For simplicity. For light-weight concrete and torsion. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. 4.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.

mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Torsional constant.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. assumed as 200. mm Width or effective width of flange.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 4-2 Notations .

N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. mm Normalized design moment. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. MPa Neutral axis depth. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Torsional shear stress.Chapter 4 .

6S 1. live load (L).4.2D + 1.6L 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. 0. For BS 8110-1997. pattern live load (PL).3) (BS 2.1.2L + 1.75PL) 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2W 1.4D ± 1.2D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4D + 1.0D ± 1. γf (BS 2.3).4W 1.4D + 1.3).2W 1.4D 1.4.2S ± 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2. mm Lever arm. and wind (W) loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.6(0.4. 1.4.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations . and considering that wind forces are reversible.2W (BS 2.3) (BS 2.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.4D + 1.2L ± 1.4.4.2S ± 1.6L + 1.3) (BS 2.4W 1. snow (S).

The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3.Chapter 4 .25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used.4. including pattern live load. 4. Note that the automatic combination. If other grades are used.1. fcu. the default factor of 1. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . Note that for reinforcement. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. this value should be overwritten as necessary.2).1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.4.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2 (BS 2.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. 4. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.50 1.15 1.7. γm. as taken from BS Table 2. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. other appropriate load combinations should be used. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and other criteria described below. load combination factors. the 4-6 Beam Design . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. shear. with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station. In such cases. and torsion only. shear forces. and torsion based on the beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. torsion. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5.5.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.

In addition. Msingle. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4).1. The design procedure used by SAFE. x/d ≤ 0. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.5.4. 4.1.4). the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. the width. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.2.156 2 (BS 3. In such cases.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. shear. Furthermore.4. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. and torsion only..1fcu Ag) (BS 3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. βb ≥ 0. 4.4. where K' = 0. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.4.4.4. or the strength of the concrete. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. less than. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4. is first calculated for a section.4.1). the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.e.4.4) Beam Design 4-7 .Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.Chapter 4 .5. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. See Figure 4-1.9) (BS 3. or equal to Msingle.

87 f y z (BS 3.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.4.4. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design . where 0.4. If M > Msingle.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.25 − ⎜ 0.4.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.4.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. is then given by: As = M .95d z = d ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. As. or at the top if M is negative. the area of tension reinforcement.5 + 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.

Beam Design 4-9 . M (i.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. i.1. Fig 2.2.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.2.1.4.5.4.4. 2.e.5. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.5.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . and ' f ' s = 0.4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.1.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.5.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.4. designing top reinforcement). Fig 2.1.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0..4..1.3.Chapter 4 .4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0. Based on this assumption.5.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.5 + 0.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.25 − ⎜ 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. where (BS 3.2. 2.4.4.4.3. 4.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. no flanged beam data is used. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.e.4.2.777d z = d ⎜ 0.

95d 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.4.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 . e = 0.4.5 + 0.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. See Figure 4-2.0035 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4.67 fcu/gm 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.10 Beam Design .45 (BS 3.9 ⎭ (BS 3.4.4.

As = 0.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0. Cw.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.4. in that case.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.4) If a ≤ hf.45d − h f ) 0. where (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.11 .5h f ) Mf + Mw .5h f ) .1 f cu bd (0.4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4). Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. Cf. 2 As = M + 0.4.87 f y (d − 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.9x (BS 3. the width of the beam is taken as bf. In that case. However. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. where 0.4.156 (BS 3.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.4. as shown in Figure 4-2.Chapter 4 .4.4.5) β f = 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4) If Kw ≤ 0.4.45d then.4.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . If a > hf.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.

3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.5.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4.1.95d ⎜ 0.1.12.4. and ' f ' s = 0. Fig 2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.25 (BS 3.87 f f (0. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. 4 .5.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.4). 2.5.4.12 Beam Design .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.3.3.4.4.5 + 0.87 f y (d − 0. 2.4) where.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.1. Fig 2.5.4.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.4.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.777d ) 0.4.4.2.

or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.6.13 .5.48 0.24 0.Chapter 4 . if it is required. which is taken from BS Table 3.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.12.3). provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.1): Beam Design 4 .20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.24 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.12.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.20 An upper limit of 0.25 (BS 3. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.40 100 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.36 0.32 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.18 100 0.

2) For light-weight concrete. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.4. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. v. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. that can be resisted by the concrete. vc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4) 4 .8 fcu .2. Determine the shear stress.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 4.5. 5 MPa) (BS 3. with the corresponding load combination factors. for a particular load combination.63 fcu .04bw d ⎧0. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.4.5.14 Beam Design .5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.

Table 3.5.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . vc. and vmax.3): Beam Design 4 .4.5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2. vc.8) (BS 2. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4. Table 3.12) 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4.Chapter 4 . the following limitations also apply: 0. BS 3.4.5.4. Table 3.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.4.4.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.5.4.4.5.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.5.4) (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.8.4.1) However.5.5.2.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.5.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4.4.5.15 .4. Table 3. 4.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.8) (BS 3.4.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.

5.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.4) Asv 0. Table 3.5.87 f yv If (v’c + 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2) (BS 3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.7) (BS 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.16 Beam Design .3.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. (BS 3.87 f yv If v > vmax. vt.4.5.3.4. Determine critical torsion stress. In the preceding expressions. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5. Determine special section properties. 4.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3. obtained from each load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0. 4 .5. Table 3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4bw = sv 0.4.4. a failure condition is declared.

4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.8 f cu .4.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.13). for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.5. with the corresponding load combination factors. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. vt.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.Design for BS 8110-97 4.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.5.3. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. In typical framed construction. vt.Chapter 4 . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.4.4. The torsional shear stress.4.17 .1) For flanged sections.4.5) Beam Design 4 . calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.

4N/mm 2 x 0. If vt > vt.4.7) In the preceding expressions.0.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.067 fcu .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.min = min 0.4.min.4.5.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .067 fcu .87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.min is defined as: vt .t sv = T 0.18 Beam Design . is calculated as: Asv . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . vt.0.6).4.8 x1 y1 (0.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.min.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. For lightweight concrete.min = min 0. vt. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2. In that case. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt is less than the threshold limit. However.3.min. vt.5.5) 4. 4 .8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. vt.3.6). Asv.t /sv.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.

Beam Design 4 .4.5) For light-weight concrete. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.Chapter 4 . vt exceeds this limit. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.19 . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5. In that case.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. v and torsional shear stress.8 fcu .4) If the combination of shear stress. a failure message is declared.63 fcu . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the concrete section should be increased in size.

These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 4 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.6. To learn more about the design strips.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. 4.1. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. for each load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. is obtained and reported. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.20 Slab Design . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 4. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.

5.6.6.5.7. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.21 . there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6).12.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. This is the method used when drop panels are included.7.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections. 4. 4.Chapter 4 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.Design for BS 8110-97 4. at a given design section in a design strip.1).6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.7. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.12. given the bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.1.6. In some cases. BS Table 3. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .12.3) In addition. 4. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Where openings occur.1.6. In that case.2.

7.7.4.8) 4 .5d 1. interior.6): 1 1 0.7.7. 3.1).e.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.7.5. 1.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. The column location (i.4.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5d 1. edge. Table 3..4.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.22 Slab Design .4.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.5d Interior Column 1.7.

15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3. the nominal design shear stress.4.5.4.8) (BS 3.4. Table 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.4) (BS 3.2) However.4) v ≤ min(0.7.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.5.6.7. v. where (BS 3. 5MPa) (BS 3.4.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .7. the following limitations also apply: 0. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5.2.7.4.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.7.4. Table 3.5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.3) 1. 4.4) For light-weight concrete. 3.6.5M ⎛ y 1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .23 .Chapter 4 .2.6.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.8 f cu .63 fcu .6.

3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 4. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.3. 4 .25 ⎪1.24 Slab Design . 4. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7.5).7.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.6.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2. 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

wind (W).8.1) 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.9D + 1.25D + 1.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.5S 0.5S ± 0.4W (CSA 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5L ± 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.3-04.4W 0. Table C.5L 1.9D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.9D + 1.5L + 0.5L 0.5S 0. Table C.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.4D 1.2.25D + 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .3.5L + 0.25D + 1.4. and earthquake (E) loads. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.75 PL) 1.4W 0.3.5S ± 0.3) (CSA 8.9D + 1. Table C.5S + 0.25D + 1. For CSA A23.5S + 0.2.5(0.5L ± 0. live load (L).9D + 1.2.4W 1.25D + 1. Table C.25D + 1.3. snow (S).5S 1.5L 0. pattern live load (PL).9D + 1.2.25D + 1.5S 1.5L 1.3.

1.4W 0.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten. for all framing types (CSA 8.3.0E 1.25S ± 1.5S ± 1.4.4W 0. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1).2.9D + 0. however.5L ± 1.0D + 0.5L ± 1. caution is advised.5S ± 1. Table C.9D ± 1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2.6.9D + 0.1. 5.4W 1. Table C.65 for concrete φs = 0. (CSA 8.0E 1.25D + 0.3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.4W 1.4W 0.0D + 0.1).1 Case 4) (CSA 8.4W 1.25S ± 1.4.25D ± 1.1) 5.3-04 1.5.0E (CSA 8.2) (CSA 8. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.Design for CSA A23.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .0D ± 1.Chapter 5 .5L + 0.25D + 0.6.0D + 0.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. φ. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8. (CSA 8. respectively.0E 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.3-04 code is used.5L ± 1.

SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. shear. for a particular station. torsion. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. with the corresponding load factors. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear forces. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design .5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. and torsion only.

Chapter 5 . the width. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. designing top or bottom reinforcement).Design for CSA A23. 5. The design procedure used by SAFE. or the strength of the concrete.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement.e.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. 5. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. shear. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. and torsion only. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1) Beam Design 5-7 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1.7). Furthermore.5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement.4). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow..1.2. Mf (i. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. where.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.

7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.2).5.7) (CSA 10. β1.85 – 0.97 – 0.0025f'c ≥ 0.67. The parameters α1.67 cb = (CSA 10.2) in the preceding and the following equations. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.7) (CSA 10.0015f'c ≥ 0.65 (CSA 8.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .1. β1 = 0.4.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.5.

1. If a > ab (CSA 10.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .5.Chapter 5 .2.2). where f ′ = 0.1.Design for CSA A23.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.1.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive. 10.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10. or at the top if Mf is negative.

10.67 β1 = 0. Mf (i.1. 5.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.5.65 (CSA 8. and vice versa if Mf is negative.2.2.5. designing top reinforcement).1.10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore. As = As1 + As2.0015 f' c ≥ 0.2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. i.1.0025 f' c ≥ 0.85 – 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.e.5.1.1.67 cb = (CSA 10.2 5.1.4.7) (CSA 10.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.e.97 – 0.1.2) in the preceding and the following equations.1) where. 5. the value of φc is 0.2.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.5. The parameters α1. the total tension reinforcement.7) (CSA 10. β1. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.2.4. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. no flanged beam data is used...7) 5 .

1. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.11 . ab ) c ε = 0. calculation for As has two parts. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.Chapter 5 . Cf. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab. If a > hs. However.Design for CSA A23. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 .0035 bf hs (CSA 10. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.3-04 If a ≤ hs. the balance of the moment. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.

5. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .2). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.12 Beam Design .2). If a1 > ab (CSA 10. where 5 .1. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.5.1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.

2.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .1.1) An upper limit of 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.1. 5.1. 10.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.5.5.Design for CSA A23. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.Chapter 5 .3) In addition.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.3.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.1.1.13 .5.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2. Determine the shear force. Vc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. Vc. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3.5. that can be resisted by the concrete.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.2).65 (CSA 8. with the corresponding load combination factors. By default it is taken as 0. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. for a particular loading combination.14 Beam Design . Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. 5 . 5.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. 5.4.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Vf.

75. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. it is the width of the web of the beam.3. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. It is taken as the greater of 0.3. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6.4. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0. it is the width of the beam.6.Chapter 5 . Its value is normally between 0.6.3): Beam Design 5 .15 .1 and 0.2). if applicable. and described further in the following sections. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.3. It is determined according to CSA 11.6.72h. its value is 1 (CSA 8. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply. For normal density concrete.6. β is taken as 0. For rectangular beams. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.6. and the tensile force is negligible. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. the general method is used (CSA 11.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. which is taken by the program as the default value.2). (CSA 8.2). the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.6.Design for CSA A23.85. bw is the effective web width. ⎪0.9d or 0.6.21 (CSA 11. For flanged beams.6. For concrete using lower density aggregate.5). When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.3. If the overall beam depth. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. d v is the effective shear depth.3. as follows (CSA 11. h.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.3).4). ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete.00.3.5): ⎧1.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.16 Beam Design . ag.18. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement. ⎪ 0. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa.6.18 (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.3. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . for simplified cases.c) In the preceding expression. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.3.3.3.6.3. β = 0.6.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.3a).85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. However. the crack spacing parameter.18 (CSA 11. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. or 5 . ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 .3.3 c) where. and ag < 20mm. and ag ≥ 20mm. β is taken as 0. sze. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.6. In summary.6. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.

6.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.6.3.4(a)) (CSA 11. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.4). β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11. 11.3. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.17 .4(a)) (CSA 2. Nf is taken as positive for tension.6.6.6.4) In the preceding expression.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.6. and linearly interpolated between these values.3.4): β= 0. 11. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.3. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.6. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.Design for CSA A23.3.3.6. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. Beam Design 5 .6.1.3.3(b)). (CSA 11.3. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.85Sz otherwise.6.Chapter 5 . The longitudinal strain. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.3-04 tension is not negligible.3.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.

4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. 5.3. εx = M f d v + V f + 0. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. the program performs the design in two passes.1) 5 . For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.3.4(d)). and Vr. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.6.3. To check this condition.3. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.max = 0.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr . the shear strength of the section due to concrete.3. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.max.2.6. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11.5. In the first pass.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. it is recalculated with the following equation.4(e)).3.003 (CSA 11.6. Vc.18 Beam Design .5.6. taken as half of the total area.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.

3). the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6.Design for CSA A23.2.3).6.5.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.max . is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.3.Chapter 5 . If the overall beam depth.1. It is determined according to CSA 11. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. or by calculation. a failure condition is declared.3. h.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .3. the term θ is used.2).3.6.6.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3.6.8.2.1) (CSA 11. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. whenever applicable. which was described previously. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.8.8. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.19 . The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.4).2) In the preceding equations. Beam Design 5 .3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .2.3. (CSA 11. Similar to the β factor.3.3.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.25Tcr. 11.

the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. Determine critical torsion capacity. f y ≤ 400 MPa.3.5.6.6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4).3. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. f y > 400 MPa. 5 . f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.20 Beam Design . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. 5. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . Tf.6.3) If the axial force is tensile. Determine special section properties.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.3).6. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3.3. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.

This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.Chapter 5 . 5.5. Aoh. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . However. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.3-04 5. such as Aoh. such as Ac.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. and ph. and ph are calculated. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. However. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. pc. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.3. With this assumption.2.Design for CSA A23. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. Ao. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. with the corresponding load combination factors. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.9. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5. If redistribution is desired. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.2). special section properties. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf.3. Ao.3).21 .1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. With this assumption.

1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3.2.10.2.3. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.10.3) (CSA 11. Similarly.9.3. 5 .85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.2.4). 5. h.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. which is equal to 0. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.10.1) (CSA 11. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.65.3) (CSA 11.5.4) where.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.4) where the section dimensions bf. bw. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.3.3.9.9.3. hf.9.2.9.22 Beam Design . the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) (CSA 11.2.10. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0. the section dimensions b.3) (CSA 11.10. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.10.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.3. h.1) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.3) (CSA 11.3. Tcr.

c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.10.9.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.2.5. However. Tcr.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.3). In that case.3. Tcr.Chapter 5 .5 N f + (V f − 0. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. At /s.Design for CSA A23.23 . is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3-04 5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3.1).3) Mf Al = dv + 0.

10.24 Beam Design .5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. bw is replaced with b.4) For rectangular sections. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).8. 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. 5 .6.3.3. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.2.10.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.10. θ is computed as previously described for shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.3. In that case.3.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. If the general method is being used. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. a failure message is declared.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.9) In the preceding expressions.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.3-04 5. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.25 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. To learn more about the design strips. Slab Design 5 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 5. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.Design for CSA A23. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Chapter 5 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. is obtained and reported.

10. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 5 . for each load combination. Where openings occur. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 5.1. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.6. given the bending moment.8.1.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In some cases.6. In that case. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1): As ≥ 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.002 bh (CSA 7.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.26 Slab Design .6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 5. at a given design section in a design strip.1) In addition.

Design for CSA A23.2.3.e. edge.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.Chapter 5 .6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3-04 5..1 and CSA 13.3.2). where Slab Design 5 .3).3.2.3. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.3. interior.6.3.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.27 .

19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.3.4.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.3).19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.4. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .2.4.4.3. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.1) where. (CSA 13. 5 . and ⎪for corner columns.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.28 Slab Design . b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.3. d. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.2) If the effective depth.6.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.10.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. and (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.3. 5.5.

the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. is the strength reduction factor.3.6.max = 0. and vf. φs.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.max. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.3-04 5.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow..1).3. where.6.3) 5.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .2.Chapter 5 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.75λφ c (CSA 13.2.Design for CSA A23. vc. 5.6. 5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.29 .2) Given vf.8.8.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. Slab Design 5 .3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.

5) If vf > vf.max. edge.3. and interior columns respectively.3. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and corner column.. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.8.4d.3. i. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.e.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. Therefore. for corner.30 Slab Design . and 8. 5 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 6. (CSA 13. 5. edge.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13.8. a failure condition is declared.max. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.

3. the distance. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.8. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7. s.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.3-04 5.3. When specifying shear studs.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.4d.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.4 d ⎧ 0.31 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.3.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.Design for CSA A23.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.6.8. Height. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Chapter 5 . The limits of so and the spacing. so.6) Slab Design 5 .6) (CSA 13.

.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For simplicity. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. However. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. 6. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0.

MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.

mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . N-mm Torsional cracking moment.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section.max u VRdc VRd. mm Design moment at a section. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Lever arm.Chapter 6 . mm Torsion at ultimate design load. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. N-mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. mm Flange thickness.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N Shear force at ultimate design load. N Depth of neutral axis.

∑G j ≥1 k.1Qk .10a and 6. 6.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. snow (S). and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations . Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.1Qk . 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. j + γ P P + γ Q . 6. 6.iψ 0. j Gk . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.12b. pattern live load (PL). 6.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. j + γ P P + γ Q . live load (L).10a) ∑ξ γ j G.i Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . j Gk . j Gk . 6.iψ 0.1Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.12b) For this code.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. 6.i Qk .1ψ 0. j + γ P P + γ Q .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.1 + ∑ γ Q .i Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. and earthquake (E) loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G.1 + ∑ γ Q .i Qk . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).iψ 0.10b. wind (W). ∑γ j ≥1 G.

supD + γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.i L D ± 1.1 PL γGj.supD + (0.i S ± γQ.1 W + γQ.1 W + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.supD + γQ. γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0. 6.i ψ0.1 L ξ γGj.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.1 ψ0.1 PL ξ γGj. 6.i S γGj.sup D ± γQ. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6. 6.i L γGj.1 ψ0.sup D ± γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.1 L + γQ. 6.sup D γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i W γGj.sup D ξ γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 L ± γQ.i L + ψ2.1 S ± γQ.3): γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.sup D + γQ.1 W γGj.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.i L D ± 1. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.1 L γGj.1 W (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.supD + (0.1 W γGj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.Chapter 6 .0E D ± 1. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.sup D + γQ. 6.i ψ0. 6. 6. 6.i L + γQ.0E + ψ2.1 S + γQ. 6.i W + γQ.1 L γGj.i W γGj.10b.i W γGj.i L γGj.i ψ0.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6. 6.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.supD + γQ.inf D ± γQ.1 ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.supD + (0.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.0E + ψ2.1 S ± γQ.sup D γGj.i ψ0. 6.1 PL γGj.1 W + γQ.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .4.inf D ± γQ.10a and 6.i S γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq. 6.i S γGj.

sup D + γQ.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.5 = 0.inf D ± γQ.1 γQ.1 ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.0E D ± 1.85 (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows. assumed not to be storage) = 0.i S γGj. 6.i L γGj.i L + ψ2.1 W + γQ. γGj. 6. 6.i ξ = 1.1 S + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.5 (snow load.1 W γGj.i L γGj.1 S + γQ.1 L + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.i ψ0.1 W ξ γGj.i ψ0.35 γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.inf = 1.i S D ± 1.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.1 ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 W γGj.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i ψ0.sup D + γQ.sup = 1.5 = 1.i W ξ γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.sup D + γQ.i W γGj.00 γQ.1 S ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.i L D ± 1.sup D ± γQ.7 (live load.1) (EC0 Table A1.inf D ± γQ.i S γGj.i ψ0. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.1) (EC0 Table A1.i L γGj.i L γGj.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1.i S ξ γGj.6 (wind load) = 0.sup D + γQ.1 L + γQ.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.inf D ± γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.1 W + γQ.12b) For both sets of load combinations.1 W + γQ.1 L ± γQ.

7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. 6.1) (EC0 Table A1. fck. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.7(2)) (EC2 3.2(3)). should be 400 and 600 MPa.1. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3 (live. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. 6. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.i ψ2.1.2(2)).2.6(1)) (EC2 3.i = 0. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3. αcc is taken as 1. fyk.2.Chapter 6 .2. γs and γc as shown here.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.6(1)). other appropriate load combinations should be used. respectively (EC2 3. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .

The user should consider those separately. Table 2. γc = 1.2. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.4(1). load combination factors. shear.5. however. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear. caution is advised.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. These values can be overwritten.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. γs = 1.2. and torsion based on the beam moments. for a particular station. 6.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.4.4). torsion. shear forces. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. For accidental and earthquake situations. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion only.

5) (EC2 3.7(3)).0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. or the strength of the concrete. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1.7(3).1. In such cases. the width.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 .5. Fig 3.7(3).2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Fig 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1.5.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.1.1. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. In such cases. 6.Chapter 6 .

6 .1.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.6 + 0.25(0. δ. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.54 (EC 5.1. the following values are used: k1 = 0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.5(4)).and T-beams). as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.10 Beam Design .8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.5(4)) (EC 5.44 k2 = k4 = 1.7(3)) (EC2 3.7(3)) (EC2 3. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. ( x d )lim .8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. is summarized in the subsections that follow.5(4)) (EC 5. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.5(4)) (EC2 5.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.7(3)) λ = 0.

the normalized moment. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. The normalized design moment. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 .5.Chapter 6 . mlim. or equal to mlim. are obtained first.2. mlim.1. less than.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.11 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. m. m.

12 Beam Design . ωlim. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. and is given by: 6 . are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. If m > mlim. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed. or at the top if MEd is negative. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. A's and As. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. As.

and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 .8) 6.1.13 .2.5. additional calculation is required.1. If the stress block extends beyond the flange. 3.2. m. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. Initially.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.. no flanged beam data is used.1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. 3.5. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. The normalized design moment. See Figure 6-2.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.5.1. Fig 3. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. MEd (i.Chapter 6 . the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2. designing top reinforcement).2. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.e.2.5(4).. 3.7(4). is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6. Based on this assumption.1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. i.e.

as shown in Figure 6-2. is determined as follows: 6 . As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hf. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. M1 = M − M2. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. the width of the beam is taken as bf.14 Beam Design . However. in that case. the calculation for As has two parts.

Beam Design 6 .8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.15 .1. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.Chapter 6 . ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. 3. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. Fig 3.7(4). and the total compression reinforcement is A's.

Determine the shear reinforcement required. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. VEd.12.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9. Table 3.16 Beam Design . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1. the following steps are involved (EC2 6. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Table 3. 6 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.min = 0.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1.1) f ctm = 2.2.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0. Determine the shear force. Table 3.2.5.1.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.2): Determine the factored shear force.1(3)). that can be resisted by the concrete.c.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. VRd. 6. for a particular load combination.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.1) (EC2 3.1.5.12.min = 0.1(1)) As .1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.2.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .0013bd (EC2 9.

and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd . with the corresponding load combination factors.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2.5.c = ⎡C Rd .Chapter 6 .2.c.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.2.c.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6. 6.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.15 Beam Design 6 .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6. 6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.02 bw d (EC2 6.2.c = 0. VRd.2(1)) (EC2 6.18 γ c ν min = 0.17 .2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.5.2.2.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. is calculated as: 13 VRd . vmin.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.2.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.max.2.2. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.3(3)) (EC2 6.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.2.2.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd. Asw Asw.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd . obtained from each load combination. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2.max.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd . a failure condition is declared.3(3)) (EC2 6.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.5.3(3)) Asw.2.18 Beam Design . VRd.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd. 6 .2.2(6)) (EC2 6.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.3(3)) (EC2 6.3(1)) (EC2 6.6⎜1 − z = 0.2. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. VRdc.min s = 0.

the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. and zi are calculated. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. tef.5. TEd.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3.1(2)). However. uk. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. 6. 6. Determine special section properties.Chapter 6 . Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.3. u. such as Ak.3. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Determine critical torsion capacity. special section properties.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Beam Design 6 . These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.19 .5.2).5. If redistribution is desired.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

such as Ak. h.2(1)) (EC2 6.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6. Similarly.3.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i.2(3)) 6 .3.2(1)) (EC2 6. and uk.3.3.2(3)) where.3. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.3. the section dimensions b. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.2(1)) (EC2 6. However. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. With this assumption.20 Beam Design .2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.3.

1. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.3.c VRd .3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. 6. However.3.2.c is the torsional cracking moment. In that case. h.5.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.05 / γ c (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .0 TRd .3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required. Vt. bw.3. followed by the required stirrup area.2(1)) 6. is first calculated.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .21 .2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.3.2. calculated as: TRd . hf. the shear due to this torsion.3. and compression diagonals.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.5.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd.2(5)) where VRd. longitudinal bars. if the equation is not satisfied. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.c (EC2 6. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.

max + VEd ≤ 1.22 Beam Design . while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.2(4)) 6 .2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6. The code allows any value between 21. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd . as previously defined for beam shear.3(2)). When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .2(4)) where TRd.3.3.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts. θ is taken as 45 degrees.3.max (EC2 6.max.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.0 VRd .8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. In the preceding expressions.

irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. 6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the concrete section should be increased in size.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Slab Design 6 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. In that case.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. a failure message is declared. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 6.23 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. To learn more about the design strips. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 6 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.

1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. is obtained and reported.24 Slab Design .1. described in the subsections that follow.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.min = 0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6. 6. are repeated for every load combination.6.3.0013bd (EC2 9.1): As . along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1. at a given design section in a design strip. In some cases.1. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.2. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. for each load combination.1.1.2. 6. 6. In that case. Where openings occur.min = 0. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. given the bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .1(1)) As .

12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.4.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.2.1) (EC2 Table 3. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6.1) (EC2 Table 3. 6. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. edge.e.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 6. Slab Design 6 . interior..1(3)). The column location (i.Chapter 6 .2(1)).30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.4.25 .2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1.1) fctm = 2.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.

6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .4(1)) 6 .c = ⎡C Rd .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.2.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4.4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.26 Slab Design .

4.4. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4.4(1)) (EC2 6.4.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.c = 0. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.27 . conservatively taken as zeros. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.Chapter 6 . C Rd .18 γ c (EC2 6.4.6.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .02 (EC2 6.4. conservatively taken as zeros. vEd. the nominal design shear stress.4(1)) ν min = 0.2.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.15 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.0 d (EC2 6.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4(1)) (EC2 6.

(EC2 6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.4. 6. a failure condition is declared. 6.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.5 f ywd .75v Rd .28 Slab Design .5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. Given vEd.max.6. 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. and vRd.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.max. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.c.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.ef If vEd > vRd.4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the concrete section should be increased in size.5).2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm. vRd. Asw (v Ed − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 6 .c ) = u1 sr 1.

Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. Therefore.29 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. and corner column.. and interior columns respectively.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . 6.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. 6.6. edge. i.3(1)).3. Height. for corner. edge.3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.e.6. and 8.Chapter 6 . the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4.

and 20-millimeter diameter.3(1)) (EC2 9.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. 16-.75d g ≤ 1. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The limits of so and the spacing.3(1)) (EC2 9.3(1)) (EC2 9.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs.4. s.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. so. g.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3(1)) 6 . Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.3d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. 12-.4.30 Slab Design .4. the distance.4.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. 14-.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2.9) (CP 6.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In such cases.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases..4(a)). the width.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .1. In such cases. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6. where εc.2. with the corresponding load factors.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. 7.e. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1.max is defined as: ε c . it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2.1.0035 − 0.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. βb ≥ 0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. ⎧0.4(b)).0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.5. or the strength of the concrete.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.

is obtained from: As = M . shear. where 2 (CP 6.1.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Msingle. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1.2.4(b)). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. or equal to Msingle.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.2.1. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. less than.2. In addition.87 f y z (CP 6.5.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. is obtained first for a section.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4(a)). Msingle = K'fcu bd .1. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. 7. hence.Chapter 7 . where 0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.2.1.4(a). If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. As. and torsion only.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.4(c)) ⎧0. Fig 6.1fcuAg) (CP 6.

4(c)) (CP 6.2.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.1.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.1.25 − ⎜ 0.1. If M > Msingle.2. or at the top if M is negative.95d z = d ⎜ 0.5 + 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.2.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.

for ⎪ ⎪d − z .87 f y z + 0. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. 3.. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. no flanged beam data is used.e.2.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1.36 .5. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2. Fig 6. Beam Design 7-9 .2.2.2.1.87 f y .4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.4(c).5.2.2.2. Based on this assumption.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. M (i.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.4(a). Fig. i.5 + 0. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1.1.2.2.. 3.e.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.4(c)) 7. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.5.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.45 . designing top reinforcement).1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. 7.95d 0. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1.Chapter 7 .1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.6.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.1.

1) If a ≤ hf.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. the width of the beam is taken as bf.95d. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.10 Beam Design .2.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.5 + 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.45 . f cu b f d 2 (CP 6.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. in that case. for ⎪ 0.1.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4(c).1. Fig 6.4(a).36 . If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. 0. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. However.1.4(c)) (CP 6. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . Fig 6. See Figure 7-2. If a > hf .2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.1. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.Chapter 7 .1 f cu bd (0.4d then.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.9 x − h f ) 0.4. Cw. In that case.5) β f = 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.11 .45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . where (BS 3. as shown in Figure 7-2. x ≤ 0. ⎪0. Cf.4.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.67 fcu/gm 0.4.5h f ) bf hf ec 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . x ≤ 0. x ≤ 0.5h f ) .87 f y (d − 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.

045 for ⎩ ⎧0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4(d)) ⎧0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.2. 7 .24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.1.2.1.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.2.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.87 f y ( d − 0.5h f ) ) .12 Beam Design . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.4(c)).32 ⎪ ⎪0. where (CP 6.

87 f y (d − 0.4(c).67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.Chapter 7 .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.6. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. Fig 3.95d ⎜ 0. 3.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.95d ⎜ 0.13 .5h f ) Mf + Mw .87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.5 + 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.1.5 + 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.2. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 . where 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.

2. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.14 Beam Design .20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.2.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.36 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.1.1(CP 9.13 100 0.48 0.32 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.1). if it is required. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.20 0.1. which is taken from CP Table 9.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.1.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5.40 0.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.24 0.1 (CP 9.2.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.2.3): 7 .

the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2. 7 MPa) (CP 6.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. v.2.04bw d ⎧0.3) 7.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. that can be resisted by the concrete.1.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.1. vc.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. vc.5(a)) 7. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the following steps are involved (CP 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2.5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1.8 fcu . with the corresponding load combination factors.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.Chapter 7 .2. 7.1. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Determine the shear stress.5): Determine the shear stress. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. for a particular load combination.15 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.

1.16 Beam Design .5(k)) 7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.1.5(c). Table 6. as: 7 .2.1.2.5(g)) (CP 6.3) ≥ 0.5(k)) 0.1.5(c). Table 6.1.2. bd 1 4 (CP 6.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. the following limitations also apply: 0.5(c).5(c). CP 6.25 However.2. vr.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.3) (CP 6. and vmax.1.2. Table 6.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.2.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.2.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.2.2.1.2. Table 6.5(c).3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. vc.5. Table 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.1.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.67 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.

1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.87 f yv If v > vmax.1.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6. Determine special section properties.5(b).5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.1.2.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. (CP 6.17 . obtained from each load combination. Table 6.5.Chapter 7 . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . sv 0. Beam Design 7 .5(b)) (CP 6.2. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2. (CP 6.1.2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. 7.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0. vt. a failure condition is declared.

for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. 7. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.8 f cu . In typical framed construction.3. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors.17 7 .5.3.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. The torsional shear stress. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.3. vt. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.18 Beam Design .3. Table 6. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3(a)) For flanged sections.3.1).4. vt. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.

vt.067 fcu . vt. 7.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . vt.t /sv.Chapter 7 .min. vt is less than the threshold limit. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . Asv. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.5.3.min.min. However. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. In that case. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5).19 . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.3.4.min.5).0. Table 6.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.3. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.3.min = min 0.

7 .3.20 Slab Design .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.t sv = T 0. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.3. the concrete section should be increased in size. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .3. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.8 fcu . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. 7.6) In the preceding expressions. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.8 x1 y1 (0.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. a failure message is declared.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.87 f yv ) (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . In that case.

In some cases.1. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. In that case.6.1. 7. given the bending moment. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.Chapter 7 . for each load combination. at a given design section in a design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). These locations correspond to the element boundaries. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.6. 7. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported.21 .

1. 7. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.22 Slab Design . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.2.3..5d from the face of the support (CP 6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.5. The column location (i. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1.6.e.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. 7.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.6.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.3. 7.1.2. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 7 . edge. Where openings occur.6. interior.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.1.1(a)) In addition.3).1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.7(d)).7).1.

1.3): 0.Chapter 7 .23 .3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .2.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.5d 1.5. Table 6.1.5d 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.5(g).1.1.5.7(d)) (CP 6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.5d 1.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.7(d). Table 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(c). Table 6.6.1.5d Interior Column 1.2. 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.7(d).5.

1.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.1. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. v.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.1.5.5.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.25 However.2) 0.8 f cu .6(b).5 x ⎬ .3) ≥ 0.5(c).1.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.2.5.67 1. 6.6.1. the nominal design shear stress.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section. Table 2. Table 6.5. 7 .24 Slab Design .00 As = area of tension reinforcement.3.5 + 1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .5(c). 7 MPa) (CP 6.4.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.2. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.1. v ≤ min(0.2.7(b)) (CP Table 6.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. where (CP 6. Table 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.

6.3.25 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5. 7.Chapter 7 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.6(b).5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.1.25 ⎪1.1. 6.3.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.6.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .7(e)). 7.5.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1.1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.5.6. 7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.

1.6vc ≤ v < 2.. i. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6.1.6vc 0.7v − vc ) ud 0. for corner.7(e)).e. 7.7(e)) (CP 6.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7(f)). and vmax.5.5.5.1.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.87 f yv s If v > vmax.4ud = ≥ . 0. vc.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.26 Slab Design .87 f yv 0.0vc (CP 6. a failure condition is declared.87 f yv If 1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.5. 6. edge.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.5.1. edge. ≥ s 0. and interior columns respectively.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.87 f yv 0. 7 . If v ≤ 1. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and 8. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and corner column. Therefore.1. (CP 6.

2.5.5.75d g ≤ 1. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.1.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. 12-.7(f)) Slab Design 7 . Height.5d.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so.3. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.1.6.7(f)) (CP 6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d (CP 6.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The limits of so and the spacing. g. When specifying shear studs.5. and 20-millimeter diameter. 16-.5d. s.27 . 14-. the distance.5d s ≤ 0.7(f)) (CP 6. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.1.Chapter 7 . Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.

.

1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. 8. For simplicity. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. mm Notations 8-1 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab.

mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N-mm Normalized design moment.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. N-mm Factored shear force at a section.max Notations 8.Chapter 8 .3 . as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. mm Lever arm. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode.

0W 1.5E 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete. pattern live load (PL). live load (L).9D ± 1. MPa 8.5D + 1.5S 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.3) (IS 36.1) (IS 31.9D ± 1.5W 0.1) (IS 36.2.5L ± 1.4.4.5D + 1. Table 18): 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.0E (IS 36.5D ± 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).5.5D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2L ± 1.5D + 1.75 PL) 1.4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5D 1.5D + 1.2W 1.2L ± 1.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.5D ± 1. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section. and earthquake (E) loads.4. For IS 456-2000. wind (W).5E 0.2D + 1. snow (S).5W 1.5(0.2E 1.5L 1.2D + 1. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.4.5L ± 1.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .1) (IS 36.

2D + 1. beams must be designed for torsion.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2L + 1.2D + 1. 8.1) (IS 36.5 (IS 36.2S ± 1.2W 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.Design for IS 456-2000 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. caution is advised.2D + 1. shear.5L + 1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. However.2. other appropriate load combinations should be used. 14.2D + 1.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4. γm. γc = 1.4.2S ± 1.4.2W 1. These values can be overwritten. 8.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2S ± 1. shear forces. shear. 8.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.2S ± 1.4. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.Chapter 8 .2. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments. however. torsion. load combination factors. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. γs = 1. and torsion only.5S 1.5D + 1.2E (IS 36. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.2L + 1.5 .2E 1.

Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. 8-6 Beam Design .1. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. Rather.4. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow.1.4. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. However.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. If redistribution is desired. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. 8. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. In such cases. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity.

The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.Chapter 8 . Beam Design 8.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam.4. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. If Mt exceeds Mu.4. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4. where (IS 41. Effectively. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu.2. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.7 . Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4. with the corresponding load factors.1) 8. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. respectively.1.4.Design for IS 456-2000 8. In such cases.2) (IS 41.1.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations.

2.1) (IS 38.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.3.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. 8. with the corresponding load combination factors.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. When a torsional moment is to be included. c. (IS 41. a. or the strength of the concrete. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1) 8-8 Beam Design . The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. The area of the stress block. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1). the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.1) 8.1.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1.4.4. the width.

fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.Chapter 8 . to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.1).36 β = 0.max /d 0.42 (IS 38. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.1).67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.53 0. Furthermore.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.9 .0035 b f′ s 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.48 0. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.46 Beam Design 8. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.1) (IS 38.

and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.max d ⎧0. xu .10 Beam Design . and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.0035 (IS 38.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38.max = 0.48 − 0. less than. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than.max d xu. xu.2.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. Msingle = α xu.53 − 0.53 ⎪ ⎪0. is given by 8 .05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.4.max.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. and torsion only. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. shear. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. or equal to Msingle. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. Msingle. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. 8. m.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. are obtained first.

d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. or at the top if Mu is negative. Beam Design 8.11 .2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. and vice versa if Mu is negative.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. where (IS G-1.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . the area of compression reinforcement.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. A's.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . As.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. is obtained from As = Mu .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.Chapter 8 .1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. − If Mu > Msingle.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.

Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.4. On the basis of this assumption.3. i..4.e.e.2.2.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8.. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. Mu (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.2. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.12 Beam Design . See Figure 8-2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. 8. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange.3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. no flanged beam data is used. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. designing top reinforcement).4.

− Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0.Chapter 8 .15 xu + 0. Cf.65D f if D f > 0.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. m. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .1). Cw. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.13 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. However.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. as shown in Figure 8-2.

53 ⎪ ⎪0. A's.48 − 0.14 Beam Design .67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.53 − 0. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.single. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.max d ⎧0.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.46 (IS 38. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.max ⎡ x u.1) xu . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. the area of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .single. and 8 .max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.single ⎛ 0.

2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.5.4.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.1) (IS 26. for a particular load combination.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.1.1.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.5.04bw d ⎧0.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.85 bd fy (IS 26.1.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.4.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.1.1.1) An upper limit of 0.1): As ≥ 0.5.Chapter 8 .1.5.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.2.5.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8. at a particular station.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26. the following steps are involved (IS 40.15 . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.2) 8.

τc.5 M35 3.8 M25 3. d. τc.3.4. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. τc. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.max (MPa) (IS 40. τv ≤ τc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.0 τc.3.max.7 M40 4.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. (IS 40.3.max (IS 40.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress. as: τcd = kδτc.16 Beam Design .1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.2) 8 .1.5 M20 2. where bd (IS 40. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.2. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.2.1 M30 3. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.

The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section. 0. 26.2.4 < τv ≤ τc. Table 19) (IS 40.Chapter 8 .3.1. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.2.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. Under Tension (IS 40.17 .4(a)) Beam Design 8. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.5.1. and if Pu > 0 .1.87 f y If τcd + 0.max (IS 40. taken as 1.1.4.1) (IS 40.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .1).4 b ≥ sv 0.87 f y (IS 40.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.2.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.2. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.4 Asv 0.2.2.

(IS 40.4.4 b ≥ sv 0.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.3) τve ≤ τc.87 f y (IS 41.4.max The maximum nominal shear stress.1.2.87 f y (IS 41. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. τc.3. 26.5.max is determined as defined in the last section.4.6) If τve ≥τcd.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. obtained from each load combination. 8 . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.1) (IS 40. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.18 Beam Design . a failure condition is declared.3. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.max. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.3) (IS 41.2.87 f y ) 2.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.5d1 (0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.4) 8. provide 2-legged closed stirrups. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5.19 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. described in the subsections that follow. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. are repeated for every load combination. for each load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These two steps. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 8. Slab Design 8. To learn more about the design strips. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is obtained and reported. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.5. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. 8.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 8 .5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Where openings occur. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2): ⎧0.5. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In that case.1) In addition. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5. at a given design section in a design strip.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 8.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5.1).5.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1.2.. given the bending moment.1).6.1.1.1).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. In some cases.e.5. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. edge.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 8. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.20 Slab Design . The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). interior. The column location (i.6. 8. 8 .2.5.

2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.5. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.3.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.2.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.Chapter 8 .6.5.21 .2). 8.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.

2.5.22 Slab Design . but limited to: vc ≤ 1. 8.5τ c (IS 31.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.5 + βc ≤ 1.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.5.3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5 τ c bod (IS 31.6. 8.1) (IS 31.5. 8. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.2) 8 .2) 8.1) τc = 0.0 (IS 31. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.1) (IS 31. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6.3.6.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5.3.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.6.

87 f y (IS 31.4.2) If Vu > Vmax. i.e. 41. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge.6.6.3.2.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.23 .3.2). 8.3. a failure condition is declared. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3) (IS 31.5.6.5Vc ) 0. and Vmax.. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. Vc. Av = (Vu − 0.Chapter 8 . Slab Design 8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.

4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. When specifying shear studs.5. g.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . and interior columns respectively.3. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 8. the distance. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. The limits of so and the spacing. Height.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d. and 8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. for corner. so. 5d s ≤ 0. Therefore.24 Slab Design . edge. s. 6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.

For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. 9. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section.

mm Width of member. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. assumed as 200. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.

MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Factored design torsion at a section. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section.Chapter 9 . mm Perimeter of area Ao. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 .

0E 1. and earthquake (E) loads. (0.0D + 0.2. snow (S). the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0.0W 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.0S 1. 4.4L ± 1.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations . For NZS 3101-06.0W 0. 4.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.35D 1.5L 1.2.0.2D + 0.0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4L ± 1.2D + 1. 4.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D ± 1. live load (L).75 PL) 1.2D + 0. 4.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.9D ± 1.2D + 1.0.2.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2): 1. 4. pattern live load (PL).0E (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0W 1. 4.0D ± 1.0. 4.0.5(0. wind (W). 4.2.2.0.0.0.4L + 1.2.2.

3. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 9.3).2. caution is advised. shear.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. fy.85 for flexure φs = 0. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. The φ factors for flexure.2. fyt. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.2) (NZS 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5.3. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .3.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. (NZS 2.3).Chapter 9 . however. 9. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement.2. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.3.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.1).

and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. for a particular station. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the 9-6 Beam Design . Beams are designed for major direction flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. and torsion based on the beam moments. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. with the corresponding load factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. shear.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5. and torsion only.5.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. load combination factors. torsion.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. shear forces. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In such cases. shear.1.

In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.2.4.2.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.e. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2.7): α1 = 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. or the strength of the concrete.3.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. the width. and torsion only. Furthermore.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2) where the default value of φb is 0. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. where. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1.3. designing top or bottom reinforcement).Chapter 9 . 9.2.. The design procedure used by SAFE. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.7). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).8.2) in the preceding and following equations.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4.5.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. 9. M (i.85 (NZS 2. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.1).85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .

85 − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.008( f ′ − 30).2.4. is given by: amax = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .2.7.85 β1 = 0.4. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.8.1).2.2.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0. c (NZS 7.3.4.85 − 0.8) β1 = 0. amax.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.7) (NZS 7.7) (NZS 7.4. 9.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.8.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.75β1cb (NZS 7.3.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. 0.

or at the top * if M is negative.4.4.3.Chapter 9 .2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.2.4.2.2. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.8.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7. If a > amax (NZS 9. 7.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .2.4.1).

and the total compression reinforcement is A's. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. 9. However. M (i. 9 . the total tension reinforcement. Cw.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.1.1. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. 9.2. calculation for As has two parts.4.. If a > hf. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.8.. As = As1 + As2.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.75β1cb (NZS 7.5. amax.1) If a ≤ hf. designing top reinforcement).4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. as shown in Figure 9-2. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2. no flanged beam data is used.7. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2.5.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e.2. is given by: amax = 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. Cf.5. and vice versa if M is negative.2.2. * 9.10 Beam Design .3. i.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.1.

4. the balance of the moment. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.4.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.Chapter 9 .2 ) Beam Design 9 .7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.2.11 . M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.

3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .2.2.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.2. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.1).3. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s . If a1 > amax (NZS 9.8. 7.12 Beam Design .1).4.4.8.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

18 Beam Design . Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7. Similarly.1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.6.7).1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) where.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) where the section dimensions bf.1) (NZS 7. h. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.75 Ao/po 0. bw. h. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3. the section dimensions b.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .75 Ao/po 0. hf.1) (NZS 7.1.

2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7. is less than the threshold limit. T . Tcr. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6.Chapter 9 .5.1).2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. At /s. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. and meets the torsion stress limit.1).6.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. defined as: T* ≤ 0.4. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.6.6) Beam Design 9 . However. Tcr.6. In that case.6.5.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.1. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4.4.3) 9. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.1. if T exceeds the threshold limit.6.19 .1.3.

the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.5. To learn more about the design strips.1.2) * * For rectangular sections. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. In that case.6. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. bw is replaced with b.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.20 Slab Design . the concrete section should be increased in size.6. provided it is fully developed.3). At Al 1. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.2. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.2 f 'c .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6. 9. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. 7. a failure message is declared. 9 .8. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 9. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In some cases. These two steps. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6. 9. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . is obtained and reported. described in the subsections that follow. are repeated for every load combination.1. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6. for each load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.21 .Chapter 9 . given the bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. In that case.6.

6. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control. 9. 9. interior.5. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.2. 8.1) In addition.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.7. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.4 ): ⎧ 0 . Where openings occur.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.1(b)). 2.8.1(b)). the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2.22 Slab Design .e. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 9. 8.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.6.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5..8. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The column location (i. 9 .7.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6.4. edge.

23 .6. 9.7.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.2.7.Chapter 9 .2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.7.7.6.

2. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.6.2) where. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. 12.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 9.7.3.2(a)). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.1). b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.7. 9 .7.24 Slab Design .1.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.1) 70 9.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.3.4. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.6.

7. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.4.5 f ′ c (NZS 12. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.4.7.4) If vn > φvmax.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3. where.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.5) 9. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. vc.Chapter 9 . and vmax. φ.3.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.7.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.4) Given vn.7.6.6.25 .3) (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared. Slab Design 9 . 9. is the strength reduction factor.3.3.

edge. and 8.26 Slab Design . 6.4). The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. and corner column. edge. for corner. Therefore.e. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 9 . the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. i. and interior columns respectively.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7.3..3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.

7.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4) (NZS 12.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7.4) (NZS 12. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. s. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4.27 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Height. When specifying shear studs. the distance.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d.6.5d s ≤ 0. so.Chapter 9 .4. g.3. The limits of so and the spacing.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4) Slab Design 9 .

.

For simplicity. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Notations 10 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard.

mm Torsional constant. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.2 Notations . mm Average web width of a flanged beam. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm 10 . mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Flange thickness. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength.

Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.Chapter 10 . mm Lever arm.3 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Neutral axis depth. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 .

should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2. 1.4D ± 1. fcu.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2).1. pattern live load (PL).2D + 1. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2L ± 1.4W 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. γf (CP 2. including pattern live load. and considering that wind forces are reversible.3) (CP 2.6(0.4W 1. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. live load (L). 10.2W (CP 2.4D + 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4D + 1.4D 1.4.4 Design Load Combinations . The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.3).3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.3). 10 .6L 1.4.7.1.0D ± 1.75PL) 1.4. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. Note that the automatic combination.4.3) (CP 2. and wind (W) loads.

γm.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. but can be overwritten.15 1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . The values of γm used in the program are listed below.50 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.Chapter 10 . and torsion based on the beam moments.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code.5 . which are taken from CP Table 2. shear forces. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear.4.4. load combination factors. shear.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. and torsion only. and other criteria described below.2 (CP 2. 10. torsion.

for a particular station.4.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.4). the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. BC 2.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5. In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the width. or the strength of the concrete.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.4.3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. with the corresponding load factors.6 Beam Design . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2) 10 . where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.5. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. 10. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.

4.1).2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3. is first calculated for a section.4).2) The design procedure used by SAFE.1fcuAg) (CP 3.4. and torsion only. 10. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4). See Figure 10-1.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. is summarized in the subsections that follow.4.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. In addition. hence.4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. BC 2.4.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . Msingle..4. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than. BC 2.5.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. less than. ⎧0.4) Beam Design 10 .9) (CP 3.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.2.and T-beams).1. shear. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. or equal to Msingle.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. where 2 (CP 3.e.4.Chapter 10 .4.7 . The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4. βb ≥ 0.4.4.

67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0. where 0.87 f y z (CP 3. the area of tension reinforcement. is then given by: As = M .5 + 0.4) (CP 3.4.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. If M ≤ Msingle.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.4) 10 .120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.8 Beam Design .4.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.95d z = d ⎜ 0. As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.4.4.4.25 − ⎜ 0.

5 + 0.2.95d z = d ⎜ 0.3.4.e. Fig 2.e.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10. no flanged beam data is used.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.4.5.5.4.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1.4.4.4. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .4. Fig 2. 2.87 f y z + 0. Beam Design 10 .4.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. or at the top if M is negative.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.9 .Chapter 10 .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.4. 2. where (CP 3. If M > Msingle.1. designing top reinforcement).2.1.5.. i.3.25 − ⎜ 0. M (i. and f ′ =0.2..

the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. On the basis of this assumption.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. εc 0.67 fcu γ m 0.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .5. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.10 Beam Design . See Figure 10-2. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.2. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.4.

in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. However. Fig 2. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. Cw.3) If a ≤ hf.4.4.2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4.4. BC 2. In that case. BC 2.4.1 f cu bd (0.45 .4.45d − h f ) 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 . 2 As = M + 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.45d then. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.4.4.5 + 0.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. where (BS 3.5h f ) . as shown in Figure 10-2.4.4.87 f y (d − 0.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.9 ⎭ (CP 3. Cf.5) β f = 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.2.36 .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4.11 .15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. If a > hf .25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.Chapter 10 .95d 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. Fig 2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.5.12 Beam Design .2) 10 .2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.4.4.054 for ⎩ ⎧0. where (CP 3.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0. BC 2.5h f ) ) .30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.4.2) ⎧0.4.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.87 f y ( d − 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.32 ⎪ ⎪0.

25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.2) If Kw ≤ 0.4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.95d ⎜ 0. BC 2. As = 0.87 f y (d − 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.5. 2.4.4.4. Fig 2.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.Chapter 10 .4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. 2.4. Fig 2.13 . The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.5.4.4).4.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.5. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.156 (CP 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.3.4.3.4. where 0.4).5 + 0.4.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.

5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.4 bf bw ≥ 0. if it is required.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.24 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. which is taken from CP Table 3.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.14 Beam Design .48 0.3).5 + 0.26 100 0.36 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.13 100 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.32 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.18 100 0. 10 .1.95d ⎜ 0.27 (CP 3.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.12.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.5. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.27 (CP 3.5.12.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.5.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.

the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . the following steps are involved (CP 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.Chapter 10 . An upper limit of 0. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2). v.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. BC 2.1). for a particular load combination.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.6.40 0.12.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.2.5): Determine the shear stress. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.4.20 0.15 .20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.3. 10. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vc.12.5.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3. 10. Determine the shear stress.

1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases. (CP 3.4. the following limitations also apply: 0.5. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.4.12) 0.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. with the corresponding load combination factors.4.9) 10 .5.5.63 fcu .25 1 1 3 However.4. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .4) 10.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5. Table 3.5.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. 7 MPa).5. vc.8) (CP 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.8 fcu .5.4.4.5.16 Beam Design .4.2) For light-weight concrete. Table 3.2.4.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.6 (CP 3.4) (CP 2.4.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4.

Table 3.4.8) As vr b = .3.4. vr.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.2) In the preceding expressions.8) (CP 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. Table 3.5. Table 3.5.4.3.4. and vmax.9) (CP 3.3. sv 0.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.5.4.4. (CP 3. Table 3. a failure condition is declared.5. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .3. v’c.4. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.17 .8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3. (CP 3.5.87 f yv If v > vmax.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.2.5.4.5.4. CP 3.4.5.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0. Table 3. Table 3.Chapter 10 .8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.5.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.

vt.5.5. 10.15). the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In typical framed construction.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.3. vt. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.5. The torsional shear stress. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.5. Determine critical torsion stress. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.4.4. Determine special section properties. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 10.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 .18 Beam Design . further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. obtained from each load combination.

4.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.min = min 0.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.5) 10.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.5) Beam Design 10 . vt.1) For flanged sections. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.Chapter 10 .8 (CP Part 2 5.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2. For lightweight concrete. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.4.min = min 0.4.067 f cu .067 f cu .19 .0.6 N / mm 2 x 0. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.8 f cu .min. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . vt. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.min is defined as: vt .4. vt.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.4.0.3.4.5.

the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. 10 .min. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3.4. If vt > vt.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Asv.t sv = T 0.7) In the preceding expressions. is less than the threshold limit. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.4. However. vt.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure message is declared.min.5.6). the concrete section should be increased in size.8 x1 y1 (0.8 f cu . An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.4.4. In that case.min. vt.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.4.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. is calculated as: Asv . vt.t /sv.6).20 Beam Design .

6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.21 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Slab Design 10 . To learn more about the design strips. 10. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Chapter 10 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.

In some cases. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In that case. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Where openings occur.6. for each load combination.12.6.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. CP Table 3. given the bending moment.1. 10. is obtained and reported.1.3. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).5.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.22 Slab Design . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 10. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination.

7.6).7.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3. In addition.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. 10.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.6.2. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.23 . the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Slab Design 10 . edge.7.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. interior.12.6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.e.5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections..7. 3.7. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Chapter 10 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.4.12.1).7. 10.1).

4.7.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.4.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.7.4.5d 1.9) (CP 3.4.5.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.5.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3. the following limitations also apply: 10 .2. 3.6.4.5d 1.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.6): 0.2) However. Table 3.7.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4.24 Slab Design .5d Interior Column 1.5d 1. Table 3.

4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.2.6.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.4. (CP 3.5 M y 1 .7. Table 3. 3.3) 1 .4.4. Table 3.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.5.6. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .7. the nominal design shear stress. 10.Chapter 10 .9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.5.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .2.6.63 v ≤ min (0. v.25 .2.7.7.8 fcu .9) For light-weight concrete.4. 4 MPa) f cu . where (CP 3.5. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. Table 3.4) (CP 3.9) (CP 3. Table 3.4.

3. (CP 3.2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 10. 10.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. vc.26 Slab Design . The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7.7.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7.6.6.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.3.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.25 ⎩ for interior columns. for edge columns. 3.5).1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.6. 10. 10 . and for corner columns.25 ⎪1.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.7.5).6.7. and vmax.7.

3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7. 10.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7. 0. a failure condition is declared. ≥ s 0.5) (CP 3.87 f yv If v > vmax.7v − vc ) ud = . (CP 3. ≥ s 0.7.5) 0. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge.7.Chapter 10 .6vc.6vc ≤ v < 2.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. and corner column..7.4ud Av 5 ( 0.27 . Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.87 f yv 0. (CP 3.87 f yv If 1. i.0vc.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.6.e.7.87 f yv 0.

4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6. edge. for corner. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.7.6) (CP 3. 10.7. and 20-millimeter diameter. and 8. The limits of so and the spacing. 6. so.6).7. Therefore.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.7. the distance. 12-. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.7.5d.5d s ≤ 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.6) 10 .3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.7. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. and interior columns respectively. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.7. s.5d. 16-. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. When specifying shear studs.5d (CP 3. Height.28 Slab Design .6) (CP 3.7. g.75d g ≤ 1. 14-.

American Concrete Institute. February 2008. BC. Sydney. ACI.O. Building and Construction Authority. TM R-1 . Box 9094. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). AS. Michigan. 38800 Country Club Drive. P. 1. UK. 2001. NSW 2001. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. Farmington Hills. Standards Australia International Ltd. Singapore.References ACI. Structural Use of Concrete. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. Part 1. American Concrete Institute. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No.2R-07). London. 2. 2. Australia. 2007. British Standards Institution. 1997.1 and Amendment No. BC 2:2008. 2008. 2008. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. Farmington Hills. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. BSI. GPO Box 5420. Michigan. and 3. 2005.

Part 2. A23. UK. Brussels. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). 2. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. India. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. CP. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. 750 Nathan Road. CP 65:Part 1:1999. EN 1992-1-1. Bureau of Indian Standards. IS. Manak Bhavan. 2005. Brussels. Structural Use of Concrete. 2006. Singapore. Third Edition. London. R-2 . 1. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Buildings Department. Concrete Structures Standard. September 2000. 1999. incorporating Amendments Nos. 2004. 1985.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Hong Kong. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. Design of Concrete Structures. EN 1990:2002. New Zealand. Canadian Standards Association. Standards New Zealand. CSA. 2004. European Committee for Standardization. Twentieth Reprint. and 3. Ontario. Part 1-1. Belgium. Rexdale. HK CP. March 2000. Belgium. New Delhi 110002. Kowloon. European Committee for Standardization. NZS. British Standards Institution. 1.3-04. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. 2000. Wellington. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Mongkok. Private Bag 2439. Canada. 2004. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted.