SAFE

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4
Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0
December 2008

Copyright
Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com
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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

3 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.5.6.2 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.6 5 Design for CSA A23.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.6.1 Design for Flexure 3.6.1 3.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.5.1 Design for Flexure 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.2 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.4 3.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.4 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.1 Notations 5-1 ii .1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.3 3.5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.6.3-04 5.1 4.5.5.

6.5.2 7.1 6.1 Design for Flexure 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.5.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .2 Check for Punching Shear 6.1 7.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.4 5.6.3 5.5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.28 6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.6.1 Design for Flexure 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.6.3 6.5.2 6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.4 6.5.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.Contents 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.2 5.

1 8.1 Design for Flexure 8.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .4 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.1 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.3 8.5.5.5.2 9.4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.6.5.2 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.4 9.4.6.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.1 Design for Flexure 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.5.3 9.4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.1 Effects of Torsion 8.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.6.5.

6 Slab Design 10.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.5 Beam Design 10.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.6.5.1 Notations 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6.6.5.6 Slab Design 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 9.Contents 9.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .1 Design for Flexure 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.2 Design Load Combinations 10.5.

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The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. shear. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. Specifically.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. 1-1 . it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. and torsion reinforcement. and it designs beam flexural. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process.

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sq-in Notations 2-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. 2.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Gross area of concrete. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1.

psi 2-2 Notations . sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). in Width of web (flanged section). in Width of section. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Depth to neutral axis. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending.

lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. in Factored moment at a section.Chapter 2 . lb Factored shear force at a section. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. psi Overall depth of a section. (0. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. lb Factored axial load at a section. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Critical torsion capacity. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. in Height of the flange. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 .

degrees 2.0L + 0.6W 0.3) (ACI 9.6S 1.6W 1. pattern live load (PL).75 PL) 0.1) are the same.1) (ACI 13.2D + 1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6L + 0.2D + 1.2.2D + 1.0E 1.0L ± 1.9D ± 1.0L + 0. snow (S).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.2D + 1.4D 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.2D + 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2D + 1.0E (ACI 9.2.5S 1.8W 1.7.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .6 (0.0E 1. For ACI 318-08.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.1): 1. and earthquake (E) loads. live load (L).5S ± 1.6S ± 0.9D ± 1.2D + 1.2.1) (ACI 9.0L ± 1.6.6W 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. wind (W).6L 1.2.2.1) (ACI 9. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.1) (ACI 9. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.

Limits on Material Strength 2-5 .5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.2.Chapter 2 .1) (ACI 9. and other criteria described in this section. caution is advised. torsion.2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear forces. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately.1).3. load combination factors. shear.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. The φ factors for flexure.5. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. (ACI 9.3. fyt. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. f' c . shear. 2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. φ. fy. or if other types of loads are present.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2). and torsion based on the beam moments.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. however. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. 2. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0.3) 2.

5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. for a particular station.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. with the corresponding load factors. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion only. shear.5. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .5. 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.

1) in the preceding and the following equations.3.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.e.Chapter 2 .2) Beam Design 2-7 .85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. 2.3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. The design procedure used by SAFE. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.5. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).2.2.2). cmax.and T-beams). which by default is 0. where. shear. fy .3. or the strength of the concrete. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.5). Furthermore.003.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).3. the width. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Mu (i.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10. which is equal to 0.4). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. is summarized in the text that follows..2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.1. The maximum depth of the compression zone.90 (ACI 9. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. and torsion only.

the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .005 (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.85 − 0. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.1) β1 = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7.85 (ACI 10.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2. amax.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where. εcmax = 0.2. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.3) (ACI 10.3.4).7.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.

If a > amax.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .3.2. where ( f 's − 0. or at the top if Mu is negative.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.3.Chapter 2 . 10.2.7.2.2.

i. and vice versa if Mu is negative.85 f ′ c 0. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0. If the moment is negative. In that case.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. is assumed if the flange is under compression. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5. a simplified stress block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore.10 Beam Design .e.. as shown in Figure 2-2. and the flange is ignored. the flange comes under tension. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. 2.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 .2.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. if the moment is positive.003 0.

2) εcmax = 0.2. no flanged beam data is used.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.1) β1 = 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.85 (ACI 10.1) in the preceding and the following equations. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.2) where.3) Beam Design 2 .1.90 (ACI 9.4): cmax = where.Design for ACI 318-08 2.. The maximum depth of the compression zone. Mu (i.7. amax. i.2.Chapter 2 .2.5..85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.1.2.5.2.7.3. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.e.3.2.e.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.2. 2.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.3) (ACI 10.11 .65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. designing top reinforcement).1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. which is equal to 0.003 εsmin = 0. cmax.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.005 (ACI 10.3.2. which by default is 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.85 − 0.

as shown in Figure 2-2. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. Cf is given by: C f = 0. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. Mu .2. Therefore.90 by default.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cw. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. However. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. Cf. the calculation for As has two parts.12 Beam Design .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. amax ) Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.3. the balance of the moment. the value for φ is 0. 2 . If a > hf. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.7. As1 = given by: (ACI 10.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.5).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf.

5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.13 . where ( f 's − 0.7. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. 10. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .3.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .2. 10.3.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.Chapter 2 .2.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.2.2.2.

at a particular station due to the beam major shear. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.14 Beam Design . Vu. Determine the shear force. 2.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.5. bw d ⎟ As . for a particular load combination. 2 . the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.3) An upper limit of 0. that can be resisted by the concrete.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.4bw d ⎧0.1. Vc.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.

with the corresponding load combination factors. fyt.1) Beam Design 2 .5.75 (ACI 9.3.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6. 11.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.1.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.Design for ACI 318-08 2. Vc.2.15 .1.2.1. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.5.1) For light-weight concrete.7. is 0. 2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.1.3).2. If Vu ≤ 0. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. φ.2. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.1.9) Given Vu.5. 2. Vc.3.5.5.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.5. and Vmax.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.Chapter 2 . the strength reduction factor.3.

5. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.7.5. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.7.5.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw . (ACI 11.5. 2. 11. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.2) ⎛ 0.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.5.16 Beam Design .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the concrete section should be increased in size.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. Determine special section properties.7.6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. a failure condition is declared. 2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5bw.3) If Vu > φVmax.5. and 0.5. Tu. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.1(c)). the equation given in ACI 11.6.1.6.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.5.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. 2 .5hf. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.7. (ACI 11.

Ao. If redistribution is desired.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.75 inches.3. special section properties. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. and ph.5. Aoh. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . pcp. 2. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. are calculated.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.6.2.2). such as Aoh. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.Chapter 2 . such as Acp.6. This is equivalent to 1.1). the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2.5. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11.17 .3. Ao. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. 2. and ph. However.2). In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity.

6.1) (ACI 11.6.1.1.1(c)) 2 .6. 2.6. 2. Tcr.1.3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6(b)) (ACI 11.6. 2.6.3.1. With this assumption.6.18 Beam Design . the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.6.1.3.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.6. However.1. 2. 2. 2. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.6. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.6.3.1) where. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. 2. 2. R11. 2.1) (ACI11.3.3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. 2.6(b)) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.6.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11. Similarly.2.1) (ACI 11.3.4).3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.6. R11.1. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3. the section dimensions b. bw. 2.6.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. h.1) (ACI 11. h. hf.1) where the section dimensions bf.3.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.1. With this assumption.1.1.1) (ACI 11.

Beam Design 2 .3. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.19 .3.6) where. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.3. 2. is limited to 60 ksi.6. θ is taken as 45 degrees.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.6. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).Chapter 2 . Tcr.5.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.2. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength. At /s. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.1). is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. However.6. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. In that case. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.75 by default (ACI 9.5. which is equal to 0.6. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.5. Tcr.3. fy.3).6.6).6.6). is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6. fyt.3) In the preceding expressions. even if the material property is defined with a higher value. longitudinal bars.7. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. 11.3.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.6.3.3. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.

⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.1) For rectangular sections. bw is replaced with b. In that case. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.6.3. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .2) 2 .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.6. a failure message is declared. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).20 Beam Design . the concrete section should be increased in size.

the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Slab Design 2 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.5.3 independently. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 2.21 .6.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. In that case. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.Chapter 2 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.22 Slab Design . the slab width is adjusted accordingly.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.12.12.min = 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. for each load combination.1(c)) 0. Where openings occur. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). These two steps.min = (ACI 7.1.12. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6.2. 2. 2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. described in the text that follows.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .12.1.2. given the bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. In that case.min = 0. This is the method used when drop panels are included. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1(b)) (ACI 7.2. at a given design section in a design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. is obtained and reported.6.1(a)) (ACI 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 2. are repeated for every load combination. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2): As.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.6.1. In some cases.

e.1. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. edge. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . The column location (i.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11. 2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual..Chapter 2 .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.11. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6. interior.2).3).23 .1. 2.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.11.

2 Eq.3.6.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.2 Eq.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.2 For corner columns. C-12) For edge columns.2. For interior columns.2 Eq.2 Eq. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.5. C-16) 2 . γvx = 0.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.2 Eq.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.5. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.1) For flat plates.3.2 Eq. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13. C-11) (ACI 421.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.24 Slab Design . C-13) (ACI 421. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421. C-15) (ACI 421.

2.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.Chapter 2 . bo is the perimeter of the critical section.6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.11.6.2.2. 2.1) where. for edge columns. and for corner columns. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.11.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.1. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.2. x and y. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. respectively. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.25 . (ACI 11.

6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 2 .6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.11.11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. If this ratio exceeds 1.3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.3.5.11. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3).3). φ.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and Vmax.1) 2. where.5.75 (ACI 9. 2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.0.3. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.11.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.11. Vc.2) (ACI 11.2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.6.3. the strength reduction factor.1) (ACI 11.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. 2. is 0.26 Slab Design .

2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.. i. edge.3. 2.e.3). (ACI 11.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.4.11.6.3.1.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.27 . and corner column.7. Slab Design 2 . a failure condition is declared. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. 11.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.Chapter 2 .11.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.

11.6. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. 2.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Therefore. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 1/2-.3.5d (ACI 11.5. the distance.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. s. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. The limits of so and the spacing.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. so.11.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5. 6. g.2) (ACI 11. 5/8-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.28 Slab Design . Height. When specifying shear studs. edge. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.11.5d. for corner.2) ⎧0. and interior columns respectively. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5.3) 2 . and 8. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. and 3/4-inch diameters.

mm Notations 3-1 . mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 3.

mm Width of member. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Depth of compression block. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Mean value of do. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Area of shear reinforcement.

N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 .max Tus T* ut V* Vu. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N-mm Factored axial load at section.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. N-mm Factored moment at section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement.Chapter 3 . N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. mm Factored shear force at a section. to the effective depth.max Vu. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by concrete. (0. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. MPa Torsional modulus. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.

75 PL) 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0E 1.0S 0. For AS 3600-01. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.5(0.2D ± 1.4L + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. 4.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L ± 1.5L 1.9D ± 1. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.0-02.2(f)) Note that the 0.2.1): 1.2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.0-02. 4. snow (S). 4.2D + 0.2D + 1.2. 4.2.0-02.0-02.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2.0W 1.2D + 0. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.2.0-02. pattern live load (PL).2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. live load (L). 4.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.35D 1. and earthquake (E) loads.4L ± 1. wind (W).2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.0-02. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used. degrees 3. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0-02.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.0W 1.0D + 0.3.0D ± 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.0-02.2D + 1.0W 1.

and torsion based on the beam moments. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.3: φ = 0. caution is advised. φ. (AS 2. 19. respectively. is defined as given in AS 2. Table 6.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1.1(b)).1).3(c)) (AS 2. however. and other criteria described in the text that follows. 3.1.1).2.1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.2. torsion.3(c)) 3. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. Table 2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1) (AS 6. 6.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa. for all framing type (AS 6.2.3(c). Limits on Material Strength 3-5 .1.1.1.1.Design for AS 3600-01 3. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. load combination factors. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1.2. shear forces.Chapter 3 .1.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1.1.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. shear. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1. and torsion only. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.

3) γ = [0. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.1.2). – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. (AS 8.1. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.2) Beam Design 3-7 . (AS 8. A uniform compressive stress of 0.85 − 0. is given by amax = γk u d where. fy .and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.003. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2).007( f 'c −28)] 0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1a). Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1). and torsion only.7. shear.2.1. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.1.2.15N ) (AS 10.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.85 ku = 0. or the strength of the concrete.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.Chapter 3 .2.2. the width. amax. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.

5.2. ε = 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.85 f 'c φb (AS 8. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0. which by default is 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .1. M (i.2..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.80 (AS 2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.2) where.e.1.003 b Cs c 0.4). designing top or bottom reinforcement). where.3) in the preceding and following equations. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.

1.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .4.1.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.e.2.1.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0. where ( f 's − 0.1. or at the top * if M is negative.2.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0..2.Chapter 3 . ku > 0. i. If a > amax. 6.

003 bf Ds * 0. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8..10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore. and the flange is ignored. 3.1. M (i.3).e.5. as shown in Figure 3-2. and vice versa if M is negative. the flange comes under tension.85 f ′ c 0. no flanged beam data is used.5. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. In that case. i..2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e.2.2. a simplified stress block. designing top reinforcement). is assumed if the flange is under compression. i.e. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. If the moment is negative.. 3. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.1. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . if the moment is positive.1. ε = 0.

However. Cf. amax ) Therefore. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0. the calculation for Ast has two parts. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. is given by: a max = γk u d where. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . in that case. the balance of the moment.4.3) If a ≤ Ds.2. As1 = given by: (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-01 3. ku = 0.2. which is 0.85 f 'c φb f where. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.11 . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.3) in the preceding and the following equations.1. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. Cf is given by: C f = 0.5. If a > Ds.2.Chapter 3 . as shown in Figure 3-2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds .2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. amax. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.1. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4 (AS 8. the width of the beam is taken as bf.1. Cw.80 by default (AS 2.

where ′ − 0. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 . 6.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.1.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.1.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. If a1 > amax.2.12 Beam Design .

4.Chapter 3 .6 f 'c (AS 6. 3.13 .Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.min = 0.5.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .1.1.1) f 'cf = 0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.2) An upper limit of 0.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 . and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1.1.

Determine the shear force. 13 (AS 8.7. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1) β1 = 1.7. Vuc.2. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3. * 3.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.5. that can be resisted by the concrete. V .1) (AS 8.5. with the corresponding load combination factors. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.5.1⎜1.14 Beam Design .2.2.6 − β2 = 1. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. for a particular load combination.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. 3. Vuc. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.7.

2. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. Asv = 0 .5(c)(i)). f do cot θ v and greater than Asv. where.Chapter 3 . is 0.2.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.9) (AS 8.5).min.10) Asv.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.6 by default (AS 2.min shall be provided. Vuc.min . and Vu.5. defined as: ( ) (AS 8. If φVu. Asv = 0. = s fsy. φ. s otherwise Asv.min < V * ≤ φVu.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.2. the strength reduction factor.6) Given V . min = Vuc + 0.15 .2. whichever is greater (AS 8. ⎟ ⎠ 3.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .8) Beam Design 3 .35 w ⎜ s f sy.3).6bv d o Vu . if D < bw /2 or 250 mm.2.2. max = 0. V * − φVuc Asv .max.max . (AS 8.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.
If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.
*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At
ut

=
=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,
0.4Σx y
2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c
b

c bw − 2c bw bw
Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:
*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At
where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))
* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. To learn more about the design strips. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.21 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Chapter 3 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. as described in the following sections. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Slab Design 3 . 3. 3.

there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1. 3. In some cases.1. given the bending moment. are repeated for every load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 3.1(a)) As ≥ 0.22 Slab Design . at a given design section in a design strip.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.1. This is the method used when drop panels are included.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1): As ≥ 0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 3 .0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.1. In that case. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1(b)) In addition. for each load combination.6.6. Where openings occur.6. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. which are described in the following subsections.

3.e.Chapter 3 .1). edge.23 .2.Design for AS 3600-01 3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. The column location (i. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. interior.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.3)..1. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.2.

2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.2.2.6.24 Slab Design .3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. Vu .2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.3σ cp ≤ 0.3(a)): a.2. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.2.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.4(a)) 3. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.3(b)) (AS 9.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.6.2.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.3(a)) where.3σ cp ) b. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9. is given as (AS 9.2. is given as (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. 3 . Vuo .5 f c' + 0.

7.1).2. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.4(a). where.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.6. and Vu.2. 3.Design for AS 3600-01 3. φ.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.25 .2. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.min = 3*Vu (AS 92.3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.Given V*.Chapter 3 . is the strength reduction factor.4. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.4.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 . 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.max. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.3.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. V * − φVu Asv = . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. Vu.3 or 9.

the concrete section should be increased in size. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.4). the minimum number of 3 .. edge. a failure condition is declared.e. i.4) If V > φVmax. 3. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.26 Slab Design . Therefore. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. and corner column.4.7.7. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3.4. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3) (NZS 12. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.6.7.

and 8.7.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. so.27 . When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. edge. 6. The limits of so and the spacing. 3.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4) (NZS 12. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.Chapter 3 .3. s.5d. for corner.4) (NZS 12.6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. g.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. the distance.4. and interior columns respectively. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4.4) Slab Design 3 .7. Height. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4.5d s ≤ 0.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.

.

For light-weight concrete and torsion. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For simplicity. 4. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. mm 2 Notations 4-1 .

mm Torsional constant. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. assumed as 200. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm 4-2 Notations . mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of tension reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.

mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Neutral axis depth.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section.Chapter 4 . [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.

0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.4D ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.2W (BS 2.4.4.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations . pattern live load (PL). The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.3) (BS 2. γf (BS 2.4.2W 1.4D + 1.3) (BS 2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.4.2L + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. For BS 8110-1997. snow (S). live load (L).2S ± 1.3).2W 1.4. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. mm Lever arm.3) (BS 2.4D + 1.2D + 1.2S ± 1. 1.1.6(0.2L ± 1. 0.4W 1.0D ± 1.75PL) 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible.6S 1.2D + 1.2D + 1.4D + 1. and wind (W) loads.6L + 1.4D 1.3).4.6L 1.4W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).

4. fcu. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.7. γm.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. as taken from BS Table 2. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.50 1.15 1. this value should be overwritten as necessary. Note that for reinforcement. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1. including pattern live load.4. Note that the automatic combination. the default factor of 1.Chapter 4 . Limits on Material Strength 4-5 .2). should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. 4.2 (BS 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. If other grades are used.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.4. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.

In such cases. and other criteria described below. for a particular station. and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear forces. and torsion based on the beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. load combination factors. torsion. the 4-6 Beam Design . In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. with the corresponding load factors.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear.5.

The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Msingle.4.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4.4) Beam Design 4-7 .9) (BS 3.4.4).4. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.156 2 (BS 3. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4.4.e. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. and torsion only. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. where K' = 0.5. In addition. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. Furthermore.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. The design procedure used by SAFE.4. See Figure 4-1.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. the width. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. less than. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.4). βb ≥ 0.1). x/d ≤ 0.Chapter 4 .2.4). is first calculated for a section. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. 4.4. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. or the strength of the concrete.5. Msingle = K'fcu bd . the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. or equal to Msingle.5. 4.

5 + 0.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0. is then given by: As = M . As.25 − ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle. or at the top if M is negative.87 f y z (BS 3.4.4.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4. the area of tension reinforcement. If M > Msingle.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .4.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. where 0.4.

.777d z = d ⎜ 0.4.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.2.87 f y d − d ' ( ) .4. 4.4.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0. 2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0. Fig 2.Chapter 4 .2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.4. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.5.e.4.5.1. 2.1.3. and ' f ' s = 0. Beam Design 4-9 . where (BS 3.4.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.4.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.3.5. no flanged beam data is used.1.1.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. M (i.4.2.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.5. designing top reinforcement). i.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3. Fig 2. Based on this assumption.5.4.25 − ⎜ 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.e..5 + 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.

4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.45 (BS 3.4.9 ⎭ (BS 3.4.5 + 0. e = 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4.10 Beam Design .95d 0.0035 0.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4. See Figure 4-2.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.67 fcu/gm 0.

The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5) β f = 0.4) If a ≤ hf. As = 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.Chapter 4 .4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5h f ) . In that case.1 f cu bd (0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.45d then.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.4.4. If a > hf.4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Cw.4.4. in that case. 2 As = M + 0.45d − h f ) 0.156 (BS 3.4). Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. the width of the beam is taken as bf.4) If Kw ≤ 0.4. where 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.87 f y (d − 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4.4.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . Cf.9x (BS 3.4. where (BS 3.4.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. as shown in Figure 4-2.11 . However.87 f y (d − 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.

87 f y (d − 0. and ' f ' s = 0. 2. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.4.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.3.3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.4.1.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.4.2.4.25 (BS 3.777d ) 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3. 2.87 f f (0.1.4).5 + 0.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. 4 . Fig 2.4.4.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.4) where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5. Fig 2.5.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.4.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.5. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.95d ⎜ 0.12 Beam Design .12.1.5.

Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.20 As' bh Web in tension T.Chapter 4 .32 0.3).4 bf bw ≥ 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0. if it is required.1): Beam Design 4 .or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.12.48 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.6.20 An upper limit of 0.24 0.36 0.24 0.5.40 100 0.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.12.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.13 .18 100 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.25 (BS 3.

vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 4.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.4. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5. Determine the shear stress. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.2) For light-weight concrete.04bw d ⎧0.63 fcu . for a particular load combination. v.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4) 4 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. that can be resisted by the concrete. vc.14 Beam Design .8 fcu . with the corresponding load combination factors. 5 MPa) (BS 3.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5.

the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.2.4.5.5.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4) (BS 3.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.Chapter 4 . Table 3.4. vc. Table 3. Table 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.4.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.15 .4.8) (BS 2. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.4.3): Beam Design 4 . Table 3.1) However.4.4.5. and vmax.2.8) (BS 3.8.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.4.4.4.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.12) 0. 4.5.4.5.5.5.4. BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0. vc.

vt. Determine special section properties.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.5.5. (BS 3. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa. a failure condition is declared. Determine critical torsion stress. 4.4. Table 3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.5.16 Beam Design .4.4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Table 3.4.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.2) (BS 3.5. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.87 f yv If v > vmax.4bw = sv 0. 4 .3. obtained from each load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. In the preceding expressions.7) (BS 3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4) Asv 0.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.3.5. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.

3.4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.5) Beam Design 4 . vt. vt.4.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.4.8 f cu . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.1) For flanged sections.4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. The torsional shear stress. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. In typical framed construction.5.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5.4. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2. with the corresponding load combination factors.Chapter 4 .Design for BS 8110-97 4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.17 . further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.13).

6).t /sv.3.t sv = T 0.min.4.4.5) 4.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.min. 4 . the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4. vt is less than the threshold limit.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .0.067 fcu . If vt > vt. vt.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. vt.8 x1 y1 (0.min = min 0. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.4. is calculated as: Asv . However.min. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.6).067 fcu .min is defined as: vt .4N/mm 2 x 0. For lightweight concrete. Asv.min = min 0.7) In the preceding expressions.0. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.18 Beam Design .5. In that case. vt.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .3.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.

Beam Design 4 .4. v and torsional shear stress. vt exceeds this limit. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4) If the combination of shear stress. a failure message is declared.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.19 .63 fcu .5) For light-weight concrete. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.Chapter 4 .8 fcu . the concrete section should be increased in size. In that case.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. 4 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 4. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 4. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. is obtained and reported. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.20 Slab Design . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. for each load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.

BS Table 3.6). is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).3.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.5. Where openings occur.7.1).5.3) In addition. 4.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1.12.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6.6.6.12.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.Design for BS 8110-97 4. In that case. given the bending moment. 4.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. This is the method used when drop panels are included.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.12. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.Chapter 4 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3. In some cases.7.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip.7. 4. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.2.21 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.

8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.6. The column location (i. Table 3..2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.5.4.8) 4 .1).5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7.5d 1.7.7.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6): 1 1 0.5.5d 1.7.4. 3.4. edge. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5d 1.4.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.7.e.7.5d Interior Column 1. interior. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.22 Slab Design .

4) v ≤ min(0. the nominal design shear stress.4.6.7.5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4) (BS 3.23 . where (BS 3.8) (BS 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.Chapter 4 . the following limitations also apply: 0.5M ⎛ y 1.4.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .2. 4.7.7.5.8 f cu .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3. Table 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .63 fcu .4.5. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.2.7.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. 5MPa) (BS 3.4.7.4. v.6.3) 1.2) However.5.6.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. Table 3.4.5.4) For light-weight concrete.4.

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.2.24 Slab Design .7.7. 4. 4 .6.5).1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3.7. 3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.25 ⎪1.6. 4.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2
gx x

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2

Free edge

Iy
gx

gy
s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

Critical section centroid
y Ix

Free edge

y
Ix

x
Critical section centroid

Free edge
Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

9D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. Table C.5S ± 0.5S + 0.4D 1.25D + 1.5(0.4.2.5S + 0.1) 1. For CSA A23.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.75 PL) 1. and earthquake (E) loads.8.25D + 1.25D + 1.4W 0.3.5L 0. Table C. snow (S).5L 1.25D + 1.2.9D + 1. live load (L).3-04.5L 0.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .4W 1.5S ± 0.9D + 1.5S 1.9D + 1.1 Case 1) (CSA 8. Table C. degrees Shear strength factor 5.3.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5L + 0.9D + 1.5S 0.25D + 1. Table C. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.25D + 1.3) (CSA 8.2.3.3.5S 0.5S 1.25D + 1.5L + 0.5L 1. wind (W).5L ± 0.9D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.5L ± 0. pattern live load (PL). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4W 0.4W (CSA 8.

are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.2.25D + 0.0E 1.5L + 0.1).65 for concrete φs = 0.25D ± 1.0D + 0. Table C. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. caution is advised.5L ± 1.2) (CSA 8.6.9D + 0.Design for CSA A23.4W 0.4W 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. respectively. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.9D + 0.0E (CSA 8.0D ± 1. (CSA 8.4W 1.5.25S ± 1.0E 1.5S ± 1. φ. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.4.25S ± 1.3-04 code is used.5S ± 1.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .4W 0.5L ± 1. Table C.4W 0.1). 5.3-04 1.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.1) 5.9D ± 1.3.3.25D + 0. however.0D + 0.2.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten. for all framing types (CSA 8.0E 1. (CSA 8.4W 1.4.0D + 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.6.1.Chapter 5 .5L ± 1.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. for a particular station. shear forces.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. torsion. load combination factors. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. and torsion only.5. shear.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. 5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth..1) Beam Design 5-7 . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Chapter 5 .3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement.1.4).1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. 5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. shear.7).and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10. Furthermore. where.Design for CSA A23.1. the width.5. or the strength of the concrete. and torsion only. Mf (i.5. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. The design procedure used by SAFE. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. In such cases.e. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.

2) in the preceding and the following equations.0025f'c ≥ 0.1.5. β1 = 0.5.97 – 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7) (CSA 10.65 (CSA 8.2).0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0. The parameters α1. β1. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.1.4.67 cb = (CSA 10.1.0015f'c ≥ 0.7) (CSA 10.85 – 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .67.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.

3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .2. or at the top if Mf is negative.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .1.Design for CSA A23.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.1.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.5. where f ′ = 0.Chapter 5 .2). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10. 10. If a > ab (CSA 10.1.

1) where. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0. 5. 5.10 Beam Design .1.5.67 β1 = 0. i.1.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.1.2.1.5.7) (CSA 10.. designing top reinforcement).0015 f' c ≥ 0.85 – 0. As = As1 + As2.2) in the preceding and the following equations.2 5.7) 5 .67 cb = (CSA 10. Mf (i. the total tension reinforcement.e. and vice versa if Mf is negative.1.65 (CSA 8.4. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. the value of φc is 0. β1.2. no flanged beam data is used.1.2.e.5. The parameters α1.2.10.7) (CSA 10.0025 f' c ≥ 0.1. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.2.97 – 0.4..

ab ) c ε = 0. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.3-04 If a ≤ hs. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. calculation for As has two parts. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs .1. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab. If a > hs. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the balance of the moment. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. Cf. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs .11 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . However.Design for CSA A23.Chapter 5 .

5.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.2).1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. where 5 .1. If a1 > ab (CSA 10.12 Beam Design . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.5.2). the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.

3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23.1. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.5.Chapter 5 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's.3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.13 .1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .5.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.1) An upper limit of 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.1.1. 5.2.5.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.1. 10.3) In addition.5.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. with the corresponding load combination factors.5.65 (CSA 8. Vf. 5 . that can be resisted by the concrete.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 5.2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Vc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11.04bw d ⎧0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.4.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. By default it is taken as 0.14 Beam Design .5. for a particular loading combination. Determine the shear force.2). Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. Vc. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.5.3.

h.85. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. ⎪0.6.1 and 0. (CSA 8. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.3.4.5).6. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0. For concrete using lower density aggregate. and described further in the following sections. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.3. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data. if applicable.6.9d or 0. it is the width of the beam.Chapter 5 . It is taken as the greater of 0.3): Beam Design 5 . The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.75. it is the width of the web of the beam. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. β is taken as 0. d v is the effective shear depth.3. It is determined according to CSA 11.21 (CSA 11. For rectangular beams.6.15 .00.5): ⎧1.2).72h. Its value is normally between 0.6.3. bw is the effective web width. and the tensile force is negligible.3. For normal density concrete. as follows (CSA 11. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.Design for CSA A23. which is taken by the program as the default value. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. If the overall beam depth.6.2).6.3. For flanged beams.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3). for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.4). the general method is used (CSA 11.6.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.6.2). its value is 1 (CSA 8.

3. ag. the crack spacing parameter. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.6. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. ⎪ 0. or 5 .16 Beam Design .3. β = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 .6. sze. and ag < 20mm.6.18. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. β is taken as 0.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.6.18 (CSA 11.3.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.3.c) In the preceding expression.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. and ag ≥ 20mm.3.3. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.18 (CSA 11. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . for simplified cases.3 c) where. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. However.3a). In summary.

Beam Design 5 .4(a)) (CSA 2. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.6.4) In the preceding expression.4): β= 0. 11. (CSA 11. and linearly interpolated between these values.3(b)).6.Chapter 5 .6.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.1. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3.4). 11.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.6.6.3.3.Design for CSA A23. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam.4(a)) (CSA 11. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.3.3.3. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.6. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv. The longitudinal strain.6.6.3.6.17 .40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.3. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3.6.3. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. Nf is taken as positive for tension.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.85Sz otherwise. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.3-04 tension is not negligible. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.

6.5.3. Vc.max = 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.18 Beam Design .3.3.003 (CSA 11. To check this condition.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.3.2.max.6.3.3.6. the program performs the design in two passes. 5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0.6. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. In the first pass.5.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.4(d)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. taken as half of the total area.4(e)). When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.1) 5 . For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. and Vr. it is recalculated with the following equation. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.

2.3). is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.Design for CSA A23.6. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.5.3.2) In the preceding equations.2. Beam Design 5 .3.max . or by calculation.Chapter 5 .3.3.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr . h.6.19 .1.1) (CSA 11.4). the term θ is used.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.8.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.8.8.3). which was described previously.2). If the overall beam depth. It is determined according to CSA 11.3. a failure condition is declared. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.6.3. whenever applicable.2. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.3.25Tcr.3.6. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. 11.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0. (CSA 11.6. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2. Similar to the β factor.

The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. f y > 400 MPa. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3.3.3). The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3) If the axial force is tensile. Tf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . Determine critical torsion capacity. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa.6.3.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.6. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.20 Beam Design . Determine special section properties.4). θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . 5.6.5. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. 5 .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.6. f y ≤ 400 MPa.

This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. Ao.3). with the corresponding load combination factors. and ph are calculated. Ao.9. special section properties. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. and ph. such as Aoh. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5. such as Ac.2. If redistribution is desired. However.5. With this assumption. With this assumption.3. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. However.2).Chapter 5 . it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.21 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. Aoh. 5. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. pc.

φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.22 Beam Design .3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. 5.10.9.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11. 5 .3) (CSA 11.65. bw.3.1) (CSA 11.4). and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.2.2.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.3.9. the section dimensions b. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.9.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. Similarly. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.3.10.4) where the section dimensions bf.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. hf.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.9.4) where. h.3.5. Tcr.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.2.10.2.10.9. which is equal to 0. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.10.3.2.10.1) (CSA 11.3. h. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.

4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. Tcr. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.3-04 5.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.5 N f + (V f − 0. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.10.2.3. At /s.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.Chapter 5 .45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .3.23 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.1).5.3). Tcr. In that case. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. However. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.Design for CSA A23.9.

5 .5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. bw is replaced with b. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.10.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.3.3. a failure message is declared. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition.2. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6.9) In the preceding expressions.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.10. If the general method is being used. 11.8.10. In that case.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.4) For rectangular sections.24 Beam Design . the concrete section should be increased in size.3. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. θ is computed as previously described for shear. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.3.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.25 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Design for CSA A23. 5. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.3-04 5.Chapter 5 . Slab Design 5 .304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. is obtained and reported.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 5.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.002 bh (CSA 7. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 5. In some cases.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.1.1): As ≥ 0.26 Slab Design . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.8. given the bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6.10.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 5. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. 5 . Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. In that case.6.1) In addition. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. at a given design section in a design strip. Where openings occur.6. for each load combination. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.

3. where Slab Design 5 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.3. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.6. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3).3.3.Design for CSA A23.e.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.Chapter 5 .3.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.2.1 and CSA 13.3-04 5. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. The column location (i. edge.27 .3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.2..6.2). interior.

4. 5 . d. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.3).3. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. and (CSA 13.10. and ⎪for corner columns.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. (CSA 13.3.5.6. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.4.3. exceeds 300 mm.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .2) If the effective depth.4.28 Slab Design .1) where.2.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.3.3.4.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. 5.

The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.max = 0.3-04 5. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. is the strength reduction factor.3.6.1).6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f . The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13. φs.8.max. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.8.2.75λφ c (CSA 13..6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3. where.2.29 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) 5. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13. 5.Design for CSA A23.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and vf.2) Given vf. Slab Design 5 . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. 5.3.6.Chapter 5 . vc. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3.

3.30 Slab Design .6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. for corner. and corner column.5) If vf > vf.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. and 8.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. i.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.3.4d.e. (CSA 13.max. the concrete section should be increased in size.max. 6. 5.8. Therefore. edge.. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. a failure condition is declared. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 5 .8. edge.

3-04 5.8. the distance.6) Slab Design 5 .50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0. When specifying shear studs. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7. Height.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.8.Design for CSA A23. so. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6.Chapter 5 .6) (CSA 13.3.3.4d.31 .4 d ⎧ 0. s. The limits of so and the spacing.3.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

.

Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. 6. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. However.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. mm 2 Notations 6-1 .1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. For simplicity.

MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa 6-2 Notations .

N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 .max u VRdc VRd. mm Lever arm. mm Design moment at a section.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section.Chapter 6 . N-mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. mm Flange thickness.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis.

12b.1Qk .iψ 0. j Gk . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2. snow (S).10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. live load (L).i Qk . 6.10b. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. wind (W). j Gk .1Qk . 6. ∑G j ≥1 k.1 + ∑ γ Q . ∑γ j ≥1 G.iψ 0. j Gk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.1Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i Qk .12b) For this code.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. 6.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .i Qk . and earthquake (E) loads.1 + ∑ γ Q .iψ 0. pattern live load (PL). 6.1 + ∑ γ Q . j + γ P P + γ Q .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.10a and 6. j + γ P P + γ Q . 6. j + γ P P + γ Q .1ψ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.10a) ∑ξ γ j G. 6.i Qk .

i W γGj.1 PL ξ γGj.i ψ0.1 L γGj. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.supD + γQ. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.i S (EC0 Eq.1 L ± γQ.1 PL γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.0E D ± 1. 6.sup D + γQ.1 W (EC0 Eq.i L D ± 1.1 W γGj.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.supD + γQ.i L + γQ.i S γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.supD + γQ. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .inf D ± γQ.i L γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.1 L γGj.sup D + γQ.4.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 PL γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.i L + ψ2.1 W + γQ.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.75)γQ.10b.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs. 6. 6. 6.i W γGj.1 S ± γQ. 6. 6.sup D ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.1 L ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.i S γGj. 6.10a and 6.1 S ± γQ. γGj.supD + (0.75)γQ. 6.sup D + γQ. 6.1 L + γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.75)γQ.Chapter 6 . 6.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.supD + (0.10) (EC0 Eq.supD + (0.1 S + γQ.i W + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D γGj. 6.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.i S ± γQ.i S γGj.i ψ0.1 ψ0.i ψ0. 6.0E + ψ2.sup D ± γQ. 6.i W γGj.i ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.i L D ± 1.1 W γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.3): γGj.sup D γGj.

1 ψ0.i ψ0.i L γGj. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.sup D + γQ. 6.i S γGj.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.i ψ0.0E D ± 1. assumed not to be storage) = 0.10b) (EC0 Eq.i L γGj.1 W γGj.i ψ0.i L γGj. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0. 6.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.inf D ± γQ. 6.sup D ± γQ. 6.i W γGj.35 γGj.1 S ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.i S γGj.1 W + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.85 (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj.i L γGj.sup D + γQ.i L D ± 1.1 L + γQ.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i ξ = 1.i ψ0.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.1 S ± γQ.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1. 6.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i S ξ γGj.i S D ± 1.1 S + γQ.sup = 1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.5 = 0.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.00 γQ.1 γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.5 (snow load.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1.0E + ψ2.1 W γGj.i ψ0.1 L + γQ.inf D ± γQ.inf = 1.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.i W ξ γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0. γGj.0E + ψ2.1 L ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.1 W ξ γGj.i L + ψ2.1 W + γQ.7 (live load.1 W + γQ.1 S + γQ.6 (wind load) = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.5 = 1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.

2(3)). Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .6(1)) (EC2 3.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. 6. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. αcc is taken as 1. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.Chapter 6 . It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.2.2.7(2)) (EC2 3.1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.6(1)). γs and γc as shown here.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.1) (EC0 Table A1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.i = 0. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3. fyk.2(2)).1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. respectively (EC2 3.i ψ2. should be 400 and 600 MPa.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.3 (live. 6.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. fck.1.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. 6.4(1). and torsion only.4).4.5. γs = 1. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.4. caution is advised. γc = 1.2. For accidental and earthquake situations.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. however.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. Table 2. These values can be overwritten. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. shear forces.2. torsion. for a particular station.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . load combination factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The user should consider those separately.

The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.7(3)). Fig 3.1. In such cases.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1. or the strength of the concrete.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5) (EC2 3. In such cases. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Fig 3.1. 6.1.Chapter 6 .5.1.1.7(3). the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. the width.7(3).5.

the following values are used: k1 = 0.25(0.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore. δ.7(3)) (EC2 3. 6 . for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.7(3)) (EC2 3.5(4)).0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.44 k2 = k4 = 1. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. ( x d )lim . is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution. is summarized in the subsections that follow.54 (EC 5. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5(4)) (EC2 5.and T-beams).8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.5(4)) (EC 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.1.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.6 + 0.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.1. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.5(4)) (EC 5.1.10 Beam Design .7(3)) λ = 0.

m. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. mlim. the normalized moment.11 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.2. mlim.5. less than.1.Chapter 6 . m. The normalized design moment. are obtained first.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . or equal to mlim.

are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. and is given by: 6 . a singly reinforced beam is designed. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. ωlim. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. If m > mlim.12 Beam Design . As. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. A's and As. or at the top if MEd is negative.

Based on this assumption.7(4). MEd (i.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. m.1.2. See Figure 6-2. 3.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 .2.5.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.5(4).1.5.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.1.13 . designing top reinforcement).1.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5. The normalized design moment.2. 3. additional calculation is required. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.1.1. no flanged beam data is used.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω. 3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.Chapter 6 .. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.e.e.5. i. 6. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.2. Fig 3.8) 6. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Initially.

As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. However. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. the calculation for As has two parts. is determined as follows: 6 .14 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the width of the beam is taken as bf. M1 = M − M2. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. If a > hf. in that case. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. as shown in Figure 6-2.

2.1.15 . Beam Design 6 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.Chapter 6 . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. 3.7(4). Fig 3. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.

Table 3.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.min = 0.2.1(3)). VRd. Table 3.2): Determine the factored shear force.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.c.5.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1) f ctm = 2.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. for a particular load combination.2. 6 .12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.0013bd (EC2 9. the following steps are involved (EC2 6. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.12.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2.1.5. Determine the shear force.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.min = 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. that can be resisted by the concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.1.1) (EC2 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required.16 Beam Design . Table 3.12. VEd.1. 6.1.1(1)) As .

2 f cd MPa The values of CRd. is calculated as: 13 VRd .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c = ⎡C Rd .2. vmin.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.15 Beam Design 6 . and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2.5.2.c.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.2.c = 0.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.2.Chapter 6 .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6. VRd.18 γ c ν min = 0.c.02 bw d (EC2 6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.5.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.17 .2. 6. 6.

5.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.3(3)) (EC2 6.2.2.2. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.3(1)) (EC2 6.6⎜1 − z = 0.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd. Asw Asw.2.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. 6 .18 Beam Design .3(3)) Asw. a failure condition is declared.3(3)) (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2.min s = 0.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2.3(3)) (EC2 6.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.max.2. obtained from each load combination.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2(6)) (EC2 6. VRdc. VRd.2.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.max.

6. uk.3.5.3. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.5. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6.3.19 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.2).5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine special section properties. TEd.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. and zi are calculated. tef.1(2)). These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. u. However. such as Ak.Chapter 6 . special section properties. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Beam Design 6 . Determine critical torsion capacity. 6. If redistribution is desired. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. 6.

and c are shown in Figure 2-3.3.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption.2(3)) where. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.20 Beam Design . However. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. such as Ak. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. and uk. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. Similarly.3.2(3)) 6 .3.3. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.3.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. h. the section dimensions b.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf. h.05 / γ c (EC2 6.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.c is the torsional cracking moment. In that case. bw.21 . hf. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.Chapter 6 .3.1.2.3. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.2(5)) where VRd. if the equation is not satisfied.c (EC2 6.2. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3. Vt.3.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .5. is first calculated. and compression diagonals. However.c VRd .5. the shear due to this torsion. calculated as: TRd .2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. 6.2(1)) 6. longitudinal bars.0 TRd .3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.3. followed by the required stirrup area.3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.

8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. The code allows any value between 21. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .max.3.max + VEd ≤ 1.3(2)).0 VRd .max (EC2 6.2(4)) 6 .3.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.22 Beam Design . as previously defined for beam shear.3. θ is taken as 45 degrees. In the preceding expressions.2.2(4)) where TRd. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .

a failure message is declared.6. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.23 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 6.Chapter 6 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Slab Design 6 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. To learn more about the design strips. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. the concrete section should be increased in size. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. In that case.

In that case.1. Where openings occur.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1): As .1.min = 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 6. for each load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. given the bending moment.24 Slab Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. 6.6.1.0013bd (EC2 9. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 6.2.3.min = 0.6. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. These two steps. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. described in the subsections that follow. is obtained and reported. In some cases.1.1. are repeated for every load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.2. at a given design section in a design strip.1(1)) As .1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

4. The column location (i.2.2(1)).2.Chapter 6 . Slab Design 6 .1(3)).12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. 6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. interior.4.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.1) (EC2 Table 3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1) fctm = 2. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.25 .. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 6.e.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. edge.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.6.6.1) (EC2 Table 3.

2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4.4(1)) 6 .6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.c = ⎡C Rd .4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.26 Slab Design .4.4.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .

conservatively taken as zeros.4.15 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.Chapter 6 .4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4. conservatively taken as zeros. the nominal design shear stress.02 (EC2 6. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4(1)) (EC2 6.27 . is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4(1)) ν min = 0. C Rd .4.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .c = 0.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.18 γ c (EC2 6.2.4.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.4. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4. vEd.4(1)) (EC2 6.0 d (EC2 6.6.

75v Rd .5 f ywd . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.3.ef If vEd > vRd. 6 .5).28 Slab Design .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.6.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.c ) = u1 sr 1. Asw (v Ed − 0.c. 6.4.6.max. a failure condition is declared.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. vRd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.max. 6. 6. (EC2 6.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. the concrete section should be increased in size. and vRd. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. Given vEd.3.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. and interior columns respectively. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. Height. i.6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.29 .6.e.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.3(1)). edge. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3. for corner. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . and corner column. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 6.Chapter 6 . Therefore.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. 6. edge.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. and 8.3.4.. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.

12-. g.3(1)) (EC2 9. and 20-millimeter diameter.3(1)) (EC2 9. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. 14-.4. the distance. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.3d.4. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.75d g ≤ 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.3(1)) (EC2 9. When specifying shear studs.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. The limits of so and the spacing.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. s. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.30 Slab Design . 16-.3(1)) 6 .4.4. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. so.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm
2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm
4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum
2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

e.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. with the corresponding load factors. where εc. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6..2.2.9) (CP 6. the width.1.1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. 7.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.0035 − 0.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.max is defined as: ε c . In such cases. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.2. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. βb ≥ 0.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.4(a)).1.1.5.4(b)). ⎧0.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. or the strength of the concrete. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1.

156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.2.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. hence. where 2 (CP 6. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.Chapter 7 .2. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. Fig 6. shear. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.1. or equal to Msingle.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.4(a)).1. 7.87 f y z (CP 6. less than. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. is obtained first for a section.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. and torsion only.1.4(b)). The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. As.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1fcuAg) (CP 6.4(c)) ⎧0.4(a).2.1. Msingle. In addition.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 . is obtained from: As = M . The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.2. Msingle = K'fcu bd .1) The design procedure used by SAFE. where 0.5.2.

4(c)) (CP 6.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .1.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0. or at the top if M is negative.5 + 0.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.95d z = d ⎜ 0.25 − ⎜ 0.1.1. If M > Msingle.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.2.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.2.

If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. designing top reinforcement).95d 0.6. 3.2.e.5. M (i. i.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. no flanged beam data is used. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .Chapter 7 .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.5.1.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.5 + 0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.4(a). the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.2.4(c)) 7. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. 7.2. 3.2.2.2.1. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.5.87 f y z + 0. Based on this assumption.1. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.1.36 .1.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. Fig 6...2.2. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.2.1.45 . Beam Design 7-9 .87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 f y . Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.4(c).e. Fig.

If a > hf . Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.5 + 0.4(c).1. Fig 6. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. 0. the width of the beam is taken as bf. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .2.2.95d.2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. Fig 6.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .1.45 . for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ .4(c)) (CP 6.2.10 Beam Design .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. See Figure 7-2.36 .9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.1. in that case. for ⎪ 0. However.1) If a ≤ hf.4(a).

225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4d then.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. x ≤ 0.11 .67 fcu/gm 0.1 f cu bd (0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.9 x − h f ) 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.5) β f = 0. Cf. Cw.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . where (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0. x ≤ 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 .4. x ≤ 0. as shown in Figure 7-2. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4.4.Chapter 7 .5h f ) bf hf ec 0.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 . In that case.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.5h f ) . ⎪0.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.

87 f y ( d − 0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.2.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.1.32 ⎪ ⎪0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.12 Beam Design .2. 7 .4(d)) ⎧0.2.4(c)).1. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) . where (CP 6.1.

Fig 3.95d ⎜ 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0. where 0.1.87 f y (d − 0.Chapter 7 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.2. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.4(c).6.2.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.13 . d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0. 3.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .5 + 0.

18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.36 0.40 0.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.2. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.1 (CP 9.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.2.1.24 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.1.48 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.2.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.1.32 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.20 0.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.4 bf bw ≥ 0. if it is required.13 100 0.2.3): 7 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1).1(CP 9.14 Beam Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.2.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.5.

1.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 7. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. for a particular load combination.2.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.2.5): Determine the shear stress.2. vc.2.1. 7 MPa) (CP 6. Determine the shear stress.8 fcu .5.2. that can be resisted by the concrete.1. vc. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the following steps are involved (CP 6. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.15 .5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . v.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.5.Chapter 7 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.5(a)) 7.04bw d ⎧0.1.3) 7. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.

5(c).1. Table 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6. Table 6.67 1.2.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. and vmax.16 Beam Design .1.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.1. bd 1 4 (CP 6. Table 6.5(c).5(c).5(c). vr.5(k)) 7.2.1.1.2.2.2. CP 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.1.5(c).1.2.5.25 However.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6. Table 6.2.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.2.2.3) (CP 6.3) ≥ 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. Table 6. as: 7 . vc. the following limitations also apply: 0.2.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(g)) (CP 6.5(k)) 0.1.2.

5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.2.2.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.Chapter 7 . (CP 6. 7.5(b)) (CP 6.2.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0. Determine special section properties.1.2. sv 0. vt.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. Beam Design 7 . (CP 6. a failure condition is declared.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = .1.5(b).Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.87 f yv If v > vmax.1.1.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Table 6. obtained from each load combination.17 .4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.5. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.

a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.3. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.1). The torsional shear stress. 7.3(a)) For flanged sections.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. Table 6.3. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.3.8 f cu .3. with the corresponding load combination factors.17 7 . In typical framed construction. vt. vt.5.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.18 Beam Design . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.

min.t /sv. vt.min. vt. vt is less than the threshold limit. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.067 fcu . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. Asv. Table 6.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.4.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. 7.min.Chapter 7 .3. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. vt.3.0.3. In that case.5. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.min. However.5).3.3.5).2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .min = min 0.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.19 .

8 fcu .3. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 7 . To learn more about the design strips. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. a failure message is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . the concrete section should be increased in size.87 f yv ) (CP 6. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.3. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.8 x1 y1 (0.20 Slab Design . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.t sv = T 0.6) In the preceding expressions.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.3.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. In that case. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link. 7.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.21 . 7. 7. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.Chapter 7 .6. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1. for each load combination.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. is obtained and reported. given the bending moment.6. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. In that case. In some cases.1. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6. at a given design section in a design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.1.6.2.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. 7. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 7. edge.3).1.7(d)).2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.5d from the face of the support (CP 6. 7.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.3.3.5.1(a)) In addition.1.22 Slab Design .e.1. 7 .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.1.. Where openings occur.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9. interior. The column location (i.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.7). Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6.

5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.2.5d 1.23 . Table 6.Chapter 7 .3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.1.7(d)) (CP 6. Table 6.2.1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.1.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 . Table 6.7(d).2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.3): 0.5d 1.5(g).5d Interior Column 1.5d 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.6.1. 6.5.5.5(c).2.5.1.7(d).Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.

3) ≥ 0.8 f cu .5 + 1.1.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.2.5.5(c).67 1.1.5 x ⎬ .1. Table 6. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. 6.24 Slab Design . x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending. Table 2. where (CP 6.6.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.1. bd 1 4 (CP 6. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. the nominal design shear stress.5.1.2.5. v ≤ min(0. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.6(b).00 As = area of tension reinforcement.5.7(b)) (CP Table 6.1.4. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.25 However.2.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.2) 0. 7 . 7 MPa) (CP 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.5(c). Table 6.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. v.

00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. 7.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 ⎪1.1. 6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.6(b).3.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.5. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.5.25 .1.7(e)). The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 7.6.6.5.Chapter 7 .5.3. 7.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .

and interior columns respectively. 6.3.. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. Therefore. i.87 f yv If 1.7(f)). lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. If v ≤ 1.5.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.5. for corner.6vc 0.87 f yv 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.5. edge. 7 . the concrete section should be increased in size.1. (CP 6.1. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. edge. and corner column.5.6.1.7v − vc ) ud 0.6vc ≤ v < 2.5.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . vc. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. 7. a failure condition is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v. 0. ≥ s 0.87 f yv 0. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.26 Slab Design .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.0vc (CP 6.4ud = ≥ .1.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.87 f yv s If v > vmax. and vmax.e.1.7(e)) (CP 6.7(e)). and 8.

1.5d s ≤ 0.5d. Height. The limits of so and the spacing. When specifying shear studs.3.7(f)) (CP 6. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 16-. g. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.6. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.2.1. 12-.5d.75d g ≤ 1.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. so.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .1.27 . the distance.5. and 20-millimeter diameter. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5.Chapter 7 . 14-.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. s.7(f)) (CP 6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d (CP 6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.5.

.

mm Notations 8-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. 8. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.

MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam.

N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. N Depth of neutral axis. N-mm Normalized design moment.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.3 .max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu.Chapter 8 . N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section.max Notations 8. mm Lever arm.

1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.2L ± 1.2.5D + 1. wind (W).5. and earthquake (E) loads.5D + 1.5D + 1. live load (L).0W 1.2L ± 1.0E (IS 36.5E 0. MPa 8.5D ± 1.5L ± 1.5D + 1.9D ± 1.4.5S 1.5D ± 1.5E 1. pattern live load (PL).1) (IS 31. snow (S). MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5(0.4.3) (IS 36.75 PL) 1.1) (IS 36. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.2E 1. Table 18): 1.5W 0.5D + 1.9D ± 1.5W 1. For IS 456-2000.4.2W 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.5D 1.1) (IS 36. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.5L ± 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5L 1.

4.5 .2W 1.5D + 1.2S ± 1.Chapter 8 . Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2L + 1. γs = 1. 8. and torsion based on the beam moments.1) (IS 36. However. γc = 1.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.Design for IS 456-2000 1.2L + 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.2D + 1.4.4. 8. torsion.4.2E (IS 36. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5L + 1. 8.2. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. 14.5S 1.2S ± 1. shear forces.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.2E 1.2D + 1. caution is advised. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement.2S ± 1.2. load combination factors. other appropriate load combinations should be used.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2D + 1.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5 (IS 36. however. These values can be overwritten.2W 1.2S ± 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. shear. beams must be designed for torsion. and torsion only.2D + 1. γm.

torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.1. In such cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. 8. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. Rather. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. In such cases. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion.4. However. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. If redistribution is desired.4. 8-6 Beam Design . additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow.

4.1.7 .4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations.4.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. Beam Design 8.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. respectively. In such cases.4.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt. If Mt exceeds Mu. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. with the corresponding load factors.1) 8. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2) (IS 41. where (IS 41. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. Effectively.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam.Chapter 8 .4.4. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1.2. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu.

3. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. or the strength of the concrete.1) 8-8 Beam Design . 8.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1) (IS 38.4. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. a. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. the width. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1) 8.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. (IS 41.1). c. When a torsional moment is to be included. The area of the stress block.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.4.4. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.

it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.42 (IS 38.max /d 0.48 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.1) (IS 38.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.46 Beam Design 8. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table. Furthermore.0035 b f′ s 0.53 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.Chapter 8 .Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.9 . The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.1).67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.1).36 β = 0.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.10 Beam Design . The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than.2.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. or equal to Msingle. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Msingle = α xu. shear.0035 (IS 38.max.4.max = 0. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. xu. and torsion only.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.48 − 0. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. less than.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. m.53 − 0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. are obtained first. is given by 8 . 8. xu .max d ⎧0. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.max d xu.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. Msingle.

A's.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.Chapter 8 .Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. Beam Design 8.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. the area of compression reinforcement. and vice versa if Mu is negative.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. or at the top if Mu is negative. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. As.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') . − If Mu > Msingle. where (IS G-1.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .11 .1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . is obtained from As = Mu .

3.4.4.. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. On the basis of this assumption. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. designing top reinforcement). Mu (i. i.12 Beam Design .2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.e.4. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.3. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. See Figure 8-2..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.e. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. 8. no flanged beam data is used..1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.2. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.2. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .

as shown in Figure 8-2. m. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.15 xu + 0. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0. Cw.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. However. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.Chapter 8 . Cf.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2.13 . is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .1).2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.65D f if D f > 0.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.

The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .46 (IS 38. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.48 − 0.14 Beam Design .02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.53 − 0. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.single. A's.single. and 8 .single ⎛ 0.max d ⎧0. the area of compression reinforcement.max ⎡ x u.1) xu . where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.

5.4.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.5.1.Chapter 8 .2.85 bd fy (IS 26.04bw d ⎧0.1.1.5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.1.5.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.1) (IS 26. the following steps are involved (IS 40.15 .5.1. at a particular station.2) 8.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.4.1. for a particular load combination.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1): As ≥ 0.1) An upper limit of 0.

τc.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.7 M40 4.2.2) 8 . and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.1 M30 3.4.0 τc.16 Beam Design . as: τcd = kδτc.8 M25 3. (IS 40.3. d.max.3.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.5 M35 3. where bd (IS 40. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.max (IS 40. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth. τv ≤ τc.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .1.max (MPa) (IS 40. τc.5 M20 2. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. τc.2.

max (IS 40. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .1.2. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.1. 0. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.4 b ≥ sv 0. Under Tension (IS 40.1.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.2.Chapter 8 . Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .2.3.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40.1) (IS 40.5.4 < τv ≤ τc.4. taken as 1.2.87 f y (IS 40.4(a)) Beam Design 8.1.2.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0. Table 19) (IS 40.87 f y If τcd + 0. and if Pu > 0 .2.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.1).17 . 26.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.4 Asv 0.

τc.87 f y ) 2.87 f y (IS 41. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.4.3) τve ≤ τc.4. 26. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.max is determined as defined in the last section.max. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.2. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40. obtained from each load combination. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.max The maximum nominal shear stress. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.4. 8 .87 f y (IS 41.5.3. (IS 40.2.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.4) 8. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3) (IS 41.5d1 (0.1.18 Beam Design .3.6) If τve ≥τcd.4 b ≥ sv 0.1) (IS 40.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0. a failure condition is declared.

5. 8. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Chapter 8 . is obtained and reported.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. described in the subsections that follow.Design for IS 456-2000 8. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. are repeated for every load combination. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.5. 8. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. To learn more about the design strips. These two steps. for each load combination. Slab Design 8.19 .

0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.1). The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. given the bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2. The column location (i. Where openings occur. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5.5. 8 .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.6.2): ⎧0.5. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.e.1).1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. 8.1) In addition. 8.5. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. interior.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). at a given design section in a design strip.. 8.5.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.2. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.1). edge.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. In some cases.5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.20 Slab Design .5.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. In that case.1.

3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.5.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.5.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.2.6.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.Chapter 8 . 8.3.2).21 .2.

1) (IS 31.2) 8.1) (IS 31. but limited to: vc ≤ 1. 8.3.2.3.5τ c (IS 31.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.2) 8 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section. 8.6.5.5.6.1) τc = 0.6.5.3.0 (IS 31.22 Slab Design . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.5.6. 8. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3.3.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.5 + βc ≤ 1.5 τ c bod (IS 31.

23 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. 41.2. Av = (Vu − 0.2). Vc. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.3. and Vmax.e.3..Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.5. Slab Design 8. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. a failure condition is declared.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.5Vc ) 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. edge.3. 8.3) (IS 31. the concrete section should be increased in size.87 f y (IS 31. i.6.2) If Vu > Vmax. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.6.6.Chapter 8 . and corner column.4.

s. 5d s ≤ 0. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. so. the distance.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . for corner. Height. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. g. Therefore. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. edge.3. The limits of so and the spacing. 8. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.24 Slab Design .4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. and 8. and interior columns respectively.5d. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. When specifying shear studs.

9. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. For simplicity. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter.

mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. assumed as 200. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending.

psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section.Chapter 9 . N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Factored design torsion at a section. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. mm Perimeter of area Ao. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. N Factored shear force at a section. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Shear stress due to torsion.

2.0.0.75 PL) 1.2.5L 1. 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.2.0W 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. 4. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.2. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D ± 1.9D ± 1.2D + 1.0. 4. 4. and earthquake (E) loads.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.0.2. 4.2): 1. pattern live load (PL).35D 1.0.4L ± 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0. 4.2.0D + 0. 4.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.0E 1.4L ± 1.0W 0. snow (S).2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.4L + 1. 4. live load (L).2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .2. For NZS 3101-06. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0E (AS/NZS 1170.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.2.0D ± 1. 4.0.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0S 1.0W 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. (0.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.5(0.2D + 1. wind (W).

Chapter 9 .3.1). provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.2. fy.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .3. 9.2.85 for flexure φs = 0.3).1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. (NZS 2. however.3.2) (NZS 2. The φ factors for flexure.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. caution is advised.3).4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.2.3. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. 9. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0. shear.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. fyt.2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. other appropriate load combinations should be used.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear. torsion.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. with the corresponding load factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. shear forces. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion based on the beam moments. and torsion only. load combination factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. shear.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. for a particular station. the 9-6 Beam Design .1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.

the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.1.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .e.5. or the strength of the concrete. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The beams are designed for major direction flexure.4. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.1. 9.85 (NZS 2.3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.7): α1 = 0.Chapter 9 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.7).4.1). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. shear. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.2) where the default value of φb is 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.8.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.2.4.2. the width. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2.5.2. 9.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.2) in the preceding and following equations. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. M (i. Furthermore. designing top or bottom reinforcement). where. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure used by SAFE. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1)..Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. and torsion only. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.3.

2. is given by: amax = 0.2.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.2. 9.8.4.85 β1 = 0.4. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.1).65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.4.75β1cb (NZS 7.3.85 − 0.8.3. c (NZS 7.7.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.8) β1 = 0.7) (NZS 7.85 − 0.7) (NZS 7.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9. 0.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design . amax.008( f ′ − 30).

4.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . If a > amax (NZS 9.1).2.8.4.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .4. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.2.3. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.2. 7. or at the top * if M is negative.2.2.Chapter 9 .

However.8. Cf.. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.e.1.2. no flanged beam data is used.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. 9.1.2. calculation for As has two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. amax.3. * 9.75β1cb (NZS 7. designing top reinforcement).7. i. Cw.4.1) If a ≤ hf. is given by: amax = 0..1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. 9. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. As = As1 + As2.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. and vice versa if M is negative.2. as shown in Figure 9-2. M (i.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the total tension reinforcement.5. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.10 Beam Design .2. If a > hf. 9 .4. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.e.5.2.5.

As1 = given by: (NZS 7.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.2. the balance of the moment.4. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.Chapter 9 .11 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.2 ) Beam Design 9 . for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.

1).2.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.2. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.8.3.2. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7. 7.4. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .4.3.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .2.4.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.8.1).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb
Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .
*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb
The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣
f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c
0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:
*

V ν = bw d
*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s
If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,
*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16
*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)
Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.
*

9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

1) (NZS 7. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1) where the section dimensions bf.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0. Similarly.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0. hf.7).1) (NZS 7. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0. bw.1) (NZS 7.18 Beam Design .1) where.6.1) (NZS 7. h. the section dimensions b.1. h. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.

6.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. if T exceeds the threshold limit. Tcr.3) 9. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. In that case.6. is less than the threshold limit. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.6. defined as: T* ≤ 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.1. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.4.19 . T . However.6. Tcr.6. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5.6.1. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. At /s.1).2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.6) Beam Design 9 .1).5.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.Chapter 9 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.4.3.4.3. and meets the torsion stress limit.6.1.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.

At Al 1. provided it is fully developed.6.20 Slab Design .2) * * For rectangular sections. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 9 . where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.1.5. 7. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. the concrete section should be increased in size. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. a failure message is declared.2 f 'c .2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. To learn more about the design strips.3). The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 9.6.2. In that case. bw is replaced with b.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. given the bending moment. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6.21 .1. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. for each load combination. In some cases.1. In that case.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.Chapter 9 . described in the subsections that follow.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6. 9. at a given design section in a design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 9. These two steps.

1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.1(b)).0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.4 ): ⎧ 0 . Where openings occur.7.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.e.1.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.1) In addition.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.8. 2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 9. 9. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.7.4. 9 .1(b)). 8.22 Slab Design . The column location (i. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.2. 9. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5. edge.8. 8.2.6. interior. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.

23 .7.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .7.7. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.6.2. 9.7.6.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.Chapter 9 .2.

9 . b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.7.7. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.3. 12.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.2) where.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.1.1).4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.24 Slab Design .1) 70 9.6. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.2.2(a)). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.7. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2.3. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.7. 9.4. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3.6.

6. 9.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0. is the strength reduction factor.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.3) (NZS 12.25 .Chapter 9 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.3.3.4.7. where.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.4) Given vn. φ.7.6.5) 9. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. and vmax.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5 f ′ c (NZS 12. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.3. vc.3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.7.7. a failure condition is declared.4) If vn > φvmax. Slab Design 9 .4.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.

9 .26 Slab Design .3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and 8.4.e.4). The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. edge.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.7. for corner. 6.. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Therefore. edge. i. and interior columns respectively.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6. and corner column.

7.7. s. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6.27 .4.4) (NZS 12. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d s ≤ 0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Chapter 9 .4) (NZS 12.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. so.3.4) Slab Design 9 . the distance. Height.4. The limits of so and the spacing.7. When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. g. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.

.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Notations 10 . For simplicity. is selected. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 .Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm 10 . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Flange thickness.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. assumed as 200. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.2 Notations . mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.

Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Neutral axis depth. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.Chapter 10 . [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.3 . mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Lever arm. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 .

including pattern live load.4. 10. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3). If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).2W (CP 2.4D 1. fcu.7.4D + 1.4D ± 1. γf (CP 2.75PL) 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.3) (CP 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.3). If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4 Design Load Combinations . It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.6(0. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.4W 1.3) (CP 2. live load (L). and wind (W) loads.0D ± 1. 1.2).4W 1.2L ± 1.4. pattern live load (PL).4. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. and considering that wind forces are reversible. 10 .3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.1.4. Note that the automatic combination.6L 1.4D + 1.2D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.4. other appropriate load combinations should be used.

torsion.15 1.4.Chapter 10 . γm. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. but can be overwritten. which are taken from CP Table 2.50 1. and torsion only.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. and other criteria described below. shear.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . The values of γm used in the program are listed below.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion based on the beam moments.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. load combination factors. 10. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear.4.2 (CP 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear forces.5 .1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. for a particular station.5. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. In such cases. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.4). the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases.4. the width.6 Beam Design . or the strength of the concrete. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.4.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.3. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2) 10 . Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. BC 2. 10. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.

BC 2.and T-beams).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. and torsion only.4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. is summarized in the subsections that follow. βb ≥ 0.1). The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4.4.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. See Figure 10-1. 10.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.1.4. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.. shear.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. less than. is first calculated for a section.5.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. hence.Chapter 10 .8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.4. BC 2.7 .4.4).e.4).9) (CP 3.4) Beam Design 10 .4. where 2 (CP 3. Msingle. Msingle = K'fcu bd . The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4. ⎧0.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. In addition.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4.4.4.4.4. or equal to Msingle.2.1fcuAg) (CP 3.

5 + 0. is then given by: As = M .4.4) (CP 3.4.4.4.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. where 0.4.4.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution. If M ≤ Msingle.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0. As.95d z = d ⎜ 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3. the area of tension reinforcement.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y z (CP 3.4) 10 .25 − ⎜ 0.8 Beam Design .

the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4.5.9 .4.5 + 0.4.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. i.25 − ⎜ 0.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0. Beam Design 10 .4. and f ′ =0.2.5.87 f y z + 0.5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.5. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.e.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.e. M (i. If M > Msingle.4.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4. no flanged beam data is used..4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.4..1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.1. Fig 2.1. Fig 2. where (CP 3.Chapter 10 .3.3. designing top reinforcement).87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle . 2.4. 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.2.4. or at the top if M is negative.2.

the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.1.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure 10-2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. On the basis of this assumption. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2.4.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .4.5.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.67 fcu γ m 0. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.10 Beam Design . the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. εc 0.

72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4.4.87 f y (d − 0.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3.9 ⎭ (CP 3.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4.4. Cf. In that case. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .Chapter 10 .4. Fig 2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5 + 0.4. 2 As = M + 0. Fig 2.5) β f = 0.1 f cu bd (0. as shown in Figure 10-2.4.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.36 . BC 2. If a > hf .45d − h f ) 0.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.11 .3) If a ≤ hf.5h f ) . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. Cw.45d then. BC 2. where (BS 3. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. However.2.95d 0.45 . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4.

5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.4.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.87 f y ( d − 0.2) ⎧0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4. BC 2.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.5.32 ⎪ ⎪0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.4.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.5h f ) ) .2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.4.2) 10 .4.12 Beam Design . As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0. where (CP 3.4.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.

d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.4.4.4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.13 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0. 2. Fig 2.87 f y (d − 0.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.5. As = 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3. where 0.3.4).4. 2.2) If Kw ≤ 0.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4.4.4.4.156 (CP 3.4.4.95d ⎜ 0.4.5 + 0.4.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.3. Fig 2.4).Chapter 10 . BC 2.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.

4 bf bw ≥ 0. if it is required.27 (CP 3.14 Beam Design . which is taken from CP Table 3.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.3).3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.27 (CP 3.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.5 + 0.12.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0. 10 .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5.32 0.5.18 100 0.5.13 100 0.36 0.12.24 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.95d ⎜ 0.48 0.26 100 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.

1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.4.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.5.2. vc. for a particular load combination.12.5. v. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.1). Determine the shear stress. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.15 .6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. BC 2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.2).20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T. the following steps are involved (CP 3.5.12. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.Chapter 10 . 10.3. 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. that can be resisted by the concrete. An upper limit of 0.5): Determine the shear stress.40 0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.20 0.

4.4.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.5. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.4. (CP 3.8) (CP 3.6 (CP 3.2.4. vc.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.16 Beam Design .12) 0. the following limitations also apply: 0. Table 3. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .4.5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.4) 10.5.5.4) (CP 2.63 fcu . Table 3.5. 7 MPa).15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.9) 10 .4.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . with the corresponding load combination factors.4.8 fcu .9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2) For light-weight concrete.5.25 1 1 3 However.4.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.

Table 3.3.4.5.87 f yv If v > vmax.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. (CP 3.4.5. a failure condition is declared.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.8) (CP 3.2.5. (CP 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.8) As vr b = .4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.5.5.5.5.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. CP 3.17 .Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.3.3. Table 3. v’c. Table 3. Table 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.8.5.5.5.2) In the preceding expressions.4.4. and vmax.4. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.4. vr. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0. Table 3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.4. sv 0. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .3.9) (CP 3. Table 3.4.

Determine critical torsion stress. The torsional shear stress. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.18 Beam Design . 10. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. obtained from each load combination. 10. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. vt. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.5.5. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.15). vt.4.3.5. Determine special section properties. In typical framed construction.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.4.

the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.8 f cu . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.5.067 f cu .min = min 0.4.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4.4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.3.min.5) Beam Design 10 . vt.min = min 0.Chapter 10 .min is defined as: vt . calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.4. vt. For lightweight concrete.0.0. vt.19 .6 N / mm 2 x 0.1) For flanged sections.8 (CP Part 2 5.067 f cu .4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.5) 10.

x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. However. In that case.6).7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2. the concrete section should be increased in size.4.t /sv.3.4.min.t sv = T 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.min. vt. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 10 . vt.5. is calculated as: Asv . vt. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.min.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. a failure message is declared.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. is less than the threshold limit.20 Beam Design .4.6).8 f cu .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. In that case. Asv. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.4.4.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . If vt > vt.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.7) In the preceding expressions.8 x1 y1 (0.

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 10. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.21 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Slab Design 10 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 10 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. To learn more about the design strips.

given the bending moment.1. 10. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 10. at a given design section in a design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6.22 Slab Design . In that case.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . 10. Where openings occur.12. for each load combination. In some cases.5. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. CP Table 3. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.3. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the slab width is adjusted accordingly. is obtained and reported.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

6).12.7.6.6.1).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.7.5. edge.1).6.7.7. 10. 3. In addition. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.e.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. interior.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.2. The column location (i.. 10. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.12. Slab Design 10 .Chapter 10 . Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .7.23 .3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .7. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.

5.5.6.7. 3.4.9) (CP 3.7. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.7.5d Interior Column 1.24 Slab Design .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.4.5d 1.4.4. the following limitations also apply: 10 .5.2.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3. Table 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.4.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.2) However.5d 1.4. Table 3.5d 1.6): 0.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.4.7.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.

where (CP 3. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. Table 3. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.5.4.25 .9) (CP 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4) (CP 3.7.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. Table 3.2.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.4.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.Chapter 10 . v.4.4.5.6.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.7.8 fcu .2.4.63 v ≤ min (0. 4 MPa) f cu .9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.7. 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.5. 10.6. Table 3.4.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.9) For light-weight concrete. the nominal design shear stress.5 M y 1 .2. (CP 3.3) 1 .7. Table 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.4.

26 Slab Design . 10.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.2.6.7. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. (CP 3. 10.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.6.3. and vmax.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections. 10 .7.5). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.6. and for corner columns.5).7.6. 10. vc.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.25 ⎩ for interior columns.25 ⎪1. for edge columns.7.

7. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.5) 0.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. the concrete section should be increased in size. and corner column. ≥ s 0. a failure condition is declared.e. 10. edge.27 .7.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6vc.87 f yv 0.7.6vc ≤ v < 2.7. ≥ s 0..87 f yv If v > vmax.87 f yv 0.7v − vc ) ud = .0vc.4ud Av 5 ( 0. 0.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . i.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.87 f yv If 1. (CP 3.5) (CP 3.7. (CP 3.

and 20-millimeter diameter. s.7. edge. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.6).7. 6. for corner.6) (CP 3.28 Slab Design . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 14-. g.3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d s ≤ 0.5d (CP 3. and 8.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 12-.6.6) (CP 3.7.5d. Therefore. When specifying shear studs. so. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.7. 16-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.6) 10 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.5d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing.7.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. and interior columns respectively. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.75d g ≤ 1. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.7. Height. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.7.7. 10. the distance.

1. 2. BC 2:2008. 2008. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. NSW 2001. 1997. UK. American Concrete Institute. Michigan. Michigan. 2.O. Part 1. Australia. Standards Australia International Ltd. TM R-1 . Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. AS. 2001. Structural Use of Concrete. Sydney. Farmington Hills. Farmington Hills.2R-07). and 3. Singapore. P. Building and Construction Authority. London. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). 2007. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65.References ACI. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. American Concrete Institute. 2008. GPO Box 5420. BSI. British Standards Institution. BC. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 38800 Country Club Drive.1 and Amendment No. 2005. February 2008. ACI. Box 9094.

CP 65:Part 1:1999. 1. Buildings Department. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. European Committee for Standardization. 2004. incorporating Amendments Nos. Twentieth Reprint. R-2 . Belgium. New Zealand. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. 2000. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. EN 1992-1-1. 2. 750 Nathan Road. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. 2006. and 3. 1999. Part 2. Hong Kong. IS. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. 2004. Design of Concrete Structures. Belgium. March 2000. CSA. September 2000. Singapore. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Canada. EN 1990:2002. Rexdale. Manak Bhavan. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. New Delhi 110002.3-04. London. Part 1-1. Structural Use of Concrete. British Standards Institution. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Kowloon.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Wellington. CP. India. European Committee for Standardization. 2005. Bureau of Indian Standards. 1. 2004. Mongkok. HK CP. Concrete Structures Standard. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. Private Bag 2439. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Canadian Standards Association. Brussels. Standards New Zealand. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). NZS. UK. A23. Third Edition. Brussels. Ontario. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. 1985.