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DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
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2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.5.1 4.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.6.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.2 3.1 Design for Flexure 4.1 Notations 5-1 ii .5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.5.6.6 5 Design for CSA A23.1 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.1 Design for Flexure 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.5.3 4.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.2 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.5.3 3.4 4.3-04 5.4 3.6.5.

6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.5.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.5.5.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.1 Design for Flexure 5.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.6.3 5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.2 7.2 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.4 5.6.2 6.3 6.28 6.1 7.1 6.4 6.5.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.5.Contents 5.1 Design for Flexure 6.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.5.

1 Effects of Torsion 8.1 9.4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.4.1 8.2 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.4 9.5.6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.2 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.3 9.6.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.1 Design for Flexure 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5.5.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5.6.5.3 8.5.4 7.1 Design for Flexure 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.5.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.6.5.2 Design Load Combinations 10.6 Slab Design 9.Contents 9.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.1 Notations 10.6 Slab Design 10.5.5 Beam Design 10.

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shear. 1-1 .Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. and it designs beam flexural. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. and torsion reinforcement. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. Specifically. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE.

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The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Notations 2-1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 2. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. sq-in Gross area of concrete. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected.

in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. in Width of section. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Width of web (flanged section). sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Depth to neutral axis. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). psi 2-2 Notations . in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete.

in Factored moment at a section. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.Chapter 2 . lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. (0. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb Factored axial load at a section. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. in Height of the flange. in Critical torsion capacity.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi Overall depth of a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. lb Factored shear force at a section.

0L ± 1.2D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2D + 1.2D + 1.2.0L ± 1.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.9D ± 1.0E (ACI 9. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .1) (ACI 9.2.6W 1. live load (L).75 PL) 0.2.1) (ACI 9.2.2D + 1.1) (ACI 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.6W 1.7.6.0L + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9. wind (W).2S ± 1.0E 1.2D + 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.4D 1. snow (S).1): 1. pattern live load (PL).0L + 0. degrees 2.9D ± 1. For ACI 318-08.2D + 1.0E 1.6W 0.2.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.5S 1.3) (ACI 9.6S ± 0.2D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads.1) are the same.6S 1.8W 1.6 (0.2D + 1.2.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5S ± 1.0L + 0.6L 1.1) (ACI 13.2D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).6L + 0.2.

and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. 2. torsion. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. load combination factors. φ.3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. and other criteria described in this section. shear.1) (ACI 9. however. fyt.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.2). shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.3. (ACI 9. and torsion based on the beam moments.1.3) 2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. caution is advised. or if other types of loads are present. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The φ factors for flexure. f' c . The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. fy. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 .4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used.1). 2. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.5.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.Chapter 2 . The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. shear forces.

The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. shear.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and torsion only. 2. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design . for a particular station.1.5.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. with the corresponding load factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.

which by default is 0. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. 2.3. the width.3.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.1) in the preceding and the following equations. where. Furthermore. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.2). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. which is equal to 0. is summarized in the text that follows. and torsion only. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.Chapter 2 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.e.2) Beam Design 2-7 . fy .4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.and T-beams).003. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. shear.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Mu (i. The maximum depth of the compression zone.4). even if the material property is defined using a higher value.90 (ACI 9. designing top or bottom reinforcement). or the strength of the concrete.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.2.5. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).2. cmax. The design procedure used by SAFE.1.5).3.2. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.3.

85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10. εcmax = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.003 εsmin = 0.3.85 (ACI 10. amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .2.85 − 0.3) (ACI 10.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.7.2.1) β1 = 0.7.4). is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.005 (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.3.

2.7. 10.3. or at the top if Mu is negative.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us . If a > amax.2.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.2.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10. 10.Chapter 2 .2. where ( f 's − 0.

a simplified stress block.e. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.85 f ′ c 0. In that case.2.5.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. as shown in Figure 2-2.1. is assumed if the flange is under compression. and the flange is ignored. and vice versa if Mu is negative. the flange comes under tension.003 0. 2.10 Beam Design . if the moment is positive.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . If the moment is negative.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.. i. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side.

65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. The maximum depth of the compression zone. which is equal to 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.2.1) β1 = 0. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.003 εsmin = 0.2) where.3.3.Design for ACI 318-08 2.2.85 (ACI 10. cmax.3.e.2) εcmax = 0.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.. no flanged beam data is used.5.2.2.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2.2. 2. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.5.005 (ACI 10.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.1.11 .3) Beam Design 2 .1) in the preceding and the following equations.2..Chapter 2 . the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. Mu (i.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.7.4): cmax = where.90 (ACI 9. designing top reinforcement). ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10. i.2.e. which by default is 0.1.85 − 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.7. amax.3) (ACI 10.

amax ) Therefore. If a > hf.5). Cf. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10.7. Mu . to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . As1 = given by: (ACI 10. as shown in Figure 2-2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cf is given by: C f = 0.90 by default. the calculation for As has two parts. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. Therefore. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. 2 .85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . the balance of the moment.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the value for φ is 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cw. However.12 Beam Design .

3.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.2.13 .2.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10. 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .3.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .Chapter 2 .7. where ( f 's − 0.2. 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2.2.

Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.14 Beam Design . for a particular load combination. bw d ⎟ As .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. Vu.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10. Vc.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. that can be resisted by the concrete. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. 2. 2 .1. Determine the shear force.4bw d ⎧0.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.5.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.5.3) An upper limit of 0.2.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.5.

75 (ACI 9.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 2.1.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition. 11.5.5.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.7.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11. Vc.3.3.5.5.2. with the corresponding load combination factors. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.15 .6.5.3).1. If Vu ≤ 0.2.5. Vc. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.1.2.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.Design for ACI 318-08 2. the strength reduction factor.2. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.1.5φVc Av =0 s If 0. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. φ.Chapter 2 . fyt. is 0.1) For light-weight concrete.1.1) Beam Design 2 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 2. and Vmax.3.9) Given Vu.

Determine special section properties. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. (ACI 11. 2 . If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.5.7.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.5.2) ⎛ 0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.7. 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5.1(c)).5. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.5.3) If Vu > φVmax.5hf.5. the equation given in ACI 11.6.5. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .6.16 Beam Design . 2.7.5. a failure condition is declared. 11. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.7. and 0. Tu.3 is not enforced (ACI 11. (ACI 11.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.5.1.5bw.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.

special section properties. Ao. such as Acp. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11.75 inches.6. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.3. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2.1). the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. pcp.2).5. such as Aoh.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . This is equivalent to 1. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.17 . If redistribution is desired. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. and ph. 2. are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.2. and ph. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. Aoh. Ao.2). 2. However.6.5.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.

2.6. 2. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.3.3. 2. 2. 2.1.1. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.6.3.1) (ACI 11.1.3. 2. Similarly. With this assumption.18 Beam Design .1.1) where the section dimensions bf.6.6.6.6.1) (ACI11.6. 2. Tcr.1) (ACI 11.6(b)) (ACI 11.1(c)) 2 .1. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.6(b)) (ACI 11. 2. R11.6.6.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. the section dimensions b. hf.4).6. With this assumption.1.1. R11. h. h.6.1) (ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.1. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.3.3. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11. 2.3.1. However. 2.6. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) (ACI 11.6.1) (ACI 11. 2.3.1) where. 2. bw.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.6.5.6.1. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.

Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. longitudinal bars.3.3).6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.6. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. At /s.75 by default (ACI 9. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.5. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. However. 11. is limited to 60 ksi. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.6.6.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength. Tcr.3. which is equal to 0.6).6) where. Beam Design 2 . Tcr.6.6. θ is taken as 45 degrees. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).3.3.6.2.19 .5. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6). fyt. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.6.7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.5.3.1). and compression diagonals (ACI R11.Chapter 2 . the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.3) In the preceding expressions. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength. In that case. 2. fy.3.6.

the concrete section should be increased in size.1) For rectangular sections.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.20 Beam Design .6.6. a failure message is declared. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. In that case. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . bw is replaced with b.3. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.2) 2 .75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.

6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Slab Design 2 .5.3 independently. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 2 . To learn more about the design strips. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 2. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. In that case. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.21 .6.6. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 2.

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.22 Slab Design .1(a)) (ACI 7. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.2.1(b)) (ACI 7. 2.12. These two steps.6. 2.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1.min = 0.min = (ACI 7. is obtained and reported.2.6. 2.2): As. for each load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. This is the method used when drop panels are included.2. at a given design section in a design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. In some cases.12.min = 0.12. given the bending moment.12. described in the text that follows. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. are repeated for every load combination. In that case.1.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Where openings occur. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1(c)) 0.

11.23 .Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.e.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 2.11.6. 2.2. edge. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads..04 times the gross cross-sectional area. The column location (i.Chapter 2 . interior.1.1.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.2). corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.6.3). Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.

2 Eq.2 Eq. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2.1) For flat plates.3.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2. γvx = 0.5. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421. C-12) For edge columns.3.5. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2 Eq.2 For corner columns. C-11) (ACI 421.2 Eq.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.24 Slab Design . C-15) (ACI 421.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.2 Eq.6. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2 Eq. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. For interior columns. C-13) (ACI 421. C-16) 2 .

25 .11. for edge columns.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.6.1.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.2.2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. 2.2. (ACI 11. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns. respectively.11.2.6. and for corner columns.1) where. bo is the perimeter of the critical section.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. x and y.Chapter 2 .

where.11. If this ratio exceeds 1. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.3). is 0.26 Slab Design . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3.5. Vc.3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.11.11.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3. 2.0.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.3. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.1) 2. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. φ. 2. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.2) (ACI 11.6.11. the strength reduction factor.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.11.3).6. 2 .5. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.1) (ACI 11. and Vmax.75 (ACI 9.6.2.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.

3).3. 2.27 .1.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. the concrete section should be increased in size. a failure condition is declared.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.11. and corner column.Chapter 2 . (ACI 11. edge.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.6. 11.. i. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.7.e. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.3. Slab Design 2 . Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7.11.3.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.4.

The limits of so and the spacing.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5.3) 2 . Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.11. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. g. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.28 Slab Design . When specifying shear studs. and 3/4-inch diameters. for corner. so.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. 1/2-. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and interior columns respectively.11.2) (ACI 11. 6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7.5.5. edge.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. and 8. Height. the distance. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. Therefore. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 5/8-. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5d (ACI 11.5d.2) ⎧0.3. 2.6.11.

For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm Notations 3-1 . mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 3.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm Area of shear reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Depth of compression block. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Overall depth of a section. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Mean value of do.

mm Factored shear force at a section. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. N Shear force resisted by concrete. (0. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N-mm Factored axial load at section. N-mm Factored moment at section. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Torsional modulus.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. max εs Notations 3-3 . MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.max Vu.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At .Chapter 3 . Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. to the effective depth. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber.max Tus T* ut V* Vu.

0W 1.0-02.0D ± 1.75 PL) 1.2.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.4L ± 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) Note that the 0. 4.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2D + 1.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0E (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.5(0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4L + 1.2D ± 1.0-02.5L 1. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear. 4. 4.0W 1. degrees 3.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.1): 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. 4.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.0-02.0-02.0E 1.2.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. wind (W).0-02. 4.4L ± 1.2. and earthquake (E) loads. 4. snow (S).3.2.0-02.0-02.2. pattern live load (PL).9D ± 1.0-02. other appropriate load combinations should be used. 4.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. 4.0-02.2.0W 1. For AS 3600-01.0D + 0.2. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.0S 0. live load (L).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.35D 1.2D + 1. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .

load combination factors.1). caution is advised.1. respectively. and other criteria described in the text that follows. however. 19.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.3(c)) 3.1.1. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1. is defined as given in AS 2. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. 3.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2.1) (AS 6.3(c)) (AS 2.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. Table 2. and torsion based on the beam moments. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1(b)).4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.3(c).3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1. φ.3: φ = 0. Table 6. 6.2.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. torsion. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.1.1). (AS 2.1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1.2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1.Chapter 3 .1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2. for all framing type (AS 6. shear forces.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. 3. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . shear. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. for a particular station.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only.

is limited to 500MPa (AS 6. shear. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.1. (AS 8. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. is given by amax = γk u d where.85 ku = 0. (AS 8.1a).2. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.003.1.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2). and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.2). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. amax.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or the strength of the concrete. fy .2) Beam Design 3-7 . as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.2. A uniform compressive stress of 0.85 − 0. the width.3) γ = [0. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.7.2. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.15N ) (AS 10.007( f 'c −28)] 0.1.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. and torsion only.1).Chapter 3 .2. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.

5.2. where.4)..e.1. designing top or bottom reinforcement).3) in the preceding and following equations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.2) where. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.1.2. ε = 0. which by default is 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design . M (i.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.003 b Cs c 0.80 (AS 2.

2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.2.2.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0. i.2. ku > 0.1. 6. or at the top * if M is negative.1. where ( f 's − 0.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.1.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .1. If a > amax.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.e. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.4..Chapter 3 .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.

3).1.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . i.e.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. a simplified stress block. no flanged beam data is used. ε = 0.003 bf Ds * 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.5. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. 3.1.. M (i. and vice versa if M is negative.. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. If the moment is negative.85 f ′ c 0. and the flange is ignored.2. the flange comes under tension.10 Beam Design .5. i.e. is assumed if the flange is under compression. designing top reinforcement).e. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. In that case. 3.. if the moment is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. as shown in Figure 3-2.1.

the balance of the moment.Design for AS 3600-01 3.3) in the preceding and the following equations. Cf is given by: C f = 0.5. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. the width of the beam is taken as bf. as shown in Figure 3-2.1.11 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.Chapter 3 . the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0. amax ) Therefore. Cw.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. ku = 0. However. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . If a > Ds. is given by: a max = γk u d where. the calculation for Ast has two parts.80 by default (AS 2. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.3) If a ≤ Ds. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.2. Cf.1.4 (AS 8. in that case.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds .4. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.2. amax. As1 = given by: (AS 8.85 f 'c φb f where. which is 0.1.

If a1 > amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . 6.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.2.2.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.1.2.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .12 Beam Design .1. where ′ − 0.

6 f 'c (AS 6.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1) f 'cf = 0.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .Chapter 3 .04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .2) An upper limit of 0.13 .04bw d ⎧0.1. 3.min = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.4.1. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.

1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.1) β1 = 1.7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. V . that can be resisted by the concrete. Vuc.2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . for a particular load combination.2.7. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.6 − β2 = 1. Vuc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2. 3. Determine the shear force. 13 (AS 8. with the corresponding load combination factors.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3. * 3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1) (AS 8.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.14 Beam Design .1⎜1.5.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.7.2.

(AS 8.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.35 w ⎜ s f sy. V * − φVuc Asv . and Vu. where. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.5).3).6) Given V .min . is 0. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. Asv = 0.2.9) (AS 8. = s fsy.8) Beam Design 3 . φ.15 .max. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.5. s otherwise Asv.6 by default (AS 2. max = 0.2. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.min.6bv d o Vu . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.5(c)(i)).min < V * ≤ φVu.2.max .2.Chapter 3 . if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. min = Vuc + 0. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.10) Asv.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. Vuc.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. Asv = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ 3. the strength reduction factor. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.2.2. If φVu.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .min shall be provided. whichever is greater (AS 8.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

Slab Design 3 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 3. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.21 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 3. To learn more about the design strips. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.Chapter 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. as described in the following sections. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.

the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 3.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. Where openings occur.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1. 3 .1.1(a)) As ≥ 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1. 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1. given the bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1): As ≥ 0.6. which are described in the following subsections. In that case. In some cases. for each load combination.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.22 Slab Design .1(b)) In addition. are repeated for every load combination.1.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. is obtained and reported. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.

1. 3.. interior.2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.1.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. edge. The column location (i. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 . Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.2.1). corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.3).6.23 .6.Chapter 3 .e.2. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.

2.2. Vuo . when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.3(a)) where.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0. 3 . * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.2. is given as (AS 9.2.3(b)) (AS 9.24 Slab Design .6.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.2.4(a)) 3. is given as (AS 9. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3(a)): a.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. Vu .3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.6. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.2.5 f c' + 0.3σ cp ) b.2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.2.3σ cp ≤ 0.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.

the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.Design for AS 3600-01 3.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3. and Vu.3.2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.4. φ.3 or 9. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. 3.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.7. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.max. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.4.Given V*.1). V * − φVu Asv = .2. Vu.4(a).1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.2. where. is the strength reduction factor.Chapter 3 . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 3.25 .6.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .min = 3*Vu (AS 92.2.

the concrete section should be increased in size..4. the minimum number of 3 .3.6.3. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. a failure condition is declared. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.4) If V > φVmax.26 Slab Design . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4). i.7.4.e. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. and corner column. Therefore. 3.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. edge.3) (NZS 12.

and interior columns respectively. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.5d. 3.Chapter 3 .7.4. edge.27 . and 8. When specifying shear studs.5d s ≤ 0. Height. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. 6.7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3. s. g. The limits of so and the spacing.6.4. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4) (NZS 12.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4) (NZS 12.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.7. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4.4) Slab Design 3 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. for corner. so. the distance.

.

mm 2 Notations 4-1 .Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. For light-weight concrete and torsion. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 4. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm 4-2 Notations . mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Torsional constant.

MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.Chapter 4 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Normalized design moment. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. MPa Neutral axis depth.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section.

2S ± 1. snow (S).3) (BS 2.2L + 1. mm Lever arm.4D ± 1.4D 1.2W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4W 1.2W 1.4W 1. For BS 8110-1997.1.3).4.2W (BS 2.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4.4D + 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. live load (L).2S ± 1.2D + 1. γf (BS 2. 0.6(0.6L + 1.4D + 1.6S 1.2D + 1.4.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .3). 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.4. pattern live load (PL).6L 1.3) (BS 2.3) (BS 2.2D + 1.2L ± 1. and wind (W) loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.4D + 1.4. and considering that wind forces are reversible.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4.

other appropriate load combinations should be used.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used.2). Limits on Material Strength 4-5 .25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. 4.2 (BS 2.15 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. as taken from BS Table 2. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. fcu.50 1. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.1.Chapter 4 . is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. this value should be overwritten as necessary.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. γm.4. the default factor of 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. Note that for reinforcement. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. 4. including pattern live load.4.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Note that the automatic combination.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.7. If other grades are used.

5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and other criteria described below. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. torsion. the 4-6 Beam Design . and torsion based on the beam moments. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. shear. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. with the corresponding load factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. shear. In such cases.1. shear forces.5. for a particular station.

The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the strength of the concrete.4.4).4.. shear. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4) Beam Design 4-7 . 4. less than. Msingle. See Figure 4-1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.156 2 (BS 3. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. x/d ≤ 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1. βb ≥ 0.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.5. Furthermore. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In addition. the width. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. and torsion only. 4.4.4.2.4.Chapter 4 . is first calculated for a section.4.4.5.e. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.1). In such cases.9) (BS 3. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.4).4). The design procedure used by SAFE. where K' = 0.5.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. or equal to Msingle.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.

As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle. If M > Msingle.5 + 0.4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.4.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0. where 0.4. or at the top if M is negative. the area of tension reinforcement.25 − ⎜ 0.4.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. is then given by: As = M .4.87 f y z (BS 3.95d z = d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .

4.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.1.5.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.5. i. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3..Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4.e.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.25 − ⎜ 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.5. M (i. Based on this assumption.Chapter 4 .1.5.e. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.1.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.2. Beam Design 4-9 .87 f y d − d ' ( ) .2.4.1. 2.2.2.3.3. 2.4..5 + 0.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. designing top reinforcement). and ' f ' s = 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4.4.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.1. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.4. 4.777d z = d ⎜ 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3. no flanged beam data is used. where (BS 3. Fig 2.4.2. Fig 2.

67 fcu/gm 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.10 Beam Design .0035 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4.4.4.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 . See Figure 4-2.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.95d 0.5 + 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.45 (BS 3.4. e = 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4.4.

Chapter 4 .4. in that case. Cf.87 f y (d − 0. the width of the beam is taken as bf.4).87 f y z Beam Design 4 .Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. 2 As = M + 0.45d − h f ) 0.4.1 f cu bd (0.45d then.4.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. If a > hf.156 (BS 3.4.11 .4.4. where 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3. However.87 f y (d − 0.4.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0. Cw.4) If Kw ≤ 0.4.5h f ) . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4. In that case.4) If a ≤ hf. as shown in Figure 4-2.5h f ) Mf + Mw . The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. As = 0.5) β f = 0. where (BS 3.9x (BS 3. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

4.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.5.5.4) where.4.95d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.777d ) 0. 2.87 f f (0.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0. 4 .1.5 + 0.4.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.2.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.4. 2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.12 Beam Design .4. and ' f ' s = 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.4.5.25 (BS 3.3.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4.4).9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.3.12. Fig 2.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.4.1.87 f y (d − 0.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. Fig 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.

12. which is taken from BS Table 3.6.20 As' bh Web in tension T. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.18 100 0.48 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T. if it is required.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.1): Beam Design 4 .20 An upper limit of 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.13 .5.3).4 bf ⎯ 100 0.Chapter 4 .or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.36 0.40 100 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.24 0.12.25 (BS 3.24 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.32 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.

63 fcu . v. 4. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2. that can be resisted by the concrete. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.14 Beam Design . Determine the shear stress.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5.5. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. vc. for a particular load combination. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.5.2) For light-weight concrete.04bw d ⎧0.4.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.4) 4 . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5. with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.4. 5 MPa) (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.8 fcu .

5.8) (BS 3.5.15 . Table 3. 4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4. vc. and vmax.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. the following limitations also apply: 0.5.Chapter 4 .4) (BS 3.3): Beam Design 4 .5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.4.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4.1) However.4.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. Table 3. vc.4.12) 0.4.4. BS 3.5. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.5.8) (BS 2.4. Table 3.4.4.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3. Table 3.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.5.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.4.8.4.2.4.

7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.7) (BS 3.16 Beam Design .4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3. 4 . Determine special section properties.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.5.4. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Table 3. Determine critical torsion stress. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.3.4. obtained from each load combination. vt. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4bw = sv 0.4) Asv 0.87 f yv If (v’c + 0. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.87 f yv If v > vmax. a failure condition is declared. (BS 3.5.4. 4.4. In the preceding expressions.5. Table 3.5.2) (BS 3.

If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. In typical framed construction. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.1) For flanged sections.4. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.3.5.4.17 .13). specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.Design for BS 8110-97 4. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. The torsional shear stress.4.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5.Chapter 4 .5) Beam Design 4 .4.8 f cu . the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. with the corresponding load combination factors. vt.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.4. vt.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.

For lightweight concrete. vt.4.4. vt. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.min = min 0.7) In the preceding expressions.0.t sv = T 0. If vt > vt.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.3. vt. 4 .5. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.067 fcu .4N/mm 2 x 0.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.min. However.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.8 x1 y1 (0.5) 4. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.6).8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.4.6).3.18 Beam Design . is calculated as: Asv .min = min 0. In that case.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt is less than the threshold limit.4.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. vt. Asv.067 fcu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.min.min is defined as: vt .t /sv.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .5.4.0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.min.

63 fcu .19 . vt exceeds this limit. In that case.4) If the combination of shear stress.5) For light-weight concrete. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.Chapter 4 .Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. Beam Design 4 . v and torsional shear stress. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5. a failure message is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8 fcu .4. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the concrete section should be increased in size.

4.20 Slab Design . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 4. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6.6. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 4 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. for each load combination. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.

6. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.7. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.7.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3. given the bending moment.2. This is the method used when drop panels are included.5.6.6. Where openings occur.1).6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.12.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.5.21 .12. 4.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7.Design for BS 8110-97 4.1. In that case.3) In addition.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 4.12.1.3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6).Chapter 4 . the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6. BS Table 3. In some cases.5d from the face of the support (BS 3. 4. at a given design section in a design strip.

7. 1.2. Table 3. The column location (i.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1. 3.5.1).5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.8) 4 . and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.6): 1 1 0.7.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7.5d 1.4..7. interior.5d 1.6.5.e.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.4.22 Slab Design .4. edge. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.7.4.7.

2. where (BS 3. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .7.6.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.6. Table 3. 4. v.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.6.4.5.5M ⎛ y 1.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .5.4.2.3) 1. the nominal design shear stress. 5MPa) (BS 3.4) (BS 3.4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.2) However.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.4) For light-weight concrete.6.23 .5.4.7.8) (BS 3.5. Table 3.8 f cu .7.5.7.4.4.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. 3.4) v ≤ min(0.Chapter 4 .Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .63 fcu .7. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. the following limitations also apply: 0.

24 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.2.6.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 4 . 4. 3.25 ⎪1. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.7.5). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.7.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 4. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.6.7.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .4W 0. wind (W). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. and earthquake (E) loads.5(0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.25D + 1.5S ± 0.4W (CSA 8.5S 1.2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4W 0. pattern live load (PL).8.25D + 1.3.9D + 1.5S + 0. live load (L).9D + 1. snow (S).5L ± 0.9D + 1.2.5L 0.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses. degrees Shear strength factor 5. For CSA A23.3-04.4D 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5S ± 0.5L ± 0.9D + 1.3.4. Table C.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.5S 1.5L 1.25D + 1.3) (CSA 8.75 PL) 1.4W 1.1) 1.5S + 0.25D + 1.9D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. Table C.3.5L + 0. Table C.25D + 1.5L 1.5L + 0.25D + 1.25D + 1.5L 0.2.3. Table C.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.9D + 1.5S 0.2.5S 0.

4.0E 1.1.4W 0.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.4W 1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. (CSA 8.1 Case 4) (CSA 8. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. φ.0D ± 1. for all framing types (CSA 8. however.1).2) (CSA 8.4W 1.4W 1. (CSA 8.0D + 0.4W 0.3.4W 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.5L ± 1.3-04 code is used. Table C.3.5.0E (CSA 8.6.5S ± 1.0E 1.1). 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.Chapter 5 . SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.0D + 0.1.9D ± 1.6.5L ± 1. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.25S ± 1.9D + 0.25D ± 1.0D + 0.5L + 0.0E 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. caution is advised.25S ± 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.9D + 0.3-04 1.65 for concrete φs = 0.5S ± 1.Design for CSA A23. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23. Table C.25D + 0.1) 5.5L ± 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .2.4.25D + 0.2. 5. respectively.

the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. shear forces. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. load combination factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. torsion.5. and torsion only. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. with the corresponding load factors. shear. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. for a particular station.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.

The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. or the strength of the concrete..and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. shear. 5. designing top or bottom reinforcement). it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The design procedure used by SAFE. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.1.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1.Design for CSA A23. Furthermore.7).5.2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. Mf (i. and torsion only.1) Beam Design 5-7 . When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the width.4).Chapter 5 . Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. 5. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible.e. where.

2) in the preceding and the following equations.85 – 0.1. The parameters α1.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.67.0025f'c ≥ 0.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.65 (CSA 8. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .7) (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.5.97 – 0.67 cb = (CSA 10.1. β1 = 0.5.0015f'c ≥ 0. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.4.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. β1.2).7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.

If a > ab (CSA 10.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10. where f ′ = 0.Chapter 5 . 10.5.1. or at the top if Mf is negative.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.1.Design for CSA A23.1.2.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .2).7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .

the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10. β1. and vice versa if Mf is negative.1.2.10 Beam Design . As = As1 + As2.2 5..1.4.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.85 – 0.67 β1 = 0.7) (CSA 10.1.5.5.4.2. i. Mf (i.e. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.e.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.1.5. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.67 cb = (CSA 10.97 – 0.1. 5.0025 f' c ≥ 0.7) (CSA 10.10.2) in the preceding and the following equations. designing top reinforcement).0015 f' c ≥ 0. the total tension reinforcement.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. no flanged beam data is used.2..2.5.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.7) 5 . The parameters α1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore. the value of φc is 0.1) where.1.65 (CSA 8. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.2. 5.

0035 bf hs (CSA 10. ab ) c ε = 0.Chapter 5 . Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. calculation for As has two parts. Cf. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.1. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. If a > hs. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.3-04 If a ≤ hs.Design for CSA A23. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the balance of the moment.11 . However.

12 Beam Design .2). for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.5. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. where 5 . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. If a1 > ab (CSA 10.5.2).1. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.

3.5.13 .1.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.5.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.5.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .Design for CSA A23.1.2.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.1.Chapter 5 . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. 5.1.3) In addition. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0. 10.1.1) An upper limit of 0.

Vc. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. By default it is taken as 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4. 5 .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.3. Determine the shear force.2).2. for a particular loading combination.04bw d ⎧0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.14 Beam Design .5. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. 5.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.65 (CSA 8.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5. with the corresponding load combination factors.5.5. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. 5. Vc. Vf. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.

for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.6.3): Beam Design 5 .2).6. Its value is normally between 0.3. It is determined according to CSA 11.2).3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.75.6.4.1 and 0. If the overall beam depth. bw is the effective web width. h. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand.85. it is the width of the beam.6. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.Design for CSA A23. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.Chapter 5 . It is taken as the greater of 0.5). the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.2). ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. (CSA 8.3. its value is 1 (CSA 8. d v is the effective shear depth.3).4).3.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.6. For flanged beams. the general method is used (CSA 11.21 (CSA 11.3.9d or 0. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.5): ⎧1. For normal density concrete. and the tensile force is negligible. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. which is taken by the program as the default value. it is the width of the web of the beam. if applicable.15 . For rectangular beams. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. For concrete using lower density aggregate.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. as follows (CSA 11. β is taken as 0.3.00. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.72h.6. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.6. ⎪0. and described further in the following sections.3. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6.6.

6.3. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. ⎪ 0. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.3.3. β is taken as 0. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.3a). β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11.3 c) where.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.6. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. β = 0.6. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ .18 (CSA 11. ag. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. sze. and ag < 20mm. and ag ≥ 20mm. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.18. the crack spacing parameter. However.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.c) In the preceding expression.6. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. or 5 .6.3.18 (CSA 11.3. In summary.16 Beam Design .3. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. for simplified cases.

4(a)) (CSA 2.Design for CSA A23.4): β= 0.3.Chapter 5 . Nf is taken as positive for tension.6.6.3. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.3.3.6.3.1. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.3. The longitudinal strain.6.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.3(b)).6. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.4(a)) (CSA 11.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.3.85Sz otherwise. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3. Beam Design 5 . (CSA 11. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. 11. 11. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.6.6.6.6.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa. the equivalent crack spacing parameter.3-04 tension is not negligible.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. and linearly interpolated between these values.6.4).17 . εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.3.3.4) In the preceding expression.

5.3.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.4(e)). the shear strength of the section due to concrete.003 (CSA 11.max. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.3.3.5.6. it is recalculated with the following equation. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr . εx = M f d v + V f + 0. the program performs the design in two passes.3.1) 5 .18 Beam Design . εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.3.6. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. Vc.4(d)). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.2.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.max = 0. and Vr.6. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. To check this condition.6. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. 5. In the first pass. taken as half of the total area.

2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3.4).8. (CSA 11.25Tcr.3). which was described previously. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees. the term θ is used.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.3.Chapter 5 . 11.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .3.3.6.3. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6. or by calculation.2) In the preceding equations.2.6.1. If the overall beam depth.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. Similar to the β factor.2. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. a failure condition is declared.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.6.3.1) (CSA 11.3. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.8.3). whenever applicable.19 .8. h. Beam Design 5 .3.2.2).5. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.6.max .3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .Design for CSA A23. It is determined according to CSA 11.

Determine the torsion reinforcement required.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. Tf.3). Determine special section properties. f y > 400 MPa. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. Determine critical torsion capacity. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.3. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .4). f y ≤ 400 MPa.6.3.3. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11. 5 .4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.3) If the axial force is tensile. 5. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.20 Beam Design .6. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.6. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa.

5.3-04 5. With this assumption. Ao. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf.5. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3).Design for CSA A23. However. With this assumption. Aoh.5. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 .2). and ph.9. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. with the corresponding load combination factors. However. If redistribution is desired.Chapter 5 .3. such as Aoh.2. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. special section properties. such as Ac.21 . the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.3. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. and ph are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Ao. pc. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.

the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.2.3. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.1) (CSA 11.4).2.3.9.10. 5.10.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.10. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0. Tcr. bw. which is equal to 0.3) (CSA 11.3.4) where. 5 .9.5.3.3.2.2. the section dimensions b. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.65. Similarly.1) (CSA 11.3. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.22 Beam Design .3) (CSA 11.10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.9. hf.2.10.9.3) (CSA 11.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.4) where the section dimensions bf.10. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.9.1) (CSA 11. h.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3) (CSA 11.3. h.

5.2.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . In that case.3.10. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.3-04 5. However.Chapter 5 . the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.Design for CSA A23.5 N f + (V f − 0. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.9.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.23 .1). At /s.3) Mf Al = dv + 0. Tcr. Tcr. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.3).3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.

In that case.3. θ is computed as previously described for shear.10. 5 . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.3.3.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.24 Beam Design .2. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.9) In the preceding expressions. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. bw is replaced with b. If the general method is being used.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.3. a failure message is declared.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11. the concrete section should be increased in size.6. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).10.4) For rectangular sections.10.8. 11.

6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Slab Design 5 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.25 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Design for CSA A23. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.3-04 5.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Chapter 5 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. is obtained and reported. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 5.

1.26 Slab Design .10. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6.1. In some cases. 5 .6. given the bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 5.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.002 bh (CSA 7. Where openings occur. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 5.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. for each load combination.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. at a given design section in a design strip.1. In that case. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1) In addition.1): As ≥ 0.8. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 5.

where Slab Design 5 . The column location (i.3-04 5.2.. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.Chapter 5 .6.2).3. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Design for CSA A23.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.2.1 and CSA 13.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.3.e.27 .3. interior.3). edge. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.3.

βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13.4.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.3.3.28 Slab Design .5. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.3. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.4.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.1) where. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. 5 .3).2) If the effective depth. and (CSA 13.4. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.3.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.10.2. 5.4.3.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . and ⎪for corner columns. (CSA 13.6. d.

3-04 5. is the strength reduction factor.3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.Design for CSA A23.75λφ c (CSA 13.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.Chapter 5 .max = 0. vc. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.6. 5. Slab Design 5 .8.1).3. where. φs. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.2) Given vf.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f . and vf. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.2.. 5.2.29 .max.6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.8.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) 5.

(CSA 13. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.8.5) If vf > vf. edge. a failure condition is declared. 5 .4d.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf.3.6. and corner column. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and 8. the concrete section should be increased in size. 5. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.max..3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. for corner.e.8.30 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. and interior columns respectively. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore.3. i. edge.3.max. 6.

and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.8.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0. so.3.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0. s.8.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3.6) Slab Design 5 .56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance.6) (CSA 13. The limits of so and the spacing.3-04 5.3. Height. When specifying shear studs.Design for CSA A23.4 d ⎧ 0.6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.4d.31 .Chapter 5 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.

.

Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. However. For simplicity. 6. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.

MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.

max u VRdc VRd.Chapter 6 . N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Flange thickness. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N-mm Normalized design moment. mm Design moment at a section. mm Lever arm. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Shear force at ultimate design load.

1 + ∑ γ Q . and earthquake (E) loads.iψ 0.i Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . 6.10a and 6.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. ∑G j ≥1 k. 6. j + γ P P + γ Q . ∑γ j ≥1 G.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. live load (L). 6.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). snow (S).1ψ 0. j Gk .i Qk .iψ 0. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. j + γ P P + γ Q .i Qk .1Qk .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .i Qk . j Gk .10a) ∑ξ γ j G.10b.1Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . 6. 6. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.12b) For this code. wind (W). j Gk . pattern live load (PL).1Qk . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2. 6.iψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.12b. j + γ P P + γ Q .

6.i S γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.supD + (0.1 L γGj.1 W (EC0 Eq.1 S + γQ.i S ± γQ.1 W + γQ. 6.i ψ0.1 PL γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.i L γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D γGj.sup D ξ γGj.1 W + γQ.i ψ0.i L + ψ2.10b.i ψ0. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.75)γQ.75)γQ.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.sup D γGj.10) (EC0 Eq. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.1 ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.i ψ0. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.1 L ± γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.supD + γQ.0E + ψ2.1 W γGj.i L D ± 1. 6. 6.i S (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.1 L γGj.1 S ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 W γGj.i W γGj.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.supD + (0. 6.i W γGj.i L + γQ.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.i W + γQ.1 W + γQ.0E D ± 1. 6.1 PL γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.i W γGj.4.1 L + γQ.10a and 6.sup D ± γQ. γGj.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.supD + (0. 6.sup D + γQ.1 L ξ γGj.75)γQ. 6.1 PL ξ γGj.0E + ψ2.supD + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq. 6. 6. 6. 6.i S γGj.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.supD + γQ.inf D ± γQ.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .3): γGj.i L γGj.i L D ± 1.Chapter 6 .sup D + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.

2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 W + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S D ± 1.1 S + γQ.i ψ0.i S ξ γGj.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 W γGj.00 γQ.1 L ± γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.5 = 1.inf D ± γQ. 6.i S γGj.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.i L γGj.inf D ± γQ.1 ψ0.i ψ0.1 ψ0.i ψ0.i L γGj.1 ψ0. assumed not to be storage) = 0.0E D ± 1.inf = 1.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.i W ξ γGj.i L D ± 1.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.35 γGj.sup D + γQ.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .inf D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 L + γQ.5 (snow load. 6.1 S + γQ. 6.sup D ± γQ.1 W ξ γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.85 (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.6 (wind load) = 0.1 ψ0.i ψ0. 6.sup D + γQ. 6.i ψ0.i S γGj.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.5 = 0.0E + ψ2.sup = 1.i ψ0.1 L + γQ.0E + ψ2.sup D + γQ.i ξ = 1.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.i W ξ γGj. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.1 γQ.1 ψ0.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i L γGj.i L + ψ2.i W γGj.sup D + γQ. γGj.1 W + γQ.1 W γGj.1 L ± γQ.1 W + γQ. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.7 (live load.i L γGj.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. fck. γs and γc as shown here.6(1)) (EC2 3. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. 6. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3. αcc is taken as 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. fyk.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.1.7(2)) (EC2 3.1) (EC0 Table A1. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.2(3)). should be 400 and 600 MPa.3 (live. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 . 6. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.2(2)).i ψ2.Chapter 6 .4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.6(1)).1.1. respectively (EC2 3.i = 0.

γc = 1. These values can be overwritten. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. 6. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.2. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.4. shear.5. caution is advised. for a particular station. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear forces. torsion.4. γs = 1. The user should consider those separately.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion only. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . however.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2.4). the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. Table 2. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. shear. For accidental and earthquake situations.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. load combination factors.2.4(1).

1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. or the strength of the concrete.5. Fig 3. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.7(3). Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.7(3)). In such cases.Chapter 6 .5) (EC2 3.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. Fig 3. the width. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. 6.1.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . In such cases.7(3).2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.

7(3)) (EC2 3.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.5(4)) (EC 5. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. is summarized in the subsections that follow.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.25(0.and T-beams). the following values are used: k1 = 0.6 + 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.1. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.1. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.5(4)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1. 6 .7(3)) (EC2 3.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.54 (EC 5. δ. ( x d )lim .44 k2 = k4 = 1. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.5(4)) (EC 5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.10 Beam Design .0014/εcu2) k3 = 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.1.7(3)) λ = 0.5(4)) (EC2 5.

are obtained first. the normalized moment. mlim.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.Chapter 6 .2.5. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. or equal to mlim. less than. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. mlim. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. The normalized design moment. m.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6.11 . m.

f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. a singly reinforced beam is designed. If m > mlim. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. ωlim. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. A's and As. and is given by: 6 . or at the top if MEd is negative. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. As.12 Beam Design .

e. 3. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. 3.5(4). the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Fig 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. no flanged beam data is used. additional calculation is required.2.5. 3.1.2. m.1. Initially. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. See Figure 6-2. The normalized design moment. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2..7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.5..1.1. i.1. MEd (i.2.2. designing top reinforcement).5.1. 6.e.7(4). If the stress block extends beyond the flange.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. Based on this assumption. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.13 .8) 6.Chapter 6 .

Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. in that case. M1 = M − M2. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. as shown in Figure 6-2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. is determined as follows: 6 . If a > hf. the calculation for As has two parts. However. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the width of the beam is taken as bf. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web.14 Beam Design .

Beam Design 6 . f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.Chapter 6 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. Fig 3. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.1.15 . ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.7(4). 3.2.

3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .1.12. Table 3.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.min = 0. 6.1(3)).min = 0. Determine the shear force.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.c.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.5.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. 6 . Table 3.1(1)) As .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.12.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.1) (EC2 3.2. that can be resisted by the concrete. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.1.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.12.16 Beam Design .2): Determine the factored shear force.1. VRd.5.1) f ctm = 2. Determine the shear reinforcement required.0013bd (EC2 9. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2. Table 3. for a particular load combination.1. VEd.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.

2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.5.5.2. 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.c = ⎡C Rd . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.c.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.15 Beam Design 6 . VRd.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = 0. vmin.02 bw d (EC2 6. with the corresponding load combination factors.18 γ c ν min = 0. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2.17 . 6. is calculated as: 13 VRd .2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .Chapter 6 .2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.c.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2.

max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.2.18 Beam Design .max. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.3(3)) (EC2 6.2.5. VRdc. VRd.max.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0. obtained from each load combination. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.3(1)) (EC2 6.2.2. Asw Asw.2(6)) (EC2 6.min s = 0.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .3(3)) (EC2 6.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .3(3)) Asw.2.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. a failure condition is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2.3(3)) (EC2 6.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. 6 .6⎜1 − z = 0.2.2.

Determine critical torsion capacity. TEd.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Chapter 6 . 6.2).2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.5. u. tef.5.19 . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd.3. If redistribution is desired. Determine special section properties. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. uk.1(2)). 6.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. such as Ak. special section properties.5. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. 6. Beam Design 6 .3. and zi are calculated. However.

2(1)) (EC2 6. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. Similarly.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.2(1)) (EC2 6.3.2(3)) where. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.3. h. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. such as Ak. With this assumption. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. However.2(1)) (EC2 6. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.3.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) 6 . and uk. the section dimensions b. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.20 Beam Design .3.3. With this assumption. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.3.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.

as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.c (EC2 6. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.c is the torsional cracking moment. the shear due to this torsion.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.2(5)) where VRd.3.0 TRd .1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1. calculated as: TRd . h.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. However. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6. In that case. if the equation is not satisfied.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.Chapter 6 . hf. 6. and compression diagonals. Vt.3.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0. is first calculated. longitudinal bars.2.21 .5.3.3.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd.2(1)) 6.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .2.3. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.3.05 / γ c (EC2 6.c VRd .5. bw.1. followed by the required stirrup area.

2.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. as previously defined for beam shear. In the preceding expressions.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. The code allows any value between 21.0 VRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.2(4)) where TRd.3. θ is taken as 45 degrees. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .max (EC2 6.3.22 Beam Design .3.3(2)). while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.2(4)) 6 . When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.max + VEd ≤ 1.max.

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 6. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.23 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.Chapter 6 . the concrete section should be increased in size. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. a failure message is declared. Slab Design 6 . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6. 6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. In that case.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.

given the bending moment. 6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1(1)) As . 6.1.min = 0. 6.1.24 Slab Design .1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . Where openings occur.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.6. is obtained and reported.3.6.2.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1.2. at a given design section in a design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1): As .0013bd (EC2 9. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. for each load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. In that case.6. These two steps.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. In some cases. are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.min = 0.1.1. described in the subsections that follow. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

The column location (i.25 ..04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.2.Chapter 6 .2(1)). The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. edge.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.6.1(3)). Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1) fctm = 2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.4. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. interior.1) (EC2 Table 3. 6.4. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Slab Design 6 . 6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.2.1) (EC2 Table 3.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.e.6.1.

4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4.4(1)) 6 .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2.6.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .4.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.c = ⎡C Rd .26 Slab Design .

4(1)) (EC2 6. C Rd .4.4.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.Chapter 6 .4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.4. the nominal design shear stress. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.02 (EC2 6.4(1)) (EC2 6.18 γ c (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.27 .4.4.2.4.15 6. vEd.6.4(1)) ν min = 0.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively. conservatively taken as zeros.4.c = 0. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ . conservatively taken as zeros.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.0 d (EC2 6.

The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.6. Given vEd.5 f ywd .6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.c ) = u1 sr 1. a failure condition is declared.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.max.28 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.c.4.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. 6 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. (EC2 6.4.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. Asw (v Ed − 0. 6.5).75v Rd . 6. and vRd. 6. vRd.max. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.ef If vEd > vRd. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.. for corner.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3(1)). The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. i. edge. and 8. and corner column.6. 6. Therefore. Height. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 6.e. edge.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.3.Chapter 6 .4. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. and interior columns respectively.6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.29 . The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.

1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. g.3(1)) 6 .4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.75d g ≤ 1. 14-. When specifying shear studs. 16-. the distance.4.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. 12-.3d.3(1)) (EC2 9. The limits of so and the spacing. and 20-millimeter diameter.3(1)) (EC2 9. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so.3(1)) (EC2 9. s.30 Slab Design . between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .1.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.5.1.2. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.0035 − 0. where εc.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. ⎧0.4(a)).. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1.5.9) (CP 6. the width.1. βb ≥ 0.e. or the strength of the concrete. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. In such cases.1.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.max is defined as: ε c . the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.2.2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4(b)). with the corresponding load factors. 7.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.

where 0.1.1. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1.4(a). shear. where 2 (CP 6. 7.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. As.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.5.2. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. hence.Chapter 7 .156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.87 f y z (CP 6. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . is obtained first for a section.2.2.4(a)).1.4(b)). If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.2. Fig 6.2. less than.2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.1.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4(c)) ⎧0. is obtained from: As = M . and torsion only. In addition.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. Msingle.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 . See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. or equal to Msingle.1fcuAg) (CP 6.

5 + 0.1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.1.2.1.25 − ⎜ 0.4(c)) (CP 6.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .95d z = d ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. If M > Msingle.2. or at the top if M is negative.2.

36 .2.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1.2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4(c).2.4(c)) 7. 3.2.Chapter 7 .e. Beam Design 7-9 . no flanged beam data is used.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.2.6. Based on this assumption.e.5. 7.87 f y z + 0. i.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.5.1.. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . Fig.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. Fig 6.95d 0.5 + 0.1. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.2.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.1.45 . the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.5.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.. designing top reinforcement).1.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.2.4(a). s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. M (i. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. 3.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.87 f y .2.

4(c)) (CP 6. See Figure 7-2. If a > hf .1. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. for ⎪ 0.1. in that case.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.45 . for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.2.2. However.2. Fig 6.4(a). Fig 6.36 . Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.1) If a ≤ hf. the width of the beam is taken as bf.5 + 0. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.2. 0.10 Beam Design . for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . the normalized moment is given by: K= M .95d.4(c).1.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .

5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.4. x ≤ 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .5) β f = 0. as shown in Figure 7-2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.1 f cu bd (0.87 f y (d − 0. ⎪0.4.4. x ≤ 0.5h f ) .4d then.4. x ≤ 0.Chapter 7 .5h f ) bf hf ec 0. Cw.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . Cf. In that case.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.9 x − h f ) 0.67 fcu/gm 0.11 . where (BS 3.

the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4(c)).12 Beam Design .5h f ) ) .072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.87 f y ( d − 0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.32 ⎪ ⎪0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.2.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.1. where (CP 6. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.2.1.4(d)) ⎧0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.2. 7 .24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.1.

87 f y (d − 0.5 + 0.6.5 + 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.13 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.95d ⎜ 0. where 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .95d ⎜ 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.4(c). compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0. Fig 3.2.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.Chapter 7 .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.1.2.

20 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.2.2.1(CP 9.1 (CP 9.1.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.2.1.1.40 0.36 0.13 100 0.2.2.48 0.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.24 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.14 Beam Design .1).20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.3): 7 . provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.26 ⎯ 100 0. if it is required.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.4 bf bw ≥ 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.32 0.

7 MPa) (CP 6.1.2.2.5): Determine the shear stress. vc.1.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.Chapter 7 .04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.1.5(a)) 7. for a particular load combination. v. that can be resisted by the concrete. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .5. with the corresponding load combination factors.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.5.3) 7. vc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.2.1. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.15 .5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear stress.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.8 fcu . 7. the following steps are involved (CP 6.

the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.2.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.2. as: 7 . Table 6.2.3) (CP 6. vc.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.5(k)) 0.2.16 Beam Design .3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. and vmax.2.2. vr.5(g)) (CP 6.1. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2.1.5(c). the following limitations also apply: 0. CP 6. Table 6.1.2.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.5(c).1.3) ≥ 0.2.5(c).6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(c).5(k)) 7.1. Table 6.1. Table 6.2.5.1.5(c).1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.67 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6. Table 6.25 However.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.

2.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6. obtained from each load combination. a failure condition is declared. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. (CP 6. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.17 .1. Beam Design 7 .2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = .1.5(b).2. vt. 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5(b)) (CP 6.1.Chapter 7 .2. Determine special section properties. (CP 6.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0. sv 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Table 6.1.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.87 f yv If v > vmax.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.

a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. vt.3. vt. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.3. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. Table 6.18 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. The torsional shear stress.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.3(a)) For flanged sections. 7. In typical framed construction.8 f cu .5.3. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.17 7 .3.4.1).

is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt. 7.3. Asv.3.5. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. vt.t /sv.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.5). vt.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.4. vt is less than the threshold limit.5).min = min 0. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . vt.min.3.min.min.19 . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.3. Table 6.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.067 fcu . However. In that case.5.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.Chapter 7 .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.0.min. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.

a failure message is declared. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.87 f yv ) (CP 6. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.8 fcu .4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.t sv = T 0.6) In the preceding expressions.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. 7 .6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. In that case.20 Slab Design .8 x1 y1 (0. To learn more about the design strips. 7.3. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. In some cases. In that case.Chapter 7 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.21 .1.6. 7. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip.1. given the bending moment.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported. for each load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 7. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.6.6.

1(a)) In addition.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.3.3.7).2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 7 . The column location (i.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.22 Slab Design .6.. Where openings occur. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 7. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.1.7(d)).04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. interior.5.6.5.1.3).2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 7.e.1. edge. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.6.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. 7.

2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6. Table 6.2. 6.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 . Table 6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d Interior Column 1.5(c).5.6.5.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.7(d)) (CP 6.5(g).7(d).5.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.1.2.1.1.5d 1.5d 1.7(d).2. Table 6.3): 0.5d 1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.23 .Chapter 7 . and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.1.

where (CP 6.2. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. the nominal design shear stress.4.1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .5 + 1.5.1.25 However.7(b)) (CP Table 6.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.1. 7 MPa) (CP 6.2.3.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section. v.5.2.24 Slab Design . x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.5(c).2) 0.1. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.2.8 f cu .67 1. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.6(b).3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7. Table 6.5. Table 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1. 7 .1.5(c). v ≤ min(0. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2. 6.3) ≥ 0.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.5 x ⎬ .00 As = area of tension reinforcement. Table 2.6.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.

5.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.6(b). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6. 6.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5.3.Chapter 7 .1.1.6.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.1.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .25 ⎪1.7(e)). 7.6. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1. 7.1. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 .6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.3.5.

and interior columns respectively.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. the concrete section should be increased in size.7(f)).6.. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5.5.0vc (CP 6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.26 Slab Design . and corner column.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.87 f yv 0. for corner. 6. ≥ s 0.5. a failure condition is declared.7(e)) (CP 6.7(e)).87 f yv 0.87 f yv If 1.7v − vc ) ud 0. and vmax. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.87 f yv s If v > vmax. 0. edge. vc. If v ≤ 1.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6vc 0.5. 7. Therefore. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. (CP 6. i.1.1.1.4ud = ≥ .6vc ≤ v < 2.e. edge.3. 7 . and 8.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.5.

6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.1.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5.7(f)) (CP 6.7(f)) Slab Design 7 . 14-. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4. Height.2. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. The limits of so and the spacing.5. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d.1. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d.7(f)) (CP 6. and 20-millimeter diameter. 12-. g.5. When specifying shear studs.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7.27 . the distance. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3.Chapter 7 . so.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d (CP 6. 16-. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.1. s.

.

The design is based on user-specified load combinations. 8. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. mm Notations 8-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter.

mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. assumed as 200. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. N-mm 8-2 Notations .

Chapter 8 .Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. N-mm Normalized design moment.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.max Notations 8.3 . M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. mm Lever arm.

5D + 1.1) (IS 36.2L ± 1.2.2W 1.4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).9D ± 1.2D + 1.1) (IS 31.4.5(0. For IS 456-2000. Table 18): 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. and earthquake (E) loads. wind (W). MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.5W 0.5D + 1.4.5D 1.5L ± 1.5W 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.5D + 1.2D + 1. pattern live load (PL).4.5E 0.0W 1.5S 1.5D ± 1.5L ± 1.3) (IS 36.2L ± 1. snow (S).4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc. MPa 8.5D ± 1.5L 1. live load (L).5. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.2E 1.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .5D + 1.5E 1.0E (IS 36.5D + 1.1) (IS 36.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.75 PL) 1.9D ± 1.

load combination factors. γm. 14.4.5 .2S ± 1. and torsion based on the beam moments.5 (IS 36. γs = 1.2L + 1. shear. These values can be overwritten. torsion.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2W 1.4. caution is advised. 8. However.2.2D + 1.Chapter 8 .2L + 1.2D + 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.2S ± 1.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.2.2E 1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.4. 8. γc = 1. shear.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement.2W 1. and torsion only.5D + 1. however. shear forces.2E (IS 36. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.2D + 1. 8. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5S 1.4.5L + 1. beams must be designed for torsion. other appropriate load combinations should be used.Design for IS 456-2000 1.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.1) (IS 36. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.2S ± 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.

Rather. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. However. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. If redistribution is desired. In such cases. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.1. 8. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me.1. 8-6 Beam Design . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion.4.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately.

1.4.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. respectively.7 . the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.4.Design for IS 456-2000 8.1) 8. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. If Mt exceeds Mu.2) (IS 41. where (IS 41. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In such cases. Beam Design 8. with the corresponding load factors.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations.1.4.2. Effectively.4.Chapter 8 . Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. c.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1) (IS 38.1) 8-8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. When a torsional moment is to be included. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement. (IS 41. with the corresponding load combination factors. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2.1. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. or the strength of the concrete.4. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.4. 8. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. the width.1).1) 8. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. a.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The area of the stress block.4. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1.3.

46 Beam Design 8. Furthermore.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.1) (IS 38.1).1). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.0035 b f′ s 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.Chapter 8 .48 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.36 β = 0.42 (IS 38.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.9 .53 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.max /d 0.

48 − 0. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. is given by 8 . and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. or equal to Msingle.max. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.max d xu. Msingle = α xu. m. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.max = 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. shear. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than.53 − 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.10 Beam Design . are obtained first.2. less than.0035 (IS 38.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. and torsion only. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.max d ⎧0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. xu. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.4. Msingle.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. xu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. 8.

max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. and vice versa if Mu is negative. where (IS G-1.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. is obtained from As = Mu .Chapter 8 .2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. Beam Design 8. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . − If Mu > Msingle. As. the area of compression reinforcement.11 . and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. or at the top if Mu is negative.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. A's.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .

2. no flanged beam data is used.3. designing top reinforcement).e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. i.. See Figure 8-2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .2.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. Mu (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. On the basis of this assumption.12 Beam Design .. 8. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.3.e.4.

Cw. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.1). m. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . Cf.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.Chapter 8 .2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .13 .65D f if D f > 0.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.15 xu + 0. as shown in Figure 8-2. However.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.

05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.single.1) xu .1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.max ⎡ x u.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .max d ⎧0.single ⎛ 0. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.single.46 (IS 38. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.53 − 0.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.53 ⎪ ⎪0. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. the area of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.48 − 0. A's. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.14 Beam Design . and 8 .

4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.5.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.1.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1.85 bd fy (IS 26. the following steps are involved (IS 40.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.1.1.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.5.5.2) 8.5.Chapter 8 .04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.1.1) An upper limit of 0.2.5.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.4.04bw d ⎧0. for a particular load combination.1) (IS 26. at a particular station.4.5.15 .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.1): As ≥ 0.

1.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.2.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d . (IS 40. where bd (IS 40.5 M35 3. τv ≤ τc.max (IS 40. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.5 M20 2.4.2) 8 . d. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth. as: τcd = kδτc.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. τc.1 M30 3.0 τc. τc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.3. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.max (MPa) (IS 40.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.7 M40 4.16 Beam Design . τc.3.3.2. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.max.8 M25 3.

1.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. 0.2.87 f y If τcd + 0. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.17 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete. Table 19) (IS 40. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.2.4 Asv 0.1.1.2.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40.5.4 < τv ≤ τc. 26.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .2. taken as 1.1) (IS 40. and if Pu > 0 .2.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0. Under Tension (IS 40.87 f y (IS 40. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .4 b ≥ sv 0.3. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.max (IS 40.4.1).2.Chapter 8 .1.4(a)) Beam Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.

4 b ≥ sv 0.4) 8. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.18 Beam Design .2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.2.3. obtained from each load combination. (IS 40. τc.5. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.max is determined as defined in the last section.3) τve ≤ τc.max.4.4.1.87 f y (IS 41.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.1) (IS 40. 26.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc. a failure condition is declared.3) (IS 41.87 f y ) 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.max The maximum nominal shear stress.4.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.6) If τve ≥τcd.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.87 f y (IS 41. 8 . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5d1 (0.

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.5. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1. These two steps.Chapter 8 . for each load combination. To learn more about the design strips. 8. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. 8. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.19 . described in the subsections that follow. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.Design for IS 456-2000 8. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.5. Slab Design 8. are repeated for every load combination. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. interior. 8. at a given design section in a design strip.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.1). the slab width is adjusted accordingly.5.20 Slab Design . 8.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 8.5. In that case.1. The column location (i. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In some cases.e.5.1).1.5.2): ⎧0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1) In addition. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6.5. 8 . edge. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Where openings occur.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.2.2. given the bending moment. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.6.1).. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.

8.6.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.2.2.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.5.21 .2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.Chapter 8 .5.2).3. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.

3.5.2) 8 .3.0 (IS 31.3.1) (IS 31. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.5.6.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.2. 8.5 τ c bod (IS 31.6.5 + βc ≤ 1. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5.5. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.1) τc = 0.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2) 8.5τ c (IS 31.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.22 Slab Design .6.1) (IS 31.3. 8.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1. 8.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.

3. Slab Design 8.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. i.2.6.3. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.Chapter 8 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6. a failure condition is declared.6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.2). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.5Vc ) 0. and corner column. 8. Vc.2) If Vu > Vmax.e.3) (IS 31.23 . Av = (Vu − 0.87 f y (IS 31. and Vmax. 41. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior..5. edge.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.

edge. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 8. s. and 8. and interior columns respectively. so.3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. for corner. 5d s ≤ 0. Height.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. g.5.24 Slab Design . the distance. 6. The limits of so and the spacing. Therefore.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. 9. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected.

sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . assumed as 200. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Width of web (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Width of member.

mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of sections. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. N Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Factored design torsion at a section. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section.Chapter 9 . MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Perimeter of area Ao. N Average design shear stress at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.

For NZS 3101-06.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.0S 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. 4.2.2.0.0E (AS/NZS 1170.2. 4.2. 4.0.2.2.2D + 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.35D 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.2D ± 1.75 PL) 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. (0.2.2. live load (L).0E 1. and earthquake (E) loads.0. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. 4.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.4L ± 1.0W 1.0.2.2. 4.9D ± 1. snow (S).5L 1. 4.0. 4.0D + 0.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1.2D + 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 0.0D ± 1.0.0. wind (W). 4. pattern live load (PL).5(0.2D + 1.4L ± 1.0.2): 1.4L + 1.0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations . the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170. 4.

The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.Chapter 9 .3). should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.3. fyt. other appropriate load combinations should be used. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement.1).1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. caution is advised. (NZS 2. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. fy.2) (NZS 2. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.2. however.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . provided special study is conducted (NZS 5.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. shear.3.3). SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The φ factors for flexure.85 for flexure φs = 0.2. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.3. 9.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.3. 9.

and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. torsion. and torsion based on the beam moments. In such cases. shear forces. for a particular station. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. with the corresponding load factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. shear. and torsion only.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the 9-6 Beam Design .5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. load combination factors.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9.1.

2. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1). designing top or bottom reinforcement).2.. 9.1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure used by SAFE.4.7). and torsion only.85 (NZS 2.5. 9.e. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.2) where the default value of φb is 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. where. shear.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.3.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. Furthermore.Chapter 9 .85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 . M (i.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.3.1. or the strength of the concrete.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the width.1). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4.7): α1 = 0.8. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.2. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.4.2. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.2) in the preceding and following equations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

1).85 for f ′ ≤ 30.008( f ′ − 30).85 − 0. amax.8) β1 = 0.3.2.2.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.7. c (NZS 7.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0. 0.8.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.7) (NZS 7. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0. is given by: amax = 0. 9.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.4.8.85 − 0.4.4.3. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.4.2.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.2.7) (NZS 7.85 β1 = 0.75β1cb (NZS 7.

2.4.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .2.2.4.4.Chapter 9 .8.3. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .1).9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7. or at the top * if M is negative.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7. If a > amax (NZS 9. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.2. 7.2.

4. no flanged beam data is used.7.1) If a ≤ hf. 9.8.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. amax. Cf.2.5.1. 9 .1.1.10 Beam Design ..2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.2. As = As1 + As2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. designing top reinforcement).75β1cb (NZS 7.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2. However. i.5.3. calculation for As has two parts. M (i. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.e.e.2. 9. as shown in Figure 9-2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. the total tension reinforcement..4. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2. is given by: amax = 0. and vice versa if M is negative. If a > hf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. Cw. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. * 9.5.

2.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.2 ) Beam Design 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.4.11 .Chapter 9 .7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. the balance of the moment. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.4.

4. 7.8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.2.12 Beam Design .1). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .2.3.2. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.4.4.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . If a1 > amax (NZS 9.1).3. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .8.2.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

the section dimensions b. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .1) (NZS 7. h.1) (NZS 7. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.1) where. bw.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.18 Beam Design . and c are shown in Figure 9-3.75 Ao/po 0.1) (NZS 7.1) where the section dimensions bf.1.1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) (NZS 7. Similarly. hf.7). h.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.

Design for NZS 3101-06 9. In that case. At /s. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.6. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.4. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.1.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.Chapter 9 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.5.6. defined as: T* ≤ 0.3.1.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6. Tcr.1).1).5.6.3. and meets the torsion stress limit. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. T .6) Beam Design 9 .6.6. is less than the threshold limit. However. Tcr.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.6.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.4.3) 9. if T exceeds the threshold limit.19 .1. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.4.

2 f 'c . If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. the concrete section should be increased in size. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6.8.6.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. In that case. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 9 . where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.3).5.20 Slab Design . At Al 1. 7.2. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. bw is replaced with b. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2) * * For rectangular sections.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. provided it is fully developed. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 9. a failure message is declared.6.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.1.

are repeated for every load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 9. 9. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These two steps. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.21 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 9 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. given the bending moment. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. is obtained and reported.6. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1. for each load combination.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In that case.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6.1. In some cases. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. at a given design section in a design strip. described in the subsections that follow.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.

6.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.7.7.6. edge.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.4. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1. The column location (i.2.1(b)). 8.e. interior. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control..4 ): ⎧ 0 .1) In addition. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5.6.2.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. 9.8. 8.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.6. 9 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.8. 2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. 9. Where openings occur.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.22 Slab Design . 9.1(b)). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.

2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .7.6.23 .6.Chapter 9 .7. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12. 9.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.2.7.7.2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.

24 Slab Design .6.7.7.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.2(a)).3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.7. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.1) 70 9. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.1.3. 9 . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.4.1).2) where. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5. 9.2.2.3. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. 12. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7.6. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.

The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. a failure condition is declared.3) (NZS 12.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.7. Slab Design 9 . vc.6.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.4. and vmax.Chapter 9 .3.4. is the strength reduction factor.5) 9.7.7.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.4) Given vn. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 9.3.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.4) If vn > φvmax. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.7.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. φ. where.3.25 .

7. for corner.4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Therefore.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. and interior columns respectively. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. edge.3. and corner column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.26 Slab Design . Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. i. and 8.e.6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4).. 6. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. edge. 9 .

the distance. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.6. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.Chapter 9 .27 . The limits of so and the spacing.5d.4. s. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4) (NZS 12.7.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. g.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4.7.4.5d s ≤ 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.7. so. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. Height.4) Slab Design 9 .4) (NZS 12.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.

.

is selected. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Notations 10 . For simplicity. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99].1 . a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008].Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.

000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 10 . MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Torsional constant. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. assumed as 200. mm Average web width of a flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Flange thickness. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section.2 Notations . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.

mm Lever arm. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. MPa Neutral axis depth. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress.Chapter 10 . N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment.3 . mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Torsional shear stress. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam.

4W 1. 10.4. other appropriate load combinations should be used. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.6(0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2. and considering that wind forces are reversible.2W (CP 2.1. fcu.7. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4.4.75PL) 1.3).1.6L 1.4D + 1.4 Design Load Combinations . The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.0D ± 1. pattern live load (PL). is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.2).2D + 1. 1.4D ± 1. live load (L).2L ± 1.4W 1. Note that the automatic combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4.3).3) (CP 2.3) (CP 2.4D + 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. 10 . The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. γf (CP 2. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.4D 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. and wind (W) loads. including pattern live load.

2 (CP 2.50 1. which are taken from CP Table 2. and other criteria described below.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. shear. 10. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. torsion. γm. shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.4.5 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 .Chapter 10 . Beams are designed for major direction flexure. load combination factors.15 1. and torsion only.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear forces.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. but can be overwritten.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.

the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3. In such cases. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.6 Beam Design .3.5. In such cases. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. 10. with the corresponding load factors. or the strength of the concrete. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1. for a particular station. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1. the width. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.4). BC 2.2) 10 . the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5.4.

.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. BC 2. is first calculated for a section. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. or equal to Msingle.4.9) (CP 3.4.4. See Figure 10-1. and torsion only. 10.4).4.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.1fcuAg) (CP 3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4.4.2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. where 2 (CP 3. hence.4. shear. ⎧0.4. Msingle = K'fcu bd .1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Msingle.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4.4) Beam Design 10 .1.Chapter 10 .4.4. In addition.1). less than. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.e. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4).2) The design procedure used by SAFE.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. is summarized in the subsections that follow.7 . The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4. BC 2.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.and T-beams).5. βb ≥ 0.

5 + 0.87 f y z (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.4. the area of tension reinforcement.4. where 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.8 Beam Design .156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. If M ≤ Msingle.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0. As.4) (CP 3.25 − ⎜ 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. is then given by: As = M .4) 10 .094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.4.

1. i.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.4.87 f y z + 0..4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.2. Fig 2.5. and f ′ =0. Beam Design 10 .4.25 − ⎜ 0.4.2. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. Fig 2. where (CP 3.4. no flanged beam data is used.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.1.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10. or at the top if M is negative.9 .95d z = d ⎜ 0.Chapter 10 .2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.2. 2.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3. M (i.5.3.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. 2.1.e.e.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.4.3.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .5. If M > Msingle.4.. designing top reinforcement).4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4.4.5 + 0.

67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. On the basis of this assumption. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2.2. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.67 fcu γ m 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure 10-2.5. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1. εc 0.10 Beam Design .4.

Fig 2. BC 2.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.3) If a ≤ hf.4.4.2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4.2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. 2 As = M + 0. However. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.45 .1 f cu bd (0.4.5h f ) .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.36 .95d 0.4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4.11 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 . where (BS 3. Cf.4.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. BC 2.45d then.4. If a > hf . Fig 2. Cw.5) β f = 0.87 f y (d − 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.9 ⎭ (CP 3.45d − h f ) 0. In that case. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. as shown in Figure 10-2.5 + 0.4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.Chapter 10 .4.

2) ⎧0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.12 Beam Design . As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0. where (CP 3.072 for ⎪ ⎪0. BC 2.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.32 ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.5.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.87 f y ( d − 0.4.2) 10 .5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.4.

As = 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .87 f y (d − 0.5 + 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4).4.Chapter 10 .25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where. 2.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4.13 .4.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.5.4).95d ⎜ 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.4. Fig 2.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.3.4.4.4. 2. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2) If Kw ≤ 0. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.5.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5.4.4. Fig 2. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.4. where 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.156 (CP 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.3. BC 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.

12.5 + 0.24 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.18 100 0.36 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0. if it is required.27 (CP 3. which is taken from CP Table 3.5.48 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0. 10 .13 100 0.32 0.1.26 100 0.12.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.14 Beam Design . provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.5.5.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.3).9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4 bf bw ≥ 0.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.27 (CP 3.

12. 10.4.2).15 .6. An upper limit of 0. Determine the shear stress. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . vc.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.5. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. BC 2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.40 0. v.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 10. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1).5.3. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2.20 0.Chapter 10 . for a particular load combination. the following steps are involved (CP 3.5): Determine the shear stress.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.12.

16 Beam Design .63 fcu . (CP 3.5.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3. 7 MPa).4.2) For light-weight concrete.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.4.4.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.8 fcu .5. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .4. Table 3.5.9) 10 .4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1. Table 3.4.2.5.12) 0.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.5. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.6 (CP 3.4.8) (CP 3. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.4) (CP 2. vc.5. the following limitations also apply: 0. with the corresponding load combination factors. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .25 1 1 3 However.5.4.4.4) 10.

a failure condition is declared.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. sv 0.5.4.17 .8) (CP 3. Table 3. (CP 3.5.5. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.8.4.5.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.3.4. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. Table 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. Table 3. vr.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .87 f yv If v > vmax. Table 3.3.5.4.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.4.2) In the preceding expressions.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3. and vmax.4.5.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. Table 3.4.5.5.5. (CP 3.2.4.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3. Table 3.4.8) As vr b = . v’c.5.9) (CP 3.Chapter 10 . CP 3.3.

is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.18 Beam Design . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3. vt. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5.4. The torsional shear stress.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. obtained from each load combination.5. Determine special section properties. 10. vt. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine critical torsion stress.4. 10. In typical framed construction.5.3.15).3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.

min = min 0.067 f cu . For lightweight concrete. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.Chapter 10 .7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.067 f cu .8 f cu .min is defined as: vt .8 (CP Part 2 5.4.1) For flanged sections.4.5) Beam Design 10 .4.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.4. vt.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.min = min 0.19 . exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .4.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.3.0. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.min.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. vt. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.0.4.6 N / mm 2 x 0.5) 10. vt.5.

torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.6). the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.7) In the preceding expressions. In that case.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. However. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.5. the concrete section should be increased in size.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .min.4.8 f cu .4. If vt > vt. is less than the threshold limit. is calculated as: Asv .7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2. 10 .t sv = T 0.6).t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.t /sv. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.20 Beam Design . An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. Asv. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4. vt. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.min.4.8 x1 y1 (0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. a failure message is declared.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. vt.min. vt.3. In that case.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.

1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6.21 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Slab Design 10 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Chapter 10 . 10.

The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. given the bending moment. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. is obtained and reported. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 10.6.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In some cases. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.5.1. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. 10. for each load combination.6.1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.12. 10. CP Table 3. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Where openings occur. In that case. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. at a given design section in a design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.22 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.3.

5d from the face of the support (CP 3.12.2.7.6.Chapter 10 .e. 10.7. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.1). Slab Design 10 .4. interior. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. edge. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.7.5.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.12. 10.1).7.6). In addition..2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.7. 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. The column location (i.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .23 .

7.4. Table 3.4.4.7.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.2. Table 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1.24 Slab Design .9) (CP 3.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.7.5. the following limitations also apply: 10 .5d 1.6): 0.4.5d 1.5.5.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. 3.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.6.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.5.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.7.2) However.5d Interior Column 1.

5. 10.7.6.4. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4. Table 3.7.9) (CP 3. (CP 3. 3. 4 MPa) f cu .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.63 v ≤ min (0. where (CP 3.4.8 fcu .5 M y 1 .4. v. Table 3.2. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.3) 1 .9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.6.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.5. Table 3.7.6.25 .2.9) For light-weight concrete.5.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .4. Table 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.4.2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.7.4) (CP 3. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.Chapter 10 .5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.5. the nominal design shear stress.

6. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 10.6.25 ⎩ for interior columns. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.7.26 Slab Design . 10.7.2.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. vc.5).7.25 ⎪1.5). and for corner columns. 10 .3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.7. 3.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.6.7.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 10. (CP 3. for edge columns. and vmax.6.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.

6.5) 0.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7.Chapter 10 .6vc.87 f yv If 1. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. (CP 3.7. edge.7v − vc ) ud = . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7.3.87 f yv If v > vmax. ≥ s 0. ≥ s 0.27 .6vc ≤ v < 2.5) (CP 3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.7. and corner column.87 f yv 0.e. a failure condition is declared.87 f yv 0.0vc. 0.4ud Av 5 ( 0. (CP 3. i.7.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . the concrete section should be increased in size.. 10.

between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d (CP 3. s.7.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.7.7.3. and 20-millimeter diameter. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.6. g.7. 12-. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.28 Slab Design . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so. the distance. When specifying shear studs. 10.7. Therefore.6) 10 . Height. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and 8.6). edge. and interior columns respectively. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. 16-.6) (CP 3.6) (CP 3. for corner. The limits of so and the spacing. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.7. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 6.7.5d.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d.5d s ≤ 0. 14-.75d g ≤ 1.

Standards Australia International Ltd. Sydney. AS. London. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. Australia. Building and Construction Authority. 2005.O. 2. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. Farmington Hills. UK. 1. P. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. and 3. Singapore. 2001. British Standards Institution.2R-07). Farmington Hills. 2008. February 2008. Part 1. Michigan. BSI. 2. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 1997. BC. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). 38800 Country Club Drive. GPO Box 5420. Michigan. Box 9094. TM R-1 . NSW 2001.1 and Amendment No. American Concrete Institute. American Concrete Institute. ACI. BC 2:2008. Structural Use of Concrete.References ACI. 2007. 2008.

Bureau of Indian Standards. London. CP 65:Part 1:1999. Kowloon.3-04. NZS. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. European Committee for Standardization. Part 2. Part 1-1. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. 2004. Twentieth Reprint. India. 1985. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. 2. Third Edition. March 2000. Singapore. Standards New Zealand. R-2 . Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Manak Bhavan. IS. 2004. CP. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. EN 1992-1-1. Design of Concrete Structures. Canada. and 3. CSA. New Zealand. 1. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. European Committee for Standardization. Belgium. 2004. 1999. Structural Use of Concrete. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. New Delhi 110002. Canadian Standards Association. September 2000. Private Bag 2439. Ontario. incorporating Amendments Nos. HK CP. Rexdale. EN 1990:2002.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Mongkok. British Standards Institution. Brussels. Hong Kong. Belgium. Wellington. 750 Nathan Road. Concrete Structures Standard. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. A23. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. Buildings Department. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). 2000. 1. UK. Brussels. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. 2006. 2005.

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