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DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
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2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

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3 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.3 4.4 3.5.1 3.3-04 5.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.6 5 Design for CSA A23.1 Notations 5-1 ii .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.6.2 3.5.5.1 4.5.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.4 4.6.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.1 Design for Flexure 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.2 4.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.1 Design for Flexure 3.5.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.28 6.6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.6.6.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.1 Design for Flexure 5.1 Design for Flexure 6.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.6.2 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.4 6.1 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.3 6.Contents 5.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.2 6.1 7.4 5.5.5.5.5.3 5.2 7.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .6.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.

3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.1 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.4.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.4 9.5.4.5.2 9.3 9.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.6.5.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.6.2 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.1 Design for Flexure 8.1 Effects of Torsion 8.4 7.1 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5.1 Design for Flexure 7.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.5.5.3 8.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.

6.6 Slab Design 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .5.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.6.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 10.6.5 Beam Design 10.2 Design Load Combinations 10.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6 Slab Design 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.1 Notations 10.5.6.Contents 9.1 Design for Flexure 9.

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1-1 . it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. Specifically. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. and torsion reinforcement. shear. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. and it designs beam flexural.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks.

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all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 2. The code is based on inch-pound-second units.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Notations 2-1 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. sq-in Gross area of concrete.

psi 2-2 Notations . sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Depth to neutral axis. in Width of section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Width of web (flanged section).

in Critical torsion capacity. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Height of the flange.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.Chapter 2 . lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. (0. psi Overall depth of a section. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Factored shear force at a section. in Factored moment at a section. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement.

6L 1.2D + 1. live load (L).2D + 1.0L + 0. and earthquake (E) loads.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.6 (0.2D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.0L ± 1.5S ± 1.1) (ACI 9.2.6.0E 1.2D + 1.2.2.0L ± 1.6W 1. pattern live load (PL).0E 1.6W 1.2.75 PL) 0. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .6W 0.1) (ACI 13.2D + 1.8W 1.2S ± 1.1) are the same.0L + 0.2.2.6L + 0.2D + 1.0L + 1.4D 1.5S 1. For ACI 318-08.2D + 1.1) (ACI 9.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.1) (ACI 9.0E (ACI 9.2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1. wind (W).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs. degrees 2. snow (S).2D + 1.6S ± 0.3) (ACI 9.7.9D ± 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.6S 1.1): 1.9D ± 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.

shear forces.1) (ACI 9. The φ factors for flexure.2).3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.5. caution is advised. and other criteria described in this section. f' c .3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. shear.3) 2. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. torsion. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. 2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. however. and torsion based on the beam moments. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.Chapter 2 .3. φ. 2. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. (ACI 9. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. or if other types of loads are present. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. load combination factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1. fy. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 .1). and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. fyt.

shear. and torsion only. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. for a particular station. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

fy .2) Beam Design 2-7 .2.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.1.5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.3.003.e.2). Mu (i. shear. designing top or bottom reinforcement). a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition. and torsion only.2.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. is summarized in the text that follows. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. which by default is 0. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. The maximum depth of the compression zone.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.2.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0. the width.Chapter 2 .4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or the strength of the concrete. 2. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.and T-beams). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).90 (ACI 9. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.1) in the preceding and the following equations.3.5).3. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. The design procedure used by SAFE. which is equal to 0. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4). cmax. where. Furthermore.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.005 (ACI 10.2.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.3.003 εsmin = 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.4).2.7.85 (ACI 10. εcmax = 0.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.3.3) (ACI 10.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.7.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.1) β1 = 0. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10. amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .85 − 0.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.

2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2.Chapter 2 .3. 10. If a > amax.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. or at the top if Mu is negative.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .7.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .2.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.2. 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2.3. where ( f 's − 0.

As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore.003 0.10 Beam Design . if the moment is positive. 2. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. the flange comes under tension. and vice versa if Mu is negative. as shown in Figure 2-2. In that case.1.2.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 .e. i.. a simplified stress block.5. and the flange is ignored. If the moment is negative.85 f ′ c 0. is assumed if the flange is under compression. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.

3. designing top reinforcement).005 (ACI 10. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.7. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.5.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2.2. cmax. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. amax. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.2) εcmax = 0.Chapter 2 .3) (ACI 10.2.1.85 (ACI 10.5.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. which is equal to 0.003 εsmin = 0.. 2.3.2.2.2.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2) where.90 (ACI 9..2.85 − 0. which by default is 0.3.3) Beam Design 2 . i.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.e.1) β1 = 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. The maximum depth of the compression zone. no flanged beam data is used.e.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10. Mu (i.2.4): cmax = where.11 .7.1.

and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the calculation for As has two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.12 Beam Design . 2 .90 by default. the value for φ is 0. amax ) Therefore.3. the balance of the moment. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . Cf is given by: C f = 0. Cf. as shown in Figure 2-2. As1 = given by: (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. Cw. Therefore. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.7.2.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. If a > hf. However. Mu .5).

Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.7.2. 10.Chapter 2 .2.2. where ( f 's − 0.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .2.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.3. 10.3.13 .85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .2.

min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. Vu. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. for a particular load combination.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. bw d ⎟ As .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.14 Beam Design . 2 .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. Determine the shear force. 2.1.5.4bw d ⎧0. Vc.5.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2.3) An upper limit of 0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.

the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. φ. and Vmax.5.1.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.15 .5.9) Given Vu.7. Vc. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.Chapter 2 .1. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.5.2. is 0. Vc.2.5. If Vu ≤ 0.2.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value. 2.1) Beam Design 2 .5.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.5. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.1.2.3.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.Design for ACI 318-08 2. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. 2.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.3. 11.75 (ACI 9.1.3.1.1) For light-weight concrete.6.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11. fyt.3). the strength reduction factor.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in. 2 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.1. the concrete section should be increased in size.5. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.5.7. Determine special section properties. 11. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.1(c)).6. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.5. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. 2.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2) ⎛ 0.5.6. 2.5. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.3) If Vu > φVmax.16 Beam Design .5.6.5.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. and 0.6. the equation given in ACI 11.5bw.7. Tu. (ACI 11.5.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .5hf.7.7.

special section properties. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 .2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. 2.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.17 . This is equivalent to 1. If redistribution is desired. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.2). 2. Ao.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup.6. However. such as Aoh.3.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. such as Acp. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. are calculated. and ph. Ao.5. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. and ph. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.6.1).Chapter 2 .75 inches.2). pcp.3. Aoh.2.

h.6.1) (ACI 11.1. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.6.1) where the section dimensions bf. 2. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. Similarly.3.3. 2.1.1.3.3. 2.1.1) (ACI 11. 2. With this assumption. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.6. With this assumption.1.6.6.5. 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.3. hf. 2.1.2.1.1) (ACI 11. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) (ACI 11. However.3. 2.1) where.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.18 Beam Design .6(b)) (ACI 11. the section dimensions b.1) (ACI11.4).3.6. 2.1.1.1) (ACI 11. R11.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.6(b)) (ACI 11. 2.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.6. 2. bw. 2.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.1(c)) 2 . Tcr.1. R11.6.6.6.6.3.6.3.6.6. h. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.

Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. θ is taken as 45 degrees. fyt.3.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11.3.5. and compression diagonals (ACI R11. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.6. Tcr. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.6.19 . At /s.2. In that case. which is equal to 0. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3.3).3.6).3) In the preceding expressions. However. 2. Beam Design 2 .6.6. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.6. fy. is limited to 60 ksi. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.75 by default (ACI 9. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. Tcr.3.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).5. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11.6.6) where.3. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit. 11.Chapter 2 . longitudinal bars.7.3.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.6.1).5.6).

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.3. a failure message is declared. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.20 Beam Design .75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.2) 2 .6. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr). bw is replaced with b.6. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.1) For rectangular sections.5. In that case. the concrete section should be increased in size.

The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.3 independently. 2.6. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips.Chapter 2 . In that case. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 2. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.21 . Slab Design 2 .

min = 0.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.22 Slab Design .6.1(c)) 0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. are repeated for every load combination. This is the method used when drop panels are included. at a given design section in a design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. described in the text that follows.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.2. for each load combination.1(b)) (ACI 7. In that case.2): As. is obtained and reported.12.min = (ACI 7. In some cases. 2. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1(a)) (ACI 7.12.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.12. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2. Where openings occur. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. given the bending moment.6. 2.2.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.12.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.min = 0. 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

The column location (i.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.1.Chapter 2 . interior. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 2.. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.3).04 times the gross cross-sectional area.11.2.e. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.2).23 .6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. edge. 2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.11.

2 Eq.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2 For corner columns. C-13) (ACI 421.24 Slab Design .2 Eq. C-16) 2 . γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2 Eq. C-15) (ACI 421. C-11) (ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.3.5. C-12) For edge columns.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 Eq.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.5. For interior columns. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.6. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2 Eq.1) For flat plates. γvx = 0.2.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.3.2 Eq.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.

⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.11.2. 2.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .1. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6. for edge columns.2.2.11. respectively. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. x and y.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.6. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes.1) where.Chapter 2 . (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. and for corner columns.2. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.25 .3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.

75 (ACI 9.3). the strength reduction factor. is 0. If this ratio exceeds 1.11. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.2) (ACI 11. 2 .3.6.26 Slab Design . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.1) (ACI 11.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. 2.2. φ. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.11.3.5. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.3).3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.11.0.1) 2.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.6.11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. where.11. Vc. and Vmax.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. 2.3.3.

7.11.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.27 . 11.4.6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11. edge. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3). i.e.4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.1. the concrete section should be increased in size.11..2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. and corner column.3. 2.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. Slab Design 2 .Chapter 2 .3.7.

The spacing between adjacent shear studs.11. 6.11.5.3) 2 . g. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of so and the spacing. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. edge. and interior columns respectively.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs. so.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. s. 1/2-.28 Slab Design . Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. Height. 5/8-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. and 3/4-inch diameters.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.2) ⎧0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.5. for corner. and 8.2) (ACI 11. Therefore. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.6.5d (ACI 11.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. 2.5. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. the distance.11.

1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm Notations 3-1 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 3. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.

mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Depth of compression block. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Mean value of do. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Overall depth of a section. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement.

(0. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. MPa Torsional modulus. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 . N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. to the effective depth. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy.Chapter 3 . N Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. mm Factored shear force at a section. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section.max Vu. N-mm Factored moment at section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N-mm Factored axial load at section.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength.

pattern live load (PL).2D + 1.2D ± 1.9D ± 1. snow (S). 4. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.3. 4. and earthquake (E) loads.2. 4. live load (L). 4.5L 1. 4. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2. 4.0D ± 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion. degrees 3. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.5(0.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2D + 0.0W 1.0-02.2D + 1.1): 1.4L ± 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.4L ± 1.0-02.0-02.0S 0. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.2(f)) Note that the 0.0-02.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0-02. 4.75 PL) 1. For AS 3600-01.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.35D 1.2D + 0.0W 1.0D + 0.2. wind (W).2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.0E (AS/NZS 1170.0-02. 4.0E 1.2.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0W 1.0-02.2. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .0-02.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L + 1.

shear.Design for AS 3600-01 3.1.3(c)) 3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1. for all framing type (AS 6. Table 2. and torsion based on the beam moments.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. respectively. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.Chapter 3 . however.1).1(b)).70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.3(c).3(c)) (AS 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1.1.1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2.2.1.1. torsion. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . Table 6. load combination factors.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1. is defined as given in AS 2. shear forces.3: φ = 0.1.1) (AS 6. 3. caution is advised. 19. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.1. and other criteria described in the text that follows. 6. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1). (AS 2.2. φ.2.

Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.5. shear.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. for a particular station. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. and torsion only.

1.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.15N ) (AS 10.3) γ = [0.1).2. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.1. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. fy . the width.2). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.2. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.007( f 'c −28)] 0.2). is given by amax = γk u d where.85 ku = 0. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.2. A uniform compressive stress of 0. or the strength of the concrete. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.003.1a).85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.Chapter 3 . It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. shear. and torsion only. (AS 8.7.1. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.2) Beam Design 3-7 . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. amax. (AS 8.85 − 0.2.

the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design . where.003 b Cs c 0. M (i.1.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.1..80 (AS 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).e.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.3) in the preceding and following equations.2.4).1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.2. ε = 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).5. which by default is 0.2) where. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.

1.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .Chapter 3 .2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.4. 6.1. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .. or at the top * if M is negative.1.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8. ku > 0.2.2.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. where ( f 's − 0.2. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0. If a > amax. i.e.1.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.

3).e.1.. If the moment is negative. as shown in Figure 3-2. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. i. M (i.e.1.. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1. is assumed if the flange is under compression. if the moment is positive. i..2. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. the flange comes under tension.5. ε = 0. and the flange is ignored.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . 3.2. and vice versa if M is negative. designing top reinforcement). no flanged beam data is used.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.e. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. 3. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.5.85 f ′ c 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.003 bf Ds * 0. a simplified stress block.10 Beam Design . In that case.

ku = 0. is given by: a max = γk u d where. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.2. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.4 (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-01 3. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . in that case. the calculation for Ast has two parts.3) If a ≤ Ds. Cf.2. the balance of the moment.3) in the preceding and the following equations.1. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. Cf is given by: C f = 0.85 f 'c φb f where.2. the width of the beam is taken as bf. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. which is 0. As1 = given by: (AS 8.1. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. Cw. amax.4. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.5. as shown in Figure 3-2. If a > Ds. amax ) Therefore.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. However.Chapter 3 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.80 by default (AS 2.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .11 .1.

and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. where ′ − 0.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.1.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. 6.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.12 Beam Design .2.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus . If a1 > amax.2.2.

04bw d ⎧0.5.Chapter 3 .22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.2) An upper limit of 0.6 f 'c (AS 6. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. 3.min = 0.1.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.1) f 'cf = 0.1. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.4.1.13 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.

1) β1 = 1.2.6 − β2 = 1. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.14 Beam Design .2.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.5.2. 3.5.1) (AS 8.5.2. Determine the shear force. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.7. V . 13 (AS 8. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. * 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Vuc. with the corresponding load combination factors.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. Vuc. for a particular load combination.7.7. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.1⎜1. that can be resisted by the concrete.

2.min.10) Asv. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2. φ.9) (AS 8.15 .5(c)(i)).3).2. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.max .5.min < V * ≤ φVu.35 w ⎜ s f sy.max. whichever is greater (AS 8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.min shall be provided. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0. the strength reduction factor. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. (AS 8. Vuc.8) Beam Design 3 .2.2.6bv d o Vu .6 by default (AS 2. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. Asv = 0 . and Vu. min = Vuc + 0. = s fsy.2.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. If φVu. is 0. max = 0. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.Chapter 3 .6) Given V . Asv = 0. where.5).Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.2. V * − φVuc Asv .2.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu. s otherwise Asv.min .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . defined as: ( ) (AS 8. ⎟ ⎠ 3.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

as described in the following sections. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 3 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 3.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.21 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 3. Slab Design 3 .

3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1.1. given the bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1(a)) As ≥ 0. for each load combination. at a given design section in a design strip. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers. are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. Where openings occur.6. In some cases.1.6.6.22 Slab Design . is obtained and reported.1. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1): As ≥ 0. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. 3.1(b)) In addition. 3 . there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. which are described in the following subsections. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. 3. In that case. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2.3). 3. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Chapter 3 .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.e.6. edge.2. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .1). The column location (i.6.. interior.Design for AS 3600-01 3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.1.2.1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.23 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.

2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.2.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.6. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.3σ cp ) b. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. is given as (AS 9.2. Vu .0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.2. Vuo .2.3σ cp ≤ 0. is given as (AS 9.2.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.3(b)) (AS 9.5 f c' + 0. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.3(a)): a.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. 3 . when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.3(a)) where.2.2.6. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.24 Slab Design .4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.4(a)) 3.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.

3.25 . Vu. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. 3.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2.6.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 . The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and Vu.2.1). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. V * − φVu Asv = .Chapter 3 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. is the strength reduction factor.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.Given V*.Design for AS 3600-01 3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.3 or 9.4(a). where. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.4.2.2.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.max.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.min = 3*Vu (AS 92. φ. 3.7.4.

edge. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.7. Therefore.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size. and corner column.7.4).4.4. 3.3.4) If V > φVmax. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6. the minimum number of 3 .. a failure condition is declared.3. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.3) (NZS 12. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.26 Slab Design . i.e.

6. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 3.4) Slab Design 3 .4) (NZS 12. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. When specifying shear studs. so.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. the distance.3.4) (NZS 12.5d s ≤ 0.4. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. edge. for corner.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4.6. s.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. and interior columns respectively.7.7.5d. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. g. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. Height.4.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4. The limits of so and the spacing. and 8. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.Chapter 3 .27 .

.

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . For light-weight concrete and torsion. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. For simplicity. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 4.

mm 4-2 Notations . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Torsional constant. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. assumed as 200.

Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Normalized design moment.Chapter 4 . MPa Neutral axis depth. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.

and wind (W) loads. 0.75PL) 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.2L + 1.6L + 1.4D 1.4. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain.4.4.1.4D + 1.4.2S ± 1. live load (L).4.2W 1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.6S 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.3) (BS 2.2S ± 1. pattern live load (PL).3) (BS 2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).6L 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations . 1.0D ± 1.3) (BS 2.2W 1.2D + 1.4.4D + 1.2W (BS 2.2D + 1.6(0.4W 1.4D ± 1. γf (BS 2.2L ± 1. mm Lever arm.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3).2D + 1.4W 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible. For BS 8110-1997. snow (S).3).4D + 1.

fcu.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used. If other grades are used.4.15 1. 4.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. as taken from BS Table 2. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.2 (BS 2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. 4. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.50 1. Note that the automatic combination. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. Note that for reinforcement. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. the default factor of 1.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.1. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.7.4.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . including pattern live load. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. this value should be overwritten as necessary.Chapter 4 . γm.2).25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.

the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. load combination factors. and torsion based on the beam moments.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear forces. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. for a particular station.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. torsion. and other criteria described below.5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1. and torsion only. shear. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. the 4-6 Beam Design . In such cases.

4.1. Msingle = K'fcu bd . where K' = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. x/d ≤ 0.4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4) Beam Design 4-7 .1. Furthermore. or the strength of the concrete. is first calculated for a section.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. 4. the width. Msingle.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5.4). The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. See Figure 4-1. or equal to Msingle. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4). In such cases. βb ≥ 0. less than.4.2. The design procedure used by SAFE.4.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. shear.156 2 (BS 3. In addition.5.5. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.. 4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. and torsion only.4. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4.4. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.9) (BS 3.Chapter 4 .1). Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.4).e.

or at the top if M is negative. is then given by: As = M . If M > Msingle.5 + 0.4.4.4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.95d z = d ⎜ 0. where 0.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design . As.87 f y z (BS 3.4.4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.25 − ⎜ 0.4.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. the area of tension reinforcement.

2 Design of Flanged Beams 4. Based on this assumption.4. designing top reinforcement).9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.4.4.5.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.1. Fig 2.4. Fig 2.4.25 − ⎜ 0. i.Chapter 4 .1.e.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. M (i.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2.4.4.1. 2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.5.5.1.2.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4.3.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.. Beam Design 4-9 . no flanged beam data is used. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.1.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.5.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2.2.. 4. where (BS 3. and ' f ' s = 0.4.5 + 0.2.3.777d z = d ⎜ 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.e.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. 2.

4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.4.4. See Figure 4-2.5 + 0.4. e = 0.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 . the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.45 (BS 3.10 Beam Design .9 ⎭ (BS 3.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.95d 0.4.4.67 fcu/gm 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.0035 0.

the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.5h f ) .Chapter 4 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4. If a > hf. However. 2 As = M + 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4) If a ≤ hf.156 (BS 3. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.1 f cu bd (0.4.4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4. as shown in Figure 4-2. As = 0. Cw. where (BS 3.11 . where 0. In that case.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.4.4.4.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.45d then.4). the width of the beam is taken as bf.4.87 f y (d − 0. in that case.45d − h f ) 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0. Cf.4.9x (BS 3.4.4) If Kw ≤ 0.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .87 f y (d − 0.5) β f = 0.

Fig 2.5 + 0.12. and ' f ' s = 0.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0. Fig 2.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.1.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4.12 Beam Design .5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.87 f f (0.4.4.3.5.4). The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.5.95d ⎜ 0. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.4.1.2.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.5.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.777d ) 0.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4.4) where.4. 2.4. 4 . 2.3.4.1.25 (BS 3.5.87 f y (d − 0.

6.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.18 100 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.40 100 0.48 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.12.Chapter 4 .24 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0. if it is required.12. which is taken from BS Table 3.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.5.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.32 0.36 0.3).13 .20 An upper limit of 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.1): Beam Design 4 .25 (BS 3.4 bf bw ≥ 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.24 0.

2) The maximum allowable shear stress.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5.4) 4 . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.2) For light-weight concrete. 4. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.4.63 fcu .2.8 fcu .5. vc. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. v.5. for a particular load combination. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. 5 MPa) (BS 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0. Determine the shear stress.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.14 Beam Design .

4.3): Beam Design 4 .5.4.4. Table 3.4.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3. vc.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4.5.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5.4.4. Table 3.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.Chapter 4 .4.5.4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . Table 3.8.8) (BS 2. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.12) 0.4.2.5.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.1) However. and vmax.8) (BS 3. BS 3.2.5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. vc. the following limitations also apply: 0.5.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.4) (BS 3.5.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.4.4.4.15 . Table 3.4.

In the preceding expressions.4. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.4.5.4bw = sv 0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. vt.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0.16 Beam Design .7) (BS 3. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.3. obtained from each load combination.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.5. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.3.87 f yv If v > vmax.5.4) Asv 0. Determine special section properties.2) (BS 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure condition is declared. 4 .4.5. 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0. Table 3. (BS 3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. Table 3. Determine critical torsion stress.4.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.

for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.13).4. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.Design for BS 8110-97 4.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.1) For flanged sections. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.4. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4.5. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. The torsional shear stress.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt.5.4.8 f cu . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. In typical framed construction.4. vt.5) Beam Design 4 .Chapter 4 .17 .3.

0.3.t /sv.4.min. vt. However.4N/mm 2 x 0.4.067 fcu .min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.0.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.t sv = T 0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt is less than the threshold limit. For lightweight concrete. vt. vt. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.6).4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. Asv. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2. is calculated as: Asv .3.5.4.min. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.min = min 0.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.5) 4.7) In the preceding expressions.067 fcu .8 x1 y1 (0. If vt > vt.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. vt.min = min 0. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .18 Beam Design . 4 .4.6).5.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5. In that case.min is defined as: vt .min.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.4.

The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.8 fcu . v and torsional shear stress.63 fcu . the concrete section should be increased in size. In that case.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. a failure message is declared. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. vt exceeds this limit. Beam Design 4 .Chapter 4 .5) For light-weight concrete.19 . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.4) If the combination of shear stress. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.

20 Slab Design . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 4. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. is obtained and reported. 4. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. for each load combination. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 4 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.

4.5.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3) In addition.12.1.Chapter 4 . 4. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7. 4.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. In that case. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6). the slab width is adjusted accordingly. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1).3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 . given the bending moment.1.21 . Where openings occur.6.7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.6. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.7.3.12. at a given design section in a design strip.6. This is the method used when drop panels are included. BS Table 3.6.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.2. In some cases.12.

1.7.4.5d 1.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.22 Slab Design .4.7.1).5.5d 1. edge.7.7.5d Interior Column 1. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6): 1 1 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.2.8) 4 .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.5d 1.e. Table 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3. 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7..2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.5.4.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3. interior. The column location (i.

5.5.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. v.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.4.6.5M ⎛ y 1. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.4. is calculated as: v= Veff ud . 4.6.63 fcu .2.4.8 f cu .4.Chapter 4 . the nominal design shear stress.4) v ≤ min(0.6.6. 5MPa) (BS 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.5.7.5.2) However.3) 1.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 . Table 3. Table 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .2.23 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.7.4. where (BS 3.8) (BS 3. 3.4) For light-weight concrete.5.7. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.4.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.7.7.4.4) (BS 3.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.

7.25 ⎪1.7. 4.2. 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.6.6. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.24 Slab Design .3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.6.3. 4. 4 .7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.5).

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

5L 0.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations . and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. live load (L).5S ± 0.25D + 1.25D + 1.2.4W 0.4W 0.5L + 0.3. pattern live load (PL).5L 0.5S 1.25D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads. Table C.3-04.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses. snow (S).25D + 1.2.5L ± 0. Table C.4W 1.1) 1.5S 0.9D + 1.25D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).8.5L ± 0.5L + 0.5S + 0. Table C.25D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.5L 1.3.25D + 1.9D + 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.5S 1.5(0.9D + 1.4W (CSA 8.3) (CSA 8.5S ± 0.2. Table C. wind (W).9D + 1.4D 1.4.75 PL) 1.5L 1.3.1 Case 1) (CSA 8. For CSA A23.9D + 1.5S + 0.9D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2.5S 0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.3.

however.5L ± 1.25S ± 1.4W 1.9D + 0.65 for concrete φs = 0.3-04 code is used.2.25D + 0. (CSA 8.0D + 0.1).4.6.2.3-04 1.1) 5.1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.5L + 0.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.9D + 0. (CSA 8. respectively. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. Table C.Chapter 5 .9D ± 1. Table C.25D ± 1.5. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.1).25S ± 1.4W 1.5S ± 1.0E (CSA 8. for all framing types (CSA 8. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. φ.4W 0.3.0E 1.Design for CSA A23. 5.2) (CSA 8.5L ± 1.0E 1.0D + 0. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.0E 1.4.25D + 0.4W 1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.4W 0.0D + 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.5S ± 1.0D ± 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .4W 0.5L ± 1.6.3. caution is advised.

In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear forces. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. shear. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. torsion. and torsion only.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. load combination factors. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design .5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.

e.1) Beam Design 5-7 .and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Furthermore.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1.5.4). shear. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.1. In such cases. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). the width. 5.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. or the strength of the concrete.1.2.5. Mf (i.Chapter 5 . where..2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. and torsion only. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 5.Design for CSA A23. The design procedure used by SAFE.7). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. designing top or bottom reinforcement).

4. β1 = 0.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .0015f'c ≥ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. The parameters α1.5.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.2) in the preceding and the following equations.1.65 (CSA 8.7) (CSA 10.85 – 0.7) (CSA 10.0025f'c ≥ 0. β1.1.67 cb = (CSA 10.2).5. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.97 – 0.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.67.

or at the top if Mf is negative.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .2. If a > ab (CSA 10.2).Design for CSA A23.1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.1.Chapter 5 .5.1. 10. where f ′ = 0.

the value of φc is 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative. The parameters α1.5.2 5.0015 f' c ≥ 0.7) (CSA 10.10.97 – 0.85 – 0. β1.1.65 (CSA 8.7) (CSA 10. As = As1 + As2.5. no flanged beam data is used.10 Beam Design .67 cb = (CSA 10. designing top reinforcement).. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. the total tension reinforcement..67 β1 = 0.2) in the preceding and the following equations. i.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.0025 f' c ≥ 0.2.1.4. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.1. 5.2.2.2.1.1) where.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.5.1.e.5. Mf (i.4.1. 5.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.e. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.7) 5 .1.

As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.Chapter 5 . Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. If a > hs. However. Cf. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.11 .Design for CSA A23.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.3-04 If a ≤ hs.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. the balance of the moment. calculation for As has two parts.1. ab ) c ε = 0.

12 Beam Design . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . If a1 > ab (CSA 10.2). and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. where 5 .5.1. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .5.

5.1.13 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.1.1) An upper limit of 0. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.5.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .1.3.Design for CSA A23.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.3) In addition.1.2. 5.Chapter 5 . 10.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.5.

04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.5. 5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2.04bw d ⎧0. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5. with the corresponding load combination factors. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.3. Vc.4.5.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. Vf. for a particular loading combination. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear force. 5 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2).14 Beam Design . is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. Vc.65 (CSA 8. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. By default it is taken as 0.2.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 5.

it is the width of the web of the beam. (CSA 8.3.6.6.2).3. and described further in the following sections. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.5): ⎧1. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand.Chapter 5 . For normal density concrete. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.21 (CSA 11.3). The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. it is the width of the beam. For concrete using lower density aggregate. For flanged beams. For rectangular beams.6.4. and the tensile force is negligible.6.3.6. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.00. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. If the overall beam depth. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.6. It is taken as the greater of 0. h. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.5).6.1 and 0.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.75.Design for CSA A23.6.15 .3): Beam Design 5 .4).72h. as follows (CSA 11. if applicable. It is determined according to CSA 11.2).9d or 0.85.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. β is taken as 0. the general method is used (CSA 11.3. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. ⎪0. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.3. bw is the effective web width.6.3. d v is the effective shear depth. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. which is taken by the program as the default value. Its value is normally between 0. its value is 1 (CSA 8.2).

For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa.3. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.3. the crack spacing parameter.3a). β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.18.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.6. for simplified cases. In summary.6.3. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. or 5 .16 Beam Design .3. However.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11.3.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. ⎪ 0. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. and ag ≥ 20mm. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.6. sze.18 (CSA 11.c) In the preceding expression.6. and ag < 20mm. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.3. β is taken as 0. ag.18 (CSA 11. β = 0.3 c) where.

3.4) In the preceding expression.Design for CSA A23.3. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.6.3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam.3.17 . Nf is taken as positive for tension.6. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.3. The longitudinal strain.6. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. 11.6. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.3.85Sz otherwise. (CSA 11.3.6.3(b)). and linearly interpolated between these values. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.4(a)) (CSA 11.4): β= 0.3-04 tension is not negligible. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.6.3.6.4). if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.6. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.6.3. 11. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. Beam Design 5 .6.4(a)) (CSA 2.1.Chapter 5 .40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.

it is recalculated with the following equation.3. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.003 (CSA 11. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.6. taken as half of the total area.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.max = 0.2. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.3.max. εx = M f d v + V f + 0. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11.6. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.6.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.5.4(d)).3.3.18 Beam Design . the shear strength of the section due to concrete.3.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.1) 5 . in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.4(e)). Vc. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. the program performs the design in two passes. and Vr.3. 5. In the first pass. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.6. To check this condition. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .

2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.6. It is determined according to CSA 11.3.4). where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.8. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.3. the term θ is used.8. or by calculation. a failure condition is declared.19 .6. h. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. which was described previously.3). 11. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.3. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees. If the overall beam depth.3). the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.3. Beam Design 5 .3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.2.max .3.2.2). The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.2) In the preceding equations.6. (CSA 11.3. whenever applicable.Chapter 5 .25Tcr.6. Similar to the β factor.6.1) (CSA 11.5.2.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .3.3.Design for CSA A23.8.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .3.1.

The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3) If the axial force is tensile.4).3).3. f y ≤ 400 MPa.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. Determine special section properties. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. f y > 400 MPa. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. Determine critical torsion capacity. 5. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . Tf.20 Beam Design .6.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. 5 .6. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.3. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.6. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.6.

5. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.3). with the corresponding load combination factors. and ph. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.21 . This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.Chapter 5 . and ph are calculated. However.5. such as Ac. If redistribution is desired.9. such as Aoh. pc.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. With this assumption.3-04 5. Ao. special section properties. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2.2). Ao. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.3.5. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. However. With this assumption.Design for CSA A23.2. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. Aoh.

22 Beam Design . λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.2. Tcr.3.3. hf.1) (CSA 11. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.9.10.2. bw.10.10.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.2.10. 5 .3. the section dimensions b.3) (CSA 11. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.9. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.3.9.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.9. h.3) (CSA 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.1) (CSA 11.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.10.9. which is equal to 0. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.5. 5.3) (CSA 11.3.1) (CSA 11.3. h.10. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. Similarly.2.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.4).4) where.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3.4) where the section dimensions bf.2.65.

However.3.5. At /s. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.2.1). is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11. Tcr. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .3.3-04 5.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0. Tcr.5 N f + (V f − 0.23 . In that case.Design for CSA A23. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.Chapter 5 .9. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.10.3).

24 Beam Design . bw is replaced with b.10.2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 11. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.3.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11. θ is computed as previously described for shear.3. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).4) For rectangular sections.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.3.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.9) In the preceding expressions.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. 5 . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8. If the general method is being used.6.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.3. a failure message is declared. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.10.10. In that case. the concrete section should be increased in size.

Slab Design 5 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.25 .6.Design for CSA A23.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 5. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 5 . is obtained and reported. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.3-04 5. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. for each load combination. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.10.1) In addition.002 bh (CSA 7. 5. 5.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 5.26 Slab Design . 5 .1. at a given design section in a design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6. In some cases.6. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. Where openings occur.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. In that case. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.1): As ≥ 0.1. given the bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.8.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6.1.

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.Design for CSA A23. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.2.3.3. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1 and CSA 13.3).3. edge.27 . interior.2.3-04 5. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. where Slab Design 5 .3..6.3.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.3.e. The column location (i.Chapter 5 .2).2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.

19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0. exceeds 300 mm.6.3. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.4.4. d.4. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.3. 5 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. (CSA 13.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .3.2) If the effective depth.5. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.3).10.3.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.1) where. 5.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.28 Slab Design . βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. and (CSA 13. and ⎪for corner columns.4.3.2.

3.2) Given vf.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.Design for CSA A23. and vf. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3.8.75λφ c (CSA 13. 5.Chapter 5 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2.max.6. where..1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3-04 5. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3. Slab Design 5 . the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3) 5.2. is the strength reduction factor.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13. vc. 5.3.29 .6.1). The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. φs.6.max = 0. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.8.

Therefore.8.3. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 6. 5 . Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. for corner.4d. edge.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13.e. 5.6.3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and 8. and corner column. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. i. and interior columns respectively. edge. (CSA 13. a failure condition is declared. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.3.30 Slab Design .8.5) If vf > vf.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.max.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. the concrete section should be increased in size..max.

so. Height.3. When specifying shear studs.6) Slab Design 5 .8.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.Chapter 5 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3. The limits of so and the spacing.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.4d.31 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. s.3-04 5.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.Design for CSA A23.4 d ⎧ 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.6) (CSA 13.8.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13. the distance.6.

.

Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. However. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For simplicity. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. 6.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.

mm Flange thickness. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. mm Lever arm. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 .max u VRdc VRd. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. N Depth of neutral axis. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd.Chapter 6 .max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N-mm Normalized design moment. mm Design moment at a section.

j Gk . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.10a) ∑ξ γ j G.1Qk . 6. snow (S). 6. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. and earthquake (E) loads. ∑γ j ≥1 G.i Qk . live load (L).i Qk .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. 6. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).10b.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6.i Qk . and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .1 + ∑ γ Q .1 + ∑ γ Q . ∑G j ≥1 k. j Gk .1Qk .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.12b) For this code. j + γ P P + γ Q .1ψ 0. wind (W).10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. j + γ P P + γ Q . 6.12b.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.1Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . j Gk .iψ 0.i Qk . pattern live load (PL). 6. 6.iψ 0.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq. j + γ P P + γ Q .iψ 0.10a and 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.

1 W + γQ.supD + (0.i ψ0. 6.1 S ± γQ.supD + γQ.1 PL γGj.0E + ψ2.i ψ0. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.10) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 L + γQ.3): γGj.75)γQ.i L D ± 1.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 L γGj.0E D ± 1.i W + γQ.1 W + γQ.i L γGj.1 W γGj.supD + γQ.i S ± γQ.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.75)γQ.1 L ± γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.i L D ± 1.i ψ0.i W γGj.i ψ0.i L + γQ.1 S ± γQ.i L + ψ2.1 S + γQ.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.10a) (EC0 Eq.i S (EC0 Eq.1 W (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.supD + (0. 6.i S γGj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .inf D ± γQ. 6.i ψ0.1 L ξ γGj.1 L + γQ.sup D γGj.supD + (0. 6.sup D γGj.Chapter 6 .0E + ψ2.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.75)γQ. 6.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.10a and 6.sup D + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6. γGj. 6.sup D ± γQ.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.supD + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj.sup D ± γQ.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.i W γGj. 6.1 ψ0.1 PL ξ γGj. 6. 6.10b.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.i S γGj.i ψ0. 6. 6.1 W γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq. 6.i W γGj. 6.sup D + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.1 L γGj.sup D ξ γGj.1 ψ0.4.i ψ0.

0E + ψ2.i L + ψ2.i ψ0.6 (wind load) = 0.1 S + γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ.i ξ = 1.1 L ± γQ.i S γGj.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i L γGj.35 γGj.1 ψ0.1 L ± γQ.5 = 0.1 W ξ γGj.1 L + γQ. γGj.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.sup = 1.1 W γGj.i L γGj.7 (live load. 6.5 = 1.i S (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.inf D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 W γGj.i L γGj.sup D + γQ.inf = 1.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .1 S ± γQ.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.0E D ± 1.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.00 γQ.i S D ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.5 (snow load.i ψ0. 6.0E + ψ2.i ψ0. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.i W γGj.i L D ± 1.12b) For both sets of load combinations.10b) (EC0 Eq.85 (EC0 Table A1.1) (EC0 Table A1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.1 S + γQ.1 ψ0.sup D ± γQ.1 ψ0. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows. assumed not to be storage) = 0.i S γGj.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.i S ξ γGj.i ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1. 6.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.i W ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.1 W + γQ.inf D ± γQ.1 γQ.1 W + γQ.1 S ± γQ.

1.6(1)). should be 400 and 600 MPa. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.7(2)) (EC2 3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.Chapter 6 .6(1)) (EC2 3.2(2)). other appropriate load combinations should be used. γs and γc as shown here. 6.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ2. fck.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.1.i = 0.2. respectively (EC2 3.2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.3 (live.2.2(3)).4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. αcc is taken as 1. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. fyk. 6. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .

The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. torsion. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. For accidental and earthquake situations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement.4. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .5. for a particular station.2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.4. shear. γc = 1. Table 2. and torsion only. 6. caution is advised. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors.4). The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. however.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. and torsion based on the beam moments.4(1). These values can be overwritten. shear forces.2. γs = 1. The user should consider those separately. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

the width.Chapter 6 . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.7(3)). The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. In such cases.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.7(3).7(3).1.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5.1. 6. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . In such cases. or the strength of the concrete.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5) (EC2 3.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.1. Fig 3. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Fig 3.1.

The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth. is summarized in the subsections that follow.1.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.44 k2 = k4 = 1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. ( x d )lim .7(3)) (EC2 3.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3. 6 .7(3)) (EC2 3. δ.5(4)). the following values are used: k1 = 0. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.25(0.1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.5(4)) (EC 5.7(3)) λ = 0.and T-beams).6 + 0.5(4)) (EC2 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.10 Beam Design .1.54 (EC 5.5(4)) (EC 5.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.

1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. or equal to mlim. are obtained first.1. the normalized moment.2. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. m.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. m.5. The normalized design moment.Chapter 6 . and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. less than. mlim.11 . mlim.

The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. a singly reinforced beam is designed.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. The area of compression and tension reinforcement.12 Beam Design . are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. ωlim. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. As. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. If m > mlim. and is given by: 6 . A's and As. or at the top if MEd is negative. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement.

8) 6.5.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. The normalized design moment. See Figure 6-2. 3. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. If the stress block extends beyond the flange. Fig 3. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 .. additional calculation is required.e.1.1.1.5(4). i. Based on this assumption.1. MEd (i.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. designing top reinforcement).1. Initially. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.7(4).Chapter 6 ..5.13 .5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. 6.2.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.e.2. 3.2. 3. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. m. no flanged beam data is used. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.

the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. If a > hf. the calculation for As has two parts.14 Beam Design . M1 = M − M2. is determined as follows: 6 . the width of the beam is taken as bf. However. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. in that case. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. as shown in Figure 6-2. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment.

ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.15 .2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.7(4).8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. Fig 3. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. 3.Chapter 6 . f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. Beam Design 6 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As . Table 3.16 Beam Design . at a particular station due to the beam major shear. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1.1) (EC2 3. Table 3.12.min = 0.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. VEd. for a particular load combination.2): Determine the factored shear force. Table 3.1.1. Determine the shear force.c.2.2.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0. VRd. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1) f ctm = 2. 6 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.0013bd (EC2 9.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. Determine the shear reinforcement required. that can be resisted by the concrete.2.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.min = 0.12. 6.12.1(3)).5.1(1)) As .1.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.

17 .c = ⎡C Rd .c.c.c = 0.2.5. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.Chapter 6 .035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. VRd. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.15 Beam Design 6 .18 γ c ν min = 0. 6.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .5. 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. vmin.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .02 bw d (EC2 6.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0. is calculated as: 13 VRd .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2.2.2.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.

18 Beam Design .9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.2.3(1)) (EC2 6.2.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .3(3)) (EC2 6.2. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .2. VRd. Asw Asw. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.3(3)) (EC2 6.min s = 0.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.2.2. 6 .max. a failure condition is declared.5. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2.3(3)) Asw.2.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.2(6)) (EC2 6. VRdc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.max.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.6⎜1 − z = 0. obtained from each load combination.3(3)) (EC2 6.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.

5. Determine special section properties. 6. uk. However. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. tef. 6.1(2)). and zi are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.19 .3.2). These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.5. u. If redistribution is desired. 6. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. Determine critical torsion capacity. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. such as Ak.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.Chapter 6 . special section properties.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.3. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. TEd. Beam Design 6 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3.

2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6. h. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i.3.20 Beam Design . it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.3. Similarly. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) where. such as Ak.2(1)) (EC2 6.3. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2(1)) (EC2 6.3.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.2(3)) 6 . where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. With this assumption.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.3. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. and uk. the section dimensions b.2(1)) (EC2 6. However. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.

c VRd .5. if the equation is not satisfied. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. 6.3.3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3. longitudinal bars.2. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. h. hf. bw.5.2(5)) where VRd.0 TRd .2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.2.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.2(1)) 6. calculated as: TRd .3. followed by the required stirrup area.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1. Vt.c is the torsional cracking moment.1. is first calculated.21 .3.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. the shear due to this torsion. In that case.Chapter 6 . and compression diagonals.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.05 / γ c (EC2 6. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.c (EC2 6. However.

while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .2(4)) where TRd.3.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.3.3. In the preceding expressions. The code allows any value between 21. as previously defined for beam shear.max (EC2 6. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd . θ is taken as 45 degrees.max + VEd ≤ 1.22 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.0 VRd .2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.3(2)).2.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.2(4)) 6 .max.

Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips. the concrete section should be increased in size. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure message is declared.23 . the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 6. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. In that case. Slab Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. 6.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 6 .

along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. described in the subsections that follow. In some cases. 6. These two steps.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. at a given design section in a design strip. In that case.1. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1): As .26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. are repeated for every load combination.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.1.1. Where openings occur.1(1)) As . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 6. is obtained and reported.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.2.0013bd (EC2 9. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. given the bending moment.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.2.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .min = 0.3.24 Slab Design . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. for each load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6.6.min = 0.

2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1) (EC2 Table 3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.25 .6.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. edge.2.4.1) (EC2 Table 3.1(3)). An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 6.e. interior.1. The column location (i. 6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. Slab Design 6 .4.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.6.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.1) fctm = 2.2(1)).Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.

2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .4(1)) 6 .6.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.26 Slab Design .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4.2.4.c = ⎡C Rd .4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.

4.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. conservatively taken as zeros.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.27 . and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.15 6.2.4(1)) ν min = 0.4.4.4(1)) (EC2 6.c = 0. C Rd .4. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.18 γ c (EC2 6.0 d (EC2 6.4(1)) (EC2 6.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .02 (EC2 6. conservatively taken as zeros.4. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .6.4. vEd.4. the nominal design shear stress.

6.75v Rd .c ) = u1 sr 1.3.4.5 f ywd .c. vRd.4. 6.max.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.6. Asw (v Ed − 0. 6.28 Slab Design .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. and vRd. 6 .max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. the concrete section should be increased in size.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. a failure condition is declared. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. Given vEd.5). The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.max.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. (EC2 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.ef If vEd > vRd.

3.6. edge. for corner.6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. and corner column.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.29 . Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore. 6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and interior columns respectively.3(1)). i. Height..3.e. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. and 8.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.Chapter 6 . 6.4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . edge.

12-. The limits of so and the spacing. the distance.4.3(1)) (EC2 9.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.75d g ≤ 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.4.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.3(1)) (EC2 9.4. 14-. and 20-millimeter diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4. g.3(1)) 6 . 16-. When specifying shear studs.3(1)) (EC2 9. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. s.4.3d. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. so.30 Slab Design .

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

4(b)). In such cases.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.0035 − 0.4(a)).e. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.5. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.max is defined as: ε c .1. 7. In such cases. ⎧0.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the strength of the concrete..1. the width. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. βb ≥ 0.1.9) (CP 6.1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. where εc.2. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2.5.1. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.

87 f y z (CP 6. is obtained first for a section.2. Msingle = K'fcu bd .1.1.5. where 2 (CP 6. where 0. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4(a).156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4(c)) ⎧0.1.2. Fig 6. In addition.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. shear.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.2.1.2. less than. Msingle.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.1. and torsion only. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1fcuAg) (CP 6.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. hence. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. or equal to Msingle. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 . The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.Chapter 7 . As. is obtained from: As = M .2.2. 7. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.4(a)).1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4(b)).

compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0. or at the top if M is negative.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .2.1.1.4(c)) (CP 6. If M > Msingle.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.25 − ⎜ 0.2.1.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.5 + 0.2.

for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. Fig.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.5.1.4(c)) 7.1.2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. designing top reinforcement).2. Fig 6.1. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.2.5. 3. Based on this assumption. i.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. M (i. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.6.95d 0.2.5 + 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.1.2. 7. 3. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6..87 f y .2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.45 . Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. Beam Design 7-9 .2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.1.2.4(a)..2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2.36 .e.87 f y z + 0.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1.2.Chapter 7 .4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.4(c).e.1. no flanged beam data is used.5.

36 . Fig 6. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.4(c).1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.95d.45 . Fig 6.2. However. 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1) If a ≤ hf.4(a).1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.2.1. If a > hf . for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ .25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .1.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. for ⎪ 0.2.4(c)) (CP 6.5 + 0. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. the width of the beam is taken as bf.10 Beam Design .2.1. in that case. the normalized moment is given by: K= M . See Figure 7-2. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.

11 . x ≤ 0.5) β f = 0. x ≤ 0.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.5h f ) bf hf ec 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. In that case. ⎪0. Cw.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 .4.1 f cu bd (0.4d then.87 f y (d − 0.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.Chapter 7 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.4.4.9 x − h f ) 0. x ≤ 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. as shown in Figure 7-2. where (BS 3. Cf.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .67 fcu/gm 0.5h f ) .15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 .

32 ⎪ ⎪0.87 f y ( d − 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.1.4(c)).1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0. where (CP 6.2.2.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.12 Beam Design .4(d)) ⎧0. 7 .045 for ⎩ ⎧0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.1. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.5h f ) ) .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.2.

Chapter 7 .67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. 3.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.95d ⎜ 0.5 + 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0. where 0.5 + 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.13 .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 f y (d − 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.5h f ) Mf + Mw .87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.2.1. Fig 3.95d ⎜ 0.4(c). The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.6.2.

2.2.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.2.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.14 Beam Design .1.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0. if it is required.32 0.1).1.1 (CP 9.13 100 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.40 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.1.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.36 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.1.1(CP 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table. which is taken from CP Table 9. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.24 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2.48 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.3): 7 .20 0.2.

5): Determine the shear stress. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5(a)) 7.2.2.1. 7 MPa) (CP 6.1.2.5. Determine the shear stress.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. vc. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. the following steps are involved (CP 6.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. with the corresponding load combination factors.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.3) 7.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. for a particular load combination. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.1.2.5.8 fcu . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.Chapter 7 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. vc.04bw d ⎧0.1. v.15 . 7.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .2. that can be resisted by the concrete. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.2.

1.5(g)) (CP 6.2.1.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. Table 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5(c).2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.5.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. Table 6.5(c). Table 6.3) ≥ 0.5(c).3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.1.3) (CP 6. and vmax. vc. as: 7 . bd 1 4 (CP 6.67 1.2.1. the following limitations also apply: 0.1.1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.1.2. Table 6.2.2.2.1.2.1. vr.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.5(k)) 7.5(k)) 0. Table 6.5(c).2.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6. CP 6.25 However.16 Beam Design .2.2.5(c).

5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.87 f yv If v > vmax.1.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.5(b). a failure condition is declared. Table 6.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.5.5(b)) (CP 6.2.1.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = .Chapter 7 . sv 0. obtained from each load combination.17 . Determine special section properties. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. (CP 6. Beam Design 7 .1. 7.2. (CP 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2.2. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. vt.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.1.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.

7.3(a)) For flanged sections.3.4. with the corresponding load combination factors. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. vt. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3. Table 6.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.1). a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.18 Beam Design . but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.8 f cu .17 7 . The torsional shear stress.3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. In typical framed construction.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.3. vt. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.

Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .3.3.t /sv. 7.3. vt. However. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .Chapter 7 .min = min 0.min. In that case.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. Asv.5. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.5).4.5.3.min.067 fcu . vt.5). torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. vt.min.min.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. Table 6.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.0. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.19 . vt is less than the threshold limit.

7 .87 f yv ) (CP 6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.3. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.8 fcu .20 Slab Design .6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .8 x1 y1 (0.6) In the preceding expressions.t sv = T 0. In that case.3.3. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. 7. the concrete section should be increased in size.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. a failure message is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . To learn more about the design strips. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.

These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. given the bending moment. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. In that case.Chapter 7 .6.21 . In some cases. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . for each load combination. at a given design section in a design strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 7.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. is obtained and reported. 7.

Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes..1.6.1.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.7). an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.3.1.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 7.e. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.22 Slab Design . 7.1. The column location (i.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.1.7(d)).6.3.5. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. interior.5.1(a)) In addition.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.3).2.2. edge. 7.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Where openings occur.6. 7 .

23 .5(c).7(d)) (CP 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. 6.5.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.1.1.7(d).2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.5d 1.5d 1.1.5d Interior Column 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .5d 1.1. Table 6. Table 6.5.5(g). Table 6.2.1.7(d).2.3): 0.6.Chapter 7 .2.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.

2.6. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5(c).24 Slab Design .5 + 1.1.67 1.2) 0.5(c).1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7. Table 6.25 However.5 x ⎬ . Table 6. v.1.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1. 6. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.1.5. 7 MPa) (CP 6.6(b). 7 .5. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.7(b)) (CP Table 6.8 f cu . where (CP 6. v ≤ min(0. Table 2. the nominal design shear stress.1.5.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.4.2.5.3.1.2.3) ≥ 0. is calculated as: v= Veff ud . Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.

7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.5.7(e)). The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.3.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.5. 7.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.1.Chapter 7 .6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 7.5.5.25 . and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.1.6(b).25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .1. 6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.1.25 ⎪1.

edge.87 f yv 0. and corner column. and vmax. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.6vc 0.1.1. i. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. vc.5. for corner.7(e)) (CP 6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.7(f)).1. and interior columns respectively.1. and 8. ≥ s 0.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . 0. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.26 Slab Design . Therefore.87 f yv 0. (CP 6.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. 7 .87 f yv If 1.1.6. If v ≤ 1.5.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0..0vc (CP 6.3. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.7(e)).6vc ≤ v < 2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.e.87 f yv s If v > vmax. edge.5.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5.5. 7. the concrete section should be increased in size. a failure condition is declared.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.7v − vc ) ud 0.4ud = ≥ .

1. so. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.Chapter 7 . Height.7(f)) (CP 6. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.27 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. 14-.5d (CP 6.7(f)) Slab Design 7 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d s ≤ 0.1. and 20-millimeter diameter. s. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.1.5d. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.3.5.5. 12-.5d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. 16-.75d g ≤ 1.7(f)) (CP 6. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5. The limits of so and the spacing.6. When specifying shear studs. the distance. g.2.

.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 8. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. For simplicity. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. mm Notations 8-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1.

MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. assumed as 200. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement.

mm Lever arm. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N Depth of neutral axis. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. mm Factored torsional moment at a section.Chapter 8 . mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. N-mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section.max Notations 8. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section.3 . as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load.

1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .75 PL) 1.4.5D ± 1. snow (S).5D + 1.3) (IS 36.5L ± 1.4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.5L ± 1.5L 1.5S 1.2L ± 1. Table 18): 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.5D + 1.1) (IS 31.5D + 1.1) (IS 36. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete. wind (W).2E 1.2D + 1. MPa 8.5D ± 1. For IS 456-2000. and earthquake (E) loads.5D + 1.5(0.1) (IS 36.5. pattern live load (PL).5W 0.0W 1.5W 1.4.4.2D + 1.2. live load (L). if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.5E 0.2L ± 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.0E (IS 36. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5D 1.9D ± 1.4.5D + 1.2W 1.9D ± 1.5E 1.

4. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8. γs = 1. 8. These values can be overwritten.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors.5S 1.Design for IS 456-2000 1.2E 1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2D + 1.2W 1. 8.5 . shear.2D + 1. γc = 1. torsion. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2W 1. 14. 8.2D + 1.2S ± 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used. However.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. and torsion based on the beam moments.2S ± 1.Chapter 8 . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.1) (IS 36.2S ± 1.2L + 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. γm. and torsion only. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5D + 1. shear forces.2. however.2E (IS 36. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5L + 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4. caution is advised.2S ± 1.4.2.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2L + 1. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement.4. beams must be designed for torsion.5 (IS 36.2D + 1.

the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. In such cases. 8-6 Beam Design . Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. 8. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve .1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately.4. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. If redistribution is desired.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear.4. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. In such cases.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. However. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. Rather. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8.

the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.4. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. If Mt exceeds Mu.1) 8. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. Beam Design 8.1.4.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.4. with the corresponding load factors. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.Chapter 8 .7 . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. where (IS 41.4. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.2) (IS 41. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. respectively.2. In such cases. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Effectively.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.4.

or the strength of the concrete. c.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 8. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1.1) (IS 38. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. with the corresponding load combination factors.1) 8-8 Beam Design . The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. the width.3. a. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.4.4. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. (IS 41. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1).2.1) 8. When a torsional moment is to be included. The area of the stress block.

0035 b f′ s 0.48 0.42 (IS 38.max /d 0. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.46 Beam Design 8.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.36 β = 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.1) (IS 38.1).Chapter 8 . Furthermore.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.53 0.9 .1).1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.

Msingle.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. or equal to Msingle. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38.max = 0. less than. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. xu .max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.max d ⎧0. are obtained first. Msingle = α xu.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.48 − 0.max. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.0035 (IS 38. m. is given by 8 . The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. shear.2.53 ⎪ ⎪0.53 − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.max d xu. xu. and torsion only.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. 8. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.10 Beam Design .

max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1. − If Mu > Msingle. the area of compression reinforcement. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . Beam Design 8. As. is obtained from As = Mu .Chapter 8 .1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . where (IS G-1.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. A's.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. and vice versa if Mu is negative.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . or at the top if Mu is negative.11 . d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.

2. designing top reinforcement). the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. See Figure 8-2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. 8. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 . the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2.e...2.4. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. no flanged beam data is used.4. Mu (i. On the basis of this assumption.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth..12 Beam Design .e. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. i. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4.3. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange.

Chapter 8 . Cf. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.1).65D f if D f > 0. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . m.15 xu + 0.13 .45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. as shown in Figure 8-2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . Cw. However. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.

single.1) xu . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. the area of compression reinforcement. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.14 Beam Design .single.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.max d ⎧0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.max ⎡ x u. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.53 − 0.48 − 0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z . A's.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.46 (IS 38.single ⎛ 0. and 8 .53 ⎪ ⎪0.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.

5.1.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.2) 8.1) An upper limit of 0.85 bd fy (IS 26.4.04bw d ⎧0.5.Chapter 8 .1.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1.1) (IS 26.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1): As ≥ 0.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu. the following steps are involved (IS 40.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. for a particular load combination.5.1.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.1.2.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5.4.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.1.5.15 .5. at a particular station.

7 M40 4. τc. (IS 40.5 M35 3.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. τv ≤ τc.2.0 τc. where bd (IS 40.3.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .max (MPa) (IS 40.1 M30 3.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.max (IS 40. as: τcd = kδτc. d.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.3. τc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.8 M25 3.1.2) 8 .5 M20 2.4. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. τc. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.3. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.max.2.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.16 Beam Design .

4(a)) Beam Design 8.1).Chapter 8 .17 .1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.4.2.87 f y (IS 40.2.2.2. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.2. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .5.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .87 f y If τcd + 0. 26. Table 19) (IS 40.1. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40.4 Asv 0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.1.4 b ≥ sv 0. taken as 1.3. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.1. and if Pu > 0 .Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.2.max (IS 40.1.1) (IS 40.4 < τv ≤ τc. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1. 0. Under Tension (IS 40.

(IS 40. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4 b ≥ sv 0.3.2.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. obtained from each load combination.5.3) τve ≤ τc.4. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.87 f y (IS 41.18 Beam Design . a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.max The maximum nominal shear stress.max.3) (IS 41.4) 8.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.1.1) (IS 40. τc. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6) If τve ≥τcd.87 f y ) 2. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.3. a failure condition is declared.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.87 f y (IS 41. 26. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.4.5d1 (0. 8 .3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.max is determined as defined in the last section.2.

These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These two steps. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Slab Design 8. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. described in the subsections that follow. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.19 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 8. is obtained and reported.5.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.5.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 8 .5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. To learn more about the design strips. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. are repeated for every load combination.Design for IS 456-2000 8. for each load combination. 8. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.

The column location (i. edge. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.1.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Where openings occur. at a given design section in a design strip.2. In that case.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.5.1.5.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.e.1). Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. In some cases. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.1).6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 8. interior.5.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.20 Slab Design .2): ⎧0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed)..5. given the bending moment. 8.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 8 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5.2.6.5.1) In addition.5.

8.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.6.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.2.21 .5.5.2).3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.Chapter 8 .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.2. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.3.

1) (IS 31.0 (IS 31. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.3. 8.5.3.1) τc = 0. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.5.6.6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.6. 8. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5 + βc ≤ 1.1) (IS 31.5.3.6.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.22 Slab Design .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.3.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2) 8.2) 8 .5 τ c bod (IS 31.2.5τ c (IS 31. 8.

lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. Vc.e. the concrete section should be increased in size.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. 41. and corner column.6.3.2. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. a failure condition is declared. and Vmax.23 .6.Chapter 8 .3..3. 8.3.87 f y (IS 31. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. i. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3) (IS 31. Slab Design 8. edge. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Av = (Vu − 0.5Vc ) 0.5.2) If Vu > Vmax.2).

and 8. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. for corner. 5d s ≤ 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.5. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so. 6.5d. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 8. Height.24 Slab Design . the distance. Therefore. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. edge.3. g. When specifying shear studs. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and interior columns respectively.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. s. The limits of so and the spacing.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.

Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. 9.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. For simplicity. sq-mm Notations 9-1 .

mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Width of member. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. assumed as 200. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement.

N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. mm Thickness of slab or flange. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. N Average design shear stress at a section. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Perimeter of area Ao. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Factored design torsion at a section. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section.Chapter 9 . mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.

0E 1.2D + 1.2.2): 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170.2.0. and earthquake (E) loads.2. pattern live load (PL). 4. 4.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2.2D + 1.0.2.0.0. 4. (0.0D ± 1. 4.0.4L + 1.4L ± 1.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.0W 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.9D ± 1.0. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. For NZS 3101-06. wind (W).2. 4.4L ± 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0W 1.5L 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. live load (L).2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.0D + 0.5(0.35D 1.2D + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. 4.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .0.0. 4.2.2D + 0. 4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D ± 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0.0S 1.75 PL) 1.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9. snow (S).

provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. fyt. fy.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. (NZS 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.85 for flexure φs = 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.2) (NZS 2.2. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.Chapter 9 . caution is advised. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. 9.3. shear.1). however.2.3. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 9.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.3. The φ factors for flexure.3.2.3).3). The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement.

5.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. load combination factors. the 9-6 Beam Design .5. torsion. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. shear forces. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. In such cases. shear. for a particular station. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and torsion only. with the corresponding load factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.7). it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.4.2) in the preceding and following equations.2. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.85 (NZS 2. or the strength of the concrete. 9.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. The design procedure used by SAFE. and torsion only.. Furthermore. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).1). the width. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. 9.2. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.e. M (i. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. designing top or bottom reinforcement).4.2.5. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.3.4. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. where.8.1.1.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.2.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2) where the default value of φb is 0. shear.7): α1 = 0. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.

2.85 β1 = 0.4. is given by: amax = 0. 0.4.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.4.008( f ′ − 30).2.3.85 − 0.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa. 9. amax. c (NZS 7.8.7) (NZS 7.7) (NZS 7.8) β1 = 0.3. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.75β1cb (NZS 7.1).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4.7.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2.85 − 0.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .8.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.

max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.8.4.2.4.2.Chapter 9 . or at the top * if M is negative. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7. If a > amax (NZS 9.1).4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .2.4. 7.2.4.2.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.3.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.

calculation for As has two parts.7.5.4. 9. designing top reinforcement).8.10 Beam Design .e. As = As1 + As2. the total tension reinforcement. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.75β1cb (NZS 7. If a > hf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. However. 9. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.1.1. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. is given by: amax = 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. Cw. i. * 9. and vice versa if M is negative.3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2. 9 .2.2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1) If a ≤ hf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.. as shown in Figure 9-2.2. amax.5.e.. Cf.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. M (i.2. no flanged beam data is used.1. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.5.

4.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.Chapter 9 . As1 = given by: (NZS 7.2 ) Beam Design 9 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.2.4.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.11 . M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. the balance of the moment.

4. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.2. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.4.8.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .3.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design .8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.4.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.1). 7.1).3.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0. the section dimensions b. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.18 Beam Design .1) (NZS 7. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) where. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .7).6.1) where the section dimensions bf.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. bw.1.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. Similarly.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0. h. h.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. hf. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.1) (NZS 7.

3) 9.1. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. Tcr.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section. Tcr.Chapter 9 .6.3.3.4. defined as: T* ≤ 0. and meets the torsion stress limit.6.4.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.5. In that case. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.1).3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. is less than the threshold limit.6.1. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. At /s.6. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion. T . is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.5.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7. if T exceeds the threshold limit.1).Design for NZS 3101-06 9.19 . However.6.6. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6) Beam Design 9 .1.6. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4.

2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. bw is replaced with b. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3). the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6. 7. To learn more about the design strips. In that case. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8.5. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.2 f 'c . where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement. At Al 1.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.2) * * For rectangular sections. a failure message is declared. 9 . the concrete section should be increased in size.1. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.2.6. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. provided it is fully developed.20 Slab Design . 9. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.

6. These two steps. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. are repeated for every load combination. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. given the bending moment. In that case. is obtained and reported. at a given design section in a design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 9.21 .Design for NZS 3101-06 9. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. described in the subsections that follow. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. for each load combination. In some cases.1.1.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.Chapter 9 .

4. 9.7.6.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.1(b)).3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. 8.8.1) In addition.6.2.e.7. 9 ..2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior.4 ): ⎧ 0 .8. 8. 9. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 9.5. edge.22 Slab Design . the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.5. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. The column location (i. Where openings occur. 2. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1(b)).6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2.

1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.7.Chapter 9 . 9.6.6.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.7.7.7. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.23 .2.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .

12.3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2.2) where.1.6.7. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5. 9.2(a)).4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3.7. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.24 Slab Design . b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.1) 70 9.3.1). ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.7.2. 9 .4.

9.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared.7. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.7. is the strength reduction factor.3) (NZS 12.7.3.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.3.6. Slab Design 9 . and vmax.7.4) Given vn. the concrete section should be increased in size.4) If vn > φvmax.3.3.25 . where.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.7.6.5) 9. φ. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Chapter 9 . vc.

6. and 8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.e.4). Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.26 Slab Design . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. edge. and corner column.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.4. and interior columns respectively.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.. i. edge. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. for corner. Therefore. 6.3. 9 .

at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.6.4) (NZS 12.5d.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. g.3. s.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0. Height.4.Chapter 9 . When specifying shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. so. The limits of so and the spacing.7. the distance.27 .4.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4) Slab Design 9 .4) (NZS 12. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.

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a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. Notations 10 . For simplicity. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. is selected. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99].1 .

mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.2 Notations . mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Flange thickness. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Torsional constant. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. assumed as 200.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 10 . mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.

N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Neutral axis depth. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.3 .Chapter 10 . MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Lever arm. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Torsional shear stress. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.

2). including pattern live load.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. pattern live load (PL). should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.4.4D ± 1.4. and considering that wind forces are reversible.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. 10. γf (CP 2.3) (CP 2.4D + 1.3) (CP 2.4W 1.4D + 1.2D + 1.4. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4D 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.6(0.2W (CP 2.4W 1. live load (L).6L 1.0D ± 1.2L ± 1. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4.3).1. 1. and wind (W) loads. other appropriate load combinations should be used.7. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. fcu. Note that the automatic combination. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.75PL) 1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. 10 .4 Design Load Combinations . the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.3).

Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. and other criteria described below. but can be overwritten. shear forces.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. shear. and torsion only.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.4. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. load combination factors. and torsion based on the beam moments.50 1.2 (CP 2.5 . 10.15 1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. γm. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . which are taken from CP Table 2. torsion.

5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. BC 2.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the width.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2) 10 . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In such cases. or the strength of the concrete.3.1. for a particular station. with the corresponding load factors.1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.6 Beam Design .4.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.4). The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 10. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.4. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.

BC 2.Chapter 10 . See Figure 10-1. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4. ⎧0. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. 10. less than.7 . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.and T-beams). is first calculated for a section.4) Beam Design 10 .4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. where 2 (CP 3.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. is summarized in the subsections that follow.e..1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.1.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. βb ≥ 0. and torsion only.4.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2.4. shear.4).4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.5. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4. In addition.1).72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4.4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. or equal to Msingle.9) (CP 3.4. BC 2.4.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. Msingle.4). The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. hence.4.1fcuAg) (CP 3. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.

where 0.4.8 Beam Design . is then given by: As = M .4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. If M ≤ Msingle.4) 10 .4.4) (CP 3. the area of tension reinforcement.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.25 − ⎜ 0.4.4.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.4.87 f y z (CP 3.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.5 + 0. As.

3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.4.5. where (CP 3.e.4.2.4.2. Fig 2. or at the top if M is negative.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.1.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3. designing top reinforcement).5. i.95d z = d ⎜ 0.. Fig 2. If M > Msingle. no flanged beam data is used.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.1.4.4.1. 2. Beam Design 10 .87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .Chapter 10 .87 f y z + 0.4.5.3. 2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4.4.5. M (i.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.9 .4.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3..5 + 0.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4.25 − ⎜ 0. and f ′ =0.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.e.2.

67 fcu γ m 0. On the basis of this assumption.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. εc 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.2.4.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.1. See Figure 10-2.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.10 Beam Design .2.5.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.

4. Cw.2.Chapter 10 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. Fig 2. In that case.9 ⎭ (CP 3.4. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.45d − h f ) 0.95d 0.45d then.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.4.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.45 .2.4.5h f ) .4. However. as shown in Figure 10-2. 2 As = M + 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1 f cu bd (0.4. BC 2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.5 + 0.36 .87 f y (d − 0.4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. If a > hf . where (BS 3.4.4. BC 2. Fig 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. Cf.11 .4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .4.5) β f = 0.4. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.3) If a ≤ hf. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.

BC 2.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.4.5h f ) ) .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.4.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4.32 ⎪ ⎪0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.2) 10 .5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) ⎧0.4.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.87 f y ( d − 0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.12 Beam Design .45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0. where (CP 3.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.5.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.

4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.3.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.2) If Kw ≤ 0.95d ⎜ 0. 2.5.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. As = 0.5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.4.4.87 f y (d − 0.4).2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3. where 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.5. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.5 + 0.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.156 (CP 3.4.4. 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.4). Fig 2.5h f ) Mf + Mw . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4.4.4.4. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.Chapter 10 .4.3. BC 2.13 .45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. Fig 2.

which is taken from CP Table 3.26 100 0.27 (CP 3.12.36 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0. which is taken from CP Table 3. if it is required.14 Beam Design . Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.5.27 (CP 3.95d ⎜ 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.3).24 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.32 0.48 0.12.13 100 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.5.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.5.1.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.18 100 0. 10 .5 + 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.

the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.2.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.20 0.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.3.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. for a particular load combination. the following steps are involved (CP 3.4.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3. vc. v.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.1).40 0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.Chapter 10 . Determine the shear stress. BC 2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 .12.6. that can be resisted by the concrete.2).12.5): Determine the shear stress. 10. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. An upper limit of 0.15 .27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.5.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

5.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.5.5. (CP 3.5.5. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases. with the corresponding load combination factors. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .4) 10.4) (CP 2.12) 0.4.6 (CP 3.2) For light-weight concrete.8 fcu .63 fcu . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3. 7 MPa).4.8) (CP 3. vc. Table 3.16 Beam Design .4.4.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.4.5.2. the following limitations also apply: 0.25 1 1 3 However.9) 10 . Table 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.5.4. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.4.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.

the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.4. (CP 3.5.3.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.4.3. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.2.5. Table 3.4.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 . v’c. sv 0.5.3.4.5. Table 3.5. Table 3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0. CP 3.4.8) As vr b = .8.4. Table 3.2) In the preceding expressions.4.3.9) (CP 3. a failure condition is declared. vr.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. Table 3.4.4.17 .5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4. Table 3.8) (CP 3.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4.Chapter 10 .8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr. (CP 3. and vmax.5.5.87 f yv If v > vmax. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.

for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . 10.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.18 Beam Design . Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. vt. obtained from each load combination. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.15). The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. The torsional shear stress. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. 10.5. In typical framed construction. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.3. Determine special section properties.4. vt.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Determine critical torsion stress. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.

6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.Chapter 10 .min = min 0.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.4. For lightweight concrete. vt.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.5) Beam Design 10 .4.1) For flanged sections.min. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.5) 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.0.min is defined as: vt .19 .4.067 f cu . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .6 N / mm 2 x 0.067 f cu .3. vt.8 f cu .min = min 0.8 (CP Part 2 5.5.4.4.4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.0. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0. vt.

a failure message is declared. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.4.7) In the preceding expressions. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. is calculated as: Asv . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.t sv = T 0.4.3.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. the concrete section should be increased in size.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4. 10 .min.8 x1 y1 (0. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. If vt > vt.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.6).4.min. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.20 Beam Design .8 f cu .6). However. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. In that case. is less than the threshold limit.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .4.min. vt.t /sv.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2. vt. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Asv. vt.

6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Slab Design 10 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.Chapter 10 . To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 10.21 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.

10.22 Slab Design . for each load combination.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 10. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .3. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. In some cases. Where openings occur. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. given the bending moment.12. is obtained and reported. 10. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. In that case. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1. CP Table 3. at a given design section in a design strip.6.5. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.

0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.23 .12.6).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7. The column location (i.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.4.7.5. 10. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.12.6.Chapter 10 .1). Slab Design 10 .7.1). the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .7. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. In addition. edge. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 3.7.7. interior.e.6. 10.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual..

6.7.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.2) However.4.24 Slab Design . Table 3.5d 1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.4.5.5.6): 0.2.4.7.4.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1. Table 3. 3.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.9) (CP 3.5.4.7.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.5d 1.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3. the following limitations also apply: 10 .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7.

6.5.3) 1 . Table 3.4.7. 3.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.2.2. v. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.63 v ≤ min (0.2.4. 4 MPa) f cu .25 .Chapter 10 .7.9) For light-weight concrete.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.4. (CP 3. the nominal design shear stress. Table 3.4) (CP 3. 10.4. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.7.4.9) (CP 3. Table 3.7. Table 3.5.5.4.4.6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.5 M y 1 . where (CP 3.6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.8 fcu .5. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.

5). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.7.6. vc.7.7. and vmax.7.3.25 ⎩ for interior columns.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. 10.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.7.26 Slab Design . 10. 3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.7. (CP 3.7. 10 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7.6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3. and for corner columns. 10.2.3.25 ⎪1. for edge columns.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.0vc.7.87 f yv 0. edge..e.5) (CP 3.87 f yv If 1. i.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .4ud Av 5 ( 0. 10.87 f yv If v > vmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.7v − vc ) ud = .7.27 .5) 0. a failure condition is declared. (CP 3.6vc ≤ v < 2. and corner column.Chapter 10 . ≥ s 0. ≥ s 0. 0.6vc. (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.7.7.7.87 f yv 0.7.6.

7. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 14-.7. 10. When specifying shear studs. and interior columns respectively. for corner. 12-.7. so. edge.7. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6) (CP 3.6. The limits of so and the spacing.5d.5d s ≤ 0.7. s. Therefore. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. g. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.28 Slab Design .7.3.7. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.6) (CP 3. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. and 20-millimeter diameter. 16-.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Height.5d (CP 3. and 8. 6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.75d g ≤ 1.7.6). the distance.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6) 10 .5d.

Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. American Concrete Institute. and 3.O. 2005.2R-07). Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. Michigan. 2. 2008. Part 1. TM R-1 . Box 9094. 2007. Farmington Hills. Singapore. Standards Australia International Ltd. London. 1. P. February 2008. ACI. NSW 2001. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos.1 and Amendment No. Structural Use of Concrete. American Concrete Institute. 2. BSI. 2008. GPO Box 5420.References ACI. 1997. Michigan. Sydney. British Standards Institution. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. UK. Australia. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). 38800 Country Club Drive. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. BC. Farmington Hills. BC 2:2008. 2001. Building and Construction Authority. AS.

3-04. HK CP. Kowloon. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. UK. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. New Delhi 110002. New Zealand. NZS. 2004. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. CP 65:Part 1:1999. EN 1992-1-1. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. British Standards Institution. 1. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Part 1-1. Singapore. 750 Nathan Road. Standards New Zealand. Brussels. 2000. 1999. A23. Brussels. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Structural Use of Concrete. 1985. Private Bag 2439. India. Manak Bhavan. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. 1. March 2000. Canada. Design of Concrete Structures. Mongkok. European Committee for Standardization. Wellington. incorporating Amendments Nos. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Bureau of Indian Standards. Twentieth Reprint. Belgium. Canadian Standards Association. Hong Kong. and 3. 2005. European Committee for Standardization. CSA. September 2000. Part 2. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). CP. 2004. Buildings Department. Third Edition. Concrete Structures Standard. EN 1990:2002. IS. Belgium. 2006. 2004. R-2 . Rexdale. Ontario. 2. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. London.

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