This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

™

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

TM TM

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.6.6 5 Design for CSA A23.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.2 4.4 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.5.3 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.1 Design for Flexure 4.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.5.1 3.6.4 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5.2 3.1 4.1 Design for Flexure 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.3 4.5.3-04 5.5.1 Notations 5-1 ii .6.

28 6.3 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.2 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.3 6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.5.6.4 6.1 7.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .5.Contents 5.1 Design for Flexure 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.6.5.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.1 Design for Flexure 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.2 6.2 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.1 6.4 5.5.5.6.

4.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.4 7.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.2 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.5.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.3 8.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5.1 Design for Flexure 8.5.1 8.3 9.4 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.4.2 8.5.5.1 Effects of Torsion 8.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.1 9.4.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.5.1 Design for Flexure 7.5.

6 Slab Design 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.5.5.5.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.Contents 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.1 Design for Flexure 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.5.5 Beam Design 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .6.1 Notations 10.6.1 Design for Flexure 9.6.6.6 Slab Design 9.2 Design Load Combinations 10.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.

.

This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. and torsion reinforcement. and it designs beam flexural. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. shear. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. Specifically. 1-1 . SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user.

.

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Gross area of concrete. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. sq-in Notations 2-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. 2. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected.

in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Depth to neutral axis. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. in Width of section. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Width of web (flanged section). psi 2-2 Notations . psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). psi Stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement.

lb Factored shear force at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. (0. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. in Height of the flange. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. psi Overall depth of a section. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section.Chapter 2 . lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Factored moment at a section. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. in Critical torsion capacity. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.2D + 1.0L + 1.1) (ACI 9.2. pattern live load (PL).1) (ACI 13.3) (ACI 9.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.6L 1.2.2.2.0L + 0.1) are the same.6S ± 0.2D + 1.5S ± 1.2D + 1.6W 0.7.0E 1. wind (W). snow (S).1) (ACI 9.5S 1.8W 1.0E (ACI 9.2D + 1. degrees 2.0L ± 1.9D ± 1.9D ± 1.1): 1.6L + 0.6 (0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.75 PL) 0.6W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1.2.0L + 0.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.0E 1.0L ± 1.6S 1.2.6. live load (L).005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations . For ACI 318-08.6W 1.2S ± 1.2D + 1.2.2D + 1.1) (ACI 9.2D + 1.2D + 1.4D 1. and earthquake (E) loads.

(ACI 9. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The φ factors for flexure. 2.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.2. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.3) 2. fyt. shear forces.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. and torsion based on the beam moments. or if other types of loads are present. shear. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. shear. load combination factors. f' c . caution is advised.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.1.3. fy.Chapter 2 . and torsion are as follows: φ = 0.2. 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and other criteria described in this section. however. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately.5. torsion.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11.1) (ACI 9.2).3.1). φ. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.

with the corresponding load factors.5. 2. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design . In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. for a particular station. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and torsion only. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. shear. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. the width. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2).5.1) in the preceding and the following equations.3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). which by default is 0.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. designing top or bottom reinforcement). which is equal to 0.2.Chapter 2 .90 (ACI 9.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. The maximum depth of the compression zone. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.2. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.. is summarized in the text that follows. The design procedure used by SAFE. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. 2. shear.3.4).3.and T-beams). where.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.5).1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.3. or the strength of the concrete. Furthermore.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. and torsion only. fy . Mu (i. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.2) Beam Design 2-7 .e. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. cmax.003.

amax.7.2.7.2.003 εsmin = 0.3) (ACI 10.1) β1 = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .85 − 0.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10. εcmax = 0.4).3.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.2.85 (ACI 10. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.005 (ACI 10.

2.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. If a > amax.2. 10.2.3.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .2.3.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.Chapter 2 . 10. where ( f 's − 0.7.2. or at the top if Mu is negative.

003 0.10 Beam Design . and the flange is ignored. the flange comes under tension.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. and vice versa if Mu is negative. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0. 2. a simplified stress block.e. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. is assumed if the flange is under compression.85 f ′ c 0. as shown in Figure 2-2.1. if the moment is positive. If the moment is negative. i. In that case. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam..2.

3.2. Mu (i.Chapter 2 . amax. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10. designing top reinforcement).7.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2.7. i.2.2.5. no flanged beam data is used.2) εcmax = 0.90 (ACI 9.3) Beam Design 2 ..2.003 εsmin = 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2.3) (ACI 10. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.4): cmax = where..85 (ACI 10.3.1. The maximum depth of the compression zone. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e.2. 2. which by default is 0.005 (ACI 10.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.2.2) where. cmax.5. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.11 . which is equal to 0.3.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.85 − 0.2.1) β1 = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.e.2.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1) in the preceding and the following equations.

If a > hf. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cf is given by: C f = 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Mu . Cf. 2 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . As1 = given by: (ACI 10. Therefore.90 by default. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the balance of the moment.3. Cw.2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.7.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. However. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. as shown in Figure 2-2.12 Beam Design . amax ) Therefore. the calculation for As has two parts. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.5). to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the value for φ is 0.

13 .2.2.3. 10.7.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0. 10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.3. where ( f 's − 0.Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .2.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.2.

1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. that can be resisted by the concrete.3) An upper limit of 0.4bw d ⎧0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5. Vc.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. for a particular load combination.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. Determine the shear force. bw d ⎟ As . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10.14 Beam Design . 2 . Vu.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1. 2.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .

is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.2. and Vmax. Vc.7.5.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11. fyt.3.1.Chapter 2 .6.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11. φ.1. the strength reduction factor. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. 2.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.5.5.15 .2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition. Vc.9) Given Vu.1.5.1.1) For light-weight concrete. 11.2.75 (ACI 9. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where. is 0. If Vu ≤ 0.1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors.3). is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.2. 2.2.5.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.5.1) Beam Design 2 .3.3.Design for ACI 318-08 2.

5. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2) ⎛ 0. 11.16 Beam Design . (ACI 11.1.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.7.5.7.6.6.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.3) If Vu > φVmax.6.5. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5. and 0.5.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw . a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11. 2.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.7.1(c)).5. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. 2 . Determine special section properties.3 is not enforced (ACI 11. Tu. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.7.5bw. 2. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.5.5. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11. the equation given in ACI 11.5.5hf.

special section properties. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.75 inches.2). such as Aoh.3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. 2. Ao. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. This is equivalent to 1. and ph.17 . Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5. such as Acp. and ph. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.6.3. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.2.Chapter 2 .1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.1).2). Aoh.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.5. Ao.6. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . For torsion design of flanged beam sections.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. However. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. If redistribution is desired. are calculated. pcp. 2.

With this assumption.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.6.1.6. Tcr.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.6.1.1) (ACI 11. 2. h. 2. the section dimensions b. With this assumption. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) (ACI 11. R11. R11.6.1) where. 2.6. Similarly.3. 2.6. 2. 2.6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.6.6. 2.6. hf.3.6.1.1.3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.1) (ACI 11.1) where the section dimensions bf.3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.3.6(b)) (ACI 11.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.1.6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.6.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. bw.18 Beam Design .6.1) (ACI11.4). h.1.3. 2.1. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3.3.5.3.1) (ACI 11.6(b)) (ACI 11.1.1) (ACI 11. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. 2. 2.1. 2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However.6.1(c)) 2 .2.

19 .7.6.6. θ is taken as 45 degrees. which is equal to 0.5. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.75 by default (ACI 9. longitudinal bars. fy. At /s.3. 2.3). Tcr. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.5. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.5.3.6.3. 11. In that case.Chapter 2 . is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. fyt.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6).6).Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3.6. is limited to 60 ksi.3. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.3) In the preceding expressions. However. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive). Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.6) where.6. Tcr. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. Beam Design 2 . and compression diagonals (ACI R11.6.6. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.3.3.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.1).2.

When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).2) 2 . ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . bw is replaced with b.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.3. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.1) For rectangular sections.5. In that case. a failure message is declared.6.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size.20 Beam Design .

1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Slab Design 2 . In that case. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.5.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3 independently. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 2.Chapter 2 . Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6.21 . Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. 2. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.

12.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. These two steps. 2.1. given the bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).2.6.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.12.1.1(c)) 0. 2.2. described in the text that follows.min = 0.min = (ACI 7.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In some cases. is obtained and reported. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.22 Slab Design .1. 2.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As. In that case. Where openings occur. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.min = 0.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. for each load combination.1(a)) (ACI 7.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.1(b)) (ACI 7. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. are repeated for every load combination.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.12. at a given design section in a design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.2): As. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 . This is the method used when drop panels are included.12.2.

interior. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 .2.Chapter 2 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.23 .1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.3).11.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.6. 2.11.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11. The column location (i..6. edge. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2).e.1. 2.

2 Eq.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.3.1) For flat plates.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 Eq.3. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2 Eq.2 Eq. C-11) (ACI 421. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421. C-12) For edge columns.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.2 For corner columns.2.5. C-16) 2 .5. For interior columns.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421. C-15) (ACI 421. C-13) (ACI 421.2 Eq. γvx = 0.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2 Eq.24 Slab Design .6.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.

25 . bo is the perimeter of the critical section. respectively. x and y.1. (ACI 11.2.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. 2.11. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. for edge columns.6.2. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.Chapter 2 . and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6. and for corner columns.2. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.11.1) where. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .

1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.3).3.1) 2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.11. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.0. φ.5.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2) (ACI 11. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.3. If this ratio exceeds 1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5. is 0. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. the strength reduction factor.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 2 . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.1) (ACI 11.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.3.3).75 (ACI 9.3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.11.11. Vc. and Vmax. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2.11.26 Slab Design . 2.11.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11. 2. where.6.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.

a failure condition is declared. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.6.3). Slab Design 2 .11. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11. (ACI 11.e. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. and corner column.. the concrete section should be increased in size.27 . 11.7. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.3.4.3.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax.3. 2.11.1.4. edge.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.Chapter 2 . i.7.

50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. 2.11. When specifying shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.2) (ACI 11. g.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and 8. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5. and 3/4-inch diameters. 5/8-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.5d.5d (ACI 11. for corner.6.2) ⎧0.5.11. and interior columns respectively. edge.5. 1/2-. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. The limits of so and the spacing. so. the distance. s. 6.11.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Height. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3) 2 .28 Slab Design .3. Therefore.

For simplicity. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. mm Notations 3-1 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 3.

mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Depth of compression block. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Mean value of do.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Depth to neutral axis. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties.

MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. N-mm Factored axial load at section. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. (0. MPa Torsional modulus. mm Factored shear force at a section. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. max εs Notations 3-3 . to the effective depth. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N Shear force resisted by concrete. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N-mm Factored moment at section.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.Chapter 3 . d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.max Vu. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section.

0S 0.0E 1. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.0-02.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2. and earthquake (E) loads.0W 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. snow (S). other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. live load (L).0-02. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0D + 0. 4.0-02.2D + 0. 4. 4.0-02.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L + 1.0D ± 1.1): 1.2D + 0.9D ± 1. 4.0-02.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.5L 1. 4. pattern live load (PL).2D + 1.2D + 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D ± 1.2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0-02. degrees 3.35D 1. 4.2.4L ± 1.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.5(0. For AS 3600-01. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. 4.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. 4.0-02.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.0W 1.75 PL) 1.0-02.2. wind (W).0E (AS/NZS 1170. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .3.2. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.2(f)) Note that the 0.4L ± 1.0-02. 4.

and torsion based on the beam moments.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Table 2. 6. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.3(c)) 3.Design for AS 3600-01 3.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1(b)). f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6.1. respectively.1. torsion.1.2.Chapter 3 .2. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6. load combination factors.1.2. 3. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.1) (AS 6.1. for all framing type (AS 6. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1). shear. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 .1.2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.3(c).3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1. is defined as given in AS 2. shear forces.3: φ = 0. however.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.1.1).3(c)) (AS 2.1. caution is advised. φ. 19.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.1. and other criteria described in the text that follows. Table 6. (AS 2.

1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5.5.1. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3. and torsion only. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. 3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. for a particular station.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.

is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.003. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8. the width.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.2.Chapter 3 .85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.2.2. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. A uniform compressive stress of 0. amax.7. (AS 8.85 − 0. and torsion only.3) γ = [0. shear.85 ku = 0. fy . as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.1.1a). The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. (AS 8.2). or the strength of the concrete.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.2.1.1). hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.15N ) (AS 10.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.007( f 'c −28)] 0.2) Beam Design 3-7 .2). The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.1.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. is given by amax = γk u d where. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.

which by default is 0. M (i.2. ε = 0.80 (AS 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3..5. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.4).2. where.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.e.2) where. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design . the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).003 b Cs c 0.1.3) in the preceding and following equations. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.

ku > 0.1.2.1.. 6.2.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.1.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.4. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.Chapter 3 . or at the top * if M is negative. where ( f 's − 0.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.2.e. i.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . If a > amax.

85 f ′ c 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. If the moment is negative.2.5. M (i.1. if the moment is positive.1. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.003 bf Ds * 0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. ε = 0. and vice versa if M is negative.. i.2.3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore. 3. no flanged beam data is used.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.5.10 Beam Design . i. the flange comes under tension. 3. as shown in Figure 3-2..1.e.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . a simplified stress block.e. designing top reinforcement).. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. In that case. is assumed if the flange is under compression. and the flange is ignored. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.

the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. However.2. Cw.5.85 f 'c φb f where. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. amax ) Therefore. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .4 (AS 8. ku = 0.11 .3) If a ≤ Ds. Cf.2. Cf is given by: C f = 0. As1 = given by: (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-01 3. is given by: a max = γk u d where. which is 0. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.1.1.Chapter 3 .80 by default (AS 2. amax. as shown in Figure 3-2. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. the balance of the moment.3) in the preceding and the following equations. in that case. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. the width of the beam is taken as bf.1. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the calculation for Ast has two parts.2. If a > Ds.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. where ′ − 0.2.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.12 Beam Design .2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus . and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. If a1 > amax.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .1.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.1.2. 6.1.

1.Chapter 3 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast . where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.6 f 'c (AS 6.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .04bw d ⎧0.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .13 .5.2) An upper limit of 0.1. 3. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1) f 'cf = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.4.1.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.min = 0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.

is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. for a particular load combination.5. Vuc.5. with the corresponding load combination factors.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. Determine the shear force.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . Vuc. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.14 Beam Design . * 3. 3.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2.6 − β2 = 1.1) (AS 8.1) β1 = 1. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. that can be resisted by the concrete.2. V . 13 (AS 8.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.7.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.5.2.7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.1⎜1.

= s fsy. (AS 8. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.min.2.2. whichever is greater (AS 8.max . is 0. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.max.6 by default (AS 2.5.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.2.15 .6) Given V .9) (AS 8.35 w ⎜ s f sy. If φVu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. where.10) Asv. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.2.3). Asv = 0. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.2. max = 0.5). Vuc.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .min < V * ≤ φVu.2. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.Chapter 3 . f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. and Vu. φ. s otherwise Asv.5(c)(i)).min shall be provided. min = Vuc + 0.min . the strength reduction factor.2.6bv d o Vu . ⎟ ⎠ 3. Asv = 0 .Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.8) Beam Design 3 .min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu. V * − φVuc Asv .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 3.6. 3. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. as described in the following sections. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.Chapter 3 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Slab Design 3 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.21 . To learn more about the design strips. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.

1(b)) In addition.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9. In some cases. 3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. for each load combination.6. 3. is obtained and reported. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1.1): As ≥ 0.1. 3 . given the bending moment.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. which are described in the following subsections.1(a)) As ≥ 0.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. are repeated for every load combination. In that case.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. Where openings occur. 3.22 Slab Design . along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.6.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.

the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.6.2.Design for AS 3600-01 3. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .3). Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. interior.1). edge.Chapter 3 . Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2.e.23 .. 3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. The column location (i.1.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.

3 . is given as (AS 9. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.3σ cp ) b. is given as (AS 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.3(a)) where.2.3(b)) (AS 9.3(a)): a.2.2.6.5 f c' + 0.2.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.4(a)) 3.2.3σ cp ≤ 0. Vu . βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6.24 Slab Design .34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.2.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0. Vuo .2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.

3.3 or 9.25 . (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3.Given V*. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .1). Vu. and Vu. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. φ.Design for AS 3600-01 3. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2.6.2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.4.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.6.4(a). The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.max.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.6.Chapter 3 . is the strength reduction factor. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. 3.min = 3*Vu (AS 92.4. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. V * − φVu Asv = .7.2. where.3.

e. a failure condition is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size. Therefore.7. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.3.4).4) If V > φVmax.26 Slab Design .7. edge.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column..6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. 3. the minimum number of 3 .7.3.3) (NZS 12. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.4. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.

The spacing between adjacent shear studs. edge. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.6. Height. The limits of so and the spacing. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4.7. 6. s. and 8.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.Chapter 3 . g.3. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.5d.4) Slab Design 3 .4) (NZS 12. for corner.7. so. and interior columns respectively.4. the distance. When specifying shear studs. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d s ≤ 0.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4) (NZS 12. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4.27 . 3.

.

Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. 4. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For light-weight concrete and torsion. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 4-2 Notations . mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Area of tension reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Torsional constant.

Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.Chapter 4 . N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. MPa Neutral axis depth. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. MPa Torsional shear stress.

2D + 1.2W (BS 2.2L ± 1.4D + 1.2L + 1.0D ± 1.3).6L + 1. 1.4D 1. For BS 8110-1997. 0. and considering that wind forces are reversible.6(0.75PL) 1.2W 1.4.4D ± 1.2W 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain.4.6S 1.3).4.1.2S ± 1.2S ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. γf (BS 2. snow (S).0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.3) (BS 2. pattern live load (PL).6L 1. live load (L).2D + 1.4W 1.4W 1.4D + 1. mm Lever arm.4.4.2D + 1. and wind (W) loads.3) (BS 2.4.3) (BS 2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4D + 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .

4. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.4.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.Chapter 4 . including pattern live load. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. this value should be overwritten as necessary. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. the default factor of 1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3.1. other appropriate load combinations should be used. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.7. fcu. 4.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. as taken from BS Table 2. If other grades are used.50 1. γm. Note that for reinforcement.15 1. Note that the automatic combination. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.4. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 .2). The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.2 (BS 2.

Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and other criteria described below.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear.5. shear forces. the 4-6 Beam Design . torsion. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. for a particular station. with the corresponding load factors. In such cases. load combination factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion only.

less than. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. x/d ≤ 0. See Figure 4-1.5. Furthermore.1).4.4).1.2. 4. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4).4. and torsion only. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. In such cases. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. is first calculated for a section. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.4).and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.Chapter 4 .156 2 (BS 3.9) (BS 3. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4.4.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. Msingle.. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. βb ≥ 0.4. or equal to Msingle. The design procedure used by SAFE. or the strength of the concrete.4. where K' = 0.e.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. In addition. 4. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. the width.4) Beam Design 4-7 .

4.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0. or at the top if M is negative.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. As.25 − ⎜ 0. where 0.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4.5 + 0. If M > Msingle.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.87 f y z (BS 3.4. the area of tension reinforcement.4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0. is then given by: As = M .4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.4.

2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4. Fig 2. i. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.777d z = d ⎜ 0.1.4.2. M (i.4.4.5. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.2.4.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.4.2.5 + 0..1.1.5.2.e.5.4. where (BS 3.4.5. no flanged beam data is used.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.Chapter 4 .2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.2. 4.. 2.e.4.3. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. 2. and ' f ' s = 0.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.3. Beam Design 4-9 .1. designing top reinforcement). Fig 2. Based on this assumption.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4.5.25 − ⎜ 0.

See Figure 4-2.4.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .10 Beam Design .0035 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4.95d 0. e = 0.4.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.67 fcu/gm 0.4.5 + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4.4.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.45 (BS 3.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.

If a > hf.156 (BS 3. In that case.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. in that case.4.45d then.4.45d − h f ) 0. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.1 f cu bd (0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.4.Chapter 4 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. where 0.11 .4.4.4.9x (BS 3. As = 0.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.5h f ) .4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4) If Kw ≤ 0.4.4. 2 As = M + 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . where (BS 3. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.5h f ) Mf + Mw . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf.87 f y (d − 0.4.4.87 f y (d − 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4) If a ≤ hf.4).5) β f = 0. However. Cw. as shown in Figure 4-2. the width of the beam is taken as bf.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.

2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.5.1.5. and ' f ' s = 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5.25 (BS 3.4.4.4) where. 2.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0. Fig 2.12.4.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.2.5 + 0.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.95d ⎜ 0.4.4.4).12 Beam Design .4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.4.1.87 f y (d − 0.3. Fig 2. 2.3. 4 .4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5.777d ) 0.87 f f (0.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.1.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.

20 As' bh Web in tension T.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.40 100 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.32 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.1): Beam Design 4 .25 (BS 3.4 bf bw ≥ 0.5.12.20 An upper limit of 0.12.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.24 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.18 100 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.36 0.13 . which is taken from BS Table 3. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.Chapter 4 .or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.3).48 0. if it is required.6.24 0.

5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. v.2) For light-weight concrete.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.8 fcu .04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.63 fcu .5. vc.5. that can be resisted by the concrete. 4. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.4) 4 . with the corresponding load combination factors. 5 MPa) (BS 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. for a particular load combination.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.4. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. Determine the shear stress.2.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.14 Beam Design .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.5. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.4.04bw d ⎧0.

4. vc. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4. Table 3.5.5.4.4.4.2. Table 3. Table 3.5.4.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.4. the following limitations also apply: 0.5. and vmax. vc.4.15 .2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.5.4. 4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.4) (BS 3.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.12) 0.1) However.4.4.5.4.8) (BS 3.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .3): Beam Design 4 . is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5. BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.Chapter 4 .5.5.4.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.5. Table 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.4.8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.8) (BS 2.

3.3. Determine critical torsion stress. 4 .2) (BS 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.87 f yv If (v’c + 0. Determine special section properties.4.4. vt. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 4.4.5. (BS 3.16 Beam Design .4bw = sv 0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. Table 3.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.4) Asv 0. In the preceding expressions. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa. Table 3. a failure condition is declared.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.5. obtained from each load combination. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.7) (BS 3.87 f yv If v > vmax.4. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.5.

4. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.13). specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. vt.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.3. The torsional shear stress.1) For flanged sections.4. with the corresponding load combination factors.17 .5) Beam Design 4 . for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. vt.Chapter 4 . the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.4.5.5. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.4.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2. In typical framed construction. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.8 f cu . If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.

min = min 0.18 Beam Design . For lightweight concrete.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.0. Asv.4.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.3.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.3.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5. If vt > vt. vt is less than the threshold limit.4.067 fcu .7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .min.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.6). the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. vt.min.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.min is defined as: vt . In that case. vt. vt. vt. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.0.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. is calculated as: Asv .5) 4.6). 4 .067 fcu .min = min 0.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .min.t /sv.8 x1 y1 (0.7) In the preceding expressions.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.4N/mm 2 x 0.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.t sv = T 0.4. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2. However.

a failure message is declared.19 . vt exceeds this limit. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. In that case. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.8 fcu . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Beam Design 4 .63 fcu .4) If the combination of shear stress. v and torsional shear stress.5) For light-weight concrete.4.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.Chapter 4 . the concrete section should be increased in size.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. 4 .1. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. is obtained and reported. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 4. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.20 Slab Design . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. 4. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. for each load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.

6.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.7. at a given design section in a design strip.12.6. 4.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.6.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.12.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6).1. In that case.7.2.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. BS Table 3.1.3) In addition.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 4. 4.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.6. This is the method used when drop panels are included. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.5.21 . In some cases.Chapter 4 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3. Where openings occur.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .7.12. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.5.1).Design for BS 8110-97 4. given the bending moment.3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).

4.7.e.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. edge. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.7.5d 1. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.4.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1. 1.7.4.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. The column location (i.7..5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.5.1).6.7.7.22 Slab Design .5d Interior Column 1. Table 3.6): 1 1 0.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.5d 1. interior.8) 4 . 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4.

4.5.6. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.5.7.Chapter 4 .4.4.23 . is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4. 3.6.4. 4.2) However.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.4) (BS 3.4. the nominal design shear stress.5M ⎛ y 1.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .6. Table 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.8 f cu .5.7.8) (BS 3.5.4) v ≤ min(0.4) For light-weight concrete.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.5.7.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.7. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. Table 3.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.2. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. v.63 fcu . 5MPa) (BS 3.3) 1.2. the following limitations also apply: 0.7.4. where (BS 3.

1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 ⎪1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. 4.7.2.6.6.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.24 Slab Design . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1. 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7. 4 .7.7.5). 4.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

wind (W).5(0.9D + 1.5S 1.9D + 1.5S 0.5L + 0.2. Table C.1) 1. snow (S).5L ± 0.9D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). Table C. degrees Shear strength factor 5. and earthquake (E) loads.4W 0.5S + 0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.5L ± 0.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .3.4D 1.3.3. pattern live load (PL).5L 0.4W 1.5S 1.25D + 1.8.25D + 1.5L 0. Table C.5S ± 0.25D + 1.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.25D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.9D + 1.25D + 1.5S 0.4W (CSA 8.5L 1.2. For CSA A23. Table C. live load (L).9D + 1.2.9D + 1.3.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.25D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.4W 0.3-04.75 PL) 1.5L 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3) (CSA 8.25D + 1.4.5L + 0.5S ± 0.2.5S + 0.

1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.2.25S ± 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4W 0. (CSA 8.1) 5.5S ± 1.6. Table C.4W 0. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.1.5L ± 1.5L ± 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3.0E 1.4W 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.25D + 0.1.0E 1.9D + 0.4W 1.4.0D + 0. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.25S ± 1.3-04 1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.5.1). (CSA 8. respectively.Design for CSA A23.3-04 code is used.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa. Table C.65 for concrete φs = 0. 5.9D ± 1.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.5S ± 1.1).2) (CSA 8. φ.3.25D + 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.4.0E (CSA 8.25D ± 1. caution is advised.Chapter 5 .3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .6.0D + 0.0D + 0.4W 0. however. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.9D + 0.5L + 0.5L ± 1. for all framing types (CSA 8.0E 1.

torsion.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. and torsion based on the beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. with the corresponding load factors. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. for a particular station. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and torsion only. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . shear. shear forces. load combination factors. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

The design procedure used by SAFE.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1) Beam Design 5-7 . In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. In such cases. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition..1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1. 5.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1. shear. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. 5.Design for CSA A23.1. designing top or bottom reinforcement). It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible.7).Chapter 5 . the width. Mf (i. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. Furthermore. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.4).2. or the strength of the concrete. where.1. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). and torsion only.5.5.e.

7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.2) in the preceding and the following equations. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. β1.1.85 – 0.67 cb = (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10. The parameters α1.67.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.5.2).1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .5.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.97 – 0.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.0015f'c ≥ 0.0025f'c ≥ 0.1.65 (CSA 8. β1 = 0.4.7) (CSA 10.

compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .1.1.2).2.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 . 10.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.1.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive. where f ′ = 0.Design for CSA A23. If a > ab (CSA 10.5. or at the top if Mf is negative.Chapter 5 .

1.67 cb = (CSA 10. no flanged beam data is used.e.7) (CSA 10. The parameters α1.10 Beam Design . β1.2.65 (CSA 8.1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0. 5.5.2.1..e.1) where. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.7) (CSA 10.1.2.5. As = As1 + As2. i.7) 5 .2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. and vice versa if Mf is negative. 5..67 β1 = 0. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.85 – 0.0015 f' c ≥ 0. the value of φc is 0.4.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. Mf (i.97 – 0.1.2.5. designing top reinforcement).5. the total tension reinforcement.0025 f' c ≥ 0.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1.2 5.2) in the preceding and the following equations.10.

0035 bf hs (CSA 10. ab ) c ε = 0. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cf.Chapter 5 .Design for CSA A23. However.3-04 If a ≤ hs. If a > hs. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the balance of the moment. calculation for As has two parts.11 . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.1.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2).5. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.12 Beam Design .1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10. where 5 .1.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . If a1 > ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.5.

the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .13 .Chapter 5 .2.1.5. 10.1.5.5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10. 5.1. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.Design for CSA A23.1.3.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.1) An upper limit of 0.1.3) In addition.

14 Beam Design .2).1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. Vc. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 5. Vc.04bw d ⎧0. Determine the shear force. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.3. for a particular loading combination.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. 5 . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.65 (CSA 8.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. with the corresponding load combination factors. By default it is taken as 0.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.4. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.2. that can be resisted by the concrete.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. Vf.

4.6. it is the width of the web of the beam.21 (CSA 11. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. (CSA 8.9d or 0. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand.3).5): ⎧1.Design for CSA A23.00.Chapter 5 . It is taken as the greater of 0.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. its value is 1 (CSA 8.6. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.6. which is taken by the program as the default value. it is the width of the beam.2). and the tensile force is negligible.72h. d v is the effective shear depth. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. For normal density concrete.6.1 and 0. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2.2). If the overall beam depth. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. It is determined according to CSA 11.3. as follows (CSA 11.85. and described further in the following sections.3.3): Beam Design 5 .2).5). bw is the effective web width. ⎪0.4).3.15 . and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. h. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.6. β is taken as 0. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.3. if applicable.6. For flanged beams.6. For concrete using lower density aggregate. the general method is used (CSA 11. For rectangular beams.3. Its value is normally between 0. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.6.3.6.75.

β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.3 c) where. However.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement. ⎪ 0. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.18.3.3.c) In the preceding expression. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. β = 0.3.6. or 5 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement. and ag < 20mm. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa.3. sze.3.6.18 (CSA 11.6. In summary.6.18 (CSA 11. β is taken as 0. and ag ≥ 20mm. the crack spacing parameter. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.3a). for simplified cases.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.16 Beam Design .3. ag.

is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.3(b)).Design for CSA A23. and linearly interpolated between these values. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. The longitudinal strain.3.3. 11.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa. 11. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.85Sz otherwise.6.3.6.6.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.6.4(a)) (CSA 2.3. Nf is taken as positive for tension.6.17 .3. Beam Design 5 .6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.1.4) In the preceding expression.3-04 tension is not negligible.3.Chapter 5 . Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.3. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.6. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0. (CSA 11. the equivalent crack spacing parameter.6.6.4(a)) (CSA 11.3. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.3.4). The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.6.3.3.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.4): β= 0.

max. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided. Vc.3. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. 5.1) 5 .003 (CSA 11.3.6. the program performs the design in two passes. and Vr.3. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.3. taken as half of the total area.6.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.6.4(e)).5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.4(d)).2. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.6. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. To check this condition. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. it is recalculated with the following equation.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .max = 0. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.5. In the first pass.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.5.18 Beam Design .3. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.3. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.

3.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .3. 11.5.2.6.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr . The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.19 .8.8.4).6.3).3.3.3. If the overall beam depth.25Tcr.6.8.2. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.3. the term θ is used.6.3).Chapter 5 . the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2. h. a failure condition is declared.2. It is determined according to CSA 11.max .3.3.Design for CSA A23. whenever applicable.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. which was described previously. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.1.2). Beam Design 5 .6.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11. or by calculation. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. Similar to the β factor.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.2) In the preceding equations.3. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.

3. Tf. Determine critical torsion capacity.6. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.3.3) If the axial force is tensile. 5. Determine special section properties. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 .6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. f y > 400 MPa.3.4). and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. 5 . θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.3.5. f y ≤ 400 MPa.20 Beam Design .6.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.

5. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. with the corresponding load combination factors. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. If redistribution is desired. Aoh. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.Chapter 5 . the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3-04 5. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 .3). Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. With this assumption. such as Aoh.Design for CSA A23. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. However. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2.9. special section properties.2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. With this assumption. and ph are calculated. Ao.3. Ao.5.5.3. pc.2). However.21 . such as Ac.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. and ph.

1) (CSA 11.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.10. 5.3.9.2.65. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.22 Beam Design . Similarly.3) (CSA 11.5.1) (CSA 11.4) where.10. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.1) (CSA 11.4) where the section dimensions bf. Tcr. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.3.3.3) (CSA 11.10. bw.3.2.9.2.3.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.9.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. which is equal to 0. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete. h. 5 .4).3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.9. the section dimensions b.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. hf.10.2. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.9. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.10. h.2.3.10. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.

4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .3).Chapter 5 .3. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.5.1). At /s.3-04 5.10.Design for CSA A23. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.3.2. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. Tcr.3) Mf Al = dv + 0. However. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.23 .9. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. In that case. Tcr. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.5 N f + (V f − 0.

When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.3.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.10. If the general method is being used.8. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.9) In the preceding expressions.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6. the concrete section should be increased in size.10.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11. bw is replaced with b. In that case. 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.10. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. a failure message is declared.3. 5 .24 Beam Design .3. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition.2.3. θ is computed as previously described for shear.4) For rectangular sections.

The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 5 .25 . To learn more about the design strips. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. is obtained and reported. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Design for CSA A23. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.6.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Slab Design 5 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 5. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.3-04 5.

26 Slab Design .6. 5. 5. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip. 5 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1.1) In addition. Where openings occur. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. In some cases.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1): As ≥ 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.002 bh (CSA 7. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. In that case.6.6. 5.8. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. given the bending moment. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6.1.10. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. for each load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

The column location (i.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.e.3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.27 .3..2.2). edge. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.3.Design for CSA A23. where Slab Design 5 .6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.Chapter 5 .3-04 5.6.3.3).1 and CSA 13. interior.3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.3.2.

and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.4. 5 . and ⎪for corner columns.3.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.6. 5.3. and (CSA 13.3.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.3.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.5.4. (CSA 13. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.28 Slab Design .4.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm. d.1) where.3).2) If the effective depth.3.10.4.

3-04 5.29 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.75λφ c (CSA 13.8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. φs. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13. and vf. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3) 5. vc.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 5.3.3. is the strength reduction factor.2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.max = 0. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.1).28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.6. Slab Design 5 .Design for CSA A23.3.max.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.2) Given vf. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 5.6..2.6. where.Chapter 5 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.8.6.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.8. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior..3. the concrete section should be increased in size. and 8. for corner. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and corner column. edge. 5 .30 Slab Design . and interior columns respectively.3.6.4d. a failure condition is declared.5) If vf > vf.8. i. edge. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.3. Therefore. 6.max.e. 5.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. (CSA 13.max.

6) Slab Design 5 . s.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.56λφc f 'c v f > 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.Design for CSA A23. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.3.8.3-04 5.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.3.6) (CSA 13.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. so. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7. the distance.Chapter 5 . Height.6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The limits of so and the spacing. When specifying shear studs.31 .4 d ⎧ 0.8.4d.

.

1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. However. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . 6.

MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement.

N-mm Design torsional resistance moment.Chapter 6 . N Depth of neutral axis. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement.max u VRdc VRd. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Design moment at a section. mm Flange thickness. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Lever arm. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N-mm Normalized design moment. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. mm Torsion at ultimate design load.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd.

and earthquake (E) loads.i Qk .10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. pattern live load (PL). 6.1ψ 0. 6. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .1 + ∑ γ Q . live load (L).1Qk . j Gk .10b.12b) For this code.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq. 6.1Qk . wind (W).iψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.iψ 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.12b. j Gk .i Qk . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.10a and 6. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.i Qk .10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G.1 + ∑ γ Q .1Qk . 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. j + γ P P + γ Q .10a) ∑ξ γ j G.i Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . 6. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. j + γ P P + γ Q . ∑γ j ≥1 G. 6. snow (S).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.iψ 0. j Gk . 6. j + γ P P + γ Q . ∑G j ≥1 k.

1 S ± γQ.i W + γQ.1 W + γQ. 6.75)γQ. 6.i ψ0. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.0E + ψ2.10a) (EC0 Eq.10a and 6.i W γGj. 6.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.1 L ± γQ.1 W γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.4. 6.i L D ± 1.1 L γGj.i ψ0.3): γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.i L + ψ2.i W γGj.sup D + γQ.0E D ± 1.i ψ0.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj.i S ± γQ.Chapter 6 .supD + (0.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.1 ψ0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.i S γGj.1 ψ0.1 L + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 PL ξ γGj.75)γQ.sup D γGj.i S (EC0 Eq.i L D ± 1.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D ξ γGj.1 W (EC0 Eq. 6. 6.1 W + γQ.1 S + γQ. 6.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.1 PL γGj.sup D γGj.inf D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.1 W γGj.supD + (0.i L γGj. 6.supD + γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.i ψ0. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.i W γGj.sup D + γQ.inf D ± γQ. γGj.1 ψ0.supD + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ. 6. 6.1 L γGj.i L γGj.1 L ξ γGj.i ψ0.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .10a) (EC0 Eq. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i L + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq. 6. 6. 6.i S γGj.supD + (0.sup D ± γQ.10b. 6.sup D + γQ.supD + γQ.0E + ψ2.75)γQ.

inf D ± γQ. 6.1 γQ.1 L ± γQ.inf D ± γQ.0E D ± 1.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.inf = 1.i ψ0.1 W γGj.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i ψ0.sup D + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.1 W γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 S ± γQ.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.7 (live load.sup D + γQ.1 L + γQ.i L D ± 1.i W ξ γGj.1 ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.6 (wind load) = 0. 6.0E + ψ2.i L γGj.1 W + γQ.1 ψ0. 6.1 ψ0.i S γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.35 γGj.00 γQ.1 ψ0.5 (snow load.sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.i ξ = 1.1 W + γQ.1 ψ0.1 W ξ γGj.5 = 1.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i L + ψ2.i ψ0.i L γGj.i W ξ γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.i S γGj.i ψ0.sup = 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj. assumed not to be storage) = 0.i ψ0.i W γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.i S (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i S ξ γGj.1 L ± γQ.inf D ± γQ.1 S + γQ.1 W + γQ.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.0E + ψ2.sup D ± γQ.5 = 0.85 (EC0 Table A1.1 S ± γQ. 6.i L γGj.1 S + γQ. 6.i L γGj.sup D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.i W ξ γGj.i S D ± 1. γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 L + γQ.

2(3)). 6.1. other appropriate load combinations should be used. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.Chapter 6 . αcc is taken as 1.i = 0.6(1)). fck. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. respectively (EC2 3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. 6. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1) (EC0 Table A1.1.3 (live. fyk. should be 400 and 600 MPa.i ψ2.2. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.7(2)) (EC2 3.1.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.6(1)) (EC2 3. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.2. γs and γc as shown here. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2(2)).Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.

and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4.4). The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. These values can be overwritten. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. Table 2. shear. The user should consider those separately. γc = 1. γs = 1.4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. For accidental and earthquake situations.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. 6. however. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .4(1). caution is advised. shear. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. and torsion based on the beam moments. for a particular station.2. torsion.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. shear forces. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. and torsion only. load combination factors.5.

5. the width. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.Chapter 6 . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. 6.1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. Fig 3. In such cases.1. Fig 3.7(3)). Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis.1.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.7(3). The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. or the strength of the concrete.7(3).5) (EC2 3.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5. In such cases.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.1.1. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.

7(3)) (EC2 3. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution. 6 .5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.5(4)) (EC 5.5(4)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.6 + 0. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.5(4)) (EC2 5.44 k2 = k4 = 1. δ. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5. ( x d )lim .5(4)) (EC 5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.7(3)) λ = 0.1.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.1.25(0.1. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.7(3)) (EC2 3. the following values are used: k1 = 0. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.and T-beams). is summarized in the subsections that follow. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.54 (EC 5.10 Beam Design .5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.

1.11 . the normalized moment. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . less than. mlim.Chapter 6 . are obtained first. The normalized design moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. m.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. or equal to mlim. mlim.2. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. m.5. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.

both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. As. or at the top if MEd is negative. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. A's and As. a singly reinforced beam is designed.12 Beam Design . f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. If m > mlim. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. ωlim.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. and is given by: 6 . d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.

7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5. m.2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.5.13 . additional calculation is required.2. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.5.1. 3.2..2. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.1.1. no flanged beam data is used.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.5. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1.5(4). the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.e. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. Fig 3. 3. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6. The normalized design moment. i.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. Based on this assumption.2. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 .1.2.Chapter 6 .1.e.. 6.7(4). MEd (i. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 3. designing top reinforcement).8) 6. See Figure 6-2. Initially.1.

However. M1 = M − M2. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. in that case. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the calculation for As has two parts.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. as shown in Figure 6-2. If a > hf.14 Beam Design . considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. is determined as follows: 6 . As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the width of the beam is taken as bf. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression.

2.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim. Fig 3.Chapter 6 . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.7(4). Beam Design 6 . 3.15 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.1. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .min = 0.5. 6.1.1.min = 0.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.0013bd (EC2 9.12.2): Determine the factored shear force.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1(3)). Determine the shear reinforcement required.1(1)) As . Table 3.16 Beam Design . the following steps are involved (EC2 6.2. Table 3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1. Determine the shear force.5.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.12. 6 .2.1) f ctm = 2.12. VRd. Table 3. for a particular load combination. VEd. that can be resisted by the concrete.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.1) (EC2 3.c. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.

is calculated as: 13 VRd . and k1 are taken as: C Rd .c.2.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0. with the corresponding load combination factors.c = 0.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.15 Beam Design 6 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.02 bw d (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.2.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. VRd.2.2.5.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.5.2.17 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.c.2(1)) (EC2 6.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6. 6.c = ⎡C Rd . 6. vmin.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .18 γ c ν min = 0.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .

max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd . a failure condition is declared.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2.5. 6 .2.3(3)) (EC2 6. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.2.3(3)) Asw.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9. obtained from each load combination.2. VRdc.2.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.max.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.2.3(1)) (EC2 6. Asw Asw. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2.2.18 Beam Design .3(3)) (EC2 6.max.min s = 0.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.6⎜1 − z = 0.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.2(6)) (EC2 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. VRd.3(3)) (EC2 6.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.

Determine the torsion reinforcement required. special section properties. u. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.19 . 6. Beam Design 6 . Determine critical torsion capacity. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. 6.1(2)). These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.5. uk. However. Determine special section properties.3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. TEd.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.Chapter 6 .2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3.2). 6. and zi are calculated. tef. If redistribution is desired. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. such as Ak.3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.3.5.5.

2(1)) (EC2 6. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.2(1)) (EC2 6.3. the section dimensions b.3.3.3. h. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. With this assumption. With this assumption. and uk.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) where.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.20 Beam Design . the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. such as Ak.2(3)) 6 .3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. However. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness.2(1)) (EC2 6. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. Similarly. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.3.

2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6. h.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.5.0 TRd . and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3. Vt. and compression diagonals.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. In that case.3.3.c is the torsional cracking moment. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6. if the equation is not satisfied. hf. is first calculated.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.2(1)) 6.c VRd .c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. followed by the required stirrup area.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .2.05 / γ c (EC2 6. the shear due to this torsion. 6.2(5)) where VRd.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. bw.21 .3. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. calculated as: TRd .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf. However.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0. longitudinal bars.3.2.c (EC2 6.3.Chapter 6 .1.

22 Beam Design .8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. In the preceding expressions.max (EC2 6. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.0 VRd .2(4)) where TRd. θ is taken as 45 degrees.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.2.3.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd . The code allows any value between 21.max + VEd ≤ 1. as previously defined for beam shear.3(2)).3.2(4)) 6 .max.3. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.23 . To learn more about the design strips.Chapter 6 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.6. the concrete section should be increased in size.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 6. In that case. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure message is declared. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 6. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Slab Design 6 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. at a given design section in a design strip.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 6. described in the subsections that follow. given the bending moment.min = 0. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2. 6. for each load combination.1(1)) As . the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.1.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is obtained and reported.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6.1): As .24 Slab Design . are repeated for every load combination. Where openings occur. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6. In that case.1.3.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.2. 6.0013bd (EC2 9. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.min = 0.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip.1. In some cases. These two steps.

2(1)).04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1) fctm = 2. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 6.1(3)).1) (EC2 Table 3.6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized..1) (EC2 Table 3.4. edge. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.4. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.e.1.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.Chapter 6 . 6. Slab Design 6 . The column location (i.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.25 .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.6. interior.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.

4.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4(1)) 6 .c = ⎡C Rd .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4.26 Slab Design .2.4.

and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .c = 0.4. the nominal design shear stress.4.4.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively. conservatively taken as zeros. C Rd .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.4(1)) (EC2 6.4.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .6.18 γ c (EC2 6.4(1)) (EC2 6.15 6. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .4(1)) ν min = 0.02 (EC2 6.0 d (EC2 6. conservatively taken as zeros.27 .4.4.2. vEd.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.

vRd.c ) = u1 sr 1. a failure condition is declared.4.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.3.5 f ywd .28 Slab Design . (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. Asw (v Ed − 0. 6.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. Given vEd.max. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 6. 6. and vRd.3.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.75v Rd .c.5). the concrete section should be increased in size. 6 .6.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.max.ef If vEd > vRd.4. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.

Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. i. and corner column.3(1)). edge. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.. Therefore.3. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.6.Chapter 6 . 6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Height.3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. for corner. and interior columns respectively.e. and 8. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.4.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. edge.6.29 .

12-. and 20-millimeter diameter.3(1)) (EC2 9. 16-.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.4.75d g ≤ 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. the distance.3(1)) 6 . so.4. 14-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. When specifying shear studs.4. The limits of so and the spacing. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.3d.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.3(1)) (EC2 9.4.30 Slab Design .4.3(1)) (EC2 9.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. g. s.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.e.2.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.1. ⎧0.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In such cases.5. In such cases.4(b)).4(a)).max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. the width.1. 7.max is defined as: ε c . βb ≥ 0.5. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2.1.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. where εc. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.1..9) (CP 6. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. with the corresponding load factors.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. or the strength of the concrete.0035 − 0. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. In addition.1. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. 7.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.1. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4(a)).87 f y z (CP 6.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. where 0.1.4(b)).156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. Fig 6.1. is obtained from: As = M . shear. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. less than.2.Chapter 7 .4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .1fcuAg) (CP 6. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2.2. is obtained first for a section.2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. and torsion only. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.4(c)) ⎧0. hence. where 2 (CP 6.1.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.2. or equal to Msingle.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4(a).5.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. Msingle. As.

4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. or at the top if M is negative.1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.25 − ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.1. If M > Msingle.2.2.4(c)) (CP 6.2.1.95d z = d ⎜ 0.

87 f y z + 0.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. Beam Design 7-9 . designing top reinforcement).2.. no flanged beam data is used.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.2.4(a).5. Fig..1. 3.5.6. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.1.4(c).1. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1.Chapter 7 .2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Based on this assumption.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.2.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.2.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.5.1.4(c)) 7. 3.1.5 + 0.1. Fig 6.36 . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2.45 . for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. 7.2.95d 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 f y .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.e. i. M (i.2.e.

8x for ⎪ ⎪0. Fig 6.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.4(c). the normalized moment is given by: K= M .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.2. 0. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.1.1) If a ≤ hf. However.1.4(a). Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.1. If a > hf .4(c)) (CP 6.5 + 0.95d.2. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .2.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.36 . in that case.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. See Figure 7-2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. for ⎪ 0. Fig 6.45 .10 Beam Design . the width of the beam is taken as bf. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ .

5) β f = 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.1 f cu bd (0.67 fcu/gm 0.4. In that case. ⎪0.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.5h f ) .Chapter 7 .5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0. x ≤ 0. Cf.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.9 x − h f ) 0.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .87 f y (d − 0.11 .4.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . x ≤ 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 . where (BS 3.5h f ) bf hf ec 0. Cw.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. x ≤ 0.4d then. as shown in Figure 7-2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.

24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.2.4(c)).2. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.2. where (CP 6.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0. 7 .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.1. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.1.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.32 ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) .100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4(d)) ⎧0.87 f y ( d − 0.12 Beam Design .

5h f ) Mf + Mw .5 + 0.6.95d ⎜ 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.13 . 3.4(c). and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. where 0. Fig 3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.87 f y (d − 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.1.Chapter 7 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.2.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .2.5 + 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.

24 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.2.1.1(CP 9. if it is required.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.48 0.1. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.3): 7 .2.2.13 100 0.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.1.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.14 Beam Design .20 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.40 0.5.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.32 0.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.1).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.36 0. which is taken from CP Table 9. which is taken from CP Table 9.1.1 (CP 9. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.2.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.

2. that can be resisted by the concrete.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1.1.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.1. for a particular load combination.04bw d ⎧0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5): Determine the shear stress.8 fcu .15 .3) 7.Chapter 7 . the following steps are involved (CP 6.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9. with the corresponding load combination factors.5(a)) 7.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 7. vc. Determine the shear stress.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2. 7 MPa) (CP 6. v. vc.5. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .5.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.5.1.

5(g)) (CP 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.1.2.3) ≥ 0.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. Table 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.5.3) (CP 6.16 Beam Design .00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.1.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1.5(c).2.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2.5(c).3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1. Table 6.2.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.2.5(k)) 0. as: 7 .6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.67 1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. Table 6.2. vc.2. the following limitations also apply: 0.5(c). and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.1.2.2.1. vr.1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.1. CP 6. and vmax.5(c). Table 6.25 However.5(c).5(k)) 7.1.2. Table 6.

2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . 7.5(b).5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.17 .2.1.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.Chapter 7 .4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.2.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. Determine special section properties. vt. Beam Design 7 .87 f yv If v > vmax.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.2.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.1. Table 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. (CP 6. a failure condition is declared.5(b)) (CP 6.1. (CP 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. obtained from each load combination.1. sv 0.

8 f cu .3. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6.3. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. vt. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.3.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.3.17 7 .3(a)) For flanged sections. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. Table 6. 7.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. The torsional shear stress. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. In typical framed construction. vt.4. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.18 Beam Design . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.5. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.1). with the corresponding load combination factors.

6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.t /sv.min = min 0.19 .min. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.067 fcu . vt is less than the threshold limit.3. 7. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.min.0.5).3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.5).3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.3.3. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt. Asv.3.Chapter 7 . However.min. vt.5. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. In that case. vt.min. Table 6. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.

4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.3.6) In the preceding expressions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.t sv = T 0.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .20 Slab Design .t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.3. 7. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.87 f yv ) (CP 6.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the concrete section should be increased in size. 7 . In that case.3. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. a failure message is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .8 x1 y1 (0. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips.8 fcu .

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 .1.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 7 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. for each load combination.1. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. In that case. 7. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In some cases. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 7. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. is obtained and reported.21 .6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip. given the bending moment.

edge.1.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9. 7.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.7(d)). Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.2.7). 7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5. Where openings occur.3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 7. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2. The column location (i.3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.5d from the face of the support (CP 6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1(a)) In addition.22 Slab Design .5.e.1. 7 .6.. interior.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1.3.1.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.

and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5(g).3): 0.5d Interior Column 1. Table 6.Chapter 7 .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.1.1.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7. Table 6.2. 6.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .5. Table 6.7(d).5d 1.1.7(d).5(c).7(d)) (CP 6.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.6.23 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1.5d 1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.1.5.1.2.2.

5. where (CP 6.3.5(c).2.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.5 + 1. 7 .8 f cu . bd 1 4 (CP 6.1. 6. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.1.3) ≥ 0.6. Table 6.25 However.5. 7 MPa) (CP 6.5 x ⎬ .2) 0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.5.67 1.1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud . the nominal design shear stress.1.4. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.6(b).6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.7(b)) (CP Table 6. v ≤ min(0. Table 2. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.5(c).5. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.2. v. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection. Table 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.24 Slab Design .2.1.

7.7(e)).Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.5.1.6.3.5.1.1.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.Chapter 7 .25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.5.25 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.6.5.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .25 ⎪1. 7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6(b).6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 7. 6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.1.

5. 0.6vc ≤ v < 2.3.1.6vc 0.7v − vc ) ud 0. the concrete section should be increased in size. and corner column.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.87 f yv s If v > vmax.1.7(f)). and 8. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7(e)). the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. ≥ s 0.1.87 f yv 0. (CP 6. Therefore..5. for corner. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7(e)) (CP 6. edge.5.26 Slab Design .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. If v ≤ 1. edge. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v. 7 .e.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.87 f yv 0. 6.6. 7. and vmax. i.5. vc. a failure condition is declared.5. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .4ud = ≥ .1.87 f yv If 1. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.0vc (CP 6. and interior columns respectively.1.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.

Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. g.3.5d (CP 6.1.5.5d. the distance. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7.75d g ≤ 1. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5.27 .7(f)) (CP 6. 16-. so. s.1.5d.Chapter 7 .2. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. When specifying shear studs.5d s ≤ 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. and 20-millimeter diameter. The limits of so and the spacing. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5.6.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 12-.1. Height. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4. 14-.7(f)) (CP 6.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .

.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. For simplicity. mm Notations 8-1 . a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. 8. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.

MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. N-mm 8-2 Notations . N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. assumed as 200. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.

mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Depth of neutral axis.Chapter 8 . N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N-mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Factored shear force at a section.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. mm Lever arm. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section.3 . as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load.max Notations 8. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.

the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.2L ± 1.0E (IS 36.2D + 1.75 PL) 1. pattern live load (PL).1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .1) (IS 31. and earthquake (E) loads.2.5.5E 0.5D + 1. MPa 8. wind (W).2L ± 1.1) (IS 36. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4.5S 1.5D + 1.2W 1.1) (IS 36. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.5D ± 1.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.5L 1.5D + 1.5D 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.5W 0.0W 1.2E 1. snow (S).5L ± 1.5D ± 1.2D + 1.5E 1.4. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.9D ± 1.9D ± 1.5W 1. Table 18): 1.4.5L ± 1.5D + 1.4.4.5(0.5D + 1. live load (L). For IS 456-2000.3) (IS 36.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.

and torsion only.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.4. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. γs = 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. 8. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2L + 1.5D + 1.2D + 1. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. These values can be overwritten.2.2D + 1.Design for IS 456-2000 1. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8. γc = 1. shear.5L + 1.4. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. 8. caution is advised.5S 1. shear forces.5 (IS 36. 8. torsion.2S ± 1.2W 1. shear. However.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. load combination factors. γm.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used. beams must be designed for torsion.2S ± 1.2.4.1) (IS 36.2E (IS 36.Chapter 8 . 14. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. however.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2L + 1.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.4.2W 1.2E 1.2S ± 1. and torsion based on the beam moments. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2D + 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5 .

4.1.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear.4. However. 8. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed.1. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. 8-6 Beam Design . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. Rather. In such cases. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. If redistribution is desired. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. In such cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. If Mt exceeds Mu. with the corresponding load factors.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.4.Design for IS 456-2000 8.4.4.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam.7 . The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.2) (IS 41. Beam Design 8. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.1) 8. where (IS 41. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1.Chapter 8 . Effectively.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.4. respectively. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.2. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. In such cases. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.4.

1) (IS 38. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.2. a. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38.1. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. When a torsional moment is to be included. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. with the corresponding load combination factors.4. or the strength of the concrete. c.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.4. The area of the stress block. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1). The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1) 8.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web.4.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. (IS 41. the width. 8.3.1) 8-8 Beam Design .

fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.1).Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.1) (IS 38.36 β = 0.53 0.0035 b f′ s 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.48 0.Chapter 8 .46 Beam Design 8.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.9 .42 (IS 38. Furthermore. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.1). The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.max /d 0.

4.2. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. or equal to Msingle. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.0035 (IS 38. is given by 8 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.max d ⎧0. Msingle = α xu.10 Beam Design .max = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.max. 8. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. are obtained first.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. shear. xu . m.53 ⎪ ⎪0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Msingle.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. xu.max d xu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. and torsion only.48 − 0.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. less than.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.53 − 0.

− If Mu > Msingle.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. or at the top if Mu is negative. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . A's.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. Beam Design 8.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . As.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.Chapter 8 . where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. where (IS G-1.11 . the area of compression reinforcement. and vice versa if Mu is negative. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ .2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') . is obtained from As = Mu . is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.

the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. i. Mu (i. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4...e.e. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4. 8. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.3.2.4. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. no flanged beam data is used.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8..12 Beam Design . designing top reinforcement). See Figure 8-2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. On the basis of this assumption.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.3.

the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. Cf. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. Cw. m. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . However.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.Chapter 8 . If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0.13 .1).65D f if D f > 0. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.15 xu + 0.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. as shown in Figure 8-2.

is given by: A′ = s M w − M w. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. and 8 .53 ⎪ ⎪0.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.single.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.48 − 0.single.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.14 Beam Design .max ⎡ x u.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw. the area of compression reinforcement.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. A's.single ⎛ 0.max d ⎧0.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.1) xu . the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.46 (IS 38.53 − 0.

1.1.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.15 .5.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26. at a particular station.2) 8.4.1) An upper limit of 0.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.1): As ≥ 0.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04bw d ⎧0.Chapter 8 .1) (IS 26.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.5.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5.1.85 bd fy (IS 26.5.5.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.4.5.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8. the following steps are involved (IS 40.1.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.2. for a particular load combination.

max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. (IS 40.2) 8 . and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.1 M30 3. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .5 M35 3.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress. τc. τc. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.3.max (IS 40.16 Beam Design .3. d. τv ≤ τc.2.5 M20 2. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.1. τc.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.8 M25 3.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.7 M40 4. as: τcd = kδτc.4. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.max (MPa) (IS 40.0 τc. where bd (IS 40.max.3.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.

and if Pu > 0 . The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.4 Asv 0.1) (IS 40.87 f y If τcd + 0.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.87 f y (IS 40.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. Under Tension (IS 40. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0. Table 19) (IS 40.2.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40.4(a)) Beam Design 8.4 < τv ≤ τc. 0.2.5. taken as 1. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.2. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .4.max (IS 40. 26.17 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.1.Chapter 8 .1.2.2.1). which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.1.4 b ≥ sv 0.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.1.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.2.3.

is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.1.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.4.3) (IS 41. τc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.3) τve ≤ τc. obtained from each load combination.87 f y (IS 41. provide 2-legged closed stirrups. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40. a failure condition is declared.1) (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0.4) 8. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 8 .6) If τve ≥τcd.5. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3. (IS 40.4.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.87 f y (IS 41.max The maximum nominal shear stress.max is determined as defined in the last section. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.2.87 f y ) 2. 26.18 Beam Design .4.max.2. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.3.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.5d1 (0.

1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. are repeated for every load combination. 8.19 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These two steps.Chapter 8 . is obtained and reported. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 8. described in the subsections that follow.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.Design for IS 456-2000 8. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. for each load combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Slab Design 8.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.5.5. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. To learn more about the design strips.

In some cases.1).1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26. In that case. at a given design section in a design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1).1). 8.1. Where openings occur.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 8 .e.5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. 8.2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 8. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. interior. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26..2.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.5. edge.2): ⎧0.1.20 Slab Design . given the bending moment.5.6.1) In addition.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. The column location (i. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).5. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6.5.5. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.

3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.2.2.5. 8.6.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.21 .2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.2).2.5.3.Chapter 8 .3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.

6.6.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2.2) 8 .6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.2) 8.5.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.5. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 8.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.5τ c (IS 31.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5 + βc ≤ 1. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.3.3.3.6.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.1) (IS 31.1) τc = 0.3.3. 8.5.5 τ c bod (IS 31.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0. 8.0 (IS 31.5.1) (IS 31.22 Slab Design .

.2). lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.5. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.23 . i. Av = (Vu − 0. 41.6. a failure condition is declared.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. Slab Design 8.2) If Vu > Vmax.3.6. and Vmax. 8. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.3) (IS 31. the concrete section should be increased in size.e.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.87 f y (IS 31. and corner column.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.Chapter 8 . edge.5Vc ) 0.3.6.2. Vc.3.

6. and 8.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 5d s ≤ 0. Height.5d. g. so.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.5. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Therefore.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . The limits of so and the spacing. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. s.3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. the distance. for corner. When specifying shear studs.24 Slab Design . edge.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 8. and interior columns respectively. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.

1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. 9. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity.

mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Width of member. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section).

mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. mm Factored design torsion at a section. mm Thickness of slab or flange. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. MPa Overall depth of sections. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N Average design shear stress at a section.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Perimeter of area Ao. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. N Factored shear force at a section.Chapter 9 .

4.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.9D ± 1. 4. live load (L).35D 1.0D + 0.75 PL) 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. 4.2. snow (S).0E 1.2.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2. 4.2.5L 1.0.2D + 0.0.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .0. For NZS 3101-06.0W 1.0D ± 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0.4L ± 1.4L ± 1.2D + 1.2.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.5(0.0. 4. pattern live load (PL).2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2): 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2D + 1. (0.4L + 1.0.2D + 0. and earthquake (E) loads. 4.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9. 4. 4.2.0.2D ± 1. 4.0W 1.0W 0.0E (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.0.0S 1. wind (W).

2. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .3.3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. shear. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. The φ factors for flexure.85 for flexure φs = 0.3.3. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.Chapter 9 . 9. 9.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. fy.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. however.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement.3).75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.3).1). fyt. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. (NZS 2.2.2.2. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5.2) (NZS 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. caution is advised. other appropriate load combinations should be used.

with the corresponding load factors.5. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. In such cases. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion only. the 9-6 Beam Design . shear forces. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. load combination factors. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. torsion.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. for a particular station.

Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2.7): α1 = 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. M (i.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. the width. or the strength of the concrete.e.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.2) in the preceding and following equations. shear.Chapter 9 .2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1). 9. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1). Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2.1.7). designing top or bottom reinforcement). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.2.5. The design procedure used by SAFE.1.2) where the default value of φb is 0. and torsion only. where.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. 9.3.3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.8. Furthermore.4.85 (NZS 2..2.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.

amax.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.7) (NZS 7.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.2.75β1cb (NZS 7.85 − 0. is given by: amax = 0. 0. c (NZS 7.4.1).008( f ′ − 30).1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.7) (NZS 7.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.3. 9.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.85 β1 = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .7.2.8.4.8) β1 = 0.3.4. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.85 − 0.2.8.

If a > amax (NZS 9.4.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2.2.2.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .Chapter 9 . 7. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.8.4.1).3. or at the top * if M is negative.4.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .2.2.

4.10 Beam Design .5. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.e.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore..3.2. amax. and vice versa if M is negative.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.7. designing top reinforcement). the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.1. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.2.8. 9 .e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.2.5..5. i. As = As1 + As2.4. the total tension reinforcement. Cw. * 9.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. Cf. If a > hf.1. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. 9. M (i.2. calculation for As has two parts.2. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. no flanged beam data is used. 9.75β1cb (NZS 7.1) If a ≤ hf.2. is given by: amax = 0. However. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. as shown in Figure 9-2.

2 ) Beam Design 9 . the balance of the moment.11 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. As1 = given by: (NZS 7. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.2.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.4.4.

the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .3.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw . If a1 > amax (NZS 9.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .3.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.2. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.8.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.8.12 Beam Design .1).2.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.1).2. 7. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.4.4.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.75 Ao/po 0. h.1.1) (NZS 7.7). hf. h.6.75 Ao/po 0. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.1) where. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 . Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) (NZS 7. the section dimensions b. Similarly. bw.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.1) where the section dimensions bf.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.18 Beam Design .1) (NZS 7.

The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.6.6.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.6.6.1.4.1).1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. if T exceeds the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.Chapter 9 .1. defined as: T* ≤ 0.5.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. In that case.19 . the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. At /s. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. Tcr. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.6. T .1).4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.3) 9.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. is less than the threshold limit. and meets the torsion stress limit.6.4.6.1. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. Tcr. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.3.3.6) Beam Design 9 . However.4.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.5.

the concrete section should be increased in size. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.2) * * For rectangular sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2 f 'c .6.20 Slab Design .8. a failure message is declared.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. 7. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 9.5. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. In that case. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.3). bw is replaced with b.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. provided it is fully developed. 9 .8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.1. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.2.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7. At Al 1. To learn more about the design strips. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

are repeated for every load combination. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 9. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. is obtained and reported. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.21 . for each load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These two steps. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. described in the subsections that follow. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1. given the bending moment.Chapter 9 . 9. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. In that case. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. at a given design section in a design strip.

4 ): ⎧ 0 .8. The column location (i.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.6.6.6.5.5.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads..6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.7.e.2. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1(b)). Only the code-specific items are described in the following. 9. 8. Where openings occur.8.22 Slab Design . 8.1) In addition. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.6.2.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. interior. 2.1(b)). 9 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.7. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control. 9. edge. 9.

7.23 .1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M . 9.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .Chapter 9 .6.6.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.2.7.7.2. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.7.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.

12. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.24 Slab Design . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2.2(a)). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.1).3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.6. 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.7.6.7.2. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. 9 .7.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2) where.4. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.7.1.1) 70 9.3.3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.

φ. is the strength reduction factor.3. a failure condition is declared.7.7.5) 9. Slab Design 9 .Chapter 9 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6. 9. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.7.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12. where.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.25 .4) Given vn.7.7.3.6.3.4.3) (NZS 12. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.4. and vmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.5 f ′ c (NZS 12. vc.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.4) If vn > φvmax.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. edge. Therefore. for corner.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.4). edge.26 Slab Design .7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. i..e.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. and 8. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 9 . and corner column. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 6. and interior columns respectively.

4) Slab Design 9 . When specifying shear studs. s. so. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4) (NZS 12.6.4) (NZS 12.7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. The limits of so and the spacing.7. Height. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance.7.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.5d.27 .3.4. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. g. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.5d s ≤ 0.Chapter 9 .4. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4.

.

is selected. For simplicity. Notations 10 . Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008].1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.

MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Torsional constant.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm 10 . mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Flange thickness. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.2 Notations . mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm Area of tension reinforcement.

mm Lever arm. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Neutral axis depth. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. MPa Torsional shear stress. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.Chapter 10 . mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 .3 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.

1.6(0.4 Design Load Combinations .4.0D ± 1.4.4W 1. pattern live load (PL). 1.2). the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2. fcu.6L 1. 10. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).75PL) 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. and wind (W) loads.1.4D ± 1.2D + 1.3).2L ± 1.4. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.3) (CP 2. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3. live load (L).7. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. Note that the automatic combination. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. 10 . and considering that wind forces are reversible. other appropriate load combinations should be used. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.3) (CP 2.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.4.4D 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2W (CP 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. including pattern live load.4D + 1. γf (CP 2.4.3).4W 1.4D + 1.

Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.4. shear.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. load combination factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 .15 1.4.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. shear. but can be overwritten.5 . γm. shear forces. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.Chapter 10 . 10.2 (CP 2.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. and torsion only.50 1. torsion.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. and other criteria described below. and torsion based on the beam moments.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. which are taken from CP Table 2. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.

the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4). BC 2. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2) 10 . for a particular station.5. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.3. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. In such cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.6 Beam Design . Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. or the strength of the concrete. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. 10. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10.1.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3. with the corresponding load factors. the width. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5.4. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.

5.4. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0..4. shear.7 . or equal to Msingle. See Figure 10-1.4. less than.Chapter 10 .9) (CP 3.4.and T-beams). ⎧0.4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. where 2 (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. βb ≥ 0.4.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. BC 2. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. BC 2.e. Msingle. hence. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. is summarized in the subsections that follow.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4) Beam Design 10 .1).4.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3. In addition. Msingle = K'fcu bd . and torsion only.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4. 10.4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4).1.4.1fcuAg) (CP 3.2. is first calculated for a section.4.4).72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.

the area of tension reinforcement.4.4) 10 .4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.5 + 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.95d z = d ⎜ 0.87 f y z (CP 3. where 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4. If M ≤ Msingle.4. As.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.25 − ⎜ 0.4) (CP 3.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. is then given by: As = M .8 Beam Design .

4.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.3.95d z = d ⎜ 0..4. where (CP 3.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. or at the top if M is negative.4.4. 2. i.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.1.25 − ⎜ 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0..2.4.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.e.3. If M > Msingle.Chapter 10 .1. no flanged beam data is used. Fig 2. Fig 2.4.4.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.e.87 f y z + 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.4. and f ′ =0. M (i.4.5. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4.5 + 0.2.5.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10. designing top reinforcement).9 .4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.1.5.4.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle . 2. Beam Design 10 .5.

the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. On the basis of this assumption.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2.5. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2. εc 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.1.10 Beam Design . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. See Figure 10-2.4.67 fcu γ m 0.

4. Fig 2. where (BS 3.45d then.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.5) β f = 0.9 ⎭ (CP 3.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.5h f ) . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.3) If a ≤ hf. Cf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.45d − h f ) 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. as shown in Figure 10-2.36 . Fig 2.87 f y (d − 0.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1 f cu bd (0.95d 0. However. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .11 .15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. BC 2. In that case.4. 2 As = M + 0.4.2. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.4.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.4. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.45 . Cw. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.Chapter 10 . If a > hf .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.5 + 0.4.4.4.4.4.4. BC 2.

2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.4.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0. where (CP 3.5h f ) ) .6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.2) 10 .5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.4.5. BC 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.12 Beam Design .4.87 f y ( d − 0.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.32 ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.2) ⎧0.4.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.

4.5.4.4.4.4). BC 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.4. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4.4.5. 2.4. Fig 2.3. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.156 (CP 3.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.2) If Kw ≤ 0.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.Chapter 10 .5 + 0. 2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .5h f ) Mf + Mw .87 f y (d − 0.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.4.13 .2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3. Fig 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.3. where 0. As = 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5.4.4).

5. which is taken from CP Table 3.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. 10 .5.95d ⎜ 0.27 (CP 3.12. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.27 (CP 3. which is taken from CP Table 3.18 100 0.12.4 bf bw ≥ 0.14 Beam Design .20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.48 0.5 + 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.3).32 0.26 100 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. if it is required.36 0.13 100 0.5.24 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.1. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.

5): Determine the shear stress.6. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. that can be resisted by the concrete.4.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. An upper limit of 0.15 .27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vc. Determine the shear stress.Chapter 10 . 10. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. BC 2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2.5.12.1).40 0. v.3.2).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. for a particular load combination. 10. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3. the following steps are involved (CP 3.20 0.12.

4) 10. 7 MPa).2.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5.9) 10 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.8) (CP 3.5.5. the following limitations also apply: 0.4. (CP 3.12) 0. vc.25 1 1 3 However.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.8 fcu .16 Beam Design .5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.4. Table 3.4.4.5. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.5.5. Table 3.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.4. with the corresponding load combination factors.6 (CP 3. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.63 fcu .2) For light-weight concrete.4.4.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4) (CP 2. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.

a failure condition is declared.4. Table 3.5.4.5. sv 0.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.4.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4.5.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.5.87 f yv If v > vmax.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5. Table 3.5.4. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.3. and vmax. (CP 3.4.2) In the preceding expressions.2.3.8) (CP 3.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.9) (CP 3.5.3.4.3. Table 3.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.8) As vr b = . vr. Table 3.4.5. Table 3. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. CP 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.5. v’c. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .5.Chapter 10 . (CP 3.4. Table 3.4.8.17 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.

is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. Determine critical torsion stress.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3. The torsional shear stress. In typical framed construction. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. vt. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4. Determine special section properties.4. 10. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.5.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.5.5.18 Beam Design . obtained from each load combination. vt. 10.5.3. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 .1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.15).

067 f cu .6 N / mm 2 x 0.067 f cu .min = min 0. vt. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.5) 10.4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. For lightweight concrete. vt.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.19 .8 (CP Part 2 5.5) Beam Design 10 .4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.4.min.4.0.4.min = min 0.8 f cu .3.1) For flanged sections. vt. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.min is defined as: vt .2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.5. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.0.Chapter 10 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .

is less than the threshold limit. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.min.t /sv.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. In that case. 10 .8 x1 y1 (0.t sv = T 0. is calculated as: Asv . If vt > vt.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. In that case.4. vt.min. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. vt. vt.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .4. Asv.7) In the preceding expressions.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. a failure message is declared.5. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.4.8 f cu .7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. However.6).min. the concrete section should be increased in size.4. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6).4. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.20 Beam Design .

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Chapter 10 .21 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Slab Design 10 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 10. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10.6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.

The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1. given the bending moment. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). is obtained and reported. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.6.1.3. 10. In some cases.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . 10.5. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. In that case. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. CP Table 3.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. for each load combination.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.12. 10. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.22 Slab Design . Where openings occur.

Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 10. The column location (i. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.12.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. interior.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.7. In addition.5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.7. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .7.5d from the face of the support (CP 3. edge.4.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .6.1). 10.7.1).23 .2.e.7.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Slab Design 10 .6. 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6).Chapter 10 ..7.12.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.7.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7.5.5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.5.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1. the following limitations also apply: 10 .9) (CP 3.5.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.5d 1.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.4.6. Table 3.7.7.5d 1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.2.4.2) However.24 Slab Design .4.4. Table 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.4.4.6): 0.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1. 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.

63 v ≤ min (0.6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.4) (CP 3. v. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.3) 1 .6.4.2.5 M y 1 . Table 3.4.5. 10.4.4.7. Table 3.8 fcu .2.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.7.6.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. (CP 3.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 . 4 MPa) f cu .5.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.4. the nominal design shear stress.25 .9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.Chapter 10 .5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section. 3. where (CP 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .9) (CP 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.7.9) For light-weight concrete.5. Table 3.7. Table 3.2.

7.7.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.25 ⎪1.26 Slab Design . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.6.3. 10.7.2. 10. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. vc. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7.6.6. 3. and for corner columns.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. for edge columns.25 ⎩ for interior columns. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.7. 10.5).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3. (CP 3.7.5).1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. 10 . and vmax.

and corner column. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.e.5) 0.27 . ≥ s 0.7v − vc ) ud = . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. edge.7..4ud Av 5 ( 0.87 f yv 0. ≥ s 0.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. a failure condition is declared.6vc.87 f yv If v > vmax.6vc ≤ v < 2. (CP 3.Chapter 10 .3.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. i.7. (CP 3.87 f yv If 1. 0. 10.87 f yv 0.0vc. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.7.7.7.7.5) (CP 3.

The limits of so and the spacing.5d s ≤ 0.7.7. 16-. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. When specifying shear studs. s.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. so. Therefore. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3. and interior columns respectively. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7. edge.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.7.28 Slab Design . 14-.6) (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.7. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.6) (CP 3.7.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6). 10.7. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. and 8. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. g. for corner. 12-. and 20-millimeter diameter. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.6) 10 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 6.7.75d g ≤ 1. Height.6. the distance.5d (CP 3.5d.

Michigan. TM R-1 . BC. 2001. NSW 2001. 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). 1997. Building and Construction Authority. February 2008. AS. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. London. British Standards Institution. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. Australia. Standards Australia International Ltd. Michigan. Singapore. ACI.2R-07). American Concrete Institute. BC 2:2008.O. 2. 2005. Box 9094. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Structural Use of Concrete. 2007. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. 1. P. GPO Box 5420. 2. 2008. American Concrete Institute.References ACI. Part 1.1 and Amendment No. UK. 38800 Country Club Drive. Farmington Hills. and 3. BSI. Farmington Hills. Sydney. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos.

March 2000. London. Kowloon. incorporating Amendments Nos. 1985. Belgium. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. 2006. Manak Bhavan. HK CP. Canadian Standards Association. Concrete Structures Standard. Brussels. Brussels.3-04. Wellington. 2004. Part 2. 2005. R-2 . Belgium. Buildings Department. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). IS. CP. 2000. EN 1990:2002. 2004. 750 Nathan Road. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. British Standards Institution. Twentieth Reprint. 2004. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. CSA. Ontario. A23.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Mongkok. Singapore. Bureau of Indian Standards. Private Bag 2439. UK. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. 1. and 3. New Delhi 110002. Canada. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. India. Part 1-1. 2. 1999. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Rexdale. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. EN 1992-1-1. European Committee for Standardization. European Committee for Standardization. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. CP 65:Part 1:1999. Hong Kong. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. NZS. Standards New Zealand. Structural Use of Concrete. September 2000. Third Edition. 1. Design of Concrete Structures. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. New Zealand.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- SAFE Tutorial
- SAFE Tutorial for slab design
- SAFE Tutorial- Analysis & Design of Pile Supported Mat Foundation
- Reinforced Concrete Design to Bs8110
- ETABS to SAFE.doc
- Detailing to BS 8110
- HighriseReinforced_ConcreteStructures
- reinforced concrete
- Reinforced Concrete Design - W.H. MOSLEY
- SAFE Tutorial
- Examples of the Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings to BS8110 Charles E Reynolds
- Reinforced Concrete Design
- Design & Detail to BS 8110-1997
- reinforced concrete structures
- Reinforced Concrete (analysis and design)
- Design Calculations
- Concrete Design
- Helical Stair - Calculation
- Raft Foundation Procedure
- Concrete
- RAFT FOUNDATION DESIGN
- Guide for Detailing Reinforced Concrete
- Raft Foundation Analysis and Design Example
- Reinforced concrete design
- BCA - Worked Examples Design of Concrete Building
- Etabs (Atkins)
- How to Design Concrete Structures Using Eurocode 2
- COURSE Reinforced Concrete Design
- ETABS-Example-RC Building _Equivalent Special Seismic
- Bs 8110 Safe Rc Design