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DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.1 Design for Flexure 4.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.3 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.4 3.6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.6.5.1 Notations 5-1 ii .2 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.5.3 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.4 4.3-04 5.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.5.6.2 4.6 5 Design for CSA A23.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.1 Design for Flexure 3.1 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.6.1 4.

2 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.1 Design for Flexure 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.5.3 5.Contents 5.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.5.2 6.6.5.28 6.3 6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.1 7.1 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.6.2 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.5.6.4 5.1 Design for Flexure 5.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.4 6.

6.1 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.4 9.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.4 7.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.1 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5.5.6.3 9.5.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3 8.4.1 Design for Flexure 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.4.5.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.2 8.5.5.1 Effects of Torsion 8.5.5.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.2 9.1 Design for Flexure 7.

5.5 Beam Design 10.6.5.1 Design for Flexure 9.6.6 Slab Design 9.6.Contents 9.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.1 Notations 10.5.5.6.6 Slab Design 10.2 Design Load Combinations 10.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .

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Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. shear. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. Specifically. and it designs beam flexural. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. and torsion reinforcement. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. 1-1 . Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process.

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The code is based on inch-pound-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. sq-in Notations 2-1 .Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. 2. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. sq-in Gross area of concrete. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter.

in Width of web (flanged section). in Width of section. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Depth to neutral axis. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. psi 2-2 Notations .

lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. (0. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb Factored axial load at a section. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. psi Overall depth of a section. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section.Chapter 2 . lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. in Height of the flange. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. in Critical torsion capacity. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Factored moment at a section.

6L 1.2S ± 1.6.2. degrees 2.9D ± 1.5S 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.2D + 1.4D 1.6 (0.1) (ACI 9. and earthquake (E) loads.2.2.2D + 1.0E 1.0L + 0.0E (ACI 9.1) (ACI 13.2.6W 1. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.0E 1.0L ± 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2D + 1. snow (S).2D + 1.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.6L + 0. wind (W).1) (ACI 9.2.2D + 1.1) (ACI 9.0L + 0.0L ± 1.1) are the same.2. live load (L). For ACI 318-08.2D + 1.6S 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0L + 1.6W 1.8W 1. pattern live load (PL).1): 1.3) (ACI 9.75 PL) 0.5S ± 1.2.2D + 1.6S ± 0.2D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).6W 0.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.9D ± 1.

SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. load combination factors.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used.2). φ.3) 2.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5. The φ factors for flexure. shear forces. and torsion based on the beam moments.2.3. or if other types of loads are present.1).Chapter 2 . 2. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately.5.3. caution is advised. shear.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. fyt. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. 2.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. fy.1) (ACI 9.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. (ACI 9.2.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. however. torsion.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. and other criteria described in this section. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. f' c .

5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. and torsion only. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. for a particular station. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5. shear. with the corresponding load factors.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. 2.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design . the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.

1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.3.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. cmax.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.3. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). which is equal to 0.90 (ACI 9.2) Beam Design 2-7 . the width.and T-beams). The maximum depth of the compression zone.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.5).e. 2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Mu (i.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. Furthermore.3.2. or the strength of the concrete.5. is summarized in the text that follows. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.003. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.2. The design procedure used by SAFE.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0. which by default is 0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.3. shear.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. and torsion only. fy . When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. designing top or bottom reinforcement). as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.1) in the preceding and the following equations.Chapter 2 . where. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2).1.2.4). Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.

3.7.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. εcmax = 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.7.2.2.85 − 0.4).3) (ACI 10. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0. amax.85 (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .005 (ACI 10.003 b A′ s Cs c 0. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.3.1) β1 = 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.2.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.

2.7. If a > amax.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.3.Chapter 2 .85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10. where ( f 's − 0. or at the top if Mu is negative.3. 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2.2.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .2.

if the moment is positive. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the flange comes under tension. 2..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. a simplified stress block. and vice versa if Mu is negative.5.85 f ′ c 0.e.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . i.003 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.10 Beam Design . as shown in Figure 2-2. and the flange is ignored. is assumed if the flange is under compression. In that case.2.1. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. If the moment is negative.

2.. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2.3.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.3.2.1) β1 = 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 2.2. Mu (i.7.1. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.1.e. amax.2. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.11 . which by default is 0.85 (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 2.3.2) where. no flanged beam data is used.85 − 0.90 (ACI 9.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0. designing top reinforcement).2. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.005 (ACI 10.5. cmax.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10. i.2.2) εcmax = 0.4): cmax = where.2. The maximum depth of the compression zone.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.e.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.3) (ACI 10. which is equal to 0.3) Beam Design 2 .Chapter 2 ..65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.7.003 εsmin = 0.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.

1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design . as shown in Figure 2-2. Cw. Cf. 2 . As1 = given by: (ACI 10. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.90 by default.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f .7. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.2. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. the calculation for As has two parts.5). However. Therefore. Mu . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.3. Cf is given by: C f = 0. the value for φ is 0. If a > hf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the balance of the moment. amax ) Therefore. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.

3. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us . where ( f 's − 0.7.3.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.Chapter 2 .13 .2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore. 10.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.2.2.2.2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 . 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.

Determine the shear force.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.14 Beam Design . the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.2.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.5. 2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. Vu.3) An upper limit of 0.5.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10.1. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. bw d ⎟ As . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Vc.4bw d ⎧0.5.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10. 2 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . that can be resisted by the concrete. for a particular load combination.

1.2.7. φ.6. Vc.3. Vc.3.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.1.5.2.3.75 (ACI 9.5φVc Av =0 s If 0. is 0. 2. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.5. the strength reduction factor. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1) For light-weight concrete. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.1) Beam Design 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 2.5.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.9) Given Vu. with the corresponding load combination factors.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.5. 11.1.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value. 2.2.15 . is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.3).2.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.Chapter 2 . fyt. If Vu ≤ 0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.2.1.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. and Vmax.5.1.

(ACI 11. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.7. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5hf.16 Beam Design . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1(c)).7. (ACI 11.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .5.2) ⎛ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. Tu.6.5. the concrete section should be increased in size.1.5bw. the equation given in ACI 11.5.5.7.5.5.6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. 2. Determine special section properties. and 0.7.3) If Vu > φVmax. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. a failure condition is declared.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. 2 .9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.6.5. 11. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.5. 2.5.

pcp. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. and ph. special section properties.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 .5.5.17 . 2.3. Ao. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.6. 2.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. However.2). This is equivalent to 1.3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. such as Aoh. Aoh.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.Chapter 2 . Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. such as Acp. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.1). and ph. Ao.75 inches. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. If redistribution is desired.2.6.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.2). are calculated.

1.18 Beam Design .6. 2. However.1. h. hf. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3.1) (ACI 11.6.6.1) where the section dimensions bf.1) (ACI 11. With this assumption.6.1) where. Similarly. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.3.1.6.6(b)) (ACI 11. 2. 2.4). bw.3. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient. 2.3.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.6. 2.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.1. R11.6(b)) (ACI 11.1. 2.6.3.6.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. 2. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. h.3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.1) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.1.6.3.1. Tcr. 2.1(c)) 2 .1) (ACI11.6. 2.2.6.6.1.1) (ACI 11.1.3.6. 2.6.6. R11.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11. 2. With this assumption.1.3. the section dimensions b.

the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. In that case. is limited to 60 ksi. Beam Design 2 .3.6.3).Chapter 2 . fy. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.7.3.3) In the preceding expressions. At /s. θ is taken as 45 degrees. 11.6.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive). even if the material property is defined with a higher value.3.5.6. and compression diagonals (ACI R11. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.6). it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. Tcr.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. fyt. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.2.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. which is equal to 0. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.5. 2. longitudinal bars.19 .6).3. Tcr. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.3.6.3.1).6.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6. However.75 by default (ACI 9.6.6) where.6. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.3.5. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.

75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).6. a failure message is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1. bw is replaced with b. In that case.1) For rectangular sections.3.6.5.2) 2 . If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . the concrete section should be increased in size.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.20 Beam Design . the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.

and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 2.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. In that case. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Slab Design 2 . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11.Chapter 2 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 2.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.21 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.6.3 independently. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.

In that case. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. This is the method used when drop panels are included. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 2.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.12.2): As. at a given design section in a design strip.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.1(c)) 0.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. is obtained and reported.6.2. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.min = (ACI 7.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As. described in the text that follows. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In some cases.min = 0.6.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .1(b)) (ACI 7. 2.2. Where openings occur.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. are repeated for every load combination.1.12. These two steps.1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.12. given the bending moment.min = 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 2.1(a)) (ACI 7.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2. for each load combination.6.22 Slab Design .

The column location (i. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 .3).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.e.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.11.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area..2).6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 2. interior.23 .11. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.2. edge.1. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 2.Chapter 2 .

C-12) For edge columns.2 Eq.5. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.6.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.2 Eq.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.3.2 Eq.24 Slab Design . For interior columns.2 Eq. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13. γvx = 0. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0. C-16) 2 .1) For flat plates.5. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-11) (ACI 421.2. C-13) (ACI 421. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2 Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2 Eq.3. C-15) (ACI 421.2 For corner columns.

respectively.2. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.11.2.6.1.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2. x and y.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.1) where.Chapter 2 .2. (ACI 11.11. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. for edge columns.25 . 2.6. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. and for corner columns.

75 (ACI 9. 2. Vc. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.6.3. and Vmax.0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.6.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. is 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.11.2.3).1) (ACI 11.3.11.1) 2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.11. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.26 Slab Design . and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.3). 2.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 2 . If this ratio exceeds 1. φ.2) (ACI 11.3.11.3.6.5. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.11. where.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.3. the strength reduction factor.

3). lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. edge.7.1.7. Slab Design 2 . i.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.11. a failure condition is declared. and corner column.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.4.6.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.27 . (ACI 11.Chapter 2 .3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.e.3.. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.11. 2. 11.

for corner. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. 2. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. and interior columns respectively. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-.3) 2 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and 3/4-inch diameters. the distance.6.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5.5d (ACI 11. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Therefore. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. Height. The limits of so and the spacing.28 Slab Design .11. 1/2-.3.2) ⎧0. g. When specifying shear studs. 6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. s.2) (ACI 11. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and 8.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11.11.11. 5/8-.5d. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.5. edge.

3. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. mm Notations 3-1 .

mm Depth of compression block. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Mean value of do. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Width of member.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Overall depth of a section. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section).

to the effective depth. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. MPa Torsional modulus. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement.Chapter 3 . N-mm Factored moment at section. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.max Tus T* ut V* Vu.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. N-mm Factored axial load at section. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. (0.max Vu. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Shear force resisted by concrete. mm Factored shear force at a section.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. max εs Notations 3-3 .Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At .

5(0.2.2D + 1.5L 1. and earthquake (E) loads.0-02.2.9D ± 1.0S 0.2.75 PL) 1. 4.2.0E (AS/NZS 1170. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.2.0-02. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. wind (W).4L + 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.0-02.2D + 0.2D ± 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. For AS 3600-01.2. degrees 3. 4. other appropriate load combinations should be used. live load (L).2.0-02.0E 1.2D + 0.35D 1.2D + 1. snow (S). 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0W 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.1): 1. 4.2.4L ± 1. 4.2(f)) Note that the 0.0-02. 4.0-02. 4.0W 1.0-02.2.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L ± 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion. pattern live load (PL).2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. 4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0-02.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.3.0D ± 1.0D + 0.0W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.0-02.

Limits on Material Strength 3-5 .1. for all framing type (AS 6.1.1. Table 2. and torsion based on the beam moments.1.3(c)) (AS 2. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1.2. is defined as given in AS 2. respectively.Chapter 3 .80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1). SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and other criteria described in the text that follows.3(c)) 3.3: φ = 0. caution is advised.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.1.3(c).2. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. (AS 2. load combination factors.2.1. however.1) (AS 6.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Table 6.1(b)). φ. shear forces.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 19.1). The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2. torsion.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.1. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6. 3. 6. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. shear.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. 3. and torsion only. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. for a particular station.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design .

The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.85 − 0.2).1.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.1a). is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.85 ku = 0.2.003. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.007( f 'c −28)] 0. (AS 8.2) Beam Design 3-7 .1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.2).1. or the strength of the concrete. is given by amax = γk u d where. the width. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. A uniform compressive stress of 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.7.2. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. amax.1). shear. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.Chapter 3 . hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only.3) γ = [0. (AS 8.2.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. fy . as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.15N ) (AS 10.1.

2) where.1.4).1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.e. M (i.80 (AS 2. which by default is 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax. designing top or bottom reinforcement).003 b Cs c 0.5.2.1.2. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .3) in the preceding and following equations. where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. ε = 0..85 f 'c φb (AS 8.

003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.Chapter 3 .1. ku > 0. 6.2.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.4. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. or at the top * if M is negative..2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.1.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2.1.2. i. where ( f 's − 0. If a > amax.1.e.

the flange comes under tension.5. If the moment is negative.85 f ′ c 0. and the flange is ignored. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.1. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. M (i.e. a simplified stress block. designing top reinforcement).1.003 bf Ds * 0. In that case. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . no flanged beam data is used. 3. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.2.2. and vice versa if M is negative. i..2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. 3.1. i.. if the moment is positive. ε = 0.e.3). as shown in Figure 3-2. is assumed if the flange is under compression..5. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.10 Beam Design .

the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.85 f 'c φb f where. If a > Ds. which is 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4 (AS 8.4.5.1.1. amax ) Therefore. Cf. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. ku = 0.80 by default (AS 2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cw. Cf is given by: C f = 0. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. as shown in Figure 3-2. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .3) If a ≤ Ds.Chapter 3 . the calculation for Ast has two parts. the width of the beam is taken as bf.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2.1. amax.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . is given by: a max = γk u d where. in that case.2. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.3) in the preceding and the following equations.2. the balance of the moment. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.11 .85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . However. As1 = given by: (AS 8.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.

the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.2. where ′ − 0.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.1.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.12 Beam Design .2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.1. If a1 > amax.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0. 6.2.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.1.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.

04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1.Chapter 3 .04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .min = 0.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.13 .2) An upper limit of 0. 3.1) f 'cf = 0.4.1.6 f 'c (AS 6. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.5.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04bw d ⎧0.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear force.6 − β2 = 1. for a particular load combination. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.7. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5. that can be resisted by the concrete.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. * 3. V . 13 (AS 8. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.1) β1 = 1.5.2.7.5.1) (AS 8.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8. Vuc.1⎜1. Vuc. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 .1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3. 3.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. with the corresponding load combination factors.7.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.14 Beam Design .1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.

min .2. Asv = 0 .5. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.5). If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.min.2. whichever is greater (AS 8. and Vu.2.2.min < V * ≤ φVu.max. s otherwise Asv.6 by default (AS 2. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. φ.9) (AS 8. = s fsy.3). min = Vuc + 0. If φVu. the strength reduction factor. Vuc. where. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0. V * − φVuc Asv .2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. max = 0. Asv = 0.5(c)(i)).max .2. is 0.min shall be provided. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. (AS 8. ⎟ ⎠ 3.2.8) Beam Design 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.10) Asv.6) Given V .6bv d o Vu . if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .Chapter 3 .15 .min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.35 w ⎜ s f sy.2.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 3.Chapter 3 . Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Slab Design 3 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.21 .Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 3. as described in the following sections.

1.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. which are described in the following subsections.1): As ≥ 0.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. given the bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Where openings occur. In some cases. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6. In that case. is obtained and reported.1(a)) As ≥ 0.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 3.22 Slab Design .0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.1(b)) In addition. at a given design section in a design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. for each load combination. 3. are repeated for every load combination.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. This is the method used when drop panels are included.6. 3 .

6.Chapter 3 . edge.e.Design for AS 3600-01 3.1. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.2.. The column location (i. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1). 3. interior.1.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .2.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.3).23 .

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0. is given as (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. is given as (AS 9.2.24 Slab Design .6.2. 3 .4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.3(b)) (AS 9.3σ cp ) b.2.3σ cp ≤ 0.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.5 f c' + 0.2.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.4(a)) 3.3(a)) where. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.3(a)): a.6.2. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2.2.2. Vu .3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9. Vuo .

6.Design for AS 3600-01 3.4.2.2.3 or 9.2. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.4(a). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. 3.3. Vu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. V * − φVu Asv = . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. φ.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .max.4. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 3. and Vu.6. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. where.Chapter 3 .25 .6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2.1). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.Given V*. is the strength reduction factor.min = 3*Vu (AS 92. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.7.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.

i.7.4. and corner column.3) (NZS 12.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. the minimum number of 3 .4) If V > φVmax. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.26 Slab Design . a failure condition is declared.e.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7.4).7. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.6. edge. Therefore.. the concrete section should be increased in size. 3. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.

6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. When specifying shear studs.4) (NZS 12.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. for corner.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. and 8. and interior columns respectively.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.Chapter 3 .4.4) (NZS 12.5d s ≤ 0.7.4.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.27 . 6. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. g. edge. 3. the distance.3. s.4) Slab Design 3 . so. The limits of so and the spacing.5d. Height.7.4.

.

The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. For simplicity.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. 4. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. For light-weight concrete and torsion.

MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 4-2 Notations . mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm /mm Depth of compression block. assumed as 200. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Average web width of a flanged beam.

Chapter 4 . mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Neutral axis depth. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Torsional shear stress. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Normalized design moment. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section.

3) (BS 2.4.2D + 1.4.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.1.4W 1.2L ± 1.4D + 1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2D + 1. pattern live load (PL).3).6S 1.6L + 1. snow (S). and wind (W) loads.4D ± 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3) (BS 2.3).4.2W (BS 2.0D ± 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.2W 1.2S ± 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. and considering that wind forces are reversible. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).6L 1.4.4D + 1.6(0.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .2W 1.4D + 1. For BS 8110-1997. 1. γf (BS 2. mm Lever arm. 0.75PL) 1.4D 1.3) (BS 2.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.2S ± 1.4W 1. live load (L).

2). γm. If other grades are used. fcu. the default factor of 1. including pattern live load. 4. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . 4. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. other appropriate load combinations should be used.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. Note that the automatic combination. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.4.7. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.50 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. Note that for reinforcement. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. as taken from BS Table 2.4.1. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. this value should be overwritten as necessary.15 1.2 (BS 2.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.Chapter 4 .3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.

and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. with the corresponding load factors. shear forces. shear.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. load combination factors. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. shear. for a particular station. torsion. and other criteria described below.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. and torsion based on the beam moments. the 4-6 Beam Design . The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.

4) Beam Design 4-7 . βb ≥ 0. x/d ≤ 0. shear.5. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.4). it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. In addition..5. Msingle.1.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. 4. and torsion only.4. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.156 2 (BS 3. In such cases. Msingle = K'fcu bd . or the strength of the concrete.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. Furthermore. less than.1.1).4.4.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.4.4.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.e.2.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. See Figure 4-1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.Chapter 4 . is first calculated for a section. the width. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4).4. The design procedure used by SAFE. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4. where K' = 0. or equal to Msingle.9) (BS 3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. 4.4).

As. the area of tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. where 0.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.25 − ⎜ 0.5 + 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .87 f y z (BS 3. or at the top if M is negative.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.4.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.4.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0. If M > Msingle. is then given by: As = M .

3.4.5 + 0.2.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4. Fig 2.777d z = d ⎜ 0.e.5.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.1. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.e.4.4.1.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.5.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. Fig 2. 2.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. 2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.25 − ⎜ 0..5.3.4. where (BS 3.1.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4..4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.2. and ' f ' s = 0. no flanged beam data is used. Beam Design 4-9 .2.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.4.5.4.Chapter 4 . designing top reinforcement).4.4. M (i. 4.2. Based on this assumption.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.1. i.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.

0035 0.5 + 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3. See Figure 4-2.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.45 (BS 3.4. e = 0.4.4.4.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.67 fcu/gm 0.10 Beam Design .95d 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 . the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.4.

2 As = M + 0.45d then. where 0.4.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. as shown in Figure 4-2.45d − h f ) 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .9x (BS 3.11 .5) β f = 0. If a > hf. in that case. As = 0.4) If Kw ≤ 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.4.5h f ) .4.87 f y (d − 0.Chapter 4 . However.4. the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cf.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.87 f y (d − 0.4. Cw. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4. In that case.4) If a ≤ hf.4).Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.1 f cu bd (0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.156 (BS 3.4.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. where (BS 3.

4.5. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.4.4.4) where.1. Fig 2. 2. 2.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. 4 .5.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.3.12.2. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. and ' f ' s = 0.4.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.25 (BS 3.5 + 0.95d ⎜ 0.3.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4. Fig 2.5.1.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.87 f y (d − 0.5.1.777d ) 0.12 Beam Design .4).3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.87 f f (0.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.4.

25 (BS 3. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.5.3). if it is required.20 An upper limit of 0.40 100 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.32 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.18 100 0.Chapter 4 .13 .or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.1): Beam Design 4 .36 0.24 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.48 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.12.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.24 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.6.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.12.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.

5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.04bw d ⎧0.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.4) 4 .14 Beam Design . Determine the shear stress. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.4.4. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. vc. 5 MPa) (BS 3.2) For light-weight concrete.2.63 fcu .8 fcu .04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5. for a particular load combination. that can be resisted by the concrete. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. 4.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. with the corresponding load combination factors.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. v.

5. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.Chapter 4 .8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4) (BS 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.2.4. BS 3.5.8.4.4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .5.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3. Table 3. vc. vc.2.4.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. the following limitations also apply: 0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.5.15 .4.5.5.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. Table 3.4.5.4.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5.12) 0.1) However. 4.5. Table 3.8) (BS 2. Table 3.4.4. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.3): Beam Design 4 .25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.4.5.4. and vmax.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.8) (BS 3.

4) Asv 0.3.4. vt. In the preceding expressions.87 f yv If v > vmax. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.4.3. Determine special section properties. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.5. a failure condition is declared.4.5.5. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. 4.7) (BS 3.4bw = sv 0. obtained from each load combination.5.5.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. Table 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.16 Beam Design . Determine critical torsion stress. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.2) (BS 3. 4 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. (BS 3. Table 3. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.

with the corresponding load combination factors. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. The torsional shear stress. vt.1) For flanged sections. In typical framed construction.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.5) Beam Design 4 .17 . for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.5. vt. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.13). a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.8 f cu .3.4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4.Chapter 4 .4.4.

x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.4. vt.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. vt. Asv.min = min 0. vt.min.t sv = T 0.3.3. If vt > vt.4.0.0.min.min = min 0. However.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.4.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.6).min.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4N/mm 2 x 0.067 fcu . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.067 fcu .7) In the preceding expressions.t /sv. In that case.18 Beam Design .6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.4. is calculated as: Asv .5.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. 4 .6).3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5) 4.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5.min is defined as: vt . vt.8 x1 y1 (0. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . For lightweight concrete.4. vt is less than the threshold limit. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .

5) For light-weight concrete.19 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. vt exceeds this limit.4) If the combination of shear stress. a failure message is declared. In that case. the concrete section should be increased in size. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.8 fcu .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. v and torsional shear stress.Chapter 4 . Beam Design 4 .4.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.63 fcu .

is obtained and reported. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.20 Slab Design . 4. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. for each load combination.6. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips. 4. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 4 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.

0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. 4.Chapter 4 . 4. In some cases.6).5.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3. BS Table 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4.12. 4. This is the method used when drop panels are included. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .6. Where openings occur.3) In addition.7. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. at a given design section in a design strip.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).12.6.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6.7. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. given the bending moment.12.1).6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.21 .7.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.5. In that case.3.

5d Edge Column Corner Column 1. 1.4.4. Table 3.4.22 Slab Design .5.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.1). Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.7.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. edge..6): 1 1 0. 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.e. The column location (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.5.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.5d 1.8) 4 .2.7. interior.4.5d 1.6.5d 1.7.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7.7.5d Interior Column 1.7. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.

2. 5MPa) (BS 3.6. 4. v.3) 1.5. Table 3.8) (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.Chapter 4 .7. Table 3.5.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.5.4.4.4) For light-weight concrete.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5.6.4) (BS 3. the nominal design shear stress.4.2) However.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.7.4.4.5M ⎛ y 1.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4) v ≤ min(0. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.5. 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.7.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.4.6.7.23 . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7.63 fcu .2. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .8 f cu .6.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 . where (BS 3.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7. 4 .7.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3. 4.7.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.24 Slab Design .3.6.2.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.25 ⎪1. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 3.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

75 PL) 1.25D + 1.25D + 1. live load (L).5S ± 0.25D + 1.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .3) (CSA 8.5S ± 0. Table C. Table C.3.9D + 1.4D 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.5L 0. snow (S).4W (CSA 8.5L 0.5(0.3. and earthquake (E) loads.2.5L + 0.25D + 1.4W 0.1 Case 1) (CSA 8. Table C. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.4W 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5S 0.5L ± 0.8.5L ± 0.3. For CSA A23.9D + 1.1) 1.5L 1.3-04.4W 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5S 1.3.9D + 1.5S + 0.5S 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.9D + 1. pattern live load (PL).25D + 1.9D + 1.25D + 1.25D + 1.2.5L + 0.5S + 0.4.9D + 1. Table C. wind (W).2.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5L 1.5S 0.

(CSA 8.5S ± 1.4.4.65 for concrete φs = 0.9D + 0.5.3-04 code is used. however. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.2.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.0E 1.1).3.1. 5.4W 0.1.25S ± 1.5L ± 1. Table C.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.9D + 0.4W 1.0E 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .1). respectively.4W 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3. for all framing types (CSA 8.5L ± 1.5L + 0.5L ± 1.Chapter 5 .9D ± 1.Design for CSA A23. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.0D + 0. other appropriate load combinations should be used. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.0D ± 1. caution is advised.5S ± 1.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.0D + 0.2) (CSA 8.4W 0.6.1 Case 4) (CSA 8. (CSA 8.1) 5.2. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.6.4W 1.0E (CSA 8.0D + 0.25D + 0.25D ± 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. φ. Table C.0E 1.3-04 1.25D + 0.4W 1.25S ± 1.

and torsion based on the beam moments.1.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . shear.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. torsion. with the corresponding load factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear forces. shear. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion only. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. load combination factors.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. for a particular station.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.

and torsion only. In such cases.1. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. shear. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. where. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.1) Beam Design 5-7 .7). The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.5.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). Mf (i. Furthermore.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. 5. designing top or bottom reinforcement).e.4).2. the width.5. The design procedure used by SAFE. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.. or the strength of the concrete.1.Chapter 5 .1. 5.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7) (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.4. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .0015f'c ≥ 0.85 – 0.67.5.97 – 0.1. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.2) in the preceding and the following equations.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.0025f'c ≥ 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10. The parameters α1.5. β1 = 0.1.2).1. β1.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.65 (CSA 8.67 cb = (CSA 10.

0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23.5.Chapter 5 . If a > ab (CSA 10.2).1. where f ′ = 0.1.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10. 10. or at the top if Mf is negative.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.2.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .1.

the total tension reinforcement..65 (CSA 8.4.e.2 5. 5.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.2.5.1.e.10.7) (CSA 10. i.7) (CSA 10.1. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.97 – 0.1.67 cb = (CSA 10. designing top reinforcement).1.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the value of φc is 0.67 β1 = 0.2. The parameters α1.5.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. As = As1 + As2.1.1) where..0015 f' c ≥ 0.1.7) 5 . Mf (i.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.10 Beam Design .2. β1.4.0025 f' c ≥ 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. 5.2.85 – 0. no flanged beam data is used.2) in the preceding and the following equations.5.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. and vice versa if Mf is negative.2.

7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.3-04 If a ≤ hs. ab ) c ε = 0. calculation for As has two parts.0035 bf hs (CSA 10.Chapter 5 . Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.11 . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.Design for CSA A23. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . Cf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the balance of the moment.1. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . However. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. If a > hs. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.

1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.12 Beam Design .1. where 5 .5. If a1 > ab (CSA 10. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .2). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.2).7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.

1.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.Design for CSA A23.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.2.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.1.Chapter 5 .3) In addition.5.5.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.5.1.1.1) An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .13 . 5.3.5.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. 10. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.

3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.14 Beam Design .5.4. By default it is taken as 0.2.2.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. with the corresponding load combination factors. 5. Vc.65 (CSA 8.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5. 5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. Determine the shear force.2). Vc. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. Vf. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5. that can be resisted by the concrete. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete. for a particular loading combination.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5. 5 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.04bw d ⎧0.

is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. it is the width of the web of the beam.3.15 .9d or 0.2).3. It is determined according to CSA 11. For rectangular beams.3). the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.Design for CSA A23. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand. which is taken by the program as the default value. d v is the effective shear depth. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data. bw is the effective web width. its value is 1 (CSA 8.4.2). ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.6.Chapter 5 .6.6.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. if applicable.3. it is the width of the beam.3): Beam Design 5 . as follows (CSA 11.6.75.6.1 and 0.21 (CSA 11. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. the general method is used (CSA 11. For concrete using lower density aggregate.5). where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.6. and described further in the following sections.4). β is taken as 0.3.3.6. For normal density concrete.72h. (CSA 8.6. Its value is normally between 0. It is taken as the greater of 0. If the overall beam depth.00.3.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. and the tensile force is negligible. For flanged beams. ⎪0.6. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.2).5): ⎧1. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. h. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.85.

3. and ag < 20mm. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11. the crack spacing parameter. and ag ≥ 20mm. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement. sze. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 .3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.3.6.6. β is taken as 0.6.6.6. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. or 5 .3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.16 Beam Design .3. ⎪ 0. However.18.3.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. ag.3a).18 (CSA 11.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.18 (CSA 11. for simplified cases. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. β = 0. In summary. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.3.3 c) where.c) In the preceding expression.

3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam.3.85Sz otherwise.4(a)) (CSA 2.6. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.6. 11.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.6.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.3. (CSA 11. Beam Design 5 .3. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.3. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.6. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3.3. the equivalent crack spacing parameter.1. The longitudinal strain.6.6.3. 11.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.Design for CSA A23.Chapter 5 .4) In the preceding expression.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.4). if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.4): β= 0.3.3-04 tension is not negligible.4(a)) (CSA 11.6.3(b)).3.6.6. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.17 . and linearly interpolated between these values. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.6. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. Nf is taken as positive for tension.

To check this condition.max.5.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.3.6.003 (CSA 11. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.3.3.4(e)).2.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. and Vr. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. taken as half of the total area.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .5. Vc. 5.6. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. the program performs the design in two passes.6.max = 0.4(d)). εx = M f d v + V f + 0. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. In the first pass.3. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. it is recalculated with the following equation. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.18 Beam Design .3.1) 5 . the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.6. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.

the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. whenever applicable.3).3.3. Beam Design 5 . It is determined according to CSA 11.8. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2. Similar to the β factor.6.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3. 11.2.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.3.max .3.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .8.6. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.Chapter 5 .Design for CSA A23.19 . h.6.1.2).2. (CSA 11. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.5.1) (CSA 11.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .8.6.3. If the overall beam depth.3).2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. which was described previously.4).2. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.25Tcr.3.3.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11. a failure condition is declared.6. or by calculation.3.2) In the preceding equations. the term θ is used.

4).4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.5. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. f y ≤ 400 MPa. Tf.6. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3). The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. Determine special section properties.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3.3) If the axial force is tensile.20 Beam Design . Determine critical torsion capacity. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. 5. f y > 400 MPa. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa.6. 5 . f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.3. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 .3.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.

with the corresponding load combination factors. If redistribution is desired.2. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.3. Aoh. such as Ac. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2.2).21 . However.9. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. With this assumption.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. pc. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.5.3-04 5.Design for CSA A23.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. Ao.5. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . special section properties. and ph are calculated. and ph. Ao. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. 5. such as Aoh.3). the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. However.Chapter 5 . For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. With this assumption.

4). and c are shown in Figure 5-3.3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.3.10.10.1) (CSA 11.3.3. hf. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. the section dimensions b. Tcr.65.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. 5 .10.5. h.3. Similarly. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.3.10.3) (CSA 11.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.2. bw.1) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.22 Beam Design .3.10.3) (CSA 11.10. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.9. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.2.4) where.9.9.3) (CSA 11.2. h.9.4) where the section dimensions bf.2.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. which is equal to 0.2. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.9.1) (CSA 11.

At /s. Tcr.2.10.5.3.Chapter 5 .3) Mf Al = dv + 0.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr. In that case.9.1).23 .5 N f + (V f − 0. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. Tcr.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .3. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. However.3-04 5.3). torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.Design for CSA A23. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.

When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). 11. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.10. a failure message is declared.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.9) In the preceding expressions.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.10. 5 . θ is computed as previously described for shear.3. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.3.4) For rectangular sections.6.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. In that case.10.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.2. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.24 Beam Design . the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. bw is replaced with b. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. If the general method is being used.8. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.3.

Design for CSA A23. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.Chapter 5 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. is obtained and reported.6. 5. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.25 .3-04 5. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Slab Design 5 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.

at a given design section in a design strip.002 bh (CSA 7.26 Slab Design .1.1): As ≥ 0. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. given the bending moment.10. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 5.1. for each load combination.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. In some cases. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6.8. Where openings occur. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1) In addition. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 5. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 5 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6.1. In that case.6.

edge.3.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.Design for CSA A23. where Slab Design 5 .2. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.27 .3).e.6.3.6.3.Chapter 5 .1 and CSA 13. interior. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2.3. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.3-04 5.3.3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13..

19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13.3. (CSA 13.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.3).3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.4.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.4.4.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.10. and ⎪for corner columns. exceeds 300 mm. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.1) where.6.28 Slab Design . ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.3. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . and (CSA 13. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.3. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.2. d. 5.3. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.3.4. 5 .2) If the effective depth.5. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.

6..3.75λφ c (CSA 13. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3) 5. where.6. is the strength reduction factor.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.3. 5. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.8.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. Slab Design 5 .28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.6.max = 0.6. vc.8.2.Chapter 5 . The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.Design for CSA A23.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2) Given vf. φs.max. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f . and vf. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3-04 5.1). 5.29 .

max. 6. (CSA 13. for corner.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. 5. and corner column.4d.. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.8.8.3. edge.e. a failure condition is declared. and 8.5) If vf > vf. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3. edge. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. i.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf.max.30 Slab Design .6.3. Therefore. the concrete section should be increased in size. 5 . and interior columns respectively.

8. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. so.6) Slab Design 5 .56λφc f 'c v f > 0.3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. the distance.3. When specifying shear studs. Height.4d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.Design for CSA A23.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.31 .6) (CSA 13.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.8.3.4 d ⎧ 0.3-04 5.6. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.Chapter 5 . The limits of so and the spacing.

.

6. However.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. MPa 6-2 Notations . MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.

N Shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Normalized design moment. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section.Chapter 6 . N Depth of neutral axis. mm Design moment at a section.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement.max u VRdc VRd. mm Lever arm. mm Flange thickness. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis.

10b. wind (W).iψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i Qk .10a) ∑ξ γ j G. 6. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.1 + ∑ γ Q . j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.i Qk . j Gk .12b) For this code. pattern live load (PL).12b.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.1 + ∑ γ Q . j + γ P P + γ Q .iψ 0.10a and 6. and earthquake (E) loads. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations . 6.1Qk .1Qk .1Qk .i Qk .10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. j + γ P P + γ Q .i Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. live load (L). MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. j + γ P P + γ Q .1 + ∑ γ Q . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).iψ 0. j Gk .1ψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6. snow (S).10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq. 6. 6. ∑γ j ≥1 G. j Gk .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. ∑G j ≥1 k. 6.

12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.sup D + γQ.supD + γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.sup D ± γQ. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.supD + γQ.3): γGj.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.i ψ0. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S ± γQ.sup D ξ γGj.supD + (0.Chapter 6 .i L + ψ2.i ψ0. 6. 6.inf D ± γQ.0E D ± 1.1 ψ0.75)γQ.0E + ψ2. 6.i ψ0.i L + γQ.1 L γGj.10b.1 ψ0.i ψ0.supD + (0.i S γGj.i ψ0.1 S ± γQ. 6.1 L ξ γGj.i L γGj.sup D + γQ.sup D γGj.1 PL γGj.1 W + γQ.i S γGj.sup D ± γQ. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.i W γGj.4.1 W + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.10a and 6. 6.i W γGj.i S γGj.1 ψ0. 6.75)γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.1 L γGj. 6. γGj.i ψ0. 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.1 PL γGj.supD + (0.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.i L γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.i W γGj.i ψ0.1 W (EC0 Eq.10a) (EC0 Eq.i W + γQ.i L D ± 1.10a) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D γGj.75)γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.supD + γQ.i ψ0.1 S + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 . 6. 6.1 W + γQ.i ψ0.1 W γGj. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.1 S ± γQ. 6.i ψ0.i L D ± 1. 6.i ψ0.1 PL ξ γGj.1 L ± γQ.1 W γGj.

1 ψ0.i L + ψ2.sup D + γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 S + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.85 (EC0 Table A1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.5 = 0. 6. 6.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 W γGj. γGj.sup = 1.0E D ± 1.i L D ± 1.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ.7 (live load.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.1 γQ.0E + ψ2.1 W + γQ.5 (snow load.inf D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.i S D ± 1.00 γQ.1 ψ0.i S γGj. 6. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.i ψ0.1 W + γQ. assumed not to be storage) = 0.i ψ0.inf = 1.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.i L γGj.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.6 (wind load) = 0.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ. 6.i W ξ γGj.i ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.5 = 1.0E + ψ2. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.1 S + γQ.1 ψ0.1 W + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S (EC0 Eq.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i ψ0.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.1 W ξ γGj.1 ψ0.i S γGj.i ψ0.i W γGj.i L γGj.1 W + γQ.35 γGj.i S ξ γGj.i ψ0.1 W γGj.1 L ± γQ.i ξ = 1.inf D ± γQ.1 ψ0.i L γGj.1 ψ0.i L γGj.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i W ξ γGj.sup D ± γQ.1 L + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.6(1)) (EC2 3. γs and γc as shown here.6(1)). The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1.i ψ2.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors.2(3)).1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(2)). It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.1.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. fck.2.1. should be 400 and 600 MPa. 6.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3. 6.Chapter 6 . respectively (EC2 3.1) (EC0 Table A1.i = 0.2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 . assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.3 (live. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.7(2)) (EC2 3.2. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3. fyk. αcc is taken as 1.

2. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.2. caution is advised.4(1). the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. γs = 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.4. torsion.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear. and torsion only.4).5. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement.4. These values can be overwritten. For accidental and earthquake situations. shear forces. for a particular station. γc = 1. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Table 2. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . The user should consider those separately. 6. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. load combination factors. however. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

Chapter 6 .5. 6.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.7(3).7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . or the strength of the concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the width.5) (EC2 3.1.1.7(3).1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Fig 3.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Fig 3.5. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In such cases. with the corresponding load factors.1.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1.7(3)). In such cases. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3.

is summarized in the subsections that follow.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.10 Beam Design . The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.54 (EC 5. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. 6 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.5(4)). the following values are used: k1 = 0.1.7(3)) (EC2 3.7(3)) λ = 0.1. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.5(4)) (EC 5.6 + 0. ( x d )lim . to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.5(4)) (EC2 5.25(0.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.and T-beams). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.5(4)) (EC 5.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.7(3)) (EC2 3.44 k2 = k4 = 1. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth. δ.1.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.

The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6.5. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . or equal to mlim. The normalized design moment. the normalized moment.11 .Chapter 6 . are obtained first. mlim. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. mlim. less than. m. m.1.

f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. or at the top if MEd is negative. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. and is given by: 6 . As. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. If m > mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed. ωlim.12 Beam Design . and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. A's and As. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'.

Fig 3.e. 3.2.13 .7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.1. m.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.5.1. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . designing top reinforcement). If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. no flanged beam data is used.2.. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1. additional calculation is required. Initially. MEd (i. 6. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.5.5(4). the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Based on this assumption.1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment..2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.e.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.8) 6.2.1.Chapter 6 .2.7(4).2. The normalized design moment.1. 3. See Figure 6-2.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.2.5. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6. i.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. 3.

As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. in that case.14 Beam Design . as shown in Figure 6-2. is determined as follows: 6 . Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. If a > hf. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. the width of the beam is taken as bf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. However. M1 = M − M2. the calculation for As has two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. 3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. Fig 3.15 . Beam Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.1.Chapter 6 .2.7(4).8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.

2): Determine the factored shear force. VEd. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1. VRd.1(3)).1.2.12. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. 6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .12.16 Beam Design . 6 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.1(1)) As . Determine the shear reinforcement required.5.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.12.0013bd (EC2 9.min = 0. Determine the shear force. Table 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.min = 0. Table 3. that can be resisted by the concrete. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2.1. for a particular load combination.c. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.1) f ctm = 2.1) (EC2 3.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0. Table 3.5.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.

18 γ c ν min = 0. is calculated as: 13 VRd .15 Beam Design 6 .2.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.5.2(1)) (EC2 6. vmin.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c.c.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. VRd.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2. 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. 6.2.2.2.c = 0.Chapter 6 .c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.02 bw d (EC2 6. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .c = ⎡C Rd .035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2.17 .5.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.

VRd.3(3)) (EC2 6.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.2.max.3(3)) Asw.2.18 Beam Design .9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.3(3)) (EC2 6.min s = 0. 6 . VRdc.3(1)) (EC2 6.5.3(3)) (EC2 6.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.2.6⎜1 − z = 0.2.2. a failure condition is declared.max. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.2.2. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2(6)) (EC2 6. obtained from each load combination.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.2.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .2. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Asw Asw.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.

tef. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. special section properties.2).3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.19 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. u. These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. 6.5. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. 6. If redistribution is desired.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.3. Determine special section properties.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.1(2)).3. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. uk. Beam Design 6 .5. and zi are calculated. Determine critical torsion capacity.3.Chapter 6 .5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 6. such as Ak. TEd. However.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. However. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.2(3)) 6 . With this assumption. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. and uk.3. such as Ak. Similarly. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. With this assumption. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.2(1)) (EC2 6. h.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2(1)) (EC2 6.3.20 Beam Design .3. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.3.3.3.3.2(3)) where.2(1)) (EC2 6. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. the section dimensions b. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.

c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. 6.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.c (EC2 6.3. Vt.5. bw.Chapter 6 .3.0 TRd . In that case.1. and compression diagonals. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. is first calculated. hf. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.05 / γ c (EC2 6. calculated as: TRd .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.2(5)) where VRd. followed by the required stirrup area.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 . if the equation is not satisfied.3.3. However.2(1)) 6.21 . as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.3. longitudinal bars. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.3. h.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.2.5.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.c VRd .c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.2.c is the torsional cracking moment. the shear due to this torsion.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .22 Beam Design .2.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. as previously defined for beam shear.max (EC2 6.max. In the preceding expressions.3.3.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd . The code allows any value between 21.3(2)). θ is taken as 45 degrees.3. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.2(4)) where TRd.2(4)) 6 .0 VRd .max + VEd ≤ 1.

irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. In that case. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 6.23 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. a failure message is declared.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. 6. To learn more about the design strips. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Slab Design 6 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 6 . the concrete section should be increased in size.

1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip.6. In that case.1.min = 0.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.24 Slab Design .min = 0. is obtained and reported. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.3.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. These two steps. 6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.2.2. 6. given the bending moment.1): As .1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In some cases.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. for each load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. described in the subsections that follow. 6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Where openings occur.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.0013bd (EC2 9.1.6.1(1)) As .

4.6.. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. Slab Design 6 .6.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2. 6.4.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. edge. 6.1) (EC2 Table 3. The column location (i.Chapter 6 . Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1) fctm = 2.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3. interior.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.2.25 .1) (EC2 Table 3.1(3)).2(1)).2.1.e.

26 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4.4.6.4.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4(1)) 6 .c = ⎡C Rd .2.

27 . where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6. the nominal design shear stress. C Rd .4.4.4.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4(1)) (EC2 6.4(1)) (EC2 6.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4. vEd. conservatively taken as zeros.18 γ c (EC2 6. conservatively taken as zeros.4.02 (EC2 6.c = 0.6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.2.15 6. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4(1)) ν min = 0.0 d (EC2 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.Chapter 6 .4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.4.

max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.4. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. the concrete section should be increased in size.75v Rd . a failure condition is declared.max. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.c. 6 . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5 f ywd . vRd. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.6.28 Slab Design .3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5). The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 6. Asw (v Ed − 0.max. Given vEd. and vRd.4. 6. (EC2 6.3. 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.ef If vEd > vRd.c ) = u1 sr 1.6.

i. and interior columns respectively. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. and corner column.6. Height.4. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. for corner.6.3.29 .3(1)). The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. Therefore.e. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 6. edge. edge. 6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. and 8. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior..5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.Chapter 6 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.

3(1)) (EC2 9.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. so.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. the distance.4.3d. and 20-millimeter diameter. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.3(1)) 6 . g.4.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4.3(1)) (EC2 9. When specifying shear studs. s. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. 16-. The limits of so and the spacing.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.3(1)) (EC2 9. 12-.4. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. 14-.4.75d g ≤ 1.30 Slab Design . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6. where εc.2.max is defined as: ε c .5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. 7. βb ≥ 0. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.9) (CP 6.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.0035 − 0. the width. In such cases.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0.e.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . In such cases.4(a)). or the strength of the concrete. ⎧0.4(b)).2. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7..0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. with the corresponding load factors.1.

094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. is obtained from: As = M .1fcuAg) (CP 6. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. less than.1.2.1. 7. Fig 6. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.4(a)). Msingle. hence.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.5.1.Chapter 7 . where 2 (CP 6.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4(a). The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. As.2. and torsion only. In addition. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.4(c)) ⎧0.1.4(b)).8x for ⎪ ⎪0. Msingle = K'fcu bd .2. or equal to Msingle.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.2. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than. shear.87 f y z (CP 6.1. where 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. is obtained first for a section.2.

1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.1. or at the top if M is negative.25 − ⎜ 0. If M > Msingle.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.2.4(c)) (CP 6.2.5 + 0.2.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.1.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .

2.2.6.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. Fig.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.5.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. M (i.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.45 .1.5.1. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .4(a). Beam Design 7-9 .9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1.36 . the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.5 + 0. Fig 6. i.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.2.e. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.1. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2..2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.5.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. 3. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4(c)) 7. no flanged beam data is used.87 f y .2..87 f y z + 0.e. 3.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.95d 0. designing top reinforcement). Based on this assumption.4(c).Chapter 7 . 7.2.

40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. for ⎪ 0. Fig 6. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. If a > hf . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4(a).10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.1.1) If a ≤ hf.4(c)) (CP 6.95d.5 + 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .2. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .1.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.36 .8x for ⎪ ⎪0.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.4(c). 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the width of the beam is taken as bf.2. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. See Figure 7-2.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. Fig 6.45 .1. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.1. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . However.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. in that case.2.

5) β f = 0. as shown in Figure 7-2.9 x − h f ) 0.4d then.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . x ≤ 0.67 fcu/gm 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. ⎪0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.4.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.87 f y (d − 0.1 f cu bd (0. Cf. x ≤ 0. Cw.5h f ) .45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. where (BS 3.4.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 . In that case.11 .5h f ) bf hf ec 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.Chapter 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . x ≤ 0.

32 ⎪ ⎪0. 7 .45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4(c)).2. where (CP 6.4(d)) ⎧0.1.1.2. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.1.2.87 f y ( d − 0.045 for ⎩ ⎧0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.5h f ) ) . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.

13 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. 3. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. where 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0.95d ⎜ 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.95d ⎜ 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.87 f y (d − 0.Chapter 7 .6. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.5 + 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0. Fig 3.1.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.2.4(c).2.

24 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.1).20 0.13 100 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.36 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.1(CP 9.1. if it is required.1 (CP 9.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.32 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.2.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.14 Beam Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.5.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.40 0.3): 7 .2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.1.2.26 ⎯ 100 0.1.1.2.2.48 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.

7.8 fcu .Chapter 7 .1.5.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0. the following steps are involved (CP 6. that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.1.2.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .15 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1. v. vc.2.5): Determine the shear stress.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. vc. Determine the shear stress.5(a)) 7.5.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. for a particular load combination. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. with the corresponding load combination factors.3) 7. 7 MPa) (CP 6.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.2.

2.2.5(g)) (CP 6.5(c). and vmax. CP 6.2. vc. Table 6.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.5(c).1.5. Table 6.2.5(c). vr.16 Beam Design .3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.1.1.25 However.5(c). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. Table 6.3) ≥ 0.67 1.1.1.2.3) (CP 6. Table 6.1. the following limitations also apply: 0.5(k)) 0.2.2.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(k)) 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.2.5(c).2.2. Table 6.2.1. as: 7 .

5. 7.5(b). a failure condition is declared. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5(b)) (CP 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Table 6.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. vt.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.2.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0. Beam Design 7 .1. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.2.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0. (CP 6.1. (CP 6.87 f yv If v > vmax.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6. Determine special section properties.17 .1. obtained from each load combination.Chapter 7 .2.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. sv 0.1.

If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.5. with the corresponding load combination factors.4.8 f cu . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Table 6. vt.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.17 7 .1).3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. In typical framed construction. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. The torsional shear stress.3.3.3.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. 7.18 Beam Design .3(a)) For flanged sections.3. vt. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6.

Chapter 7 . torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. In that case.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. vt is less than the threshold limit.067 fcu .5).5.4.min.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.3.3. However. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .min. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.min = min 0.min.t /sv. Asv.5). the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt. Table 6.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. 7.19 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.3.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.3.5.0. vt.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3.min. vt.

and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the concrete section should be increased in size. 7.87 f yv ) (CP 6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link. In that case. 7 .3. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.8 fcu . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. a failure message is declared.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.8 x1 y1 (0. To learn more about the design strips. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.6) In the preceding expressions.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.20 Slab Design .3.t sv = T 0.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.3.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.21 .6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. In some cases. 7.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. given the bending moment. In that case. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 7.Chapter 7 . is obtained and reported. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 .6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1. for each load combination.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6. at a given design section in a design strip.

2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.5.. 7 .1.3. 7.5. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.e. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.6.3.2. Where openings occur.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. The column location (i.1(a)) In addition. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.7).5d from the face of the support (CP 6. interior. 7.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.1.1.1.22 Slab Design . 7. edge. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.7(d)).1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.3).6.

Table 6.5d 1.5(c).5d Interior Column 1.1.1.5. Table 6.5d 1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.2.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.Chapter 7 .23 . and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.2.3): 0.1.2.1.1.5(g).7(d).5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.5d 1.6.7(d).5.7(d)) (CP 6. Table 6.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 . 6.5.

3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3) ≥ 0. Table 6.4.5.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.5 + 1.5.1. where (CP 6. v. 6.2) 0. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.8 f cu .6(b). Table 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.1.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.2.67 1.1.5(c).2.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1. Table 2.25 However. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. 7 MPa) (CP 6. v ≤ min(0.1.6.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.7(b)) (CP Table 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6. the nominal design shear stress.2. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2.3.5(c). 7 .5. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.5. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.24 Slab Design .5 x ⎬ .

6.Chapter 7 .6. 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.25 .5.7(e)) Slab Design 7 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.7(e)). 6.6.25 ⎪1. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force. 7.1.6(b).3. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.5.1. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.1. 7.5.3.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.

7v − vc ) ud 0.1. (CP 6. ≥ s 0.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. and corner column.1. and vmax. 0. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.7(e)). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7(e)) (CP 6.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.. Therefore.e. 7 .6vc 0. and interior columns respectively. i. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.26 Slab Design .1.5.87 f yv s If v > vmax.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.5. edge.4ud = ≥ . 6.6vc ≤ v < 2. edge. for corner.5.1. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. a failure condition is declared.3.0vc (CP 6. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.87 f yv 0. If v ≤ 1. 7.1. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. vc.5.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.87 f yv If 1.5.87 f yv 0.6. and 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.7(f)). the concrete section should be increased in size.

3. the distance. The limits of so and the spacing. g.27 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. s. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7(f)) (CP 6. 14-.6.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .5d s ≤ 0. so.5d (CP 6.5.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d. 16-. When specifying shear studs.75d g ≤ 1.5.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.5d.1. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 12-. and 20-millimeter diameter. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Chapter 7 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.1. Height.2. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.7(f)) (CP 6.5.1.

.

mm Notations 8-1 .1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. 8. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.

mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. assumed as 200. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.

mm Lever arm. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.3 .Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N-mm Normalized design moment.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. N Depth of neutral axis. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects.max Notations 8.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0.Chapter 8 .

2D + 1. and earthquake (E) loads.5L 1.5W 1.9D ± 1.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .5D + 1.4.4.4.5D ± 1.2. snow (S). MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.5W 0.5D 1.75 PL) 1.9D ± 1.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc. wind (W).2L ± 1.5.1) (IS 36.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5L ± 1.5(0. pattern live load (PL).2L ± 1.1) (IS 31.2W 1.0W 1. MPa 8.2E 1. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.0E (IS 36.5S 1.5D + 1.5E 0.4. live load (L).1) (IS 36.5E 1.5D ± 1.5L ± 1.5D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). Table 18): 1.5D + 1.4.5D + 1.2D + 1. For IS 456-2000.3) (IS 36.

1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used. However. shear. shear.2S ± 1.4. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.2W 1.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. shear forces.2D + 1. γc = 1.5D + 1.2L + 1. 8.2E 1.1) (IS 36.2W 1.5 (IS 36. however. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. 14. 8.5L + 1.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2S ± 1.2L + 1. torsion.4.4. γm. beams must be designed for torsion.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.Chapter 8 . If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. γs = 1.5S 1.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2E (IS 36.5 .4.Design for IS 456-2000 1. and torsion only.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. These values can be overwritten. load combination factors. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. and torsion based on the beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.2S ± 1.2D + 1. 8.2D + 1. caution is advised. other appropriate load combinations should be used.

Rather. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In such cases. However. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.4.1.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.1. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. 8. 8-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. If redistribution is desired.4.

1) 8. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. If Mt exceeds Mu. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2) (IS 41.4.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases. Beam Design 8. with the corresponding load factors. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4.1. respectively.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.Chapter 8 . additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu.2. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.Design for IS 456-2000 8. where (IS 41. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.4. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1.4.4. Effectively.7 . The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.

8.1) 8. When a torsional moment is to be included. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The area of the stress block.4.1) 8-8 Beam Design . are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. (IS 41. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. or the strength of the concrete. a.1).4.1. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. with the corresponding load combination factors. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4. the width. c.2.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1) (IS 38.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.3.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web.

36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.1) (IS 38.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.46 Beam Design 8. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.53 0.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.Chapter 8 . The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.max /d 0.9 .42 (IS 38.1).1).48 0.0035 b f′ s 0.36 β = 0. Furthermore.

Msingle = α xu. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. shear. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.max = 0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. xu .0035 (IS 38. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. is given by 8 .48 − 0. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. less than. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. or equal to Msingle. xu. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.10 Beam Design . 8.max d ⎧0.max.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. Msingle. are obtained first. and torsion only. m.53 − 0.max d xu.2.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.53 ⎪ ⎪0.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.4.

is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. is obtained from As = Mu .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.11 . As.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. or at the top if Mu is negative. − If Mu > Msingle. where (IS G-1.Chapter 8 .2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. the area of compression reinforcement.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. Beam Design 8.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. and vice versa if Mu is negative. A's.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.

the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.4.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. no flanged beam data is used.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.3..12 Beam Design . the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. i.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. Mu (i...e.3. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. 8.e. On the basis of this assumption.4. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .2. designing top reinforcement). See Figure 8-2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.

Cw. Cf.Chapter 8 . the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. However. m.15 xu + 0.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.13 . the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.65D f if D f > 0. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. as shown in Figure 8-2.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.1). in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8.

the area of compression reinforcement.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.single. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.46 (IS 38.single.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. A's.14 Beam Design . As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.53 − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.53 ⎪ ⎪0.1) xu .single ⎛ 0. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w. and 8 .max d ⎧0.max ⎡ x u.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.48 − 0.

1.1. at a particular station. the following steps are involved (IS 40.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1.4.1.1): As ≥ 0.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.5.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.5.2) 8.85 bd fy (IS 26.2.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.4.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.04bw d ⎧0.Chapter 8 .2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0. for a particular load combination.1) An upper limit of 0.1) (IS 26.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.5.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.15 .5.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.

τc. (IS 40.4.8 M25 3. τv ≤ τc.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. where bd (IS 40. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2. d.16 Beam Design .2.2.3. τc. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.max.5 M35 3. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.3. τc.5 M20 2. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.7 M40 4.1.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .max (MPa) (IS 40. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.0 τc.3. as: τcd = kδτc.max (IS 40. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.1 M30 3.2) 8 .max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.

1. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .4 Asv 0.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40.2. Table 19) (IS 40.4 < τv ≤ τc.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.2. 26.4. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36. taken as 1.87 f y If τcd + 0.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .2. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.1. and if Pu > 0 .Chapter 8 .5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. 0.max (IS 40.17 .Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.1.1) (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.1).1.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.2. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.2.3.87 f y (IS 40.4(a)) Beam Design 8.2. Under Tension (IS 40.5.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.4.1) (IS 40.4. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.3.87 f y (IS 41.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.1. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. 26.18 Beam Design . taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.2.4.max is determined as defined in the last section. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.3.87 f y (IS 41. τc.87 f y ) 2.4) 8.6) If τve ≥τcd.4 b ≥ sv 0. obtained from each load combination.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0. a failure condition is declared.max. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3) (IS 41.max The maximum nominal shear stress.2.3) τve ≤ τc.5d1 (0. 8 . (IS 40.5.

These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. for each load combination. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.19 . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.Design for IS 456-2000 8.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.5.Chapter 8 . To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These two steps. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Slab Design 8. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported. 8. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. are repeated for every load combination. described in the subsections that follow. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.5. 8. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.

Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5.5. given the bending moment. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. In some cases.1). is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).5.2): ⎧0. Where openings occur.5. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.20 Slab Design . the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. In that case.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31. interior. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. edge. The column location (i. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. at a given design section in a design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. 8.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. 8.5.5.1.1.1) In addition.e. 8.1).1).6.5.2. 8 .

Chapter 8 .3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.5.6. 8.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.2.3.2.21 .Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.5.2).

5τ c (IS 31.5.5.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.5.0 (IS 31.6.3. 8. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.2) 8 .1) (IS 31.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.3.6.5 + βc ≤ 1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 8.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.2) 8. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5.6.5 τ c bod (IS 31.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.3.3. 8.3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.1) τc = 0.22 Slab Design .3.1) (IS 31.2.3.

8.3) (IS 31. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.6..6.3.3. edge. a failure condition is declared.23 .87 f y (IS 31.4.3. Vc.6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.2).2) If Vu > Vmax. and Vmax.5Vc ) 0.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. 41. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. and corner column.Chapter 8 .2.3. Slab Design 8. i. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e. Av = (Vu − 0. the concrete section should be increased in size. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.5.

for corner.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The limits of so and the spacing. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. Therefore. and 8. 5d s ≤ 0.5d. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. When specifying shear studs. the distance.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5. 8. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.24 Slab Design . and interior columns respectively. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. g. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. edge.3. so. Height. 6. s.5d g ≤ 2d 8 .

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. 9. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity.

mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Width of member. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. assumed as 200. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width of web (flanged section).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.000 MPa 9-2 Notations .

MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Average design shear stress at a section.Chapter 9 . mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Factored design torsion at a section. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Perimeter of area Ao. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.0. 4.4L + 1.35D 1.2.0.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2): 1.0. live load (L). snow (S).0.0. and earthquake (E) loads.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2.2D + 1. 4.75 PL) 1. 4.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0D + 0.0.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations . 4. 4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0S 1. For NZS 3101-06.2. 4. (0.0W 1.0W 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. 4.9D ± 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0D ± 1.2D + 0.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.0.0E 1.4L ± 1.0. pattern live load (PL).2.2.0W 1.2.2D ± 1. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0. wind (W).2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.5L 1.2.4L ± 1. 4.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.0.0E (AS/NZS 1170. 4.5(0.2D + 1.

2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. however. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. (NZS 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement.3).3.2. 9. fyt. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5. caution is advised.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.2.3.3. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.3). 9.2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1). fy. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . shear. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. The φ factors for flexure.3.2) (NZS 2.Chapter 9 .85 for flexure φs = 0.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.

Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. In such cases. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. and torsion based on the beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. shear forces. shear.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the 9-6 Beam Design . with the corresponding load factors.5. shear.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. and torsion only. for a particular station.5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1. torsion. load combination factors.

2. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7. or the strength of the concrete. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0. The design procedure used by SAFE.4.3.e. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5.1.Chapter 9 . The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Furthermore.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.85 (NZS 2.1).2. shear. where.5. and torsion only. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The beams are designed for major direction flexure.2.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4.1. 9. the width.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .7). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.2. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.. M (i.8. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.3. 9.2) in the preceding and following equations.2) where the default value of φb is 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. designing top or bottom reinforcement).7): α1 = 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4.

4.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.2.3.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.1). 0.2.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.7) (NZS 7. c (NZS 7.8) β1 = 0.2.008( f ′ − 30). amax. is given by: amax = 0.75β1cb (NZS 7.85 β1 = 0.4.3. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0. 9.2.85 − 0.8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .7) (NZS 7.4.7.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.4.8.85 − 0.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.

4.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.3.1).2. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.4.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.2. If a > amax (NZS 9.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. 7.2.8.4.2. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .Chapter 9 .4.2. or at the top * if M is negative.

e. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 9 . and vice versa if M is negative. Cw.2. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. is given by: amax = 0. i. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.4.75β1cb (NZS 7. the total tension reinforcement.7. If a > hf.1. Cf.e.1. 9. As = As1 + As2.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. * 9.5. calculation for As has two parts. as shown in Figure 9-2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. 9. amax.5.2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange..2.10 Beam Design .4.2.1) If a ≤ hf.2.5. However. designing top reinforcement).1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.. no flanged beam data is used.2.8. M (i.

Chapter 9 .4.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.2 ) Beam Design 9 .11 .2.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.4. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. As1 = given by: (NZS 7. the balance of the moment.

4.3. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s . 7.2.2.8.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.4. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.3.8.2. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .2.1).1).

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

7). bw.1) (NZS 7.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. the section dimensions b. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1) (NZS 7. hf.1) (NZS 7. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.1) (NZS 7.1) where the section dimensions bf. Similarly.75 Ao/po 0. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.18 Beam Design .1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.6. h.1) where.1. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. h.75 Ao/po 0.

5. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4.6. T .1.6.1. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. However.4.6. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.19 .2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.1).6. Tcr.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3. if T exceeds the threshold limit. defined as: T* ≤ 0. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. is less than the threshold limit.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.1). The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.6. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.6) Beam Design 9 . the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.1.5. and meets the torsion stress limit.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. Tcr.Chapter 9 .3.4.3) 9.6.6.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. At /s.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. In that case. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.

2) * * For rectangular sections. To learn more about the design strips. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. bw is replaced with b.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.3). An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. 9 .8. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the concrete section should be increased in size.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 7. a failure message is declared.6. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.1. In that case. 9. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.2 f 'c .6. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.6. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.2.20 Slab Design .5. provided it is fully developed. At Al 1.

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . are repeated for every load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These two steps. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.21 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6. In that case. at a given design section in a design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 9. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. 9. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. described in the subsections that follow.Chapter 9 .6. for each load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. given the bending moment. In some cases. is obtained and reported.1. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.

04 times the gross cross-sectional area.7. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control..2.2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following. interior. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.6.5. 8.8.6.4 ): ⎧ 0 .e.8.1(b)). 9.22 Slab Design .4.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1.6.5.6.1(b)). 9.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.7.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. 9 .6. Where openings occur. 2. 9. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1) In addition. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The column location (i.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. edge. 8.

2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .6. 9.7.2.23 .6.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .7.2. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.Chapter 9 .2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.7.7.

7.7.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.1) 70 9.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.2(a)).6. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.24 Slab Design . 12. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.3.2) where.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.1). ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12. 9 .1.2.7.3.3. 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.2.

where.4) Given vn.4) If vn > φvmax.4. a failure condition is declared.25 . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. φ. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.6.7.7.Chapter 9 .3.7. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax. vc.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.7.5) 9.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.3.3.4. is the strength reduction factor. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 9. Slab Design 9 .6.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.3) (NZS 12. and vmax.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6.26 Slab Design . 9 . i. Therefore..4). and interior columns respectively.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e. and 8.4. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.7. for corner. and corner column. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. edge. 6. edge. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.

The limits of so and the spacing.7.4.4) (NZS 12. s. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d. g.3.4) (NZS 12. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.27 .11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4.6. Height.4.Chapter 9 .7. When specifying shear studs. so.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.7.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.4) Slab Design 9 .

.

The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. Notations 10 .1 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. is selected. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.

mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 10 . mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. assumed as 200.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2 Notations . mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Torsional constant. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Flange thickness. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block.

MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.3 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Lever arm.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Torsional shear stress. MPa Neutral axis depth. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.Chapter 10 . N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.

4. 10.7.4D ± 1.3) (CP 2.1.2).6(0.4. and wind (W) loads.2D + 1.6L 1.4.3). It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4W 1.4.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.3) (CP 2.4W 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.4D 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).4D + 1. Note that the automatic combination. including pattern live load.0D ± 1.4D + 1.4 Design Load Combinations .1.4. γf (CP 2.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. and considering that wind forces are reversible.3). live load (L). should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.2L ± 1. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.75PL) 1. 1.2W (CP 2. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. pattern live load (PL). fcu. 10 . If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and other criteria described below. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. but can be overwritten. and torsion based on the beam moments. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. load combination factors.2 (CP 2.50 1.5 . shear.4.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. which are taken from CP Table 2.15 1.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. and torsion only. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. γm. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. shear. torsion.Chapter 10 . 10. shear forces.4. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

6 Beam Design . where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.4.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3. 10.4).4.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. for a particular station. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1.5. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. with the corresponding load factors. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. the width. or the strength of the concrete.5.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. BC 2.2) 10 . the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases.5.

and torsion only. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. In addition.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4).4.4. See Figure 10-1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.1).4.4.5. βb ≥ 0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . hence.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.7 .4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. where 2 (CP 3. ⎧0.4.2. BC 2.1.4.4).4) Beam Design 10 .4. BC 2. or equal to Msingle. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.9) (CP 3.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. is first calculated for a section.. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. 10.Chapter 10 . shear. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.1fcuAg) (CP 3.4. Msingle. less than. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. is summarized in the subsections that follow.e.4.and T-beams).

4. where 0.4.4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. If M ≤ Msingle.5 + 0.8 Beam Design . is then given by: As = M .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.87 f y z (CP 3.4) 10 .67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.25 − ⎜ 0.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. As.4.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.4) (CP 3. the area of tension reinforcement.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.4.

4.1.5 + 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3..2.5.Chapter 10 .4.4.4.4.4. Fig 2.4.87 f y z + 0.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. M (i. 2.3.25 − ⎜ 0.4. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. where (CP 3. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. designing top reinforcement). Fig 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.1.4.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .2. 2.4.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.e.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3. or at the top if M is negative.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.9 . Beam Design 10 ..5.3.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. i. If M > Msingle.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.e.2. and f ′ =0. no flanged beam data is used.1.95d z = d ⎜ 0.5.

If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.67 fcu γ m 0.2.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.1. εc 0.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. See Figure 10-2.10 Beam Design . the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4.2. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. On the basis of this assumption.

Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. If a > hf .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.1 f cu bd (0.45 .Chapter 10 .4. BC 2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.3) If a ≤ hf.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.2. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. Cf.4. Cw. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4. However.45d − h f ) 0.2.5) β f = 0. Fig 2. In that case. Fig 2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.5h f ) . where (BS 3.4.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.36 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .11 .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.87 f y (d − 0.4.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.5 + 0.4.9 ⎭ (CP 3.4. as shown in Figure 10-2.4. 2 As = M + 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.95d 0.45d then.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. BC 2.

As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.4.4.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.5h f ) ) .2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) ⎧0.5.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.2) 10 .12 Beam Design .4.4.32 ⎪ ⎪0. BC 2.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.072 for ⎪ ⎪0. where (CP 3.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.87 f y ( d − 0.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.

d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.3. As = 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. where 0.4.13 .25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.5 + 0.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. BC 2.4).2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.4.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5.87 f y (d − 0.4.4.2) If Kw ≤ 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.4.156 (CP 3. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4. Fig 2. 2.Chapter 10 . and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.95d ⎜ 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.4).45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.4.5.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 . 2.4.4.5. Fig 2.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.3.

provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.5.26 100 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.5.3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.24 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.27 (CP 3.5.12.5 + 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.12. if it is required.18 100 0.48 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.14 Beam Design .27 (CP 3. 10 . which is taken from CP Table 3.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.36 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.13 100 0.95d ⎜ 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.32 0.1.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.

the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . Determine the shear stress.12. 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5): Determine the shear stress. vc.Chapter 10 .15 . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.5.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5.2.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. An upper limit of 0.20 0.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.1).2).6.40 0.4. for a particular load combination. v. 10. that can be resisted by the concrete. BC 2. the following steps are involved (CP 3.3.12.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.

7 MPa).4. vc.5.4.12) 0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.4.5.4. (CP 3. Table 3.63 fcu .8 fcu .2.6 (CP 3.4) (CP 2. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5.4.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.25 1 1 3 However.5. Table 3.16 Beam Design .9) 10 . and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.2) For light-weight concrete.4. the following limitations also apply: 0. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.4.5.4) 10. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .4.5.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . with the corresponding load combination factors.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.8) (CP 3.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.

4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.5. Table 3.5. Table 3.5.4.Chapter 10 .5.5. Table 3. Table 3. (CP 3.4.4. and vmax.8) (CP 3. Table 3. a failure condition is declared.5.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.5. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. CP 3. sv 0.2.5.4.17 .87 f yv If v > vmax.8) As vr b = .9) (CP 3. (CP 3. Table 3.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4.3. vr.5. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.4.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.3.3.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. v’c.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.5.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4.4.2) In the preceding expressions.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.8. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .

further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. 10. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. obtained from each load combination.3. In typical framed construction. Determine special section properties.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.4. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.4.5.18 Beam Design . Determine the torsion reinforcement required.15). vt.5. 10. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The torsional shear stress. Determine critical torsion stress. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.5. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. vt.

19 . the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.5.4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.1) For flanged sections.067 f cu . For lightweight concrete. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.5) Beam Design 10 . vt.6 N / mm 2 x 0.8 (CP Part 2 5. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.min. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .0.5) 10.4.min = min 0.0.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.4.067 f cu .6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.3.Chapter 10 .4.8 f cu . vt. vt.min is defined as: vt . but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.min = min 0.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.

vt. a failure message is declared.4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2. is calculated as: Asv . vt.7) In the preceding expressions.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. is less than the threshold limit.min. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.min.20 Beam Design .5.8 f cu .6).6).t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.4. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. vt. If vt > vt.4.4.t /sv.8 x1 y1 (0. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. In that case.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. However.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.4. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. the concrete section should be increased in size. In that case.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . Asv. 10 .t sv = T 0.min. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.

The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 10 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.21 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 10. Slab Design 10 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10.6.

1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6.12. given the bending moment.1. is obtained and reported. In some cases.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. In that case.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. CP Table 3. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 10. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. 10. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. at a given design section in a design strip.5. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. 10. for each load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Where openings occur.22 Slab Design .

the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) . The column location (i. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1).4. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3. 10.7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.6.6.7.6.23 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.7.5. 3.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.7.e. Slab Design 10 .7. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads..2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.12.6). 10.12. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. interior. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. In addition.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.7.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .5d from the face of the support (CP 3.2. edge.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.Chapter 10 .1).

4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.24 Slab Design .6.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3. 3.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.2.7.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5d 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4. Table 3.7. the following limitations also apply: 10 .9) (CP 3. Table 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.5.5d 1.7.7.4.4.4.6): 0.4.4.2) However.5.5.5.

the nominal design shear stress.4.4. 4 MPa) f cu .2.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.9) For light-weight concrete. 10.6.25 .Chapter 10 . is calculated as: v= Veff ud . vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.7.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .3) 1 . 3.4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. Table 3.5.4) (CP 3.7.4.5.8 fcu .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3. where (CP 3.4.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section. (CP 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.2. v.5.9) (CP 3.63 v ≤ min (0.6. Table 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7.4.7.2. Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0. Table 3.6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.5 M y 1 .5.4.

6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.6. 10.7.7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.26 Slab Design .7.5). and vmax.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.6.25 ⎩ for interior columns.5).7.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. and for corner columns.2.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections. (CP 3.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.7.3.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.7. 3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3. 10. vc. for edge columns.25 ⎪1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 10. 10 .3.6.

0vc. (CP 3. edge.e.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. the concrete section should be increased in size.7. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7.7. ≥ s 0. i.27 .4ud Av 5 ( 0.5) (CP 3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .6.5) 0. ≥ s 0.87 f yv 0.Chapter 10 . 10.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.87 f yv 0.87 f yv If v > vmax. (CP 3.7.6vc ≤ v < 2.6vc.3. and corner column. a failure condition is declared. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 . 0..7.7v − vc ) ud = .87 f yv If 1.

so. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. g. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 14-. 12-.7.7.7. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. and 8. 6. 10. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.7. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3.6) 10 .6) (CP 3.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.6.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and interior columns respectively.7. 16-.5d.75d g ≤ 1. edge. the distance. and 20-millimeter diameter.5d (CP 3.7. When specifying shear studs. Therefore. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d. Height. for corner. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. s.6) (CP 3.5d s ≤ 0.28 Slab Design .7.6). The limits of so and the spacing.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.

2001. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. American Concrete Institute. Building and Construction Authority. Singapore. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. NSW 2001. 2005. GPO Box 5420. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. Standards Australia International Ltd. Michigan. UK. BC 2:2008. Box 9094. 2. BSI. Farmington Hills.2R-07). 2007. Part 1. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. London. and 3. 1997. 1.1 and Amendment No.References ACI. 2008. Structural Use of Concrete. Sydney. Australia. British Standards Institution. ACI. 2. February 2008. TM R-1 . BC. American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills.O. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Michigan. 2008. AS. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). P. 38800 Country Club Drive.

Canadian Standards Association. Canada. Part 1-1. Standards New Zealand. Belgium. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. 2004. CSA. Manak Bhavan. UK. Ontario. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Twentieth Reprint. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. Bureau of Indian Standards. 2006. EN 1992-1-1. NZS. Buildings Department. New Delhi 110002. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. European Committee for Standardization. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. 1985. CP 65:Part 1:1999.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Hong Kong.3-04. European Committee for Standardization. Rexdale. 2004. Structural Use of Concrete. Concrete Structures Standard. New Zealand. Singapore. Mongkok. Kowloon. Brussels. 1. Wellington. EN 1990:2002. 750 Nathan Road. Brussels. IS. March 2000. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. Design of Concrete Structures. September 2000. A23. Private Bag 2439. 2005. India. 1. and 3. 2. Part 2. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. R-2 . British Standards Institution. incorporating Amendments Nos. 1999. CP. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Belgium. London. 2000. Third Edition. 2004. HK CP.

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