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# SAFE

™

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.2 4.5.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.6.3-04 5.4 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.3 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.3 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.1 3.1 Design for Flexure 3.6.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.2 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.4 3.1 Notations 5-1 ii .6.1 4.1 Design for Flexure 4.6 5 Design for CSA A23.

5.2 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.28 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.5.2 7.5.5.4 5.3 5.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.1 7.1 Design for Flexure 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.3 6.5.6.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.6.1 Design for Flexure 5.1 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.4 6.2 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.Contents 5.6.5.6.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.

5.4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .2 Check for Punching Shear 8.2 9.5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.1 Design for Flexure 7.5.2 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.4 9.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.4.5.1 8.1 Design for Flexure 8.5.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.3 9.4 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5.6.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.1 Effects of Torsion 8.3 8.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.4.1 9.5.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.

2 Check for Punching Shear 10.2 Design Load Combinations 10.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 9.1 Notations 10.5.Contents 9.6.6 Slab Design 9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6 Slab Design 10.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.5.1 Design for Flexure 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.5 Beam Design 10.6.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .6.

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This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. and it designs beam flexural. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. shear. and torsion reinforcement. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. Specifically. 1-1 .

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Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. 2. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. sq-in Notations 2-1 . For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. sq-in Gross area of concrete.

sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. psi 2-2 Notations . psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Width of section. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Width of web (flanged section). psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement.

(0.Chapter 2 . lb Factored axial load at a section. in Factored moment at a section. psi Overall depth of a section. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. in Critical torsion capacity.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . in Height of the flange. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.

2.0L + 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.6 (0.2.4D 1.0L + 1.1) (ACI 9.2D + 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.9D ± 1.2D + 1. pattern live load (PL).2D + 1.7.2S ± 1.2.1) are the same.0L ± 1.6W 1.1) (ACI 13.6S 1.5S 1.6W 0. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations . and earthquake (E) loads.6W 1.6S ± 0.0E 1.8W 1.6L + 0.3) (ACI 9. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1) (ACI 9.0E 1.5S ± 1.1) (ACI 9.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9. wind (W). degrees 2.2D + 1.6L 1.9D ± 1. snow (S).0L ± 1.0L + 0.2.75 PL) 0.2D + 1.6.2D + 1.2.2D + 1.2D + 1. live load (L).0E (ACI 9.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.1): 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). For ACI 318-08.2.2.2D + 1.

The φ factors for flexure.2).Chapter 2 . is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. shear forces.2.1. caution is advised. however. and other criteria described in this section. or if other types of loads are present.1) (ACI 9.2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. (ACI 9. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. shear.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. φ. fyt. f' c . The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength.5. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1). are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. fy. and torsion based on the beam moments. 2.3.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 .3) 2.3. 2.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. torsion. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. load combination factors.

Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. for a particular station. and torsion only.1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. shear.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. 2. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. with the corresponding load factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .

When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.2) Beam Design 2-7 . Mu (i.2.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.4). The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. which by default is 0.3. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.3. the width. Furthermore.1. which is equal to 0. and torsion only.5). as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. where.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The design procedure used by SAFE.1) in the preceding and the following equations.3. designing top or bottom reinforcement).2.and T-beams).90 (ACI 9.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.Chapter 2 .5. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). or the strength of the concrete. 2.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. shear.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. cmax. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. is summarized in the text that follows.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.2).. fy . it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.3.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. The maximum depth of the compression zone.003. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.e. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.

003 b A′ s Cs c 0.3. amax. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.005 (ACI 10.85 (ACI 10.2.3.85 − 0.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.003 εsmin = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7. εcmax = 0.4). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design . is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.1) β1 = 0.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.3) (ACI 10.7.2.

2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2.Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. or at the top if Mu is negative. If a > amax. where ( f 's − 0.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.3.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 . 10.7. 10.2.2.3.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.

2.85 f ′ c 0.e.003 0.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . If the moment is negative. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5.10 Beam Design .2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. is assumed if the flange is under compression. and the flange is ignored.. if the moment is positive.1. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. as shown in Figure 2-2. i. the flange comes under tension.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. a simplified stress block. and vice versa if Mu is negative. In that case.2.

ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.005 (ACI 10..2.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1) in the preceding and the following equations. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.11 .5.2.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.2) where.1) β1 = 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.3) (ACI 10.. which by default is 0.e.Chapter 2 .2.85 (ACI 10.1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.90 (ACI 9.3.2. 2.5. designing top reinforcement).2) εcmax = 0.7. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0. i. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.2.3. Mu (i. cmax. which is equal to 0.e.3.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.1. no flanged beam data is used.7. amax.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.003 εsmin = 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2. The maximum depth of the compression zone.3) Beam Design 2 . the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.2.2.4): cmax = where.2.85 − 0.

7. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. Cf is given by: C f = 0. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. Cf. However. as shown in Figure 2-2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. the calculation for As has two parts. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. 2 . Cw. the value for φ is 0.90 by default. the balance of the moment.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . amax ) Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.12 Beam Design . amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again. If a > hf.3.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. Therefore.5). The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. Mu .2.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .

1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.2.2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .13 .4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0. 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.2.7. 10.2.3.2.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. where ( f 's − 0.Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.

1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. 2 .5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. Determine the shear force.2.14 Beam Design . for a particular load combination. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10.5. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. bw d ⎟ As .4bw d ⎧0.3) An upper limit of 0. Vc. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5. Vu. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete.1.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. 2.

1.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. the strength reduction factor.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. Vc.1.5.1) Beam Design 2 .1. 11.5. fyt. 2.2.3.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.2.7.9) Given Vu.5φVc Av =0 s If 0. φ.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.1.2.3. Vc.5. If Vu ≤ 0.5.Chapter 2 .5.2.6. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.15 .3.3). and Vmax. 2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. is 0.2. with the corresponding load combination factors. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.75 (ACI 9.1.Design for ACI 318-08 2.1) For light-weight concrete.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.

6.5hf. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.7. Tu.6. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.5.1.5.6.5. and 0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. a failure condition is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. (ACI 11. the equation given in ACI 11.5. 2.3 is not enforced (ACI 11. 11. Determine special section properties.5.7. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5bw.7. 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 2 .75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .3 does not need to be satisfied independently.5. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.7. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.5.3) If Vu > φVmax.16 Beam Design . ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.5.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. (ACI 11.1(c)).2) ⎛ 0.

Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. Ao. such as Aoh.2).1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. However. Ao. special section properties. and ph.1). such as Acp. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. Aoh.17 . 2.5.Chapter 2 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.3. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11.2.3. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.2).Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . This is equivalent to 1. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. and ph.75 inches. pcp.6.6. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. If redistribution is desired. 2. are calculated.

5. 2. the section dimensions b.1) (ACI11.3. 2.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.6.1.3.6. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. R11.1. 2.1.2.6.1) (ACI 11. h. h.1) (ACI 11.6.18 Beam Design .6.1. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.3.3.6(b)) (ACI 11.1) where. Tcr.3.1) where the section dimensions bf. R11.4).6.1.1(c)) 2 .3.1) (ACI 11.1.1. With this assumption. 2. 2. Similarly.6.6.3. 2.6. 2.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.3.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11. 2.3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.6. However.1.6. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6. With this assumption. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) (ACI 11.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11. 2.6(b)) (ACI 11.6.1) (ACI 11. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. hf.6. 2.1. 2. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.1. bw.

and compression diagonals (ACI R11. Beam Design 2 . The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.3).3) In the preceding expressions. longitudinal bars.5. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6).6.3. 2. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.5. Tcr.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11.6.7.3.3. is limited to 60 ksi. fyt. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3. In that case.6.3. θ is taken as 45 degrees. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.19 . 11.6).5.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.6.6.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. even if the material property is defined with a higher value. However.6.6. which is equal to 0.1).6.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.2. fy. Tcr.3. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.75 by default (ACI 9.3. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion. At /s.6) where.Chapter 2 . and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).

2) 2 .7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.20 Beam Design .75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.6. In that case.3. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. a failure message is declared.1) For rectangular sections. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .5. the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.6. bw is replaced with b.

The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.5. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. To learn more about the design strips.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 2. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.21 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3 independently. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Slab Design 2 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 2.6. In that case. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Chapter 2 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.

2. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. at a given design section in a design strip.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.2.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.1(a)) (ACI 7.2): As.22 Slab Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.6.12.1. This is the method used when drop panels are included.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1. given the bending moment.min = (ACI 7.1. Where openings occur. 2.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 . for each load combination.12.1(b)) (ACI 7. These two steps. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.min = 0. In that case. 2.6.12. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.2. 2.6.1(c)) 0. In some cases. are repeated for every load combination.min = 0.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. described in the text that follows. is obtained and reported.12. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

11.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. The column location (i..11. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.e. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11. 2.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.2.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.1.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 2. interior.2). Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.Chapter 2 .6.3).23 . edge. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.

2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.5.2 For corner columns.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.1) For flat plates.2 Eq.2 Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2 Eq. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.2 Eq.2 Eq. C-16) 2 . C-11) (ACI 421. For interior columns. γvx = 0.5. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu. C-15) (ACI 421.3. C-13) (ACI 421.3.6.2 Eq.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.24 Slab Design . C-12) For edge columns.

⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.6. respectively.11.11. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .Chapter 2 . (ACI 11.1) where. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6.2.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.1. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2. 2. bo is the perimeter of the critical section.25 .3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.2.2. for edge columns. and for corner columns. x and y.

11.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and Vmax.11.6. where. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.75 (ACI 9. If this ratio exceeds 1. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.3).1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.5. φ.3.6.2) (ACI 11. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.3.3). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11. 2.1) (ACI 11. 2. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.6.26 Slab Design .11.11.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1) 2. the strength reduction factor.3.2. is 0.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11. 2 . Vc.5.0.11.

Slab Design 2 . a failure condition is declared.1.6.27 .Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.3. 2. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7. i.3.3).e. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7.4.4. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. and corner column. 11.Chapter 2 . The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.3.11..2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.11. (ACI 11.

6.11. edge.5. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. so.5d (ACI 11.5d. Therefore.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and interior columns respectively. and 8.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. and 3/4-inch diameters. Height.3. for corner.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.2) ⎧0.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. g. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.2) (ACI 11.5. When specifying shear studs. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. The limits of so and the spacing. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.11.3) 2 . 2.28 Slab Design .11. 5/8-. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. 1/2-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. s. the distance. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.

mm Notations 3-1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. For simplicity. 3. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Mean value of do. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Width of member. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Overall depth of a section.

MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 . mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N-mm Factored moment at section. MPa Torsional modulus. N Shear force resisted by concrete. mm Factored shear force at a section.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. (0.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. to the effective depth. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section.Chapter 3 . N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N-mm Factored axial load at section.max Vu.

2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.75 PL) 1.2.4L + 1. 4.2(f)) Note that the 0. live load (L).0E 1.2. snow (S).0-02. 4. degrees 3.9D ± 1.0W 1.0-02. wind (W).2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0D ± 1.3.35D 1.0-02.4L ± 1. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear. 4. 4.2.2.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.1): 1.2. 4.2D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. 4.0-02. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. pattern live load (PL).2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.0-02. For AS 3600-01.2D + 1.5L 1.2.0W 1.0S 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.0-02. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.5(0.0-02.4L ± 1.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.0D + 0.2D + 0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2. and earthquake (E) loads.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2D ± 1. 4. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. 4.0W 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.

The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. torsion. is defined as given in AS 2. for all framing type (AS 6.3(c). (AS 2.1. however. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1. shear forces.Chapter 3 .3(c)) (AS 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2. φ.1(b)).2.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 3.3(c)) 3.1.1).1. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6.1). The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.2. and torsion based on the beam moments.1) (AS 6.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.3: φ = 0. 3. 6.1.1.1.1.1. load combination factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Table 2.1. Table 6.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 19.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. shear. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1. caution is advised. respectively. and other criteria described in the text that follows.2.

shear. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5. and torsion only. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. for a particular station. 3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.5.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the width.2) Beam Design 3-7 .1a). (AS 8. is given by amax = γk u d where.1. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.2.2. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.2).1.3) γ = [0.2). (AS 8. amax.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.1.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.007( f 'c −28)] 0. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6. or the strength of the concrete.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.85 − 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. fy . even if the material property is defined using a higher value.85 ku = 0. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.Chapter 3 .003.15N ) (AS 10. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.2.1). shear.7.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. A uniform compressive stress of 0. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. and torsion only.2.

designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.1. ε = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.4). the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).2.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .e.80 (AS 2.003 b Cs c 0. where.3) in the preceding and following equations.. which by default is 0. M (i. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.5.2) where.

compression reinforcement is required (AS 8. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus . ku > 0.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. where ( f 's − 0.2.1.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2.1.e.. or at the top * if M is negative.4.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.2.Chapter 3 . If a > amax.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .1.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.1. i.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. 6.

85 f ′ c 0. and vice versa if M is negative. 3.1.3).5.1. and the flange is ignored. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive.1.2.2. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.003 bf Ds * 0. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.. designing top reinforcement). a simplified stress block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore. as shown in Figure 3-2.5.e. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.. is assumed if the flange is under compression. M (i. i.e. ε = 0. If the moment is negative.. 3.10 Beam Design .85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 .e. i. In that case. the flange comes under tension.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. if the moment is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.2. no flanged beam data is used.

The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.3) If a ≤ Ds. amax ) Therefore.1. ku = 0. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.1. Cw.2. the balance of the moment.1. as shown in Figure 3-2. If a > Ds. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. As1 = given by: (AS 8. Cf is given by: C f = 0.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .2.85 f 'c φb f where.11 . amax.4 (AS 8. However. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. Cf. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the calculation for Ast has two parts.4.Chapter 3 . Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.5. is given by: a max = γk u d where. the width of the beam is taken as bf. in that case.3) in the preceding and the following equations.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.80 by default (AS 2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . which is 0.Design for AS 3600-01 3.

85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. If a1 > amax. 6.1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.12 Beam Design .2.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax. where ′ − 0.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.2.1.1.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.

1) f 'cf = 0.6 f 'c (AS 6.2) An upper limit of 0.1. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1.04bw d ⎧0.5. 3.min = 0.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.Chapter 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.4.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast . Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.13 .1.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .

* 3.5.2.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3. 3.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.1⎜1. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. 13 (AS 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.1) (AS 8.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. V .1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.7. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.14 Beam Design . is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.7.5. with the corresponding load combination factors.6 − β2 = 1. for a particular load combination.7.2. that can be resisted by the concrete.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear force. Vuc.2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.1) β1 = 1. Vuc.2.

max . is 0. = s fsy. and Vu.min . defined as: ( ) (AS 8.2. If φVu.5). Vuc. max = 0.5(c)(i)).2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8. s otherwise Asv. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.2.2.min shall be provided.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.10) Asv.8) Beam Design 3 .min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.6 by default (AS 2. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.Chapter 3 . V * − φVuc Asv .max.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . if D < bw /2 or 250 mm.6bv d o Vu .9) (AS 8. Asv = 0. where. φ.6) Given V .15 .2. the strength reduction factor.2.5.3).min. whichever is greater (AS 8.35 w ⎜ s f sy. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.min < V * ≤ φVu. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2. ⎟ ⎠ 3. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.2.2. min = Vuc + 0. (AS 8. Asv = 0 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Chapter 3 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 3. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.21 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 3. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. To learn more about the design strips. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. as described in the following sections.6. Slab Design 3 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.

3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.1.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. for each load combination. In that case. In some cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.1. are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported.1. 3. 3. Where openings occur.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.1): As ≥ 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. given the bending moment. at a given design section in a design strip.1(b)) In addition. which are described in the following subsections. 3 .6.6.1(a)) As ≥ 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the slab width is adjusted accordingly. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 3.22 Slab Design .

6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.Chapter 3 . 3.e. The column location (i.1. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2. edge.2.6.3).2.23 ..1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.1). interior.Design for AS 3600-01 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.

5 f c' + 0. Vu . the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. is given as (AS 9.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2.3(a)) where.2. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.24 Slab Design .3σ cp ≤ 0.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.3(b)) (AS 9. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.6.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero. Vuo . when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.2.3(a)): a.2.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.3σ cp ) b. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. is given as (AS 9. 3 .2.6.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.2.4(a)) 3.

6. φ.7.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. Vu.6. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. where.Given V*. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.25 . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1). 3. 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. is the strength reduction factor.4. and Vu.Design for AS 3600-01 3.4.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.2.3 or 9.2.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .max.4(a).3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.min = 3*Vu (AS 92.2.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.3.Chapter 3 . s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. V * − φVu Asv = . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.

4.7.7..4) If V > φVmax.3. the minimum number of 3 . Therefore. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.4). * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.7. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.26 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.3) (NZS 12. and corner column.4. edge. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 3. i. a failure condition is declared.6.e.

5d s ≤ 0. 3.4) Slab Design 3 . g. Height. and interior columns respectively.4.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.7.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.27 . for corner. edge.7.4. The limits of so and the spacing. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. the distance. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d.4.Chapter 3 . 6. s.6. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. and 8. When specifying shear studs.4) (NZS 12. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.7. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.4) (NZS 12.

.

mm 2 Notations 4-1 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. For light-weight concrete and torsion. For simplicity. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. 4. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985].Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.

mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm 4-2 Notations . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. assumed as 200.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Torsional constant. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of tension reinforcement.

mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. mm Normalized design moment. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Torsional shear stress. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%.Chapter 4 . MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Neutral axis depth. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress.

2S ± 1.3) (BS 2.4.4D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.6L 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4.2L ± 1.4W 1.4W 1.2S ± 1.3) (BS 2.6L + 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .6(0.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.4.75PL) 1.4D + 1.6S 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.0D ± 1.1.4.4. and considering that wind forces are reversible.2D + 1.4D ± 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. and wind (W) loads. mm Lever arm.3) (BS 2. γf (BS 2. live load (L).2W 1.2L + 1. 1.2W 1. For BS 8110-1997.2W (BS 2.2D + 1. 0.4D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.4.3).3).4D 1.2D + 1. snow (S). pattern live load (PL).

The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. as taken from BS Table 2.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. Note that the automatic combination.50 1. fcu.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.Chapter 4 . 4.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.7.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. the default factor of 1. this value should be overwritten as necessary. γm.4.15 1. including pattern live load.2). 4. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3.2 (BS 2. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . Note that for reinforcement. If other grades are used.1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. other appropriate load combinations should be used.

5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. torsion. In such cases.5. and other criteria described below. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear forces. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. with the corresponding load factors.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. the 4-6 Beam Design . shear. for a particular station. load combination factors. and torsion based on the beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

1). the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. or the strength of the concrete.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4. the width. and torsion only. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.5. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.2. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. Msingle = K'fcu bd . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4.1.Chapter 4 .5. 4. shear.4.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4).9) (BS 3. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. is first calculated for a section. x/d ≤ 0. See Figure 4-1..4. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1fcu Ag) (BS 3.4). the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4. Furthermore.4.1. Msingle. or equal to Msingle.156 2 (BS 3. where K' = 0. The design procedure used by SAFE.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4.4.e. βb ≥ 0. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.5.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In addition.4.4). 4.4) Beam Design 4-7 . less than. In such cases.

4. If M > Msingle.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4. or at the top if M is negative. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .5 + 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. As.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.87 f y z (BS 3. is then given by: As = M .4. the area of tension reinforcement. where 0.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.25 − ⎜ 0.4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.

4.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.2.2. Beam Design 4-9 . 2.4..1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Fig 2.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.2.4.25 − ⎜ 0. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. and ' f ' s = 0.2.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. Fig 2.4. no flanged beam data is used.1.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.4.5.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.5 + 0.1. M (i. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.5.Chapter 4 . 4..e.5.777d z = d ⎜ 0.4.3. where (BS 3.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. 2.3. designing top reinforcement).87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.4. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. Based on this assumption.4.e.1.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . i.2.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.4.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.

25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4.5 + 0.67 fcu/gm 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.4.4.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.10 Beam Design .4.95d 0. See Figure 4-2.4. e = 0.45 (BS 3.0035 0.4.9 ⎭ (BS 3.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .

4.11 . If a > hf.4.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.45d then. in that case.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4) If Kw ≤ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4).87 f y (d − 0.9x (BS 3. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.45d − h f ) 0. Cf.4) If a ≤ hf.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . In that case.5) β f = 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.87 f y (d − 0. However.1 f cu bd (0. as shown in Figure 4-2.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4.5h f ) .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.156 (BS 3. the width of the beam is taken as bf. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. where 0.Chapter 4 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cw. As = 0. 2 As = M + 0. where (BS 3.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

4.95d ⎜ 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.5.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.777d ) 0.1.4.5 + 0.3.4.4.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.5.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.4).4.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.5.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.25 (BS 3. and ' f ' s = 0.12 Beam Design .87 f y (d − 0. Fig 2. 2.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.5.3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. Fig 2.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.87 f f (0.1. 2.4) where.4. 4 .1.12.

13 .13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.1): Beam Design 4 .36 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.48 0.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.20 An upper limit of 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T. which is taken from BS Table 3.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.32 0.6.25 (BS 3. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.12.18 100 0.24 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.5.3).4 bf bw ≥ 0.40 100 0.24 0. if it is required.12.Chapter 4 .20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.

2) The maximum allowable shear stress. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. 4.14 Beam Design . for a particular load combination. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4) 4 .4. v.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.2) For light-weight concrete. 5 MPa) (BS 3.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.8 fcu . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.4. with the corresponding load combination factors.5.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.5.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vc.5.04bw d ⎧0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear stress. that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.63 fcu .

4.Chapter 4 .8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.5.4.8.2.5. BS 3.4.5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.15 .5.4) (BS 3.5.4.1) However.5. Table 3.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. the following limitations also apply: 0.8) (BS 3.3): Beam Design 4 .4.4.12) 0. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3. vc. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.4.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3. 4.5.4. Table 3.5.4.4. vc.4. Table 3.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3. and vmax.8) (BS 2.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3. Table 3.4.4.5.

Table 3. Determine special section properties.3. 4. Determine critical torsion stress. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. obtained from each load combination.5.4. Table 3.16 Beam Design .5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2) (BS 3. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. vt.4.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. 4 . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4) Asv 0.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.5.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.87 f yv If v > vmax. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.4. In the preceding expressions.4bw = sv 0. a failure condition is declared.4.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.3. (BS 3.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0.7) (BS 3.

If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.4. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.8 f cu .5.Chapter 4 .4.1) For flanged sections. vt. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.13).3.4. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. In typical framed construction. The torsional shear stress. with the corresponding load combination factors.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. vt.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5) Beam Design 4 . but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.4.17 .

min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt.18 Beam Design .0.min. 4 . vt is less than the threshold limit. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.6). vt.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5. is calculated as: Asv .7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .4.5.min.8 x1 y1 (0.4.0.067 fcu .5) 4.067 fcu . Asv.min = min 0.5.4.4N/mm 2 x 0. vt.4.min. For lightweight concrete.6). it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.t /sv. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.t sv = T 0.min is defined as: vt .87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. If vt > vt.min = min 0. In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.3.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.4.7) In the preceding expressions. vt.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . However.

8 fcu . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. a failure message is declared. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.4. v and torsional shear stress. the concrete section should be increased in size.Chapter 4 .19 . 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.5) For light-weight concrete. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.4) If the combination of shear stress. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.63 fcu .Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. Beam Design 4 . In that case. vt exceeds this limit.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.

the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.20 Slab Design . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 4. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 4.1. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6.6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. is obtained and reported. for each load combination. 4 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. To learn more about the design strips.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6). 4.1). BS Table 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4.6.21 . an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.Chapter 4 . In some cases.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.1.3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.3) In addition.2. 4.7. Where openings occur. This is the method used when drop panels are included.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.12. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .6.5.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. 4.12.5.6.1.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.12.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6.6. given the bending moment. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.7. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.7. In that case.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. at a given design section in a design strip.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.4.7. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3. Table 3. interior.7.e. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5.5.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.2.6): 1 1 0.6.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7. edge.4.7.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. The column location (i.4.5d 1.1).7.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 1.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.5d 1. 3.22 Slab Design .4.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.8) 4 .7..

67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.4) For light-weight concrete. the following limitations also apply: 0.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. Table 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.4. 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4) v ≤ min(0.7.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.8 f cu .2) However. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5.7. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.8) (BS 3.6.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.5M ⎛ y 1. 4. 5MPa) (BS 3.7.6. Table 3.23 .6.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .4. v. the nominal design shear stress.5.2.4.7.Chapter 4 . is calculated as: v= Veff ud .6.4) (BS 3.63 fcu .Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.5.3) 1.7.4.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4.5.4. where (BS 3.5.2.4.

provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5).2. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.25 ⎪1.6.6.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.7.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1. 3.7. 4.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. 4.6. 4 . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.24 Slab Design .

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

4W (CSA 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5L 0.2.2.25D + 1.5L 0. Table C.5L + 0.2. live load (L). degrees Shear strength factor 5.3. Table C.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.9D + 1.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.3.5L ± 0.25D + 1.3.25D + 1.5S ± 0.5S + 0.5S 0. and earthquake (E) loads.25D + 1.5S + 0.4W 1.25D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.4D 1.5L 1.5S 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.25D + 1.5(0.3) (CSA 8.3-04.5S 0.5L + 0.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.1) 1.9D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).25D + 1.5L ± 0. Table C.5S 1.75 PL) 1.4W 0. Table C.4W 0. pattern live load (PL).4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5L 1.9D + 1. wind (W).2.3.5S ± 0. snow (S).9D + 1.9D + 1.9D + 1.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations . For CSA A23.8.

(CSA 8.3-04 code is used.0E 1.65 for concrete φs = 0.5L ± 1.4.9D + 0.0E (CSA 8.0E 1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.6.3-04 1. Table C.1). 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.6.25D ± 1. φ.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.4W 0.5L ± 1.25D + 0.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.0D + 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.25S ± 1.4W 0.5L ± 1.3.0D + 0. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. other appropriate load combinations should be used. caution is advised.5S ± 1.2. Table C.4W 0.25D + 0.1) 5.3.9D ± 1.2.4W 1. 5. for all framing types (CSA 8.9D + 0.5.4W 1. however.0E 1.1.2) (CSA 8.25S ± 1.5L + 0.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten. respectively.0D + 0.1).Chapter 5 .3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.5S ± 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .4W 1. (CSA 8. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.Design for CSA A23.1.0D ± 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.

5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. torsion. load combination factors. and torsion only.1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. shear.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. and torsion based on the beam moments. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. shear. shear forces. for a particular station.

7).1) Beam Design 5-7 . 5.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. the width. shear. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1).3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement..Design for CSA A23.1. 5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.e.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. where.Chapter 5 .1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. The design procedure used by SAFE. or the strength of the concrete.2. designing top or bottom reinforcement). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.1. In such cases.5. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement.4). hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Mf (i. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1. and torsion only. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Furthermore. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.

and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.7) (CSA 10. The parameters α1. β1.4.5.67 cb = (CSA 10.2) in the preceding and the following equations.7) (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .0015f'c ≥ 0.97 – 0.67.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.1.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. β1 = 0.1.0025f'c ≥ 0.5.1.85 – 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.2).65 (CSA 8.

or at the top if Mf is negative.5. If a > ab (CSA 10. where f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.2.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.2).1.1.1.Chapter 5 . 10.Design for CSA A23.

1.e.2..1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0. 5. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. Mf (i. The parameters α1.0025 f' c ≥ 0. β1. the value of φc is 0. 5.2.5.0015 f' c ≥ 0.7) 5 .1.. As = As1 + As2.67 cb = (CSA 10.97 – 0.1.2. no flanged beam data is used.4. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. designing top reinforcement).85 – 0.e. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.10.1.4.10 Beam Design .7) (CSA 10.1.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2 5.1) where.2.67 β1 = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.65 (CSA 8. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10. the total tension reinforcement.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.2) in the preceding and the following equations.1.5. i.1. and vice versa if Mf is negative.5.

the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.11 . the balance of the moment.3-04 If a ≤ hs.Design for CSA A23.Chapter 5 .0035 bf hs (CSA 10. ab ) c ε = 0. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 .7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. calculation for As has two parts. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hs. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . However. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.1.

compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. where 5 . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2).5.2).1.1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.12 Beam Design .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . If a1 > ab (CSA 10.

5. 5. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.Design for CSA A23.1.Chapter 5 .2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.1) An upper limit of 0.5. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.13 .5.5. 10.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .1.1.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.1.3) In addition.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.1.

2).4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.65 (CSA 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. Vc. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5. By default it is taken as 0. for a particular loading combination.5.3. that can be resisted by the concrete.04bw d ⎧0.4. Vf. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. Determine the shear force.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. 5 .2. 5. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 5.2.14 Beam Design . with the corresponding load combination factors.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Vc.

h. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. and described further in the following sections. It is taken as the greater of 0.75.5). which is taken by the program as the default value.3): Beam Design 5 .6.2). ⎪0.6.21 (CSA 11.3. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.9d or 0.6. its value is 1 (CSA 8. as follows (CSA 11.6.3. For rectangular beams. If the overall beam depth.72h.85. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.4. it is the width of the web of the beam.2).4). For concrete using lower density aggregate. the general method is used (CSA 11. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.3.6.3. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2.6.6. d v is the effective shear depth. (CSA 8.3). ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. if applicable. It is determined according to CSA 11. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.Design for CSA A23.2). the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. Its value is normally between 0.3. it is the width of the beam.1 and 0. For normal density concrete.00. β is taken as 0.6. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.15 .2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.Chapter 5 .3. bw is the effective web width.6. and the tensile force is negligible. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply. For flanged beams.5): ⎧1.

sze.6. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . In summary.3. β is taken as 0. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. ⎪ 0. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. or 5 .6. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.6. the crack spacing parameter.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. However.18 (CSA 11. for simplified cases. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.6. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement. β = 0. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement. and ag ≥ 20mm. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.18.6.3.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.3.3.3 c) where.18 (CSA 11.3a). if no transverse reinforcement is provided. ag.16 Beam Design .3.3. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. and ag < 20mm. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.c) In the preceding expression.

17 . Beam Design 5 .4(a)) (CSA 11.3. Nf is taken as positive for tension.3. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.6.6.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.6.3-04 tension is not negligible.6.4).40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.3(b)). (CSA 11.6.3. and linearly interpolated between these values.4) In the preceding expression.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. The longitudinal strain.Chapter 5 .4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.4): β= 0.3.3.1.4(a)) (CSA 2. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.85Sz otherwise. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.3.3.3.6.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0. 11.Design for CSA A23. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.6.3. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.6. 11.6.3. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.3. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.

and Vr. Vc. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.6.18 Beam Design . 5. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.4(d)).3.max.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section. the program performs the design in two passes.6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. taken as half of the total area. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11. To check this condition. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.003 (CSA 11. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.4(e)).3.5.max = 0.2.6.3. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. In the first pass.3. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.5.1) 5 .3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr . it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.3.6. it is recalculated with the following equation.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.

Chapter 5 .Design for CSA A23. or by calculation. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.1) (CSA 11. Similar to the β factor. a failure condition is declared.2.1. (CSA 11.8.5. Beam Design 5 .3.3.max .2).8. which was described previously. whenever applicable. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.25Tcr. the term θ is used.8.6.3.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .3).6. h.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .3.3.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.6.3. 11. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. If the overall beam depth.2) In the preceding equations.6.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.4).3.2.2.19 . It is determined according to CSA 11.3).2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.6.3.3.

6. f y ≤ 400 MPa. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.3. Tf. Determine special section properties. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.6.3. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 .6. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. 5 .6.3. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.4). θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.3) If the axial force is tensile. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 . f y > 400 MPa. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5. 5. Determine critical torsion capacity.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa.3.20 Beam Design . Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3). f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.

with the corresponding load combination factors. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.3.2. With this assumption.3. such as Aoh. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. Ao. and ph. such as Ac.9. Aoh. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.2). the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. special section properties. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. With this assumption. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.3).2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. However. Ao. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 .3-04 5. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.Chapter 5 .5.Design for CSA A23. and ph are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.21 . If redistribution is desired.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 5. However.5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. pc. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.

3.9.1) (CSA 11.4). bw.1) (CSA 11. Similarly. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. the section dimensions b.1) (CSA 11.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.9.2.10. 5.3) (CSA 11.5.3. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.65. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.10.4) where.4) where the section dimensions bf.10.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.2.9.3.9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.10.3.3.3) (CSA 11. which is equal to 0. 5 .3.3. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete. Tcr.3) (CSA 11.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11. h.10.10. h.3.2.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.2.1) (CSA 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.2. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.9.22 Beam Design . hf.

At /s.5 N f + (V f − 0.3-04 5.3) Mf Al = dv + 0. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr. Tcr. However.Design for CSA A23.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.23 .5. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. Tcr.1).3.3.3). is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.9. In that case.2. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.10.Chapter 5 . torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.

06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.3. 5 .7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.4) For rectangular sections.10.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. 11. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.8. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.24 Beam Design . If the general method is being used.10. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition.3. θ is computed as previously described for shear. In that case.6.2. bw is replaced with b. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. a failure message is declared. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0.9) In the preceding expressions. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). the concrete section should be increased in size.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.3.10.3.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.3-04 5. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Slab Design 5 .6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Design for CSA A23. is obtained and reported.Chapter 5 . These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. 5. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.25 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.002 bh (CSA 7.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.26 Slab Design . given the bending moment. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.6. for each load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 5. 5.10. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Where openings occur. 5 . 5.6.1. In that case.1): As ≥ 0.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1) In addition. In some cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. at a given design section in a design strip.8.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

3.3.Design for CSA A23.2. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13. where Slab Design 5 .3.e.3).2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.27 .3.6. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2). the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.3.1 and CSA 13. interior. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.3-04 5.3.Chapter 5 . edge.

exceeds 300 mm.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.2.1) where.4. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. 5 . and (CSA 13.3.3.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.3.6. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.4. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.4. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .28 Slab Design .38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.3.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. (CSA 13. d. and ⎪for corner columns.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.3). ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.5.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.4.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.3.2) If the effective depth.10.

5.3. and vf. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6.75λφ c (CSA 13. 5. is the strength reduction factor. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user..3.Chapter 5 .6.2) Given vf.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13. φs.29 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .1). the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.max.2.3) 5.Design for CSA A23.6.8.8. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. Slab Design 5 .28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3-04 5.6. where.max = 0.3.2. vc.

. (CSA 13.3. Therefore. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3.max. edge. edge.30 Slab Design . and corner column. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and 8. 6.5) If vf > vf.4d.3.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf.8.8. 5.e.max. i. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. a failure condition is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. and interior columns respectively. 5 . for corner.6. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.

56λφc f 'c (CSA 13. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.3. the distance. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.6) (CSA 13.6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4d. Height.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.8. s.Chapter 5 .6) Slab Design 5 .8. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.3.4 d ⎧ 0.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5.31 .75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.56λφc f 'c v f > 0. The limits of so and the spacing. When specifying shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. so.

.

a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. 6. For simplicity. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. However.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm 2 Notations 6-1 .” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter.

MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement.

N Shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. mm Lever arm. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. mm Design moment at a section.max u VRdc VRd. mm Torsion at ultimate design load.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. mm Flange thickness. N-mm Normalized design moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd.Chapter 6 . N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 .

6. ∑γ j ≥1 G.12b.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.i Qk . wind (W).1Qk .1Qk . 6.1 + ∑ γ Q .10a) ∑ξ γ j G. 6. pattern live load (PL).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.iψ 0.1 + ∑ γ Q . j + γ P P + γ Q . 6.12b) For this code.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G.10b. j + γ P P + γ Q . j Gk . 6.1 + ∑ γ Q .1ψ 0. ∑G j ≥1 k. live load (L).i Qk . MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. 6. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i Qk . and earthquake (E) loads.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.1Qk .10a and 6. snow (S). j Gk .i Qk . 6. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).iψ 0. j + γ P P + γ Q . j Gk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.iψ 0.

i W + γQ.i L γGj.sup D γGj.1 W + γQ.i ψ0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.i S γGj.i S ± γQ.1 L ξ γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.sup D + γQ.supD + (0.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.1 W + γQ.1 W (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i ψ0.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.i W γGj.supD + γQ.1 ψ0. 6. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.i L + ψ2.i ψ0.4.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.supD + (0.0E + ψ2. 6.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.i S (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.supD + (0. 6.i L γGj. 6. γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj.1 W + γQ.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.i L D ± 1.inf D ± γQ.10b.supD + γQ.Chapter 6 . 6.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6. 6.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.sup D + γQ. 6. 6.supD + γQ.75)γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 L γGj.10a and 6. 6.i L D ± 1.75)γQ. 6.1 W γGj.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.1 L γGj.i W γGj. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.i S γGj.inf D ± γQ.0E D ± 1.i L + γQ.3): γGj. 6.i ψ0.i S γGj.sup D γGj. 6.1 PL ξ γGj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.1 ψ0.sup D ξ γGj.1 W γGj.1 S ± γQ.sup D + γQ.1 S + γQ.0E + ψ2.1 ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 PL γGj.i ψ0.75)γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.i W γGj.

1 ψ0.inf D ± γQ.0E + ψ2.sup D + γQ.1 W γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.6 (wind load) = 0.i L γGj.i L γGj. 6.i ψ0.i ξ = 1.1 γQ.sup D + γQ. γGj.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.1 ψ0.i W ξ γGj.1 S + γQ. 6.i L γGj.85 (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.5 = 0.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D + γQ. assumed not to be storage) = 0.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.1 ψ0.i ψ0.i S ξ γGj.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i ψ0.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.1 ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.5 (snow load.i W ξ γGj.1 L + γQ.inf D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.00 γQ.1 S ± γQ.i S D ± 1.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i S γGj.i L γGj.1 W + γQ.i L + ψ2.5 = 1.1 S ± γQ.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i ψ0.7 (live load. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0. 6.sup = 1.1 W γGj.i ψ0.1 L ± γQ.1 W ξ γGj.sup D ± γQ.i W γGj. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.inf D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.1 S + γQ.i L D ± 1.1 W + γQ.0E D ± 1. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.inf = 1.1 W + γQ.35 γGj.i S γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.

should be 400 and 600 MPa.2(2)).2.1.7(2)) (EC2 3. respectively (EC2 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2.3 (live. αcc is taken as 1. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3.1.1) (EC0 Table A1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 . f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. fck. 6.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.Chapter 6 .i = 0.i ψ2.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. fyk. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength. 6.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.6(1)) (EC2 3. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.6(1)). γs and γc as shown here.2. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.1.2(3)).

5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. γc = 1.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement.4). shear. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. 6.4.4(1).5. γs = 1. however.4. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. caution is advised. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6. These values can be overwritten. load combination factors. and torsion only.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.2. for a particular station.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Table 2. torsion. The user should consider those separately. shear forces.2. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. For accidental and earthquake situations. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2.

the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 .5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.Chapter 6 .1.7(3).1. with the corresponding load factors. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the width. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3.1. In such cases.5. Fig 3.7(3).7(3)).5) (EC2 3. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. 6. or the strength of the concrete.5.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1. Fig 3.

The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.25(0. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.7(3)) (EC2 3. is summarized in the subsections that follow.7(3)) (EC2 3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. ( x d )lim . to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.5(4)) (EC 5. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.6 + 0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. δ.1.10 Beam Design . 6 .8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.and T-beams).1.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.54 (EC 5.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.5(4)) (EC 5.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa. the following values are used: k1 = 0.44 k2 = k4 = 1.5(4)) (EC2 5. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.5(4)).7(3)) λ = 0.

The normalized design moment. m.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. less than. m. mlim. the normalized moment.1. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam.5. or equal to mlim. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 .11 . are obtained first. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6.Chapter 6 . mlim. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.

d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. and is given by: 6 . are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. A's and As. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. or at the top if MEd is negative. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. As.12 Beam Design . and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. ωlim. If m > mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed.

Fig 3. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.Chapter 6 . additional calculation is required.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.2.8) 6..1.1.5.1. See Figure 6-2.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1.. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.1. 3.1.2.2. designing top reinforcement). and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . m. Based on this assumption. no flanged beam data is used.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.5. The normalized design moment.13 . If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. 3.5(4).e.2. Initially. If the stress block extends beyond the flange. i.1. MEd (i.5.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.2. 3. 6.7(4). the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.e.

and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. as shown in Figure 6-2. the calculation for As has two parts. M1 = M − M2. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression.14 Beam Design . As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. is determined as follows: 6 . the width of the beam is taken as bf. in that case. If a > hf. However. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf.

8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.7(4).15 . ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.1. Fig 3. 3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.Chapter 6 .2. Beam Design 6 . ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.

VRd.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1. Table 3. 6 .26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.12.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .1) f ctm = 2.1.1(3)).04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required. that can be resisted by the concrete.min = 0.16 Beam Design .5. VEd.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.c. for a particular load combination.0013bd (EC2 9.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2.1) (EC2 3.1(1)) As .min = 0.1.2): Determine the factored shear force.12.12.2.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3. Determine the shear force. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. Table 3. Table 3. 6.5. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.

18 γ c ν min = 0. vmin. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.c = 0.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6. VRd.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.c = ⎡C Rd .02 bw d (EC2 6.2.15 Beam Design 6 .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.17 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2. 6.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.Chapter 6 .2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.5.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd . 6.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2.c. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2(1)) (EC2 6. is calculated as: 13 VRd .c.

18 Beam Design .2.2. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. a failure condition is declared.2(6)) (EC2 6.6⎜1 − z = 0.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd . obtained from each load combination.2.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.3(1)) (EC2 6.3(3)) Asw.2. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw. VRdc.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.max.2.2.max.3(3)) (EC2 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3(3)) (EC2 6.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.2.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values. Asw Asw. VRd.min s = 0. 6 .3(3)) (EC2 6.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.2.

Chapter 6 .1(2)). Determine the torsion reinforcement required. such as Ak. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. 6.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. uk. Determine special section properties.5. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Determine critical torsion capacity. TEd. 6. However. If redistribution is desired. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6.5. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd.19 . 6.5.3. u.3. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.3. Beam Design 6 .2).3. special section properties. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. tef. and zi are calculated.

3.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.2(1)) (EC2 6. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.3. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. such as Ak. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. Similarly.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) where. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2(1)) (EC2 6. However.3. With this assumption.20 Beam Design . the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.3.3.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3. With this assumption. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. h.2(3)) 6 .3. and uk. the section dimensions b. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.

c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. hf.3. the shear due to this torsion.2.3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.2(5)) where VRd. Vt. h.5. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6. if the equation is not satisfied.1.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.c VRd . In that case.3. is first calculated.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.5. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.21 .2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required. However.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. and compression diagonals.05 / γ c (EC2 6.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6. bw.0 TRd .Chapter 6 .c (EC2 6. 6. calculated as: TRd .4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.3.2(1)) 6.2. longitudinal bars. followed by the required stirrup area. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.c is the torsional cracking moment.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .3.

max (EC2 6.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.max + VEd ≤ 1. The code allows any value between 21.max.3.0 VRd .2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts. θ is taken as 45 degrees. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.22 Beam Design .8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.3.3. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .2(4)) where TRd. In the preceding expressions.2(4)) 6 . the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.2. as previously defined for beam shear.3(2)).

6. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. the concrete section should be increased in size. 6.Chapter 6 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.23 . a failure message is declared. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. In that case.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. 6. Slab Design 6 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.

are repeated for every load combination. 6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.1. These two steps. described in the subsections that follow. In some cases.min = 0.1. In that case.2. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 6. for each load combination.1.2.24 Slab Design . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is obtained and reported.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.min = 0. at a given design section in a design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. 6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Where openings occur.1): As . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1.0013bd (EC2 9. given the bending moment.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1(1)) As .3.6.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .1.

1.4. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. The column location (i..e.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.2.Chapter 6 .2(1)).0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.25 .1) (EC2 Table 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1(3)).6.1) fctm = 2. 6.4.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. interior.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.2. Slab Design 6 . An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. edge.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1) (EC2 Table 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. 6.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.

2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4.6.26 Slab Design .0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.2.4.4(1)) 6 .c = ⎡C Rd .4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .

4.4.Chapter 6 . and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4. conservatively taken as zeros.4.02 (EC2 6.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .4(1)) (EC2 6.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2. the nominal design shear stress.18 γ c (EC2 6.4(1)) ν min = 0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.2. conservatively taken as zeros. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .15 6.4. C Rd .27 .4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4.c = 0.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively. vEd. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.0 d (EC2 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.4.4(1)) (EC2 6.

6. 6. vRd. 6 .max. Given vEd. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.6.4.6.ef If vEd > vRd.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. (EC2 6. 6.28 Slab Design .3.3.4.5 f ywd .c ) = u1 sr 1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. Asw (v Ed − 0.5).c. and vRd.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. a failure condition is declared.max. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.75v Rd . the concrete section should be increased in size.

Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and corner column.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.3(1)). Height. and 8.29 . edge.4.e. 6. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. edge.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. 6.6. for corner. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. i. Therefore. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.Chapter 6 ..6. and interior columns respectively.

3(1)) (EC2 9.4.4.3d. s. g. so. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 16-.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. and 20-millimeter diameter. 14-.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. 12-.30 Slab Design . between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.3(1)) 6 .75d g ≤ 1.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. The limits of so and the spacing.3(1)) (EC2 9. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs.4.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3(1)) (EC2 9. the distance.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. βb ≥ 0.1.4(b)). ⎧0. with the corresponding load factors. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. or the strength of the concrete..2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. In such cases. the width. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2.e.1.9) (CP 6. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. 7.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.0035 − 0.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.1.4(a)).1. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. where εc.max is defined as: ε c .1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.2. In such cases.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.1.

Msingle = K'fcu bd . The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. hence.1. is obtained from: As = M . is obtained first for a section.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. As. Msingle.2. where 0.1.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4(a)).4(b)).4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .Chapter 7 .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. and torsion only. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. less than.2.2.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.4(c)) ⎧0. shear. 7. Fig 6.1.2. In addition. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.2.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. or equal to Msingle. where 2 (CP 6. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.87 f y z (CP 6.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4(a).2.1fcuAg) (CP 6. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1.1. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.

2.25 − ⎜ 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.4(c)) (CP 6.1.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.2. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design . or at the top if M is negative. If M > Msingle.95d z = d ⎜ 0.2.1.5 + 0.

4(c)) 7. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.6. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.2. Beam Design 7-9 .e.2.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.2.1.87 f y z + 0.1. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.e. designing top reinforcement).9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.2.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0..5.5. i.2.95d 0.1.2. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. M (i. Fig 6.2.. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.36 .87 f y .Chapter 7 . 3.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.1.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.5.1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. Based on this assumption.1. 3.4(c).5 + 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. Fig. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . 7.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. no flanged beam data is used.45 .4(a).2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.

2. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M . the width of the beam is taken as bf. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. If a > hf . for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . See Figure 7-2. Fig 6.4(c). However.1. for ⎪ 0.1. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1.2.1) If a ≤ hf.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4(a).5 + 0. in that case. Fig 6.45 .95d.1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.36 .8x for ⎪ ⎪0.10 Beam Design .2.4(c)) (CP 6.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.

Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0. x ≤ 0.11 . Cw.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. Cf.4.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. x ≤ 0.4.1 f cu bd (0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 .36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .Chapter 7 .5h f ) .5h f ) bf hf ec 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.4.4d then.9 x − h f ) 0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . ⎪0.87 f y (d − 0. where (BS 3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.4. In that case. x ≤ 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .5) β f = 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.67 fcu/gm 0. as shown in Figure 7-2.

7 . where (CP 6.1. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4(d)) ⎧0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.32 ⎪ ⎪0.2. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.87 f y ( d − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.4(c)). one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.1.2.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.2.5h f ) ) .24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.12 Beam Design .1.

13 .95d ⎜ 0.2.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. Fig 3.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5 + 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. 3. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.2.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .5 + 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K. where 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .95d ⎜ 0.87 f y (d − 0.6.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.4(c).Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.1.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.Chapter 7 .

1. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.3): 7 .1 (CP 9.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.48 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.2.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.20 0.1.5.1).24 fy = 460 MPa 0.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.1.2. if it is required.13 100 0.36 0.1(CP 9.1.14 Beam Design .2.32 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0. which is taken from CP Table 9. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.2.4 bf bw ≥ 0.2.24 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.40 0.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9. which is taken from CP Table 9.

Chapter 7 . Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.1.1.5): Determine the shear stress. v.04bw d ⎧0.1.5.15 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. the following steps are involved (CP 6.2.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.1.5.2.2. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. with the corresponding load combination factors. 7 MPa) (CP 6. for a particular load combination.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. vc.2.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.8 fcu . Determine the shear stress.3) 7.5(a)) 7. 7. vc.

6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.5.67 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6. vc. as: 7 .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. and vmax. vr.5(c).2.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5(c).2. Table 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0. Table 6.16 Beam Design .5(c).2. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2. the following limitations also apply: 0.2. Table 6. CP 6.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.25 However. Table 6.3) (CP 6.5(c).3) ≥ 0.5(g)) (CP 6.1.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. Table 6.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.5(k)) 7.2.1.2.1.2.5(c).2.2.1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.1.1.2.5(k)) 0.1.

4 40 ⎩ (CP 6. Beam Design 7 . vt.Chapter 7 . Table 6. (CP 6.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.2.2.2. 7.1. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . a failure condition is declared. obtained from each load combination.5(b)) (CP 6. sv 0.1.1. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.17 .4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.2.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5(b). Determine special section properties.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.87 f yv If v > vmax. (CP 6.

3. Table 6. with the corresponding load combination factors.18 Beam Design .3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. vt. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.1).4.3. In typical framed construction.3.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.8 f cu .3(a)) For flanged sections. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.3.5.17 7 . 7. The torsional shear stress. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. vt.

6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.t /sv. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5. vt.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.3.3.Chapter 7 . the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5).2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.067 fcu .4. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.0.min. Table 6. Asv. vt is less than the threshold limit.3.min.min = min 0. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . vt.3. In that case. However. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. vt.5).min.19 .5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.min. 7. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.

t sv = T 0.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.3.8 fcu .6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.3. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.6) In the preceding expressions. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. the concrete section should be increased in size.8 x1 y1 (0.3. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. In that case. a failure message is declared.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. 7 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 7. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.87 f yv ) (CP 6.20 Slab Design . To learn more about the design strips.

at a given design section in a design strip.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 .21 . for each load combination.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. 7. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 7 . given the bending moment. In that case. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 7.1. is obtained and reported. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. In some cases. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.

0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. edge.7(d)). corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.7).3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0..6. Where openings occur.e.5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.3.1.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.1(a)) In addition. 7.3.3).1. 7.1.1.5. The column location (i.22 Slab Design . 7 .1. 7.2. interior. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.

1.2.5(c).7(d)) (CP 6.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .3): 0.1.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.7(d).5d 1.5(g).5d Interior Column 1.23 . Table 6.Chapter 7 . 6.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7. Table 6.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1.1.5.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6. Table 6.5d 1.2.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.6.1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.7(d).5.

2.1. where (CP 6. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .1. 7 MPa) (CP 6.2.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.1. Table 6.2.7(b)) (CP Table 6.8 f cu . Table 6.3) ≥ 0.2) 0.5 + 1. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2.4.5(c).1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.5.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. 6.1. 7 .15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. v ≤ min(0.5 x ⎬ .3.6(b).1.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section. v. Table 2.24 Slab Design . Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.5.67 1.5.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5(c). the nominal design shear stress.25 However. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.

5.25 . 7. 7.5.6.1.Chapter 7 .3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5.1.6(b).5.1.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.1.6. 6.6.25 ⎪1.7(e)). 7. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.

edge. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.1.6vc ≤ v < 2. a failure condition is declared.0vc (CP 6.e. 7.1.7v − vc ) ud 0.7(f)).5.6vc 0. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.26 Slab Design .. (CP 6. edge. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. ≥ s 0. 7 . and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. and vmax.1. 0.87 f yv If 1. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4ud = ≥ . Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore. and interior columns respectively.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .87 f yv 0.5.6.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6. and 8.87 f yv s If v > vmax.7(e)).7(e)) (CP 6.5.5. vc. the concrete section should be increased in size.1.87 f yv 0. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.1. i. for corner. If v ≤ 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. 6.3.

and 20-millimeter diameter.Chapter 7 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7.5d (CP 6.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.1.2. 16-.1.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.1.7(f)) (CP 6. Height. g.5. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. s.6.5.7(f)) (CP 6. When specifying shear studs. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.3. the distance. 12-. so. 14-.5d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.5. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The limits of so and the spacing.5d s ≤ 0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.27 .75d g ≤ 1.

.

1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm Notations 8-1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. 8. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance.

assumed as 200. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section.

N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. N Depth of neutral axis.3 .0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. mm Lever arm.Chapter 8 . mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. N-mm Normalized design moment. mm Factored torsional moment at a section.max Notations 8. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0.

2D + 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.2D + 1.5D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. MPa 8.5L ± 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). wind (W).2W 1. and earthquake (E) loads.5S 1.4.4. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.1) (IS 31.5W 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.9D ± 1.9D ± 1.5.5L ± 1.5D ± 1.75 PL) 1.3) (IS 36.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .5D + 1.5E 1. Table 18): 1.5D 1.5L 1.5D + 1.0E (IS 36.5D + 1.2L ± 1.0W 1. snow (S).5D + 1.2L ± 1.1) (IS 36.2.5W 1. For IS 456-2000.2E 1.5E 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4.4.5(0.1) (IS 36. pattern live load (PL). the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36. live load (L).4.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.5D ± 1.

2D + 1. torsion.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2W 1. γm.2D + 1. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5L + 1.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2L + 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5S 1.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2E (IS 36. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. beams must be designed for torsion. 8.4.5 (IS 36.2W 1.4.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. 14. and torsion based on the beam moments.2E 1. caution is advised.2S ± 1.Chapter 8 . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.Design for IS 456-2000 1.2.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.2.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. however. shear forces. load combination factors.2S ± 1. shear. These values can be overwritten. other appropriate load combinations should be used.4.2S ± 1. shear. However. γc = 1. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.2L + 1.1) (IS 36. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. 8. γs = 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.2D + 1.5 .5D + 1. 8.2S ± 1. and torsion only.2D + 1.

The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. If redistribution is desired.4. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. In such cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. 8-6 Beam Design . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. 8. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.4. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. Rather. However. In such cases. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

Effectively.7 .4.1. In such cases.4. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.4.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1) 8.2. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam.2) (IS 41.4. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Beam Design 8. where (IS 41. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.Design for IS 456-2000 8.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. respectively.4. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt. with the corresponding load factors.Chapter 8 . If Mt exceeds Mu. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.

a. The area of the stress block.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web.2. 8.4. When a torsional moment is to be included.1) 8-8 Beam Design . the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38.3. the width. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. c.1). or the strength of the concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.1) (IS 38. with the corresponding load combination factors.1.4.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.4. (IS 41.1) 8.

1) (IS 38. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.1). The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.0035 b f′ s 0.Chapter 8 .max /d 0.53 0. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.42 (IS 38.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.46 Beam Design 8.48 0.9 .1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.1). Furthermore.36 β = 0.

0035 (IS 38. or equal to Msingle. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. xu. are obtained first.53 − 0.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.10 Beam Design . Msingle = α xu.max = 0. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. is given by 8 .48 − 0.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. less than. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.4. m.max d xu. and torsion only.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.max.53 ⎪ ⎪0. 8.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.max d ⎧0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.2. Msingle. xu . shear.

Beam Design 8. or at the top if Mu is negative.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ .67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. As. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. − If Mu > Msingle.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. the area of compression reinforcement. where (IS G-1.Chapter 8 . and vice versa if Mu is negative. is obtained from As = Mu . A's.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.11 .

On the basis of this assumption.2. 8.12 Beam Design .3.e. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. no flanged beam data is used.e.2. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. i. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.2.4. designing top reinforcement).2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression... the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.3.. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 . See Figure 8-2. Mu (i. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.4.4.

2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.Chapter 8 . Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0. Cf.13 .2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cw. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. However.1).65D f if D f > 0. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . as shown in Figure 8-2.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.15 xu + 0. m. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.

5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .1) xu . and 8 .14 Beam Design .53 − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.single.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.max d ⎧0.max ⎡ x u.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.single = αfckbwd 2 x u. the area of compression reinforcement. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.46 (IS 38. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.single.53 ⎪ ⎪0.48 − 0. A's. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.single ⎛ 0.

2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.4.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1. the following steps are involved (IS 40.15 .1.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.1.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.1) (IS 26.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.4.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.2) 8.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1. at a particular station.1.1) An upper limit of 0.5.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.5.5.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.5.2.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.1.1): As ≥ 0.04bw d ⎧0.85 bd fy (IS 26.5. for a particular load combination.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.Chapter 8 .

IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2. τc.2.3.max (MPa) (IS 40.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.3.1. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.8 M25 3.0 τc. where bd (IS 40.3. d. τc.max (IS 40. as: τcd = kδτc. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8. (IS 40.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d . and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. τc. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.1 M30 3. τv ≤ τc.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.5 M20 2.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.16 Beam Design . and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.7 M40 4.2) 8 .2.5 M35 3.max.

87 f y If τcd + 0.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1. 26. 0.2.1.4(a)) Beam Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.2.2.1.1) (IS 40.1.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .1. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.17 .4 Asv 0.Chapter 8 .4 b ≥ sv 0.3.87 f y (IS 40.1). and if Pu > 0 .max (IS 40. taken as 1.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.2.4 < τv ≤ τc. Table 19) (IS 40.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .4.5. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.2. Under Tension (IS 40. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.2.

3) (IS 41. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.87 f y (IS 41. 8 . τc.5d1 (0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.max. 26.87 f y ) 2. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.3.2.4.6) If τve ≥τcd.4 b ≥ sv 0.4.3) τve ≤ τc.4.max The maximum nominal shear stress.1.2.4) 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.5.87 f y (IS 41. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0. obtained from each load combination.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. (IS 40.max is determined as defined in the last section.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.3.1) (IS 40. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure condition is declared.18 Beam Design . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.

8. Slab Design 8.1.19 .5. described in the subsections that follow. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.5. is obtained and reported. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 8.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. These two steps. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Design for IS 456-2000 8. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. are repeated for every load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 8 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. for each load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5. given the bending moment.e. 8 .6. 8. In some cases.5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.2.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. edge.5. The column location (i. interior.1).5. 8. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).. In that case.1) In addition. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.5.1). Where openings occur.1).2): ⎧0.5. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1. 8.20 Slab Design .0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. at a given design section in a design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.

6.5.5.2).Chapter 8 .2.21 .3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.3.2. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.2. 8.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.

the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3.3.6.22 Slab Design .25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6.3.0 (IS 31. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 8.5 τ c bod (IS 31.5 + βc ≤ 1.6.1) τc = 0. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 8.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.2.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.2) 8.5. 8.1) (IS 31.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5.3. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.3.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2) 8 .3.1) (IS 31.5.5τ c (IS 31.

87 f y (IS 31. and corner column.6.2).6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Slab Design 8.3) (IS 31.23 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. i. a failure condition is declared. Av = (Vu − 0.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.2) If Vu > Vmax. and Vmax. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. 8.3.4. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. the concrete section should be increased in size.5Vc ) 0.Chapter 8 .e. edge. 41.2. Vc.5.3.3. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.6.

3. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and interior columns respectively.5d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. g. for corner. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Therefore. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. edge.5. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 5d s ≤ 0. When specifying shear studs. so. Height. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . s. the distance. 6.24 Slab Design .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and 8. 8. The limits of so and the spacing.

sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. sq-mm Notations 9-1 .1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. 9. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter.

sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. assumed as 200. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Width of member. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.000 MPa 9-2 Notations .

MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. mm Factored design torsion at a section. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length.Chapter 9 . psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N Factored shear force at a section. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Perimeter of area Ao. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 .

2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4L ± 1. 4.0E 1.0S 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.0D ± 1.2D + 1.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations . snow (S). if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.5L 1.2D ± 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.5(0.0.2.0W 1.2.0.0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. 4.0. For NZS 3101-06.0.0D + 0.2D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.0.2): 1.4L ± 1.2. 4.0W 0.9D ± 1.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.0.2D + 0.0. wind (W).2D + 0.0. (0. live load (L).max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. pattern live load (PL).75 PL) 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. 4. 4.2.2.0. 4.0W 1.4L + 1. 4. 4. and earthquake (E) loads.35D 1. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.

3. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. caution is advised. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.2.3. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.1).1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. (NZS 2. however. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. shear. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.2) (NZS 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used. fy.2. The φ factors for flexure. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.3).4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5.85 for flexure φs = 0.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. 9.3). φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2.Chapter 9 . The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. 9.3. fyt.

1. the 9-6 Beam Design . and torsion only.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. torsion. In such cases.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. load combination factors.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5. shear forces. shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.

1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive. M (i. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.3. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.7). In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beams are designed for major direction flexure.4.. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.3. or the strength of the concrete. designing top or bottom reinforcement).2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. The design procedure used by SAFE.2.1.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. 9. where.2.1). 9. shear.5.85 (NZS 2.8. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.7): α1 = 0. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. the width. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.2) in the preceding and following equations. Furthermore. and torsion only.Chapter 9 . Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1.5. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).4.2) where the default value of φb is 0.e.

75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.3.4.8.7) (NZS 7.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.75β1cb (NZS 7.2. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.2. 9. c (NZS 7. amax. 0.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.85 − 0.2.8.4. is given by: amax = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .7) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.4.85 − 0.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.7.1).85 β1 = 0.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.4.8) β1 = 0.008( f ′ − 30).3.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.

where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.1).4.2.2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.3.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7. or at the top * if M is negative. If a > amax (NZS 9.Chapter 9 .8.4.2.2.4.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .4.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 . 7.

1. no flanged beam data is used. As = As1 + As2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.e.5.2.. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.10 Beam Design . However.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. 9 .2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. calculation for As has two parts. 9.2.5.1) If a ≤ hf.e. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. i. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. designing top reinforcement).1.2.4. 9.5.4. Cw. as shown in Figure 9-2.7.. M (i. the total tension reinforcement. and vice versa if M is negative.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.1.2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. If a > hf.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. amax. * 9. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.3.8. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.75β1cb (NZS 7. is given by: amax = 0. Cf.

the balance of the moment.2.Chapter 9 .2 ) Beam Design 9 . for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.11 . As1 = given by: (NZS 7.4.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.4.

2.3.4.1).2. If a1 > amax (NZS 9. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4.4. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.8.2.3.12 Beam Design . 7.8.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .2.1).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

h.1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) where the section dimensions bf.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.1.1) (NZS 7.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3. h.75 Ao/po 0.1) (NZS 7. Similarly.1) (NZS 7.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. hf. bw. the section dimensions b. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .1) where.7).1) (NZS 7. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.18 Beam Design . and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.

the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. Tcr.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.3) 9. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.6.1).19 .4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. T . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. if T exceeds the threshold limit.4. and meets the torsion stress limit.5.4.3.1).1.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.6.6) Beam Design 9 .5.1. Tcr.6.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.Chapter 9 .6. However.6.3. is less than the threshold limit. defined as: T* ≤ 0. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.1.4. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. At /s. In that case.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.8.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. In that case.2.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.1. 9 . At Al 1. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 9. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.2 f 'c . provided it is fully developed.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.6.20 Slab Design . To learn more about the design strips.3). If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. a failure message is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.2) * * For rectangular sections.6. bw is replaced with b.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. 7.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. is obtained and reported.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 .1. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. 9. In that case. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.Chapter 9 .6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6. In some cases. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.21 . at a given design section in a design strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 9. These two steps.6.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. for each load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. given the bending moment. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. are repeated for every load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. described in the subsections that follow.

The column location (i.2. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 9.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.4 ): ⎧ 0 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 9 .6. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 8.7.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.1(b)).7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.. 9.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. edge.2.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.e.5. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12. interior.1.4.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2. Where openings occur.6.8. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.22 Slab Design . 8.1) In addition.7.1(b)). 2. 9.

Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9. 9.Chapter 9 .7.7.23 .6.6.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 . where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.7.7.2.

3. 9 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.2.6.4. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.1).7.24 Slab Design .1. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.1) 70 9.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.6. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12. 12. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 9.3.2(a)).2) where.7.7.7.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.

3.4.4.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12. where. Slab Design 9 .7.4) Given vn. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12. is the strength reduction factor. 9. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3) (NZS 12.4) If vn > φvmax.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. vc.6.25 .5 f ′ c (NZS 12.7.7.7.Chapter 9 .3.3. and vmax. φ.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5) 9.3.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12. the concrete section should be increased in size.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. a failure condition is declared.

e. edge. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.26 Slab Design . the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4). 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.. and corner column. edge. i.4. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. and 8. 9 .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Therefore. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. and interior columns respectively. for corner.6.

The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. s. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d. the distance.4) Slab Design 9 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. so.7.7.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. g.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4) (NZS 12. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4.5d s ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing.4. When specifying shear studs. Height.Chapter 9 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4) (NZS 12.6. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.27 .3.

.

For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. Notations 10 . is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1.1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard.

MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm 10 .1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.2 Notations . assumed as 200.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm Torsional constant. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Flange thickness.

3 . MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Neutral axis depth. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.Chapter 10 . N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. mm Lever arm.

If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). Note that the automatic combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4. fcu.3).3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. and considering that wind forces are reversible.1.6L 1. 10.2L ± 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.6(0.3) (CP 2.4D 1.4 Design Load Combinations . and wind (W) loads. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. γf (CP 2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2W (CP 2.4D + 1.7.4. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4. including pattern live load. other appropriate load combinations should be used.3).4W 1.4.4.4D ± 1. 1.3) (CP 2.1. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4W 1. pattern live load (PL).4D + 1. live load (L). 10 .2).

2 (CP 2. γm.5 . load combination factors. torsion.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. shear forces. which are taken from CP Table 2.50 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed below.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code.15 1.4. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear. and other criteria described below. but can be overwritten. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. 10.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. and torsion based on the beam moments. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion only.Chapter 10 .

1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.2) 10 . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. BC 2. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. the width. 10.5.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0.4.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.1. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4). In such cases.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. with the corresponding load factors. In such cases. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. or the strength of the concrete. for a particular station. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.6 Beam Design .4.

10.and T-beams). where 2 (CP 3.4.7 . BC 2.4. less than. BC 2.4) Beam Design 10 .4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. In addition.4.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. is summarized in the subsections that follow.1).Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure. or equal to Msingle.4.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.4. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.4.1fcuAg) (CP 3. and torsion only.4.4.4).5.2. is first calculated for a section. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. Msingle.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. Msingle = K'fcu bd .5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.4.. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. ⎧0. βb ≥ 0.9) (CP 3. hence. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4). shear.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.1. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.e.4. See Figure 10-1.

120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. where 0.4. As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4) 10 .4.4.5 + 0.4.4.4.25 − ⎜ 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.8 Beam Design . the area of tension reinforcement.4) (CP 3.87 f y z (CP 3. is then given by: As = M .9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3. If M ≤ Msingle.

designing top reinforcement).5.5.87 f y z + 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.e.e. and f ′ =0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3. Beam Design 10 .4) In designing for a factored negative moment.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.5.1.4.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3. or at the top if M is negative.5 + 0.25 − ⎜ 0.5.1.4.4. i.2.4. M (i. If M > Msingle.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4. where (CP 3.95d z = d ⎜ 0.3.Chapter 10 .9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.2.9 .4..4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.4. Fig 2. 2. no flanged beam data is used.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .3. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4.. 2.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Fig 2.1.2.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.

If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . See Figure 10-2.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. εc 0.5.1. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.67 fcu γ m 0. On the basis of this assumption.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.4.10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.2.

4.5 + 0. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.45 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.4.5) β f = 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. Cw.4.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. where (BS 3.5h f ) . In that case. Cf.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. If a > hf .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.3) If a ≤ hf. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3.4. as shown in Figure 10-2. Fig 2. BC 2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.9 ⎭ (CP 3.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.1 f cu bd (0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4. 2 As = M + 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.87 f y (d − 0. BC 2.36 .2.95d 0.4.4.45d then.Chapter 10 .11 .2. Fig 2. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.4.4. However.45d − h f ) 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.

30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.5.4.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0. where (CP 3.12 Beam Design .4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.4.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.4.2) ⎧0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0. BC 2.32 ⎪ ⎪0.87 f y ( d − 0.2) 10 .5h f ) ) .45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.

2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3. 2. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.3.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4.2) If Kw ≤ 0. As = 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.95d ⎜ 0.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4.3. Fig 2. where 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3. BC 2. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.Chapter 10 . 2.5 + 0.4.4).4.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.13 .4.4.156 (CP 3.4).4.5.4.4.5.87 f y (d − 0. Fig 2.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4.

25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.1.5 + 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.12.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.36 0.48 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.27 (CP 3.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.24 0.95d ⎜ 0.13 100 0.18 100 0.32 0.5. if it is required.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.26 100 0.27 (CP 3.3).5.14 Beam Design .20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.5.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4 bf bw ≥ 0.12. 10 .87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.

15 .5. the following steps are involved (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.5): Determine the shear stress. vc. Determine the shear stress. An upper limit of 0. 10. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.3. 10. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . v.20 0. that can be resisted by the concrete. BC 2.5.Chapter 10 .40 0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5.4.12.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.2.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. for a particular load combination.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.6.12. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1).or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.2).

9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. the following limitations also apply: 0. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.4.2. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .2) For light-weight concrete.12) 0.25 1 1 3 However.4) (CP 2.5.4.4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.5.4.4.6 (CP 3.4.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. Table 3.8) (CP 3.5. vc. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3. Table 3.4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.4.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . with the corresponding load combination factors. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0. (CP 3.5.4.8 fcu . 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4) 10. 7 MPa). 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5.5.5.16 Beam Design .9) 10 .63 fcu .5.4.

Table 3.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.3. and vmax.8) As vr b = .2. (CP 3.5.17 .4. sv 0.4.4.3.8.9) (CP 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.2) In the preceding expressions.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. Table 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement. v’c.4. CP 3.4.3.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0. Table 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. Table 3.Chapter 10 .67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.87 f yv If v > vmax. Table 3. a failure condition is declared.8) (CP 3.5.5.5. vr. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.5.4.4.5. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.4.4. Table 3.4.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.5.4.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.5. (CP 3.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.

is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.5. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. obtained from each load combination. 10. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine critical torsion stress. 10. In typical framed construction.4.5.18 Beam Design . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4. vt.5.15). for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . vt. The torsional shear stress.3.5. Determine special section properties.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.

min = min 0. vt.8 (CP Part 2 5.min = min 0.067 f cu . For lightweight concrete.Chapter 10 .2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4.067 f cu .6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.4.5) 10. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.6 N / mm 2 x 0.1) For flanged sections. vt.4.3. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.4.19 .min is defined as: vt .4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.0.5) Beam Design 10 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.5. vt. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.4.min.8 f cu .7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.0.

min.6).20 Beam Design . torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.6).7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Asv.4. a failure message is declared. vt. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4.8 f cu . is calculated as: Asv .4.min. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. In that case. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2. However. If vt > vt. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. 10 . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.t /sv.min.8 x1 y1 (0. vt.t sv = T 0. is less than the threshold limit.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.4. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. the concrete section should be increased in size.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.7) In the preceding expressions. In that case. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. vt.5.

irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.21 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Slab Design 10 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. To learn more about the design strips. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6. 10. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 10 .

22 Slab Design . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. CP Table 3. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. for each load combination.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .12. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1. 10. 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. 10. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In some cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. given the bending moment. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. at a given design section in a design strip.6. Where openings occur.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. In that case.3.5.

7. In addition.12.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. Slab Design 10 . edge.6.7. 10.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1).3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .Chapter 10 .6).23 .5d from the face of the support (CP 3.1).7. 10. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.7.5. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 3.6.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) . interior.12.6.2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.e.4. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0. The column location (i.7.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual..

4.6): 0. 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.4.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3. Table 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.2) However.5d 1.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.4.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.5.9) (CP 3.5.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.7.7. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.2. Table 3.7.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.4.4.24 Slab Design .7.6.5. the following limitations also apply: 10 .8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.5d 1.5.4.

4.4) (CP 3.4. 10. 4 MPa) f cu .9) For light-weight concrete.7.5.2.6. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.Chapter 10 .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.63 v ≤ min (0. where (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.7. (CP 3.5 M y 1 . Table 3.2.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.6. the nominal design shear stress. Table 3.6.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. 3.4.5.3) 1 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5. v.2. Table 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.4.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .4. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.7.25 .5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.7.8 fcu .5.5.4.4.9) (CP 3. Table 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .

3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 10. vc.3.25 ⎪1.26 Slab Design . 10 .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1. 3.7.7.7. and vmax. for edge columns.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. 10.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7. and for corner columns. 10. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.2. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7.6.5).25 ⎩ for interior columns.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.7.7.5).6. (CP 3.

0vc.6vc.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. (CP 3.5) (CP 3.7v − vc ) ud = .7.Chapter 10 . 10.87 f yv If v > vmax.87 f yv If 1.7.7.6.7. ≥ s 0.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. ≥ s 0. edge. 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. a failure condition is declared.7. (CP 3.e.87 f yv 0..6vc ≤ v < 2.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .4ud Av 5 ( 0. i.5) 0.87 f yv 0. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. and corner column.27 .

The spacing between adjacent shear studs. The limits of so and the spacing.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. g. When specifying shear studs.6.28 Slab Design . so. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Height.5d (CP 3.7. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 12-.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. 10.7. and 20-millimeter diameter. 6. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.6) (CP 3.6) (CP 3.3.7. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.5d.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.7.5d s ≤ 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 14-.75d g ≤ 1.7.6). The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. and 8. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. 16-. and interior columns respectively. the distance. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7. for corner. edge.7.7. Therefore.6) 10 .

London. 2005. February 2008. 2007. 1997. UK. BSI. and 3.2R-07). 1. Farmington Hills. GPO Box 5420. 2001. Box 9094. Part 1. Sydney. 2008. Code of Practice for Design and Construction.1 and Amendment No. P. Farmington Hills. BC. Australia.O. TM R-1 . 2008. AS. Michigan. Structural Use of Concrete. British Standards Institution. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. ACI. American Concrete Institute. Michigan.References ACI. 38800 Country Club Drive. Building and Construction Authority. Singapore. American Concrete Institute. NSW 2001. 2. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. BC 2:2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 2. Standards Australia International Ltd.

EN 1992-1-1. A23. and 3. Private Bag 2439. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). British Standards Institution. Buildings Department. September 2000. Wellington. Hong Kong. New Delhi 110002. 1999. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Concrete Structures Standard. CP 65:Part 1:1999. R-2 . 2000. 2006. Bureau of Indian Standards. EN 1990:2002. New Zealand. Brussels. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Belgium. Part 1-1. Mongkok. European Committee for Standardization. 2004. 1. Structural Use of Concrete. IS. 1985. Canadian Standards Association. London. India. Kowloon. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. HK CP. Belgium.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. 2. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. UK. Twentieth Reprint. 2005. 1. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. Design of Concrete Structures.3-04. Brussels. Rexdale. March 2000. 2004. Standards New Zealand. CP. Manak Bhavan. Singapore. Canada. incorporating Amendments Nos. Part 2. 2004. Ontario. NZS. European Committee for Standardization. Third Edition. CSA. 750 Nathan Road. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg.