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DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.5.6.6.1 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.6.6 5 Design for CSA A23.6.6.6.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.1 Design for Flexure 4.1 Notations 5-1 ii .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.5.1 Design for Flexure 3.4 4.3 4.3-04 5.2 4.2 3.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.1 3.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.3 3.4 3.

28 6.5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.2 5.6.6.2 7.1 6.3 5.6.5.1 Design for Flexure 5.6.1 Design for Flexure 6.1 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.5.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.3 6.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.5.Contents 5.4 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.4 6.5.2 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .

3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.1 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .6.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.4 9.3 8.5.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.1 Design for Flexure 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.4.2 8.5.1 9.5.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.4.4 7.5.6.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.5.1 Effects of Torsion 8.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.4.2 9.3 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.

2 Check for Punching Shear 9.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .4 Partial Safety Factors 10.1 Notations 10.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.6.5.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.5.2 Design Load Combinations 10.6 Slab Design 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.5.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 10.Contents 9.6 Slab Design 10.5 Beam Design 10.

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1-1 . and it designs beam flexural. and torsion reinforcement. Specifically. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. shear. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

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Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. sq-in Notations 2-1 .1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. sq-in Gross area of concrete. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. 2.

sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Width of section. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. psi 2-2 Notations . sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Width of web (flanged section). in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section.

in Height of the flange. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Critical torsion capacity. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. in Factored moment at a section. psi Overall depth of a section. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. (0. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.Chapter 2 . lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 .

4D 1.2D + 1.0L + 0. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .2D + 1.2D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9. snow (S).5S 1.1) (ACI 13.1) (ACI 9.2.0L ± 1.6W 0.6S 1.7.1): 1. For ACI 318-08.0L + 0.1) (ACI 9.0E 1.0E 1.8W 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2D + 1.0L + 1.0E (ACI 9.6 (0.1) (ACI 9.6. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. and earthquake (E) loads. degrees 2.2.5S ± 1.3) (ACI 9.75 PL) 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.9D ± 1.6L 1. live load (L).6L + 0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.1) are the same.6W 1.2D + 1.2D + 1. wind (W).2.0L ± 1.2.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.2D + 1.2. pattern live load (PL).2.2S ± 1.2.6S ± 0.9D ± 1.2D + 1.2D + 1.6W 1.

are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. and torsion based on the beam moments.2.3) 2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.1).1. torsion. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. The φ factors for flexure. shear forces. fy. caution is advised.2). The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. φ.1) (ACI 9.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. and other criteria described in this section.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. f' c . shear. shear. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. load combination factors.2. (ACI 9.Chapter 2 . The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.3.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. or if other types of loads are present.5. however. 2. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. fyt.

2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1.1. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. 2. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. with the corresponding load factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5.5. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. for a particular station. shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. and torsion only. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5.

the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. shear.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.2). Furthermore.2. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.90 (ACI 9. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition. Mu (i. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.and T-beams). The maximum depth of the compression zone.3. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1. and torsion only.3.003.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10.3. which is equal to 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment..e. or the strength of the concrete. is summarized in the text that follows. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. cmax.5).005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.Chapter 2 .2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. 2. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the width. which by default is 0.2.5.4).4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.2. The design procedure used by SAFE.2) Beam Design 2-7 . as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. where. designing top or bottom reinforcement).3. fy .1) in the preceding and the following equations.

85 − 0.7.2.3) (ACI 10.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .2.3.005 (ACI 10.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.1) β1 = 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7.85 (ACI 10. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.4).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. εcmax = 0. amax.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.3. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.

1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.2.7.3. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. or at the top if Mu is negative.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2.Chapter 2 .4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 . 10. If a > amax.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0. 10.2. where ( f 's − 0.2.2.3.

If the moment is negative. the flange comes under tension. if the moment is positive.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. 2. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.e. is assumed if the flange is under compression. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side.5. as shown in Figure 2-2.. and vice versa if Mu is negative. In that case. a simplified stress block. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 .10 Beam Design .003 0. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0. i.1.85 f ′ c 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. and the flange is ignored.

65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.2..2. designing top reinforcement).e. amax. Mu (i.003 εsmin = 0. no flanged beam data is used.1) in the preceding and the following equations.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7.3) (ACI 10.5.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. cmax.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0. i.85 − 0. The maximum depth of the compression zone.2.11 .1) β1 = 0.2) where.3.Chapter 2 . ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10. which is equal to 0.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2) εcmax = 0.2. 2. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.5..2. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.Design for ACI 318-08 2.3.2.4): cmax = where.1. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.005 (ACI 10.2.3) Beam Design 2 .3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.90 (ACI 9.e. which by default is 0.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.1.7.85 (ACI 10.

amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.90 by default. the value for φ is 0. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. Therefore. Cf is given by: C f = 0.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f .3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . Mu . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. 2 .2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.5). Cf. amax ) Therefore. However. as shown in Figure 2-2. If a > hf. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. Cw.7.2. the calculation for As has two parts. the balance of the moment. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.

85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.3.7.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.2.Chapter 2 .2. 10.3.13 . 10.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2. where ( f 's − 0.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.2.

the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. bw d ⎟ As .4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. Vc.5. 2 .4bw d ⎧0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . Vu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.5.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. 2.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. that can be resisted by the concrete.1.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear force.3) An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.14 Beam Design .4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. for a particular load combination.2.5.

1. Vc. 2.1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. is 0.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.2.2.2.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.1.7.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.3).3.5.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.1.5φVc Av =0 s If 0. fyt.3.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11. 11.1.75 (ACI 9.5. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.5. If Vu ≤ 0. Vc. 2.1) For light-weight concrete.Design for ACI 318-08 2. φ. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.1) Beam Design 2 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.2. with the corresponding load combination factors. the strength reduction factor.5.9) Given Vu.5. and Vmax. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.15 .Chapter 2 .3.6.

3) If Vu > φVmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.6. (ACI 11. 2.5.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.5.1.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in. Tu.5.6.5bw.1(c)).3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.7.5.16 Beam Design .2) ⎛ 0.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .5.6. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the equation given in ACI 11.5hf.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. Determine special section properties.7. 2 .6. 2.7. and 0.5.5.5. a failure condition is declared.7. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details. 11. (ACI 11.5.

2.6. However. special section properties. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. are calculated.75 inches.17 . Aoh. and ph. This is equivalent to 1. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. 2.Chapter 2 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.6. Ao.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity.3. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . 2.5. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2). pcp.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.1). the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. If redistribution is desired. such as Aoh. such as Acp. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2.2).2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. Ao. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. and ph.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup.

for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.1. hf.3. R11. 2. Tcr. h. 2.1) (ACI11.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.1.1. h. 2.6.6.1) (ACI 11. the section dimensions b.6. 2.6.3.1) (ACI 11. Similarly. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.1.1) (ACI 11. 2. 2.3. 2.5.6.6.1) where the section dimensions bf. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.6.1.18 Beam Design .3.3.6. bw.2.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.4).3.6.6.6.1.6.6(b)) (ACI 11. With this assumption. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. However. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1.1.3.3. R11.1. 2. 2. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6.1) where. 2.6(b)) (ACI 11.6. With this assumption.1(c)) 2 .1. 2.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11.6.

is limited to 60 ksi.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. At /s. However. even if the material property is defined with a higher value. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit. 11.5.2. Beam Design 2 . fy. longitudinal bars.3.3. 2. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3).6.6).6.6) where. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.3.6. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.6.6.5.3) In the preceding expressions.Chapter 2 . Tcr. θ is taken as 45 degrees. Tcr.5.19 . torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.7. and compression diagonals (ACI R11. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength. fyt. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.6).3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. In that case.6.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.3. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. which is equal to 0.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.6. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.3.3. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.6. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).1).75 by default (ACI 9. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.

If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.2) 2 .75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.1) For rectangular sections. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).20 Beam Design .3. In that case.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.5. a failure message is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size.6. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1. bw is replaced with b.6.

the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Chapter 2 .5.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.3 independently. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6. 2. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Slab Design 2 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. In that case. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. To learn more about the design strips.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.21 .6. 2. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.

12.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As. 2. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1(b)) (ACI 7. for each load combination.min = 0. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6.2. are repeated for every load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.2): As.2.22 Slab Design . given the bending moment.1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. described in the text that follows. is obtained and reported.min = 0. 2.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.1. at a given design section in a design strip.12. 2. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. In that case.1(a)) (ACI 7.1(c)) 0. These two steps.12.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.12.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .min = (ACI 7. Where openings occur. This is the method used when drop panels are included. In some cases.

edge.11. 2. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual..1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.11.e. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.23 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.3).6.1.6. 2.2).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11. The column location (i.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. interior. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.Chapter 2 .

2 Eq.5.2 Eq. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.2 Eq.2 For corner columns.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates. C-13) (ACI 421.3. For interior columns.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.1) For flat plates. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421. C-16) 2 . C-11) (ACI 421.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0. C-15) (ACI 421.24 Slab Design . C-12) For edge columns.6. γvx = 0. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2 Eq.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.2 Eq.5.3.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.2.2 Eq.

βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. 2. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.2. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.11. (ACI 11.6. and for corner columns.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.11.2.Chapter 2 . The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 . for edge columns.1.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.25 .1) where.6.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.2.2. bo is the perimeter of the critical section. x and y. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. respectively.

11.5.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11. 2.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.1) 2.11. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.11. φ.2. where.3. and Vmax.3).3).0. the strength reduction factor. 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.75 (ACI 9.3.6.1) (ACI 11.3.11.2) (ACI 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6. If this ratio exceeds 1. is 0.3.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. Vc. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.11.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.5.26 Slab Design . 2 .

11. 2. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. i. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3..6.7.3. a failure condition is declared.11.4. (ACI 11.7.4. edge.1. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. 11.3). and corner column.e.3. Slab Design 2 .2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.27 .Chapter 2 . the concrete section should be increased in size. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.

5. 5/8-.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d (ACI 11.5.11.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. and interior columns respectively. g. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Therefore. for corner.2) (ACI 11. edge.28 Slab Design . and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d.11. the distance.6.5.2) ⎧0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. When specifying shear studs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 1/2-. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of so and the spacing. s. and 8.3. and 3/4-inch diameters. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Height.3) 2 . 2.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. so. 6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.11. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 3. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. mm Notations 3-1 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein.

min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Width of member. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Mean value of do. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Depth of compression block.

mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. MPa Torsional modulus. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N-mm Factored moment at section.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber.max Vu. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. (0. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N Shear force resisted by concrete.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 . Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N-mm Factored axial load at section. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.Chapter 3 .min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. to the effective depth.

0-02. 4.0-02.4L ± 1.35D 1.2D + 1.0E (AS/NZS 1170.3.2D + 0.0-02.0W 1.4L + 1. pattern live load (PL).0-02. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. 4.2D + 1.0S 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2D ± 1. snow (S).2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0W 1.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. live load (L).1): 1.0E 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. 4.2.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.2.0W 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.5(0. wind (W).2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0D + 0. 4.0D ± 1. degrees 3. 4.0-02. 4.5L 1.0-02.9D ± 1. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2(f)) Note that the 0. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.75 PL) 1.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.2.0-02. 4.2D + 0.2. and earthquake (E) loads. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2. 4.4L ± 1.0-02. For AS 3600-01.

3. torsion. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1).1(b)).Design for AS 3600-01 3. for all framing type (AS 6.1.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. caution is advised. Table 6. and other criteria described in the text that follows.3(c)) 3.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.2.1.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . however.1. shear.1).1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. shear forces. load combination factors.2.3(c)) (AS 2.1. φ. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. and torsion based on the beam moments.Chapter 3 . is defined as given in AS 2. respectively.1) (AS 6.1. 19.1.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.2.3(c).3: φ = 0.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. (AS 2.1.1.2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. 6.1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Table 2.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. shear.5.5.1. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. for a particular station.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. and torsion only. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. 3.1.

The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.1).1.85 ku = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.2.1. is given by amax = γk u d where.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.15N ) (AS 10. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. shear. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.85 − 0. A uniform compressive stress of 0.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. amax. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2) Beam Design 3-7 .85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. the width.Chapter 3 .2). fy .2. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. or the strength of the concrete.2. and torsion only.3) γ = [0.003. (AS 8.2. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.1a).2).1. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.7.007( f 'c −28)] 0. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. (AS 8.1. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.

M (i. which by default is 0.1. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.1. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax..80 (AS 2.2.2.3) in the preceding and following equations.4).2) where. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design . ε = 0.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. where.003 b Cs c 0.5. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.e.

ku > 0.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. 6.e.4.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . where ( f 's − 0.Chapter 3 . i.1.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.2. If a > amax.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.1.2. or at the top * if M is negative.2. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .1..

3.1.3). and vice versa if M is negative. M (i. a simplified stress block.1.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 .003 bf Ds * 0. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.2. the flange comes under tension.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.10 Beam Design . and the flange is ignored.e.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.2. In that case. 3. no flanged beam data is used.. i..5. i. ε = 0. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.85 f ′ c 0.1. as shown in Figure 3-2. designing top reinforcement).e. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. If the moment is negative. is assumed if the flange is under compression.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. if the moment is positive..e.5.2.

Cf is given by: C f = 0. amax ) Therefore. ku = 0. Cf. However. is given by: a max = γk u d where.3) If a ≤ Ds.2. as shown in Figure 3-2. the balance of the moment.4 (AS 8. the width of the beam is taken as bf. If a > Ds.85 f 'c φb f where. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. amax. which is 0.Chapter 3 . Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 . in that case.2. the calculation for Ast has two parts.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.5. As1 = given by: (AS 8. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds .11 . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.1.Design for AS 3600-01 3. Cw. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.1.80 by default (AS 2.3) in the preceding and the following equations.1.4.

1.2.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0. If a1 > amax.1.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.1. where ′ − 0. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . 6.2.12 Beam Design . the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.

6 f 'c (AS 6.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.4.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .Chapter 3 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .13 .1.min = 0.1.1. 3. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.1) f 'cf = 0.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.2) An upper limit of 0.5.

2. 3.14 Beam Design .2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. 13 (AS 8.7.2.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. with the corresponding load combination factors.7. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . V . Vuc.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.1) (AS 8. for a particular load combination.6 − β2 = 1.7. * 3.2. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. Determine the shear force.5. that can be resisted by the concrete.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.5. Vuc.1) β1 = 1.1⎜1.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.

8) Beam Design 3 . min = Vuc + 0. Vuc. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. If φVu.6 by default (AS 2. Asv = 0. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2. V * − φVuc Asv .2. Asv = 0 . s otherwise Asv. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.min.2.2. whichever is greater (AS 8. and Vu. ⎟ ⎠ 3.max .Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.9) (AS 8. = s fsy.5. max = 0.3). is 0.2.min shall be provided.6) Given V .6bv d o Vu .10) Asv. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.2.min < V * ≤ φVu.15 .2.Chapter 3 . φ.2.min .min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.max.5). the strength reduction factor. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. (AS 8.5(c)(i)). where.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .35 w ⎜ s f sy.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

3.Chapter 3 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 3. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Slab Design 3 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.21 . as described in the following sections. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.6. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.

is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). at a given design section in a design strip. is obtained and reported.1.1. given the bending moment.1(a)) As ≥ 0.1): As ≥ 0. which are described in the following subsections. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 3 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6. 3. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. This is the method used when drop panels are included. are repeated for every load combination. 3.6. Where openings occur.1. In that case. In some cases.22 Slab Design .0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1.1(b)) In addition.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. 3.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. for each load combination.

1.Design for AS 3600-01 3.6.1.3). interior. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Chapter 3 .. 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2.1).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2.2. The column location (i.23 .6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 . edge.e.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

24 Slab Design . the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero. Vu . is given as (AS 9. 3 .5 f c' + 0. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2. Vuo .3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.3(a)): a.2. is given as (AS 9. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.6.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.3σ cp ) b.2.2.3σ cp ≤ 0.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.2.3(a)) where.4(a)) 3.3(b)) (AS 9.6.2.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.

3.4.6.2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. where.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1).Chapter 3 . s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.3.25 .min = 3*Vu (AS 92. V * − φVu Asv = .Given V*. Vu. and Vu.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .2. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.Design for AS 3600-01 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.max. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3 or 9.6.4. is the strength reduction factor.6. φ.2. 3. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. 3.4(a). The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.

3. the minimum number of 3 .4).4.7. edge.6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. i.7. and corner column.3.4) If V > φVmax.3) (NZS 12. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2..7.26 Slab Design . Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. Therefore. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.e. a failure condition is declared. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.

6.Chapter 3 .7.4) (NZS 12. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.7. so.4. and interior columns respectively. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.7. s. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4.4) Slab Design 3 . Height. edge. and 8.4. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.5d s ≤ 0. the distance. g.3. 3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4) (NZS 12.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The limits of so and the spacing.6.5d.27 . for corner. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. When specifying shear studs.

.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. 4. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For light-weight concrete and torsion. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985].1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.

mm Torsional constant. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm 4-2 Notations . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.

156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. MPa Neutral axis depth. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.Chapter 4 . mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Normalized design moment. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Torsional shear stress. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness.

75PL) 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. 0.4D ± 1.4.2L ± 1.4W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).3) (BS 2.3).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. snow (S). and wind (W) loads.6L + 1.4D 1.2L + 1. 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain.4D + 1.6(0. γf (BS 2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.3) (BS 2.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .4D + 1.4.3) (BS 2.4D + 1.2W 1.2D + 1.0D ± 1.1. pattern live load (PL). mm Lever arm.6S 1.4.2S ± 1.2W (BS 2. live load (L).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.4.6L 1. For BS 8110-1997.2W 1.2S ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.4.3). and considering that wind forces are reversible.4.2D + 1.

including pattern live load. 4. 4. Note that for reinforcement. fcu. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.2).4.4.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.1.2 (BS 2.50 1.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. Note that the automatic combination.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. If other grades are used.Chapter 4 .15 1. as taken from BS Table 2.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. other appropriate load combinations should be used. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. γm. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . the default factor of 1. this value should be overwritten as necessary.7.

In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. torsion. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the 4-6 Beam Design . the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. shear. shear forces. load combination factors.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. with the corresponding load factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion based on the beam moments.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. and other criteria described below. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. for a particular station.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1.

βb ≥ 0.4. See Figure 4-1. or the strength of the concrete.4) Beam Design 4-7 . to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.5. x/d ≤ 0. where K' = 0.4).1).4). is first calculated for a section.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam..156 2 (BS 3. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.e.4. Msingle = K'fcu bd .and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1.1.9) (BS 3.4. less than.4.4.4.5.Chapter 4 . The design procedure used by SAFE. Msingle. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4. 4. Furthermore. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. the width. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. In such cases. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.5. shear. 4. or equal to Msingle.4). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. and torsion only.4. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. In addition.4.

4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.4.4.4.4.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.87 f y z (BS 3. the area of tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. where 0.4.5 + 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. If M > Msingle.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.25 − ⎜ 0. As.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3. is then given by: As = M . or at the top if M is negative.95d z = d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .

87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4.1.3.5.87 f y d − d ' ( ) .4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 4.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0. 2.25 − ⎜ 0. 2. Fig 2.2.4.777d z = d ⎜ 0. Beam Design 4-9 .2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.5.4.4.1.2.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4.e.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.4. where (BS 3. no flanged beam data is used.1. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2...4.5.2.1.Chapter 4 . M (i.5. Fig 2.2. and ' f ' s = 0.1. designing top reinforcement).4) In designing for a factored negative moment.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4. Based on this assumption.3.4.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.5 + 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.e. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. i.5.

4. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. e = 0.0035 0.4. See Figure 4-2.10 Beam Design .4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.9 ⎭ (BS 3.67 fcu/gm 0.95d 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4.45 (BS 3.4.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.5 + 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.

4.87 f y (d − 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3. However.4.4. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4.156 (BS 3.1 f cu bd (0.Chapter 4 . In that case.4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. As = 0.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.5h f ) .4) If a ≤ hf.11 .87 f y (d − 0. where (BS 3. If a > hf.4. as shown in Figure 4-2.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4).4.4. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.45d then.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. in that case. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. 2 As = M + 0.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.5) β f = 0.4.4.45d − h f ) 0.4) If Kw ≤ 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cw. the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cf.4.9x (BS 3.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. where 0.4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.

4) where.4.4.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.3.87 f f (0.4.12 Beam Design .5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0. 2.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.87 f y (d − 0. 4 .4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.3.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.5.4.4. Fig 2. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. and ' f ' s = 0.5.4.12. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.5 + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5. 2.25 (BS 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.2.4.4).4.1. Fig 2.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.1.5.777d ) 0.

24 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.20 An upper limit of 0.13 .or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0. if it is required.18 100 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.25 (BS 3.4 bf bw ≥ 0.6.12.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.36 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.Chapter 4 .4 bf ⎯ 100 0. which is taken from BS Table 3.3).20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.32 0.24 0.1): Beam Design 4 .5.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.48 0.40 100 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.12.

vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.2.8 fcu .04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.4. with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.04bw d ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.5.5.4. for a particular load combination. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.63 fcu .14 Beam Design . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2) For light-weight concrete. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. v. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4) 4 .5. vc. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. 4.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. Determine the shear stress. 5 MPa) (BS 3.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.

Chapter 4 . vc.4. Table 3. and vmax. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.5.4.5.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3. Table 3. BS 3.4.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.15 .5.4) (BS 3.5.5.4.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4.5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.8) (BS 2.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.5.4.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4. the following limitations also apply: 0. 4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4. vc.8) (BS 3.4.4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .3): Beam Design 4 .4.4.5. Table 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0. Table 3.1) However.4.5.12) 0.5.8.

Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. a failure condition is declared.3.87 f yv If (v’c + 0. In the preceding expressions. (BS 3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.4.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.7) (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.5.3.5.4) Asv 0.5.4.2) (BS 3. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Determine critical torsion stress. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4bw = sv 0. obtained from each load combination. 4.5. vt. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Determine special section properties.16 Beam Design .4. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. 4 . Table 3. Table 3.87 f yv If v > vmax.

5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5.8 f cu . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4. In typical framed construction. with the corresponding load combination factors.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.Chapter 4 . for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.17 . If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.5) Beam Design 4 . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. vt.Design for BS 8110-97 4.4.5. The torsional shear stress.4.4.4. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. vt.1) For flanged sections.13).

min.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. In that case. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.0.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt.18 Beam Design .7) In the preceding expressions.3. Asv. If vt > vt.5.4.0.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.3.5.4N/mm 2 x 0.8 x1 y1 (0.6). for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2. However.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.5) 4.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .min = min 0. vt is less than the threshold limit.4. is calculated as: Asv .min = min 0.t /sv.min is defined as: vt . vt.067 fcu .4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. For lightweight concrete. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt. vt. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.6).min. 4 .8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5.t sv = T 0.067 fcu .4.min.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.

4) If the combination of shear stress. vt exceeds this limit. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. v and torsional shear stress.4. Beam Design 4 . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.Chapter 4 .19 .Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.8 fcu . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. a failure message is declared. In that case. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.5) For light-weight concrete.63 fcu . the concrete section should be increased in size.

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 4 . 4.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. for each load combination.6. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.20 Slab Design . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. To learn more about the design strips. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 4. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is obtained and reported. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.6.1. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.

12.5d from the face of the support (BS 3. BS Table 3.7.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.7.6. given the bending moment.5. 4.Design for BS 8110-97 4. In some cases. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. 4.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Chapter 4 . the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .6. Where openings occur. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6. at a given design section in a design strip.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6. 4.1). The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In that case.12.21 .2.6).4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.7. This is the method used when drop panels are included.12.3) In addition.5.3.

and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7.2.4. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.e.5d 1.1).5d 1. The column location (i. 3.5d 1.6.5d Interior Column 1.4.7.7. 1.22 Slab Design .7. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6): 1 1 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.. edge.7.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.8) 4 . interior.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. Table 3.5.7.4.

4.8) (BS 3.4) v ≤ min(0.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.5.6.2. Table 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2) However.4) (BS 3. v.4.7.7.4.5.4.5.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.7.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 . 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.4.6.5.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5M ⎛ y 1. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.8 f cu .2.4.7.4) For light-weight concrete.7. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.Chapter 4 .25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. 3. Table 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.5.63 fcu .5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .6. the nominal design shear stress.23 .4. where (BS 3. 5MPa) (BS 3. 4.3) 1.6.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 4.5).7. 4.3.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3. 3.2.6.6.7.25 ⎪1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.7.6. 4 .6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.24 Slab Design .

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

Table C.5S ± 0.2.8.4W 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.5L 0.2.4D 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). and earthquake (E) loads. For CSA A23.4W 1.5(0.5L + 0.3-04.5S + 0.3.4W (CSA 8.5S 1.5L + 0.3. Table C.9D + 1.9D + 1.9D + 1.3.9D + 1.75 PL) 1.9D + 1.5S 1.3) (CSA 8.25D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2. Table C.5L 0.1) 1. live load (L). snow (S).5S + 0.25D + 1.4.25D + 1. pattern live load (PL).5S 0.5S ± 0. degrees Shear strength factor 5. wind (W).5L 1.2.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.5L ± 0.4W 0.5S 0.25D + 1.5L 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.25D + 1.9D + 1.3.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations . and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.25D + 1.25D + 1. Table C.5L ± 0.

2.5.1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.25D + 0. (CSA 8.4W 1.5S ± 1.9D ± 1.Design for CSA A23.4W 0.2.0E 1.0E 1.9D + 0.3-04 code is used. (CSA 8. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.5S ± 1.0D + 0. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.5L ± 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .3.Chapter 5 .6.9D + 0.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.5L + 0. φ.65 for concrete φs = 0.2) (CSA 8. Table C.1).25S ± 1.25D + 0. other appropriate load combinations should be used. however.1) 5. Table C.1 Case 4) (CSA 8. respectively.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.25S ± 1.0D ± 1.1.0D + 0.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.4W 1.4W 0.1).25D ± 1.5L ± 1.4.0E 1.4W 1. 5.3.4W 0. for all framing types (CSA 8.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.6. caution is advised.0E (CSA 8.4.0D + 0. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.5L ± 1.3-04 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.

SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.5. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. load combination factors. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. and torsion only. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear forces. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. torsion. shear. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

1. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only.7). 5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The design procedure used by SAFE.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. the width.4). It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. designing top or bottom reinforcement). where.5.1. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. 5. Mf (i. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. Furthermore. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.e. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1) Beam Design 5-7 .1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.Chapter 5 .1..Design for CSA A23. In such cases. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. shear. or the strength of the concrete.1.2. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.

0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.4.0015f'c ≥ 0. β1 = 0.5.2). The parameters α1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .1.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.5.2) in the preceding and the following equations.97 – 0.67.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.1.67 cb = (CSA 10. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. β1.0025f'c ≥ 0.85 – 0.1.7) (CSA 10.65 (CSA 8.7) (CSA 10.

3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 . 10.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .1.1.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.2.2).3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive. where f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.1.5.Design for CSA A23. or at the top if Mf is negative.Chapter 5 . If a > ab (CSA 10.

As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. 5. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative.1) where.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.85 – 0.2.5.7) 5 .97 – 0.e. and the total compression reinforcement is A's..0015 f' c ≥ 0.7) (CSA 10. The parameters α1.10 Beam Design . the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.4.0025 f' c ≥ 0.5.1.1.2.5.1. 5.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.5.1.4.67 cb = (CSA 10..67 β1 = 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.65 (CSA 8.1.2.2) in the preceding and the following equations. the value of φc is 0. Mf (i. i.1. no flanged beam data is used.2 5.10. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. As = As1 + As2.2. the total tension reinforcement.1.7) (CSA 10. β1.2. designing top reinforcement).e.

Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . the balance of the moment.1. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab. Cf.3-04 If a ≤ hs. If a > hs. ab ) c ε = 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.Design for CSA A23.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.Chapter 5 . Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.11 .0035 bf hs (CSA 10. However. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. calculation for As has two parts.

where 5 . If a1 > ab (CSA 10.5.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2).1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design .5. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .1.2).

10.1.5.Chapter 5 .5.Design for CSA A23.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0. 5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.1. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.5.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.1.13 .1. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.3) In addition.5.3.2.1) An upper limit of 0.

at a particular station due to the beam major shear. Vc.5. Vf.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete. Determine the shear force.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.65 (CSA 8.04bw d ⎧0. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11.4.2). for a particular loading combination. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. By default it is taken as 0. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. that can be resisted by the concrete.5.3. Vc.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. 5 . 5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.14 Beam Design .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5. 5.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. with the corresponding load combination factors. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.

6.2).3.6. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand.Chapter 5 . the general method is used (CSA 11. it is the width of the web of the beam.5).3.4. and the tensile force is negligible.85. its value is 1 (CSA 8.9d or 0. It is taken as the greater of 0. and described further in the following sections.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. if applicable.3. it is the width of the beam.1 and 0.6. as follows (CSA 11.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.6.6. For normal density concrete. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. Its value is normally between 0. For concrete using lower density aggregate.Design for CSA A23. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. h. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data. It is determined according to CSA 11. If the overall beam depth.3. β is taken as 0.00. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.5): ⎧1.2).6. For rectangular beams. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.6. bw is the effective web width.4).21 (CSA 11. d v is the effective shear depth.6. ⎪0.15 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. which is taken by the program as the default value.3.72h.3.3): Beam Design 5 . (CSA 8.6.2).75. For flanged beams. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.3).

for simplified cases.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11.3a). ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.16 Beam Design . For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.18 (CSA 11. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.6. However. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. and ag ≥ 20mm.6.3. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ .6.c) In the preceding expression.6. β = 0. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate.18.3. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.6.3. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. or 5 .3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. sze. the crack spacing parameter.3.3. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.18 (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided. In summary. ⎪ 0.3 c) where. and ag < 20mm. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement. β is taken as 0.3. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. ag.

17 .3(b)). The longitudinal strain. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.4): β= 0.Design for CSA A23.3.85Sz otherwise. Beam Design 5 .3.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11. Nf is taken as positive for tension.6.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa. (CSA 11. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.3.4(a)) (CSA 11. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3.3.6. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. 11. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.6. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.3. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.4) In the preceding expression.6. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.6.3.4).3.Chapter 5 .6.6.1. 11.3-04 tension is not negligible. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.4(a)) (CSA 2. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3.6. and linearly interpolated between these values.6.6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.3.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.

6. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam. it is recalculated with the following equation.003 (CSA 11. taken as half of the total area. the program performs the design in two passes.2. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.3.5.6.18 Beam Design .6.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. 5. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE.6.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. In the first pass.3.5. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11.max = 0. To check this condition. and Vr.max. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.4(d)).3.4(e)). εx = M f d v + V f + 0.3.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf. Vc.3. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.1) 5 .3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .

max .3.6.6. h.8. whenever applicable. Beam Design 5 . If the overall beam depth.6.3.2) In the preceding equations. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6.3).Chapter 5 .19 .3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .8.3.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.Design for CSA A23.8. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.2).3. the term θ is used.2. or by calculation.2.3. (CSA 11.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11. Similar to the β factor.5. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.3.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.6.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.3.3. It is determined according to CSA 11. 11.25Tcr. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees. a failure condition is declared.1.1) (CSA 11.3).2. which was described previously.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr . is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.4).

f y > 400 MPa.3. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.3. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.6.4). θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11. f y ≤ 400 MPa.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. Determine critical torsion capacity. Tf. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11. 5 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3).3) If the axial force is tensile.20 Beam Design .3. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5.6. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.6. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. Determine special section properties.6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .

3). This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. However. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5.Chapter 5 .3. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.5.9. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 . such as Ac. However. with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. such as Aoh.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. Aoh. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. 5. and ph. pc. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. Ao. With this assumption. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.2). and ph are calculated. With this assumption. Ao. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2.21 .5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. If redistribution is desired.3. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. special section properties.

and c are shown in Figure 5-3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11. which is equal to 0.22 Beam Design .3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.3) (CSA 11.3. hf.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.4) where the section dimensions bf. Similarly.10.1) (CSA 11.4) where.9.65. 5.3. 5 . Tcr.2.2.2.3.1) (CSA 11. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.5. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.10.9.9.3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.9.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. h. the section dimensions b.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.10.3) (CSA 11. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete. h. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.3.1) (CSA 11. bw.10.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.2.3.2.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.10.3) (CSA 11.9.10.4).

In that case.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .3).4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. At /s.3. Tcr.3) Mf Al = dv + 0. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.Chapter 5 . However. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.9.2.1). the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3.23 . torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0. Tcr.5 N f + (V f − 0.10.5. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.3-04 5.Design for CSA A23.

2.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.3.3.24 Beam Design . the concrete section should be increased in size. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.9) In the preceding expressions.3. If the general method is being used.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.10.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.8. 5 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 11. In that case.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).6. θ is computed as previously described for shear. bw is replaced with b.10.4) For rectangular sections.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. a failure message is declared.10. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.

5.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. To learn more about the design strips. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. is obtained and reported. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.25 .Chapter 5 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.3-04 5. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Slab Design 5 . The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.Design for CSA A23. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.

1. 5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.6.002 bh (CSA 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.26 Slab Design . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. given the bending moment.6.1): As ≥ 0. at a given design section in a design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1. 5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6.10. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 5 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Where openings occur.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In that case. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. for each load combination.1) In addition.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. In some cases. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.8.

the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13. The column location (i. edge.3.2.2).Chapter 5 .e.1 and CSA 13. where Slab Design 5 .3-04 5.3).3..3. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6. interior.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.2.6. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.3.Design for CSA A23.27 .3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.

3.3.1) where.28 Slab Design .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13. and ⎪for corner columns.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . 5 . b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.4. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . 5.5. and (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm.3.4.4.3.2.10. d. (CSA 13.2) If the effective depth. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.3).4. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.6. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.3.

1). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.3.3.Design for CSA A23.3.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.max.2) Given vf. 5.Chapter 5 . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. where.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f ..6. vc. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3) 5.2. Slab Design 5 .29 . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.75λφ c (CSA 13.3-04 5. φs.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0. and vf.6.max = 0.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. is the strength reduction factor. 5.6.8.8.

3. i.. and corner column. for corner. Therefore.max. edge. a failure condition is declared.5) If vf > vf. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. 5 .30 Slab Design .6.3. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.8.max.3.8.4d. the concrete section should be increased in size. 6.e.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively. edge. 5. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. (CSA 13.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. and 8.

4d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7. s.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.6.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.8.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6) (CSA 13.3-04 5. so. the distance.3. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Chapter 5 .6) Slab Design 5 .3.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.31 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3. Height.4 d ⎧ 0.Design for CSA A23. When specifying shear studs.8.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. However. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. For simplicity. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . 6. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0.

MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement.

N-mm Normalized design moment.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Design moment at a section. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . mm Flange thickness. N Depth of neutral axis.Chapter 6 . mm Lever arm. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd.max u VRdc VRd. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. N-mm Torsional cracking moment.

i Qk . ∑G j ≥1 k. j Gk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs.iψ 0.10b. 6. 6. 6.i Qk . j Gk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.1ψ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete. 6.1Qk .10a) ∑ξ γ j G.iψ 0.1Qk . ∑γ j ≥1 G.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.1Qk . j + γ P P + γ Q . 6. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2. snow (S). MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.12b) For this code.10a and 6. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. live load (L).10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. j + γ P P + γ Q . pattern live load (PL).i Qk . and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .12b. 6.i Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q .iψ 0.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.1 + ∑ γ Q .1 + ∑ γ Q . j Gk . j + γ P P + γ Q . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). and earthquake (E) loads. wind (W).

10a and 6.i W γGj.1 W + γQ.i S γGj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq. 6. 6.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .10) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.supD + (0.3): γGj.1 PL γGj.1 ψ0.1 L ξ γGj.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.10b.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.i L + γQ.1 L ± γQ. 6.i L γGj.i ψ0.i L D ± 1.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.1 L + γQ.inf D ± γQ.i L + ψ2.sup D γGj. 6. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.i ψ0.0E D ± 1.sup D ± γQ.1 PL ξ γGj.10) (EC0 Eq. 6. 6.75)γQ.i ψ0.1 L γGj.1 L + γQ.1 W + γQ.1 PL γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.sup D ± γQ.i S γGj.1 S + γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.supD + γQ.1 ψ0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.sup D γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 W γGj. 6.1 S ± γQ. 6.sup D + γQ.supD + γQ.1 L γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.4.i ψ0.supD + γQ. γGj. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.supD + (0. 6.i ψ0.Chapter 6 .i ψ0.0E + ψ2.75)γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.i ψ0. 6.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0.i L D ± 1.sup D + γQ. 6.i W γGj.1 W + γQ.1 W γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.10b) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.i S ± γQ.sup D ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.0E + ψ2.i L γGj.supD + (0.1 W (EC0 Eq.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.1 ψ0.i W + γQ. 6.inf D ± γQ.i ψ0.i W γGj.

assumed not to be storage) = 0.i ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.12b) For both sets of load combinations.1 ψ0.inf D ± γQ.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.sup D ± γQ.85 (EC0 Table A1.0E + ψ2.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.0E D ± 1. 6.00 γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.1 ψ0.7 (live load.i ψ0.i L γGj.1 W + γQ.i W ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.i W ξ γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i S γGj.sup = 1.1 ψ0.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.5 = 1.i ψ0.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.i W γGj.i ψ0. 6.1 ψ0.i L D ± 1.i W ξ γGj.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.sup D + γQ.0E + ψ2.5 (snow load.1 L ± γQ.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0. 6.i ψ0.35 γGj.1 S + γQ.inf D ± γQ. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows. γGj. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.1 L + γQ.i ξ = 1.inf = 1.1 W + γQ.i L γGj.i L γGj.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.1 L + γQ.6 (wind load) = 0.1 γQ.1 S + γQ. 6.1 W + γQ.5 = 0.1 ψ0.i S ξ γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S D ± 1.1 W ξ γGj.i L γGj.inf D ± γQ.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 W γGj.i ψ0.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.i L + ψ2. 6.1 S ± γQ.1 W γGj.

2(2)). The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 . should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(3)). αcc is taken as 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. fck.3 (live.2. fyk.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. γs and γc as shown here. respectively (EC2 3.6(1)) (EC2 3. 6. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.i = 0.2. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.1) (EC0 Table A1. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.1.Chapter 6 . f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2. 6. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1.i ψ2. should be 400 and 600 MPa.6(1)).1.7(2)) (EC2 3.

and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2. The user should consider those separately.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.4). The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. load combination factors.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. γs = 1. caution is advised. These values can be overwritten. and torsion based on the beam moments. however.4.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. for a particular station. Table 2. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. and torsion only.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear forces. torsion. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.4. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . 6. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. For accidental and earthquake situations. γc = 1.4(1). Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. shear.

Fig 3.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the width.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. with the corresponding load factors. Fig 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases.5. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.5) (EC2 3.7(3)). The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the strength of the concrete.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis.1. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.7(3). 6. In such cases.Chapter 6 .1.5.1.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.7(3). Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.1.5(4)) (EC 5.7(3)) (EC2 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.7(3)) (EC2 3.6 + 0.44 k2 = k4 = 1. δ.25(0. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5. ( x d )lim .5(4)). The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.54 (EC 5.1. the following values are used: k1 = 0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.5(4)) (EC 5. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0. 6 .7(3)) λ = 0.1.10 Beam Design .and T-beams). When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. is summarized in the subsections that follow.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.5(4)) (EC2 5. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.

are obtained first.Chapter 6 .11 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6.5. The normalized design moment. less than.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. m. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 .1. mlim.2. the normalized moment. m. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. or equal to mlim. mlim.

is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. A's and As. a singly reinforced beam is designed. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. If m > mlim. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. and is given by: 6 . The area of compression and tension reinforcement. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.12 Beam Design . or at the top if MEd is negative. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. ωlim. As.

2.7(4).e.2.e. i. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6. See Figure 6-2.1. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. MEd (i.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.13 . 3. additional calculation is required..7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5. Based on this assumption. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.8) 6. 3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. Fig 3. no flanged beam data is used. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1. designing top reinforcement).2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.Chapter 6 .5(4).1.1.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.5.1. m.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. 3.1. The normalized design moment. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . If the stress block extends beyond the flange.5.2.2. Initially.1. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2.5.

However. is determined as follows: 6 . The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. in that case. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. the calculation for As has two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.14 Beam Design . as shown in Figure 6-2. If a > hf. M1 = M − M2. the width of the beam is taken as bf.

ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. Beam Design 6 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's.Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.2. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.15 . 3. Fig 3.7(4). f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.1.

Table 3.2. VRd.2): Determine the factored shear force.12.16 Beam Design .1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. the following steps are involved (EC2 6. 6. VEd.0013bd (EC2 9.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1.1) f ctm = 2.1(3)).26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.5.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.12.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.1.min = 0.1) (EC2 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required. 6 .1(1)) As .1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.2.c. Table 3.1. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.12. Determine the shear force. for a particular load combination.min = 0. Table 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. that can be resisted by the concrete.1.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.

2.15 Beam Design 6 .2.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.Chapter 6 .5.2.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.c.c = ⎡C Rd .2.2. is calculated as: 13 VRd .c = 0. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.02 bw d (EC2 6. 6.18 γ c ν min = 0.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2. with the corresponding load combination factors.17 .2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2(1)) (EC2 6. 6.c. vmin.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6. VRd.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2(1)) (EC2 6.5.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.

max.2. VRdc.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.2. VRd. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.5.3(3)) Asw.2.2.3(1)) (EC2 6.3(3)) (EC2 6.2.2. a failure condition is declared. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.2.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .2.3(3)) (EC2 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd . obtained from each load combination.18 Beam Design . where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.2. Asw Asw.max.min s = 0.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd. 6 .6⎜1 − z = 0.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.3(3)) (EC2 6.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.2(6)) (EC2 6.

the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd.19 . the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.2).3. u.1(2)). These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. TEd. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. and zi are calculated.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.3.5.5. However. 6. such as Ak. Determine special section properties.5.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. If redistribution is desired.3.Chapter 6 . Beam Design 6 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. 6. special section properties. tef. Determine critical torsion capacity. uk. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. 6.

Similarly.3. h. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. such as Ak.2(1)) (EC2 6. the section dimensions b. With this assumption. However.2(3)) 6 .20 Beam Design .2(1)) (EC2 6.3.2(3)) where. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm.3. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.2(1)) (EC2 6. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.3.2(1)) (EC2 6. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.3.3. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. and uk.

3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 . the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.2(5)) where VRd.3.21 .3. and compression diagonals.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. calculated as: TRd .1.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1. h.05 / γ c (EC2 6. the shear due to this torsion.5. is first calculated. followed by the required stirrup area.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.c (EC2 6.3.2(1)) 6. However.2. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.Chapter 6 . longitudinal bars. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.3. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.5.c is the torsional cracking moment. 6.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.c VRd .0 TRd . bw.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.3.2. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3. hf. In that case. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf. Vt.3. if the equation is not satisfied.

3.max + VEd ≤ 1. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .3(2)).max.2.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.2(4)) where TRd.max (EC2 6. θ is taken as 45 degrees.3.22 Beam Design . In the preceding expressions.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.0 VRd . The code allows any value between 21. as previously defined for beam shear.2(4)) 6 . while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.3.

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. In that case.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 6. the concrete section should be increased in size. 6. a failure message is declared. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.23 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Chapter 6 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. Slab Design 6 . To learn more about the design strips.

are repeated for every load combination.1.min = 0. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is obtained and reported.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. In that case.1.6.3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1): As .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6.6.1. for each load combination.2. 6. at a given design section in a design strip. 6.1. In some cases.24 Slab Design .1(1)) As .0013bd (EC2 9. described in the subsections that follow.min = 0.1.1. These two steps.2.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. 6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). given the bending moment. Where openings occur. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.

.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 6.4.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. 6.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. The column location (i. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. edge. interior. Slab Design 6 . An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1) (EC2 Table 3.2(1)).25 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1) fctm = 2.1(3)).Chapter 6 .4.e.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.1) (EC2 Table 3.2.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.6.2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .4.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.26 Slab Design .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4(1)) 6 .c = ⎡C Rd .2.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4.4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.6.

vEd.4.0 d (EC2 6. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.15 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear. the nominal design shear stress.4(1)) (EC2 6.4. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.2.4.02 (EC2 6. conservatively taken as zeros.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .Chapter 6 .4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.18 γ c (EC2 6.6.4.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.27 .4(1)) (EC2 6. C Rd . is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4(1)) ν min = 0.c = 0.4.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. conservatively taken as zeros.

6 .6.6.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.c.ef If vEd > vRd.max. 6. (EC2 6.6.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.4.75v Rd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. a failure condition is declared. 6. vRd. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. and vRd. Given vEd.3. the concrete section should be increased in size. Asw (v Ed − 0. 6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.28 Slab Design .4. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.max.c ) = u1 sr 1.5).5 f ywd .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.

6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 6.e.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. Height.3(1)). The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . for corner. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. i. edge. and interior columns respectively.29 .3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and corner column. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. Therefore.6. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. edge. and 8.3.Chapter 6 . Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4.

4. 16-.3d. 14-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3(1)) (EC2 9. s.3(1)) (EC2 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.4.3(1)) (EC2 9. and 20-millimeter diameter. 12-. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0. g. The limits of so and the spacing.30 Slab Design .4.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.4. the distance.4.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.75d g ≤ 1. so.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.3(1)) 6 .

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.4(b)). where εc.9) (CP 6. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6. 7. or the strength of the concrete.1.1.0035 − 0. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. the width. In such cases. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. with the corresponding load factors.2.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. ⎧0. In such cases.2.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.5.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.1. βb ≥ 0. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2.max is defined as: ε c .4(a)).e.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .

less than.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. where 0. and torsion only.1fcuAg) (CP 6. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.1. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.Chapter 7 . As. Fig 6.1. Msingle = K'fcu bd .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. shear. Msingle.1.87 f y z (CP 6. or equal to Msingle. hence.4(a)).4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. In addition.1. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.2. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.2. is obtained from: As = M . where 2 (CP 6.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5.2.4(c)) ⎧0. 7.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.2.2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4(b)). is obtained first for a section.1.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4(a).

1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.1.2.95d z = d ⎜ 0.5 + 0.2.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.2. If M > Msingle. or at the top if M is negative.25 − ⎜ 0.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.4(c)) (CP 6.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.

7.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0..e.4(c). for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. designing top reinforcement).2. 3.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.87 f y z + 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. 3. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1.2. Fig..36 .1. Beam Design 7-9 .e.4(a).87 f y .87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.6.5 + 0.1.5.5.2.4(c)) 7.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.1.Chapter 7 . M (i. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2.2. no flanged beam data is used.1.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. Fig 6. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. Based on this assumption.2.2.95d 0. i. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .2.5.1.45 .

1.1.36 .95d. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4(c).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.45 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M . If a > hf . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . See Figure 7-2.1) If a ≤ hf. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.4(c)) (CP 6. in that case.1. Fig 6.2. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.10 Beam Design . the width of the beam is taken as bf.2.2. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.2.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. for ⎪ 0. However.5 + 0. Fig 6.1.4(a).

The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.4d then. Cw.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. as shown in Figure 7-2.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . x ≤ 0.1 f cu bd (0.5h f ) bf hf ec 0. Cf.4.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0. In that case.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0. ⎪0.5h f ) .11 .45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 . x ≤ 0.4. where (BS 3.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.Chapter 7 .5) β f = 0.4.9 x − h f ) 0.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0. x ≤ 0.67 fcu/gm 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.

4(c)). The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.1.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.12 Beam Design .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.1.87 f y ( d − 0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.2. where (CP 6.1.045 for ⎩ ⎧0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.2.4(d)) ⎧0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) .4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.2.32 ⎪ ⎪0. 7 .

5 + 0.Chapter 7 .9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.4(c). where 0.95d ⎜ 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where.87 f y (d − 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.95d ⎜ 0.1.2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.2. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.5 + 0.6.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .13 . Fig 3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.

1. if it is required.4 bf bw ≥ 0.1).2.3): 7 .24 fy = 460 MPa 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1.2.2.20 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.48 0.13 100 0.32 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.2.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.1.1 (CP 9. which is taken from CP Table 9.24 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.36 0.1(CP 9.1.40 0.5.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.14 Beam Design .18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.2. which is taken from CP Table 9.

the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1. that can be resisted by the concrete.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2. for a particular load combination. 7 MPa) (CP 6. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.Chapter 7 . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. 7. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5.04bw d ⎧0.2.1. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. vc. with the corresponding load combination factors.1.15 .5. Determine the shear stress.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3) 7. the following steps are involved (CP 6.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9. vc.5(a)) 7.2.5): Determine the shear stress.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2. v.2. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.1. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .5.8 fcu .

Table 6.3) (CP 6.2.3) ≥ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.2.1. Table 6. Table 6.2.1.2.2.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1. Table 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.67 1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.25 However.1.1.1.5(k)) 0.1.1.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.5(k)) 7. as: 7 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6. CP 6.2. Table 6.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5(c). vr. the following limitations also apply: 0. and vmax.5(c).00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.16 Beam Design .5(g)) (CP 6.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.5(c). and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5(c).5(c).2.1.5.2.2.1. vc.2.

5.2. Table 6.1.5(b)) (CP 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.2. vt.1.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.5(b). a failure condition is declared. (CP 6.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values. Beam Design 7 .2. sv 0. (CP 6.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.17 . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.87 f yv If v > vmax.Chapter 7 .4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0. 7. Determine special section properties.1.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . obtained from each load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.

specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.8 f cu . vt. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.1).7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.3.17 7 . with the corresponding load combination factors. vt.3.4. 7. The torsional shear stress. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.5. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. Table 6.18 Beam Design .3.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.3(a)) For flanged sections. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. In typical framed construction.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.

min.t /sv.min.5). the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.min. In that case.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. vt.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.min = min 0. However. vt is less than the threshold limit. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .5).17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.3. 7.5.Chapter 7 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. vt. Table 6.067 fcu . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.19 .0.min.3. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. Asv.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.3.3. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .4.

In that case. the concrete section should be increased in size.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.8 x1 y1 (0.87 f yv ) (CP 6.8 fcu .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. 7.6) In the preceding expressions.3. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. a failure message is declared. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .3. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. 7 .t sv = T 0. To learn more about the design strips. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.3.20 Slab Design .

6. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. given the bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. In some cases. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . for each load combination. is obtained and reported. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 7.Chapter 7 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.21 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. 7.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. at a given design section in a design strip. In that case.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1. 7. 7 ..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.7(d)).22 Slab Design . the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.5. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.3.1.1(a)) In addition.1. 7.1.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6. The column location (i. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. 7.3.2.1. Where openings occur.5.e.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior.2. edge.3).7). corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.

1.5(g). Table 6.2.1.7(d).1.1.23 .5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.3): 0.Chapter 7 .3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.5d 1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6. Table 6.5.5d 1.7(d)) (CP 6. Table 6.6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.1.5d 1.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .5.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2.5d Interior Column 1.5(c). 6.7(d).5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.

where (CP 6.5.4.8 f cu .2) 0. v.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.3. bd 1 4 (CP 6. 7 MPa) (CP 6.24 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.1. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.7(b)) (CP Table 6.5 + 1.1.1. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection. 7 .1.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. v ≤ min(0.5(c). which is taken as zero in the current implementation.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.25 However.6.2.67 1.5. 6. Table 2.6(b).2.5. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.5. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .1.2.3) ≥ 0.2.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section. the nominal design shear stress.5(c). x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.5 x ⎬ .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7. Table 6. Table 6.

25 . 6.7(e)).6(b). 7. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.1.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6. 7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.Chapter 7 .6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .6.5.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3. 7.1.3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.25 ⎪1.

5.87 f yv If 1.1.4ud = ≥ .5.87 f yv 0.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0. and 8. 7.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6. 0. edge. for corner. the concrete section should be increased in size.26 Slab Design .4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .7(e)). and interior columns respectively.1.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.e.5.7v − vc ) ud 0.0vc (CP 6. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 7 . Therefore.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. vc. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. i.6vc 0. and corner column. a failure condition is declared. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.6.1.5. edge.87 f yv 0. 6. and vmax. If v ≤ 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.5. (CP 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v. ≥ s 0.1.7(e)) (CP 6.87 f yv s If v > vmax..1.7(f)).

Chapter 7 .5.5. and 20-millimeter diameter.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The limits of so and the spacing.7(f)) (CP 6.1.1. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .5d. 16-. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.6.5.5d s ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.7(f)) (CP 6.75d g ≤ 1. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. Height. When specifying shear studs. so.1.5d.27 .3.2. g. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 12-. s. the distance. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d (CP 6. 14-.

.

For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. 8. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. For simplicity. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm Notations 8-1 .

mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. assumed as 200. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. N-mm 8-2 Notations . MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending.

max Notations 8. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. mm Lever arm. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.Chapter 8 . mm Factored torsional moment at a section. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading.3 . N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. N-mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. N Depth of neutral axis.

75 PL) 1.5E 0. snow (S).5D ± 1.2L ± 1.2D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.3) (IS 36.5D + 1.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .2W 1.4.5.2D + 1.5D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.5W 1.4.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete. pattern live load (PL).5W 0.0E (IS 36.4.5D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).5D + 1.4.9D ± 1.4.5L ± 1. live load (L).5L 1. MPa 8.1) (IS 36.2L ± 1.5(0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.5D 1. For IS 456-2000. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.9D ± 1.5D ± 1. and earthquake (E) loads.0W 1.1) (IS 36.1) (IS 31. Table 18): 1.5D + 1.5E 1. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.5L ± 1. wind (W).2E 1.5S 1.2.

caution is advised.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.Chapter 8 . and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. shear forces.2L + 1. and torsion only.2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. shear.Design for IS 456-2000 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used. These values can be overwritten.2D + 1. torsion. γs = 1. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456. 8.2S ± 1.5 (IS 36.2L + 1.5L + 1. beams must be designed for torsion.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2S ± 1.2E 1. however.1) (IS 36. other appropriate load combinations should be used.4.2S ± 1.2D + 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.2W 1. and torsion based on the beam moments.2.2D + 1. shear. load combination factors.4.4.4.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.2D + 1. γc = 1. However.5D + 1. 14. 8.5S 1. γm. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.2E (IS 36. 8.5 .3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2S ± 1.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2W 1.

If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity.4. 8-6 Beam Design . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1. If redistribution is desired.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. However. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Rather. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 8. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1.4. In such cases.

2.2) (IS 41.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. where (IS 41. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.4. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations.1) 8. If Mt exceeds Mu. with the corresponding load factors. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.7 . In such cases.4.Design for IS 456-2000 8. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.Chapter 8 . Effectively. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.1. Beam Design 8.4.1.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. respectively. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.4. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.

The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.1. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. The area of the stress block.1). The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1) 8. or the strength of the concrete.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web.1) (IS 38.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.3.4.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.1) 8-8 Beam Design . are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1.4. the width. a. When a torsional moment is to be included. (IS 41.2. 8. c.

48 0.Chapter 8 .42 (IS 38. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.0035 b f′ s 0. Furthermore.1) (IS 38.1).1). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.53 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.max /d 0.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.36 β = 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.9 .46 Beam Design 8.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.

53 ⎪ ⎪0. xu .05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.53 − 0.10 Beam Design .2. less than. or equal to Msingle.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.0035 (IS 38. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. the limiting depth of the neutral axis.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. Msingle. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.48 − 0. xu. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. and torsion only. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1. Msingle = α xu.max = 0. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than.max d ⎧0. is given by 8 .4. 8.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. are obtained first.max d xu. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. shear. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. m.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.max.

1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ .1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. Beam Design 8. and vice versa if Mu is negative. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . is obtained from As = Mu . d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. where (IS G-1. the area of compression reinforcement. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. − If Mu > Msingle. A's.Chapter 8 .1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. or at the top if Mu is negative.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. As. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .11 .

the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. See Figure 8-2.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.e. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 8. On the basis of this assumption.e. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. no flanged beam data is used. designing top reinforcement)..2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.. Mu (i. i.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange.3.2.4..2. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .3.12 Beam Design . If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.

the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.15 xu + 0.13 . the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0. Cw. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf. as shown in Figure 8-2. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.65D f if D f > 0.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .Chapter 8 .1).45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. However. m.

single = αfckbwd 2 x u.max ⎡ x u.14 Beam Design . is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.46 (IS 38.1) xu .53 ⎪ ⎪0. A's.single. the area of compression reinforcement.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. and 8 . As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.single ⎛ 0.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.53 − 0.max d ⎧0.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.single.48 − 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z . where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.

1.1) (IS 26.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c. the following steps are involved (IS 40.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.1): As ≥ 0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2.4.5.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.5.1.5.5.1.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u. for a particular load combination.1.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.04bw d ⎧0.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1) An upper limit of 0. at a particular station.4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.85 bd fy (IS 26.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.15 .5.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.5.1.2) 8.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.Chapter 8 .5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.1.

Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.8 M25 3.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d . where bd (IS 40.2.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth. d.5 M35 3.max (IS 40.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. τc.5 M20 2. τv ≤ τc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8. τc.3.1 M30 3.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. τc.7 M40 4. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.2) 8 . (IS 40.3.max. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases. as: τcd = kδτc.3.0 τc. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.16 Beam Design .2.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.max (MPa) (IS 40.4.1.

Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 . Under Tension (IS 40.4 Asv 0.1) (IS 40.1.2.2.87 f y If τcd + 0. and if Pu > 0 .1.17 .Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.4 b ≥ sv 0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.3.2.1.4.4(a)) Beam Design 8.2.max (IS 40. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0. 26. 0.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. Table 19) (IS 40.4 < τv ≤ τc.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 . taken as 1.2.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.87 f y (IS 40.2.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.Chapter 8 .1. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.1). The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.5.

87 f y (IS 41. (IS 40.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.3) (IS 41. a failure condition is declared.2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.max is determined as defined in the last section. provide 2-legged closed stirrups. 26.4.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.87 f y (IS 41.87 f y ) 2.4.6) If τve ≥τcd.3.3) τve ≤ τc.2. τc.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0.4.1) (IS 40.1.3. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.max The maximum nominal shear stress.4) 8. 8 .3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.max. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.5. obtained from each load combination. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0.18 Beam Design .5d1 (0. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.

Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.Chapter 8 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These two steps. To learn more about the design strips.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1. is obtained and reported. 8.19 . for each load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.5. described in the subsections that follow. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. Slab Design 8. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.5. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. 8.Design for IS 456-2000 8. are repeated for every load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.

8.20 Slab Design . In some cases. The column location (i.e. at a given design section in a design strip.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5. 8.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.1). In that case.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.1). Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. edge.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5. Where openings occur. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. interior. 8 .1) In addition.2.5. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26..2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.1).1.6.1. given the bending moment.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 8.5. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.5.2): ⎧0.

2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.21 .Chapter 8 . 8.3.6.2.2).2.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.5.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.5. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.

5.1) (IS 31.6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.6.1) (IS 31.5. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2) 8 .3.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.3. 8.2) 8.5 τ c bod (IS 31.22 Slab Design .6.5τ c (IS 31.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.3. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.0 (IS 31.3. 8.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5 + βc ≤ 1.6.5.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 8.1) τc = 0.3.

6.2) If Vu > Vmax. Av = (Vu − 0.3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3) (IS 31.3.5Vc ) 0. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6. 8.87 f y (IS 31.23 . i.4.Chapter 8 . If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. edge.e. 41. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31. Vc..5. a failure condition is declared.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3.6.2. and Vmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. and corner column.2). Slab Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.

s. When specifying shear studs.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d. 5d s ≤ 0. the distance. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. g. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 6. and interior columns respectively. and 8. edge. for corner. so.5. The limits of so and the spacing. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.3.24 Slab Design .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Height.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . For simplicity.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 9. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress.

mm Width of member. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. assumed as 200. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Width of web (flanged section). sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement.

mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Average design shear stress at a section. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. N Factored shear force at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. mm Factored design torsion at a section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of sections.Chapter 9 . mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Thickness of slab or flange. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Perimeter of area Ao.

0W 1. pattern live load (PL). 4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). For NZS 3101-06.2): 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. 4. 4.2.0.0.2.2D + 0.0D ± 1.2.35D 1. snow (S).0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2D + 1. 4.2.0. live load (L).4L + 1.2D + 0.2D ± 1. 4.0.0E (AS/NZS 1170.4L ± 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0E 1.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.0.9D ± 1.2.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.0. and earthquake (E) loads.0S 1.0W 0.2. (0. wind (W).0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1. 4.0.4L ± 1.2.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.0.2D + 1. 4. 4.5(0.0D + 0. 4.75 PL) 1.5L 1.2.

The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.85 for flexure φs = 0. 9.2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present. other appropriate load combinations should be used.3.3.3. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.2) (NZS 2.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. caution is advised.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. (NZS 2. The φ factors for flexure. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. shear. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.1). 9.3). fyt. fy.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement.2.2. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.3.2. however. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .Chapter 9 . provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.3).4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.

1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. load combination factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear forces. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. shear. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. and torsion only. shear. the 9-6 Beam Design . for a particular station.1. In such cases.5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. torsion. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9.5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. with the corresponding load factors. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

2) where the default value of φb is 0.Chapter 9 .1.7).2. and torsion only. The design procedure used by SAFE. 9. M (i. 9. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. where.3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.2.4. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. shear.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.1.4. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. designing top or bottom reinforcement). or the strength of the concrete.. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4.2) in the preceding and following equations.2. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.85 (NZS 2. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. Furthermore.5.8. the width. The beams are designed for major direction flexure.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.7): α1 = 0.2.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .e.3. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.1). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.008( f ′ − 30).8) β1 = 0.85 − 0. 0.3.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0. is given by: amax = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.4.75β1cb (NZS 7.4. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.4.85 β1 = 0.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.8. 9.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.2. c (NZS 7.2. amax.7.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.3.2.2.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.7) (NZS 7.4. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .8.85 − 0.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.7) (NZS 7.1).

8.4. If a > amax (NZS 9.2.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4. 7.4.2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.1).9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.2. or at the top * if M is negative.2.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .Chapter 9 .4.2.3.

4.1) If a ≤ hf. 9. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.1. is given by: amax = 0.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.5. However.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. calculation for As has two parts.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. no flanged beam data is used. and vice versa if M is negative.2.1. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.1. As = As1 + As2.e. * 9..5..8.2.2.10 Beam Design . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. amax.3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.5.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Cw. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. the total tension reinforcement. M (i. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.2. If a > hf.75β1cb (NZS 7. 9 .e.4. as shown in Figure 9-2.2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. i. designing top reinforcement). 9. Cf.7.

M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.Chapter 9 . As1 = given by: (NZS 7.2.2 ) Beam Design 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.4.11 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. the balance of the moment.4.

3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.2.2.8. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.8.1).7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.4.1). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .3.2.2. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.12 Beam Design .4.4. 7.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

bw.1) (NZS 7.1) where the section dimensions bf. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0. the section dimensions b.1) (NZS 7. hf.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.7).1. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7. h.18 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.75 Ao/po 0.1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.6. Similarly.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. h.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .1) where.

the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. if T exceeds the threshold limit.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. defined as: T* ≤ 0. and meets the torsion stress limit. At /s.1. Tcr.6. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6. Tcr.3) 9. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.1.5.6. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. T .3.19 .6.6. However.1.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.1).3.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6.4.Chapter 9 . If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. is less than the threshold limit.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.6.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.4. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7. In that case.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.6) Beam Design 9 .4.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.1).

If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.3). The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6. In that case. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.20 Slab Design . 9.2 f 'c .5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.6. a failure message is declared.2. 7.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. provided it is fully developed. To learn more about the design strips.6.1. 9 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the concrete section should be increased in size. At Al 1. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.8. bw is replaced with b.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.5.2) * * For rectangular sections.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.

1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. 9. at a given design section in a design strip. are repeated for every load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. for each load combination. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In some cases.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. 9. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). given the bending moment. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. In that case.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.6.Chapter 9 . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is obtained and reported.21 .1. described in the subsections that follow.

The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.6.8. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.6. 2.22 Slab Design .4.7.6.8. interior. The column location (i.2.1(b)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. 8. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2. 9.e.7. Where openings occur. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0..5.4 ): ⎧ 0 .1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.1) In addition. 8. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.6.5.2. 9. edge.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.1(b)). 9 .

7.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.2.6.Chapter 9 . 9.2.7.7.6.23 .2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .7.

and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.6.2(a)).7.3. 9. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.1).3.4. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.3.6. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.2.1) 70 9. 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.1. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.7. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2.2) where.24 Slab Design .7. 9 . the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.

Chapter 9 .7.3. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5) 9.6.6.3. vc. Slab Design 9 .3) (NZS 12.3. is the strength reduction factor. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12. 9.7.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.3.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. where.3.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12. and vmax.4.5 f ′ c (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. φ.7.4) If vn > φvmax. the concrete section should be increased in size.7.25 .4.4) Given vn. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.

6. for corner. edge. and interior columns respectively. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. 9 .7.4). edge. and 8. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4..e. 6. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. i. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.26 Slab Design . and corner column. Therefore.4.

Design for NZS 3101-06 9.Chapter 9 . The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.4. the distance. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.7.4. so.4.5d s ≤ 0.4) Slab Design 9 .11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.7. The limits of so and the spacing. g.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.27 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.7.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. When specifying shear studs. s. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4) (NZS 12. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.6.4) (NZS 12. Height.

.

The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008].1 . For simplicity. Notations 10 . Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. is selected. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1.

mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Average web width of a flanged beam.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Flange thickness. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. assumed as 200. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.2 Notations . mm Torsional constant. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm 10 . MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.

mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.Chapter 10 .3 . [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . MPa Torsional shear stress. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Lever arm. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Neutral axis depth.

and wind (W) loads. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4. other appropriate load combinations should be used.75PL) 1. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3) (CP 2.3) (CP 2.4D ± 1. fcu.3).6(0. γf (CP 2. 1.4D + 1.1. 10. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.4. 10 . It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.0D ± 1. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).2W (CP 2.7.2L ± 1.4D + 1. pattern live load (PL). and considering that wind forces are reversible.4.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.4W 1.4D 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.3).4.4W 1. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.6L 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4 Design Load Combinations .2). live load (L). Note that the automatic combination. including pattern live load.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4.2D + 1.1.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.

The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4. load combination factors. and other criteria described below.4. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . and torsion based on the beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion only. which are taken from CP Table 2.5 . shear.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code.Chapter 10 .15 1. shear forces. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2 (CP 2.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. 10. γm.50 1.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. torsion. shear. but can be overwritten.

1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. with the corresponding load factors. BC 2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5.2) 10 .1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. 10. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5.3. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. or the strength of the concrete.1. In such cases.5.4).0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. the width.4. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. for a particular station. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.

4) Beam Design 10 .4.4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. BC 2.4.4. and torsion only.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.9) (CP 3. hence.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. In addition. βb ≥ 0.and T-beams). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.5.4.4). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.2. BC 2.4). the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.4.4. shear.4. 10.Chapter 10 . ⎧0. Msingle. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. is summarized in the subsections that follow.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.4.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. is first calculated for a section. less than.1. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4.e.4.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. or equal to Msingle.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.7 ..1fcuAg) (CP 3.4.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.4. Msingle = K'fcu bd .1). See Figure 10-1. where 2 (CP 3.

8 Beam Design .95d z = d ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.25 − ⎜ 0.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.5 + 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. is then given by: As = M .4. the area of tension reinforcement.87 f y z (CP 3.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.4. where 0.4.4. As.4. If M ≤ Msingle.4) (CP 3.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.4) 10 .156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4.

M (i.5.4. where (CP 3.87 f y z + 0.1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. and f ′ =0. or at the top if M is negative.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Beam Design 10 . 2.3.5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.5.2.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. If M > Msingle. no flanged beam data is used.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.1.3.25 − ⎜ 0. designing top reinforcement).4..5.5 + 0.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.4.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .4.4.1.4.4.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.2. Fig 2. i.4.95d z = d ⎜ 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. Fig 2.e.2..9 . 2.4.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.Chapter 10 .e.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.

2. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.67 fcu γ m 0.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.10 Beam Design .1. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. See Figure 10-2. On the basis of this assumption.5. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. εc 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.4.

The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.1 f cu bd (0. Cw.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.4.Chapter 10 . BC 2.2.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.11 . for ⎪ ⎪d − z .9 ⎭ (CP 3.45d then. BC 2.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.4.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4.4.45 .2.5h f ) .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. In that case. 2 As = M + 0.4.4.4.4.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.3) If a ≤ hf.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.95d 0.4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5 + 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. If a > hf .4.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. However. Cf. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. as shown in Figure 10-2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.36 . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4. Fig 2.5) β f = 0.87 f y (d − 0.45d − h f ) 0. Fig 2. where (BS 3. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.

24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.5h f ) ) .100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0. where (CP 3.2) ⎧0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.87 f y ( d − 0.32 ⎪ ⎪0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) 10 .054 for ⎩ ⎧0.5.12 Beam Design . As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0. BC 2.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.4.

4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 . and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.4).67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.95d ⎜ 0. where 0.5.3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0. BC 2.4).87 f y (d − 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. As = 0.4.5.4.4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4. Fig 2.5.4.4.4.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.3. 2.4.2) If Kw ≤ 0.156 (CP 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.Chapter 10 .87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. 2.4.13 . d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.5 + 0.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3. Fig 2.

which is taken from CP Table 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.32 0.14 Beam Design .26 100 0.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.13 100 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.95d ⎜ 0. 10 .12.27 (CP 3. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.27 (CP 3.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.12. which is taken from CP Table 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.5 + 0.5.5.18 100 0.36 0.5.48 0.1.3).24 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0. if it is required.

the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 .5): Determine the shear stress. BC 2.40 0.4.5. 10.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.3.6.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3. the following steps are involved (CP 3.5.12. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.20 0. that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear stress. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. An upper limit of 0.15 .5.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.2). for a particular load combination. vc.12.Chapter 10 .1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. 10. v.1).or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.

2.4) 10.4.4. (CP 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.4.5.4) (CP 2.4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0. vc. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.63 fcu .4. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .16 Beam Design .5.5. the following limitations also apply: 0.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4.5. Table 3.8) (CP 3.4.12) 0. with the corresponding load combination factors. 7 MPa).4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4.4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3. Table 3.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.9) 10 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.8 fcu .2) The maximum allowable shear stress.5. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.6 (CP 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.5.5.25 1 1 3 However.2) For light-weight concrete.

9) (CP 3.3.8) As vr b = .5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3. sv 0. (CP 3.5.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.5.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.4.4.Chapter 10 .5. Table 3.8. v’c.17 . CP 3. Table 3. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .4.87 f yv If v > vmax.5.5. (CP 3.5.4.4.5. and vmax.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4.2) In the preceding expressions.2.8) (CP 3.5. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. a failure condition is declared.4. Table 3.4.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3. vr.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. Table 3.3. Table 3.4.3.4.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.4.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. Table 3.3.5.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.

4.15). further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.5.18 Beam Design .5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5. The torsional shear stress. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. In typical framed construction. Determine critical torsion stress. Determine special section properties.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. vt.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. 10. 10. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.4. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. obtained from each load combination. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . vt.

for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.0.0.4. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.min = min 0. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. vt.8 f cu .Chapter 10 .3.067 f cu .8 (CP Part 2 5. For lightweight concrete. vt.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.4.19 .1) For flanged sections.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2. vt. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.5.5) Beam Design 10 .4.4.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.min is defined as: vt . exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.min.4.6 N / mm 2 x 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.067 f cu .5) 10.4.min = min 0.

6). The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. is calculated as: Asv .4. Asv. the concrete section should be increased in size. is less than the threshold limit. In that case.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3. vt. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.20 Beam Design . the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.min.4.6).8 f cu . vt. a failure message is declared.4. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. vt.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.8 x1 y1 (0.4.t sv = T 0. In that case.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.5. If vt > vt.min.t /sv. 10 . torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.min. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. However. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.7) In the preceding expressions.

To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 10 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 10.21 . Slab Design 10 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6.

1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. In that case. is obtained and reported. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. CP Table 3. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 10. 10. In some cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. given the bending moment.1. 10. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. for each load combination. Where openings occur. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6. at a given design section in a design strip.22 Slab Design .3.12.5. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .

e.7. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) . In addition. 3.6.7. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. edge.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.23 .Chapter 10 .6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.2.7.4.12. 10.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.5. Slab Design 10 .7.6). the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1).6. interior. 10.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1).7. The column location (i.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .12..5d from the face of the support (CP 3.

4.5d 1.4.24 Slab Design . the following limitations also apply: 10 .5d 1.4. Table 3.5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.4.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.4.4.5d 1.7.4. Table 3.7.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.2) However.5.5.7.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1. 3.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.6): 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.9) (CP 3.6.5d Interior Column 1.7.5.

4.5 M y 1 .63 v ≤ min (0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.5.7. 10. Table 3.4) (CP 3. 4 MPa) f cu .9) (CP 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. (CP 3.8 fcu .6.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .5.5. Table 3.7.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. the nominal design shear stress.4. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .6. Table 3.7. v. Table 3.4. where (CP 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. 3.4. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.Chapter 10 . vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.7.3) 1 .2.9) For light-weight concrete.6.4.25 .2.2.5.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.4.

(CP 3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.6.26 Slab Design .25 ⎪1.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.6. 3.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.7.7.7.7.5).7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5).25 ⎩ for interior columns.7.6.7.6.3. for edge columns. 10.6. vc. and for corner columns. 10. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.2. 10.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.7.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. 10 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3. and vmax. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.

7.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. edge.5) 0. ≥ s 0. i.7..Chapter 10 .87 f yv If 1.7.5) (CP 3.7. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. (CP 3.6vc ≤ v < 2.7v − vc ) ud = .27 . (CP 3.7.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 . Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.87 f yv If v > vmax. ≥ s 0. a failure condition is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. 10. and corner column.6. 0.87 f yv 0.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .4ud Av 5 ( 0.e.87 f yv 0.0vc.6vc.

and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. g.7.6) 10 . and interior columns respectively.6) (CP 3. so. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d. 10. Height.7.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6.6). at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs. 12-. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. edge. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.7. the distance. and 8. The limits of so and the spacing. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.28 Slab Design .3. Therefore. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 14-.5d (CP 3.7. for corner.75d g ≤ 1.5d.7. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and 20-millimeter diameter. 16-.7.7. 6. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.6) (CP 3. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d s ≤ 0.

2008. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. P. 2. 2. 1. Box 9094. Michigan. Australia. 2001. American Concrete Institute.References ACI. GPO Box 5420. BC 2:2008. TM R-1 . February 2008. American Concrete Institute. Structural Use of Concrete. ACI.2R-07).1 and Amendment No. British Standards Institution. AS. 38800 Country Club Drive. Sydney. Farmington Hills. London. Michigan. Singapore. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. 1997. BC. Building and Construction Authority. and 3. Standards Australia International Ltd. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. NSW 2001.O. 2008. BSI. Part 1. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. 2005. Farmington Hills. UK. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). 2007.

Canadian Standards Association. Design of Concrete Structures. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. Kowloon. Canada. UK. NZS. 2000. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Bureau of Indian Standards. European Committee for Standardization. 1. London. CP 65:Part 1:1999. Part 1-1. Brussels. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. incorporating Amendments Nos. 2006. IS. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. September 2000. CSA. 2005. Ontario. 2004. Concrete Structures Standard. Hong Kong. 2. Singapore. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. HK CP. Structural Use of Concrete. 750 Nathan Road. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Rexdale. CP.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. EN 1992-1-1. Standards New Zealand. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Part 2. 2004. Brussels. New Zealand. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. 1999. Manak Bhavan. March 2000. EN 1990:2002. Belgium. New Delhi 110002. India. 1. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. Twentieth Reprint. 2004. and 3. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. A23. European Committee for Standardization. R-2 . Private Bag 2439. Buildings Department. Mongkok.3-04. Third Edition. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. 1985. Belgium. British Standards Institution. Wellington.

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