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# SAFE

™

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4

Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0

December 2008

Copyright

Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

**Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
**

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

3-04 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.2 3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.6.1 Design for Flexure 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5.6.6.1 Notations 5-1 ii .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.2 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.4 3.5.5.5.1 3.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.1 4.3 4.3 3.4 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.6 5 Design for CSA A23.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.6.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.2 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.28 6.5.4 6.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.1 Design for Flexure 5.3 6.2 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.2 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.6.5.Contents 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.6.6.6.5.5.1 7.3 5.6.1 Design for Flexure 6.4 5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.1 6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.

6.2 9.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.4 7.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.1 9.3 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.5.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.4.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.1 Design for Flexure 8.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.1 Design for Flexure 7.6.1 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.4.3 8.5.5.4 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.1 Effects of Torsion 8.4.

6 Slab Design 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .6.6.5.6 Slab Design 9.Contents 9.5.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.5 Beam Design 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.6.1 Notations 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.6.6.5.2 Design Load Combinations 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.

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It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. 1-1 . shear. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. Specifically. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. and torsion reinforcement. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. and it designs beam flexural. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user.

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The code is based on inch-pound-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. sq-in Notations 2-1 . sq-in Gross area of concrete. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter. 2.

in Depth to neutral axis. psi 2-2 Notations . in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Width of section. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Width of web (flanged section). psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in/in Depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement.

Chapter 2 . psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Factored moment at a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . psi Overall depth of a section. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. lb Factored shear force at a section. (0. lb Factored axial load at a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. in Height of the flange. in Critical torsion capacity.

the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.6W 0.8W 1.2D + 1.1): 1.0L + 1.0L + 0.2.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2.1) are the same.2D + 1.6W 1.9D ± 1.1) (ACI 9. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0E 1.6L 1.2D + 1.2D + 1.2.6W 1.0E 1. snow (S). wind (W).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2.6 (0.75 PL) 0.6.3) (ACI 9.1) (ACI 9. and earthquake (E) loads.0L ± 1.2. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations . pattern live load (PL).4D 1.5S ± 1.5S 1.2D + 1.2.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.1) (ACI 9. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.2D + 1. degrees 2.6L + 0.0L + 0.2D + 1.6S 1. live load (L).0L ± 1.1) (ACI 13.0E (ACI 9.9D ± 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. For ACI 318-08.2D + 1.6S ± 0.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.7.

(ACI 9. or if other types of loads are present. shear. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.1. and torsion based on the beam moments.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.3. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5. fyt. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. however.3. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and other criteria described in this section.Chapter 2 . fy. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. shear. caution is advised. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.1).1) (ACI 9.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. torsion. φ. The φ factors for flexure.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength.2). Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . 2.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. 2. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.2. f' c .2. load combination factors. shear forces. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0.3) 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.

Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. 2. and torsion only. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1. for a particular station.1. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. shear. with the corresponding load factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2.

1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10.and T-beams). or the strength of the concrete. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. which by default is 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. 2.2. The maximum depth of the compression zone.. which is equal to 0.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.Chapter 2 . and torsion only.1) in the preceding and the following equations. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. The design procedure used by SAFE.2). it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. cmax. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.2.90 (ACI 9. the width.e.003.5). is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. Mu (i. fy . as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10. is summarized in the text that follows.2. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).2) Beam Design 2-7 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. shear.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.3.1. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.4).3. Furthermore.3. where. designing top or bottom reinforcement).5.3. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.

3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .1) β1 = 0. εcmax = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.2.2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.85 (ACI 10.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.2.3. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.4). ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.005 (ACI 10. amax.3) (ACI 10.3.85 − 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.7.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7.

2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.2.7. 10.2.3.2. or at the top if Mu is negative. If a > amax.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0. 10. where ( f 's − 0.3.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.Chapter 2 .2.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .

is assumed if the flange is under compression. the flange comes under tension. i.85 f ′ c 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.1. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. 2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. If the moment is negative. as shown in Figure 2-2. and vice versa if Mu is negative.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.2.003 0. In that case. if the moment is positive. and the flange is ignored..e.5.10 Beam Design . a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. a simplified stress block. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.

Mu (i.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.85 (ACI 10.e.1) β1 = 0.2.2.003 εsmin = 0. The maximum depth of the compression zone. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5.2) where..e.1.005 (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. which by default is 0.3. cmax. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.1. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.3) Beam Design 2 . the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.Chapter 2 ..2.2.2.90 (ACI 9.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.11 . amax.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.85 − 0.5.3. i. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10. which is equal to 0. 2.3.3) (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 2.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. designing top reinforcement).4): cmax = where.7. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2.2) εcmax = 0. no flanged beam data is used.7.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.

2 . Cf. Cf is given by: C f = 0. amax ) Therefore. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. the balance of the moment. as shown in Figure 2-2. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.12 Beam Design .5). to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f .2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10. Mu . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.2. If a > hf. However. the value for φ is 0.7. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.3.90 by default. the calculation for As has two parts. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. Therefore. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . Cw. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.

13 .1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.3.3.2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 . 10.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.2.2.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. 10. where ( f 's − 0.2. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.7.Chapter 2 .

Vc. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. 2 .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.2.1.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. for a particular load combination.5. Vu.5. 2.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. that can be resisted by the concrete.3) An upper limit of 0.14 Beam Design . Determine the shear force.4bw d ⎧0.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. bw d ⎟ As .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.

2.Design for ACI 318-08 2. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.2. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.5.2.3.1.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2. with the corresponding load combination factors. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1) For light-weight concrete.1. fyt.1.3. Vc. 2. φ.5.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11. If Vu ≤ 0.15 .5.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.5. is 0.75 (ACI 9.1. and Vmax. the strength reduction factor.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value. Vc.7.3.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.1.1) Beam Design 2 . is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.2.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.Chapter 2 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. 11.6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 2.3).9) Given Vu.

11. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. and 0. Tu. (ACI 11.6.16 Beam Design . the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. (ACI 11. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the equation given in ACI 11.5hf.5bw.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. a failure condition is declared. 2. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.5.1. 2 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.5.5. Determine special section properties.7.5.5.3) If Vu > φVmax.5.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.6. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size.7.5. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.7.5.6.7.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.2) ⎛ 0. 2.6.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.1(c)).5.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .

the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.2).Chapter 2 .2). Ao.75 inches. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.5. If redistribution is desired.3.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.2.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.17 . 2. and ph. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. such as Acp. pcp. and ph. This is equivalent to 1. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. such as Aoh. However. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . For torsion design of flanged beam sections.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 2. Aoh. Ao.3. are calculated. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. special section properties.6.1).6.5.

3. the section dimensions b.6.3. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.3.1. 2.1) (ACI11.1. bw.3. Similarly. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.5.1) (ACI 11. 2. R11.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.3.1) (ACI 11.6.18 Beam Design . 2. 2. With this assumption.3. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) where the section dimensions bf.1. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.6. 2.1.6. 2. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.1. 2.6. 2.6. Tcr. hf. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.1.4).6. 2.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.6.6.1.6.6(b)) (ACI 11.1) where.6.1) (ACI 11. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.6.1(c)) 2 .2.6. With this assumption. 2.6(b)) (ACI 11.1.6. R11. 2.1) (ACI 11.6.1) (ACI 11.3.1.1. h. h. However.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.

3.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11.3) In the preceding expressions.5.6. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. longitudinal bars.2.1).6. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion.6.6). However.6. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive). Tcr. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. fy. θ is taken as 45 degrees.3. 11.6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.6. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.6.7.Chapter 2 . In that case. 2. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.3).19 .3. is limited to 60 ksi.5. which is equal to 0.6). torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.5. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit. fyt. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. At /s.6) where.3.3.6. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3. Beam Design 2 . even if the material property is defined with a higher value.3. Tcr. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.75 by default (ACI 9.

75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11. bw is replaced with b.5.20 Beam Design . ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. a failure message is declared.1) For rectangular sections.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.6. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr). ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1. the concrete section should be increased in size. In that case.2) 2 .3.6. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.

Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.21 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips.6.Chapter 2 .5. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 2. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 2. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. In that case.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. Slab Design 2 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.3 independently. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.

2.1. In some cases.2. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.22 Slab Design . This is the method used when drop panels are included.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As. given the bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6.12. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. 2. These two steps. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. Where openings occur. 2. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. at a given design section in a design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.min = 0.1.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 . described in the text that follows.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.2): As.1(b)) (ACI 7.min = (ACI 7.2.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.min = 0.1(a)) (ACI 7. is obtained and reported.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).12. are repeated for every load combination.12. for each load combination. In that case.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.12.6. 2.1(c)) 0.

corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2. edge.6. 2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1. The column location (i.23 .Design for ACI 318-08 In addition. interior.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.11.Chapter 2 ..11. 2.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3).04 times the gross cross-sectional area.2). d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 .1.e.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.5. γvx = 0.3.2 Eq. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13.3. For interior columns.2 Eq. C-12) For edge columns. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates. C-16) 2 .2 Eq.2 For corner columns. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.24 Slab Design .2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2. C-15) (ACI 421.2 Eq.6. C-11) (ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-13) (ACI 421.1) For flat plates.2 Eq. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.2 Eq.5.

11.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. (ACI 11.Chapter 2 .1.2.2.25 .6.11. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. bo is the perimeter of the critical section.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2. x and y. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .1) where.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. respectively. for edge columns.2. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns. 2.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11. and for corner columns.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11.6.

26 Slab Design . 2.3.3.0. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.3.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.11.3).11.1) (ACI 11. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. the strength reduction factor.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. 2 . If this ratio exceeds 1.3. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.5.11.75 (ACI 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. 2. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.6.3). is 0.11.5.2.1) 2.11. where. and Vmax. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches. Vc.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.2) (ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. φ.3.

7.1. 11.3.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. (ACI 11.e.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.4.6..2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.7.11.27 . i. the concrete section should be increased in size.11. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.3.4. a failure condition is declared. and corner column.Chapter 2 . 2.3). edge. Slab Design 2 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.

5. and interior columns respectively.6. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. edge. Height. 6. and 8. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. s.5d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d (ACI 11. The limits of so and the spacing. Therefore.28 Slab Design . g.11. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. the distance.11.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 5/8-.2) (ACI 11. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7.5.2) ⎧0. When specifying shear studs. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. and 3/4-inch diameters. 1/2-. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.11.3) 2 .7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.3.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0. for corner. 2. so.

The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 3. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Notations 3-1 .Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.

mm Overall depth of a section. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). MPa 2 3-2 Notations . MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Depth of compression block. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Mean value of do. mm Width of member. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement.

max εs Notations 3-3 . N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. to the effective depth. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N-mm Factored moment at section.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N Shear force resisted by concrete. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. MPa Torsional modulus.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. (0. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.Chapter 3 . mm Factored shear force at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N-mm Factored axial load at section. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force.max Vu.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.

2D ± 1.0-02.0-02.0-02.0D ± 1.5L 1. For AS 3600-01.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.1): 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. live load (L).2.2. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.0E (AS/NZS 1170.35D 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0S 0.2D + 1. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.2. 4. 4.4L ± 1.2.0-02. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0W 1.0-02.2.2(f)) Note that the 0.0-02.75 PL) 1.0-02. 4.0W 1.0W 1.2D + 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.4L + 1.5(0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2D + 1.9D ± 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. other appropriate load combinations should be used. 4.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. snow (S). 3-4 Design Load Combinations . degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.4L ± 1. degrees 3.2D + 0.2. and earthquake (E) loads.2.2. 4.0-02. wind (W).0E 1.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion. 4. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0D + 0.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. pattern live load (PL).0-02. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

1.3(c). Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . load combination factors.1.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.2.1. 6. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1.3(c)) (AS 2. Table 6.1.1). Table 2.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.1. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. for all framing type (AS 6.1) (AS 6. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.3: φ = 0.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.3(c)) 3. is defined as given in AS 2. φ.2.1(b)). 19. torsion. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. 3. caution is advised.1). SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1.1.Design for AS 3600-01 3.2.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. respectively.Chapter 3 .1.1.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. (AS 2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. however. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. shear forces. and other criteria described in the text that follows.

Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. for a particular station.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.5. 3. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. shear. and torsion only. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.

1.1. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.2.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. the width.1). It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.85 ku = 0.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.2.2. (AS 8.003.3) γ = [0. or the strength of the concrete.2).15N ) (AS 10.1. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1a).007( f 'c −28)] 0. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. A uniform compressive stress of 0. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0.1.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. shear. (AS 8. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.2. is given by amax = γk u d where.7.85 − 0.2). hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. and torsion only. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.2) Beam Design 3-7 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. amax.Chapter 3 . fy .

e.003 b Cs c 0.2) where. where.2..2. which by default is 0.1. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.85 f 'c φb (AS 8. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. ε = 0.5.4).85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.3) in the preceding and following equations. designing top or bottom reinforcement).80 (AS 2. M (i.

2.1.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8. i. where ( f 's − 0..4. 6.1. or at the top * if M is negative. If a > amax.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.Chapter 3 .003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .1.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.2. ku > 0.2.e.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.1.

i. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.2. is assumed if the flange is under compression.e.e. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. If the moment is negative. i. and vice versa if M is negative.. M (i. no flanged beam data is used.003 bf Ds * 0. 3.5.1.3).1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. designing top reinforcement).. as shown in Figure 3-2. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. In that case. and the flange is ignored.2.85 f ′ c 0.10 Beam Design . the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.2.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 .5. ε = 0. 3..1. a simplified stress block. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. the flange comes under tension. if the moment is positive.e.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.

amax.85 f 'c φb f where. Cw.Chapter 3 .4.2. Cf. as shown in Figure 3-2.11 . the width of the beam is taken as bf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. However. in that case.1.80 by default (AS 2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.1. is given by: a max = γk u d where. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. which is 0.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . Cf is given by: C f = 0.3) If a ≤ Ds. If a > Ds.Design for AS 3600-01 3. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .2. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. amax ) Therefore. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.3) in the preceding and the following equations. the balance of the moment.4 (AS 8.5. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. ku = 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.1.2.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . As1 = given by: (AS 8. the calculation for Ast has two parts.

6. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0. where ′ − 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.1.12 Beam Design .85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 .2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. If a1 > amax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.2.1.2.1.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.

1.6 f 'c (AS 6.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04bw d ⎧0.1) f 'cf = 0.1. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.13 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .2) An upper limit of 0.4. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.5.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.Chapter 3 .1.min = 0. 3.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. 13 (AS 8.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2.2.14 Beam Design .5.2. V .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 3.5.1) β1 = 1. * 3. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.2.1⎜1. Vuc. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. for a particular load combination.7.6 − β2 = 1. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . Vuc.7.7. that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear force. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.1) (AS 8.

if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2.2.min. ⎟ ⎠ 3. is 0.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.2. φ.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.2.6 by default (AS 2.9) (AS 8.10) Asv.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .min shall be provided. the strength reduction factor.5. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.2. (AS 8. Asv = 0 . defined as: ( ) (AS 8.2. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv. where.2.35 w ⎜ s f sy.max.8) Beam Design 3 .2.5). min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0. V * − φVuc Asv . If φVu.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.15 . f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.6) Given V .Chapter 3 .max .5(c)(i)). s otherwise Asv.min < V * ≤ φVu.6bv d o Vu . max = 0. min = Vuc + 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3). = s fsy. and Vu. Asv = 0. whichever is greater (AS 8. Vuc.min .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.

If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.

*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.

*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

**3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

**3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At

ut

=

=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,

2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,

0.4Σx y

2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c

b

c bw − 2c bw bw

Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

**3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

**T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
**

* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:

*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At

where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

**⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
**

The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

**⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
**

* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

**T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
**

where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))

* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. as described in the following sections. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Chapter 3 . Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 3. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. 3.21 . Slab Design 3 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6. for each load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In that case.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.1.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers. 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. is obtained and reported. 3 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1): As ≥ 0.1(b)) In addition.22 Slab Design .0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.1. Where openings occur. given the bending moment.1(a)) As ≥ 0. 3.1. at a given design section in a design strip. In some cases. are repeated for every load combination.6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. which are described in the following subsections. 3.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.1.1.

3. interior.1)..2.6.2. The column location (i. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2. edge.e. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Chapter 3 .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.3).1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1.23 . Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Design for AS 3600-01 3.6. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .

3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.2. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9. Vu .4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. is given as (AS 9.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.6. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.5 f c' + 0. is given as (AS 9.3(a)) where.2.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.2.2.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2. Vuo .3(a)): a.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.24 Slab Design . * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3(b)) (AS 9.2.3σ cp ≤ 0.3σ cp ) b.6.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. 3 .4(a)) 3.

min = 3*Vu (AS 92.25 .3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Given V*.3 or 9.max. Vu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.2.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .2. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. where. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. V * − φVu Asv = .2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.2.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.6.4.4(a).7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 3.6.3.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.Design for AS 3600-01 3. is the strength reduction factor. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8.Chapter 3 . φ.4. 3. and Vu. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.1). The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.

7.e.6. 3.4).7. edge. * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. and corner column. the minimum number of 3 . i.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared.26 Slab Design .4) If V > φVmax. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.4.3.3) (NZS 12. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7.

between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4) Slab Design 3 . the distance. When specifying shear studs. and 8. edge.4.Chapter 3 .4) (NZS 12.7. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4) (NZS 12.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. so.4.3.5d. g. 3. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. for corner.4.27 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Height. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and interior columns respectively.6.5d s ≤ 0. s.7.7. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. 6. The limits of so and the spacing.

.

Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. For light-weight concrete and torsion. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. 4.

assumed as 200. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 4-2 Notations . mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.

[ fcu 25] Design moment at a section. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.Chapter 4 . N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. MPa Neutral axis depth. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Normalized design moment. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 .Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.

2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2W 1.2W 1. live load (L).4D 1.2W (BS 2.4D + 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. and wind (W) loads.4D + 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible.4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).0D ± 1.6S 1. mm Lever arm.4. 0.75PL) 1.3) (BS 2.4D ± 1.4W 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.4.2D + 1. snow (S).3) (BS 2. 1.4W 1. For BS 8110-1997.2L ± 1. pattern live load (PL).1.3) (BS 2.2D + 1.2S ± 1.4D + 1.6L + 1.4.2S ± 1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.6(0.2L + 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .2D + 1.3).3). the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.6L 1.4. γf (BS 2.

is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. Note that for reinforcement. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . the default factor of 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used.15 1. including pattern live load. this value should be overwritten as necessary. 4.50 1.2 (BS 2. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.Chapter 4 .15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. fcu. as taken from BS Table 2.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.4.7. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. 4. Note that the automatic combination.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.2). If other grades are used. γm. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3.

and other criteria described below. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. with the corresponding load factors. In such cases.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. the 4-6 Beam Design . the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. for a particular station. load combination factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. shear forces. and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1.5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. and torsion based on the beam moments. torsion.

5.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. or the strength of the concrete. Msingle. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4.1. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced. In addition. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1).4).4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Furthermore. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than. less than.5. βb ≥ 0. 4. is first calculated for a section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the width. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.e. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.1.4.4. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. Msingle = K'fcu bd .9) (BS 3. or equal to Msingle.4).4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4).4. x/d ≤ 0.5. 4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. See Figure 4-1. shear.2. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.156 2 (BS 3. where K' = 0.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4.4.4. The design procedure used by SAFE..Chapter 4 . and torsion only.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.4) Beam Design 4-7 . In such cases.4.

where 0.87 f y z (BS 3.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.4. the area of tension reinforcement. is then given by: As = M .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. As.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.4. If M > Msingle.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4. or at the top if M is negative.4.25 − ⎜ 0.5 + 0.

1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3. i.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4. Fig 2.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.4.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.3.25 − ⎜ 0.4.1..1.4.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.4. 2. Fig 2.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.e.2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. designing top reinforcement). 4.4.87 f y d − d ' ( ) .3.1.777d z = d ⎜ 0.2. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. Based on this assumption. no flanged beam data is used. 2.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.2. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.5.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.2.2.5.5.4. M (i. where (BS 3.e.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.Chapter 4 .4.5. and ' f ' s = 0.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression..4. Beam Design 4-9 .1.5 + 0.

4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.67 fcu/gm 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4.4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3.4.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.95d 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4.10 Beam Design .4.5 + 0. See Figure 4-2.45 (BS 3.4. e = 0.0035 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.

Chapter 4 . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.87 f y (d − 0.4.156 (BS 3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. as shown in Figure 4-2. If a > hf.87 f y (d − 0.4.5h f ) .4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3. Cf. However.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0. As = 0.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.9x (BS 3.4.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4.4. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. 2 As = M + 0. in that case. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.45d then.4. the width of the beam is taken as bf. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4.45d − h f ) 0.87 f y z Beam Design 4 . where 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. where (BS 3.1 f cu bd (0.5) β f = 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.11 . Cw.4) If a ≤ hf. In that case.4).45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4.4) If Kw ≤ 0.

1.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.5.4.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. 2.4. 4 .1.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.777d ) 0. Fig 2.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. 2.4. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.4) where.5.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.87 f y (d − 0. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. and ' f ' s = 0.4. Fig 2.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.4.4).95d ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.12 Beam Design .5.12.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.4.4.1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.2.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.4.3.3.87 f f (0.5 + 0.25 (BS 3.5.

5.36 0.20 An upper limit of 0.12.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.24 0.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0. which is taken from BS Table 3. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0.25 (BS 3.12.40 100 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.Chapter 4 .13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.3).1): Beam Design 4 .6.18 100 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0. if it is required.32 0.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.20 As' bh Web in tension T.13 .or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.24 0.48 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. 4. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.4) 4 . that can be resisted by the concrete.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.4.2. with the corresponding load combination factors. 5 MPa) (BS 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. for a particular load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.5. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5.8 fcu .2) For light-weight concrete.5.4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. v. vc.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. Determine the shear stress.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.14 Beam Design .63 fcu .04bw d ⎧0.

Table 3.5.1) However. the following limitations also apply: 0.4.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.5.8. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.4. Table 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.Chapter 4 .4.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5. 4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .8) (BS 2.4. Table 3. vc.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5. and vmax.4) (BS 3.5.2. vc.5.4.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.4. Table 3.4.4.2. BS 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.15 .4.4.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.4.4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.8) (BS 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.5.12) 0.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.4.Design for BS 8110-97 4.3): Beam Design 4 .

4bw = sv 0.5.7) (BS 3.2) (BS 3.5. Determine special section properties.4. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.87 f yv If v > vmax. Table 3. 4 . Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. vt.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. (BS 3.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In the preceding expressions.5. Table 3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4. obtained from each load combination.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.3. 4.4.16 Beam Design .5. Determine critical torsion stress.4) Asv 0. a failure condition is declared.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.

8 f cu .2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. vt.17 .13).4.4. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2. In typical framed construction.3.1) For flanged sections.5) Beam Design 4 . vt. with the corresponding load combination factors. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4.Chapter 4 .5. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.4.4. The torsional shear stress.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.5.

3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.18 Beam Design .4.4.3. Asv.min.5.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.min. vt.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.067 fcu .7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . However.min = min 0. vt.067 fcu .3.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.t /sv.8 x1 y1 (0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.4N/mm 2 x 0. vt is less than the threshold limit.min.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. vt.min = min 0.0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.5.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. vt. For lightweight concrete.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.0. In that case. If vt > vt.5) 4.4. 4 .4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.min is defined as: vt .6).6).4. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.t sv = T 0.7) In the preceding expressions.4. is calculated as: Asv . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.

a failure message is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. the concrete section should be increased in size.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Beam Design 4 .63 fcu . vt exceeds this limit. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. v and torsional shear stress. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.8 fcu . vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.4) If the combination of shear stress.19 .Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.5) For light-weight concrete.Chapter 4 . In that case.

1. is obtained and reported. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. for each load combination.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. To learn more about the design strips. 4. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.20 Slab Design . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 4. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. 4 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.

the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.6. Where openings occur. 4. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.21 .5.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.12.6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.12.1).0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0. BS Table 3.6.7. In some cases. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .3. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. This is the method used when drop panels are included.6.3) In addition.6.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In that case.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7.6).2. given the bending moment. 4.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.12.Chapter 4 . the slab width is adjusted accordingly.Design for BS 8110-97 4.1. at a given design section in a design strip. 4.5.7.

7.6): 1 1 0.6. edge.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1. Table 3. The column location (i.7.22 Slab Design .5d 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.5d 1..7.5. 1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4.4.7.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.1).2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.4.5d Interior Column 1.5.7. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.e.5d 1.7.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3. 3. interior.8) 4 .2.

67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .7. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. Table 3.5.4. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .6.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.8 f cu .2) However. Table 3.7.5.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.6. the nominal design shear stress. 4. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. 5MPa) (BS 3.4.4.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.5M ⎛ y 1.4) v ≤ min(0.63 fcu .6.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .4.5.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5.3) 1.4.7.5.4.7.Chapter 4 .6. v. the following limitations also apply: 0.23 .4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.4) (BS 3.4.8) (BS 3.4) For light-weight concrete.2.2. where (BS 3. 3.

the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6. 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.24 Slab Design .00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.2.3.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.6.7.6. 4. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 4. 4 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.6.25 ⎪1.5). The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

**4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

**4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
**

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

gx x

**Outermost peripheral line of studs
**

d 2

Free edge

Iy

gx

gy

s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

**Critical section centroid
**

y Ix

Free edge

y

Ix

x

Critical section centroid

Free edge

Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

**4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
**

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

8.5L + 0. and earthquake (E) loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.9D + 1.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.3.4W 0.5L 1. Table C. live load (L).3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.5L ± 0.5S + 0.25D + 1.3.2.3.25D + 1.2.5S 0. Table C. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4.9D + 1.9D + 1.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.5L 0. Table C.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations . Table C.1) 1. wind (W).3.4W 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).5S 1.3) (CSA 8.9D + 1.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.4D 1.25D + 1.5L ± 0.25D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5(0.3-04.25D + 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.5L 0.5S 1. pattern live load (PL).5S ± 0.5S + 0. snow (S).5S ± 0.25D + 1.4W (CSA 8.9D + 1.5S 0. For CSA A23.5L 1.2.25D + 1.4W 0.75 PL) 1.5L + 0.9D + 1.

6.Chapter 5 .0D ± 1.4.9D ± 1.1. caution is advised.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 . SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.25D + 0. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.5.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.1. for all framing types (CSA 8. Table C.0E 1.25S ± 1.5L ± 1.4W 0.0E 1. φ.5L + 0.3.5L ± 1.1) 5.0E 1.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.1).65 for concrete φs = 0.4.25D + 0. (CSA 8.1). Table C. (CSA 8.4W 0. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.4W 1. 5.4W 0.Design for CSA A23.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.5L ± 1.9D + 0.2.9D + 0.3-04 1.5S ± 1.6.3.0E (CSA 8. however. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2) (CSA 8.4W 1.25S ± 1. respectively.25D ± 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4W 1.0D + 0.2.0D + 0.0D + 0.3-04 code is used.5S ± 1.

Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . with the corresponding load factors.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and torsion only.5. load combination factors. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments. for a particular station. shear forces. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. torsion. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.

the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. designing top or bottom reinforcement). 5. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. 5. where.e. or the strength of the concrete. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1).and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. In such cases.7).1.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the width.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1) Beam Design 5-7 . Furthermore.Design for CSA A23. and torsion only.Chapter 5 .. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Mf (i.5.1. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. shear. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10.4). The design procedure used by SAFE.

97 – 0.67.65 (CSA 8.67 cb = (CSA 10. β1.5.85 – 0.1.1. β1 = 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.5.2).0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.2) in the preceding and the following equations. The parameters α1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .7) (CSA 10.0025f'c ≥ 0.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.4.1.0015f'c ≥ 0.7) (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.

1.1.5.1.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.2.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 . If a > ab (CSA 10. 10. or at the top if Mf is negative.Chapter 5 .2).Design for CSA A23. where f ′ = 0.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.

5. the total tension reinforcement.2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.97 – 0. Mf (i.7) (CSA 10. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2) in the preceding and the following equations.65 (CSA 8.e.2.2.5.1) where.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment..0025 f' c ≥ 0.4..2 5.1. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10. i.0015 f' c ≥ 0.1.1.10.2.1. 5.5. As = As1 + As2.5.85 – 0.10 Beam Design .4.1. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.67 β1 = 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative. the value of φc is 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.e. The parameters α1. no flanged beam data is used.67 cb = (CSA 10.1. designing top reinforcement).2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.7) 5 .5. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. β1.1.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.

Design for CSA A23. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Cf.1. However. calculation for As has two parts. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 .Chapter 5 . As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.3-04 If a ≤ hs. ab ) c ε = 0.11 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. If a > hs. the balance of the moment. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.12 Beam Design . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.5. where 5 .1.2). If a1 > ab (CSA 10.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore.5.2). and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.

5.5.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.Chapter 5 .3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.5.1. 5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.Design for CSA A23.1) An upper limit of 0.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.1. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.1.5. 10.2.3) In addition.13 .3.1.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. 5. Vc. 5.65 (CSA 8. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. for a particular loading combination.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. Vc.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.14 Beam Design . the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Vf.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.5.4.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.5.04bw d ⎧0. with the corresponding load combination factors.2). 5 . that can be resisted by the concrete.3. Determine the shear force. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. By default it is taken as 0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.

6. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data.6. For normal density concrete. bw is the effective web width.6.75. as follows (CSA 11.3. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.15 .6. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. the general method is used (CSA 11.3. For flanged beams. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. (CSA 8.6.6.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. it is the width of the web of the beam.4).2). For concrete using lower density aggregate. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.3. and described further in the following sections. its value is 1 (CSA 8.1 and 0. Its value is normally between 0. which is taken by the program as the default value.6.Design for CSA A23. if applicable.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. For rectangular beams.2).3. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.3). it is the width of the beam.21 (CSA 11.6.85. It is determined according to CSA 11. It is taken as the greater of 0. and the tensile force is negligible. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. ⎪0. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.00.72h.3.4. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.5): ⎧1. d v is the effective shear depth.2). h.Chapter 5 .5).3.9d or 0. If the overall beam depth.3): Beam Design 5 . When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. β is taken as 0.6.

β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate.18 (CSA 11. the crack spacing parameter. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. sze. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11.c) In the preceding expression.3. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. and ag ≥ 20mm. for simplified cases. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.18. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . In summary. ag. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. However. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. β is taken as 0.3. β = 0. or 5 .3.6. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.18 (CSA 11.3. ⎪ 0. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.3a). and ag < 20mm. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.16 Beam Design .85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11.6. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.6. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.6. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.6.3.3.3 c) where. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.

40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.17 .3. Beam Design 5 .Chapter 5 . the equivalent crack spacing parameter.Design for CSA A23.6. and linearly interpolated between these values.3.6.85Sz otherwise.4(a)) (CSA 11. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11.3.3-04 tension is not negligible. 11. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0. Nf is taken as positive for tension. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.3. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.6.3(b)).6.3.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action.4(a)) (CSA 2. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.6.3. (CSA 11. 11.4): β= 0.3.6. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.6.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. The longitudinal strain.6. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.1.3.4) In the preceding expression. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.3. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.6.6. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.4).4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.3.

4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. εx = M f d v + V f + 0. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. and Vr.1) 5 . it is recalculated with the following equation.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.6. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. 5. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.4(e)).3.3.max = 0.3. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11. To check this condition.5.6.max.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.6.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11.18 Beam Design . Vc.3. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.2.003 (CSA 11.4(d)).3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr . it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. taken as half of the total area. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. In the first pass.5.6. the program performs the design in two passes.

Chapter 5 . The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.6. 11. a failure condition is declared. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.6. whenever applicable. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.6.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .3.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr . the term θ is used.1) (CSA 11. If the overall beam depth. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.3).2).3.19 . (CSA 11. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.2.3.2) In the preceding equations.1. It is determined according to CSA 11.6.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.3.8. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. h.3.2.3.3.4). the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.6.2.3. or by calculation.8.25Tcr. Beam Design 5 .Design for CSA A23.3). Similar to the β factor. which was described previously.3.5.max .8.

6.3). 5 . 5. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. Determine critical torsion capacity. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Tf. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa.5. f y > 400 MPa. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .3. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.6. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. f y ≤ 400 MPa.6.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3) If the axial force is tensile.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.6.4). Determine special section properties.20 Beam Design . θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 .

special section properties. such as Ac. However. 5. If redistribution is desired. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2). the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.3. Aoh.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. However.5. With this assumption.Chapter 5 . and ph. with the corresponding load combination factors.3). Ao.Design for CSA A23.21 . These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. and ph are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. such as Aoh.3.2. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. pc.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. Ao. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3-04 5.9. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 .5. With this assumption. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.

1) (CSA 11. 5.2.3) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.1) (CSA 11.9. h.9. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.3.65.10.3. bw.5.1) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11.4).9.10. Tcr.10. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.3) (CSA 11.9. 5 .3. hf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.4) where. which is equal to 0.4) where the section dimensions bf.3.22 Beam Design .10.2.3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.3.9. h.3.10.2. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.2.2. Similarly.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.3. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.10. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11. the section dimensions b. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.

1).3) Mf Al = dv + 0.3.2. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11. However.5.5 N f + (V f − 0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.23 .5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.Design for CSA A23. At /s. In that case. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . Tcr. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.10. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3). Tcr.Chapter 5 .3.3-04 5.9.

If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. In that case.9) In the preceding expressions. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. the concrete section should be increased in size.10.4) For rectangular sections.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.3. If the general method is being used.3. 5 . θ is computed as previously described for shear.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.24 Beam Design . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.2.3. a failure message is declared. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition.8. 11.10.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11. bw is replaced with b.6.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.10.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).

refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Slab Design 5 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 5 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries.25 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. is obtained and reported. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 5. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.

1. for each load combination.002 bh (CSA 7. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 5. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.6. In some cases. given the bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. 5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 5 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area. Where openings occur. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. 5. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.10. at a given design section in a design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1): As ≥ 0.26 Slab Design . In that case.1) In addition.6.1.8.

edge.1 and CSA 13.Chapter 5 .Design for CSA A23.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.3.3..3-04 5. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.3.2.27 .2.3. The column location (i.6.3.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.3). Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.3.6.e.2). d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5. where Slab Design 5 . interior. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.

5.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .2) If the effective depth.28 Slab Design .6.10.4. and ⎪for corner columns. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.3.4.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . d.1) where. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.4.4.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0. exceeds 300 mm.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.3). βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. (CSA 13. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums. 5. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.3.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.3.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.3. 5 .2. and (CSA 13.

2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .3.8. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2. where. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3.Design for CSA A23. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.8. 5.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0..6.3-04 5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.3) 5. 5. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.max = 0. φs. is the strength reduction factor.max.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13. and vf. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.29 .1). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.75λφ c (CSA 13.3.2) Given vf. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. Slab Design 5 .Chapter 5 .2. vc.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3.

Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3. and interior columns respectively. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3. and corner column.8. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.. i.max.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13.6.5) If vf > vf. and 8. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.8. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge.max. a failure condition is declared. edge.3. Therefore.e.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. 6. 5 .30 Slab Design . (CSA 13. 5.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.4d. for corner.

s. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.4d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.6) (CSA 13. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.31 .Chapter 5 . so. The limits of so and the spacing.3-04 5. When specifying shear studs. Height.4 d ⎧ 0.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.6) Slab Design 5 .50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0. the distance.8.3.8.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6.3.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.Design for CSA A23.

.

Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0. However. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. For simplicity. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. 6.

mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange.

N-mm Normalized design moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. mm Design moment at a section.max u VRdc VRd. N-mm Torsional cracking moment.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Flange thickness.Chapter 6 . N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. mm Lever arm. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section.

i i >1 (EC0 Eq.iψ 0. 6. pattern live load (PL).1Qk .12b) For this code. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations . ∑G j ≥1 k.iψ 0. j Gk .i Qk . 6.iψ 0. j Gk .10a) ∑ξ γ j G. 6.i Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . 6. j Gk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. ∑γ j ≥1 G. j + γ P P + γ Q . j + γ P P + γ Q . wind (W). live load (L). if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs.10a and 6. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.i Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq. and earthquake (E) loads.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. j + γ P P + γ Q .1Qk . 6.1 + ∑ γ Q .12b. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2. snow (S). 6.10b.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.1Qk .1 + ∑ γ Q . 6. MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.1ψ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.

3): γGj.1 L ξ γGj.inf D ± γQ. 6.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.supD + (0.10) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.i L γGj.i L + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0. 6.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 . 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.supD + (0.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.i S γGj.1 W + γQ.i L + ψ2.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W γGj.i L D ± 1.i ψ0. 6.1 W (EC0 Eq.i W γGj.i S γGj.sup D ± γQ.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.i ψ0.i ψ0.i S γGj.i S (EC0 Eq. 6.sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq. γGj.i ψ0.i L γGj.sup D γGj.Chapter 6 .i ψ0.i L D ± 1.1 PL γGj.i ψ0.10a and 6.i W γGj.inf D ± γQ. 6.i ψ0.0E + ψ2. 6. 6.1 W γGj.4. 6.i W + γQ.0E D ± 1. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program. 6.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.1 L ± γQ.sup D + γQ.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 PL γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.i ψ0. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.1 L γGj.supD + (0.sup D + γQ.i S ± γQ. 6. 6.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.75)γQ.1 S ± γQ. 6.75)γQ.1 PL ξ γGj.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.10b.sup D γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D ξ γGj.0E + ψ2.supD + γQ.1 S ± γQ.1 L + γQ.75)γQ.supD + γQ.1 L γGj.1 S + γQ. 6.i W γGj.supD + γQ.1 ψ0.

1 L ± γQ.sup D + γQ.0E D ± 1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 W + γQ.inf = 1.5 = 0.6 (wind load) = 0.sup D + γQ. 6.i S ξ γGj.i S D ± 1.i ψ0. 6.5 (snow load.sup D ± γQ.i S γGj.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i ψ0. assumed not to be storage) = 0.1 S + γQ. 6.1 S ± γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj.1 S + γQ.sup D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 L + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.i ψ0.1 W ξ γGj.1 L + γQ.i ψ0.i L γGj.5 = 1.1 L ± γQ.i ψ0.1 W + γQ. 6.0E + ψ2.sup D + γQ.sup D ± γQ. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.1 ψ0.i L γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ξ = 1.inf D ± γQ.i L + ψ2.1 W γGj.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.i L D ± 1.1 γQ.1 ψ0.i ψ0.sup = 1.1 ψ0.35 γGj.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.1 W + γQ.inf D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.00 γQ.i ψ0.i S γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.10a) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj. γGj.i S (EC0 Eq.1 S ± γQ.1 ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.i L γGj.i W ξ γGj.7 (live load.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .i ψ0.85 (EC0 Table A1.1) (EC0 Table A1.i L γGj. 6.i W γGj.1 W γGj.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.

Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .i ψ2.2.3 (live.6(1)) (EC2 3.2.i = 0.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. fck. other appropriate load combinations should be used. should be 400 and 600 MPa.1. γs and γc as shown here. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used.6(1)). 6.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.1. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. αcc is taken as 1. 6.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.1) (EC0 Table A1.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.7(2)) (EC2 3.1.Chapter 6 .2(2)). f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.2(3)). SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. fyk. respectively (EC2 3. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.

shear. for a particular station. load combination factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2.4. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. For accidental and earthquake situations. and torsion only.4. shear forces. torsion. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.4).1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. γs = 1. γc = 1. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. The user should consider those separately. however.4(1). SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5.2. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. These values can be overwritten. Table 2.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .15 Partial safety factor for concrete. caution is advised.

the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. 6. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.5) (EC2 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. In such cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. the width. or the strength of the concrete. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.5.7(3). Fig 3.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis.1.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5.Chapter 6 .0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.7(3)). Fig 3.1. In such cases.7(3). Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . with the corresponding load factors.1.

and T-beams).5(4)).25(0. the following values are used: k1 = 0. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.44 k2 = k4 = 1.1. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.7(3)) λ = 0.5(4)) (EC2 5. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.6 + 0.7(3)) (EC2 3.54 (EC 5.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.10 Beam Design . δ. is summarized in the subsections that follow.7(3)) (EC2 3. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5. 6 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.1.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.5(4)) (EC 5. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.5(4)) (EC 5.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3. ( x d )lim .

1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. less than.Chapter 6 .11 . m.1. are obtained first. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. or equal to mlim. mlim. The normalized design moment. the normalized moment. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam.5. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . m. mlim.

A's and As. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. As. and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. and is given by: 6 .12 Beam Design . If m > mlim. or at the top if MEd is negative. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. a singly reinforced beam is designed. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. ωlim.

Based on this assumption. i. designing top reinforcement).1.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.7(4).13 . 3.1. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. Fig 3. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.. The normalized design moment.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.5.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. additional calculation is required. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. 6. no flanged beam data is used.1. Initially.2.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6.e.1. MEd (i.8) 6.e.1.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1. See Figure 6-2. m.5(4). the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. 3.1. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . 3.2.Chapter 6 ..5. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.5.

in that case. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. However. as shown in Figure 6-2. If a > hf. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. M1 = M − M2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf.14 Beam Design . As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. the width of the beam is taken as bf. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the calculation for As has two parts. is determined as follows: 6 .

ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.1.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. Beam Design 6 . f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6. 3.2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. Fig 3.15 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's.7(4).8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.Chapter 6 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. VEd.1(1)) As .12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.5.12.2. Table 3. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As . 6 .26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. Table 3. Table 3. Determine the shear force.1(3)). at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2.5.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1.1) (EC2 3. VRd.16 Beam Design .1. 6.1) f ctm = 2.2.0013bd (EC2 9. for a particular load combination. Determine the shear reinforcement required.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.12.12.c. that can be resisted by the concrete.min = 0.2): Determine the factored shear force.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.min = 0.1.

2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2(1)) (EC2 6.c.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.Chapter 6 .2. 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .c.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0. is calculated as: 13 VRd .2(1)) (EC2 6. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .c = ⎡C Rd .17 .18 γ c ν min = 0.2.5. VRd. with the corresponding load combination factors.15 Beam Design 6 .5.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.2. vmin.02 bw d (EC2 6. 6.c = 0.2.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.

9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.3(3)) (EC2 6.2. obtained from each load combination.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.2.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.3(1)) (EC2 6. 6 .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .2.3(3)) (EC2 6. a failure condition is declared.2.2(6)) (EC2 6.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. VRd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc. Asw Asw.2.max.max.2.3(3)) Asw.2.18 Beam Design . VRdc.min s = 0.6⎜1 − z = 0.2.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.3(3)) (EC2 6. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .2.

These properties are described in the following (EC2 6.5.5. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Beam Design 6 .3. 6.Chapter 6 . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1(2)). special section properties.5. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. 6.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. If redistribution is desired. such as Ak. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. 6. u. tef.3. However.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. TEd. and zi are calculated.2).19 . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Determine critical torsion capacity.3. uk. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Determine special section properties.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3.

3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6. and uk.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption.2(1)) (EC2 6. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.20 Beam Design . h. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm.3. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i.2(3)) where. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness. such as Ak.3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.2(3)) 6 .3. Similarly. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.3.3. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption. the section dimensions b.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. However.3.

2.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd.5.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 . However. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6. h.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1. and compression diagonals.3. In that case.0 TRd .21 .3. the shear due to this torsion.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0. hf.2(5)) where VRd. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3.3.c is the torsional cracking moment.c VRd . is first calculated. bw.05 / γ c (EC2 6.3. 6. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. Vt. if the equation is not satisfied. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. longitudinal bars.3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.5.2.2(1)) 6.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.c (EC2 6. calculated as: TRd . followed by the required stirrup area.1. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.Chapter 6 .

max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.0 VRd .2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts.2(4)) 6 .22 Beam Design .8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .max.3(2)). In the preceding expressions. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.3.2. as previously defined for beam shear.max (EC2 6.3. The code allows any value between 21.max + VEd ≤ 1. θ is taken as 45 degrees. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .2(4)) where TRd.3.

Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6.Chapter 6 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.23 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Slab Design 6 . the concrete section should be increased in size. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. a failure message is declared. To learn more about the design strips. 6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. In that case. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.

are repeated for every load combination.24 Slab Design .1(1)) As .min = 0.1.min = 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. for each load combination.3. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. is obtained and reported. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 6. described in the subsections that follow.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.0013bd (EC2 9.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. In that case. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These two steps. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1): As . Where openings occur.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 6.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.2.1.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 .2.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1. 6. given the bending moment.1. In some cases.

corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4.. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.Chapter 6 . The column location (i.1(3)).4.6.25 .2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.1.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.2. 6.1) (EC2 Table 3. edge. Slab Design 6 .12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6. interior. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.1) (EC2 Table 3.2(1)).6.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.e.1) fctm = 2. 6.

c = ⎡C Rd .4(1)) 6 .4.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.26 Slab Design .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .

vEd.02 (EC2 6. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4.4(1)) (EC2 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. the nominal design shear stress. conservatively taken as zeros.Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4.4. C Rd . where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.15 6.18 γ c (EC2 6.4.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.2. conservatively taken as zeros.4.4.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.4(1)) (EC2 6.6.c = 0.27 .4(1)) ν min = 0.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .0 d (EC2 6.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.

3.6. and vRd. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.4.3.4.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. 6.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.28 Slab Design .ef If vEd > vRd. 6 .6.max.c.75v Rd . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. vRd.5 f ywd . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. Asw (v Ed − 0. the concrete section should be increased in size. Given vEd. 6. 6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. a failure condition is declared.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.5).6.c ) = u1 sr 1.max.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d.e.Chapter 6 . The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 . for corner. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.6. edge. 6.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.3. Height. 6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.3(1)). and corner column. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. edge.4.29 . Therefore.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. i. and 8. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.6. and interior columns respectively.

When specifying shear studs.4. so.3(1)) (EC2 9. g. 16-.3(1)) (EC2 9.4. 12-.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. s.30 Slab Design . 14-. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.3(1)) 6 . The limits of so and the spacing. and 20-millimeter diameter.3(1)) (EC2 9.3d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.4.4.4.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1. the distance.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm

2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm

4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum

2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

**Design Load Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

**Limits on Material Strength
**

The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

**Partial Safety Factors
**

The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design

In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

**7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
**

The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.0035 − 0.5.1.9) (CP 6.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0. In such cases.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.1.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . the width.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. with the corresponding load factors.. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. where εc.1.2.1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.4(b)). it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.5.2.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. In such cases. ⎧0.max is defined as: ε c . Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.e.2. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.4(a)). or the strength of the concrete. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. βb ≥ 0. 7.1. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.

2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than. As. is obtained from: As = M .2.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. is obtained first for a section.2. Msingle = K'fcu bd . hence.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.87 f y z (CP 6. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. where 2 (CP 6. Fig 6.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.1.Chapter 7 . See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.1. and torsion only. 7.4(a).4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .1.4(b)). If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. less than.2.1fcuAg) (CP 6. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.2. shear.4(c)) ⎧0. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. Msingle. In addition.1.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4(a)).9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.1. or equal to Msingle. where 0.1.

4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1.4(c)) (CP 6.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6. If M > Msingle.25 − ⎜ 0.5 + 0.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.2.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.1.1. or at the top if M is negative. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0.2.2.

the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.5 + 0.2..e. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4(c)) 7. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.5.e.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.2.1.2.1. Fig.87 f y z + 0. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. Beam Design 7-9 .87 f y . 3.1.2.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.1. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.Chapter 7 .1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.4(c). Fig 6. no flanged beam data is used.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5.95d 0.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. designing top reinforcement).9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.45 .2.6. 3.2..5.1. M (i. Based on this assumption.36 . 7.4(a).1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. i. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .1.2.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.2.

See Figure 7-2.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.5 + 0.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.1.4(c)) (CP 6.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. 0.1) If a ≤ hf. for ⎪ 0.4(c).72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.45 .1. Fig 6. the width of the beam is taken as bf.1. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . Fig 6. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. However.2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.95d. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .2.36 .2.10 Beam Design .4(a). If a > hf .1. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 . the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. in that case. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.2.

where (BS 3.Chapter 7 .67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . x ≤ 0.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .4.4. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.11 .5) β f = 0. Cw. as shown in Figure 7-2.5h f ) bf hf ec 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.87 f y (d − 0.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . Cf.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0. ⎪0. In that case.5h f ) .5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.67 fcu/gm 0.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 . x ≤ 0.4d then.1 f cu bd (0.4.9 x − h f ) 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. x ≤ 0.

5h f ) ) .2.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.12 Beam Design .1.2. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.1.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4(d)) ⎧0.4(c)). The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.32 ⎪ ⎪0.2. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. 7 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.87 f y ( d − 0. where (CP 6.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.1.

Chapter 7 . 3.1.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.2.2.4(c).87 f y (d − 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw . and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.95d ⎜ 0.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. Fig 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .95d ⎜ 0.5 + 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.13 . where 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.5 + 0.6.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.

36 0.1).20 0.1.1.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.40 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.4 bf bw ≥ 0.1 (CP 9. which is taken from CP Table 9.2.1(CP 9.2.14 Beam Design .1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.5.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.1.13 100 0.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.3): 7 . Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2.48 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.2.2. if it is required.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.32 0.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.24 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.

Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. vc.2. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .1. the following steps are involved (CP 6.Chapter 7 .3) 7.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.5.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors.2. for a particular load combination.2.15 . 7.1. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.8 fcu . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. Determine the shear stress. 7 MPa) (CP 6.1. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.04bw d ⎧0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.5(a)) 7.2.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. vc.2. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6. that can be resisted by the concrete.5): Determine the shear stress. v.5.1.

2. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6. CP 6.25 However.3) ≥ 0.2. Table 6.5(g)) (CP 6. bd 1 4 (CP 6.5(c).5(c).1.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2.3) (CP 6.2.1. Table 6.5.2.1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. Table 6.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.5(c).1.2. vr.2. as: 7 . the following limitations also apply: 0.5(c).5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.1.67 1.2.2.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. Table 6.1.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.2.5(c).00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.16 Beam Design . Table 6. vc.5(k)) 7. and vmax.2.1.5(k)) 0.

Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. obtained from each load combination.2.5.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.5(b).5(b)) (CP 6.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . Table 6. sv 0. (CP 6.1.17 .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.2.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0. Beam Design 7 .87 f yv If v > vmax. Determine special section properties.Chapter 7 .1. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.1.1.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. a failure condition is declared. vt.2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.2. (CP 6. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. 7.

vt. The torsional shear stress.1).5.3.18 Beam Design .17 7 . Table 6. with the corresponding load combination factors.3(a)) For flanged sections. 7.3.3.3. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. In typical framed construction. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6.4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. vt.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3.8 f cu . If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.

6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.3. 7.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .min. vt. In that case.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.min.3. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.067 fcu . Asv.0.5. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.5).t /sv.4. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.3. vt is less than the threshold limit. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. However. Table 6.min.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5). vt.19 .min = min 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.min.3.Chapter 7 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.

The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.3. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. the concrete section should be increased in size. In that case.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . a failure message is declared. 7. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. To learn more about the design strips.6) In the preceding expressions.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.3. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.87 f yv ) (CP 6. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.8 x1 y1 (0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .3.8 fcu .t sv = T 0.20 Slab Design . 7 . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

In some cases. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. 7. is obtained and reported.6. 7. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. In that case. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. at a given design section in a design strip.6. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. given the bending moment.21 .6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.Chapter 7 .1.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). along with the corresponding controlling load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. for each load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.

5d from the face of the support (CP 6.3.1. edge.5. 7.1.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9. interior.6.7).3. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1. 7. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.7(d)).2.1(a)) In addition. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. Where openings occur.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.2.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.22 Slab Design .1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.1.. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 7 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1.6. 7.3).04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. The column location (i.e.

3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1. 6.7(d).5d 1.2.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.7(d).5(c).5(g).79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6. Table 6. Table 6.5d 1.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.2.Chapter 7 .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7. Table 6.1.5.7(d)) (CP 6.2.23 .5d 1.1.5d Interior Column 1.5.1.6.1.3): 0.

3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.25 However.5.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.5 x ⎬ . Table 6. Table 2.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.5.67 1. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.5. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.5(c).1. 7 MPa) (CP 6.6. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2. where (CP 6. v ≤ min(0.1.5 + 1. x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending.2.2) 0.2.8 f cu . bd 1 4 (CP 6.24 Slab Design .5.2.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. v. 7 .1.2.3. the nominal design shear stress. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1. 6.5(c).7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.4.3) ≥ 0.6(b).1. Table 6.00 As = area of tension reinforcement. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.7(b)) (CP Table 6.

Chapter 7 . If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.5.7(e)). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5.6.25 .6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5.1. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.25 ⎪1.5. 7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.1. 6.3. 7. 7.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.1.6.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.1.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6(b).

a failure condition is declared.4ud = ≥ . Therefore. If v ≤ 1. and 8.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . ≥ s 0.26 Slab Design .7(e)).87 f yv s If v > vmax. 0..3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. 7 . edge.0vc (CP 6. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.6vc 0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.1.3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 6. 7. i. and interior columns respectively.6vc ≤ v < 2.5. edge.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax. for corner. the concrete section should be increased in size.7(f)).1. and corner column.5.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.1.7v − vc ) ud 0.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.5. vc.e.5.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.87 f yv If 1.1.87 f yv 0. and vmax. (CP 6.6.5.7(e)) (CP 6.87 f yv 0.

27 .Chapter 7 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4. The limits of so and the spacing. the distance. 12-.5. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.7(f)) (CP 6.6.5d.3.5d (CP 6. When specifying shear studs.7(f)) (CP 6.1.5.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.75d g ≤ 1. g.7(f)) Slab Design 7 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.1. s.1. 16-. Height. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. so. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.2.5. and 20-millimeter diameter.5d s ≤ 0.5d. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. 14-.

.

1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. 8. For simplicity. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Notations 8-1 . mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter.

MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. assumed as 200. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.

mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. N-mm Normalized design moment. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Lever arm. N-mm Factored shear force at a section.max Notations 8.Chapter 8 . N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.3 . N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section.

5L ± 1.3) (IS 36. and earthquake (E) loads.1) (IS 31.5S 1.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .4.0E (IS 36. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.4.2L ± 1. wind (W).5D 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.5D + 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2W 1.5D + 1.5W 1.5.5L 1.5W 0.9D ± 1.5D + 1.2E 1.5D ± 1.5(0. pattern live load (PL).0W 1.9D ± 1.5D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc. Table 18): 1.5E 1.5D + 1.4.4.1) (IS 36. live load (L).1) (IS 36. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2L ± 1. For IS 456-2000.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.75 PL) 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.2.4.2D + 1. snow (S).5L ± 1.5D ± 1. MPa 8.5E 0. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.

and torsion based on the beam moments. 14. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2. beams must be designed for torsion.4. caution is advised.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2S ± 1. torsion.5 (IS 36.2D + 1.2L + 1.2E (IS 36.2S ± 1.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.5L + 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456. other appropriate load combinations should be used.Design for IS 456-2000 1.2D + 1.4.2L + 1.2D + 1.2.2D + 1.2W 1. however. 8. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. γm. 8.2S ± 1.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear. shear forces. These values can be overwritten. shear.5D + 1. γc = 1. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.Chapter 8 . Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2S ± 1.4.2W 1. However.2E 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.5 . and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. 8. γs = 1.1) (IS 36. and torsion only. load combination factors.5S 1.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.

4. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. Rather. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. In such cases. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.1. 8-6 Beam Design . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. If redistribution is desired.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. However. 8. In such cases. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41.4. Beam Design 8. where (IS 41. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1) 8.7 .4. with the corresponding load factors.4.4. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. respectively.Chapter 8 . Effectively.4.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.Design for IS 456-2000 8. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In such cases.1.2) (IS 41. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt.2.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. If Mt exceeds Mu.1.

3. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1) (IS 38. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The area of the stress block. a. or the strength of the concrete.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. c.4. the width.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. with the corresponding load combination factors. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.4. (IS 41. 8.1) 8-8 Beam Design . When a torsional moment is to be included.1). The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.2.1) 8. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.

1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.42 (IS 38.53 0. Furthermore. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.1) (IS 38.1).36 β = 0.0035 b f′ s 0. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.Chapter 8 .67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.48 0.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.1).46 Beam Design 8. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.max /d 0.9 .

Msingle = α xu.48 − 0. Msingle. 8. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.max.max = 0.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.53 − 0.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. and torsion only. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.4.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0.53 ⎪ ⎪0. is given by 8 .2.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. xu.max d ⎧0.10 Beam Design . m. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.0035 (IS 38. are obtained first. xu .max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1. less than. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected.max d xu. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. shear. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. or equal to Msingle.

where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.Chapter 8 .2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') . Beam Design 8.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. where (IS G-1. the area of compression reinforcement.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. and vice versa if Mu is negative.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . or at the top if Mu is negative.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1. is obtained from As = Mu . is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. − If Mu > Msingle.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1. A's.11 . As.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 . See Figure 8-2.12 Beam Design .4. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. no flanged beam data is used. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.2. On the basis of this assumption.2. designing top reinforcement).2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2. Mu (i.4.3. i..e.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.3. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.. 8.e. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4.

2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. Cf.1). m.Chapter 8 . If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.15 xu + 0. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. Cw. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. However.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.13 .65D f if D f > 0. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . as shown in Figure 8-2. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts.

single ⎛ 0.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.1) xu . As = (f y γ s )(d − 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. and 8 .max ⎡ x u.single. A's. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.53 − 0. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.46 (IS 38.single.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .53 ⎪ ⎪0. the area of compression reinforcement.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.48 − 0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.max d ⎧0.14 Beam Design .

04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1.2.04bw d ⎧0.4.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. for a particular load combination.Chapter 8 .1): As ≥ 0.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.1) (IS 26.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1.5.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.4.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. the following steps are involved (IS 40.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.2) 8.85 bd fy (IS 26.1) An upper limit of 0.15 . at a particular station.1.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.5.5.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.5.5.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.5.

max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. τc. as: τcd = kδτc.max (IS 40.2) 8 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.2.7 M40 4. τc. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows. (IS 40. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.3.1.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .4.max.0 τc. τv ≤ τc. where bd (IS 40. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.8 M25 3. d. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete.5 M20 2.1 M30 3.16 Beam Design .5 M35 3.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section. τc.2. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.3.3.max (MPa) (IS 40.

1) (IS 40.4(a)) Beam Design 8.5. 0.1.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .2.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.4.87 f y If τcd + 0. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.4 Asv 0.3. and if Pu > 0 . 26. Under Tension (IS 40.2.4 b ≥ sv 0. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.1.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. taken as 1.2.4 < τv ≤ τc.1.Chapter 8 .2.2. Table 19) (IS 40.max (IS 40. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.2.1.1).87 f y (IS 40.17 .

87 f y (IS 41.max. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.87 f y ) 2.87 f y (IS 41. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.1) (IS 40.1.2.18 Beam Design .3. τc.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.max is determined as defined in the last section. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.max The maximum nominal shear stress.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.4) 8. a failure condition is declared.2.4. obtained from each load combination. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.3) (IS 41. 26.5.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.5d1 (0.3. 8 .4 b ≥ sv 0.3) τve ≤ τc. (IS 40. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.6) If τve ≥τcd.

is obtained and reported. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. 8. 8. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.5. described in the subsections that follow. for each load combination.19 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.Design for IS 456-2000 8. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 8 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Slab Design 8. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.5. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. To learn more about the design strips. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. are repeated for every load combination. These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.

the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5.1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.2. 8 .6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1).6.5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. edge.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Where openings occur.e. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1)..5. interior. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 8. In some cases. In that case. at a given design section in a design strip.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. given the bending moment. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).5.20 Slab Design .1.2): ⎧0.1) In addition.5.1).5. The column location (i. 8.

2.2.3.5.2).6.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.Chapter 8 . 8.5. where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.2.21 .Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.

5.1) (IS 31.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1. 8.3.3.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2.1) (IS 31. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 8.5.5.3.0 (IS 31. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.5 + βc ≤ 1.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2) 8 .3.5τ c (IS 31.5 τ c bod (IS 31.3. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.1) τc = 0.6.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.2) 8.22 Slab Design .6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.6.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 8.

3. Slab Design 8. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.2.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.e. Vc. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.. edge.Chapter 8 .3) (IS 31.5Vc ) 0. i.87 f y (IS 31.4. a failure condition is declared. 41. Av = (Vu − 0.3. and Vmax.6.23 . 8. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.2) If Vu > Vmax.6.2). and corner column.5.3. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.

at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. the distance.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . g. 5d s ≤ 0.5.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.3. and interior columns respectively. The limits of so and the spacing. 8. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.24 Slab Design . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. so. s. and 8. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. Therefore. Height. for corner. When specifying shear studs. 6.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.5d. edge.

Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 9. For simplicity.

mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. assumed as 200. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Width of member. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement.

N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.Chapter 9 . MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . mm Thickness of slab or flange. N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Perimeter of area Ao. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Factored design torsion at a section.

0. 4.2D ± 1.0.2D + 1.9D ± 1.0.5L 1.0. pattern live load (PL).75 PL) 1.2.2D + 1.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .2.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. 4.2.0E 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). 4. and earthquake (E) loads.0.0W 1.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0. (0. 4.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0. 4.5(0. For NZS 3101-06.2.2.4L ± 1.0.0.2.0D ± 1.0S 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 0.0W 1.4L ± 1. 4. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2): 1. wind (W). the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170. 4.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2D + 0.2.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2.0.0D + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. snow (S).0E (AS/NZS 1170.35D 1. 4.0. live load (L).

should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.2.Chapter 9 .2. however.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. fyt.2.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. fy. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. (NZS 2.3. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. shear.2) (NZS 2.3.3). The φ factors for flexure. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. caution is advised. other appropriate load combinations should be used.3.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. 9.1). φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.3. 9.3).4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement.85 for flexure φs = 0. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.

shear. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. for a particular station.5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. the 9-6 Beam Design . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. In such cases. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. with the corresponding load factors.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and torsion only. shear. torsion. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. load combination factors. and torsion based on the beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. shear forces.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.

e.4.1.2. shear. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).2. where.. or the strength of the concrete.5. 9. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.1. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0. Furthermore. M (i.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 .Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.85 (NZS 2.4.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.2) in the preceding and following equations. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.Chapter 9 . The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. the width. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. designing top or bottom reinforcement). The design procedure used by SAFE.2) where the default value of φb is 0.3.8.7).75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1). the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4. and torsion only.7): α1 = 0. 9.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.3.

75β1cb (NZS 7.85 − 0.008( f ′ − 30). is given by: amax = 0.4.1).65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.7) (NZS 7.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.2.3.3.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.4.8) β1 = 0.8.7.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.85 − 0.4. 9.2. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0. c (NZS 7.7) (NZS 7.4.8. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design . 0.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.2.1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9.2.85 β1 = 0. amax.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.

2.3.4.4.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 . 7.4.2.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.4. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . If a > amax (NZS 9.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.8.Chapter 9 .2.2. or at the top * if M is negative.2.1).

4. If a > hf..3. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. designing top reinforcement).5.2. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.e.7. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. calculation for As has two parts.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore.8. * 9.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.5. i. amax.2. As = As1 + As2.1) If a ≤ hf.1.2. 9.10 Beam Design . However.2. 9.4.2. 9 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. no flanged beam data is used. M (i.e. Cf.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. and vice versa if M is negative.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. Cw.75β1cb (NZS 7. the total tension reinforcement. is given by: amax = 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5.. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. as shown in Figure 9-2.

7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.2.003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.11 .4.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.4.Chapter 9 . M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. the balance of the moment.2 ) Beam Design 9 .

where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7.12 Beam Design .2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .3.4.8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.1).max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 . 7.4. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.1).2.2. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.3.4.2.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.8.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb

Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

**9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
**

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

**9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
**

The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .

*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

**9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
**

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

**9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
**

The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb

The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣

f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c

0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

**9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
**

The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:

*

V ν = bw d

*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s

If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,

*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16

*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)

Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

**If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
**

*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

**9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
**

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.

*

**9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
**

In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the

9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

**9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
**

For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

1) (NZS 7. the section dimensions b.7).6.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 . Similarly.1) where. hf. h.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0.1) (NZS 7. bw. h.18 Beam Design .1. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.1) (NZS 7.75 Ao/po 0. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1) where the section dimensions bf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.

4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.4. T .2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion. if T exceeds the threshold limit.1.6. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.6.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. In that case.6. However. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.3. At /s.1).08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.Chapter 9 . the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.5.19 .6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.3) 9.6) Beam Design 9 .6. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. and meets the torsion stress limit.1.6.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.1. defined as: T* ≤ 0. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7. Tcr.6.5.4. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.4. is less than the threshold limit.3.1).Design for NZS 3101-06 9. Tcr.

6. 9 . 7. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.5. bw is replaced with b. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. To learn more about the design strips. the concrete section should be increased in size.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7.20 Slab Design . At Al 1. provided it is fully developed. a failure message is declared.2 f 'c .6. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.8. 9. In that case.2.2) * * For rectangular sections. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.6.3). The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.1. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. are repeated for every load combination. given the bending moment. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. In some cases. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.21 . 9. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. for each load combination. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. at a given design section in a design strip. In that case. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 9 .6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . These two steps.6.6. is obtained and reported. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1. 9.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. described in the subsections that follow. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.

6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual..4 ): ⎧ 0 . Where openings occur.2.2.1) In addition. edge. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.5.4.8. 2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12. 9.8. 8.6.2.1(b)). Only the code-specific items are described in the following.6. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.22 Slab Design .7.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. 9. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 8.e. The column location (i. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.1(b)). interior.5.7.6. 9. 9 . the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.6.

7.7.6.23 .6.7.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M . 9.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.Chapter 9 .2.2. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.7.

2) where.6.3. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.4. 9.7.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.2(a)). The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7.2. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.1). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.7.7.2.1.6.1) 70 9.3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.24 Slab Design . b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 9 .

9. vc. the concrete section should be increased in size.6.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.Chapter 9 .25 . φ. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.5) 9. is the strength reduction factor.7.3. where. Slab Design 9 .7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.4) Given vn.3.3) (NZS 12.6.7.7. and vmax.7.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.4.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.4) If vn > φvmax.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.4.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.

edge. for corner.. and corner column.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.4).26 Slab Design . 9 . 6.e. edge. i.3. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7. and 8. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.6.4. Therefore. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.

4) Slab Design 9 . the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.4.7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. so.4.3.5d s ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 9. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. g.7.27 .6. s. the distance. Height. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. When specifying shear studs.4) (NZS 12.4) (NZS 12.4.7.

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For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. Notations 10 .Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008].1 .

mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.2 Notations . mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Width or effective width of flange.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. assumed as 200. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Flange thickness. mm 10 . 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section.

N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Lever arm. MPa Neutral axis depth. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Torsional shear stress. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.3 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment.Chapter 10 . mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.

4.4W 1.6(0. 10 .2D + 1.3) (CP 2.4D 1. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. fcu.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.4. including pattern live load. Note that the automatic combination. γf (CP 2.4.1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.4D + 1.3).1. and considering that wind forces are reversible.4D + 1. 1.75PL) 1.4D ± 1.4W 1. If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). and wind (W) loads.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used. other appropriate load combinations should be used. live load (L). pattern live load (PL). It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.7.4 Design Load Combinations .3).2).6L 1.0D ± 1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4.3) (CP 2. 10. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.2W (CP 2. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.2L ± 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

Chapter 10 . load combination factors.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5 . and torsion only.2 (CP 2. but can be overwritten. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. shear. shear forces. shear. which are taken from CP Table 2.4. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . 10. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. torsion. γm.4.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code.50 1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. and other criteria described below.15 1.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.

4.5. the width. In such cases. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4). Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. for a particular station. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. or the strength of the concrete.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. BC 2.3.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.5.1.1. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. In such cases.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. with the corresponding load factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. 10.5.6 Beam Design .2) 10 .

5.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.4.2.1). It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.4).9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. βb ≥ 0.4. is summarized in the subsections that follow. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. or equal to Msingle. is first calculated for a section.4. BC 2.4.4. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. Msingle.4.4.e.4) Beam Design 10 .. BC 2.4.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.9) (CP 3.4.4.and T-beams).1.1fcuAg) (CP 3. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.7 . where 2 (CP 3. and torsion only.Chapter 10 . all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure. hence. In addition.4. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. ⎧0. See Figure 10-1. 10.4). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4. less than. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3. Msingle = K'fcu bd . shear.

is then given by: As = M .4) (CP 3.4.5 + 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.4. where 0.4.4.87 f y z (CP 3.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.4.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. If M ≤ Msingle.95d z = d ⎜ 0.4) 10 . As.8 Beam Design . the area of tension reinforcement.25 − ⎜ 0.4.

. where (CP 3.5.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. 2. 2. Fig 2.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3.e.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle . and f ′ =0.5 + 0.4.5.4.4.3.4.1. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4. or at the top if M is negative.5.4. If M > Msingle.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.2.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.1.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.1. M (i.e.3.2. designing top reinforcement).9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.95d z = d ⎜ 0.25 − ⎜ 0.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4.5.4.9 .Chapter 10 . no flanged beam data is used.2.87 f y z + 0. Beam Design 10 . Fig 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. i..

5. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.67 fcu γ m 0. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.2. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.10 Beam Design . εc 0.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.4. On the basis of this assumption. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. See Figure 10-2.1. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.

4.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. BC 2.45d − h f ) 0.4.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0.4.5h f ) . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 . BC 2.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.3) If a ≤ hf. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4.9 ⎭ (CP 3.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.5 + 0.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.36 .5) β f = 0.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.45d then. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.45 . Cf. where (BS 3.4.4. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .2. In that case. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.11 . 2 As = M + 0. However.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.4. If a > hf . Fig 2. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.1 f cu bd (0.2. as shown in Figure 10-2.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. Fig 2.Chapter 10 .4.4.95d 0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. Cw. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.

2) 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.32 ⎪ ⎪0.4.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.87 f y ( d − 0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4.4.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.4.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.2) ⎧0. where (CP 3.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.5.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0. BC 2.12 Beam Design .5h f ) ) .6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.4. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.

the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.13 .4.Chapter 10 . The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.3.5.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 . The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.4.4. 2.4. Fig 2.156 (CP 3.4.4). and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. As = 0.2) If Kw ≤ 0. BC 2.4).5 + 0.95d ⎜ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.5. Fig 2.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.4.3.4.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.87 f y (d − 0.4.4.5. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.4. where 0. 2.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.

10 .13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.3).20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.14 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.27 (CP 3.27 (CP 3.13 100 0.32 0.5.4 bf bw ≥ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.12.48 0.95d ⎜ 0.26 100 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.5 + 0.24 0.18 100 0.5.36 0.12. if it is required.1. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.5.

15 . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.20 0.2). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the following steps are involved (CP 3.6.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.12.5): Determine the shear stress. BC 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. vc.4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.Chapter 10 .12.2.3. 10. that can be resisted by the concrete.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . An upper limit of 0. for a particular load combination. 10.5.5.40 0. Determine the shear stress.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.1).5. v.

4.5. Table 3.4. with the corresponding load combination factors. vc. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.8) (CP 3.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .25 1 1 3 However.4.4. (CP 3. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Table 3.5.4.9) 10 .4.4.63 fcu .2.4) (CP 2. the following limitations also apply: 0.4.12) 0. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.16 Beam Design .4.4.5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.5.5.2) For light-weight concrete.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.5.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.6 (CP 3.5.8 fcu .5.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.4) 10. 7 MPa).

5. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.5. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .4.4. (CP 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.3.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10. CP 3.4. Table 3.5.8) As vr b = .4.2. vr.5.2) In the preceding expressions.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.3.4.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.4. a failure condition is declared.3.4.87 f yv If v > vmax.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.8. Table 3.5.5.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.8) (CP 3.Chapter 10 . Table 3.3. v’c. Table 3. sv 0.5.5. (CP 3.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.17 .9) (CP 3.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.4.5.4. and vmax.4. Table 3.4. Table 3.

5. vt. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. The torsional shear stress. In typical framed construction.15).5. Determine critical torsion stress. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5.4. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. obtained from each load combination. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.5. Determine special section properties.18 Beam Design . 10. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3. 10.4. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. vt.

8 (CP Part 2 5.8 f cu .4.1) For flanged sections.4.4.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.19 . the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.min = min 0. vt. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2. vt.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.0. vt.6 N / mm 2 x 0.min.5) Beam Design 10 .4.Chapter 10 .min = min 0. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4. For lightweight concrete.067 f cu .6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.3.5) 10. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .min is defined as: vt .5.0.4.067 f cu . calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.

4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. vt.4. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.6). Asv. 10 . An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. If vt > vt.8 x1 y1 (0.4. is less than the threshold limit. In that case. is calculated as: Asv . if vt exceeds the threshold limit. the concrete section should be increased in size.min.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .20 Beam Design .t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2.8 f cu .t /sv.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6). it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. However.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.4.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. a failure message is declared. vt.7) In the preceding expressions.min. In that case.min.t sv = T 0.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.3.4.5. vt. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.

1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. To learn more about the design strips. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Chapter 10 . 10. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Slab Design 10 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10.21 . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1. given the bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. In that case. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1. 10.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6.22 Slab Design . These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. CP Table 3. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. Where openings occur. at a given design section in a design strip. for each load combination. 10. 10. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).3.6.

Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3. 10.Chapter 10 .5d from the face of the support (CP 3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.12.e.7.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 10.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .12.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 3.5. edge. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) ..23 .6).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.2.1).7.7.7.7.6. interior.6. In addition.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.1). Slab Design 10 .4. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.6.7.

5d Interior Column 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.7.4.6.5. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. the following limitations also apply: 10 .7.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7. Table 3.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.5d 1.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.5.4. Table 3.24 Slab Design .5.9) (CP 3.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.2.4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.6): 0.5.2) However.4.4. 3.7.5d 1.5d 1.

4. (CP 3.5 M y 1 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.7.5.9) (CP 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.5.6.7. v.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. 4 MPa) f cu . Table 3.4.25 . 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0. is calculated as: v= Veff ud . Table 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.8 fcu . 3.4.6. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.4.Chapter 10 .2. Table 3. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.2. where (CP 3.4.4.9) For light-weight concrete.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section. the nominal design shear stress. Table 3.2.3) 1 .63 v ≤ min (0.4) (CP 3.7.6.7.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.5.

provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.6.2. and vmax.26 Slab Design .25 ⎩ for interior columns.6.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. vc.25 ⎪1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. and for corner columns. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6. 10.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.7.3. for edge columns.5).7.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.7.7.7.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 10 .6. 3.7. 10. (CP 3.6.7.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. 10.5).

5) (CP 3.7. 0.6vc ≤ v < 2.7.87 f yv 0. ≥ s 0.4ud Av 5 ( 0. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7.87 f yv If v > vmax.7.. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.0vc. (CP 3. (CP 3.87 f yv 0. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .6vc.7v − vc ) ud = .3.27 .7.e.7.Chapter 10 .6.5) 0.87 f yv If 1.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1. edge. a failure condition is declared. ≥ s 0. the concrete section should be increased in size. i. 10.

at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.7. the distance.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6) (CP 3. 6. and 8. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 14-.3.6) 10 .7.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3. 12-. The limits of so and the spacing. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.7.6) (CP 3.7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Height.5d.6.5d s ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.5d. for corner.7.7.5d (CP 3. When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.7. s. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.28 Slab Design . Therefore. 10.75d g ≤ 1. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. and interior columns respectively.7. and 20-millimeter diameter. 16-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. g. edge.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.6). so.

2005. 2001. Farmington Hills. Part 1. GPO Box 5420. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Standards Australia International Ltd. NSW 2001. 2007. Australia.O. 2008. and 3. TM R-1 . Farmington Hills. Sydney. London. American Concrete Institute. AS. British Standards Institution. Michigan. BC 2:2008.2R-07). Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. 38800 Country Club Drive. 2. ACI. 1. 2008. 2. 1997. BSI. Singapore. Building and Construction Authority. P. Structural Use of Concrete. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65.1 and Amendment No. American Concrete Institute. February 2008. Michigan. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08).References ACI. Box 9094. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. UK. BC. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos.

R-2 . Singapore. CP. Part 1-1. 1985. 2004. Design of Concrete Structures. Standards New Zealand. UK. NZS. Kowloon. 1. EN 1992-1-1. 1. March 2000. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Buildings Department. 750 Nathan Road. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Ontario. EN 1990:2002. India. European Committee for Standardization. British Standards Institution. Private Bag 2439. London. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. Canada. 1999. CP 65:Part 1:1999. Third Edition. 2004. European Committee for Standardization. Twentieth Reprint. HK CP. 2006. 2005. incorporating Amendments Nos. Bureau of Indian Standards.3-04. Mongkok. Canadian Standards Association. and 3. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. CSA. Wellington. Rexdale. New Zealand. Hong Kong. Belgium. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Manak Bhavan. Concrete Structures Standard. Part 2. 2004. 2000. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. Brussels. Belgium. Brussels. September 2000. Structural Use of Concrete. 2. IS. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. New Delhi 110002. A23. General Rules and Rules for Buildings.