SAFE

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4
Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0
December 2008

Copyright
Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com
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DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.1 4.5.4 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.1 Design for Flexure 4.2 3.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.5.1 Notations 5-1 ii .4 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.3-04 5.3 4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.1 3.2 4.6.5.6.1 Design for Flexure 3.6.6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.3 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.6 5 Design for CSA A23.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.5.

6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.2 7.6.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .28 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.1 Design for Flexure 6.5.5.3 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.Contents 5.5.4 5.5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.6.2 6.1 6.1 7.6.6.2 5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.4 6.5.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.3 6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.1 Design for Flexure 5.

4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.3 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.4.2 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.2 9.4.3 9.1 9.5.5.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.1 Design for Flexure 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.5.1 8.6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.4 7.1 Effects of Torsion 8.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.5.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.5.4 9.

6.6 Slab Design 10.6 Slab Design 9.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.5.6.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.1 Design for Flexure 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .6.2 Design Load Combinations 10.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.6.5 Beam Design 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.1 Notations 10.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.Contents 9.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.1 Design for Flexure 9.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.5.

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and torsion reinforcement. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. 1-1 . shear.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. Specifically. and it designs beam flexural.

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For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. sq-in Notations 2-1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 2. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. sq-in Gross area of concrete.

psi 2-2 Notations . in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Depth to neutral axis. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Width of section. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Width of web (flanged section).

lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. psi Overall depth of a section. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section.Chapter 2 . in Critical torsion capacity. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Factored moment at a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. in Height of the flange. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb Factored shear force at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. (0. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.

2D + 1.1) are the same.1) (ACI 9. wind (W).0E 1.6.6 (0.6S ± 0.1) (ACI 9. These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .2D + 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. live load (L).5S ± 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2.0L + 1.2D + 1. For ACI 318-08.0E 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.9D ± 1.6W 1.2.2D + 1.1) (ACI 9.2.6W 1.0L ± 1.6L + 0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9. snow (S).0L ± 1.2D + 1.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2D + 1.2.3) (ACI 9.1) (ACI 13.0L + 0.75 PL) 0.2. and earthquake (E) loads.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.0E (ACI 9. pattern live load (PL).1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.6L 1.4D 1.2S ± 1. degrees 2.1): 1.2D + 1.7.6W 0.8W 1.0L + 0.6S 1.2D + 1.9D ± 1.2.5S 1.2.

3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. or if other types of loads are present. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.1. should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5. load combination factors. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear.Chapter 2 .2.3.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. 2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.1) (ACI 9. φ.2. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1). (ACI 9. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. torsion. however. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. f' c . The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength.2). 2.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. caution is advised. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0. shear. fy.3) 2. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. fyt. The φ factors for flexure.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.5. and other criteria described in this section. shear forces. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 . is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9.

2. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. shear.5. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .5. and torsion only. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2.1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. for a particular station. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.

When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.3. or the strength of the concrete.Chapter 2 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. designing top or bottom reinforcement).2. The design procedure used by SAFE.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. 2.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.2. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.5. The maximum depth of the compression zone. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. where. the width. Furthermore.and T-beams). which by default is 0. and torsion only. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.2) Beam Design 2-7 . shear.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. is summarized in the text that follows. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.e.1) in the preceding and the following equations.3. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.4). a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.3. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. which is equal to 0.5). fy .1.3.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. Mu (i. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.003. cmax.90 (ACI 9.2)..

2.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10. amax.7.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.005 (ACI 10.3) (ACI 10. is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10. εcmax = 0.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.1) β1 = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.4).05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.3.3.85 (ACI 10.003 εsmin = 0.85 − 0. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.2.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .

2.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10. If a > amax.7.3.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 .85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.2.2. 10. 10.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us .2. where ( f 's − 0. or at the top if Mu is negative.3.Chapter 2 .

85 f ′ c 0. the flange comes under tension. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.2. and vice versa if Mu is negative. a simplified stress block. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.003 0.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . is assumed if the flange is under compression.e. if the moment is positive.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. If the moment is negative. In that case. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.. as shown in Figure 2-2. i.5.10 Beam Design . and the flange is ignored. 2.

2. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.e.5.3.2. amax.Chapter 2 .2) where.3) (ACI 10.85 (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.2. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10. no flanged beam data is used.1) in the preceding and the following equations.3) Beam Design 2 .7.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0. which by default is 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.11 . cmax.005 (ACI 10.4): cmax = where.2) εcmax = 0.003 εsmin = 0.1.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.3.2. 2. The maximum depth of the compression zone. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0. designing top reinforcement).2.7. which is equal to 0.85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. Mu (i..2.e.2.. i. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.85 − 0.3.90 (ACI 9.1) β1 = 0.2.5.2.

3.12 Beam Design .85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. the calculation for As has two parts. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. amax ) Therefore.90 by default. However.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . Cf is given by: C f = 0. the value for φ is 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cw. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f . 2 . Therefore. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.7. the balance of the moment. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. If a > hf. Cf. Mu . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. as shown in Figure 2-2.5).

Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.3.2.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us .3. where ( f 's − 0.13 .7. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2.Chapter 2 .85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10. 10. 10.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.2.2.2.

that can be resisted by the concrete.4bw d ⎧0.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. 2 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . for a particular load combination. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.14 Beam Design . Vu. Vc. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.5.2. 2.5.5. bw d ⎟ As .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.5. Determine the shear force.3) An upper limit of 0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

3).5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 11.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. the strength reduction factor.2. φ.1. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.3.2.1.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. is 0.5.2.3.9) Given Vu.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.1. 2.2.Design for ACI 318-08 2.15 .5.Chapter 2 . fyt. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.5.1.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11. Vc. with the corresponding load combination factors.3. and Vmax. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where. Vc.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.5.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11. If Vu ≤ 0.7.6.5φVc Av =0 s If 0.75 (ACI 9. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11. 2.1.1) Beam Design 2 .2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.2.1) For light-weight concrete.

6. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.7. 2 .5.5.6. Determine special section properties. 2.6.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. and 0.3) If Vu > φVmax.5bw. Tu.5. a failure condition is declared. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.5. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.7. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 11.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.2) ⎛ 0. the concrete section should be increased in size.5.5.1(c)).7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11.5hf. 2. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.6. the equation given in ACI 11. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.16 Beam Design . (ACI 11.5.1.5.7. (ACI 11.

2). it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 .5.17 . If redistribution is desired. 2. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.Chapter 2 . These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. pcp. Aoh. This is equivalent to 1. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. Ao.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. However. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu. special section properties.1).5.2).2. and ph. are calculated.6. such as Acp.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. such as Aoh. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. and ph.3. 2. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. Ao.6.75 inches.

With this assumption.6(b)) (ACI 11. Tcr.1) (ACI 11.1.1) (ACI 11.6.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1.1) (ACI 11. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.4).6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.3. 2.6.3. R11.6.3. 2. 2.6.2.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.1) (ACI11.6. 2.1.6. 2. the section dimensions b. bw.3.6. h.3. 2. 2.1. 2.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient.1.6.6. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.3.1. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3. Similarly.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.6.1.1) where the section dimensions bf. With this assumption. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. R11. 2. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. hf.1.6.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.1) where.6(b)) (ACI 11. However.6.3.6.1) (ACI 11.18 Beam Design .5.1) (ACI 11. 2.1.6.1(c)) 2 . 2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.3. h.

6. longitudinal bars. fy.3. which is equal to 0. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.6).1).2.6.6. is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. Beam Design 2 .3. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11. Tcr.6) where.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.5. 11.3.6.6).3.3) In the preceding expressions.6. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.3. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. In that case.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. fyt.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. is limited to 60 ksi. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion. θ is taken as 45 degrees.75 by default (ACI 9. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. 2.3. Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).3.6.7.Chapter 2 . Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.6.5. Tcr. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. At /s.6. even if the material property is defined with a higher value. However.19 .3).4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.5.

75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11.6. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11. In that case. ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw . If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.20 Beam Design .3.2) 2 .1) For rectangular sections. the concrete section should be increased in size.5. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. bw is replaced with b.6. a failure message is declared.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.

6. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 2.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.3 independently.5. In that case. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.21 . The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Slab Design 2 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. 2. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.Chapter 2 .

the slab width is adjusted accordingly. are repeated for every load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.min = 0.12.12.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.min = 0.2.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. for each load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1.1(c)) 0.1.1. at a given design section in a design strip.2. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. given the bending moment. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.12. This is the method used when drop panels are included.6. 2.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.2.1(a)) (ACI 7. These two steps.6.12.2): As.1(b)) (ACI 7. described in the text that follows. In that case.22 Slab Design . 2.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 2.min = (ACI 7. In some cases. Where openings occur. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is obtained and reported.

2).23 .6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1.11. interior.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 .1.e.. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. edge. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.11.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.Chapter 2 . 2.3). 2.2. The column location (i. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.6.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.

2 Eq.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu.5. γvx = 0.5.2 Eq.3. C-13) (ACI 421. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.2 For corner columns. C-16) 2 .4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13. C-15) (ACI 421.24 Slab Design . For interior columns.2 Eq.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2 Eq.6.2 Eq. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421. C-12) For edge columns. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13. C-11) (ACI 421.3.1) For flat plates.2 Eq.

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 . respectively.6. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. 2. and for corner columns.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.2.Chapter 2 . ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.11.2. bo is the perimeter of the critical section.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2. for edge columns.6. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.1) where.11.1. (ACI 11.25 . x and y.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.

3).5. is 0.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches. where.2.6. 2 .1) 2.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.3. φ.26 Slab Design .3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.5.3.75 (ACI 9.11. 2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3).2) (ACI 11. 2. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. and Vmax. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11.1) (ACI 11. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.11.0.6.11.11. the strength reduction factor.11. Vc. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. If this ratio exceeds 1.

2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. i.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.11.6.. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 2.Chapter 2 .e. the concrete section should be increased in size. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Slab Design 2 .11.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge. 11.4. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.27 .7.3). a failure condition is declared. and corner column.4. (ACI 11.3.3.1.

edge.11. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-.5d (ACI 11. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.11. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. When specifying shear studs. The limits of so and the spacing. the distance.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 1/2-.11.3. s. Therefore. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. 6. and 8.2) ⎧0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. for corner. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. and 3/4-inch diameters.3) 2 .28 Slab Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.6. and interior columns respectively. g.5d. Height. so.5. 2. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.2) (ACI 11. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11.5.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. 5/8-.

1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 3. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Notations 3-1 . mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter.

mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Mean value of do. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Width of member. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Depth of compression block. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Depth to neutral axis.

mm Factored shear force at a section. to the effective depth. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. N Shear force resisted by concrete. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . N-mm Factored moment at section.Chapter 3 .max Vu. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. max εs Notations 3-3 . (0. N-mm Factored axial load at section. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Torsional modulus. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.max Tus T* ut V* Vu.

9D ± 1.2D + 0. pattern live load (PL).2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.0W 1.4L ± 1.0-02. degrees 3. For AS 3600-01.75 PL) 1. snow (S). 4.0D ± 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). and earthquake (E) loads.2D + 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0-02. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used. 4.0-02.0W 1.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.4L ± 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.0E (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2. 4. other appropriate load combinations should be used.5(0.0-02.2.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.0S 0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2D + 1.5L 1.2D ± 1.2.0-02. live load (L). 4.2.0-02.1): 1.0E 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2.35D 1. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .2.2(f)) Note that the 0.2.2. wind (W).0-02.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02. 4.0W 1.4L + 1.3. 4.0D + 0. 4.2D + 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

6.1.1. load combination factors.1.3(c).Design for AS 3600-01 3. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.2. 3. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. and other criteria described in the text that follows.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1(b)). The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. torsion.Chapter 3 .1).1.3(c)) 3.2. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6. caution is advised. and torsion based on the beam moments. however. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.1. shear. shear forces.1.3(c)) (AS 2. Table 6. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 .1.1.1.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. (AS 2. respectively. is defined as given in AS 2. 19.1.2. for all framing type (AS 6. Table 2.1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.2. φ.1).1) (AS 6.3: φ = 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.

the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3.1. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. shear. 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. and torsion only. for a particular station. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.2.1a).003.7. amax.1).1. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber. the width.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.2. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. and torsion only.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. (AS 8. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.Chapter 3 .2).007( f 'c −28)] 0.85 − 0.1. A uniform compressive stress of 0.2. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. or the strength of the concrete.1. is given by amax = γk u d where.2. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.2) Beam Design 3-7 .and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned.2).4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. fy . shear.3) γ = [0. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. (AS 8.15N ) (AS 10.85 ku = 0.

3) in the preceding and following equations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. M (i.1. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0. ε = 0.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.2.e. which by default is 0.003 b Cs c 0.4).80 (AS 2. where.2) where.1. designing top or bottom reinforcement). the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.5.85 f 'c φb (AS 8.

or at the top * if M is negative.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.2.85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. If a > amax. where ( f 's − 0.1.4.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore.1. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. i.2.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 . compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.Chapter 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.2. 6.1.. ku > 0.e.

1. M (i. In that case.e. no flanged beam data is used. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. and the flange is ignored.2.85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 .5.003 bf Ds * 0. If the moment is negative. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.85 f ′ c 0. designing top reinforcement).1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. a simplified stress block.3). i. as shown in Figure 3-2.2..e.e. the flange comes under tension.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. 3. is assumed if the flange is under compression.. 3. i.5. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore..2. and vice versa if M is negative. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. if the moment is positive.10 Beam Design . ε = 0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive.

Cw. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.3) in the preceding and the following equations.1. in that case. ku = 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. which is 0.Design for AS 3600-01 3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.3) If a ≤ Ds.1.2. amax. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.Chapter 3 . As1 = given by: (AS 8.4. However.85 f 'c φb f where. is given by: a max = γk u d where. the width of the beam is taken as bf.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . Cf is given by: C f = 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .4 (AS 8.1. amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0. Cf. as shown in Figure 3-2.11 . the calculation for Ast has two parts.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . the balance of the moment.5.80 by default (AS 2. amax ) Therefore. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2.2. If a > Ds.

where ′ − 0. If a1 > amax.1.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.1.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0. 6.2. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.2.12 Beam Design .1. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw .2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8.

2) An upper limit of 0.1) f 'cf = 0.13 .Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.04bw d ⎧0.1.Chapter 3 .6 f 'c (AS 6.1.4.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .min = 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.5. 3. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.1. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.

2.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.1) β1 = 1. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1. * 3.2.1⎜1. Determine the shear force. V . 13 (AS 8.2.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.14 Beam Design .1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. that can be resisted by the concrete.7. for a particular load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.6 − β2 = 1.1) (AS 8. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2.5. Vuc. Vuc.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension.7. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 . The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.7. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.

2. φ. f do cot θ v and greater than Asv. Asv = 0 .max . If φVu. V * − φVuc Asv .9) (AS 8.5(c)(i)). Vuc. where. f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8.2.10) Asv. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv.min shall be provided.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression.5).min < V * ≤ φVu.6 by default (AS 2.2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.min.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu .min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.max. and Vu. ⎟ ⎠ 3. is 0. min = Vuc + 0. = s fsy.8) Beam Design 3 . min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.35 w ⎜ s f sy.min .2. the strength reduction factor. whichever is greater (AS 8. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2. s otherwise Asv.15 .2. max = 0. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm.2.6bv d o Vu .2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.3).5. (AS 8.2. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.6) Given V . Asv = 0.Chapter 3 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.
If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.
*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At
ut

=
=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,
0.4Σx y
2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c
b

c bw − 2c bw bw
Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:
*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At
where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))
* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Slab Design 3 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 3. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6. as described in the following sections. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. To learn more about the design strips.21 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 3 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 3. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.

0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.1. is obtained and reported. are repeated for every load combination.1.1.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. Where openings occur. at a given design section in a design strip.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.1. for each load combination. In that case. given the bending moment.6.22 Slab Design . the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 3. 3 . In some cases. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1): As ≥ 0. which are described in the following subsections. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. 3.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.6. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1.1(a)) As ≥ 0.1(b)) In addition.

d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 .2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.2.1.. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.6. interior. The column location (i.23 .Design for AS 3600-01 3.2. edge.6.3).Chapter 3 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1.1).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9. 3.e.

3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1.2.4(a)) 3.2.6.6.5 f c' + 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.2. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.2. is given as (AS 9. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. 3 .3σ cp ) b.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. Vu .24 Slab Design .3(b)) (AS 9.3(a)) where. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided.2. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.3σ cp ≤ 0.2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.2. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. is given as (AS 9.2.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.3(a)): a. Vuo .0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9.

2. 3.6. φ.3 or 9.2. and Vu. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.4.3. V * − φVu Asv = . is the strength reduction factor.6. 3.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.7. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001.Chapter 3 . (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.4(a).1).2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.4. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.25 .min = 3*Vu (AS 92.3. Vu. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 3.max. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.Given V*. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. where. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.

Therefore. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7. a failure condition is declared. edge.3.7.26 Slab Design . Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. i.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. and corner column. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.4). the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.4.4) If V > φVmax.6.3.4. the minimum number of 3 . * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.3) (NZS 12.7. 3..

6.6.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. Height.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. s.3. 3.7.27 .4) Slab Design 3 . for corner. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and 8. g. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.7. and interior columns respectively.4. the distance. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. When specifying shear studs.7.Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. so.5d s ≤ 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.Chapter 3 . The limits of so and the spacing.4) (NZS 12. edge.4.5d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.4. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4) (NZS 12.

.

Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. For light-weight concrete and torsion. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity. 4. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Torsional constant. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. assumed as 200. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm 4-2 Notations . mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv.

N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. MPa Torsional shear stress. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam.Chapter 4 . k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Normalized design moment. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . MPa Neutral axis depth.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.2D + 1.3) (BS 2.6S 1.3) (BS 2. and wind (W) loads.4. γf (BS 2. live load (L). snow (S).6L + 1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.2W (BS 2.3).0D ± 1. 1.4.2L + 1.4D + 1. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. mm Lever arm. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.4D ± 1.4.4D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).3) (BS 2.4.2S ± 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .4.6L 1. For BS 8110-1997.2W 1.6(0.2L ± 1.2S ± 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible.4D + 1.75PL) 1.4D 1.1.2D + 1. pattern live load (PL).2D + 1.3).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4. 0.4W 1.4W 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.2W 1.

1. If other grades are used. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.7.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.50 1. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. Note that the automatic combination.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2). γm. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . the default factor of 1. fcu. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. as taken from BS Table 2. including pattern live load. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used.4. 4. Note that for reinforcement. 4.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. this value should be overwritten as necessary.Chapter 4 . other appropriate load combinations should be used.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.2 (BS 2.15 1. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.4.

the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. torsion.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. with the corresponding load factors.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. and torsion based on the beam moments. the 4-6 Beam Design .5. shear forces. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4. load combination factors.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. for a particular station. and torsion only. In such cases. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and other criteria described below.5. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear.

4. Msingle. Furthermore.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.e. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.4).1.4.5.4.4).1fcu Ag) (BS 3.156 2 (BS 3. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.4. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. less than. The design procedure used by SAFE.5.4.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. the width.Chapter 4 . In addition.4. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. βb ≥ 0. x/d ≤ 0. shear. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3.4) Beam Design 4-7 .4. or the strength of the concrete. or equal to Msingle. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4.1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.2. is first calculated for a section.9) (BS 3. 4. In such cases. Msingle = K'fcu bd .4.4. and torsion only. 4. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. where K' = 0. See Figure 4-1. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.1). Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments..

95d z = d ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4. is then given by: As = M .9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.4.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. the area of tension reinforcement.87 f y z (BS 3. where 0.4.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3. If M > Msingle.4. or at the top if M is negative.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.25 − ⎜ 0.4.4. As. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design .5 + 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.

where (BS 3.5 + 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. Based on this assumption. M (i. i.1.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0. no flanged beam data is used.2.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.5.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. 2. Beam Design 4-9 . designing top reinforcement). Fig 2.777d z = d ⎜ 0.4.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4.87 f y d − d ' ( ) .1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3. 2.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3..3.e.4.1.4.2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1.5. and ' f ' s = 0.2.4.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.25 − ⎜ 0.67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.3. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.2.4.4.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.e.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.2.1.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.5. Fig 2.5.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. 4.4.Chapter 4 ..

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.9 ⎭ (BS 3.5 + 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4.10 Beam Design .25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.4.4.67 fcu/gm 0. See Figure 4-2.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.4.45 (BS 3.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4.4.0035 0. e = 0.95d 0.

Cw.4. If a > hf.4.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.5h f ) .4.4.87 f y (d − 0.4.4) If Kw ≤ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.5) β f = 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4) If a ≤ hf.4. Cf.11 .45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0. where 0.15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0. As = 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .156 (BS 3. where (BS 3.4.45d − h f ) 0.4).Chapter 4 .9x (BS 3. the width of the beam is taken as bf.4.4. In that case. 2 As = M + 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0. in that case.45d then.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1 f cu bd (0. However.4.87 f y (d − 0. as shown in Figure 4-2. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.

4).87 f y (d − 0.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.95d ⎜ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.12 Beam Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.777d ) 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4.2.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4.1. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0.4.4.87 f f (0.5.4.4.4. 2.1.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4. and ' f ' s = 0. 2.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. Fig 2.25 (BS 3.1.3. Fig 2.5 + 0.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.4.12.5. 4 .4) where.3.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0.5. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.5.

4 bf bw ≥ 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.6.20 As' bh Web in tension T.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.24 0.48 0.40 100 0.1): Beam Design 4 . which is taken from BS Table 3.25 (BS 3.3).12.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.5.4 bf ⎯ 100 0.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.20 An upper limit of 0.32 0.Chapter 4 .24 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3. if it is required.18 100 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.13 . provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.36 0.12.

04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.63 fcu . vc.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0. the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.8 fcu .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. v. with the corresponding load combination factors. that can be resisted by the concrete.5. Determine the shear stress. for a particular load combination. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5.4.2.14 Beam Design .2) For light-weight concrete.4) 4 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 4.04bw d ⎧0. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. 5 MPa) (BS 3. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.4.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.

5.3): Beam Design 4 .4.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.5.5. BS 3.15 .2.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0. 4.8) (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.5. Table 3.4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.5.4.8.4.4.Chapter 4 .12) 0. Table 3.4.4.5.5.5. and vmax.1) However.4.4. Table 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4. vc.4. Table 3.5.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement.4.4) (BS 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.5. vc.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.5.4.4.8) (BS 2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3.

5.5.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.4bw = sv 0. a failure condition is declared.2) (BS 3.16 Beam Design .4.3.4.87 f yv If (v’c + 0. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0. 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0. Table 3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.4) Asv 0.5. 4 . In the preceding expressions. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. (BS 3. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. vt. Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. Determine special section properties.3.4. Table 3.5. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa.4.5. obtained from each load combination. Determine critical torsion stress.7) (BS 3.87 f yv If v > vmax.

exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.4.5.13). In typical framed construction.2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. vt. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.8 f cu .4.5) Beam Design 4 .1) For flanged sections.4.Chapter 4 . If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.5.4. vt.4. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.3.17 .Design for BS 8110-97 4. The torsional shear stress. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. with the corresponding load combination factors. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.

2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.7) In the preceding expressions.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.067 fcu .min.min is defined as: vt .4N/mm 2 x 0.4. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.min = min 0.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. vt. vt.0.4.6).6).5. If vt > vt. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. For lightweight concrete. vt.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .t /sv.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5. vt is less than the threshold limit.067 fcu .18 Beam Design .3. In that case.87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . if vt exceeds the threshold limit.min = min 0.4.8 x1 y1 (0.3.4.min. vt.4.5. However.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.5) 4. 4 . torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.t sv = T 0. is calculated as: Asv . Asv.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.0.min.

The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. In that case.Chapter 4 .5) For light-weight concrete.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.19 . the concrete section should be increased in size. a failure message is declared.8 fcu .63 fcu .Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. vt exceeds this limit.4. Beam Design 4 . 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.4) If the combination of shear stress. v and torsional shear stress. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 4 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. is obtained and reported. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 4. for each load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1.20 Slab Design . These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 4. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. To learn more about the design strips.

6. 4.Chapter 4 . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 . In that case. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.3.6.12. BS Table 3.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. This is the method used when drop panels are included.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.5. Where openings occur.12.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3. at a given design section in a design strip.7.3) In addition.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.12.21 .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3. In some cases. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections. 4.2. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 4.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3. given the bending moment.Design for BS 8110-97 4.1.1).25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6.7.6.6).

interior.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.7.22 Slab Design .7. 1.6): 1 1 0.6.7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.8) 4 .2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.5.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.1)..5.5d 1.7.4.7.e.4. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 3.2.7.5d 1.4. The column location (i. edge.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1. Table 3.4.5d Interior Column 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.5d 1.

6.5.6. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. Table 3. where (BS 3.4.4.4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. v. 4.5. 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.5M ⎛ y 1.2) However.5. the nominal design shear stress.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 . Table 3.4.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.4) (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2.2.6.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.8) (BS 3.7.6.7.7.3) 1.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .4) v ≤ min(0.Chapter 4 .8 f cu .4) For light-weight concrete.5. 5MPa) (BS 3. the following limitations also apply: 0.23 .4.4.4.5.4.7.63 fcu .7. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.

3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 4 . The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.7.24 Slab Design . 4. 4. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.7.6.6.7.7. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.6.2.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 3.5).25 ⎪1.6.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2
gx x

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2

Free edge

Iy
gx

gy
s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

Critical section centroid
y Ix

Free edge

y
Ix

x
Critical section centroid

Free edge
Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

For CSA A23.9D + 1.5S 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4W 1.5S 1.9D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.2.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.4W (CSA 8. Table C. live load (L).5L 1.4W 0.5S + 0.3.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5S ± 0.5L 0.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.8.3) (CSA 8.4W 0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).9D + 1.5L + 0.4D 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.3.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations . Table C.5L 0.25D + 1.75 PL) 1. wind (W).1) 1.9D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. pattern live load (PL).5L 1.2.5(0.25D + 1.25D + 1. Table C.5L ± 0.5S + 0. snow (S).25D + 1.5S ± 0. Table C.25D + 1.2.9D + 1.2.4.3-04.5L ± 0.3.25D + 1.9D + 1.5L + 0.5S 0.5S 1. and earthquake (E) loads.3.25D + 1.

1).0E 1.1. other appropriate load combinations should be used.0E (CSA 8.5L ± 1.4W 0. (CSA 8. caution is advised. however.65 for concrete φs = 0. (CSA 8.0D + 0.25D + 0.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.25D + 0.0D + 0.3-04 1.9D + 0. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. φ. for all framing types (CSA 8. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.4W 0.1. Table C.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.25D ± 1.6.5L + 0.25S ± 1.25S ± 1. 5.9D + 0. Table C.5L ± 1.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.6.0D ± 1.4.3.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.3. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8. respectively.5S ± 1.9D ± 1.1) 5.2) (CSA 8.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.2.1).3-04 code is used.2.4W 1.Chapter 5 .0E 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.5.4W 1.Design for CSA A23.4W 0.4.0D + 0.0E 1.5L ± 1.5S ± 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.4W 1.

shear.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. with the corresponding load factors. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. torsion.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. load combination factors. and torsion only. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear forces. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5.5. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. for a particular station. shear.

In such cases.Design for CSA A23. 5. The design procedure used by SAFE. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1).2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. shear. 5. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.e.1. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. or the strength of the concrete. Furthermore.1. the width.1.4).5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2. Mf (i. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.Chapter 5 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible.7).3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.. where. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. and torsion only. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1) Beam Design 5-7 . a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.

2).1. β1 = 0.4.5. The parameters α1.2) in the preceding and the following equations.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10.67.67 cb = (CSA 10.85 – 0. β1.5.7) (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.97 – 0.1.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design . and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.7) (CSA 10.0025f'c ≥ 0.65 (CSA 8.0015f'c ≥ 0.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.

5. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.1. or at the top if Mf is negative.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .1. If a > ab (CSA 10.Chapter 5 .2).Design for CSA A23. where f ′ = 0. 10.2.1.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .

7) (CSA 10. i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore..1.97 – 0.2 5.5.65 (CSA 8.10 Beam Design .10.1) where.2. 5.1. the value of φc is 0.7) 5 .5.0025 f' c ≥ 0. and vice versa if Mf is negative. Mf (i. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive. β1. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0. 5.4.2) in the preceding and the following equations.0015 f' c ≥ 0. the total tension reinforcement.5.2. The parameters α1. As = As1 + As2..2.67 β1 = 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.67 cb = (CSA 10.4.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1.7) (CSA 10.1.5.85 – 0.2.1. designing top reinforcement).1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0. no flanged beam data is used.e.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10.1.e.

If a > hs.1. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . the balance of the moment. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.Design for CSA A23. ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. calculation for As has two parts. Cf.3-04 If a ≤ hs. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.Chapter 5 .0035 bf hs (CSA 10. ab ) c ε = 0. Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.11 . However. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.

1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.2).5.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. where 5 . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10.12 Beam Design . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs . and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.5.2).1. If a1 > ab (CSA 10.

3.1.13 .3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .1. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0.1.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23. 5.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.Chapter 5 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.3) In addition.1.5. 10.1.2.5.1) An upper limit of 0.5.

with the corresponding load combination factors. Vf.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 5 .4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11. 5.2. for a particular loading combination.3. Determine the shear force.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. Vc. By default it is taken as 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.14 Beam Design .5.4.2).5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04bw d ⎧0. 5.5. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.65 (CSA 8. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. that can be resisted by the concrete. Vc.

It is determined according to CSA 11.72h. β is taken as 0. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.9d or 0. as follows (CSA 11.4). The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. and the tensile force is negligible.6.6. If the overall beam depth. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete. ⎪0. bw is the effective web width.2). It is taken as the greater of 0. When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. and described further in the following sections.6.21 (CSA 11.3).6.1 and 0.5): ⎧1.3. h.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2.6.6. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.3.00.85.4. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. which is taken by the program as the default value.6.2).15 .Chapter 5 . The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply. For flanged beams. ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0.3.2).3): Beam Design 5 . For normal density concrete.3.3. it is the width of the beam. if applicable. d v is the effective shear depth.75. the general method is used (CSA 11. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. For concrete using lower density aggregate.Design for CSA A23.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. (CSA 8. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa.3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data. its value is 1 (CSA 8.6.6. For rectangular beams.3. and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force. Its value is normally between 0. it is the width of the web of the beam.5).

sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.6. ⎪ 0.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11.3.3a).3. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0. or 5 . β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11. the crack spacing parameter. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. β is taken as 0.3. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. and ag < 20mm. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.18. However. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm.6.3.6. β = 0.3. sze. for simplified cases. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.16 Beam Design .3.18 (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.c) In the preceding expression.3 c) where.6.18 (CSA 11. ag. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . In summary. and ag ≥ 20mm.6. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.

6.6.6.6. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3. The longitudinal strain.3.17 . if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.Design for CSA A23.3.3.4): β= 0.6.3. ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.6.3.4) In the preceding expression. and linearly interpolated between these values.85Sz otherwise.3(b)). 11. Beam Design 5 . the equivalent crack spacing parameter. 11.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0.3.3-04 tension is not negligible.4).3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.3. (CSA 11.3.1.6. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.Chapter 5 .5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11.4(a)) (CSA 2.6. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.6. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11. Nf is taken as positive for tension.6.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.4(a)) (CSA 11.3.

3. 5.2.3.3. This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. it is recalculated with the following equation. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.18 Beam Design . Vc.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr .6.5. the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.3.4(d)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative. To check this condition.1) 5 . When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11. the shear strength of the section due to concrete.max = 0.4(e)). In the first pass.max.5.6.6. the program performs the design in two passes. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. and Vr. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.6.3.003 (CSA 11.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11. taken as half of the total area.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11.

3. whenever applicable. a failure condition is declared. If the overall beam depth.max .1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0. the term θ is used.2.8.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.2) In the preceding equations.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr . which was described previously. θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. Similar to the β factor.3).3.3. (CSA 11. h. Beam Design 5 . the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .Design for CSA A23.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.19 . or by calculation.25Tcr. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.3).Chapter 5 .3. where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.2).3.4).2.5.3.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3.6.3.3.8. 11.8.6. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.6.1) (CSA 11. It is determined according to CSA 11. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11.1.6.6.2.

3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.3.6.6. 5 . Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3. 5. Determine critical torsion capacity. f y > 400 MPa. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.6. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .6.5.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.3) If the axial force is tensile.4). f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. Tf. f y ≤ 400 MPa. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.20 Beam Design . Determine special section properties. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.3). the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.

Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5.3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 .3.Design for CSA A23. With this assumption. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf.9.2). However. Ao. pc. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. Aoh. such as Aoh.3-04 5.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. and ph are calculated. With this assumption. Ao. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. If redistribution is desired. 5. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.21 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. However. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.3). it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. such as Ac.2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. special section properties. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.Chapter 5 .5. and ph. with the corresponding load combination factors. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.

85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.2.4).9.3. 5.10. 5 . λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete.2. hf.9.10. Similarly.65.3) (CSA 11.22 Beam Design .1) (CSA 11. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.10. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.1) (CSA 11. bw.3. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.2. h. which is equal to 0.10.2. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3.3.3) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. h.4) where.4) where the section dimensions bf. the section dimensions b. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.3.5.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.9.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3.9.2.10. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.3.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11. Tcr.9.3.10.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11.

the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.10. if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.5 N f + (V f − 0.1).3).Chapter 5 . Tcr. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.9.5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0.2.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit. At /s. In that case.5.23 . However. Tcr.3.45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 . torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.

9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11. the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. θ is computed as previously described for shear.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. the concrete section should be increased in size.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.24 Beam Design . 11. If the general method is being used.4) For rectangular sections.3.10. 5 . In that case.9) In the preceding expressions.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3.10. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr). If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8. bw is replaced with b.6.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11. a failure message is declared. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0.2.3.3.10.

These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.Design for CSA A23. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.3-04 5. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.Chapter 5 . Slab Design 5 . is obtained and reported. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.25 .304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 5. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. To learn more about the design strips. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.

5. 5.1.6.26 Slab Design .8. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. 5. 5 . given the bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. at a given design section in a design strip.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. In that case.1) In addition.6. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6. In some cases.1): As ≥ 0. for each load combination. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1. Where openings occur. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6.10.002 bh (CSA 7.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.

27 .6.3. The column location (i.2.2).2. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites..1 and CSA 13.e.3).3.3-04 5.3.6. interior.3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13. where Slab Design 5 .3.3.Design for CSA A23. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu.Chapter 5 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. edge. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.

3.3.2.3.5. exceeds 300 mm.1) where. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.10. 5 .3.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .6.28 Slab Design .38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.3.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. 5.4.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0. (CSA 13. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.4.3). d. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.2) If the effective depth. and ⎪for corner columns. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. and (CSA 13.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .4.

6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .6. is the strength reduction factor.29 .3.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 5.3) 5.75λφ c (CSA 13. vc.max = 0.2.max.8. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3.2.Design for CSA A23. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.. Slab Design 5 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.2) Given vf. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 5. where.1).Chapter 5 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.8. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3.3-04 5.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13.6. and vf. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow. φs.

3. i. a failure condition is declared. 5.4d. (CSA 13.30 Slab Design . edge. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3. and corner column.max.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.8. 5 . Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 6. and 8. for corner. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge.5) If vf > vf.8.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. Therefore.max.e. and interior columns respectively..3.

3. Height.8.6) (CSA 13. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. s.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.Design for CSA A23.8.3.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.6.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13. When specifying shear studs.4d.6) Slab Design 5 .3. so. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.4 d ⎧ 0.31 .Chapter 5 . the distance.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. The limits of so and the spacing.3-04 5. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.

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mm 2 Notations 6-1 . However. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. 6. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected.

MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.

mm Torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Normalized design moment.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . mm Flange thickness. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section.max u VRdc VRd. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Lever arm. mm Design moment at a section.Chapter 6 . mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.

wind (W).i Qk .10a and 6.i Qk . j Gk . 6.1 + ∑ γ Q .12b) For this code. ∑γ j ≥1 G. 6.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.iψ 0.12b. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). j + γ P P + γ Q .10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. pattern live load (PL).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.1 + ∑ γ Q . and earthquake (E) loads.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i Qk .iψ 0. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq.1ψ 0. j + γ P P + γ Q . snow (S).1 + ∑ γ Q .iψ 0. and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .i Qk . MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. 6.1Qk . live load (L).1Qk . ∑G j ≥1 k. 6.10a) ∑ξ γ j G. j Gk .10b.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. j Gk . 6. 6. j + γ P P + γ Q .1Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.

the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.10a) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ.i S γGj.1 W γGj.10) (EC0 Eq. γGj.i ψ0.10b) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.supD + γQ.i S γGj.i ψ0. 6.sup D ξ γGj.i W γGj. 6.sup D ± γQ.sup D γGj.1 W + γQ.1 W + γQ.i W + γQ.supD + γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.i L D ± 1.supD + (0.i ψ0. 6. 6.i L + ψ2.0E + ψ2.10a) (EC0 Eq.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i ψ0.0E D ± 1. 6. 6.1 ψ0. 6.i ψ0.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .i L D ± 1.supD + (0.sup D + γQ.i W γGj.1 PL γGj.1 L ξ γGj.supD + (0.i W γGj.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs. 6.1 W + γQ.i L γGj.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.1 ψ0. 6.10b. 6.3): γGj.10a and 6. 6.sup D + γQ. 6.i ψ0.i S (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1 S ± γQ.Chapter 6 .10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.75)γQ.1 ψ0. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.i ψ0.1 S ± γQ.1 L γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.4.1 S + γQ.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W γGj.i L γGj.75)γQ.sup D + γQ. 6.1 L γGj.sup D + γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.inf D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.0E + ψ2.1 L + γQ.sup D ± γQ.supD + γQ.i S γGj.i S ± γQ. 6. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 PL γGj.1 PL ξ γGj.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.sup D + γQ.i L + γQ.1 W (EC0 Eq. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.sup D γGj.

1 S + γQ.1 W γGj.1 ψ0. 6.sup D + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.sup D ± γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.i S γGj.inf D ± γQ.85 (EC0 Table A1.1 S ± γQ. 6.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.7 (live load.1 ψ0.1 W + γQ.sup = 1.1 ψ0. 6.sup D + γQ.0E D ± 1. γGj.i ψ0.i S D ± 1.i S ξ γGj.1 ψ0.5 = 0.i ψ0.i L γGj.sup D + γQ.1 L + γQ.1 W γGj.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.i ψ0. 6.35 γGj.1 W ξ γGj.i ψ0.0E + ψ2.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.i W ξ γGj.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.i L D ± 1.inf D ± γQ.i ψ0.i S γGj. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.i L γGj.1) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0.inf D ± γQ.i ψ0.5 = 1.i ψ0.1 ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.1 L + γQ.sup D + γQ.1 γQ.1 L ± γQ.i W ξ γGj.i W γGj.sup D + γQ.i L + ψ2.6 (wind load) = 0.1 S + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq. 6.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 ψ0. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i L γGj.1 S ± γQ.i ψ0.i ξ = 1.5 (snow load.1 W + γQ.00 γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.i W ξ γGj.0E + ψ2.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.i L γGj.i ψ0.inf = 1.1 L ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .sup D ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0. assumed not to be storage) = 0.i ψ0.

i = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.1. fck. other appropriate load combinations should be used.7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. should be 400 and 600 MPa.2.Chapter 6 . Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .7(2)) (EC2 3. αcc is taken as 1.6(1)) (EC2 3. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength. respectively (EC2 3.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.i ψ2.2(2)).1.2(3)).Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2.1.2. 6. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.3 (live. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.6(1)). fyk.2.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. 6.1) (EC0 Table A1. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. γs and γc as shown here. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design .2. and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. for a particular station.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.4).4(1).1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. γs = 1. shear. The user should consider those separately. These values can be overwritten. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values.4. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. however. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. γc = 1. and torsion based on the beam moments.2. For accidental and earthquake situations. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.5. caution is advised.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. load combination factors.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. torsion. shear. shear forces. Table 2.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement.4. 6.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2.

Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Fig 3.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3.1. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5.7(3). The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3. In such cases.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. In such cases.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the width. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.1. or the strength of the concrete.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Fig 3.1. 6.5) (EC2 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.7(3)).1.7(3). Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.Chapter 6 .

5(4)) (EC2 5.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.7(3)) (EC2 3. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.7(3)) (EC2 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.25(0.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.44 k2 = k4 = 1.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.7(3)) λ = 0.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.54 (EC 5. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution. ( x d )lim . is summarized in the subsections that follow.1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.5(4)). δ. the following values are used: k1 = 0.6 + 0.10 Beam Design .0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3. 6 .8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.5(4)) (EC 5. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.and T-beams). as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5(4)) (EC 5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.

5. or equal to mlim. m.11 . and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. the normalized moment.1. m. are obtained first. less than. The normalized design moment.Chapter 6 . is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 . mlim. mlim.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.2. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.

and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'. are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. and is given by: 6 . d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. A's and As. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. or at the top if MEd is negative. a singly reinforced beam is designed.12 Beam Design . ωlim. If m > mlim.

m. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. no flanged beam data is used. Initially.1. 3.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.1.1.2. Fig 3.5.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.5(4).13 .Chapter 6 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6.7(4). See Figure 6-2. i. 6. 3. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.1. additional calculation is required..5.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω.e. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . MEd (i. Based on this assumption.1.1.8) 6. designing top reinforcement).5.2. 3.2. The normalized design moment.e.1.2.

in that case.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment.14 Beam Design . as shown in Figure 6-2. the calculation for As has two parts. If a > hf. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. the width of the beam is taken as bf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. M1 = M − M2. is determined as follows: 6 . However.

and the total compression reinforcement is A's.Chapter 6 . ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. Fig 3. Beam Design 6 .1.2.8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.7(4). ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim. 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim.15 . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

VEd. for a particular load combination.12.2.1) (EC2 3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. Table 3.5.2): Determine the factored shear force.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As . An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 6 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear force.min = 0. VRd.1.16 Beam Design .5.1.1.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.2. Table 3. Table 3.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.1(1)) As . that can be resisted by the concrete.1(3)).30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.12.1. 6.c.1) f ctm = 2.0013bd (EC2 9.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.12.min = 0. Determine the shear reinforcement required.

5.2(1)) (EC2 6. is calculated as: 13 VRd . 6.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.5.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0. with the corresponding load combination factors.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2(1)) (EC2 6.2.2. 6. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2.c = ⎡C Rd .035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .2.c.15 Beam Design 6 .Chapter 6 .02 bw d (EC2 6.2.c = 0.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.18 γ c ν min = 0. VRd.2.c.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.17 . vmin.2.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.

obtained from each load combination.2.3(3)) (EC2 6.2.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.3(3)) (EC2 6.3(1)) (EC2 6.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd. VRd.18 Beam Design . VRdc. Asw Asw. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .min s = 0.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.6⎜1 − z = 0.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.max.3(3)) (EC2 6.2.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0. 6 . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values.2.3(3)) Asw.2(6)) (EC2 6.2.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd.2.2.max. a failure condition is declared. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6.2.

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. special section properties.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. TEd. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.2). the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. If redistribution is desired. However.5.3. uk.5.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. 6. Determine special section properties. such as Ak.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.3.19 . tef. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.1(2)). u.3. These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. and zi are calculated. Beam Design 6 .3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Chapter 6 .5. 6. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. 6.

This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.2(3)) 6 . However.3. Similarly. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.2(3)) where.3. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness.20 Beam Design . the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.3.2(1)) (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. With this assumption. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. h. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties. the section dimensions b.3.3.3. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.2(1)) (EC2 6. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. and uk.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. With this assumption.3.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.2(1)) (EC2 6. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. such as Ak.

In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6. is first calculated.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.3.5.21 . the shear due to this torsion. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.2.c VRd .3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9. 6.3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. and compression diagonals. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.c is the torsional cracking moment.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.3.c (EC2 6. bw. calculated as: TRd . if the equation is not satisfied.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.0 TRd . followed by the required stirrup area.05 / γ c (EC2 6.1.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.5.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. hf.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .3.2(1)) 6. Vt.2(5)) where VRd. However. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required. longitudinal bars.Chapter 6 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.3.3.2. h.

max + VEd ≤ 1. The code allows any value between 21.3(2)). as previously defined for beam shear.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd .max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.max (EC2 6.22 Beam Design .2.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.3.3. In the preceding expressions.0 VRd .max.2(4)) where TRd.2(4)) 6 . θ is taken as 45 degrees.

Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6.Chapter 6 . To learn more about the design strips.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. 6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.23 . The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. a failure message is declared. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the concrete section should be increased in size. Slab Design 6 . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. In that case. 6. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.

3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. These two steps. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur. 6. 6.2. In some cases. at a given design section in a design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 6.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). is obtained and reported.min = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.0013bd (EC2 9.1(1)) As . are repeated for every load combination.1. described in the subsections that follow. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1.24 Slab Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. given the bending moment. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.min = 0.1.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination. for each load combination.1): As .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.6.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. In that case.1.6.2.1.

e.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1) (EC2 Table 3. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections..25 .1(3)).2.4.2.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.6.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2. edge.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. The column location (i.Chapter 6 .1.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1) fctm = 2. 6.2(1)).6. interior.1) (EC2 Table 3. Slab Design 6 .4.

4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.6.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.4.26 Slab Design .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.4(1)) 6 .4.c = ⎡C Rd .

vEd. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .27 .4. conservatively taken as zeros.4(1)) (EC2 6.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.4(1)) ν min = 0.4.4. the nominal design shear stress.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.02 (EC2 6.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 . C Rd .4.c = 0.Chapter 6 .18 γ c (EC2 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.2.4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4(1)) (EC2 6.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4.4.0 d (EC2 6.4.15 6. conservatively taken as zeros.6.

28 Slab Design . 6.c ) = u1 sr 1.4.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5 f ywd . vRd. (EC2 6.ef If vEd > vRd. a failure condition is declared. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm. Asw (v Ed − 0. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.6.c. 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 6 .max. Given vEd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6. 6.3.max.6.5).4.75v Rd .3. and vRd.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. the concrete section should be increased in size.

and interior columns respectively. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.3(1)).Chapter 6 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Height.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. 6. and 8.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines..6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and corner column. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. for corner.29 .6.e. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 .5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3. Therefore.4. 6.3. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. i. edge. edge.

3(1)) (EC2 9. 12-. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.3(1)) 6 . g.75d g ≤ 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.3(1)) (EC2 9. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. so. When specifying shear studs. and 20-millimeter diameter.3d. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.30 Slab Design .3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing.4.4. 16-.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.3(1)) (EC2 9.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 14-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. s.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. the distance.4.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm
2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm
4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum
2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

where εc.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0. ⎧0.5.2.1. the width. βb ≥ 0.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0.2. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.9) (CP 6.. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.1.5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. 7.max is defined as: ε c . The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.e. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. In such cases.4(a)).2. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4(b)).1.0035 − 0. with the corresponding load factors. or the strength of the concrete.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

Chapter 7 .4(a)).1) The design procedure used by SAFE.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 . 7.4(a). See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.2. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.87 f y z (CP 6. Msingle.1fcuAg) (CP 6. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. Fig 6.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. shear. where 0.5. is obtained first for a section. or equal to Msingle.4(b)). hence. Msingle = K'fcu bd .9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.1.4(c)) ⎧0.2. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.2. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.2.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6. In addition. is obtained from: As = M . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.2. where 2 (CP 6.1. As.1. less than. and torsion only.2.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.1. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.

1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.2.5 + 0.1.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.2.4(c)) (CP 6.1.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.25 − ⎜ 0. or at the top if M is negative.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.2.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0. If M > Msingle.95d z = d ⎜ 0.

Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.. designing top reinforcement).2.2.4(c).5.2.95d 0.1.1.4(a). If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.87 f y z + 0.1.1. M (i. Fig 6.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. no flanged beam data is used. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis..1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.5.5.e.e.4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.2.45 . the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.5 + 0. 3.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6. Based on this assumption. 3. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .2.Chapter 7 .36 .2. and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y .2.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. Fig. Beam Design 7-9 .9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.1.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. i.6.2.2. 7.4(c)) 7. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.

36 .9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.2.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.5 + 0.2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0. in that case. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ .4(c).2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.1. If a > hf . for ⎪ 0.10 Beam Design .1. Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4(c)) (CP 6. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0. See Figure 7-2.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.2. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. Fig 6.95d.45 .4(a).1.1) If a ≤ hf.1. However.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6. 0. Fig 6. the width of the beam is taken as bf.

5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. x ≤ 0.4.4.11 .33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.9 x − h f ) 0. Cf.87 f y (d − 0.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.1 f cu bd (0.5) β f = 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . x ≤ 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.Chapter 7 .4.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .5h f ) bf hf ec 0.4d then.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0. Cw.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0. as shown in Figure 7-2. ⎪0.67 fcu/gm 0.4. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.5h f ) . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0. x ≤ 0. In that case. where (BS 3.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.

As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.1.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6. where (CP 6.32 ⎪ ⎪0.4(c)). one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.12 Beam Design .2.5h f ) ) .4(d)) ⎧0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0. 7 . the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.1.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.1.2.87 f y ( d − 0.2.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.

67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. 3.95d ⎜ 0.87 f y (d − 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.Chapter 7 .9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.2.5 + 0.1.5 + 0.2.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0. Fig 3.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 . d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.13 .25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K. where 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.6. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.95d ⎜ 0.4(c).

26 ⎯ 100 0.24 0.1(CP 9.48 0.1.2. which is taken from CP Table 9.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.1.36 0. which is taken from CP Table 9.40 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.20 0.1).1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1 (CP 9.2.1.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.2.3): 7 .13 100 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.14 Beam Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.2.20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.32 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. if it is required.5.4 bf bw ≥ 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2.2. vc.5(a)) 7. the following steps are involved (CP 6. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5. with the corresponding load combination factors.5): Determine the shear stress.Chapter 7 .5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. 7 MPa) (CP 6.15 . vc.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.1.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 . that can be resisted by the concrete.8 fcu .5.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress.2. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. for a particular load combination.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. Determine the shear stress.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.1.04bw d ⎧0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9. v. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.2.1.3) 7.1. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. 7.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.2.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

16 Beam Design .1.5.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6. the following limitations also apply: 0.2.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2.1.3) (CP 6. CP 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6. and vmax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0. Table 6.1.1. vr.1.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.2.3) ≥ 0.5(c).6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.5(k)) 0.2.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5(c).67 1. as: 7 .2.5(g)) (CP 6.2.2. Table 6. Table 6.2.25 However. vc.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5(c). Table 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2. Table 6.5(c).1.1.1.2.5(k)) 7.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.5(c).

1.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.87 f yv If v > vmax. (CP 6. vt.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. (CP 6.2.Chapter 7 . a failure condition is declared. 7.2. obtained from each load combination.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5(b)) (CP 6.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.5. Beam Design 7 . Determine special section properties.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0. sv 0.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.5(b).2. Table 6.2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.17 .1.1.1.

3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.5. Table 6.3. vt. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.8 f cu .3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress. 7. The torsional shear stress. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. with the corresponding load combination factors. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. vt.18 Beam Design .3.3. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6.3(a)) For flanged sections. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. In typical framed construction. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.1).1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.4.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.3.17 7 .

it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6.3.0.min. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt.min = min 0. 7. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3. vt.19 .2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.min.5). However.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.Chapter 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.5).067 fcu .min.5. vt. vt is less than the threshold limit. Asv.min.3. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .t /sv.5. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6.4. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.3. vt. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.3. In that case. Table 6. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .

An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. 7 .3. In that case.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv . The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. a failure message is declared.t sv = T 0. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.6) In the preceding expressions.3.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 7.7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link. the concrete section should be increased in size.8 fcu . refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.3.20 Slab Design . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.87 f yv ) (CP 6. To learn more about the design strips.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.8 x1 y1 (0.

The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. given the bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. In that case. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. In some cases. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . at a given design section in a design strip. is obtained and reported. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 7. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.21 . for each load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.Chapter 7 . 7.1.

3.1.3.6.5. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.22 Slab Design .7). the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.1. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.6. 7.3).0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.5. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. 7. 7.1. interior.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. edge. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.e.1.2.2.. Where openings occur.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9. 7 .1.1(a)) In addition.7(d)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.6.1. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.

5.3): 0. 6.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 . Table 6.5(g). Table 6.2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.7(d).6.23 .5d 1.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.7(d). Table 6.1.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.Chapter 7 .5.5d 1.5(c).1.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.2.1.1.7(d)) (CP 6.2.5.

2. where (CP 6.8 f cu .1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7.5 x ⎬ .1.4.5.6(b). x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending. 7 . Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.5(c).2.1. the following limitations also apply: (CP 2.1.5.1.3) ≥ 0.2.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section. bd 1 4 (CP 6.2.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.7(b)) (CP Table 6. 6. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.5. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2) 0.5(c).1.24 Slab Design .00 As = area of tension reinforcement.5 + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1. Table 6.3. v ≤ min(0. 7 MPa) (CP 6. the nominal design shear stress. Table 6.67 1. Table 2.6.25 However.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. v.5.

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force.25 .5. 7.6.7(e)).6.1.6.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5. and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.Chapter 7 .6(b). provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6. 7.1.5. 6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.25 ⎪1.1.1.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.5.3.7(e)) Slab Design 7 .

and 8.0vc (CP 6. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.5. (CP 6. 7.87 f yv 0.5.87 f yv s If v > vmax. the concrete section should be increased in size. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6vc ≤ v < 2.7(e)).5.1. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7v − vc ) ud 0. i.6.26 Slab Design . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. a failure condition is declared. edge.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.7(f)). for corner.87 f yv If 1. edge.1.6vc 0.7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.1.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0.5. and interior columns respectively. 6.87 f yv 0.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = . 0.7(e)) (CP 6. Therefore. ≥ s 0.e.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v. If v ≤ 1. and vmax.. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.5.3. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.1.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4ud = ≥ . vc. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 7 . and corner column.

7(f)) Slab Design 7 .27 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.75d g ≤ 1.5.1. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.6. so.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d (CP 6. the distance. and 20-millimeter diameter.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. 14-. g. Height. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. When specifying shear studs.5d s ≤ 0.5.Chapter 7 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. 12-.1. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. s.3. The limits of so and the spacing.5d.1.5.7(f)) (CP 6. 16-.7(f)) (CP 6.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.

.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. 8. a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. mm Notations 8-1 .1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. assumed as 200.

Chapter 8 . N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section.max Notations 8.3 . N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N-mm Normalized design moment.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading.0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc. N Depth of neutral axis. mm Lever arm. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis.

2L ± 1.5E 1.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations . and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. and earthquake (E) loads. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.5D + 1.4. live load (L). wind (W).5W 0. MPa 8.2E 1.75 PL) 1.5.5L 1.1) (IS 31.3) (IS 36.5(0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.1) (IS 36.5D + 1.5S 1.2D + 1.5D + 1. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section. For IS 456-2000.5D 1.2L ± 1.4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).5D + 1.5L ± 1.5W 1. Table 18): 1.5D ± 1.4.5E 0.2.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.5D ± 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. snow (S).2W 1. pattern live load (PL).5L ± 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.9D ± 1.1) (IS 36.0W 1.2D + 1.4.5D + 1.0E (IS 36.9D ± 1.

shear forces.2E 1.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.2. shear.Design for IS 456-2000 1.5L + 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.2.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. These values can be overwritten. torsion.2S ± 1. γc = 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2D + 1.2E (IS 36.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments.4.5 . and torsion only. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement. 14.2W 1.2L + 1. 8.5S 1. beams must be designed for torsion. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.4.2S ± 1. However.2S ± 1. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. γm.5 (IS 36. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.2D + 1. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8. other appropriate load combinations should be used. γs = 1. caution is advised.2S ± 1.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. 8.4.5D + 1.2L + 1.Chapter 8 .1) (IS 36.2D + 1. load combination factors. however. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2D + 1. 8.2W 1.4.

torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . In such cases. However. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. If redistribution is desired.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. Rather. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed.4.4. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. 8. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. 8-6 Beam Design . In such cases.

2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases.Chapter 8 .4. Beam Design 8.4.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.1. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.Design for IS 456-2000 8. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.4.2.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.7 . If Mt exceeds Mu.1.2) (IS 41.1) 8. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. with the corresponding load factors.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. where (IS 41. respectively. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. Effectively. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4.4.

When a torsional moment is to be included.1.4. a. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. or the strength of the concrete. c. (IS 41.4.2. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. 8. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber.1).1) 8-8 Beam Design . The area of the stress block.4. the width. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.1) (IS 38.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. with the corresponding load combination factors. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.1) 8.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.

The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.max /d 0.1).36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.42 (IS 38. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.53 0.36 β = 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.46 Beam Design 8.0035 b f′ s 0. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.Chapter 8 . Furthermore.1) (IS 38. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0.48 0.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.9 .1).

for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.53 − 0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. are obtained first. shear. 8. and torsion only. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. Msingle.0035 (IS 38.53 ⎪ ⎪0.2. or equal to Msingle.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. less than. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.max d ⎧0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. xu .10 Beam Design . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. Msingle = α xu.4.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38.max = 0. m. is given by 8 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.max. Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. xu.48 − 0.max d xu.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.

67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1.11 .2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') .1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. Beam Design 8.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. or at the top if Mu is negative. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0. the area of compression reinforcement.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. and vice versa if Mu is negative.max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu .max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. is obtained from As = Mu . d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1. − If Mu > Msingle.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . where (IS G-1. As. A's.Chapter 8 .2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c .

the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 .2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. no flanged beam data is used. Mu (i. 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.3.2. On the basis of this assumption. designing top reinforcement). the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.3.. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. i.3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.12 Beam Design .4.e.e. See Figure 8-2. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression...4.

If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .2 d ⎩ (IS G-2. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0.13 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cf.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0.1). However. as shown in Figure 8-2.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Cw. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8.15 xu + 0. m.Chapter 8 .65D f if D f > 0.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.

48 − 0.53 − 0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.1) xu . As = (f y γ s )(d − 0.46 (IS 38.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.max ⎡ x u.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.single.single. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.single ⎛ 0. the area of compression reinforcement.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1. and 8 .53 ⎪ ⎪0. A's. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.max d ⎧0.14 Beam Design .1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.

5.Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.Chapter 8 .1): As ≥ 0.15 .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.5.1) An upper limit of 0.4.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5. for a particular load combination.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1) (IS 26.1.4. at a particular station.2) 8.2.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.5.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.5.1.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.04bw d ⎧0.1.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.5.1.1.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.85 bd fy (IS 26. the following steps are involved (IS 40.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1.

max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.4.2. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.3.2) 8 . as: τcd = kδτc.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.2. d. (IS 40. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.max (IS 40.5 M20 2.3.1 M30 3.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.5 M35 3.7 M40 4. τc. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20. τv ≤ τc.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d .1. τc.0 τc.16 Beam Design . For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40. τc.max.8 M25 3. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.max (MPa) (IS 40.3. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. where bd (IS 40.

15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.Chapter 8 .2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.max (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0.5.4.1).1) (IS 40. taken as 1.1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. 26.87 f y (IS 40. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.1. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.2.2.4 < τv ≤ τc.2.1.2.3. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.4(a)) Beam Design 8.1.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 . Under Tension (IS 40.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. 0.2. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0.4 Asv 0. and if Pu > 0 .17 .Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.87 f y If τcd + 0.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .2.1. Table 19) (IS 40.

max is determined as defined in the last section.18 Beam Design . obtained from each load combination.3) (IS 41.max The maximum nominal shear stress. 26.4) 8.4.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0. (IS 40.2.5d1 (0.4.5. a failure condition is declared. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0. τc.87 f y (IS 41.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.87 f y (IS 41.max. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.4. provide 2-legged closed stirrups. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3) τve ≤ τc.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40.4 b ≥ sv 0. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.87 f y ) 2.1) (IS 40.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.6) If τve ≥τcd.3.3.2.1. 8 .

is obtained and reported. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Slab Design 8. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.19 .1. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. described in the subsections that follow. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. are repeated for every load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.Chapter 8 . 8. for each load combination. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These two steps.Design for IS 456-2000 8. 8.5. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips.5. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.

1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1).5.5. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 8. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.. at a given design section in a design strip.2.2.1).e.5.5. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. edge. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.20 Slab Design .5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. 8 . Where openings occur.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.2): ⎧0.5.6. interior.5. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. The column location (i.1) In addition.1. 8.1). In some cases.6. given the bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31. In that case. 8.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26.

Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8.Chapter 8 .21 . where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.5.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.2.6.2.3. 8.5.2).

3.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.5.6.5 τ c bod (IS 31.6.3. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.2) 8 . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5τ c (IS 31.5.1) (IS 31.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.0 (IS 31.3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0. 8. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.22 Slab Design .5.1) (IS 31.2) 8.1) τc = 0. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined. 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3.2.6.6.3. 8.5 + βc ≤ 1.

Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.87 f y (IS 31. i. a failure condition is declared.Chapter 8 .5Vc ) 0.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu.3. the concrete section should be increased in size.e.2. edge. Av = (Vu − 0. 41.23 .3.2).6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.4. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Slab Design 8. Vc.5. and corner column.6.3. 8. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.2) If Vu > Vmax.3. and Vmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face.6. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax..3) (IS 31.

The limits of so and the spacing.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Therefore.5d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. g. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. edge.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 8. When specifying shear studs. s.24 Slab Design . 6. so. the distance. for corner. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and interior columns respectively. and 8. Height. 5d s ≤ 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.3.

sq-mm Notations 9-1 .1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. 9. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity.

sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. assumed as 200. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. mm Width of member. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations .

MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. mm Perimeter of area Ao. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab or flange. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. N Average design shear stress at a section. mm Factored design torsion at a section. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. N Factored shear force at a section.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete.Chapter 9 . MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 . MPa Shear stress due to torsion. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length.

2.0. 4.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.0.2.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations . 4. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0W 1.0.0S 1.2.4L ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc.0. live load (L).0.2. 4.2D ± 1.2.2. 4.2D + 0. For NZS 3101-06. 4.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. and earthquake (E) loads.0.2D + 1.4L + 1.0. 4.5L 1.4L ± 1.35D 1.2.2D + 1. snow (S).0W 1. 4.0D ± 1. 4. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.0E 1.0.2D + 0.2): 1. wind (W). (0.0. pattern live load (PL).003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.75 PL) 1.2.5(0.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.0D + 0.9D ± 1.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0E (AS/NZS 1170.0W 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0. other appropriate load combinations should be used.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.3. The φ factors for flexure. 9. however.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.1). and torsion are as follows: φb = 0.3. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. 9. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5.85 for flexure φs = 0.2) (NZS 2. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . fy.Chapter 9 .2. shear.2. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.3). The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.2. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. (NZS 2.3.3. fyt.3). caution is advised.

The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. torsion. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. with the corresponding load factors.1. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. load combination factors. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. for a particular station.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. shear forces. shear. and torsion only. the 9-6 Beam Design .

4.5. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.8.7): α1 = 0. 9. M (i. where.. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2) in the preceding and following equations. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9.1.1). * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7.5. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. the width. or the strength of the concrete.2.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.Chapter 9 . designing top or bottom reinforcement).2.4.7).1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.3.2) where the default value of φb is 0. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.3. Furthermore.4.85 (NZS 2. 9.2. shear. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 . The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.2.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.e. and torsion only. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure used by SAFE. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).

1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9. 9.7) (NZS 7.4.8.1).003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0. 0.2.7) (NZS 7.4.7.85 β1 = 0. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.3.008( f ′ − 30).85 − 0.2.4. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design . is given by: amax = 0.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.4.75β1cb (NZS 7.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3.8) β1 = 0.2.85 − 0. amax.8. c (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.2.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.

where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.2.4. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.4.1).2.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4.2. or at the top * if M is negative.4. If a > amax (NZS 9.Chapter 9 .4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .3.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.2.2.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s . 7.8.

1) If a ≤ hf. 9.e. i. If a > hf.4.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.5.1..2. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. Cw. as shown in Figure 9-2. 9. * 9.8..2 Design of Flanged Beams 9.2.10 Beam Design . Cf.2.7. However. no flanged beam data is used. is given by: amax = 0.2.1.5. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.4. 9 . and vice versa if M is negative. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. the total tension reinforcement. calculation for As has two parts. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. M (i.3.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. designing top reinforcement). the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.2.5.75β1cb (NZS 7. amax.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.e. As = As1 + As2.

11 .2. M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2 ) Beam Design 9 .7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore.4. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0.4.Chapter 9 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7. the balance of the moment.

8. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .2.2.12 Beam Design .1).8.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.3.2. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s . and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4. 7.1).7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.2. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.4. If a1 > amax (NZS 9.4.

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb
Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .
*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb
The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣
f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c
0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:
*

V ν = bw d
*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s
If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,
*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16
*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)
Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.
*

9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

h.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) where. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 . Similarly.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) where the section dimensions bf. and c are shown in Figure 9-3.75 Ao/po 0.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7. bw.75 Ao/po 0. h.1) (NZS 7.7). and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1) (NZS 7. the section dimensions b. hf.1) (NZS 7. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.6. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.18 Beam Design .1.

is less than the threshold limit.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.6.4. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0. In that case.6. Tcr.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.6.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.1.6. However.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.4. and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength. is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.5.4.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6. T . Tcr.3.Chapter 9 .1).3) 9.1. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. and meets the torsion stress limit.6.3.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7. At /s.6) Beam Design 9 .6. if T exceeds the threshold limit. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.5.1.1).19 . defined as: T* ≤ 0. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.

the concrete section should be increased in size. a failure message is declared. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 9 . bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7. 7.3).2.2) * * For rectangular sections.6.1. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6. To learn more about the design strips. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.8. provided it is fully developed. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.2 f 'c . At Al 1. 9.5. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.6.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. In that case.20 Slab Design .

1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.21 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. for each load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. are repeated for every load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These two steps. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. given the bending moment. 9. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. described in the subsections that follow. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries.1. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. is obtained and reported. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 .Chapter 9 . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 9. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. In that case. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. at a given design section in a design strip.6.

22 Slab Design . 9 .2.6.5.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.5.7.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. Where openings occur. 9.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.8.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12.7. 8. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. The column location (i. 8.1) In addition.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1(b)).3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.1. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.4 ): ⎧ 0 . 9. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1(b)). the slab width is adjusted accordingly..6. interior. 2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.4.e. edge.6.8. 9. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.6.6.

6.7. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.6.7.23 .7.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.Chapter 9 . 9.2.7.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M .2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.

6. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.4.7.7.6.7.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.1. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.1) 70 9. 9. 12. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.2(a)).1).3. 9 .3.3.24 Slab Design .2) where.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.2.7. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12.2.

5) 9.7.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.6. the concrete section should be increased in size.3) (NZS 12. a failure condition is declared.3.7. and vmax.4) If vn > φvmax.4) Given vn.3.6. Slab Design 9 .7. vc. 9.3.3. where. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5 f ′ c (NZS 12. φ.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12.4.7.25 . is the strength reduction factor. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3. If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax.7.4.Chapter 9 .

7. for corner. i. and corner column.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4.6. and 8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.e. edge. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. edge. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Therefore. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. 9 .26 Slab Design . 6. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4). and interior columns respectively.

4) Slab Design 9 .4) (NZS 12.7. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.27 .7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. s. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4.5d.Chapter 9 .4.7. Height.3. g. the distance.4) (NZS 12. so. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of so and the spacing.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. When specifying shear studs.5d s ≤ 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.4.

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Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 . Notations 10 . The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. For simplicity. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. is selected. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard.

MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm 10 . mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Flange thickness. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Torsional constant. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.2 Notations . mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement.

3 . mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 .Chapter 10 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. MPa Neutral axis depth. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Torsional shear stress. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. mm Lever arm. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.

The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. and wind (W) loads. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4D + 1.6(0.0D ± 1.1.3).4 Design Load Combinations . The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. Note that the automatic combination. other appropriate load combinations should be used.4. including pattern live load.7.2L ± 1.3). 1. γf (CP 2.4D ± 1.3) (CP 2. fcu.4D + 1.4. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.6L 1.4W 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.3) (CP 2.2). 10.4.4D 1. pattern live load (PL).1. live load (L). If a structures is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.4. and considering that wind forces are reversible. 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.4W 1.2W (CP 2.75PL) 1.

2 (CP 2. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 .50 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. which are taken from CP Table 2. and other criteria described below. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. shear.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10.15 1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion only.4.4.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. shear forces.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.Chapter 10 . load combination factors. γm. 10.5 . and torsion based on the beam moments. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. but can be overwritten. torsion.

1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. BC 2. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. with the corresponding load factors.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the width.3.5.5.4. In such cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.1. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. for a particular station. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.6 Beam Design .1.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. or the strength of the concrete.4. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.4). Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.2) 10 . In such cases. 10. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.

4).4.4. less than. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.4. ⎧0.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. where 2 (CP 3.4. In addition.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. Msingle.4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4.Chapter 10 .1). or equal to Msingle.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.e. βb ≥ 0.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.4.1fcuAg) (CP 3. is first calculated for a section. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. hence.4. is summarized in the subsections that follow.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure. See Figure 10-1.4). BC 2.4) Beam Design 10 .4.4.4.4..5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. shear.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.7 .and T-beams).9) (CP 3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. and torsion only.4. Msingle = K'fcu bd .5.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.1. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. 10. BC 2.

4.4.5 + 0.4.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.4.87 f y z (CP 3.25 − ⎜ 0. is then given by: As = M . where 0.8 Beam Design .95d z = d ⎜ 0. the area of tension reinforcement. If M ≤ Msingle.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0. As.4) 10 .120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.4.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0.4.4) (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.

the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.87 f y z + 0.4.4. Fig 2.5. designing top reinforcement). 2.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1. M (i. 2..67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .4.1..87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.4.5 + 0.Chapter 10 .9 .4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0. Beam Design 10 . If M > Msingle.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.4.25 − ⎜ 0.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.4. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. i.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.5. where (CP 3.4.2.1.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.e. Fig 2.2.4.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3. or at the top if M is negative.2.3.4. and f ′ =0.3.5.5.4. no flanged beam data is used.

See Figure 10-2. On the basis of this assumption. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 .5.67 fcu γ m 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.4. εc 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.10 Beam Design .

5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.4.4. where (BS 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0. as shown in Figure 10-2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.5 + 0. In that case.4. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.45d − h f ) 0. for ⎪ ⎪d − z . Fig 2.95d 0.2.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. If a > hf .2.5h f ) . for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.4. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.36 .4.4.5) β f = 0. However. 2 As = M + 0. Fig 2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.Chapter 10 .4.45 . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.45d then.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.11 .4. Cf. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3. BC 2.1 f cu bd (0.3) If a ≤ hf. Cw.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.9 ⎭ (CP 3.4.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.4.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.4.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.87 f y (d − 0. BC 2.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .

2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.054 for ⎩ ⎧0. BC 2.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.2) 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.2) ⎧0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.4.4.4.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.87 f y ( d − 0.4.32 ⎪ ⎪0.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.5.4. where (CP 3.5h f ) ) .6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.4.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.12 Beam Design .

Fig 2.4).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw. BC 2.3.4.13 .4.3. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. 2. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4.5. Fig 2. and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.87 f y (d − 0.5 + 0.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4.2) If Kw ≤ 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.4.4. 2.4.5. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.Chapter 10 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3. where 0.4. As = 0.4.5.95d ⎜ 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .4.156 (CP 3.4.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.4).

5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.14 Beam Design .5 + 0.27 (CP 3.5.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.24 0.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.5.4 bf bw ≥ 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.3). 10 .32 0.12.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.13 100 0.48 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.12.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.36 0. if it is required. which is taken from CP Table 3.95d ⎜ 0.26 100 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.27 (CP 3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.18 100 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.5.1.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the following steps are involved (CP 3.40 0. 10.4.12.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.Chapter 10 . for a particular load combination. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3. Determine the shear stress. An upper limit of 0.2.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T. BC 2. vc. that can be resisted by the concrete.3.20 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.2). The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1).12.5.5): Determine the shear stress.5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 .15 .6.5. v. 10.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.

4.4) 10. vc.4.4) (CP 2.4.2) For light-weight concrete. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete.2.5.4.9) 10 .12) 0.2) The maximum allowable shear stress.5. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.6 (CP 3.5. the following limitations also apply: 0.8 fcu .4. with the corresponding load combination factors.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3.5.4. is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .5.16 Beam Design .1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases. (CP 3.4. 7 MPa). vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.25 1 1 3 However. Table 3.8) (CP 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5.5.4.5. Table 3.4.63 fcu .4.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3.

Table 3.3.3.5. Table 3.9) (CP 3. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 . and vmax. Table 3.Chapter 10 .9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.5.4.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr. v’c.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.4.8.5. a failure condition is declared. (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0.4.2.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0. Table 3.4. CP 3. Table 3.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.3.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.4.5.87 f yv If v > vmax.5.4.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.2) In the preceding expressions.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.4.8) As vr b = . as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.5. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.4.5.8) (CP 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.17 .4. (CP 3.5.4.5. sv 0. Table 3. vr.

Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Determine special section properties.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.15). The torsional shear stress. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.18 Beam Design . 10. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.4. 10. Determine critical torsion stress. In typical framed construction.5.4. vt.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. obtained from each load combination.5.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. vt.5.5. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.3. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.

Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.min.4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.4.min = min 0.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.5) 10.067 f cu .5) Beam Design 10 .6 N / mm 2 x 0. vt.5.min is defined as: vt . a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.1) For flanged sections.8 (CP Part 2 5.4. vt.0.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.4.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.8 f cu .3.4. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . vt.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2.19 .Chapter 10 . For lightweight concrete. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4.067 f cu .2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.0. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2.min = min 0.

10 . vt. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. However.min.3.min.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. vt.4.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.6).7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4.7) In the preceding expressions. a failure message is declared.4.min.87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.8 x1 y1 (0. In that case. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.20 Beam Design . x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2. If vt > vt. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.8 f cu .6). it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. is less than the threshold limit. the concrete section should be increased in size. In that case.t sv = T 0.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.4. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. is calculated as: Asv . Asv.5. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.4.t /sv. vt.

21 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.Chapter 10 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. Slab Design 10 .6. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

Where openings occur. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. CP Table 3.5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).22 Slab Design . The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In some cases. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.3. 10.6. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.12.1.1. given the bending moment. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. at a given design section in a design strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. for each load combination.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination. 10. In that case. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.

edge. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. 10.7.6.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. The column location (i.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.2. 10.7..Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.e.4. interior. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) .1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.1).0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.6). 3. In addition.7.7.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .Chapter 10 .1).23 . the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7.12.7.5.12. Slab Design 10 . Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.

5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.6.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3. Table 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.5.5.7.24 Slab Design .4. Table 3.4. the following limitations also apply: 10 .9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.5d 1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.9) (CP 3.4.2) However.2.4.5d 1.4.7.7.5.5d Interior Column 1.6): 0.4.5d 1.5.7.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.4. 3.

7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3. the nominal design shear stress.7. 10.5.4.4.6. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .5.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.2.8 fcu .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.3) 1 . Table 3.5. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0.63 v ≤ min (0.9) For light-weight concrete.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 .25 . Table 3.5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section.5. Table 3.2. v.7.4) (CP 3. (CP 3.4.9) (CP 3.4.6.4. where (CP 3.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7.2.6.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. 3.7.Chapter 10 .5 M y 1 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3. Table 3.4. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. 4 MPa) f cu .

3. for edge columns.26 Slab Design .6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. vc.6.7. 10. 3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 10.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.6. (CP 3.5).7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.5).3. 10.2.6.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3. and vmax.25 ⎪1.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. and for corner columns.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.7.7.7.25 ⎩ for interior columns.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3. 10 .

7.6.5) (CP 3. (CP 3.Chapter 10 .3.7v − vc ) ud = . the concrete section should be increased in size..87 f yv 0.6vc. 10.7.7. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 . (CP 3.7.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .5) 0.87 f yv If 1.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.27 . ≥ s 0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.87 f yv 0.7.87 f yv If v > vmax.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. a failure condition is declared. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.e. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. and corner column. ≥ s 0. edge. 0.0vc. i.7.6vc ≤ v < 2.

s. and 20-millimeter diameter. 12-.28 Slab Design .5d. the distance. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.6). The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. g.7. and interior columns respectively.7. 16-.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.6.7.6) (CP 3. 6. Height. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.7.6) (CP 3.5d s ≤ 0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Therefore.7.5d. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 14-. edge.7. and 8.7.5d (CP 3. The limits of so and the spacing. When specifying shear studs.6) 10 .75d g ≤ 1. for corner.7. so. 10.

Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. BSI. P. 38800 Country Club Drive.1 and Amendment No. Michigan. Sydney. Australia. Farmington Hills. 2001. BC.2R-07).O. 2. February 2008. British Standards Institution. Singapore. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. American Concrete Institute. Standards Australia International Ltd.References ACI. Part 1. 2008. Box 9094. Michigan. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). TM R-1 . 1. 2008. BC 2:2008. AS. London. 2. 2005. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 1997. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. and 3. Building and Construction Authority. American Concrete Institute. NSW 2001. GPO Box 5420. ACI. Structural Use of Concrete. Farmington Hills. 2007. UK.

CP 65:Part 1:1999. Ontario. 1999. 2004. Buildings Department. Belgium. Mongkok. British Standards Institution. Part 1-1. London. incorporating Amendments Nos. Singapore. 2004. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. 2. Part 2. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. 2005. EN 1992-1-1. R-2 . New Zealand. Belgium. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Brussels. Brussels. 2000. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. European Committee for Standardization. Canada. Design of Concrete Structures. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. 1. Manak Bhavan. Concrete Structures Standard. Structural Use of Concrete. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. Standards New Zealand. 1. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. Private Bag 2439. 750 Nathan Road. NZS.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. IS. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. and 3. Twentieth Reprint. HK CP. New Delhi 110002. Hong Kong. India. Kowloon. March 2000. Bureau of Indian Standards. Third Edition. 2006.3-04. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. UK. Rexdale. EN 1990:2002. Canadian Standards Association. 1985. CSA. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. CP. September 2000. 2004. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Wellington. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. A23. European Committee for Standardization.

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