This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own
a. ________ No formal education required
d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent.
b. _______ Less than high school diploma
e. ______ 4-year college degree.
c. High school diploma or equivalent.
F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree
and/or professional license.
List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required.
Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job.
9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job.
a. _______ None.
e. _______ One to three years.
b. ______ Less than one month.
f. ______ Three to five years.
c. _______ One month to less than six months. g. _______ Five to 10 years.
d. ______ Six months to one year.
h. ______ Over 10 years.
Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job.
10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy,
alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.)
Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job.
11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list
the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently.
a. ________________ __________________ ____________________________________
b. ________________ ______________________________________________________
c. ________________ ______________________________________________________
d. ________________ ______________________________________________________
jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as the
work of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician.
The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job
behaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He or
she must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed.
Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably the
technique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face to
face with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interview
serves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from the
job analysis will be used.
Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with a
supervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used in
interviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared.
Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitations
is also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questions
and the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There is
also a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted by
the interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are not
The use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effective
way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is a
structured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, working
conditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbents
to describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their
own words and ideas to describe the job.
The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Job
analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a
questionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use:
• Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms.
• Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be
completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis
questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their
responses would be used.
• Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language
to make a point or ask ‘a question.
• Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job
incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to
modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.
4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log
The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties, frequency of the duties, and when the
duties are accomplished. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. Unfortunately,
most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log. If a diary or log is kept up to date,
it can provide good information about the job. Comparisons on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis can be
made. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. The diary or log is
useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe, such as those performed by engineers,
scientists, and senior executives.
Which Method to Use?
Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination, there is no
general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. Many experts
agree that, at very least, interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method.’7
In addition, the various methods may not be interchangeable; certain methods seem to be better
suited to a given situation than other
In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to
another, most organizations base their choice on their current needs.’9 In other words, the choice
of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and
Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses, many
organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach.2° In this approach, the job
analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site
observation. Next, a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered.
Finally, a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess
their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. There might, for example, be
variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors, by incumbents at different
geographic locations, or by members of different departments. Regardless, differences in how
the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true
Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will, of
course, be relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, it does offer one distinct
advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a
more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job
The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in general
terms. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularity
across many types of organizations. When they arc used properly, these specific techniques can
provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are
being accomplished and what knowledge, skills, abilities, and other human characteristics
(KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are
functional job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the management position
025.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. & kin.)
Ana1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by
surface and upper-air stations, satellites, and radar to
prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users:
Studies and interprets synoptic reports, maps,
photographs, and prognostic charts to predict long- and
short-range weather conditions. Issues weather
information to media and other users over teletype
machine or telephone. Prepares special forecasts and
briefings for those involved in air and sea transportation,
agriculture, fire prevention, and air-pollution control.
Issues hurricane and severe storm warnings. May direct
forecasting services at weather station. May conduct basic
or applied research in meteorology. May establish and
staff observation stations.
DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBS
domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air and
surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. Supervises
workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight,
documentation, waybilling, assessing charges, and
collecting fees for shipments. Negotiators with domestic
customers, as intermediary for foreign customers, to
resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements.
Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract for
reciprocal freight-handling agreements. May examine
invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff
and customs regulations. May contact customs officials to
effect release of incoming freight and resolve customs
delays. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitate
billing of shippers and foreign carriers.
166.117-014 Manager, Employee Welfare (profess. &
kin.) employee-service officer; manager, welfare.
Directs welfare activities for employees of stores,
factories, and other industrial and commercial
establishments: Arranges for physical examinations, first
aid, and other medical attention. Arranges for installation
and operation of libraries, lunchrooms, recreational
facilities, and educational courses. Organizes dances,
entertainment, and outings. Ensures that lighting is
sufficient, sanitary facilities are adequate and in good
order, and machinery safeguarded. May visit workers’
homes to observe their housing and general living
conditions and recommend improvements if necessary.
May assist employees in the solution of personnel
problems, such as recommending day nurseries for their
children and counseling them on personality frictions or
184.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind.) foreign
Coordinates activities of international traffic division of
import-export agency and negotiates settlements between
187.167-094 Manager, Dude Ranch (amuse. & rec.)
Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on
advertising, publicity, guest rates, and credit. Plans
recreational and entertainment activities, such as camping,
fishing, hunting, ‘horseback riding, and dancing. Directs
activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. & rec.).
Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records.
Directs other activities, such as breeding, raising, and
showing horses, mules, and livestock.
732.684-106 Shaper, Baseball Glove (sports equip.)
steamer and shaper.
Forms pocket, opens fingers, and smoothes seams to
shape baseball gloves, using heated forms, mallets, and
hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form to
open and stretch finger linings. Pounds fingers and palm
of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to
smooth seams and bulges. and form glove pocket.
Removes glove from form, inserts hand into glove, and
strikes glove pocket with fist while examining glove
visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit.
Functional job analysis
Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research on
analyzing and describing jobs. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as a
mechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
(DOT),22 which was the primary source used by the U.S. Employment Service for descriptive
information about jobs.
Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than
20,000 jobs. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. If someone is interested in a
general description of a job, the DOT serves as a good starting point.
Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. The first three digits of any one of these listings
(for example, rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code, title, and industry. The next three digits
(062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment over
data, people, and things. The lower the numbers, the greater the responsibility and judgment. The final
three digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group
DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job. FIA can then
be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.
Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA )
PEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINER
IA: Taking instructions—helping
2: Exchanging information
3A: Sourcing information
Stays within assigned territory.
Sends product samples to
Asks questions to assess needs of
Refers customer to production
Convinces customer to purchase
product. Gives encouragement to
new assistant salesperson.
lightens mood with customer
Informs customer a bout product
Demonstrates how product
Structures job of assistant
Bargains over price with
Counsels assistant salesperson on
Models behavior for new
Delivers requested programs.
Answers trainees’ questions.
Asks trainees for feedback.
Directs trainees to additional
Persuades trainees of importance
Checks on and helps trainees
Creates entertaining class
environment. Defines and
clarifies key concepts.
Teaches trainees new computer
Evaluates learning of trainees.
Asks for larger budget from vice
president of human resource
department. Advises new trainer
(in how to deliver a training
Sets a vision as to why
development is important.
4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 ;1
INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF A
INFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITION
1.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRE
Rate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by the
worker 2 Occasional
as a source of information in performing his or her job. 3 Moderate
5 Very substantial
1.1.1 Visual Sources of Job Information
1 4 Written materials (books, reports, office notes, articles, job instructions, signs, etc.)
2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts, such as graphs, accounts,
specifications, tables of numbers, etc.)
3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information, for example, drawings,
blueprints, diagrams, maps, tracings,
photographic films, x-ray films, TV pictures, etc.)
4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates, stencils, patterns, etc., used as sources of information when observed
during use; do not include here materials described in item 3 above)
5 2 Visual displays (dials, gauges, signal lights, radarscopes, speedometers, clocks, etc.)
6 5 Measuring devices (rulers, calipers, tire pressure gauges, scales, thickness
gauges, pipettes, thermometers, protractors, etc., used to obtain visual
information about physical measurements; do not include here devices described in item S above)
7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. eqöiprnent, machinery, and other mechanical
devices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation)
8 3 Matcrials in process (parts, materials, objects, etc., which are sources of
information when being modified, worked on, or otherwise processed, such as
bread dough being mixed, workpiece being turned in a lathe, fabric being cut,
shoe being resoled, etc.)
9 4 Materials not in process (parts, materials, objects, etc., not in the process of being changed or modified,
which are sources of information when being inspected, handled, packaged. distributed, or selected, etc., such
as items or materials in inventory, storage, or distribution channels, items being inspected, etc.)
10 3 Features of nature (landscapes, fields, geological samples, vegetation, cloud
formations, and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information)
11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures, buildings, dams, highways,
bridges, docks, railroads, and other “man-made” or altered aspects of the
indoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to provide
job information; do not consider equipment, machines, etc.. that an individual uses in his or her work, as
covered by item 7)
Noie:Th,s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. Other PAQ pages contain questions
regarding mental processes,
work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics.
questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete
properly, it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. The job analyst must decide whether each item
applies to a particular job. For example, measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for the
job being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6.
The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections:
1. Information input. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information?
2. Mental processes. What reasoning, decision-making, and planning processes are used to perform
3. Work output. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job?
4. Relationship with other people. What relationships with others are required to perform the job?
5. Job context. In what physical and social context is the job performed?
6. Other job characteristics. What activities, conditions, or characteristics other than those described
in sections 1 through 5 are relevant?
Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1)
decision ma king, (2) communication, (3) social responsibilities, (4) performing skilled activities, (5)
being physically active, (6) operating vehicles or equipment, and (7) processing information. These scores
permit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs.
Like other job analysis techniques, the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages. One of its biggest
advantages is that it has been widely used and researched. The available evidence indicates that it can be
an effective technique for a variety of intended purposes.27 It is reliable in that there is little variance
among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences in
abilities required for jobs.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those
A major problem with the PAQ is its length. It requires time and patience to complete. In addition,
since no specific work activities are described, behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual
task differences in the jobs. For example, the profiles for a typist, belly dancer, and male ballet dancer
may be quite similar, since all involve fine motor movements.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ is
capable only of measuring job stereotypes.3° If this is true, then the PAQ may he providing little more
than common knowledge about a job. That is, ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makes
up the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs.
Management Position Description Questionnaire
Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of the
disparity across positions, levels in the hierarchy, and type of industry (for example, industrial, medical,
government). An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data
Corporation. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ).
The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. it
is designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work, and it is intended for use across most
industrial settings. The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. Items were grouped into
order to reduce the time it requires to complete, and to help with the interpretation of responses:
1. General information.
2. Decision making.
3. Planning and organizing.
7. Consulting and innovating.
8. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7).
11. Monitoring business indicators.
12. Overall ratings.
13. Knowledge, skills, and abilities.
14. Organization chart.
15. Comments and reactions.
Although the FJA, PAQ, and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs, many
other methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. The common metric
questionnaire (CMQ),33 which is completed by an incumbent, is a job analysis instrument with several
potential advantages over existing measures. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for many
jobs; they are more behaviorally concrete, thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs; and
the CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions, which may increase the number of
intrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made.
Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe, focusing on
alternative quantitative methods. In Germany, for example, several techniques have the common goal of
independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. Thus, these approaches are expected to he well
suited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing.
Finally, it is worth noting that the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. In cooperation with several other sources of
funding, the Department of Labor’s recent creation, the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network),
was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations, worker KSAOs, and workplace
requirements in the country.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs and
work, the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersome
Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
As previously mentioned, the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs provided
by a systematic job analysis. Simply stated, a job description is a D written description of what the job
ow important thorough, accurate, and current job descriptions are to an organization. Many changes
occurring in recent years have increased the need for such job
RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITION
DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ)
I (I iehic . IrgaIll/atlonil goals. tattat.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1, .1 t
it an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii.
lie purposes (It these oiU,lCts lily ITi(II.I(IU (liii hut. t molts as:
• Receis mug Information
• I iltilarati ii g
1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the opposite
as hi IIl1)W,:
For each contact checked, print a (0111- her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh I
tie a lii a part oh VII or
(sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is. Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r p
ISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice.
o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position.
I --\ minor part imt the position.
2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon.
3-A substantial hart ut the position.
4-.\ crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon.
If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.
Mark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contacts
Internal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111.
Share infornation Influence
I )irrct and/or
re,,i rd og p.1st,
p resent, or ant ci
to .tct or
decide n a
n at flCt (list
otegra te the iii n
icti VitW5. ((I’
act cIt es or
ni th nit object
decision of others
1’.xeciitive or senior V1CC
president and above
.89 I 6
Genera l/regii ma I ma niger, director, or
I ‘6 1 7 1S4
Deparmient/district manager, or senior consnlraiit
162 I 0
Secto mn/branch na nager m
( ir exchange
iii formation i
orga iii ,,at ii
its po Id ucts!
Sell p r id
Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data
Customers at a level lower than .t am
trol Data general! regional manager
Representatives of nia)or suppliers, for
e\.iniplr. joint ventures, subcontractors
major contracts —
Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( .oittrol Data with parts
nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations
I id iv id ual s such as
applicants, stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi
nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors, government
I 9 20.3
2 IX 224
. Can process changes yield
savings? Ask Navis tar
international Corporation, a
leading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projects
with high strategic fit and
economic impact for the firm.
it’s working! After completing
200 projects, Navistar realized an average of $200,000 per
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?